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Touch screen technology

Shubham goel,saurabh goel,visheshank tyagi,rudra pratap singh

Cs department ,vidya college of engineering
Under guidance of mr. tarun kumar
Ass. lecturer c.s. dept. vce
IIIrd Year

Abstract— This document gives knowledge about touch There are a variety of touch screen technologies-
screen technology and a comparison among different
types of technologies used .
a. Resistive touch screen

INTRODUCTION A resistive touch screen board is composed of several

A touch screen is an electronic visual present that can layers, the most important of which are two thin,
detect the presence and site of a touch within the electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow
display area. The term generally refers to touching gap. When an object, such as a finger, presses down
the display of the device with a finger or hand. on a point on the panel's outer surface the two
metallic layers become connected at that point: the
panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with
connected outputs. This causes a change in the
electrical current, which is registered as a touch event
and sent to the controller for processing.

b. Surface auditory wave

Surface auditory wave (SAW) technology uses

ultrasonic waves that pass over the touch screen
panel. When the panel is touched, a piece of the wave
is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves
registers the position of the touch event and sends
this information to the controller for processing.
Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by
outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can
also interfere with the functionality of the touch
Fig1. Showing an image for touch screen screen.
The touch screen has two main attributes. First, it c .Capacitive touch screen
enables one to interact directly with what is
displayed, rather than indirectly with a cursor A capacitive touch screen panel is one which
controlled by a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets consists of an insulator such as glass, coated with a
one do so without requiring any intermediate device transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide
that would need to be held in the hand. Such displays (ITO).As the human body is also an electrical
can be attached to computers, or to networks as conductor, touching the surface of the screen results
terminals. They also play a famous role in the design in a distortion of the screen's electrostatic field,
of digital appliances such as the personal digital measurable as a change in capacitance. Different
assistant (PDA), satellite navigation devices, mobile technologies may be used to determine the location
phones, and video games. of the touch. The location is then sent to the
controller for processing.

d. Surface capacitance
In this basic technology, only one side of the accurately determine the touch location by measuring
insulator is coated with a conductive layer. A small the voltage in the other axis. Mutual capacitance
voltage is applied to the layer, resulting in a uniform allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers,
electrostatic field. When a conductor, such as a palms or stylus can be accurately tracked at the same
human finger, touches the uncoated surface, a time.
capacitor is dynamically formed. The sensor's
controller can determine the location of the touch G .Self-capacitance
indirectly from the change in the capacitance as Self-capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid
measured from the four corners of the panel. As it has as mutual capacitance sensors, but the columns and
no moving parts, it is rows operate independently. With self-capacitance,
moderately durable but has limited resolution, is the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each
horizontal to false signals from parasitic capacitive column or row electrode by a current meter. This
coupling, and needs calibration during manufacture. method produces a stronger signal than mutual
It is therefore most often used in simple applications capacitance, but it is unable to resolve accurately
such as industrial controls and kiosks. more than one finger, which results in "ghosting", or
misplaced location sensing.
e. Projected capacitance
h. Infrared
Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a An infrared touch screen uses an array of X-Y
capacitive technology which permits more accurate infrared LED and photo detector pairs around the
and flexible operation, by etching the conductive edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the
layer. An X-Y grid is formed either by drawing a pattern of LED beams. These LED beams cross each
single layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes, or by other in vertical and horizontal patterns. This helps
drawing two separate, perpendicular layers of the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A
conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to major benefit of such a system is that it can detect
form the grid (comparable to the pixel grid found in essentially any input including a finger, gloved
many LCD displays). finger, stylus or pen. It is generally used in outdoor
The greater resolution of PCT allows operation applications and point of sale systems which can't
without direct contact, such that the conducting rely on a conductor (such as a bare finger) to activate
layers can be coated with further protective insulating the touch screen. Unlike capacitive touch screens,
layers, and operate even under screen protectors, or infrared touch screens do not require any patterning
behind weather and vandal-proof glass. Due to the on the glass which increases durability and optical
top layer of a PCT being glass, PCT is a more robust clarity of the overall system.
solution versus resistive touch technology.
Depending on the implementation, an active or
passive stylus can be used instead of or in addition to i. Optical imaging
a finger. This is common with point of sale devices
This is a relatively modern development in touch
that require signature capture. Gloved fingers may or
may not be sensed, depending on the implementation screen technology, in which two or more image
and gain settings. Conductive smudges and similar
interference on the panel surface can interfere with sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the
the performance. Such conductive smudges come corners) of the screen. Infrared back lights are placed
mostly from sticky or sweaty finger tips, especially in
high humidity environments. Collected dust, which in the camera's field of view on the other side of the
adheres to the screen due to the moisture from
fingertips can also be a problem. There are two types screen. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair
of PCT: Self Capacitance and Mutual Capacitance. of cameras can then be pinpointed to locate the touch
f. Mutual capacitance or even measure the size of the touching object (see
In mutual capacitive sensors, there is a capacitor at
visual hull). This technology is growing in
every intersection of each row and each column. A
12-by-16 array, for example, would have 192 popularity, due to its scalability, versatility, and
independent capacitors. A voltage is applied to the
rows or columns. Bringing a finger or conductive affordability, especially for larger units.
stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the
local electrostatic field which reduces the mutual j. Dispersive signal technology
capacitance. The capacitance change at every Introduced in 2002 by 3M, this system uses sensors
individual point on the grid can be measured to to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that
occurs due to a touch. Complex algorithms then
interpret this information and provide the actual 4. Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass
location of the touch. The technology claims to be for mounting.
unaffected by dust and other outside elements,
including scratches. Since there is no need for
additional elements on screen, it also claims to When a user touches the surface, the system records
provide excellent optical clarity. Also, since the change in the electrical current that flows through
mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch
event, any object can be used to generate these the display.
events, including fingers and stylus. A downside is
that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a
motionless finger.

k. Acoustic pulse recognition

This technology uses piezoelectric transducers
located at various positions around the screen to turn
the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an
electronic signal. The screen hardware then uses an
algorithm to determine the location of the touch
based on the transducer signals. The touch screen
itself is made of ordinary glass, giving it good
durability and optical clarity. It is usually able to
function with scratches and dust on the screen with
good accuracy. The technology is also well suited to
displays that are physically larger. As with the
Dispersive Signal Technology system, after the initial
touch, a motionless finger cannot be detected.
However, for the same reason, the touch recognition
is not disrupted by any resting objects.
Fig 2.construction of touch screen technology

Dispersive-signal technology which 3M created in

CONSTRUCTION 2002, measures the piezoelectric effect — the voltage
generated when mechanical force is applied to a
There are several principal ways to build a touch
material — that occurs chemically when a
screen. The key goals are to recognize one or more
strengthened glass substrate is touched.
fingers touching a display, to interpret the command
that this represents, and to communicate the There are two infrared-based approaches. In one, an
command to the appropriate application. array of sensors detects a finger touching or almost
touching the display, thereby interrupting light beams
In the most popular techniques, the capacitive or
projected over the screen. In the other, bottom-
resistive approach, there are typically four layers;
mounted infrared cameras record screen touches.
1. Top polyester layer coated with a
In each case, the system determines the intended
transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom
command based on the controls showing on the
2. Adhesive spacer screen at the time and the location of the touch.

3. Glass layer coated with a transparent

metallic conductive coating on the top
light- Good Good Good Bad Bad

<10ms 10ms <15ms <20ms <15ms


The following information is supplied by Mass Good Low Good Good Good
Multimedia Inc., a Colorado-based company selling
touch screen technology.
No Small Big Big Big

Surfac CRT CRT CRT or

4- 5- Monitor CRT or CRT or
e or or LCD or
Technol Wire Wire Infrar Capacit option LCD LCD
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Good Ok Good Ok Good

3 year 5 Year 5 Year 5 Year 2 Year

Stability High Higher High High Ok

Touch screen technology is a providing a good
interface to users and various technologies used here
Bad Good Bad Good Ok have their own advantages.

Built- Built- Built- [1].wikipedia,the free encyclopedia
in/On in/Onw in/On Onwall Built-in [2].www.inventors.about.com
wall all wall [3].www.elotech.com
[4]. www.Nytimes.com
Anythi Finger/ Anythi Finger/ Conduc [6].www.electrotest.com
Touch [7].www.nicomovil.com
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