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Tlie problclns arxl sohrl,ioris irr this c:ontest wcrc proposed iry Bcrlardo Abrego.

Bctsy Betrnett. Stcvc Dutrbar, Nliclxrllc Ghrist, Peter Gilchrist,, Jelrold Grossrrlu.
Darr Kcnrrech,, ,Ioc Kcnnccly, David Torrrcy, Dar,'id \\/ells, LcRor,.\!-errstrorn, anrl Rorr
Yatrnorre. G9lt4AA

Solutions Pamphlet
American Mathematics Competitions

52'd Annual

AMC 12
American Mathematics Contest 12
Tuesday, February 8, 2011

American Mathematics Competitions 'I'his Pamphlet gives at least one solution for each problem on this yeart contest and shows

are Sponsored by that all problems car-r be solvcd without the use of a calculator. \(/hcn more than one solution
is providcd, this is done to illustrate a significant contrast in rnethods, e.g., algebraic zs
The Mathematical Association of America gcotnetric, computational zs conceptual, elementary zs advanced. These solutions are by no
The Akamai Foundation rneans the only ones possible, nor are they superior to others rhe reader may devise.
hope that teachers will infonn their students about these solutions, both as illustrations
Academy of Applied Sciences of the kinds of ingenuity needed to solvc nonrourinc problems and as examples of good
American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges
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Orrtslondencc about tbe problemsholutions for this AMC 12 and oalers for drry publitdtions shouLl be addresed to:
lnstitute for 0perations Research and the Management Sciences
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Mu Alpha Theta
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for rhis AMC l2 were prepared b7 the MAA\ Committee on the
The problents and solutions

Pi Mu Epsilon AML' l0 and AMC l2 under rhc diretrion of Al"lC t2 Subcommirree Chair:
Society of Actuaries
U.S.A. Math Talent Search
Prof. Bcrnardo M. Abrcgo
W. H. Freeman and Company bernardo. abrego@cs un. edu

@ 201 1 Mathe maticel Associarion of Anrerica

Soiutions A
2011 AMC 12 2 Solutions 2011 AMC 12 A
1. Answer (D): The text messages cost $0.05 . 100 : $5.00, and the 30 minutes 2a:3t, and
of excess chatting cost $0.10 . 30 : $3.00. Therefore the total bill came to g-lI:2.
Solving results in r : 8, A : 12, and z : 13. Hence the team made 13 free
2. Answer (E): The circumference of coin B in the figure does not continue
past the point X where it intersects the circumference of coin .4. Thus coin
A is above coin B. Similarly, the points Y, Z, and W in the figure show that Answer (B): Let C be the cost of a pencil in cents, N be the number of
coin D is above coin ,4, coin .E is above coin D, and coin C is above coin .8, pencils each student bought, and S be the number of students who bought
respectively. Thus the order of the coins from top to bottom is (C , E, D , A, B). pencils. Then C.l/.S : l77I :7 'Il .23, and C > I\r > 1. Because a majority
of the students bought pencils, 30 > S t ry : 15. Therefore S : 23, N :7,
and C: 11.

8 Answer (C): Note that for any four consecutive terms, the first and last terms
must be equal. For example, consider B,C,D, and E; because

we must have B : -8. Hence A: D: G, and C : F: 5. The required sum
A+ H : G +(30- G-F) : 30 - 5 : 25.


Note that

(E): : : > A+ C+ H : (A+ B+C) - C+r) + (C + D + E)

(B +
.). Answer Because 14 . 35 490 < 500 and 15 . 35 525 500, the
minimum number of bottles that she needs to buy is 15. -(E+F+G)+(F'+G+H)
: 3.30 - 2.30: 30.
4. Answer (C): Let N equal the number of fifth graders. Then there are 2N
fourth graders and 4N third graders. The total number of minutes run per
day by the students is 4N.12+2N.15+l/.10:88-l{. There are a total of
4N + 2N + l/ : 7.1y' students, so the average number of minutes run by the 9. Answer (B): Each of the 18 twins shook hands with 16 twins and 9 triplets,
students per day is ff : f . giving a total of 18.25 handshakes. Similarly, each of the 18 triplets shook hands
with 15 triplets and 9 twins, giving a total of 18.24 handshakes. This tally counts
every handshake twice, so the number of handshakes is |1tA .ZS + 18.24) :
5 Answer (C): Because 75% of. the birds were not swans and 30% of. the birds
I-49 : 441.
were geese, it follows that f$ . lo0% : 40% of the birds that were not swans
were 8eese.
10. Answer (B): Let d be the sum of the numbers rolled. The conditions are
satisfied if and only rf r (l)2 1 rd,, that is, d < 4. Of the 36 equally likely
6 Answer (A): Let x,y, and z be the number of successful three-point shots, outcomes for the roll of the two dice, one has a sum of 2 and two have sums of
two-point shots, and free throws, respectively. Then the given conditions imply 3. Thus the desired probability it # : +.

3x-l 2ylz:61,
So.lufions 2011 AMC 12 A 4 Solutions 2011 AMC 12 A 5

l1 Answer (C): Let D be the rnidpoint oI AB, and let circle C intersect circles LCNI arc isosceles with MB: I,II arrd Cl/:1,4/. Thus thc pcrimetcr of
A and B at E and f', respectively. distinct from D. The shaded portion of unit AAX,IN iS
square ADCE has area 1- f , as does the shaded portion of unit square BDCF.
The portion of the shaded region which is outside thesc squares is a semicircle AM + MN + NA : AM + NII + IN + NA
of radirrs 1 arxl has area f . The total shaded area is 2 (l - il + ; -- 2. :ANI+A,IB+CN+NA
OR -AB+AC:12*18:30
Let D,.8, and F be defined as in the first solution, and let G be diametrically
opposite D on circle C. The shaded area is equal to the area of square DFGE,
rvlrich has diagonal lerrgth 2. Its side lcngth is 1/2, and, its area is (J2)2 : Z.

t4 Answer (E): The point (a, b) is above the parabola if arrd onty if b > a3 - o.b.
Because a is positive, this is equivalent to tt, #. If a - 1, then b can be
12 Answer (D): Assume the power boat and raft mct at point O on the river. any digit from l to 9 inciusive. If o : 2, then b can be any digit between 3
Let r be the speed of the boat and y be the speed of the raft and the river and 9 inclusive. If o : 3, then b can be arry digit between 7 and 9 inclusive. If
current. Then r * g is the speed of the power boat downstrcarn and r - gr is tlie o ) 3, there is no b that satisfies A, # Tirerefore there are g+7 + 3:19
spccd of thc powcr boat upstream. Let the distance ,4.B between the docks be pairs satisfying the condition, out of a total of 9.9 : 81 pairs. The rcquestcd
S, so tlrat AO :9'a attd OB : S - 9A. Then because tirne is equal tcl distance probability is ffi.
dividecl by rate,
S . S-9a
rlg' .r-lJ -o
15 Answer (A): A cross section of thc figure is shown, where A is the apex, B is
Rearrarige to find that S :9r(" + g). Then the tirne it took the power boat to the center of the base, D and -E are the midpoints of opposite sides of the base,
go from ,4 to B is and the hemisphere meets AD at C.
.9 9(r +,u) : : :
r+u 2(r + a)
4.5. Riglrt triangle ABC has AB 6 and BC 2, so AC - 4v4. Because LABC -
LADB, it follows that

In therefererice frarne of the raft, the boat simply werrt away, turned around,
AC 4\/2 2
and came back, all at the same speed. Because the trip took t hours, the boat
must have turned around after 4.5 hours. Hence the length of tlie base edge is DE:2.8D:3\/r.

13 Answer (B): Let 1be the incenter of LABC. Because 1is the intersection
iffl/ is parallel to BC, it follows that
of tlre angle bisectors of the triangle and
IIBM : ICBI : lluIIB ard INCI : IICB : ICIN. Hence AB,[,11and
Solutions 2011 AN,IC 12 A So.lrrtions 2011 ALIC 12 A
A 18276
- -25105

16 Answer (C): If five iiistinct colors are used, then there ate (!) :6 different
color choices possiblc. Thcy may be arrangcd in 5! : 120 ways on the pentagon,
rcsultiug irr 120 . 6 - 720 colorirrgs.
If forrr clistirrct
colors are used, then there is one duplicated color, so there are
(l) (i) -
60 differcnt color choices possible. The cluplicatecl color must appear
rt Answer (D): Thc graph of the cquation lr*gl +1"-Al: 2 is a square formed
on neighboring vertices. There are 5 neighbor choices and 3! :6 ways to coior
lry tlrc lirres r : t1 arrd U : :Ll. For c ) -9, the eqrration c: 12 - 6r I u2 :
thc rcmaining thrcc vertices, resulting in a total of 60'5.6 : i800 colorings.
(.,' 3)2 + A2 9 is the equation of a circlc with center (3, 0) and radius yt + 9.
If three distinct colors are used, therr there rrmst be two drrplicated colors, scr Arrorg all such circles that interscct thc squarc, thc largcst onc coritains thc
there are (9 (i) : 60 diflerent color choiccs possible. Thc non-duplicated color lroirrls (-1.{l) aud has rarlius v/tr=P : JtZ. It lollows lhat tlre maximrrnr
may appcar in 5 locations. As before, a duplicated color rnust appear ori rreigh- vitlrtc o[ c'is 17 I - 8.
boring vertices, so there are 2 ways ieft to color the remaining vertices. In this
casc thcre are 60 . 5 '2 :600 colorings possible.
There are no colorings with two or fewer colors. The total nuniber of colorings {) Answer (C): The given conditions imply that l/ ) 19 and 1+ [1og, (l/ - 1)] :
is 720 * 1800 + 600: 3120. logr(1{t19). Bccauscl+flogr(,n/-1)] isapositiveintegcr,soislogr(l/+19);
lhrrs 2k : l/+ 19 > 38 for some integer k. It foliows that k ) 6 and the two
srrrallcst valucs of .N- are 26 - 19 - 45 and 27 - l9: 109, whose sum is 154.
77 Answer (D):
Let A, B, and C bc the centcrs of the circles lvith radii 1, 2, Nott': This lbrmula fbr the number of elite status players providcs a rncthod uscd
and 3, respectively. Let D, E, antrl F be the points of tangerrcy, where D is on Io tlctcmile the number of first-round byes irr a sirrgle-elirniriation tortrnanrent.
A and C, and F is on the circles A and
the circles B and C, -E is on thc circlcs
B. BecauseAB : AF + FB : I -t 2: 3, BC : BD + DC :2 -t 3: 5, and
CA: CE + EA:3 + 1 : 4, it fbllows thar AABC is a 3-4-5 right trianglc.
Answer (C): Note that /(1) : alblc: 0, so f (7) : 49aI7bIc: 48s;6b -
(i(8a-f b). Thus /(7) is an integer multiple of 6 strictly between 50 and 60, so
: f;m rc : a, IAEF) : 11 _:. .lF) :54 ancl8a*b:9. Similarly, : 64ai8b+c:63(r+7b:7(9a+b).
22' AF .i

148 /(8) : 77
'l'lurs ./(8) is an integer rnr.rltiple of 7 strictly between 70 arrd 80, so
IBFDI --Iu, . BF .sin(tFBD) : -.2.2'----anrl
2 5 s',
irrr<l 9ntb:11. It fbllowsthatn:2,b - -7, andc:5. Thcrefore
/(l(X)) - 2.1002 - 7.100*5 - 19,305, and thus k - 3.
lc DEI : i" o . c E . sirL(tDc E) : 2510 - .f..f

21. Answer (A): Because fr(") : th - Vq- ", fr(r) is clefirred if and only
IDEFI: IABCI - IAEFI - IBFDI - lcDEl il'0 < VT'r ( 1, so the domain of /2 is thc intcrval 13,,1]. Similarly, the
Solutions 2011 ANIC 12 A SoJutions 2011 AI,[C 12 A

domain of /3 is the solution set of the inequality 3 < \F - r ( 4, which is the Setting SGQ)): z and solving for 9(z) gives
interval l-7,0], and the domain of /a is the solution set of the irrequality -7 (
-f B
\/Td - t ( 0, which is {16}. The dornain of /5 is the solution set of the equation sQ): -Dz
O|=i: 16, which is {-231}, anrl because the equation \/gE - r: -231 has Cz-A
no real solutions, the domain of /6 is empty. Therefore N + c : 5 + (-231) : Equating the two expressions for g(z) grves
(Az + B)(Cz - A) -- (-Dz-r B)(Cz + D),
22 Answer (C)r Assurne withorrt loss of generality that R is bounded by the that is,
square with verticcs,4: (0,0), B: (1,0), C: (1,1), and D: (0,1), and let (A+ n)Q2C r z(D - A) - E) :0.
X : (r,y) be n-ray partitional. Because the n rays partition -R into triangles, Therefore either B : C : 0 (and A : D) or A+ D : 0. In the former case
they rnust include the rays from X to A, B, C, and D. Let the mrmber of b: -I, f ("): !1, atd SQ): +#: z, as required, unless a: -1. (Note
rays intersectilg the interiors of AB, BC, CD, and DAbe ny, n2, ns, and n4, that a : -1 in this case would imply /(z) : 1, which contradicts sGQ)): z.)
respectively. Because LABXOLCDX has the sarne alea as LBCXUADAX,
it follows that rr,1 *n3 : nzlna:7 -2, so n is even. F\rrthermore, the nr + 1 In the latter case 1 -]-. 2a I b2 : 0, so lUl2 : l2a + 1 l. Because lal : f , the triangkr
inequality yields
triarrgles with one side on ,4.B have equal area, so each has area L- ;h a
Similarly, the triangles with sides on EIC , C D, and D Ahaue areas ;.nrh.(1-r), t : lzlal- 1l < l2a + Il< 2lal + 1 : t,
+ ;};'0 - A), and | ' aif ".
rcspcctively. Setting these expressions equal
so 1 ( lbl < /3. The minimu- lbl : 1 is attained when a : -1 and b : 1 (or
to each other gives
as above, when b : -1). The maximum lbl : r,/5 is attained when a : 1 and
n+ l7 2(no-1)--, ntlT 2(nt+t) b: +\/3'i. The required ciifference is r/a - r.
n2+n4+2 n, " n7+n3+2 n
Note: The conditions imply that a lies on the unit circle in the complex planc,
Thus an n-ray partitional :
point must have the form X (+,f; *ith | < o < Z so2aII lies on a circle of radius 2 centered at 1. The steps above are reversible,
and 1 ( b < !. Conversely, if X has this form, R is partitioned into n triangles soif b2: -1 -2i,a,\hgng(SQD:z (unless a:b: -1). Therefore b2 canbe
of equal area by the rays from X that partition AB, BC, CD, and DA irrto b, anywhere on the circle of radius 2 cerrtered at -1, and lbl can take on any value
t - t - b, and n, congruent segments, respectivcly.
", between 1 and r/5.
Assume X is 100-ray partitional. If X is also 60-ray partitional, then X:
ta b\ /cdr forsomeintegers
(56=,56:): 1( o'b <49 and 1( c,d ( 29. Tirus
3a 5c and 3b : 5d; that is, both a and b are multiples of 5. Conversely, if o 24. Answer (C): Because AB + CD :21 : BC + DA, it follows that ABCD
and b are multiples of 5, then always has an inscribed circle tarrgent to its four sidcs. Let r be the radius of
x:(L b) ft 3\ the inscribcd circle. Note rhat IABCDI: Lr(AB + BC +CD
Thus the radius is maximum when the areil is rnaxirnized. Note that IABCI
+ DA)
\50' 50l \so' eo/ i.t+.9sinB : 63sinB a:l'd IACDI : tr tz. TsinD : 42stuD. On the one
is 60-ray partitional. Because there are exactly 9 multiples of 5 between 1 and hand,
49, tlre required number of points X is equal to 492 - 92 -- 40 .58 :2320.
tABC Dt2
:Lf.:);li7"'^:' D+ 2 -42 . 63 sin B sin D
23. Answer (C): Note that
On the other hand, by thc Law of Cosines,

s(z): #+"
(t + a)z + 0(1 + b) Az-t B
,t? +b - AC2 :122 +72 -2.7.I2cosD:742 *92 -2.9.14cos.B.
(1 + b)z-t (o + b2) C, + D'

where A :I I a, B a(l +b), C : 1 *b, and D : a+b2. Then

: Thus

+92 _72\2
Aq(z) + B
9\9\2)): cre) + D ,r'- ('''u!u'''u)': (q _122
-TJ :{o:.o'B-J2cosD)2
Solutions 2011 AMC 12 A 10 Solrrfions 2011 AMC 12 A 11

: 632 cos2 B+ 422 cos2 D - 2. 42. 63cosBcosD. Bccausc thc lines B-I and CI are bisectors of ICBA and IACB, respectively,
it follows that
Adding tliese two identities yields
tBIC:180' - trCB - tCBr: 180" -!geCA + ICBA)
IABCDl2 + 272 : - 2. 42. 63cos(B + D)
632 + 422 2'
< 632 + 422 + 2. 42. 6J: (63 + 42)2 : 1952, : 180' - ] trro' - tBAC) : t20".

with equality if and only if B + D : r (that is ABCD is cyclic). Therefore

Thus the poirits B, C, O, I, and 11 are all on a circle. Further,
lABCDl2 < 1052 -2P :2P(52 -l) :422.6, and the required rnaximun
r : filABCDl:2\/6.
tocl - tACI tACo : lz,qcn
2\2/ -
( no" _ '-tcoo\
Establish as in the first solutiorr that r is rnaxinrized when the area is maximized. -!zdca-(eo"- tcBA)
Brctschneidcr's formula, which generaiizes Brahmagupta's formula, states that
the area of an arbitrary quadrilateral with side lengths e,, b, c, and d, is given : )2,+ca- e0" + (120" tACB):30o
- f,zeca.
(r - o) (r - b) (" - (r - d) - abcdcos2 0,
") al''d trcH : IACH - lACr: (90' - tEAC) - |ZtCn: 300 - |zl,cn.
: Thus 01 : 11{. Becarne IBCOI Hl - IBCOI+IBOI Hl a.nd BCO is arr isosceles
where L@+b-l c'f d) and d is half the sum of either pair of opposite angles.
: :
For a, b, c, a:nd d fixed, the area is niaximized when cos d : 0. Thus the area triangle with BC 1 and OB OC:
rt, it is sufficient to maximize thc area
is maximized when d : ]n', that is, when the quadrilateral is cyclic. In this of quadrilateral BOIH. If P1,P2 are two points in an arc of circle BO r,vith
case, the area equals '/7 .12.I+ I : 42\/6, and the required maximum radius BPt < BP2,Lben the maxirnum area of BOPIP2 occurs when BP1 : PtPz:
r :t .42\/6:2\/6. P2O. Indeed,lf BP1 * PtPz, then replacing & by the point P{ located halfway
in thc arc of circle BP2 yields a triangle BPiP2 with larger area than ABP1P2,
arrd the area of ABOP2 remains the same. Similarly, if P1P2 f P2O, lhen
25 Answer (D): By the Inscribed Angle Theorem, IBOC :2lBAC :120". replacing Pz by the midpoint Pl of the arc P1O causes thc area of APIPIO to
irrcrease and the area of AB\O to remain the same.
Let D and E be the feet of the altitudes of AABC frorn B and C, respectively.
Because CE and BD intersect at 11, Therefore the maximum is achieved when OI : IH : HB, that is, when
locl : IICH : IHCB : IZOCA: 10o. Thus 30. - jZ,A,Cn: 10o, so
360' IACB: 40o and ICBA:80o.
:360'- 90o - 90o 60' : 120".