Bctsy Betrnett. Stcvc Dutrbar, Nliclxrllc Ghrist, Peter Gilchrist,, Jelrold Grossrrlu.
Darr Kcnrrech,, ,Ioc Kcnnccly, David Torrrcy, Dar,'id \\/ells, LcRor,.\!errstrorn, anrl Rorr
Yatrnorre. G9lt4AA
MATHEMATICAT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
Solutions Pamphlet
American Mathematics Competitions
52'd Annual
AMC 12
American Mathematics Contest 12
Tuesday, February 8, 2011
The
American Mathematics Competitions 'I'his Pamphlet gives at least one solution for each problem on this yeart contest and shows
are Sponsored by that all problems carr be solvcd without the use of a calculator. \(/hcn more than one solution
is providcd, this is done to illustrate a significant contrast in rnethods, e.g., algebraic zs
The Mathematical Association of America gcotnetric, computational zs conceptual, elementary zs advanced. These solutions are by no
The Akamai Foundation rneans the only ones possible, nor are they superior to others rhe reader may devise.
Contributors
hope that teachers will infonn their students about these solutions, both as illustrations
\Xi'c
Academy of Applied Sciences of the kinds of ingenuity needed to solvc nonrourinc problems and as examples of good
American Mathematical Association of TwoYear Colleges
mathematical exposition. Howeuer, the publication, reproduction or cornmunication of the
American Mathematical Society
problems or solutions of the AMC 12 during the period when students are eligible rc parricipate
American Statistical Association
suiously jertpardizes the integrity of the resulx. Dissemination uia copier, telephone, email, interrtet
Art of Problem Solving
Awesome Math or ntedia ofany type during this period is a uiolation ofthe competition rules.
Canada/USA Mathcamp t1litr roblans in lnpff or electonit t'br ofl
Casualty Actuarial Society rutbp uidad tLdt copies nru nat marlt',,r or
D.E. Shaw & Co. t(tl'tltt ltulite
IDEA Math
Orrtslondencc about tbe problemsholutions for this AMC 12 and oalers for drry publitdtions shouLl be addresed to:
lnstitute for 0perations Research and the Management Sciences
Jane Street American Mathemarics Competitions
MathPath University of Neblaska, PO. Box 81606, Lincoln, NE 685011606
Math Zoom Academy Phone: 40247 22257 ; Fax: 40247 26087; email: amcinfo@maa.org
Mu Alpha Theta
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for rhis AMC l2 were prepared b7 the MAA\ Committee on the
The problents and solutions
Pi Mu Epsilon AML' l0 and AMC l2 under rhc diretrion of Al"lC t2 Subcommirree Chair:
Society of Actuaries
U.S.A. Math Talent Search
Prof. Bcrnardo M. Abrcgo
W. H. Freeman and Company bernardo. abrego@cs un. edu
8 Answer (C): Note that for any four consecutive terms, the first and last terms
must be equal. For example, consider B,C,D, and E; because
B+C+D:30:C+D+E,
we must have B : 8. Hence A: D: G, and C : F: 5. The required sum
A+ H : G +(30 GF) : 30  5 : 25.
OR
Note that
3xl 2ylz:61,
So.lufions 2011 AMC 12 A 4 Solutions 2011 AMC 12 A 5
l1 Answer (C): Let D be the rnidpoint oI AB, and let circle C intersect circles LCNI arc isosceles with MB: I,II arrd Cl/:1,4/. Thus thc pcrimetcr of
A and B at E and f', respectively. distinct from D. The shaded portion of unit AAX,IN iS
square ADCE has area 1 f , as does the shaded portion of unit square BDCF.
The portion of the shaded region which is outside thesc squares is a semicircle AM + MN + NA : AM + NII + IN + NA
of radirrs 1 arxl has area f . The total shaded area is 2 (l  il + ;  2. :ANI+A,IB+CN+NA
OR AB+AC:12*18:30
Let D,.8, and F be defined as in the first solution, and let G be diametrically
opposite D on circle C. The shaded area is equal to the area of square DFGE,
rvlrich has diagonal lerrgth 2. Its side lcngth is 1/2, and, its area is (J2)2 : Z.
t4 Answer (E): The point (a, b) is above the parabola if arrd onty if b > a3  o.b.
Because a is positive, this is equivalent to tt, #. If a  1, then b can be
12 Answer (D): Assume the power boat and raft mct at point O on the river. any digit from l to 9 inciusive. If o : 2, then b can be any digit between 3
Let r be the speed of the boat and y be the speed of the raft and the river and 9 inclusive. If o : 3, then b can be arry digit between 7 and 9 inclusive. If
current. Then r * g is the speed of the power boat downstrcarn and r  gr is tlie o ) 3, there is no b that satisfies A, # Tirerefore there are g+7 + 3:19
spccd of thc powcr boat upstream. Let the distance ,4.B between the docks be pairs satisfying the condition, out of a total of 9.9 : 81 pairs. The rcquestcd
S, so tlrat AO :9'a attd OB : S  9A. Then because tirne is equal tcl distance probability is ffi.
dividecl by rate,
S . S9a
rlg' .rlJ o
15 Answer (A): A cross section of thc figure is shown, where A is the apex, B is
Rearrarige to find that S :9r(" + g). Then the tirne it took the power boat to the center of the base, D and E are the midpoints of opposite sides of the base,
go from ,4 to B is and the hemisphere meets AD at C.
.9 9(r +,u) : : :
r+u 2(r + a)
4.5. Riglrt triangle ABC has AB 6 and BC 2, so AC  4v4. Because LABC 
LADB, it follows that
OR,
In therefererice frarne of the raft, the boat simply werrt away, turned around,
BD:8C..lB:'}:V
AC 4\/2 2
and came back, all at the same speed. Because the trip took t hours, the boat
must have turned around after 4.5 hours. Hence the length of tlie base edge is DE:2.8D:3\/r.
13 Answer (B): Let 1be the incenter of LABC. Because 1is the intersection
iffl/ is parallel to BC, it follows that
of tlre angle bisectors of the triangle and
IIBM : ICBI : lluIIB ard INCI : IICB : ICIN. Hence AB,[,11and
Solutions 2011 AN,IC 12 A So.lrrtions 2011 ALIC 12 A
A 18276
c(,
 25105

16 Answer (C): If five iiistinct colors are used, then there ate (!) :6 different
color choices possiblc. Thcy may be arrangcd in 5! : 120 ways on the pentagon,
rcsultiug irr 120 . 6  720 colorirrgs.
If forrr clistirrct
colors are used, then there is one duplicated color, so there are
(l) (i) 
60 differcnt color choices possible. The cluplicatecl color must appear
rt Answer (D): Thc graph of the cquation lr*gl +1"Al: 2 is a square formed
on neighboring vertices. There are 5 neighbor choices and 3! :6 ways to coior
lry tlrc lirres r : t1 arrd U : :Ll. For c ) 9, the eqrration c: 12  6r I u2 :
thc rcmaining thrcc vertices, resulting in a total of 60'5.6 : i800 colorings.
(.,' 3)2 + A2 9 is the equation of a circlc with center (3, 0) and radius yt + 9.
If three distinct colors are used, therr there rrmst be two drrplicated colors, scr Arrorg all such circles that interscct thc squarc, thc largcst onc coritains thc
there are (9 (i) : 60 diflerent color choiccs possible. Thc nonduplicated color lroirrls (1.{l) aud has rarlius v/tr=P : JtZ. It lollows lhat tlre maximrrnr
may appcar in 5 locations. As before, a duplicated color rnust appear ori rreigh vitlrtc o[ c'is 17 I  8.
boring vertices, so there are 2 ways ieft to color the remaining vertices. In this
casc thcre are 60 . 5 '2 :600 colorings possible.
There are no colorings with two or fewer colors. The total nuniber of colorings {) Answer (C): The given conditions imply that l/ ) 19 and 1+ [1og, (l/  1)] :
is 720 * 1800 + 600: 3120. logr(1{t19). Bccauscl+flogr(,n/1)] isapositiveintegcr,soislogr(l/+19);
lhrrs 2k : l/+ 19 > 38 for some integer k. It foliows that k ) 6 and the two
srrrallcst valucs of .N are 26  19  45 and 27  l9: 109, whose sum is 154.
77 Answer (D):
Let A, B, and C bc the centcrs of the circles lvith radii 1, 2, Nott': This lbrmula fbr the number of elite status players providcs a rncthod uscd
and 3, respectively. Let D, E, antrl F be the points of tangerrcy, where D is on Io tlctcmile the number of firstround byes irr a sirrgleelirniriation tortrnanrent.
A and C, and F is on the circles A and
the circles B and C, E is on thc circlcs
B. BecauseAB : AF + FB : I t 2: 3, BC : BD + DC :2 t 3: 5, and
CA: CE + EA:3 + 1 : 4, it fbllows thar AABC is a 345 right trianglc.
Therefore
Answer (C): Note that /(1) : alblc: 0, so f (7) : 49aI7bIc: 48s;6b 
(i(8af b). Thus /(7) is an integer multiple of 6 strictly between 50 and 60, so
: f;m rc : a, IAEF) : 11 _:. .lF) :54 ancl8a*b:9. Similarly, : 64ai8b+c:63(r+7b:7(9a+b).
(8)
IABCI AE
22' AF .i
148 /(8) : 77
'l'lurs ./(8) is an integer rnr.rltiple of 7 strictly between 70 arrd 80, so
IBFDI Iu, . BF .sin(tFBD) : .2.2'anrl
2 5 s',
irrr<l 9ntb:11. It fbllowsthatn:2,b  7, andc:5. Thcrefore
/(l(X))  2.1002  7.100*5  19,305, and thus k  3.
1327
lc DEI : i" o . c E . sirL(tDc E) : 2510  .f..f
Hence
21. Answer (A): Because fr(") : th  Vq ", fr(r) is clefirred if and only
IDEFI: IABCI  IAEFI  IBFDI  lcDEl il'0 < VT'r ( 1, so the domain of /2 is thc intcrval 13,,1]. Similarly, the
Solutions 2011 ANIC 12 A SoJutions 2011 AI,[C 12 A
domain of /3 is the solution set of the inequality 3 < \F  r ( 4, which is the Setting SGQ)): z and solving for 9(z) gives
interval l7,0], and the domain of /a is the solution set of the irrequality 7 (
f B
\/Td  t ( 0, which is {16}. The dornain of /5 is the solution set of the equation sQ): Dz
O=i: 16, which is {231}, anrl because the equation \/gE  r: 231 has CzA
no real solutions, the domain of /6 is empty. Therefore N + c : 5 + (231) : Equating the two expressions for g(z) grves
226.
(Az + B)(Cz  A)  (Dzr B)(Cz + D),
22 Answer (C)r Assurne withorrt loss of generality that R is bounded by the that is,
square with verticcs,4: (0,0), B: (1,0), C: (1,1), and D: (0,1), and let (A+ n)Q2C r z(D  A)  E) :0.
X : (r,y) be nray partitional. Because the n rays partition R into triangles, Therefore either B : C : 0 (and A : D) or A+ D : 0. In the former case
they rnust include the rays from X to A, B, C, and D. Let the mrmber of b: I, f ("): !1, atd SQ): +#: z, as required, unless a: 1. (Note
rays intersectilg the interiors of AB, BC, CD, and DAbe ny, n2, ns, and n4, that a : 1 in this case would imply /(z) : 1, which contradicts sGQ)): z.)
respectively. Because LABXOLCDX has the sarne alea as LBCXUADAX,
it follows that rr,1 *n3 : nzlna:7 2, so n is even. F\rrthermore, the nr + 1 In the latter case 1 ]. 2a I b2 : 0, so lUl2 : l2a + 1 l. Because lal : f , the triangkr
inequality yields
triarrgles with one side on ,4.B have equal area, so each has area L ;h a
Similarly, the triangles with sides on EIC , C D, and D Ahaue areas ;.nrh.(1r), t : lzlal 1l < l2a + Il< 2lal + 1 : t,
+ ;};'0  A), and  ' aif ".
rcspcctively. Setting these expressions equal
so 1 ( lbl < /3. The minimu lbl : 1 is attained when a : 1 and b : 1 (or
to each other gives
as above, when b : 1). The maximum lbl : r,/5 is attained when a : 1 and
n+ l7 2(no1), ntlT 2(nt+t) b: +\/3'i. The required ciifference is r/a  r.
n2+n4+2 n, " n7+n3+2 n
Note: The conditions imply that a lies on the unit circle in the complex planc,
Thus an nray partitional :
point must have the form X (+,f; *ith  < o < Z so2aII lies on a circle of radius 2 centered at 1. The steps above are reversible,
and 1 ( b < !. Conversely, if X has this form, R is partitioned into n triangles soif b2: 1 2i,a,\hgng(SQD:z (unless a:b: 1). Therefore b2 canbe
of equal area by the rays from X that partition AB, BC, CD, and DA irrto b, anywhere on the circle of radius 2 cerrtered at 1, and lbl can take on any value
t  t  b, and n, congruent segments, respectivcly.
", between 1 and r/5.
Assume X is 100ray partitional. If X is also 60ray partitional, then X:
ta b\ /cdr forsomeintegers
(30'5;
(56=,56:): 1( o'b <49 and 1( c,d ( 29. Tirus
:
3a 5c and 3b : 5d; that is, both a and b are multiples of 5. Conversely, if o 24. Answer (C): Because AB + CD :21 : BC + DA, it follows that ABCD
and b are multiples of 5, then always has an inscribed circle tarrgent to its four sidcs. Let r be the radius of
:2Lr.
x:(L b) ft 3\ the inscribcd circle. Note rhat IABCDI: Lr(AB + BC +CD
Thus the radius is maximum when the areil is rnaxirnized. Note that IABCI
+ DA)
:
\50' 50l \so' eo/ i.t+.9sinB : 63sinB a:l'd IACDI : tr tz. TsinD : 42stuD. On the one
is 60ray partitional. Because there are exactly 9 multiples of 5 between 1 and hand,
49, tlre required number of points X is equal to 492  92  40 .58 :2320.
tABC Dt2
:Lf.:);li7"'^:' D+ 2 42 . 63 sin B sin D
23. Answer (C): Note that
On the other hand, by thc Law of Cosines,
s(z): #+"
(t + a)z + 0(1 + b) Azt B
,t? +b  AC2 :122 +72 2.7.I2cosD:742 *92 2.9.14cos.B.
(1 + b)zt (o + b2) C, + D'
z+D
+92 _72\2
Aq(z) + B
9\9\2)): cre) + D ,r' ('''u!u'''u)': (q _122
TJ :{o:.o'BJ2cosD)2
Solutions 2011 AMC 12 A 10 Solrrfions 2011 AMC 12 A 11
: 632 cos2 B+ 422 cos2 D  2. 42. 63cosBcosD. Bccausc thc lines BI and CI are bisectors of ICBA and IACB, respectively,
it follows that
Adding tliese two identities yields
tBIC:180'  trCB  tCBr: 180" !geCA + ICBA)
IABCDl2 + 272 :  2. 42. 63cos(B + D)
632 + 422 2'
< 632 + 422 + 2. 42. 6J: (63 + 42)2 : 1952, : 180'  ] trro'  tBAC) : t20".