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WORLIT 030

MODULE 2. SHORT STORY


OBJECTIVES: At the end of this Unit, the students must have:

1.Explained the key concepts related to short story


2.Identified the elements of a given short story
3.Illustrated the elements of a short story
4.Analyzed a short story on the basis of the short story elements (Formalistic Approach)
5.Demonstrated the positive values learned from the stories read
6.Expressed their appreciation for short stories

ACTIVITY 1. READ THE FOLLOWING NOTES ON THE SHORT STORY.

THE SHORT STORY AND ITS ELEMENTS

I. Definition of short story


A short story is a complete dramatic action creating life with words.
- Flannery O’Connor

A short story is fictional work of prose that is shorter in length than a novel. Edgar
Allan Poe, in his essay "The Philosophy of Composition," said that a short story should be
read in one sitting, anywhere from a half hour to two hours. In contemporary fiction, a short
story can range from 1,000 to 20,000 words

II. Characteristics of the Short Story


Because of the shorter length, a short story usually focuses on one plot, one main
character (with a few additional minor characters), and one central theme, whereas a novel can
tackle multiple plots and themes, with a variety of prominent characters. Short stories also lend
themselves more to experimentation — that is, using uncommon prose styles or literary
devices to tell the story. Such uncommon styles or devices might get tedious, and downright
annoying, in a novel, but they may work well in a short story. The short story:
A. Ranges from 300 to 8,000 words; other sources cite 1,000 to 2,000 words;
B. May range from an anecdote (in its briefest form) to the novelette (longest form);
C. Has a single theme (one central theme);
D. Has only one or two major incidents;
E. Involves only a few characters and focuses on one main characters (with a few
additional minor characters);
F. Has a simple plot and focuses on one plot; and,
G. Has a well-defined climax

III. Elements of the short story


Its three most important elements are the setting, characters, and plot but only one is
usually emphasized in the story.

A. Setting
It consists of the time, place, and social context of a story. The place or location of
the action, the setting provides the historical and cultural context for characters. It
often can symbolize the emotional state of characters.
1. It establishes the place of the action and the time of occurrence of events.
2. It is the time, place, and condition in which the story is placed.
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3. Time includes the year, day, or season.

4. Place includes the locale, the specific or particular house or dwelling.


5. Condition refers to the historical period or the social milieu.
6. Sometimes, it conveys the atmosphere (mood) or the emotional effect of the
setting and events that contributes to the impact or to the meaning of the work.

e.g. The Fall of the House of the Usher by Edgar Allan Poe
- remote, moldering mansion
-atmosphere is feeling of chill forboding

The Lottery (Shirley Jackson)


-mood is deceptive feeling of carefree summer festivity
Haircut (Ring Lardner) – setting is a barbershop

B. Theme. It is the central or dominant idea of the story reinforced by the interaction
of fictional devices such as character, plot, setting, and point of view. It is also the
overall generalization the reader can make about the story’s meaning and
significance. It answers the question, “What does the story say about the subject?”
It is also defined as the:
1. Purpose or idea that the author wants to convey in the story;
2. Author’s statement about life or about a particular subject or issue; and,
3. Central idea or thesis; the central thought; the underlying meaning; the general
idea or insight revealed by the entire story; the central thought; the dominating
idea; the abstract concept that is made concrete through representation in
person, action, and image

Example: Title: Eveline

What is the story about? (What is the subject or topic of the story Eveline?)
Subject/topic – her encounter with Frank and her failure to go away with
him

“What does the story say about the subject?” (What is the theme of the story
Eveline?)
Theme – Eveline shows how people can be trapped by fear and
obligation.
(OR) Some people are trapped by fear and obligation.
C. Plot
1. Definition. The plot is:
a. “the series of interrelated incidents arranged by the author to make up what
is called the complication or problem.
b. the structure within which the narration of events arranged in sequence,
unfolds.
c. the arrangement of the events in a story according to a pattern devised by
the writer and inferred by the reader.
2. Parts of the Plot
a. Exposition (Preliminary Incident) is the part where the author introduces
the characters, sets the scene, give some background information, creates a
situation and possibilities for a conflict. It is the background information
regarding the setting, characters, and plot.
b. Complication (Rising incidents) is the part wherein the conflict develops and
intensifies.
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c. Climax or crisis is the turning point of the story. It is the highest emotional
or dramatic interest in the story. It is the moment of great tension that fixes
the action.
d. Falling action is the part wherein the plot moves toward its conclusion.
e. Denouement is a French word meaning “unknotting” or “untying”. It
reveals the final resolution.

The plot develops when characters and situations oppose each other, creating conflicts
that grow and eventually reach a climax, the point of highest intensity of the story. After this
climactic turning point, the action of the story finally declines, moving toward a resolution of
the conflict. Edgar Allan Poe prescribed that there must be a “single effect” as the action of the
story moves toward a resolution of the conflict.
The typical or traditional fictional plot follows the chronological development in which
the events unfold in the order in which they took place. To vary the patterns of narration, some
authors use fictional devices such as flashback (writer’s recollection of past events or
reporting past events that illustrate the position of the character) and foreshadowing
(suggestion of what is going to happen next by providing details and hints about it).

Example:
In the story “Another Evening at the Club”, the plot is centered on a conflict between Samia
and her husband. The action starts to rise in dramatic intensity (the rising action) when Samia’s loss
of her emerald ring destabilizes her relationship with her husband. After this initial exposition, or
narrative introduction of characters and situation, the action reaches its crisis (the climax of the
action) when Samia’s husband refuses to exonerate the maid, even though he knows she is innocent.
Notice that the external conflict parallels with the internal conflict of the protagonist when she
recognizes the degree of the husband’s control over her and her inability to oppose him. The action of
the story moves toward the resolution of its conflict (the falling action) when Samia yields to her
husband’s authority.
D. Character is “any person who acts and manifests the moral, emotional, and
intellectual qualities endowed to them by the author. The character can be
understood by what he does, says, thinks, and decides to do.”
1. Two ways of presenting the characters
a. Direct presentation is where the author describes what the character looks
like.
b. Indirect presentation is where in the character is shown by his action and
how he thinks, moves, and talks.
2. Classification of Characters
a. According to roles
1) The protagonist is the major or focal character.
2) The antagonist is the character against whom the protagonist clashes.
b. According to traits
1) Flat or type characters are those who manifest only one dominant trait
throughout the story; those with very limited characteristics; those who
usually play the minor role, act predictably, and are often presented as
stereotypes.
2) Round characters are those who are fully developed, displaying complex
qualities and traits; those who change, grow, and possess credible
personality.
c. According to the ability to change or develop as a result of their experiences
1) Static characters do not change or grow in the story.
2) Dynamic characters change and grow in the story.
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Example:

In “Another Evening at the Club”, Samia is the protagonist who is in conflict with her husband,
the antagonist, because of her inability to liberate herself from his dominating character.

E. Point of View – “Who tells the story? Whose thoughts and feelings does the reader
have access to?
1. Definition
Point of view is the angle of vision from which the reader follows the
development of the story. It is created through the use of a narrator as a
technique. The narrator can report external and internal events, but most
important, they express the narrative angle that writers use to tell the story, to
present actions, and to shape the readers’ responses.
2. Kinds of Point of View (POV)
a. Omniscient means “all knowing”. In this POV, many or all of the characters’
thoughts, feelings, and actions are revealed.
1) Objective (dramatic) POV records actions, speech, and gestures leaving
us to infer the thoughts and feelings behind them

Example:
Athena drove through the thick white California fog, frowning as she
followed the orange center marks on the winding road. In the back seat,
Bob slumped, mumbling to himself.

2) Editorial freely exposes the characters’ inner lives and comments on the
story as it progresses.
Athena worried vaguely as she peered through the menacing white
California fog, trying to stay on the winding road by following the orange
center markers. Bob, in the back seat, drunkenly reviewed the afternoon’s
confrontation with Marianne. His confusion about the scene was not only
the product of cheap wine – the mysterious relationship between the
sexes baffles even the soberest drinker.
a) In this narrative, the reader has access to Athena’s and Bob’s minds.
b) The reader gets a personified description of the fog.
c) The reader is given an outside narrative remark about the situation.
b. Limited Omniscient POV is where one character can be identified as a
storyteller; wherein the story is followed through the consciousness of a particular
character.
c. First Person Point of View uses “I”; the narrator or storyteller is a character
in the story.

F. Conflict is the clash or struggle between two opposing characters.


1. External conflict is where the main character is pitted against a human
adversary or against society. The main character struggles with another person, other
people, or nature.
2. Internal conflict is where opposing forces are factors contesting within the focal
character’s being.
G. Style and Tone

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Style refers to the way writers express themselves. It depends on diction, syntax,
voice, and rhythm. It reveals the writer’s linguistic choices or preferences and
therefore is a private and unique as their personalities and identities.

1. Symbolism is the use of concrete things to represent abstract ideas.

A symbol is a sign which has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol
means more than it literally says. (Signs are literal; symbols are not).
When the author of Ecclesiastes (9.4) tells his readers that it is better to be a
living dog than a dead lion, he uses the literal significance of "dog" and "lion,"
coupled with their cultural associations, to refer to conditions of human life.
There are three layers (at least) in this saying:
 the literal meaning of "lion" and "dog"--two different species of mammal;
 the cultural associations of both animals--the lion is noble, strong, courageous;
the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardly.
 the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred
from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life.
Symbols can have three kinds of association; often a symbol will have all three. The
associations are:
 Personal: We all have associations with things in our experience. One person
may have strong affection for dogs while another person may fear them
intensely.
 Cultural: Different symbols may have quite different meanings in different
cultures. A lion can represent Christ in Christian culture; in Sumerian culture,
the sun represents the god Marduk. In Chinese culture, dogs represent devotion
and faithfulness; in Islamic culture, they represent impurity.
 Universal: Jungian psychology, along with other theories, argues that some
symbols have universal meaning. Lions suggest deity in a variety of cultures, for
instance. Trying to discern and express the universal meaning of a symbol is
tricky.
Works such as An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Symbols (J. C. Cooper) or A
Dictionary of Symbols (J. E. Cirlot) attempt to present both cultural and universal
meanings of symbols (http://web.mst.edu /~gdoty /classes/concepts-
practices/def-symbols.html).
2. Irony is a contrast in which one term of contrast is in some ways
mocking the other term or contrast or discrepancy between one thing and another.
a. Verbal irony is the opposite of what the speaker says.
b. Irony of Circumstance or Situational Irony is when one event is expected
to occur but the opposite happens. This is a discrepancy between what
seems to be and what is.
c. Dramatic Irony is the discrepancy between what characters know and
what readers know.
d. Ironic Vision refers to an overall tone of irony that pervades a work,
suggesting how the writer views the characters.

3. Imagery is a concrete representation of a sense impression, a feeling, or an


idea which appeals to one or more of our senses.
a. Tactile imagery - sense of touch
b. Aural imagery - sense of hearing
c. Olfactory imagery - sense of smell
d. Visual imagery - sense of sight
e. Gustatory imagery - sense of taste

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Additional Information
from http://www.distancelearningassociates.com/eng2327/Genre-SS.htm

The short story is the most recent genre to appear in Western Literature. It's basic forms, in
fact, come from writers in the 19th century and bear their names: "Maupassant," "Chekhov," and
"Poe."

The Maupassantian Short Story


Guy du Maupassant, a French writer, wrote short stories with ironic or "trick" endings. You
may remember his story, "The Necklace," in which, after working for almost thirty years, a neighbor
learns from her wealthy counterpart that the necklace she had borrowed, lost, and now replaced
with a string of diamonds, had been composed of only fake gems.

The Checkhovian Short Story


Anton Chekhov, a Russian writer, is noted for crafting the psychological "short story. So
often in his tales, the setting resides in the minds of the characters; dialogue is often a stream of
interior monologues between only snippets of conversation. Action is minimal and conflict limited
to cross purposes of characters registered in their feelings and suspicions.

The Poe Short Story


An American writer, Edgar Allan Poe is the author of two popular forms of the short story: 1)
his tales of "raciocination," his name for the detective story which he invented, and 2) the "ideal
short story." His Major Dupin series is the forerunner of Authur Conan Doyle's more familiar
"Sherlock Holmes" series. The "ideal story" identifies a predetermined "effect" (or emotion), the
stimulation of which in the reader determines the orchestration of every other element of
literature--characterization, setting, use of time, events, conflict--in the story.

HOW TO READ SHORT FICTION

1. Read initially for pleasure.


2. Then, reread for careful and deliberate study of all the elements. Notice the structure of the
story. Study the plot and the sub-plots.
3. Consider the point of view and the setting.
4. Study the characters. As you reread the dialogue, pay attention to those passages in quotation
marks that characters speak to each other.
5. Look for specialized literary techniques such as irony, foreshadowing, imagery and
symbolism.
6. Continue questioning to discover the theme or the meaningful observation about human
behavior or the conduct of the society.

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ACTIVITY 2 . READ THE FOLLOWING AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY.

Biography of Edgar Allan Poe

Poe's Childhood
Edgar Poe was born in Boston on January 19, 1809. That makes him Capricorn, on the cusp
of Aquarius. His parents were David and Elizabeth Poe. David was born in Baltimore on July 18,
1784. Elizabeth Arnold came to the U.S. from England in 1796 and married David Poe after her first
husband died in 1805. They had three children, Henry, Edgar, and Rosalie.

Elizabeth Poe died in 1811, when Edgar was 2 years old. She had separated from her
husband and had taken her three kids with her. Henry went to live with his grandparents while
Edgar was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. John Allan and Rosalie was taken in by another family. John
Allan was a successful merchant, so Edgar grew up in good surroundings and went to good schools.

When Poe was 6, he went to school in England for 5 years. He learned Latin and French, as
well as math and history. He later returned to school in America and continued his studies. Edgar
Allan went to the University of Virginia in 1826. He was 17. Even though John Allan had plenty of
money, he only gave Edgar about a third of what he needed. Although Edgar had done well in Latin
and French, he started to drink heavily and quickly became in debt. He had to quit school less than
a year later.

Poe in the Army


Edgar Allan had no money, no job skills, and had been shunned by John Allan. Edgar went
to Boston and joined the U.S. Army in 1827. He was 18. He did reasonably well in the Army and
attained the rank of sergeant major. In 1829, Mrs. Allan died and John Allan tried to be friendly
towards Edgar and signed Edgar's application to West Point.

While waiting to enter West Point, Edgar lived with his grandmother and his aunt, Mrs.
Clemm. Also living there was his brother, Henry, and young cousin, Virginia. In 1830, Edgar Allan
entered West Point as a cadet. He didn't stay long because John Allan refused to send him any
money. It is thought that Edgar purposely broke the rules and ignored his duties so he would be
dismissed.

A Struggling Writer
In 1831, Edgar Allan Poe went to New York City where he had some of his poetry published.
He submitted stories to a number of magazines and they were all rejected. Poe had no friends, no
job, and was in financial trouble. He sent a letter to John Allan begging for help but none came. John
Allan died in 1834 and did not mention Edgar in his will.

In 1835, Edgar finally got a job as an editor of a newspaper because of a contest he won
with his story, "The Manuscript Found in a Bottle". Edgar missed Mrs. Clemm and Virginia and
brought them to Richmond to live with him. In 1836, Edgar married his cousin, Virginia. He was 27
and she was 13. Many sources say Virginia was 14, but this is incorrect. Virginia Clemm was born
on August 22, 1822. They were married before her 14th birthday, in May of 1836. In case you
didn't figure it out already, Virginia was Virgo.

As the editor for the Southern Literary Messenger, Poe successfully managed the paper and
increased its circulation from 500 to 3500 copies. Despite this, Poe left the paper in early 1836,

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complaining of the poor salary. In 1837, Edgar went to New York. He wrote "The Narrative of
Arthur Gordon Pym" but he could not find any financial success. He moved to Philadelphia in 1838
where he wrote "Ligeia" and "The Haunted Palace". His first volume of short stories, "Tales of the
Grotesque and Arabesque" was published in 1839. Poe received the copyright and 20 copies of the
book, but no money.

Sometime in 1840, Edgar Poe joined George R. Graham as an editor for Graham's Magazine.
During the two years that Poe worked for Graham's, he published his first detective story, "The
Murders in the Rue Morgue" and challenged readers to send in cryptograms, which he always
solved. During the time Poe was editor, the circulation of the magazine rose from 5000 to 35,000
copies. Poe left Graham's in 1842 because he wanted to start his own magazine.

Poe found himself without a regular job once again. He tried to start a magazine called The
Stylus and failed. In 1843, he published some booklets containing a few of his short stories but they
didn't sell well enough. He won a hundred dollars for his story, "The Gold Bug" and sold a few
other stories to magazines but he barely had enough money to support his family. Often, Mrs.
Clemm had to contribute financially. In 1844, Poe moved back to New York. Even though "The
Gold Bug" had a circulation of around 300,000 copies, he could barely make a living.

In 1845, Edgar Poe became an editor at The Broadway Journal. A year later, the Journal ran
out of money and Poe was out of a job again. He and his family moved to a small cottage near what
is now East 192nd Street. Virginia's health was fading away and Edgar was deeply distressed by it.
Virginia died in 1847, 10 days after Edgar's birthday. After losing his wife, Poe collapsed from
stress but gradually returned to health later that year.

Final Days

In June of 1849, Poe left New York and went to Philadelphia, where he visited his friend John
Sartain. Poe left Philadelphia in July and came to Richmond. He stayed at the Swan Tavern Hotel but
joined "The Sons of Temperance" in an effort to stop drinking. He renewed a boyhood romance with
Sarah Royster Shelton and planned to marry her in October.

On September 27, Poe left Richmond for New York. He went to Philadelphia and stayed with
a friend named James P. Moss. On September 30, he meant to go to New York but supposedly took
the wrong train to Baltimore. On October 3, Poe was found at Gunner's Hall, a public house at 44
East Lombard Street, and was taken to the hospital. He lapsed in and out of consciousness but was
never able to explain exactly what happened to him. Edgar Allan Poe died in the hospital on Sunday,
October 7, 1849.

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ACTIVITY 3. READ THE FOLLOWING STORY INITIALLY FOR PLEASURE.

Th e Cas k of Am o nt i ll a d o

by Ed g a r Al la n Po e
(p ub l i s h e d 18 4 6 )

THE thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon
insult I vowed revenge. You, who so well know the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however,
that gave utterance to a threat. At length I would be avenged; this was a point definitely, settled -
-but the very definitiveness with which it was resolved precluded the idea of risk. I must not
only punish but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its
redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him
who has done the wrong.
It must be understood that neither by word nor deed had I given Fortunato cause to doubt
my good will. I continued, as was my wont, to smile in his face, and he did not perceive that my
smile now was at the thought of his immolation.
He had a weak point -- this Fortunato -- although in other regards he was a man to be
respected and even feared. He prided himself on his connoisseurship in wine. Few Italians have
the true virtuoso spirit. For the most part their enthusiasm is adopted to suit the time and
opportunity, to practise imposture upon the British and Austrian millionaires. In painting
and gemmary, Fortunato, like his countrymen, was a quack, but in the matter of old wines he
was sincere. In this respect I did not differ from him materially; --I was skilful in the Italian
vintages myself, and bought largely whenever I could.
It was about dusk, one evening during the supreme madness of the carnival season, that I
encountered my friend. He accosted me with excessive warmth, for he had been drinking much.
The man wore motley. He had on a tight-fitting parti-striped dress, and his head was
surmounted by the conical cap and bells. I was so pleased to see him that I thought I should
never have done wringing his hand.
I said to him --"My dear Fortunato, you are luckily met. How remarkably well you are
looking to-day. But I have received a pipe of what passes for Amontillado, and I have my
doubts."
"How?" said he. "Amontillado, A pipe? Impossible! And in the middle of the carnival!"
"I have my doubts," I replied; "and I was silly enough to pay the full Amontillado price
without consulting you in the matter. You were not to be found, and I was fearful of losing a
bargain."
"Amontillado!"
"I have my doubts."
"Amontillado!"
"And I must satisfy them."
"Amontillado!"
"As you are engaged, I am on my way to Luchresi. If any one has a critical turn it is he. He
will tell me --"
"Luchresi cannot tell Amontillado from Sherry."
"And yet some fools will have it that his taste is a match for your own.
"Come, let us go."
"Whither?"
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"To your vaults."
"My friend, no; I will not impose upon your good nature. I perceive you have an
engagement. Luchresi--"
"I have no engagement; --come."
"My friend, no. It is not the engagement, but the severe cold with which I perceive you are
afflicted. The vaults are insufferably damp. They are encrusted with nitre."
"Let us go, nevertheless. The cold is merely nothing. Amontillado! You have been imposed
upon. And as for Luchresi, he cannot distinguish Sherry from Amontillado."
Thus speaking, Fortunato possessed himself of my arm; and putting on a mask of black silk
and drawing a roquelaire closely about my person, I suffered him to hurry me to my palazzo.
There were no attendants at home; they had absconded to make merry in honour of the
time. I had told them that I should not return until the morning, and had given them explicit
orders not to stir from the house. These orders were sufficient, I well knew, to insure their
immediate disappearance, one and all, as soon as my back was turned.
I took from their sconces two flambeaux, and giving one to Fortunato, bowed him through
several suites of rooms to the archway that led into the vaults. I passed down a long and winding
staircase, requesting him to be cautious as he followed. We came at length to the foot of the
descent, and stood together upon the damp ground of the catacombs of the Montresors.
The gait of my friend was unsteady, and the bells upon his cap jingled as he strode.
"The pipe," he said.
"It is farther on," said I; "but observe the white web-work which gleams from these cavern
walls."
He turned towards me, and looked into my eyes with two filmy orbs that distilled the
rheum of intoxication.
"Nitre?" he asked, at length.
"Nitre," I replied. "How long have you had that cough?"
"Ugh! ugh! ugh! --ugh! ugh! ugh! --ugh! ugh! ugh! --ugh! ugh! ugh! --ugh! ugh! ugh!"
My poor friend found it impossible to reply for many minutes.
"It is nothing," he said, at last.
"Come," I said, with decision, "we will go back; your health is precious. You are rich,
respected, admired, beloved; you are happy, as once I was. You are a man to be missed. For me it
is no matter. We will go back; you will be ill, and I cannot be responsible. Besides, there is
Luchresi --"
"Enough," he said; "the cough's a mere nothing; it will not kill me. I shall not die of a cough."
"True --true," I replied; "and, indeed, I had no intention of alarming you unnecessarily --but
you should use all proper caution. A draught of this Medoc will defend us from the damps.
Here I knocked off the neck of a bottle which I drew from a long row of its fellows that lay
upon the mould.
"Drink," I said, presenting him the wine.
He raised it to his lips with a leer. He paused and nodded to me familiarly, while his bells
jingled.
"I drink," he said, "to the buried that repose around us."
"And I to your long life."
He again took my arm, and we proceeded.
"These vaults," he said, "are extensive."
"The Montresors," I replied, "were a great and numerous family."
"I forget your arms."
"A huge human foot d'or, in a field azure; the foot crushes a serpent rampant whose fangs
are imbedded in the heel."
"And the motto?"
"Nemo me impune lacessit."
"Good!" he said.
The wine sparkled in his eyes and the bells jingled. My own fancy grew warm with the
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Medoc. We had passed through long walls of piled skeletons, with casks and puncheons
intermingling, into the inmost recesses of the catacombs. I paused again, and this time I made
bold to seize Fortunato by an arm above the elbow.
"The nitre!" I said; "see, it increases. It hangs like moss upon the vaults. We are below the
river's bed. The drops of moisture trickle among the bones. Come, we will go back ere it is too
late. Your cough --"
"It is nothing," he said; "let us go on. But first, another draught of the Medoc."
I broke and reached him a flagon of De Grave. He emptied it at a breath. His eyes flashed
with a fierce light. He laughed and threw the bottle upwards with a gesticulation I did not
understand.
I looked at him in surprise. He repeated the movement --a grotesque one.
"You do not comprehend?" he said.
"Not I," I replied.
"Then you are not of the brotherhood."
"How?"
"You are not of the masons."
"Yes, yes," I said; "yes, yes."
"You? Impossible! A mason?"
"A mason," I replied.
"A sign," he said, "a sign."
"It is this," I answered, producing from beneath the folds of my roquelaire a trowel.

"You jest," he exclaimed, recoiling a few paces. "But let us proceed to the Amontillado."
"Be it so," I said, replacing the tool beneath the cloak and again offering him my arm. He
leaned upon it heavily. We continued our route in search of the Amontillado. We passed through
a range of low arches, descended, passed on, and descending again, arrived at a deep crypt, in
which the foulness of the air caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame.
At the most remote end of the crypt there appeared another less spacious. Its walls had
been lined with human remains, piled to the vault overhead, in the fashion of the great
catacombs of Paris. Three sides of this interior crypt were still ornamented in this manner. From
the fourth side the bones had been thrown down, and lay promiscuously upon the earth, forming
at one point a mound of some size. Within the wall thus exposed by the displacing of the bones,
we perceived a still interior crypt or recess, in depth about four feet, in width three, in height six
or seven. It seemed to have been constructed for no especial use within itself, but formed merely
the interval between two of the colossal supports of the roof of the catacombs, and was backed
by one of their circumscribing walls of solid granite.
It was in vain that Fortunato, uplifting his dull torch, endeavoured to pry into the depth of
the recess. Its termination the feeble light did not enable us to see.
"Proceed," I said; "herein is the Amontillado. As for Luchresi --"
"He is an ignoramus," interrupted my friend, as he stepped unsteadily forward, while I
followed immediately at his heels. In an instant he had reached the extremity of the niche, and
finding his progress arrested by the rock, stood stupidly bewildered. A moment more and I had
fettered him to the granite. In its surface were two iron staples, distant from each other about
two feet, horizontally. From one of these depended a short chain, from the other a padlock.
Throwing the links about his waist, it was but the work of a few seconds to secure it. He was too
much astounded to resist. Withdrawing the key I stepped back from the recess.
"Pass your hand," I said, "over the wall; you cannot help feeling the nitre. Indeed, it is very
damp. Once more let me implore you to return. No? Then I must positively leave you. But I must
first render you all the little attentions in my power."
"The Amontillado!" ejaculated my friend, not yet recovered from his astonishment.
"True," I replied; "the Amontillado."
As I said these words I busied myself among the pile of bones of which I have before
spoken. Throwing them aside, I soon uncovered a quantity of building stone and mortar. With
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these materials and with the aid of my trowel, I began vigorously to wall up the entrance of the
niche.
I had scarcely laid the first tier of the masonry when I discovered that the intoxication of

Fortunato had in a great measure worn off. The earliest indication I had of this was a low moaning
cry from the depth of the recess. It was not the cry of a drunken man. There was then a long and
obstinate silence. I laid the second tier, and the third, and the fourth; and then I heard the furious
vibrations of the chain. The noise lasted for several minutes, during which, that I might hearken to
it with the more satisfaction, I ceased my labours and sat down upon the bones. When at last the
clanking subsided, I resumed the trowel, and finished without interruption the fifth, the sixth, and
the seventh tier. The wall was now nearly upon a level with my breast. I again paused, and holding
the flambeaux over the mason-work, threw a few feeble rays upon the figure within.
A succession of loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly from the throat of the chained
form, seemed to thrust me violently back. For a brief moment I hesitated, I trembled. Unsheathing
my rapier, I began to grope with it about the recess; but the thought of an instant reassured me. I
placed my hand upon the solid fabric of the catacombs, and felt satisfied. I reapproached the wall; I
replied to the yells of him who clamoured. I re-echoed, I aided, I surpassed them in volume and in
strength. I did this, and the clamourer grew still.
It was now midnight, and my task was drawing to a close. I had completed the eighth, the
ninth and the tenth tier. I had finished a portion of the last and the eleventh; there remained but a
single stone to be fitted and plastered in. I struggled with its weight; I placed it partially in its
destined position. But now there came from out the niche a low laugh that erected the hairs upon
my head. It was succeeded by a sad voice, which I had difficulty in recognizing as that of the noble
Fortunato. The voice said--
"Ha! ha! ha! --he! he! he! --a very good joke, indeed --an excellent jest. We will have many a
rich laugh about it at the palazzo --he! he! he! --over our wine --he! he! he!"
"The Amontillado!" I said.
"He! he! he! --he! he! he! --yes, the Amontillado. But is it not getting late? Will not they be
awaiting us at the palazzo, the Lady Fortunato and the rest? Let us be gone."
"Yes," I said, "let us be gone."
"For the love of God, Montresor!"
"Yes," I said, "for the love of God!"
But to these words I hearkened in vain for a reply. I grew impatient. I called aloud --
"Fortunato!"
No answer. I called again --
"Fortunato!"
No answer still. I thrust a torch through the remaining aperture and let it fall within. There
came forth in return only a jingling of the bells. My heart grew sick; it was the dampness of the
catacombs that made it so. I hastened to make an end of my labour. I forced the last stone into its
position; I plastered it up. Against the new masonry I re-erected the old rampart of bones. For the
half of a century no mortal has disturbed them. In pace requiescat!

ACTIVITY 4. RE-READ THE STORY FOR A CAREFUL AND DELIBERATE STUDY OF


ALL THE ELEMENTS. OBSERVE THE GUIDELINES PROVIDED IN THE ARTICLE “HOW TO
READ SHORT FICTION” SUGGESTED BY DAY, FUNK, & MCMAHAN (1986). THE
UNDERLINED WORDS MAY BE UNFAMILIAR TO YOU. LOOK THEM UP IN A DICTIONARY.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS THAT ARE BASED ON THE DIMENSIONAL


APPROACH TO READING. SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER WITH DETAILS FROM THE
STORY.

THEN, MEET THE GROUP ASSIGNED TO YOU VIA ZOOM OR FACEBOOK AND
AGREE ON A COMMON ANSWER TO THE ITEMS WITH YOUR GROUP COLOR.
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THIS SERVES Aboy for World
AS ASSIGNMENT 4. Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 12
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____

A. LITERAL LEVEL

1. What is Amontillado?
2. Where and when did the story happen?
3. Who are the characters in the story?
4. Why did Montressor vow revenge?
5. What was Montressor’s plan?
6. How did Montressor ensure that nobody would witness the execution of his revenge?
7. Did Montressor show his hatred for Fortunato?
8. What skill is common to both men?
9. What is Fortunato’s weakness?
10. When did they meet?
11. What was Fortunato’s clothing when they met?
12. What was Fortunato’s physical condition when they met?
13. Who would Montressor consult regarding the Amontillado had he not met Fortunato?
14. How does Montressor describe Fortunato?
15. Where was the Amontillado kept?
16. What was the Montressors’ coat of arms?
17. What is the motto of the Montressors? Translate it in English.
18. How did Fortunato drink De Grave?
19. Was Montressor a member of the masonry?
20. How many years have passed when Montressor confessed the incident?

B. INFERENTIAL LEVEL
1. Who is the narrator of the story?
2. How would you describe Montressor?
3. How did he treat Fortunato?
4. Is Luchesi a character in the story?
5. Is Luchesi as expert as Fortunato when it comes to wine?
6. What is Montressor’s purpose for the statement: “And yet some fools will have it that his taste
is a match for your own.”
7. Describe Fortunato.
8. How did Montressor arouse Fortunato’s interest in the Amontillado? Or, how did he lure
Fortunato to go with him to his palazzo?
9. Did Montressor know the sign of the masonry?
10. Why did Montressor have a trowel?
11. When did Fortunato realize Montressor’s seriousness in killing him?
12. Explain the line “For half a century, no mortal has disturbed them.”
13. Explain the line “For the love of God, Montressor.”
14. Explain the line “In pace requiescat.”
15. Give examples of imagery in the story.

C. CRITICAL LEVEL
1. How do you describe the narrator’s tone in the first paragraph?
2. Why do you think did Poe set the story during a carnival? If you were the author, would you
use another setting, another time, or another place?
3. Do you like Montressor? Why or why not? What do you think was his motive for killing
Fortunato?

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4. Do you sympathize with Fortunato? Why or why not?
5. Is Fortunato fortunate? What literary device is the use of Fortunato as the character’s name?
6. Is Fortunato a friend of Montressor? Yes or no, and why?

7. What could the trowel and the nitre suggest?


8. What does the Montressors’ coat of arms symbolize or suggest?
9. How do you find the story? What are its values as a literary piece or as a work of art?
10. What is the effect of the description of the catacombs, the bones, the darkness, etc…?
11. Why do you think did the author choose Montressor as narrator? If you were the author, would
you choose another narrator?
12. Besides Montressor, who could possibly say “In pace requiescat?”

D. APPLICATION LEVEL
1. Write a continuation of the story from the death of Fortunato until Montressor narrated the
story.
2. CREATIVE OUTPUT: Write a continuation to the story. Try to retain the point of view,
tone, and the writer’s style.

E. FORMALISTIC APPROACH
1. (CHARACTERS) Who is the main character? Does this person’s character change during the
course of the story? Do you feel sympathetic toward the main character? What sort of person
is she or he? Classify the characters according to their role, ability to change, and
2. (PLOT) What pattern or structure is there to the development of the plot? Can you describe
the way the events are organized? Does surprise play an important role in the plot? Is there
foreshadowing? Does the author use flashback?
3. (IRONY) Is anything about the story ironic?
4. (SYMBOLISM) Is there any symbolism in the story? How does the author make you aware of
symbolic actions, people, or objects?
5. (SETTING) What is the setting – the time and location? How important are these elements in
the story? Could it be set in another time or place just as well? Describe the atmosphere of the
story, if it is important. How does the author create this atmosphere?
6. (POINT OF VIEW) Who narrates the story? Is the narrator reliable? What effect does the point
of view have on your understanding of the story? What would be gained or lost if the story
were told from a different point of view (for example, by another character)?
7. (CONFLICT) What kind/s of conflict exist in the story? What is the most dominant conflict?
8. (THEME) How does the title relate to the other elements of the story and to the overall
meaning? What is the theme of the story? Can you state it in a single sentence? How is this
theme carried out?
9. (STYLE) Does the author’s style of writing affect your reading (i.e. interpretation) of the story?
If so, how would you describe the style? For example, is it conversational or formal? Familiar
or unfamiliar? Simple or ornate? Ironic or satiric?

F. PSYCHOANALYTICAL APPROACH
How do you think did the author’s life experiences influence the story?

G. HISTORICAL APPROACH
Research about the prevailing conditions at the time the story was written. Identify details in
the story that illustrate the culture of the time.

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GUIDELINES TO ASSIGNMENT 4.

WRITE YOUR GROUP’S AGREED ANSWERS IN ACTIVITY 4, AND SAVE IN


MICROSOFT WORD. SUBMIT THIS ASSIGNMENT INDIVIDUALLY. File
name should be composed of the following: your surname, module
number, and module title.

Example: Aboy_Assignment 4-The Cask of Amontillado.docx

Font Style: Cambria, Font 12

AT THE TOP OF YOUR FILE, INDICATE THE FOLLOWING:

ASSIGNMENT 4

MODULE 3. THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO

GROUP ________: (LIST OF MEMBERS)

ORALLY PRESENT YOUR GROUP’S ANSWERS USING POWERPOINT


PRESENTATION.

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Module 2.1. The Necklace


by Guy de Maupassant
Activity 5. Read the following short story initially for pleasure.

The Diamond Necklace

The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born, as
if by a slip of fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no way of being known,
understood, loved, married by any rich and distinguished man; so she let herself be married to a
little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction. She dressed plainly because she could not dress
well, but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a higher station; since with women there
is neither caste nor rank, for beauty, grace and charm take the place of family and birth. Natural
ingenuity, instinct for what is elegant, a supple mind are their sole hierarchy, and often make of
women of the people the equals of the very greatest ladies.
Mathilde suffered ceaselessly, feeling herself born to enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. She
was distressed at the poverty of her dwelling, at the bareness of the walls, at the shabby chairs, the
ugliness of the curtains. All those things, of which another woman of her rank would never even
have been conscious, tortured her and made her angry. The sight of the little Breton peasant who
did her humble housework aroused in her despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. She thought
of silent antechambers hung with Oriental tapestry, illumined by tall bronze candelabra, and of two
great footmen in knee breeches who sleep in the big armchairs, made drowsy by the oppressive
heat of the stove. She thought of long reception halls hung with ancient silk, of the dainty cabinets
containing priceless curiosities and of the little coquettish perfumed reception rooms made for
chatting at five o'clock with intimate friends, with men famous and sought after, whom all women
envy and whose attention they all desire.
When she sat down to dinner, before the round table covered with a tablecloth in use three
days, opposite her husband, who uncovered the soup tureen and declared with a delighted air, "Ah,
the good soup! I don't know anything better than that," she thought of dainty dinners, of shining
silverware, of tapestry that peopled the walls with ancient personages and with strange birds flying
in the midst of a fairy forest; and she thought of delicious dishes served on marvellous plates and of
the whispered gallantries to which you listen with a sphinxlike smile while you are eating the pink
meat of a trout or the wings of a quail.
She had no gowns, no jewels, nothing. And she loved nothing but that. She felt made for that.
She would have liked so much to please, to be envied, to be charming, to be sought after.
She had a friend, a former schoolmate at the convent, who was rich, and whom she did not like to go
to see any more because she felt so sad when she came home.
But one evening her husband reached home with a triumphant air and holding a large
envelope in his hand.
"There," said he, "there is something for you."
She tore the paper quickly and drew out a printed card which bore these words:
The Minister of Public Instruction and Madame Georges
Ramponneau request the honor of M. and Madame Loisel's
company at the palace of the Ministry on Monday evening,
January 18th.
Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the invitation on the table crossly,
muttering:

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"What do you wish me to do with that?"

"Why, my dear, I thought you would be glad. You never go out, and this is such a fine
opportunity. I had great trouble to get it. Every one wants to go; it is very select, and they are not
giving many invitations to clerks. The whole official world will be there."
She looked at him with an irritated glance and said impatiently:
"And what do you wish me to put on my back?"
He had not thought of that. He stammered:
"Why, the gown you go to the theatre in. It looks very well to me."
He stopped, distracted, seeing that his wife was weeping. Two great tears ran slowly from
the corners of her eyes toward the corners of her mouth.
"What's the matter? What's the matter?" he answered.
By a violent effort she conquered her grief and replied in a calm voice, while she wiped her
wet cheeks:
"Nothing. Only I have no gown, and, therefore, I can't go to this ball. Give your card to some
colleague whose wife is better equipped than I am."
He was in despair. He resumed:
"Come, let us see, Mathilde. How much would it cost, a suitable gown, which you could use
on other occasions--something very simple?"
She reflected several seconds, making her calculations and wondering also what sum she
could ask without drawing on herself an immediate refusal and a frightened exclamation from the
economical clerk.
Finally she replied hesitating:
"I don't know exactly, but I think I could manage it with four hundred francs."
He grew a little pale, because he was laying aside just that amount to buy a gun and treat
himself to a little shooting next summer on the plain of Nanterre, with several friends who went to
shoot larks there of a Sunday.
But he said:
"Very well. I will give you four hundred francs. And try to have a pretty gown."
The day of the ball drew near and Madame Loisel seemed sad, uneasy, anxious. Her frock
was ready, however. Her husband said to her one evening:
"What is the matter? Come, you have seemed very queer these last three days."
And she answered:
"It annoys me not to have a single piece of jewelry, not a single ornament, nothing to put on.
I shall look poverty-stricken. I would almost rather not go at all."
"You might wear natural flowers," said her husband. "They're very stylish at this time of
year. For ten francs you can get two or three magnificent roses."
She was not convinced.
"No; there's nothing more humiliating than to look poor among other women who are rich."
"How stupid you are!" her husband cried. "Go look up your friend, Madame Forestier, and
ask her to lend you some jewels. You're intimate enough with her to do that."
She uttered a cry of joy:
"True! I never thought of it."
The next day she went to her friend and told her of her distress. Madame Forestier went to a
wardrobe with a mirror, took out a large jewel box, brought it back, opened it and said to Madame
Loisel:
"Choose, my dear."
She saw first some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, then a Venetian gold cross set with
precious stones, of admirable workmanship. She tried on the ornaments before the mirror,
hesitated and could not make up her mind to part with them, to give them back. She kept asking:
"Haven't you any more?"
"Why, yes. Look further; I don't know what you like."
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Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb diamond necklace, and her heart
throbbed with an immoderate desire. Her hands trembled as she took it. She fastened it round her
throat, outside her high-necked waist, and was lost in ecstasy at her reflection in the mirror.
Then she asked, hesitating, filled with anxious doubt:
"Will you lend me this, only this?"
"Why, yes, certainly."
She threw her arms round her friend's neck, kissed her passionately, then fled with her
treasure.
The night of the ball arrived. Madame Loisel was a great success. She was prettier than any
other woman present, elegant, graceful, smiling and wild with joy. All the men looked at her, asked
her name, sought to be introduced. All the attaches of the Cabinet wished to waltz with her. She was
remarked by the minister himself.
She danced with rapture, with passion, intoxicated by pleasure, forgetting all in the triumph
of her beauty, in the glory of her success, in a sort of cloud of happiness comprised of all this
homage, admiration, these awakened desires and of that sense of triumph which is so sweet to
woman's heart.
She left the ball about four o'clock in the morning. Her husband had been sleeping since
midnight in a little deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose wives were enjoying the
ball.
He threw over her shoulders the wraps he had brought, the modest wraps of common life,
the poverty of which contrasted with the elegance of the ball dress. She felt this and wished to
escape so as not to be remarked by the other women, who were enveloping themselves in costly
furs.
Loisel held her back, saying: "Wait a bit. You will catch cold outside. I will call a cab."
But she did not listen to him and rapidly descended the stairs. When they reached the street
they could not find a carriage and began to look for one, shouting after the cabmen passing at a
distance. They went toward the Seine in despair, shivering with cold. At last they found on the quay
one of those ancient night cabs which, as though they were ashamed to show their shabbiness
during the day, are never seen round Paris until after dark.
It took them to their dwelling in the Rue des Martyrs, and sadly they mounted the stairs to
their flat. All was ended for her. As to him, he reflected that he must be at the ministry at ten o'clock
that morning.
She removed her wraps before the glass so as to see herself once more in all her glory. But
suddenly she uttered a cry. She no longer had the necklace around her neck!
"What is the matter with you?" demanded her husband, already half undressed.
She turned distractedly toward him.
"I have--I have--I've lost Madame Forestier's necklace," she cried.
He stood up, bewildered.
"What!--how? Impossible!"
They looked among the folds of her skirt, of her cloak, in her pockets, everywhere, but did
not find it.
"You're sure you had it on when you left the ball?" he asked.
"Yes, I felt it in the vestibule of the minister's house."
"But if you had lost it in the street we should have heard it fall. It must be in the cab."
"Yes, probably. Did you take his number?"
"No. And you--didn't you notice it?"
"No."
They looked, thunderstruck, at each other. At last Loisel put on his clothes.
"I shall go back on foot," said he, "over the whole route, to see whether I can find it."
He went out. She sat waiting on a chair in her ball dress, without strength to go to bed,
overwhelmed, without any fire, without a thought.

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Her husband returned about seven o'clock. He had found nothing. He went to police
headquarters, to the newspaper offices to offer a reward; he went to the cab companies--
everywhere, in fact, whither he was urged by the least spark of hope.
She waited all day, in the same condition of mad fear before this terrible calamity.
Loisel returned at night with a hollow, pale face. He had discovered nothing.
"You must write to your friend," said he, "that you have broken the clasp of her necklace and
that you are having it mended. That will give us time to turn round."
She wrote at his dictation.
At the end of a week they had lost all hope. Loisel, who had aged five years, declared:
"We must consider how to replace that ornament."
The next day they took the box that had contained it and went to the jeweler whose name
was found within. He consulted his books.
"It was not I, madame, who sold that necklace; I must simply have furnished the case."
Then they went from jeweler to jeweler, searching for a necklace like the other, trying to
recall it, both sick with chagrin and grief.
They found, in a shop at the Palais Royal, a string of diamonds that seemed to them exactly
like the one they had lost. It was worth forty thousand francs. They could have it for thirty-six.
So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days yet. And they made a bargain that he should
buy it back for thirty-four thousand francs, in case they should find the lost necklace before the end
of February.
Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him. He would borrow
the rest. He did borrow, asking a thousand francs of one, five hundred of another, five louis here,
three louis there. He gave notes, took up ruinous obligations, dealt with usurers and all the race of
lenders. He compromised all the rest of his life, risked signing a note without even knowing
whether he could meet it; and, frightened by the trouble yet to come, by the black misery that was
about to fall upon him, by the prospect of all the physical privations and moral tortures that he was
to suffer, he went to get the new necklace, laying upon the jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand
francs.
When Madame Loisel took back the necklace Madame Forestier said to her with a chilly
manner:
"You should have returned it sooner; I might have needed it."
She did not open the case, as her friend had so much feared. If she had detected the
substitution, what would she have thought, what would she have said? Would she not have taken
Madame Loisel for a thief?
Thereafter Madame Loisel knew the horrible existence of the needy. She bore her part,
however, with sudden heroism. That dreadful debt must be paid. She would pay it. They dismissed
their servant; they changed their lodgings; they rented a garret under the roof.
She came to know what heavy housework meant and the odious cares of the kitchen. She
washed the dishes, using her dainty fingers and rosy nails on greasy pots and pans. She washed the
soiled linen, the shirts and the dishcloths, which she dried upon a line; she carried the slops down
to the street every morning and carried up the water, stopping for breath at every landing. And
dressed like a woman of the people, she went to the fruiterer, the grocer, the butcher, a basket on
her arm, bargaining, meeting with impertinence, defending her miserable money, sou by sou.
Every month they had to meet some notes, renew others, obtain more time.
Her husband worked evenings, making up a tradesman's accounts, and late at night he often
copied manuscript for five sous a page.
This life lasted ten years.
At the end of ten years they had paid everything, everything, with the rates of usury and the
accumulations of the compound interest. Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become the
woman of impoverished households--strong and hard and rough. With frowsy hair, skirts askew
and red hands, she talked loud while washing the floor with great swishes of water. But sometimes,

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when her husband was at the office, she sat down near the window and she thought of that gay
evening of long ago, of that ball where she had been so beautiful and so admired.
What would have happened if she had not lost that necklace? Who knows? who knows?
How strange and changeful is life! How small a thing is needed to make or ruin us!
But one Sunday, having gone to take a walk in the Champs Elysees to refresh herself after
the labors of the week, she suddenly perceived a woman who was leading a child. It was Madame
Forestier, still young, still beautiful, still charming.
Madame Loisel felt moved. Should she speak to her? Yes, certainly. And now that she had
paid, she would tell her all about it. Why not?
She went up.
"Good-day, Jeanne."
The other, astonished to be familiarly addressed by this plain good-wife, did not recognize
her at all and stammered:
"But--madame!--I do not know---- You must have mistaken."
"No. I am Mathilde Loisel."
Her friend uttered a cry.
"Oh, my poor Mathilde! How you are changed!"
"Yes, I have had a pretty hard life, since I last saw you, and great poverty--and that because
of you!"
"Of me! How so?"
"Do you remember that diamond necklace you lent me to wear at the ministerial ball?"
"Yes. Well?"
"Well, I lost it."
"What do you mean? You brought it back."
"I brought you back another exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. You
can understand that it was not easy for us, for us who had nothing. At last it is ended, and I am very
glad."
Madame Forestier had stopped.
"You say that you bought a necklace of diamonds to replace mine?"
"Yes. You never noticed it, then! They were very similar."
And she smiled with a joy that was at once proud and ingenuous.
Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took her hands.
"Oh, my poor Mathilde! Why, my necklace was paste! It was worth at most only five
hundred francs!"

Activity 6. THEN, GO TO THIS LINK AND WATCH THE VIDEO


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIZnWyu_8MI.

HAS THIS FILM HELPED YOU UNDERSTAND THE STORY BETTER?

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Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____

ACTIVITY 7. REREAD IT CAREFULLY STUDYING ITS ELEMENTS, AND ANSWER THE


FOLLOWING QUESTIONS FROM THE FORMALISTIC LENS.

1. Summarize the story following the chronological development while identifying the parts of
the plot. Where does the action begin? How does the story begin? What are the next events?
Which point is the climax of the story? What is the resolution of the story?
2. Where did the story take place? To what is the place usually associated with? What is the
atmosphere in the story? Identify details to support your answers.
3. Who is the narrator? What point of view is used?
4. Who are the characters in the story? Who is the protagonist and who is the antagonist?
Describe the dominant trait of each character using one or two adjectives. Support your
description with details from the story. Then, classify the characters according to their traits
and their ability to change.
5. What is the conflict in the story?
6. Does the story employ flashback, irony, imagery, figures of speech, and symbolism?
7. What is the relationship of each element or part of the story to the work as a whole? How to
does each element contribute to the story?

ACTIVITY 8. GO TO THESE LINKS AND WATCH THE VIDEOS THAT MAY HELP
YOU BETTER UNDERSTAND THE ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY:

1. Video for Edexcel by Miss Dye English


(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQbdHjNhaq0)

2. Literary Analysis of “The Necklace (by Drake)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZ7C3Hw1qs8

ACTIVITY 9. Answer the following questions from the Reader Response lens.

1. What is your initial response to the story? How did you feel upon first reading the story?
2. At what point of the story did you react differently? Why?
3. Is Mathilde a victim of fate or a victim of her own desires? How do you feel about her? Do you
sympathize with her?
4. How do you feel about her husband and Mme. Forestier?
5. What parts of the story caused you to do the most serious thinking?
6. After rereading the story, have your subsequent readings differed from the earlier ones? If
yes, what do you account for those differences?
7. What positive values reflected in the story do you plan to emulate?

Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 21
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____

Activity 10. Read the following short story initially for pleasure.

Ang Istorya ng Taxi Driver


By Catherine Lim
Revised By: M.R. Avena

(1)Ayos, Ma’am. Sigurado-darating kayo sa miting ng mas maaga sa t’yempo. Dito tayo
dumaan, Ma’am. Konting trapik, konting bara ng mga kotse. Medya-ora lang, naro’n na tayo. Kaya
h’wag kayong mag-alala, Ma’am
(2)Ano yon. Ma’am? Oho, oho. Ha, ha-dalawampung taon na ‘kong taxi driver, Ma’am.
Panahon pa ng kopong-kopong. Di pa ganito ang Singapore-nanikip sa tao, bising-bisi. Noon mas
tahimik, kokonti pa lang ang taxi drivers, at di-masyadong maraming kotse at bus
(3)Oho, Ma’am, kumikita naman. Di malaki pero pwede na. Anong mabuti? Para umasenso
sa Singapore, sipag lang. Sa mga tulad naming no read, no write, walang kapital para sa negosyo,
kailangang magpatulo ng pawis nang kumita para sa misis at mga bata
(4)Oho, Ma’am malaki ang pamilyako. Walong anak anim na lalaki, dalawang babae.
Talagang malaki, ha, ha problema, no Ma’am? Pero noon, wala naming family planning sa Singapore.
Ang daming mag-anak ng pamilya; taun-taon. Dalawa, tatlong anak, pigil na. Sabi ng gobyerno,
“tama na.”
(5)Buti na lang, malalaki na ang mga anak ko. Apat sa mga anak kong lalaki kumakayod na,
isang negosyante, dalawang clerk, ‘yong isa titser sa primary school. Yong isa namay nasa National
Service, at yong isa, nag-aaral pa, sa Secondary Four. Yong pinakamatanda kong babae, beynte
anyos na siyang mahigit, sa bahay lang, tumutulung sa nanay niya
(6)Wala po, wala pa siyang asawa. Masyadong mahiyain at medyo sakitin pero ang bait,
masunurin. Yong isa kong babe-ay, naku, Ma’am, laking problema sa ama pag’ yong anak na babae’y
salbahe at lumalaban sa magulang. Napakalungkot, parang parusa sa Diyos.
(7)Ngayon, iba ang kabataan, di tulad naming noon noon, wala sa amin ang matigas ang ulo.
‘Pagsinabing magulang namin na, h’wag gawi nito, di naming ginagawa. Kundi, naron ang baston.
Nabaston ako ng tatay ko. Kahi tbinatana at malapit nang mag-asawa baston pa rin. Istrikto ng
masyado ang tatay ko, at mabuti ‘yon-maging istrikto ang magulang. Kundi, walang silbi ang labas
ng mga bata. Di mag-aaral, aalpas at magna-night club o magda-drugs o sex. Tama ba ako, Ma’am?
Ngayong, laking sakit ng ulo sa magulang ang kabataan. Nakita na n’yo yong teenager d’on sa labas
ng coffee shop? Kita nyo na Ma’am? Mga estudyante palang ‘yon, pero kung umasta ‘kala mo mga
big shot magastos, naninigarilyo na, kung magbihis sunod sa moda at mahilig na sa sex. Naku,
Ma’am, kabisado ko nayan. Bilang taxi driver, kilala ko ang mga iyan at mga bisyo nila
(8)Kayo, Ma’am di ba sabi nyo titser kayo? Alam nyo ba ang mga batang babae na ‘yan-kinse,
disisais anyos? Papasok ng eskwela ang mga ‘yan sa umaga na nakauniporme. Pagkatapos ng
eskwela, di uuwi ang mga ‘yan. May dalang damit ang mga ‘yan sa school magpapalit ng suot,
magmemeyk-up. Walang alam ang mga magulang nila. Sasabihin sa mama nila, may miting daw,
may sports o laro, may gano’n, ganito, pero ang totoo e naglalakwatsa at kung anu-anong kalokohan
ang pinaggagawa
(9)A, Ma’am, mukhang ayaw ninyo ng maniniwala. Pero‘ yan ang totoo. Alam ko lahat ang
kalokohan nila Isinisakay ko sila sa taxi ko. Madalas, do’n sila sa bowling Alley o coffee shop o hotel
naghihintay. Tapos lalapitan ng mga turistang kano o Europeo. Gan’on sila maglibang at kumita ng
extrang pera. Maniniwala ba kayo, Ma’am, kung sasabihin ko kung ga’no ka daming pera nila? Anak
ng-! Kagabi, tong batang sakay ko-kyut na kyut, nakameyk-ap at seksi ang suot. Sabi sa akin, dalhin
ko raw sa Orchid Mansions. Kilalang-kilalaang llugar na ‘yon, isang four storey na apartment. Tapos
greenbacks-teg ten dollars lahat. Humugot ito ng isa at sabi, “keep the change” wala raw s’yang
tyempo. Para sabihin ko sa inyo, Ma’am, buwan buway mas malaki ang kinikita ko sa mga teenager

Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 22
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____
na ito kaysa d’on sa nakikipagbargain sa ‘kin na ‘wag na raw ibaba ang metro pero naghihintay pa
ng sukli nilang ten cents. Pwe! Binubwisit ako ng talagang iba sa kanila. Pero itong mga batang ‘to
walang tawaran. Bayad lang nang bayad. At sobrang makikipagromansa sa taxi, kaya di bale kung
mag-iikot ka nang husto at singilin sila sa metro!
(10) Sabihin ko sa inyo, Ma’am, meron dy’an na di pinoproblema kung magkano ang
ginagasta sa taxi. Ganito yon Ma’am: Paglampas ng ala-una ng umaga, mas malaki ang kita. Doon
ako paparada sa labas ng Elory Hotel o Tung Court o Orchid Mansions at sigurado, Ma’am ayos ang
buto-buto. Noong sabado, Ma’am, walang biro-sa isang araw lang kumita akong halos one hundred
fifty dollars! Ang iba ny’on, para sa serbisyo. May turista kasi na di alam kung saan pupunta, kaya
ako na ang nagsasabi at dinadala ko sila d’on. Ekstrang kita din ‘yon. Ay, naku, Ma’am, kung
ikukw’ento ko sa inyo ang lahat, di tayo matatapos
(11)Pero ito ang masasabi ko sa inyo. Kung meron kayong dalagita at sasabihin sa inyo,
“Mommy, may miting kami sa iskwela ngayon at di ako uuwi,” h’wag n’yong sasabihin, “Sigehija”
pero usisain nyo ang lahat. Ngayo’y di ninyo mapagkakatiwalaan ang mga bata, Di tulad noon. Ay
naku, Ma’am nasasabi ko ito dahil ako mismo’y may dalagita. Mahal na mahal ko ang batang ito.
Napakabait nya at ang sipag mag-aral. Nakikitako ang report cards at ‘yong sinusulat ng Kanyang
titser na “Very Good” o “Excellent”, sa report cards nya. Nag-aaral sya sa bahay at tumutulong sa
nanay nya. Pero minsay tinatamad at sasabihinn’ya, pinababalik daw s’yang titser sa iskwela para
makapag-aaral pa, para maturuan pa sa subject na mahina siya – yon daw Math, Ma’am. At ako
naman, pinayagan kosya, at araw-araw, gabi na siya umuwi, tapos mag-aral, tuloy tulog. Isang araw-
naku, Ma’am hanggang ngayoy ginagalit pa ako. Isang araw, nagdadrive ako ng taksi, parelaks-
relakslang, nang may nakita akong dalagitang nakakahawig ng sa aking Lay Choo, may kasamang
mga batang babae at ilang Europeo sa labas ng coffee shop. Sa biko, hindi pwedeng si Lay Choo at
ang isang ito e bihis na bihis, nakameyk-ap at magaslaw kumilos. Di ganon ang anak ko. Tapos
pumasok sila sa coffee shop. At ‘yong puso ko sobra ang-pa’no nga sabihin ‘yon, Ma’am? Yong puso
ko, parang binabayong kung ano. Sabi ko, mabantayan nga, at tingnan ko ang kalokohan nya. Nong
sumunod na araw, nand’yon sia uli. Ipinarada ko ang taxi ko, Ma’am. Galit na galit ako noon.
Sinugod ko ang tarantadong anak ko at sinunggaban ko sa balikat at leeg at saka pinagsasampal ko
at binugbog sya ng muli. Estupida! Walang hiya! Pinilit ako ilayo ng asawa ko at ilang kapitbahay.
Palagay ko’y napatay ko ang batang iyon kung di ako naawat.
(12)Tatlong araw kinulong sa kanyang kwarto. Nahiya akong sabihin sa kanyang titser kung
ano ang nangyari, kaya sabi ko na lang may sakit si Lay Choo, at kung p’wede, i-excuse nya sa klase.
Ay naku, Ma’am. Anong nararamdaman ninyo kung nasa lugar ko kayo? Pinababa n’ya ang kanyang
sarili, gayon ang ama n’yay maghapong pasada nang pasada ng taksi para maipadala sya sa
unibersidad.
(13)Ano ‘yon Ma’am? Oho, oho – okey na ho ang lahat. Salamat. Di sya pwedeng lumabas ng
bahay, liban kung papasok sa iskwela at bilin ko sa ina nya, check-in lagi. Ang ginagawa nyan at
‘yong mga kabarkada nya, kung anong klaseng mga ito. Ay, naku Ma’am ang kabataan ngayon –
anong sakit ng ulo.
(14)Ano ‘yon Ma’am? A, sorry ho, Ma’am di ko kayo mahihintay matapos ang inyong miting.
Kailangan kong lumarga, kaya pasensya na ho. Nagmamadali ako Ma’am, papuntang Hotel Elory.
Maraming mga batang maisasakay. Kaya sorry na lang, Ma’am, at maraming salamat.

Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 23
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____

ACTIVITY 12. REREAD IT CAREFULLY STUDYING ITS ELEMENTS, AND ANSWER THE
FOLLOWING QUESTIONS FROM THE FORMALISTIC LENS.

For the English version, you may go to https://www.slideshare.net/PauloIbay/a-


taximans-story-12888787?next_slideshow=1

1. Summarize the story following the chronological development while identifying the parts of
the plot. Where does the action begin? How does the story begin? What are the next events?
Which point is the climax of the story? What is the resolution of the story?
2. Where did the story take place? To what is the place usually associated with? What is the
atmosphere in the story? Identify details to support your answers.
3. Who is the narrator? What point of view is used?
4. Who are the characters in the story? Who is the protagonist and who is the antagonist?
Describe the dominant trait of each character using one or two adjectives. Support your
description with details from the story. Then, classify the characters according to their traits
and their ability to change.
5. What is the conflict in the story?
6. Does the story employ flashback, irony, imagery, figures of speech, and symbolism?
7. What is the relationship of each element or part of the story to the work as a whole? How to
does each element contribute to the story?

ASSIGNMENT 5. Choose between The Necklace and The Taximan’s Story to


analyze. Illustrate the elements of the story by accomplishing the story
grammar. Write the key details about the elements of the story inside the boxes.

Short Essay: Answer the question How do you find reading short stories? What
makes reading the short story interesting? (Answer should not exceed 5 sentences.)

This assignment is a group assignment, but each group member should


submit the same story grammar individually. However, the short essay should
be answered individually.

Submit this assignment through Schoology. The filename should consist


of the your surname, assignment number, and assignment title (Story
Grammar).

Example: Aboy-Assignment 5. Story Grammar

Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 24
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____

REFERENCES

Cruz, Jesus Q., Marjueve M. Palencia, Ariel R. Valeza, Ernesto Thaddeus M. Solmerano, Herbert D.
Delos Reyes, and Miel Kristian B. Ondevilla. A Treasury of World Literature. Manila,
Philippines: Books Atbp. Publishing Corp., 2004.

Day, Susan, Elizabeth McMahan, and Robert Funk. Literature and the Writing Process (2nd Edition).
New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1989.

DiYanni, Robert. Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.,
2004.

Gillespie, Sheena, Terezinha Fonseca, and Tony Pipolo. World Literature: Connecting Nations and
Cultures (4th Edition). New York, USA:

Kalaidjian, Walter, Judith Roof, and Stephen Watt. Understanding Literature: An Introduction to
Reading and Writing. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.

Tan, Arsenia B. Introduction to Literature (4th Edition). Quezon City, Philippines: Academic
Publishing Corporation, 2001.

Yap-Patron, Ida. Interactive Reading-Responding to and Writing About Philippine Literature.


Quezon City, Philippines: Great Books Trading, 2002.

Electronic References

http://www.distancelearningassociates.com/eng2327/Genre-SS.htm
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/literature
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/Section/id-305403,articleId-7941.html
http://web.mst.edu/~gdoty/classes/concepts-practices/def-symbols.html
The Online Writing Lab (OWL), Roane State Community College. http://www.
roanestate.edu/owl/ElementsLit.html
Dr. Geoffrey A. Grimes. The Genres of Literature: The Short Story. http://www.
distancelearningassociates.com/eng2327/Genre-SS.htm
http://www.poestories.com/read/amontillado
http://poestories.com/biography.php
http://www.classicreader.com/book/518/1/
http://www.bridgewater.edu/WritingCenter/Resources/102in-class3.htm
http://www.bartleby.com/195/1014.html
http://www.bookrags.com/notes/od/BIO.html
http://www.brighthub.com/education/homework-tips/articles/48701.aspx
http://www.classics.upenn.edu/myth/homer/multimap.html
http://www.shmoop.com/odyssey/summary.html
http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides2/Odyssey.html
http://classics.uc.edu/~johnson/epic/study_guide3.html
http://www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/rhetoric.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_of_speech
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_7615…
Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 25
Name: _______________________ Section ______ Group ______ Date: _____
http://www.answers.com/figure%20of%20spe…
http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/williams/figofspe.htm
http://cms.cerritos.edu/rdecter/grammar/figures-of-speech
http://www.opundo.com/figures.php?firstletter=Z
"Silva Rhetoricae" (rhetoric.byu.edu).
http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/Figures-Overview.htm
(http://www.answers.com
Source: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/cm/africana/diop.htm

Compiled by Ivy Gonzales Aboy for World Literature (WORLIT 030) Page 26