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Л.В.Газизова, С.С.

Усанова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ,


ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ ПО НАПРВЛЕНИЮ
«ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ И ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИЯ
ОПТИЧЕСКИХ И МЕЖСПУТНИКОВЫХ
КОММУНИКАЦИЙ»

Уфа 2008
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования
Уфимский государственный авиационный технический университет

Л.В.Газизова, С.С.Усанова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ,


ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ ПО НАПРВЛЕНИЮ
«ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ И ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИЯ
ОПТИЧЕСКИХ И МЕЖСПУТНИКОВЫХ
КОММУНИКАЦИЙ»

Рекомендовано Редакционно-издательским советом

университета в качестве учебно-методического пособия

Уфа 2008

2
УДК 811.111:330
ББК 81.2 Англ.: 65(я7)
Б74
Газизова Л.В., С.С.Усанова
Б 74 Английский язык для студентов, обучающихся по направлению
«проектирование и эксплуатация оптических и межспутниковых
коммуникаций»: учебное пособие / Л.В. Газизова, С.С. Усанова;
Уфимск. гос. авиац. техн. ун-т. – Уфа: УГАТУ, 2008. – 183с.
ISBN…

Учебное пособие ориентировано на аудиторные занятия для


развития навыков профессионального общения на английском языке в
устной и письменной форме. Состоит из 19 уроков, содержащих
аутентичные тексты и комплекс упражнений.
Предназначено для студентов старших курсов, а также может
быть полезно для аспирантов и слушателей институтов повышения
квалификации.
Пособие соответствует государственному образовательному
стандарту дисциплинам «Иностранный язык» высшего и
профессионального образования.

Табл. 2, схем 1. Библиогр.: 30 назв.


Печатается по решению редакционного совета Уфимского
государственного авиационного технического университета
Научный редактор: д-р филол. наук, проф. Рогожникова Т.М.
Рецензенты: д-р филол. наук, проф. Иванова С.В., БашГУ
канд. пед. наук, доц. Магазова В.З., ВЗФИ

ББК 81.2 Англ.: 65(я7)


ISBN  Л.В. Газизова, С.С. Усанова, 2008
 Уфимский государственный
авиационный технический университет, 2008

3
УДК 811.111:330
ББК 81.2 Англ.: 65(я7)
Б74
Газизова Л.В., Усанова С.С.
Б 74 Английский язык для студентов, обучающихся по направлению
«проектирование и эксплуатация оптических и межспутниковых
коммуникаций»: учебное пособие / Л.В. Газизова, С.С. Усанова;
Уфимск. гос. авиац. техн. ун-т. – Уфа: УГАТУ, 2008. –183с.
Учебное пособие ориентировано на аудиторные занятия для
развития навыков профессионального общения на английском языке в
устной и письменной форме. Состоит из 19 уроков, содержащих
аутентичные тексты и комплекс упражнений.
Предназначено для студентов старших курсов, а также может
быть полезно для аспирантов и слушателей институтов повышения
квалификации.
Пособие соответствует государственному образовательному
стандарту дисциплинам «Иностранный язык» высшего и
профессионального образования.
Табл. 2, схем 1. Библиогр.: 30 назв.
Печатается по решению редакционного совета Уфимского
государственного авиационного технического университета
Научный редактор: д-р филол. наук, проф. Рогожникова Т.М.
Рецензенты: д-р филол. наук, проф. Иванова С.В., БашГУ
канд. пед. наук, доц. Магазова В.З., ВЗФИ

Учебное пособие разработано в рамках


реализации инновационной образовательной
программы подготовки кадров в области
информационных технологий проектирования,
производства и эксплуатации сложных
технических объектов Уфимского
государственного авиационного технического
университета (Приоритетный национальный
проект «Образование»)
ББК 81.2 Англ.: 65(я7)
ISBN  Л.В. Газизова, С.С. Усанова, 2008
 Уфимский государственный
авиационный технический университет, 2008

4
5
Предисловие

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов, обучающихся по


направлению «Проектирование и эксплуатация оптических и межспутниковых
коммуникаций» предназначено для бакалавров, изучающих информационные
технологии, а также для слушателей институтов повышения квалификации,
аспирантов. Издание будет также полезно специалистам, связанным с
современными информационными технологиями, и широкому кругу
пользователей компьютеров. Курс рассчитан на студентов, владеющих
английским языком на уровне intermediate-advanced, желающих овладеть
навыками профессионального общения на английском языке в контексте
области специализации.
Учебное пособие содержит три раздела: сетевые технологии, оптика,
информационные спутниковые технологии. Структуру каждого раздела
составляют профессионально-ориентированные аутентичные (не
адаптированные) тексты, упражнения на прогнозирование смыслового
содержания текста (warm-up activities), упражнения на развитие навыков разного
вида чтения с целью выявления основной идеи текста (skimming), основных
фактов (scanning), детальной информации текста (intense reading), а также
упражнения направленные на развитие навыков «чтения между строк», навыков
перевода, реферирования, аннотирования, лексико-грамматические упражнения,
коммуникативно-ситуативные упражнения, служащие базой для
совершенствования навыков устной речи, и упражнения, направленные на
развитие навыков письменной речи. Разработанный комплекс упражнений
направлен на стимулирование студентов к производству собственного речевого
высказывания посредством работы с текстом как с коммуникативной единицей.
Выбор основных текстов обусловлен учебно-методическими задачами данного
этапа обучения.
Данное учебное пособие может быть рассмотрено как результат поиска
новых методов работы с научно-техническим текстом на уроках английского
языка.
В основу организации дидактического материала легли положения
психолингвистических концепций: внутреннего лексикона человека, слова как
средства доступа к единой информационной базе и специфики
функционирования индивидуального знания, а также идея существования
различных репрезентативных систем.

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Инновационность данного пособия заключается в использовании
ассоциативного метода на уроках английского языка и в подходе к
презентации нового лексического материала с учетом разных
репрезентативных систем – разных каналов восприятия и обработки
информации. Целью данного подхода является: включение новой лексической
единицы в многоаспектный контекст (когнитивный, перцептивный,
аффективный) обеспечивая его доступ к информационной базе обучаемого;
формирование у обучаемого ментальной репрезентации
(образной/вербальной/модальной/амодальной). Студенты соотносят новую
единицу с уже имеющимися схемами знаний и представлений.
Подобная презентация сопровождается постоянной проверкой
правильности понимания значения новых лексических единиц и их
употребления. Контроль понимания ведется при помощи интегративной
модели объединяющей ассоциативный метод и CCQ метод (concept checking
questions), которая выступает в роли альтернативы разъяснению преподавателем
значения, употребления, коннотации, степени формальности, возможных
сочетаний слова/конструкции/формы позволяя студентам самостоятельно
формировать собственные ментальные репрезентации.
В зависимости от целей и задач учебного процесса в предлагаемом
образовательном продукте используются классические методы рецептивно-
продуктивного обучения всем видам речевой деятельности, письменного и
устного перевода научно-технического текста, ролевые, имитационные игры.
Учебное пособие включает в себя 19 уроков (19 Units), каждый из которых
предполагает 3 аудиторных часа работы. Тематика уроков охватывает основные
сведения о принципах построения и функционирования
телекоммуникационных систем и вычислительных сетей, систем спутниковой
связи, а также основные понятия волоконной оптики и основные параметры
оптоволокна. Структуру урока составляют:
1. Фонетические упражнения, цель которых коррекция, отработка
произношения и ударения на примере контекстного материала.
2. Упражнения на словообразование, построенные на базе терминологической
лексики по специальности. Их цель расширить словарный запас студентов,
акцентируя внимание на значении словообразовательных признаков.
3. Лексические упражнения предусматривают введение нового лексического
материала (активного словаря). На данном этапе презентация
осуществляется с опорой на психолингвистическую концепцию
внутреннего лексикона. В частности, идентификация слова рассматривается
как процесс, протекающий на разных уровнях переработки информации –

7
перцептивном, аффективном, когнитивном. Для идентификации
лексической единицы в качестве опор предлагаются:
 Образ или представление
 Словообразовательный потенциал слова
 Симиляры (близкие по значению единицы), стимулирующие
идентификацию за счет соотнесения «неизвестного» с «хорошо
знакомой» и «простой» единицей
 Оппозиты (противоположные по значению единицы), реализующие
сложный ассоциативный процесс, основывающийся на рассуждении
от противного
 Дефиниции (слова, фразы и цепочки логических рассуждений)
4. Упражнения на прогнозирование темы урока. Цели данных упражнений:
 Обозначить контекст урока (тема, ситуация)
 Вызвать интерес и вовлечь студентов в работу урока
 Проверить какой информацией/материалом/лексикой студенты уже
владеют (prediction)
5. Упражнения к тексту.
 Претекстовые – предполагают быстрое/беглое ознакомление с
текстом с целью выявления основной идеи текста (skimming), или
основных фактов (scanning)
 Послетекстовые – предполагают более внимательное чтение с целью
понимания «деталей» текста (intense reading), а также упражнения
направленные на развитие навыков «чтения между строк» и догадки
значения незнакомых слов из контекста (deducing meaning)
6. Упражнения на закрепление тематической активной лексики. В качестве
инструмента контроля понимания активно используется метод CCQ. В
зависимости от сложности выполняемого задания, упражнения
расположены в следующей последовательности:
 Controlled practice - упражнения выполняются при тесном контроле
преподавателя
 Guided practice – упражнения, где у студентов более широкий выбор
форм и контекста, однако основные идеи все еще принадлежат
преподавателю
7. Упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков устной и письменной речи
(Freer practice). Задания предполагают уверенное, свободное
использование материала, повышение мотивации и персонификацию
материала.

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Один из важных инструментов в процессе обучения языку - индуктивный
метод (Guided discovery), который стимулируют студентов к самостоятельному
поиску. Это делает обучение более запоминающимся, стимулирует
аналитическое мышление, превращает процесс поиска в коммуникативную
задачу, при котором сокращается время говорения преподавателя (teacher talking
time) и увеличивается время говорения студентов (student talking rime).

NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY

9
Unit 1

1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the number of
syllables and the main stress:

processing, microwave, infrared, satellite, specify, transmission,


interval, protocol, medium, industry, collision.
Practise saying the words.

2. Find the odd word out paying attention to the pronunciation of the
sound in bold:
a) thought, resource, broadcast, routinely;
b) result, multicasting, push, function;
c) design, service, provide, client.
Practise saying the words.

3. Match each word in Column A with its similarity in Column B. The


first one has been done for you as an example. Some of the pairs are
used in the below text to avoid repetition.

Column A Column B
rapid size
gather information
linking cable
transmit basic
scale fast
fundamental far away
data collect
comprise consist of
remote problems
issues connection
wire conversation

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communication transfer

4. Look at the pictures and answer the following questions.

1) What do the pictures have in common?


2) How do they differ from each other?

3) Can you predict what the topic is about?

5. Read the text “Introduction to Network Basics”. Then match the


beginnings and endings of these sentences to show the general
understanding of the text.

1 The concept of networking a won’t be able to communicate


with one another.
2 When coming to the technical b for any computer on the
issues of networks two things network to send data packets to
any other computer on the
network.
3 Two computers with different c play a role in creating a link
protocols between computers.
4 Ethernet is a physical and data d was a major achievement in
11
link layer technology communications.
5 Both hardware and software e should be based on the
prevailing conditions.
6 When building a network the f generally stand out as
choice of transmission media important: transmission
type/types technology and scale.
Introduction to Network Basics

As a result of rapid technological progress the differences between


collecting, transporting, storing, and processing information are quickly
disappearing. Organizations with hundreds of offices spread over a wide
geographical area routinely expect to be able to examine the current status
of even their most remote outpost at the push of a button. As our ability to
gather, process, and distribute information grows, the demand for ever
more sophisticated information processing grows even faster.
The merging of computers and communications has had a profound
influence on the way computer systems are organized. Throughout the
book we will use the term ‘‘computer network’’ to mean linking of two or
more computing devices to share resources. The resources that can be
accessed by users and every one on the network are termed as network
resources. Networks come in many sizes, shapes and forms, as we will see
later.
Network basics in computer networks deal with different designs.
 Peer-to-peer networks are where all the computers support the same
functions. These are found more in homes and for connecting two or a
small number of computers.
 Client-Server is more common in business and consists of a centralized
computer that distributes and stores resources for other network users. This
centralized computer is called the server and the user's computer that
accesses the server for resources is called a client.
It is now time to turn our attention to the technical issues involved in
network design. Short messages, called packets in certain contexts, sent by
any machine are received by all the others. An address field within the
packet specifies the intended recipient. Upon receiving a packet, a machine
checks the address field. If the packet is intended for the receiving
machine, that machine processes the packet; if the packet is intended for
some other machine, it is just ignored. Broadcast systems generally also
allow the possibility of addressing a packet to all destinations by using a
special code in the address field. When a packet with this code is
12
transmitted, it is received and processed by every machine on the network.
This mode of operation is called broadcasting. Some broadcast systems
also support transmission to a subset of the machines, something known as
multicasting.
In contrast, point-to-point networks consist of many connections
between individual pairs of machines. To go from the source to the
destination, a packet on this type of network may have to first visit one or
more intermediate machines. Often multiple routes, of different lengths,
are possible, so finding good ones is important in point-to-point networks.
An alternative criterion for classifying networks is their scale. They
can be divided into local, metropolitan, and wide area networks. Local
area networks, generally called LANs, are privately-owned networks
within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometers in size. A
metropolitan area network, or MAN, covers a city. The best-known
example of a MAN is the cable television network available in many
cities. A wide area network, or WAN, spans a large geographical area,
often a country or continent. Finally, the connection of two or more
networks is called an internetwork.
Mobile computers, such as notebook computers and personal digital
assistants (PDAs), are one of the fastest-growing segments of the computer
industry. Many owners of these computers have desktop machines back at
the office and want to be connected to their home base even when away
from home. Since having a wired connection is impossible in cars and
airplanes, there is a lot of interest in wireless networks.
A very important LAN technology is Ethernet. This technology was
developed by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs at Xerox PARC. With
Ethernet, any computer on the network can send data packets to any other
computer on the network. However, no two computers can "talk on the
line" at the same time. If two computers send a packet at the same time
there is a "collision". Ethernet is a technology for handling these collisions
and retransmitting the packets. When a collision occurs the packets are
retransmitted after a very small random interval. Ethernet is a very
effective protocol and it is easy to connect a computer into the network.
The first computer networks were designed with the hardware as the
main concern and the software as an afterthought. This strategy no longer
works. Network software is now highly structured.
To reduce their design complexity, most networks are organized as a
stack of layers or levels, each one built upon the one below it. The number
of layers, the name of each layer, the contents of each layer, and the

13
function of each layer differ from network to network. Layer n on one
machine carries on a conversation with layer n on another machine.
The rules and conventions used in this conversation are collectively
known as the layer n protocol. Basically, a protocol is an agreement
between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed.
Violating the protocol will make communication more difficult, if not
completely impossible. In reality, no data are directly transferred from
layer n on one machine to layer n on another machine. Instead, each layer
passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it, until
the lowest layer is reached. Below layer 1 is the physical medium through
which actual communication occurs.
The physical pathways that connect computers, other devices, and
people on a network are called transmission media. Each transmission
medium requires specialized network hardware that has to be compatible
with that medium. Transmission media encompass the physical entity and
describe the types of highways on which voice and data can travel. It
would be convenient to construct a network of only one medium. But that
is impractical for anything but an extremely small network. In general,
networks use combinations of media types. There are three main
categories of media types:
 Copper cable – Copper-based cables are inexpensive and easy to
work with compared to fiber optic cables, but a major disadvantage
of cable is that it offers a rather limited spectrum that cannot handle
the advanced applications of the future. Types of cable include
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP), shielded twisted-pair (STP), and
coaxial cable.
 Wireless – Wireless media include radio frequencies, microwave,
satellite, and infrared. Deployment of wireless media is faster and
less costly than deployment of cable, particularly where there is
little or no existing infrastructure, and useful where environmental
circumstances make it possible.
 Fiber optics – Fiber offers enormous bandwidth, immunity to
many types of interference and noise, and improved security.
Therefore, fiber provides very clear communications and relatively
noise-free environment. The downside of fiber is that it is costly to
purchase and deploy because it requires specialized equipment and
techniques.

14
No one of the three categories of media types can be considered best.
Each is useful in different situations, and most networks need to take
advantage of a number of media types.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:
a. Computer network is a collection of autonomous computers
interconnected by a single technology.
b. Regarding design, networks usually fall into three categories: local
area network, metropolitan area network and wide area network.
c. A MAN covers a limited geographic area, such as an office,
building, or a group of buildings located close to each other.
d. A client/server network is a network in which one or more
computers are servers and provide services to the other computers,
which are called clients.
e. Broadcasting allows addressing a packet to every machine on the
network.
f. Layers serve as rules and conventions of communication among
network devices.
g. Network addresses give computers unique identities they can use to
communicate with each other.
h. Organization of layers/levels represents network software structure.
i. The advantage of fiber optics is that it is inexpensive and easy to
deploy.

7. Using information from the text label the diagram of a network. You
can develop and enlarge the diagram to your needs.

15
NETWORK

SIZE
DESIGN

wireless
TRANSMISSION
MODE

8. What do the underlined words mean in the text? Choose one


explanation from the given variants. In some cases you may need to
return to the text to deduce meanings correctly.

1) As our ability to gather, process, and distribute information grows, the


demand for ever more sophisticated information processing grows
even faster.
a. advanced and complicated b. important
2) The merging of computers and communications has had a profound
influence on the way computer systems are organized.
a. appearance b. joining
3) If the packet is intended for the receiving machine, that machine
processes the packet.
a. used for b. provided for
4) A wide area network spans a large geographical area, often a country
or continent.
a. covers b. connects
5) The first computer networks were designed with the hardware as the
main concern and the software as an afterthought.
a. as a less important part b. as an idea that came after
6) Violating the protocol will make communication more difficult, if not
completely impossible.
a. Ignoring b. Following
7) The downside of fiber is that it is costly to purchase and deploy
because it requires specialized equipment and techniques.

16
a. the lower side b. the negative side
8) Most networks need to take advantage of a number of media types.
a. to use good qualities of b. to use a variety of

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

wireless packets media WAN addressing


protocol peer-to-peer computer LAN

1) Recently … networking alternatives have emerged as the premier


technology for building new computer networks.
2) … typically covers a single building, whereas … reach across cities,
states, or even across the world.
3) When sending a message over a network, the message is usually
broken up into a smaller set of messages called … .
4) All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a
variety of different kinds of …, including cable, optical fiber and
various wireless technologies.
5) … networking is the engineering discipline concerned with
communication between computer systems or devices and is
considered to be a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer
science, information technology and/or computer engineering.
6) As a consequence of having multiple destinations, some form of … is
needed in order to specify a specific destination.
7) In networking, the computer language used by computer devices is
called the … .
8) … networks are where all the computers support the same functions.
These are found more in homes and for connecting two or a small
number of computers.

10. Read the following paragraph. Guess the meanings of the underlined
words and retell the text using simpler language.

In some systems, data only travel in one direction; in others, data can
go both ways. The protocol must also determine how many logical
channels the connection corresponds to and what their priorities are. Many
networks provide at least two logical channels per connection, one for
normal data and one for urgent data. Not all communication channels
preserve the order of messages sent on them. To deal with a possible loss

17
of sequencing, the protocol must make explicit provision for the receiver
to allow the pieces to be reassembled properly. An obvious solution is to
number the pieces, but this solution still leaves open the question of what
should be done with pieces that arrive out of order. An issue that occurs at
every level is how to keep a fast sender from swamping a slow receiver
with data. Some of the solutions involve some kind of feedback from the
receiver to the sender, either directly or indirectly, about the receiver’s
current situation. Others limit the sender to an agreed-on transmission rate.
This subject is called flow control.

11. Problem-solving. Work in groups. Complete this questionnaire for


yourself. How many positive answers do you have? Then take turns
in your group to discuss the full answers to the questions.

Do you know: Yes No


1 types of cables used in cable network system?
2 types of wireless systems?
3 how long messages are transferred?
4 what exactly a protocol does?
5 any specific addresses used on most networks?
6 what happens when collision of packets takes place?
7 basic characteristics to distinguish different kinds of
networks?

12. Writing. Write a description of a computer network course (of your


own or an imagery one) or one of its components in the suggested
way.
I. Name of the course:
II. Aims:
1. To introduce …
2. To give …
3. ….
III. Description (including subjects & topics):
The course is in … parts.
Part 1 ….
IV. Staff: Dr …, …
V. Methods and frequency of class:
VI. Assessment (coursework/ test/exam):

18
Unit 2

1. Practise saying the nouns paying attention to the stress and


pronunciation of the –tion and –sion endings:
- application, presentation, information, communication, encryption,
synchronization, operation, confirmation;
- session, conversion, compression, transmission.

2. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the letter “y” under the stress:
[i] [ai]

physical, specify, system, typically, identify, syntax, encryption, byte


Practise saying the words.

3. Look at the picture below. What process is going on? Work with your
partner to describe it.

19
4. Match the terms in Column A with the statements in Column B.

Column A Column B
a. application program 1. an amount of data that is sent through
a computer network
b. medium 2. putting information into a special form
(code)
c. conversion 3. the smallest unit of information that is
stored in a computer’s memory
d. compression 4. a software that is designed to enable a
computer to carry out a particular task
e. encryption 5. the act or process of changing from
one form, system to another
f. session 6. a physical means that connects com-
puters, other devices to communicate
g. bit 7. a period of doing a particular activity

20
h. packet 8. The act of making computer files, data
etc. smaller so that they use less space
on a disc, etc.

5. Read the text about OSI Reference Model to find the answers to these
questions in the text.
1) How many layers compose OSI reference model?
2) Which OSI model layer ensures that information sent would be
readable by the receiving system.
3) Which OSI model layer protects the data being sent?
4) Which OSI model layer determines a route for the message?
5) Which OSI model layer identify communication partner?
6) Which OSI model layer includes dialogue control service?
7) Which OSI model layer encodes and sends the packets?
8) Which OSI model layer keeps copies of packets until undamaged
transmission is confirmed?

Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model and


communication between systems

The OSI model is the basic model describing the data movement
through a network. The model was developed by the International
Organization of Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered
the primary architectural model for intercomputer communications. The
OSI reference model describes how information from a software
application in one computer moves through a network medium to a
software application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a
conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular
network functions. The OSI model divides the tasks involved with moving
information between networked computers into seven smaller, more
manageable task groups. A task or group of tasks is then assigned to each
of the seven OSI layers. The following list details the seven layers of the
OSI reference model:
Layer 7 – Application
Layer 6 – Presentation
Layer 5 – Session
Layer 4 – Transport
Layer 3 – Network
Layer 2 – Data link

21
Layer 1 – Physical
A handy way to remember the seven layers is the sentence “All
people seem to need data processing”. The beginning letter of each word
corresponds to a layer.
Information being transferred from a software application in one
computer system to a software application in another must pass through
the OSI layers. For example, if a software application in System A has
information to transmit to a software application in System B, the
application program in System A will pass its information to the
application layer (Layer7) of System A. The application layer then passes
the information to the presentation layer (Layer 6), which relays the data to
the session layer (Layer 5), and so on down to the physical layer (Layer 1).
At the physical layer, the information is placed on the physical network
medium and is sent across the medium to System B. The physical layer of
System B removes the information from the physical medium, and then its
physical layer passes the information up to the data link layer (Layer 2),
which passes it to the network layer (Layer 3), and so on, until it reaches
the application layer (Layer 7) of System B. Finally, the application layer
of System B passes the information to the recipient application program to
complete the communication process. Below we briefly discuss each layer
of the model in turn.
The application layer is the closest to the end user, which means
that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the
software application. This layer interacts with software applications that
implement a communicating component. Application layer functions
typically include identifying communication partner, determining resource
availability, and synchronizing communication.
The presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics
of the information transmitted. It provides a variety of coding and
conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. These
functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one
system would be readable by the application layer of another system.
Examples of presentation layer coding and conversion include common
compression and encryption schemes as well as representation formats.
The session layer allows users on different machines to establish
sessions between them. Sessions offer various services, including dialogue
control (keeping track of whose turn it is to transmit), token management
(preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation at the

22
same time), and synchronization (checkpointing long transmissions to
allow them to continue from where they were after a crash).
The transport layer protects the data being sent. This layer accepts
data from the session layer and segments the data for transport across the
network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that
the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. Flow control
generally occurs at the transport layer.
The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. It forms data
into packets and defines the network address. A key design issue is
determining how packets are routed from source to destination.
The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical
network link. It accomplishes its task by having the sender break up the
input data into packets (typically a few hundred or a few thousand bytes)
and transmits the packets sequentially. This layer keeps copy of each
packet until it receives confirmation from the next point along the route
that the packet has arrived undamaged.
The physical layer encodes the packets into the medium that will
carry them and sends the packets along that medium. It makes sure that
when one side sends a 1 bit, it is received by the other side as a 1 bit, not
as a 0 bit.
Thus, the OSI model provides a conceptual framework for
communication between computers.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:
a. The number of tasks involved with moving information between
networked computers corresponds to the number of messages for
sending over a network.
b. The first letters of words in the convenient sentence to remember
layers are associated with the names of OSI model layers.
c. At the receiving system, information passes through the same
layered process but in reverse order.
d. The network layer starts communications and looks after
communications among network computers.
e. The user can directly interact with the physical layer.
f. The transport layer subdivides the data into segments and sends
over the network.
g. The session layer makes sure that information is transmitted in a
way that the receiving system can understand.

23
h. The data link layer receives data in the form of packets from the
above layer.
i. The application layer is the only part of a communication process
that a user sees.

7. Which OSI model layer is described by each of the following tasks?

1) If necessary, to compress and encrypt the data -_______________


2) To decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested
communication exist -______________
3) If the message is going across telephone line, to convert it into
analogue signal - _____________
4) To provide transmission free of errors - ____________
5) To keep track of whose turn it is to transmit - ____________
6) To decide how a packet gets another system -____________
7) To supervise the transmission and get notifications about correct
receipt of each packet - ___________

8. When a message arrives at its destination, it passes through the same


seven layers, which perform the actions in reverse order. Match each
action in Column A with its opposite action in Column B.

Column A Column B
encode expand
convert reassemble
compress decrypt
segment decode
encrypt reconvert

9. Fill in the missing words in the following sentences then put the
sentences in the correct order. Does the message move through the
sending or receiving system layers?

a. The _____ layer reassembles the message _____.


b. The message is _____ and _____ by the presentation layer.
c. The message is reconverted into _____ by the physical layer.
d. The session layer then sends the message to _____ layer.

24
e. The application layer converts the bits into _____ characters, and
passes the data to correct _____.
f. The incoming _____ are recounted by the network layer for security.
g. The _____ layer confirms the arrival of the packets and retransmits
them to the above layer.

10. Use the prepositions in the box to complete the sentences.


on with into to of from

1) If the broadcast mode is used a packet is received and processed by


every machine … the network.
2) The application layer converts a message’s data … human-readable
form … bits.
3) Each transmission medium requires specialized network hardware
that has to be compatible … that medium.
4) The OSI model is composed … seven layers.
5) The OSI model divides information moving tasks … manageable
task groups.
6) Information is transferred … a software application in one computer
system … a software application in another.
7) At the physical layer, information is placed … the physical network
medium.
8) The model is called OSI Model because it is concerned …
connecting open systems – that is, systems that are open for
communication with other systems.

11. Problem-solving. Look at the picture below and describe how OSI
model layers communicate with other layers.

25
12. Writing. Link each set of sentences to make one sentence. You may
omit, change or add words as required. Then form your sentences into
three paragraphs to make a description of information exchange
process (to revise ways of linking facts and ideas see Grammar
Reference Section).

1. The seven OSI layers use various forms of control information.


OSI layers use them to communicate with their peer layers in other
computer system.
2. The control information consists of specific requests and instructions.
These requests and instructions are exchanged between peer OSI
layers.
3. Headers are one of the forms of control information.
Headers are attached to data.
The data has been passed down from upper layers.
4. For example, the application layer in System A communicates control
information.
The control information is required by the application layer in System
B.
The application layer in system A adds a header to the data.
5. The resulting information unit (a header and the data) is passed to the
presentation layer.
The presentation layer adds its own header.
This header contains control information intended for the presentation
layer in System B.
6. The information unit grows in size.
Each layer adds its own header.

26
7. Finally the physical layer in System B receives the information unit.
The physical layer passes it to the data link layer.
8. The data link layer reads the control information contained in the
header.
The header was attached by the data link layer in System A.
The header is then removed.
The remaining of the information unit is passed to the network layer.
9. Each layer performs the same actions.
The application layer removes the header from its peer layer.
The remaining information is passed to the recipient software
application in System B.
The information is exactly in the form in which it was transmitted by
the application in System A.

Unit 3

1. Practise saying the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the


sound in bold: /ai/ - device, wire, fiber, provide, alliance, reliability,
require, right, diagram, client, quite.

27
2. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the number of
syllables and the stress:

laptop, industry, interface, network, Ethernet, standard, protocol,


guarantee.
Practise saying the words.

3. State three facts you know about the networks.


e.g. Network is a set of computers that are connected to each other.

4. Match each word in Column A with its partner in Column B to make a


term. The first one has been done for you as an example. What do
these terms mean?

Column A Column B
work wiring
fire way
hard browser
net keeper
path work
gate station
web wall

5. Read the text “What is a LAN?” and mark the following statements as
True or False:

a. LAN links computers and other devices that are placed far apart.
b. LANs allow two or more computer systems to exchange
information and data and share applications and peripherals.
c. Network interface is communication medium that connects all of
the computers on LAN.
d. Wireless Ethernet uses copper cable as linking device.
e. The types of the network adapters depend on the types of
communications media.
f. LANs use Ethernet switches to join computers that want to
communicate.
g. The switch not only receives data but also have the ability to
inspect them before passing them onto the next computer.

28
h. A single LAN can use only one protocol at a time.
i.Firewall system controls traffic flow between two networks.

What is a LAN?

What is a network? It’s simply two or more devices that


communicate with one another over some type of electronic connection.
The connection itself can be copper wire, fiber optic cable, or radio waves.
[0 - C] A local area network (LAN) is a high-speed data network that
covers a relatively small geographic area. It typically connects
workstations, personal computers, printers, servers, and other devices.
LANs offer computer users many advantages, including shared access to
devices and applications, file exchange between connected users, and
communication between users via mail and other applications.
A LAN consists of two or more computers, each equipped with a
communication device called a network interface or network adapter. The
network interfaces are connected to one another by some type of
communication medium, which provides a pathway for electrical signals
that connect all of the computers on LAN. The most widely used, cost-
effective, and highest-performance network medium in use today is
twisted-pair Ethernet cable, often called CAT5 or CAT6 cable. (CAT is
short for category – there are several grades of cable that can be used for
Ethernet LANs.)
A relatively new technology called wireless Ethernet uses radio
signals instead of copper cable as the communications medium. Early
wireless devices were slow, expensive, and unreliable. [1 - …] In the late
1990s, most of the wireless equipment manufacturers formed a trade
association called the WiFi Alliance to set technical standards and to
certify interoperability. The current generation of WiFi devices offers
excellent speed and reliability at very low prices, so your LAN no longer
requires hardwiring between components.
[2 - …] If your computer didn’t come with a network adapter, there
are several inexpensive ways to add one to your existing computer. There
are different types of network adapters for different types of
communications media.
The example in Figure 1 shows a desktop computer on the left and a
laptop on the right. The desktop is equipped with an internal Ethernet
adapter card, and the laptop with a PC Card Ethernet adapter. The two
Ethernet adapters are connected by a single cable. In many cases, you can

29
create such a network simply by connecting an Ethernet cable between the
two computers (assuming that the computers came from the factory with
Ethernet adapters already installed).
While the LAN in Figure 1 is perfectly functional, it is also very
limited because it provides connections for only two computers. To add a
third computer or other device to the LAN, you would need to add an
Ethernet switch to the network. For now, you can think of a switch as a
sort of signal splitter for Ethernet connections. Ethernet switches have
anywhere from a few to a few dozen connectors on them. All of the wired
devices on the LAN connect to one of the sockets (called ports) on the
Ethernet switch. The switch analyzes the data coming in on each port and
reroutes the data to the appropriate device connected to another port. [3 -
…]
The devices on the outside edges of the LAN diagram in Figure 2
(the PCs, MACs, laptops, TiVo, and other devices) are either clients or
servers. As you probably know, devices that provide services are called
servers, and devices that use services are called clients. Most of these
devices can communicate with one another, but some can’t. [4 - …] What
would a big-screen TV and a printer have to discuss?
Different types of devices communicate using different
communication protocols. A protocol is essentially a digital language that
defines the way that devices communicate over a network. There are
hundreds of communications protocols in use today, including TCP/IP,
NetBIOS, NetWare, and AppleTalk. It is possible – and actually quite
common – for a single LAN to use several communication protocols at
once.
For example, Windows PCs share files and printers using the
NetBIOS protocol. [5 - …] The Internet (and everything connected to the
Internet) uses the IP protocol.
A firewall is an essential item on any Internet-connected LAN. The
firewall acts as an electronic gatekeeper between the LAN and the Internet.
Outgoing connections (like Web browser and e-mail client connections)
going from the LAN to the Internet pass directly through the firewall
unimpeded, just as if the firewall wasn’t even there. [6 - …] The firewall
keeps track of all traffic coming and going to and from the Internet and
routes the traffic to the appropriate device on the LAN.

6. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Read the text
again and choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each

30
gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
There is an example at the beginning (0).

A. Incoming connections are blocked to keep intruders out of your


home network, with a very few exceptions.
B. Wired Ethernet interfaces are standard equipment on most modern
desktops and laptops, and some high-end laptops include wired and
wireless Ethernet interfaces as standard equipment.
C. There are all sorts of networks in use today, including the broadcast
and cable television networks, the public telephone network, several
cellular telephone networks, and the Internet.
D. This enables any two devices on the LAN to exchange data with each
other.
E. Even though two devices may be connected to the same LAN,
there’s no guarantee that they’ll have much to say one another.
F. Macs use AppleTalk for file sharing.
G.Worse still, there were no industry standards, so products from one
manufacturer didn’t always work with products from another.
H.Any kind of network technology (either wired or wireless) increases
the usefulness of home and business computers, while wireless
networks offer even more benefits than wired ones.

7. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

protocol firewall Wi-Fi LAN client server


Ethernet switch IP address

1) ………… protection works by blocking certain types of traffic


between a source and a destination.
2) All the PCs on a ……… are connected to one ………, which is a
powerful PC with a large hard disk that can be shared by everyone.
3) Most networks are linked with cables or wires but new ………
technologies allow the creation of WLAN, where cables or wires are
replaced by radio waves.
4) A ……… is a network computer which is used for accessing a
service on a server.
5) The wireless access point, or AP, does for wireless devices what the
………… does for wired devices, i.e. enables two or more devices to
communicate and exchange data.

31
6) Every device connected to the Internet must have a unique
…………. .
7) In the context of data networking, a ………… is a digital language or
formal set of rules and conventions that governs how computers
exchange information over a network medium.

8. With the help of the given words, label the following home LAN
diagram. Describe the function of these components.

a. desktop PCs f. clients


b. the cable modem g. servers
c. wireless access point h. the Internet
d. Ethernet switch i. wireless print server
e. firewall

9. Think of the word which best fits in each space. Write only one word.

A local area network is a group of (1)……… and associated devices


that share a common communications line or (2)……… link. Typically,
connected devices (3)………. the resources of a single processor or server
32
within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building).
Usually, the server has applications and data storage that are shared in
common by multiple computer (4)……. . A local area network may (5)
………. as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or
as many as thousands of users (for example, in an FDDI network).

10. Problem-solving. Work in groups, A and B. List all the advantages


and disadvantages of LANs. Compare your results and discuss the
ways to minimize the disadvantages.

Group A Advantages of LANs Group B Disadvantages of LANs

- allow data to be shared - permit viruses to spread quickly


… …… ………

11. Writing. Translate the following article into English paying attention
to the use of participles (see Grammar Reference Section).

  В локальных вычислительных сетях (ЛВС) несколько


компьютерных систем связанны друг с другом с помощью
соответствующих средств коммуникаций. Благодаря такому
соединению пользователь может взаимодействовать с другими
рабочими станциями, подключенными к этой ЛВС. В
производственной практике ЛВС играют очень большую роль.
Посредством ЛВС в систему объединяются персональные
компьютеры, расположенные на многих удаленных рабочих местах,
которые используют совместно оборудование, программные
средства и информацию. Рабочие места сотрудников перестают быть
изолированными и объединяются в единую систему. Разделение
ресурсов позволяет экономно использовать ресурсы, например,
управлять периферийными устройствами, такими как лазерные
печатающие устройства, со всех присоединенных рабочих станций.
Разделение данных предоставляет возможность доступа и
управления базами данных с периферийных рабочих мест,
нуждающихся в информации. Здесь же упомянем о таких важнейших
понятиях теории сетей, как сервер и клиент. Сервером называется
абонент (узел) сети, который предоставляет свои ресурсы другим
абонентам, но сам не использует ресурсы других абонентов, то есть
служит только сети. Серверов в сети может быть несколько, и совсем

33
не обязательно сервер - это самый мощный компьютер. Клиентом
называется абонент сети, который только использует сетевые
ресурсы, но сам свои ресурсы в сеть не отдает, то есть сеть его
обслуживает. Компьютер-клиент также часто называют рабочей
станцией. В принципе каждый компьютер может быть одновременно
как клиентом, так и сервером.

Unit 4

1. Make four groups of the words in the list according to the number of
syllables and the stress:

34
standardize, topology, architecture, processing, disturbance,
extender, effectively.
Practise saying the words.

2. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the letter “g”:
/ʤ/ /ɡ/

geometry, propagate, topology, signal, logical, exchange,


arrangement, segment.
Practise saying the words.

3. Match each word in Column A with its similarity in Column B. The


first one has been done for you as example:

Column A Column B
attach organize
layout next to
enable break
linear only one
occur connect
fail make possible
loop configuration
adjacent link
arrange main
single direct
interconnection happen
host circle

4. Topology refers to the shape of a network. With the help of the given
terms label the four topologies below:

Star Bus Ring Tree

35
Make a list of the key features for each topology and compare your list
with others in your group.

5. Read the text “LAN Topologies” and fill in the table with the
information from the text. Put the cross (×) if there is no relevant
information in the text.

BUS STAR RING TREE


Workstation is
connected to …
Advantages
Disadvantages

LAN Topologies.

We will use a few terms in this Lesson that need explanation before
we get started. A station is a computer workstation or computing device
attached to a network. A segment is a cable between any two stations or
network devices, or between any station and network device. A network
device is any device used to interconnect segments of the network.
LAN means local area network and its function is to link physically
several PCs to each other and often to a mainframe or minicomputer. To
communicate effectively workstations, printers, fax machines, servers, etc.
must be connected in a standardized way to enable future moves and
changes, as well as the possible connection with other networks. The
standards used to connect devices in a network are called network
36
topologies. A topology (from Greek topos meaning place) is a description
of any kind of locality in terms of its layout. In communication networks, a
topology is a usually schematic description of the arrangement of a
network, including its nodes and connecting lines. There are two ways of
defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or
signal) topology.
The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of
workstations. There are several common physical topologies, as described
below and as shown in the illustration.
A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmission
from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received
by all other stations, i.e. when one station transmits on the bus, all devices
hear the transmission. If more than one devices transmit at the same time,
the two transmissions will collide with each other and both transmissions
will destroy each other. In the bus network topology, every workstation is
connected to a main cable called the bus. However, if a break occurs
anywhere along that cable, the entire subnetwork will fail. Of the three
most widely used LAN implementations, Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 networks –
including 100BaseT – implement a bus topology.
A star topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a
network are connected to a common central hub, or switch, by dedicated
links. Because each workstation connects directly to a hub, any line breaks
effect only the attached workstation. Thus, star configuration network tend
to be highly resistant to total network failure.
A ring topology is LAN architecture that consists of a series of
devices connected to one another by unidirectional links to form a single
closed loop. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. Other
pairs of workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through
one or more intermediate nodes. If a Token Ring protocol is used in a star
or ring topology, the signal travels in only one direction, carried by a so-
called token from node to node.
A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is identical to the bus
topology, except that branches with multiple nodes are possible in this
case.
The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called
full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is
connected directly to each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some
workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only
to those other nodes with which they exchange the most data. Mesh

37
network is reliable and offers redundancy. If one node can no longer
operate, all the rest can still communicate with each other, directly or
through one or more intermediate nodes. Mesh networks work well when
the nodes are located at scattered points that do not lie near a common line.
Logical (or signal) topology refers to the nature of the paths the
signals follow from node to node. In many instances, the logical topology
is the same as the physical topology. But this is not always the case. For
example, logical bus and ring topologies are commonly organized
physically as a star.
Devices commonly used in LAN include repeaters, hubs, LAN
expenders, bridges, LAN switches, and routers.
A repeater is a physical layer device used to interconnect the media
segments of an extended network. A repeater essentially enables a series of
cable segments to be treated as a single cable. Repeaters receive signals
from one network segment and amplify, retime, and retransmit those
signals to another network segment. These actions prevent signal
deterioration caused by long cable lengths and a large numbers of
connected devices. Repeaters are incapable of performing complex
filtering and other traffic processing. In addition, all electrical signals,
including electrical disturbances and other errors, are repeated and
amplified. The total number of repeaters and network segments that can be
connected is limited due to timing and other issues.
A hub is a physical layer device that connects multiple user stations,
each via a dedicated cable. Electrical interconnections are established
inside the hub. Hubs are used to create a physical star network while
maintaining the logical bus or ring configuration of the LAN. In some
respects, a hub functions as a multiport repeater.
A router is an intelligent internetwork connectivity device that routs
using logical and physical addressing to connect two or more logically
separate networks. Routers use algorithms to determine the best path by
which to send a packet.
Another network interconnectivity device is a bridge that selectively
determines the appropriate segment to which it should pass a signal.
Through address filtering, bridges can divide busy networks into segments
and reduce network traffic.
A LAN extender is a remote-access multilayer switch that connects to
a host router. LAN extenders forward traffic from all the standard network
layer protocols (such as IP, IPX, and Apple Talk) and filter traffic based
on the MAC address or network layer protocol type. LAN extenders scale

38
well because the host router filters out unwanted broadcasts and
multicasts. However, LAN extenders are not capable of segmenting traffic
or creating security firewalls.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:

a. A network device is a cable used to link segments of the network.


b. LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are
organized.
c. In a bus topology the physical media is shared between stations.
d. The star topology refers to a network layout where multiple devices
are interconnected.
e. A network hub device is the only common connection point used in
star configuration.
f. Ring topologies transmit data in both directions from station to
station.
g. A tree topology can be defined as mixed topology.
h. Some networks are physically laid out in a star configuration, but
they operate logically as bus or ring networks.
i. Repeaters prevent repetition of errors and electrical disturbances.
j. A LAN extenders forward traffic to higher network-layer protocols
over distances that far exceed the limitations of standard Ethernet.

2. To summarize information from the text answer the following


questions:

1) What is a LAN topology?


2) How would you explain the difference between physical and logical
topology?
3) Which LAN architecture is the simplest?
4) How do mesh networks differ from other networks?
5) Can a break in a cable anywhere on the ring network disable the
entire network?
6) What single principle advantage does star topology have over bus
topology?
7) What are the devices commonly used in LAN?
8) What functions does a repeater perform?
9) What common feature do hub and switch have?

39
10) What is a bridge to do with networks?

8. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.


mesh nodes hub switch
tree bridges repeater

1) A … joins multiple computers (or other network devices) together


to form a single network segment, where all computers can
communicate directly with each other.
2) … are data link layer devices that both extend your network's reach
and limit traffic to the node on which it belongs.
3) … networking is a way to route data, voice and instructions
between nodes. It allows for continuous connections and
reconfiguration around broken and blocked paths by “hopping”
from node to node until the destination is reached.
4) The star is a topology for computer network in which one computer
occupies the central part and the remaining … are linked solely to
it.
5) When using a …, multiple computers may have different
conversations at one time, while hubs do not allow for concurrent
conversations to occur.
6) A network divided into segments separated by hardware such as a
… is less affected by cable breaks, as only the segment on which
the break occurs is affected, rather than the entire network.
7) In a … topology two or more star networks are connected together;
the central computers are connected to a main bus.

9. Fill in the correct word from the list below:

transmit, transfer, forward

1) A telephone converts speech into an electrical signal that is … to a


receiver where it drives a microphone to recreate the speech.
2) A router is an intermediary device that connects a LAN to a larger
LAN or to a WAN by interpreting protocol information and
selectively … packets to different LAN or WAN connections
through the most efficient route available.
3) I decided to … the files onto a floppy disk.

40
4) Some objects have a tendency to selectively absorb, reflect and …
light of certain frequencies.
5) Can you … my mail to me, please?
6) To take advantage of faster LANs, computer software must be
developed that is able to efficiently … large amounts of data from
networks to computer applications.
7) The US Open will be … live via satellite.

10. Read the answers to the following frequently asked questions (FAQs)
found on the Internet. Role-play a dialogue using information below.

Q: What exactly does a bridge?


A: A bridge will connect to distinct segments (usually referring to a
physical length of wire) and transmit traffic between them. This allows
you to extend the maximum size of the network while still not
breaking the maximum wire length, or a number of repeaters for a
network segment.
Q: What exactly does a router?
A: Routers work much like bridges, but they pay attention to the upper
network layer protocols rather than physical layer protocols. A router
will decide whether to forward a packet by looking at the protocol
level addresses (for instance, TCP/IP addresses) rather than the MAC
address. Because routers work at layer 3 of the OSI stack, it is possible
for them to transfer packets between different media types (i.e., leased
lines, Ethernet, token ring, X.25, Frame Relay and FDDI). Many
routers can also function as bridges.
Q: So should I use a router or a bridge?
A: There is no absolute answer to this. Your network layout, type and
amount of hosts and traffic, and other issues (both technical and non-
technical) must be considered. Routing would always be preferable to
bridging except that routers are slower and usually more expensive
(due to the amount of processing required to look inside the physical
packet and determine which interface that packet needs to get sent
out), and that many applications use non-routable protocols (i.e.,
NetBIOS, DEC LAT, etc.).

11. Problem-solving. Draw a topology map that meets the customer’s


needs and provide a step-by-step guide to set up a network in a school.
The situation is as follows:

41
We have decided to install computers in all the departments,
each with a printer, but we haven’t spent much on them.
Actually, only the one in the stuff room is really powerful (and
expensive) with a laser printer and the Internet access. We’ve
got an Ethernet Hub complete with cables. The goal is to set up
the network in such a way that each computer, server or
otherwise, can have common access to the Net, a general file of
resources kept in the main computer, and share the laser
printer.

12. Writing. Give your detailed reply to the question.

Query: What kind of LAN is used at your organization? Peer-to-peer,


client/server based, or a combination of both? How does the
topology of the LAN impact the work you do at your
organization?

Answer: ………………………………………………………………..

Unit 5

42
1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the
pronunciation of the stressed vowel:
[з:] [i:]

three, term, refer, early, world, meet, version, be, feature, firm, worth,
seem, least, were, mean.
Practise saying the words.

2. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the letter “c”:
[s] [k]

local, product, cover, place, protocol, connect, replacement, cost,


compliant, civil, coaxial, carrier, since, exclusively.
Practise saying the words.

3. Think of as many words as possible associated with the word Ethernet.


Protocol, optical fiber, twisted pair….

ETHERNET
ETHERNET

4. Read the text “Ethernet” and find the answers the following questions:

1) What are three data rates for Ethernet?


2) When was Ethernet developed?
3) What was IEEE802.3 standard based on?
1

43
The original Ethernet was developed as an experimental coaxial cable
network in the 1970s by Xerox Corporation to operate with a data rate of 3
Mbps using a carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD)
protocol for LANs with sporadic but occasionally heavy traffic
requirements. Success with that project attracted early attention and led to
the 1980 joint development of the 10-Mbps Ethernet Version 1.0
specification by the three-company consortium: Digital Equipment
Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation.

2
Other technologies and protocols have been touted as likely
replacements, but the market has spoken. Ethernet has survived as the
major LAN technology (it is currently used for approximately 85 percent
of the world’s LAN-connected PCs and workstations) because its protocol
has the following characteristics:
 Is easy to understand, implement, manage, and maintain
 Allows low-cost network implementations
 Provides extensive topological flexibility for network installation
 Guarantees successful interconnection and operation of standards-
compliant products, regardless of manufacturer.

3
The original IEEE 802.3 standard was based on, and was similar to,
the Ethernet Version 1.0 specification. The draft standard was approved by
the 802.3 working group in 1983 and was subsequently published as an
official standard in 1985 (ANSI/IEEE Std.802.3-1985). Since then, a
number of supplements to the standard have been defined to take
advantage of improvements.

4
Thus, the term Ethernet refers to the family of LAN products covered
by the IEEE 802.3 standard that defines what is commonly known as the
CSMA/CD protocol. Because Ethernet devices implement only the bottom
two layers of the OSI protocol stack, they are typically implemented as
network interface cards (NICs) that plug into the host device’s
motherboard. The different NICs are identified by a three-part product
name that is based on the physical layer attributes. The naming convention
is a concatenation of three terms indicating the transmission rate, the

44
transmission method, and the media type/signal encoding. For example,
consider this:
10Base-T = 10 Mbps, baseband, over twisted-pair cable
100Base-T2 = 100 Mbps, baseband, over two twisted-pair cables
100Base-T4 = 100 Mbps, baseband, over four twisted-pair cables
1000Base-LX = 1000 Mbps, baseband, long wavelength over optical fiber
cable.
A question sometimes arises as to why the middle term always seems
to be “Base”. Early versions of the protocol also allowed for broadband
transmission (for example, 10Broad), but broadband implementations were
not successful in the marketplace. All current Ethernet implementations
use baseband transmission.
Three data rates are currently defined for operation over optical fiber
and twisted-pair cables:
 10 Mbps - 10 Base-T Ethernet
 100 Mbps - Fast Ethernet
 1000 Mbps - Gigabit Ethernet

5
Although the specific logical model of the physical layer may very
from version to version, all Ethernet NICs generally confirm to the generic
model shown in the diagram below.
The physical layer for each transmission rate is devided into sublayers
that are independent of the particular media type and sublayers that are
specific to the media type or signal encoding.
The reconciliation sublayer and the optional media-independent
interface (MII in 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps Ethernet, GMII in Gigabit
Ethernet) provide the logical connection between the MAC and the
different sets of media-dependent layers. The MII and GMII are defined
with separate transmit and receive data paths that are bit-serial for 10-
Mbps implementations, nibble-serial (4 bits wide) for 100-Mbps
implementations, and byte-serial (8 bits wide) for 1000-Mbps
implementations. The media-independent interfaces and the reconciliation
sublayer are common for their respective transmission rates and are
configured for full-duplex operation in 10Base-T and subsequent Ethernet
versions.

45
The media-dependent physical coding sublayer (PCS) provides the
logic for encoding, multiplexing, and synchronization of the outgoing
symbol streams as well symbol code alignment, demultiplexing, and
decoding of incoming data.
The physical medium attachment (PMA) sublayer contains the signal
transmitters and receivers (transceivers), as well as the clock recovery
logic for the received data streams.
The medium-dependent interface (MDI) is the cable connector
between the signal transceivers and the link.
The Auto-negotiation sublayer allows the NICs at each of the link to
exchange information about their individual capabilities, and then to
negotiate and select the most favorable operational mode that they both are
capable of supporting. Auto-negotiation is optional in early Ethernet
implementations and is mandatory in later versions.

5. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False.

a. Ethernet is used because its protocol is easy to understand.


b. Its protocol never guarantees successful interconnection.
c. Ethernet is a highly-cost network.
d. The draft standard was published as an official standard in 1983.
46
e. Ethernet refers to the family of WAN.
f. The current baseband transmission is used instead of early
broadband transmission.
g. You can tell one Ethernet NIC from another by a three-part product
name which contains encoded information about transmission rate,
transmission method, and media type/signal.
h. The PMA sublayer makes it possible for all NICs at each of the
layer to exchange information about their individual capabilities.

6. Read the text again and choose the most suitable heading from the list
A-F for each part (1-5). There is one extra heading which you do not
need to use:

A. The birth of Ethernet Version 1.0


B. Ethernet’s relationship to the OSI reference model
C. Standard development.
D. Ethernet as a family of LAN.
E. Ethernet wins priority.
F. What do names hold?

7. What do these words mean in the text? Match the words in Column A
with the statements in Column B.

Column A Column B
to define to put in and prepare for use
data rates essential condition
to tout to carry out
to twist to continue to exist
to survive to make spiral
to implement to recommend
to manage to show clearly the outline of smth
flexible like
to install to succeed in doing smith
sporadic a design rule (quality)
requirement speed of different information
similar adaptable
a draft standard occurring at intervals or in small
numbers

47
8. Link each word in Column A with a word it can be combined with
from Column B? In some cases, more than one combination is
possible.

Column A Column B

Ethernet servers
communication
modem LAN
intermediate
repeater network
data exchange
router protocol
device
switch copper cable
optical cable
equipment for ADSL
frames
network transfer
terminal
data nodes

9. Work in pairs. Read this text about Ethernet Network Elements and
explain the functions of the underlined elements.

Ethernet LANs consist of network nodes and interconnecting media.


The network nodes fall into two major classes:
 Data terminal equipment (DTE) - Devices that are either the
source or the destination of data frames. DTEs are typically devices
such as PCs, workstations, file servers, or print servers that, as a
group, are all often referred to as end stations.
 Data communication equipment (DCE) - Intermediate network
devices that receive and forward frames across the network. DCEs
may be either standalone devices such as repeaters, network
switches, and routers, or communications interface units such as
interface cards and modems.

48
The current Ethernet media options include two general types of
copper cable: unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair
(STP), plus several types of optical fiber cable.

10. Do the quiz below. The purpose of this practice quiz is to understand
the depth of knowledge that we’ll be expecting you to have. Choose
the best answer.

1) Ethernet commonly uses the following media: a) coaxial cable, b)


twisted-pair cable, c) fiber optic cable

A a.
B b.
C c.
D a & b.
E. b & c.
F. a, b & c.

2) What network protocol uses CSMA/CD?

A Token ring
B Transport layer
C Ethernet
D Acronym

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue. Student A is an


interviewer, Student B is an interviewee. The topic of discussion:
Shouldn’t all 10Base –T networks just be upgraded to 100 Mbps?
Why or why not?

Now change your roles and discuss another topic: Why does it
sometimes cause problems for video or voice transmission over
Ethernet networks?

12. Writing. The Gigabit Ethernet standards development resulted in the


following primary specifications. Study the diagram below and give a
description in a written form.

49
50
Unit 6

1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the sound in bold:
/ө/ /ð/

that, three, path, through, thus, these, than, with, authentic, this,
other, within, bandwidth, method.
Practise saying the words.

2. Match the following multisyllable words with their pronunciation


patterns:

carrier, allocate, bandwidth, circuit, illustrate, allow, remote, transfer,


setup, refer, constant, virtual, access.
Practise saying the words.

3. Think of as many words as possible associated with WAN.

WAN

4. Match words in Column A with their opposites in Column B. The first


one has been done for you as an example:

Column A Column B
hardware busy, being used
remote physical
terminate expensive
51
virtual slow
cost-effective software
idle undivided
backup nearby
high-speed initiate
shared primary

5. Read the text “What is a WAN?” and explain what these abbreviations
mean in the text:
ISDN
ATM
SMDS
DDR
CSU/DSU
BRI
What Is a WAN?

A WAN is a data communications network that has no geographical


limit and may connect computers or LANs on opposite sides of the world.
They are usually linked through telephone lines, fiber-optic cables or
satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. WAN technologies
generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the
physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.
The main transmission paths within a WAN are high-speed lines
called backbones. A point-to-point link provides a single, pre-established
WAN communications path from the customer premises through a carrier
network, such as a telephone company, to a remote network. Point-to-point
lines are usually leased from a carrier and thus are often called leased
lines. For a point-to-point line, the carrier allocates pairs of wire and
facility hardware to your line only. Point-to-point links are generally more
expensive than shared services such as Frame Relay.
Switched circuits allow data connections that can be initiated when
needed and terminated when communication is complete. This works
much like a normal telephone line works for voice communication.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a good example of circuit
switching. When a router has data for a remote site, the switched circuit is
initiated with the circuit number of the remote network. In the case of

52
ISDN circuits, the device actually places a call to the telephone number of
the remote ISDN circuit. When the two networks are connected and
authenticated, they can transfer data. When the data transmission is
complete, the call can be terminated.
Packet switching is a WAN technology in which users share common
carrier resources. In a packet switching setup, networks have connections
into the carrier's network, and many customers share the carrier's network.
The carrier can then create virtual circuits (logical circuits created within a
shared network between two network devices) by which packets of data
are delivered from one to the other through the network. The section of the
carrier's network that is shared is often referred to as a cloud.
Some examples of packet-switching networks include Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Switched Multimegabit Data
Services (SMDS), and X.25.
WAN Dialup Services offer cost-effective methods for connectivity
across WANs. Two popular dialup implementations are dial-on-demand
routing (DDR) and dial backup.
DDR is a technique where a router can dynamically initiate a call on
a switched circuit when it needs to send data. When the connection is
made, traffic passes over the line. The router configuration specifies an
idle timer that tells the router to drop the connection when the circuit has
remained idle for a certain period.
Dial backup is another way of configuring DDR. However, in dial
backup, the switched circuit is used to provide backup service for another
type of circuit, such as point-to-point or packet switching. The router is
configured so that when a failure is detected on the primary circuit, the dial
backup line is initiated.
WANs use numerous types of devices that are specific to WAN
environments: WAN switches, access servers, modems, CSU/DSUs, and
ISDN terminal adapters. Other devices found in WAN environments that
are used in WAN implementations include routers, ATM switches, and
multiplexers.
A WAN switch is a multiport internetworking device used in carrier
networks. An access server acts as a concentration point for dial-in and
dial-out connections. A modem is a device that interprets digital and
analog signals, enabling data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone
lines. A channel service unit/digital service unit (CSU/DSU) is a digital-
interface device used to connect a router to a digital circuit like a T1. The
CSU/DSU also provides signal timing for communication between these

53
devices. An ISDN terminal adapter is a device used to connect ISDN
Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connections to other interfaces, such as
EIA/TIA-232 on a router. A terminal adapter is essentially an ISDN
modem, although it is called a terminal adapter because it does not actually
convert analog to digital signals.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:

a. WAN technologies function at the upper layers of the OSI reference


model.
b. The Internet is an example of a LAN.
c. Point-to-point links are generally cheaper than shared services such
as Frame Relay.
d. Switched circuits work much like a normal telephone line works for
voice communication.
e. Packet switching networks include ATM, Frame Relay, SMDS and
X.25.
f. A backbone is the main transmission path within a WAN.
g. Virtual circuit is a network device created to deliver packets of data.
h. In case of a failure on the primary circuit a dial backup line supports
the WAN connection.
i. An ISDN terminal adapter is a device for converting digital signals to
analog signals and vice versa to enable a computer to transmit and
receive data.

7. To summarize the information from the text answer the following


questions:

1) What is a WAN?
2) What layers do WAN technologies function at?
3) What does a point-to-point link provide?
4) What do switched circuits allow?
5) What is a good example of circuit switching?
6) What is a packet switching?
7) What examples of packet switching networks can you name?
8) What is a virtual circuit?
54
9) What is DDR, and how is it different from dial backup?
10) What WAN devices do you know?
11) What is the difference between a modem and an ISDN terminal
adapter?

8. What do the underlined words mean in the text? Choose one


explanation from the given variants. In some cases you may need to
return to the text to deduce meanings correctly.

1) WAN technologies generally function at the three layers of the OSI


reference model.
a. operate b. communicate
2) The main transmission paths within a WAN are high-speed lines
called backbones.
a. devices b. lines
3) The device actually places a call to the telephone number of the
remote ISDN circuit.
a. makes b. answers
4) The section of the carrier’s network that is shared is often referred to
as a cloud.
a. a mass of condensed water vapour floating in the sky
b. smth you can’t see
5) When the two networks are connected and authenticated, they can
transfer data.
a. given permission b. proved to be real
6) The router is configured so that when a failure is detected on the
primary circuit, the dial up backup line is initiated.
a. an unsuccessful attempt b. a successful connection
7) When the data transmission is complete, the call can be terminated.
a. finished b. difficult
8) A modem is a device that interprets digital and analog signals.
a. interconnects b. converts

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences:

communication remote setup virtual initiate switched


modem router layer lease share
55
1) WAN technologies function at the lower three … of the OSI
reference model.
2) Point-to-point lines are usually … from a carrier.
3) This works much like a normal telephone line works for voice … .
4) The switched circuit is initiated with the circuit number of the …
network.
5) In a packet switched …, networks have connections into the
carrier’s network, and many customers … the carrier’s network.
6) The establishment phase involves creating the … circuit between the
source and destination devices.
7) A … is a special computer that directs communicating messages
when several networks are connected together.
8) When a router has data for a remote site, the … circuit is initiated
with the circuit number of the remote network.
9) A … converts signals to a form suitable for transmission over the
communication facilities.
10) When the primary circuit fails, the dial backup line is … until the
primary circuit is restored.

10. Semantic groups. Group these terms into the three headings below.

point-to-point, terminal adapter, ISDN, circuit-switched, ATM, SMDS,


switch, DDR, access server, CSU/DSU, packet-switched, access server,
dial backup, modem.

56
WAN

SERVICES
DEVICES CIRCUITS

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. With the help of Figure A Student A


describes how WAN switch works; with the help of Figure B Student
B describes how terminal adapter works. Take notes from your
partner’s description. Then discuss the WAN functions of both devices
in comparison.

Figure A

Figure B

57
12. Writing. Write down the results of the discussion you had in Task 11
using 300-350 words.

Unit 7

1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the sounds
below:
/wз:/ /wɔ:/ /wɑ:/ /wɑ/

Internetwork, war, want, what, warm, ward, wharf.


Practise saying the words.

2. Match the following words with their pronunciation patterns:

58
communication, information, junction, integration, application,
optimization, implementation, connection, direction, location, station.
Practise saying the words.

3. Guess the meanings of the underlined words from the context. Choose
one explanation from the given variants.

1) Routers within enterprise internetworks represent the LAN/WAN


junction points of an internetwork.
a. activity points b. a place where one path joins another
2) These routers determine the most appropriate path through the
internetwork for the required data streams.
a. series of information b. order of data
3) Each switching technique has advantages and disadvantages.
a. disconnection b. commutation
4) The network provider charges users for the services provided by the
WAN.
a. blames b. asks money
5) WAN communication is characterized by high error rates.
a. mistake b. delay
6) Recently, traditional shared-media networks are being overtaxed
because of the new network requirements.
a. are made pay too much tax b. are made pay less tax
7) ADSL transmits more than 6 Mbps to a subscriber.
a. someone who gives money regularly for a service
b. less important user
8) Network designers are turning to WAN technology to support new
requirements.
a. to keep up b. to provide
9) The routers connecting the campuses apply traffic optimization, dial
backup for disaster recovery.
a. an act of covering smth again b. a return to a normal state

4. Read the text “Designing WANs” and find the answers to the
questions.

1) What happens when a local end station wants to communicate with


a remote end station?
2) What are three primary switching technologies in WAN services?

59
3) Which switching technique is rapidly gaining in popularity?
4) Why must WAN network optimize the cost of bandwidth and
bandwidth efficiency?
5) What is the aim of network WAN designers?
6) What are the WAN technologies that support such large-scale
internetwork requirements?

Designing WANs

WAN communication occurs between geographically separated areas.


In enterprise internetworks, WANs connect campuses together. When a
local end station wants to communicate with a remote end station (an end
station located at a different site), information must be sent over one or
more WAN links. Routers within enterprise internetworks represent the
LAN/WAN junction points of an internetwork. These routers determine
the most appropriate path through the internetwork for the required data
streams.
WAN links are connected by switches, which are devices that relay
information through the WAN and dictate the service provided by the
WAN. WAN communication is often called a service because the network
provider often charges users for the services provided by the WAN (called
tariffs).WAN services are provided through the following three primary
switching technologies:
• Circuit switching
• Packet switching
• Cell switching
Each switching technique has advantages and disadvantages. For
example, circuit-switched networks offer users dedicated bandwidth that
cannot be infringed upon by other users. In contrast, packet-switched
networks have traditionally offered more flexibility and used network
bandwidth more efficiently than circuit-switched networks. Cell switching,
however, combines some aspects of circuit and packet switching to
produce networks with low latency and high throughput. Cell switching is
rapidly gaining in popularity. ATM is currently the most prominent cell-
switched technology.
Trends in WAN Design. Traditionally, WAN communication has been
characterized by relatively low throughput, high delay, and high error
rates. WAN connections are mostly characterized by the cost of renting
media (wire) from a service provider to connect two or more campuses

60
together. Because the WAN infrastructure is often rented from a service
provider, WAN network designs must optimize the cost of bandwidth and
bandwidth efficiency. For example, all technologies and features used to
connect campuses over a WAN are developed to meet the following
design requirements:
• Optimize WAN bandwidth
• Minimize the tariff cost
• Maximize the effective service to the end users
Recently, traditional shared-media networks are being overtaxed
because of the following new network requirements:
• Necessity to connect to remote sites
• Growing need for users to have remote access to their networks
• Explosive growth of the corporate intranets
• Increased use of enterprise servers
Network designers are turning to WAN technology to support these
new requirements. WAN connections generally handle mission-critical
information, and are optimized for price/performance bandwidth. The
routers connecting the campuses, for example, generally apply traffic
optimization, multiple paths for redundancy, dial backup for disaster
recovery, and QoS for critical applications. Table 1 summarizes the
various WAN technologies that support such large-scale internetwork
requirements.

Table 1 Summary of WAN Technologies

WAN Technology Typical Uses

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A new modem technology. Converts


existing twisted-pair telephone lines into
access paths for multimedia and high-
speed data communications. ADSL
transmits more than 6 Mbps to a
subscriber, and as much as 640 kbps
more in both directions.
Analog modem Analog modems can be used by
telecommuters and mobile users who
access the network less than two hours
per day or for backup for another type of
61
link.
Leased line Leased lines can be used for Point-to-
Point Protocol (PPP) networks and hub-
and-spoke topologies, or for backup for
another type of link.
Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN can be used for cost-effective
(ISDN) remote access to corporate networks. It
provides support for voice and video as
well as a backup for another type of link.
Frame Relay Frame Relay provides a cost-effective,
high-speed, low-latency mesh topology
between remote sites. It can be used in
both private and carrier-provided
networks.
Switched Multimegabit Data Service SMDS provides high-speed, high-
(SMDS) performance connections across public
data networks. It can also be deployed in
metropolitan-area networks (MANs).
X.25 X.25 can provide a reliable WAN circuit
or backbone. It also provides support for
legacy applications.
WAN ATM WAN ATM can be used to accelerate
bandwidth requirements. It also provides
support for multiple QoS classes for
differing application requirements for
delay and loss.

5. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:

a. WAN communication occurs between geographically separated


areas.
b. Routers within enterprise internetworks represent LAN point of an
internetwork.
c. WAN communication is often called a switching.
d. WAN communication is characterized by high throughput, low
delay and low error rates.
e. There are some new network requirements in traditional shared-
media networks: necessity to connect to remote sites, explosive
growth of the corporate intranets.
f. WAN technologies don’t use analog modem and ISDN.

62
g. Frame Relay can be used in both private and carrier-provided
networks.

6. Draw a chart summarizing information from the text and use it to tell
about WANs design.

7. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences:

send over determine infringe support optimize ISDN


analog modem connect data service Frame Relay SMDS

1) … can be used by telecommuters and mobile users who access the


network less than two hours per day.
2) Network designers turned to WAN technology … new
requirements.
3) Circuit-switched networks offer users dedicated bandwidth that
can’t be … upon other users.
4) … can be used for cost-effective remote access to corporate
networks.
5) WANs …. campuses together in enterprise internetworks.
6) … provides a cost effective, high speed, low-latency mesh topology
between remote sites.
7) WAN communication is often called a … because the network
provider often charges users for services provided by the WAN.
8) …provides high-speed, high-performance connections across public
data networks.
9) Routers … the most appropriate path through the internetwork for
the required … streams.
10) Information must be … one or more WAN links.
11) WAN network designs must … the cost of bandwidth and
bandwidth efficiency.

8. What do the following terms mean in the text? Give definitions.


Consult your dictionary if necessary.

1) public data network


3) leased line
4) low latency
5) high throughput

63
6) error rates
8) twisted pair
9) frame relay
10) metropolitan area
11) bandwidth efficiency

9. Translate the following words with their left attributes into Russian:

cell switching, packet switching, circuit switching, circuit-switched


network, packet-switched network, high error rate, bandwidth efficiency,
asymmetric digital subscriber line, integrated services digital network,
low latency mesh topology, switched multimegabit data service.

10. Work in pairs. Make up your own dialogue. Student A is a designer,


student B is a user. Use the words in the list below:

data communications network, internetwork, switching technology,


disadvantage, advantage, service provider, campus, modem technology,
analog modem, frame relay, ISDN, cost.

11. Problem-solving. Work in groups, A and B. List all the advantages


and disadvantages of WANs. Consult Table 1. Compare your results
and discuss the ways to minimize the disadvantages.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

12. Writing. Join the two parts of a sentence with a linking word in the
middle (see Grammar Reference Section).

Analog modems can be or for backup for another type


used by telecommuters of link.
and mobile users
Leased lines can be used who a backup for another
for Point-to-Point type of link.
Protocol (PPP) networks

64
and hub-and-spoke
topologies
ISDN provides support through access the network less
for voice and video than two hours per day
or for backup for
another type of link.
These routers as well as the internetwork for the
determine the most required data streams.
appropriate path

WAN communication is upon by the network provider


often called a service often charges users for
the services provided
by the WAN (called
tariffs).
Circuit-switched because private and carrier-
networks offer users provided networks.
dedicated bandwidth
that cannot be infringed
Frame relay can be used in both other users

Unit 8

1. Find from the list below the words with the main (') and secondary
stress (ˏ):
unpredictable, internetworking, connection, encompass,
manageability, intervention, Internet, enterprise, manual,
interconnection.
Practise saying the words.

2. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the letter “g”:
/ʤ/ /g/

65
together, grow, manageability, large, group, single, challenging,
organization, technologies, general.
Practise saying the words.

3. Do you know what large internetworks consist of?


Look at the diagram. What do LAN and WAN mean?

With the help of the words below label this diagram:


campus, switch, WAN, LAN, router, host.

4. Read the text “Internetworking” and mark the following statements as


True or False:
a. An internetwork requires a few protocols and features to permit
scalability and manageability without constant manual intervention.
b. Large internetworks can consist of three components: campus
networks, WANs and remote connections.
c. Despite improvements in equipment performance and media
capabilities, internetwork design is becoming more difficult.
d. A campus is a group of buildings all connected into one enterprise
network that consists of one local area network (LAN).
e. The campus network topology is primarily LAN technology
connecting all the end systems within the building.
f. A large campus with groups of building can use WAN technology
to connect the buildings.
g. In the past, networks designers had only a limited number of
hardware options-routers and bridges.

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Internetworking

Internetworking - the communication between two or more networks -


encompasses every aspect of connecting computers together.
Internetworks have grown to support vastly disparate end-system
communication requirements. An internetwork requires many protocols
and features to permit scalability and manageability without constant
manual intervention. Large internetworks can consist of the following
three distinct components:
• Campus networks, which consist of locally connected users in a building
or group of buildings
• Wide-area networks (WANs), which connect campuses together
• Remote connections, which link branch offices and single users (mobile
users and/or telecommuters) to a local campus or the Internet.
Designing an internetwork can be a challenging task. To design
reliable, scalable internetworks, network designers must realize that each
of the three major components of an internetwork have distinct design
requirements. An internetwork that consists of only 50 meshed routing
nodes can pose complex problems that lead to unpredictable results.
Attempting to optimize internetworks that feature thousands of nodes can
pose even more complex problems. Despite improvements in equipment
performance and media capabilities, internetwork design is becoming
more difficult. The trend is toward increasingly complex environments
involving multiple media, multiple protocols, and interconnection to
networks outside any single organization’s dominion of control. Carefully
designing internetworks can reduce the hardships associated with growth
as a networking environment evolves.
As an example an overview of Designing Campus Networks is
provided.
Designing Campus Networks. A campus is a building or group of
buildings all connected into one enterprise network that consists of many
LANs. A campus is generally a portion of a company (or the whole
company) constrained to a fixed geographic area .
The distinct characteristic of a campus environment is that the
company that owns the campus network usually owns the physical wires
deployed in the campus. The campus network topology is primarily LAN
technology connecting all the end systems within the building. Campus
networks generally use LAN technologies, such as Ethernet, Token Ring,

67
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet,
and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). A large campus with groups of
buildings can also use WAN technology to connect the buildings.
Although the wiring and protocols of a campus might be based on WAN
technology, they do not share the WAN constraint of the high cost of
bandwidth. After the wire is installed, bandwidth is inexpensive because
the company owns the wires and there is no recurring cost to a service
provider. However, upgrading the physical wiring can be expensive.
Consequently, network designers generally deploy a campus design
that is optimized for the fastest functional architecture that runs on existing
physical wire. They might also upgrade wiring to meet the requirements of
emerging applications. For example, higher-speed technologies, such as
Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and ATM as a backbone architecture, and
Layer 2 switching provide dedicated bandwidth to the desktop.
Trends in Campus Design. In the past, network designers had only a
limited number of hardware options - routers or hubs - when purchasing a
technology for their campus networks. Consequently, it was rare to make a
hardware design mistake. Hubs were for wiring closets and routers were
for the data center or main telecommunications operations.
Recently, local-area networking has been revolutionized by the
exploding use of LAN switching at Layer 2 (the data link layer) to increase
performance and to provide more bandwidth to meet new data networking
applications. LAN switches provide this performance benefit by increasing
bandwidth and throughput for workgroups and local servers. Network
designers are deploying LAN switches out toward the network’s edge in
wiring closets. These switches are usually installed to replace shared
concentrator hubs and give higher bandwidth connections to the end user.

5. Fill in the appropriate preposition:


by for after to toward of without between

a. Internetworking is communication … two or more networks.


b. An internetwork requires many protocols and features to permit
scalability and manageability … constant manual intervention.
c. An internetwork that consists … 50 meshed routing nodes can pose
complex problems.
d. The trend is … increasingly complex environments involving multiple
media, multiple protocols, and interconnection to networks.

68
e. A campus is a portion of a company constrained … a fixed geographic
area.
f. … the wire is installed, bandwidth is inexpensive.
g. Network designers deploy a campus design that is optimized … the
fastest functional architecture.
h. Hubs were … wiring closets and routers were … the data center.
i. LAN has been revolutionized … the exploding use of LAN switching
at Layer 2.

6. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.


Multiple media interconnection internetwork multiple protocols
interconnection connect locally connected users

1. Networks designers must not forget that the entire network forms
…. .
2. Campus networks consist of … in a building.
3. Environment involves …, …, … to networks.
4. WAN … campus together.

7. Read the text again and write questions to these answers:

a. Internetworking encompasses every aspect of connecting computers


together.
b. Designers must realize that each of the 3 major components of an
internetwork have distinct design requirements.
c. Internetwork design is becoming more difficult.
d. Wide-area networks connect campus together.

8. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences:

connect protocols designer local mobile remote

1) A service provider must … two or more campuses together.


2) Leased lines can be used for Pint-to-Point … networks.
3) A network … may employ bridges in a remote site.
4) They decided to check … communications.
5) Analog modems can be used by … users.
6) A local end station may communicate with a … end station.

69
9. Look at these words paying attention to the suffixes. What parts of
speech do we have? What are the functions of these suffixes?

Scalability, manageability, intervention, user, designer, predictable,


improvement, increasingly, connection, telecommuters

10. A group of three roommates each having their own PCs at home want
to connect to a broadband and Internet connection.

1) What sort of network protocol should they make sure they run on
their network? Pick the best lettered answer.
A. Peer-peer network.
B. Server-based (dedicated server).
C. TCP/IP.
D. Non-dedicated server.
E. Logical ring.

2) Printers and print servers are most often connected to each other
using … . Pick the best lettered answer.
A. Wireless connections.
B. Network cabling.
C. Parallel or USB cabling.
D. Packet switching.
E. String.

11. Problem-solving. Designing an internetwork is a challenging task.


Work in two groups, A and B. Group A lists all the advantages. Group
B lists all the disadvantages. Discuss your answers as a class.

Group A Group B
Advantages Disadvantages
no constant use of manual can pose more complex
intervention problems

12. Writing. Network designers have four basic types of internetworking


devices available to them:
• Hubs (concentrators)
• Bridges
• Switches

70
• Routers
Summarizes these four internetworking devices in the table below
(there are some hints to help you):

Device Device Description and its Function


Hubs Hubs (concentrators) are used to … multiple … to a single
physical device, which connects to the … . Hubs act as …
Bridges Bridges are … . They are used to …

Switches Switches are … bridges but …

Routers Routers separate … and are used to connect … . Routers …


traffic …

Unit 9

1. Practise saying the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the


sound in bold:

/ʃ/ - efficiency, potentially, associated, sufficient, conversion,


negotiate;
/ai/ - proprietary, primarily, simplify, varying.

2. Match the following multisyllable words in Column A with their


pronunciation patterns in Column B:

Column A Column B
alternative

71
impossible
proprietary
convenience
efficiency
simultaneous
interference
potentially
infrastructure
environmental

Practise saying the words.

3. Think of as many words as possible related to wireless networking.

WIRELESS
NETWORKIN
G

4. Look at the picture and discuss these questions as a class:

1) What are the benefits of using a wireless LAN instead of a wired


connection?

2) Is the installation of a wireless network difficult?

72
5. Guess the meanings of the underlined words from the context. Choose
one explanation from the given variants.

1) Originally WLAN hardware was so expensive that it was only used


as an alternative to cabled LAN in places where cabling was difficult
or impossible.
a. in the beginning b. not like something else

2) Early developments included industry-specific solutions and


proprietary protocols, but at the end of the 1990s these were replaced
by standards.
a. common, known to everybody b. sold under a trade mark
3) Nowadays the growing popularity of WLANs is primarily due to
their convenience, cost efficiency, and ease of integration with other
networks and network components.
73
a. availability b. bringing benefits for the lowest costs
4) Wireless technology has helped to simplify networking by enabling
multiple computer users to simultaneously share resources.
a. (done) at exactly the same time b. quickly
5) Wireless networking enables the same capabilities and comparable
speeds of a wired network without the difficulties associated with
laying wire.
a. power, abilities b. advantages
6) As various wireless networking technologies advanced over time,
several WLAN technologies emerged.
a. disappeared b. appeared
7) As it is implied by the name, a WLAN allows users to connect to the
LAN wirelessly via radio transmission.
a. through b. without
8) Access point provides additional network management and security
features.
a. special/important characteristics b. future state
9) The access point performs the conversion of 802.11 packets to 802.3
Ethernet LAN packets.
a. transmission b. changing
10) Wirelessly networked computers function best when located
relatively close together and in open sight of each other.
a. inside the area that you can see b. outside the area that you can see
11) Access points will automatically negotiate the appropriate signaling
rate based upon environmental conditions.
a. neglect b. consider and change
12) Depending on environmental specifics, automatic downshifting by
the access point or client allows compatibility adjustment to
prevailing radio frequency conditions.
a. moving to a lower level b. changing of place

6. Scan the text “Wireless LAN Networking” and fill in the gaps with
relevant information from the text.

1) The … standard and variants specify the technologies for wireless


LANs.
2) Wireless networking allows the capabilities of a wired LAN
without … .
3) WLAN technologies include: … .
74
4) The common components of a WLAN are: … .
5) The 802.11 specification has two basic modes of operation: … .
6) The following factors can impact the performance of a wireless
network: … .

Wireless LAN Networking

A wireless LAN (or WLAN, for wireless local area network, sometimes
referred to as LAWN, for local area wireless network) is one in which a
mobile user can connect to a LAN through wireless (radio) connection.
Originally WLAN hardware was so expensive that it was only used as an
alternative to cabled LAN in places where cabling was difficult or
impossible. Early developments included industry-specific solutions and
proprietary protocols, but at the end of the 1990s these were replaced by
standards, primarily the various versions of IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi).
Nowadays the growing popularity of WLANs is primarily due to their
convenience, cost efficiency, and ease of integration with other networks
and network components. The majority of computers sold to consumers
today come pre-equipped with all necessary WLAN technology.
Wireless technology has helped to simplify networking by enabling
multiple computer users to simultaneously share resources in a home or
business without additional or intrusive wiring. These resources might
include a broadband Internet connection, network printers, data files, and
even streaming audio and video. This kind of resources sharing has
become more prevalent as computer users have changed their habits from
using single, stand-alone computers to working on networks with multiple
computers, each with potentially different operating systems and varying
peripheral hardware. Wireless networking enables the same capabilities
and comparable speeds of a wired network without the difficulties
associated with laying wire, drilling into walls, or stringing Ethernet cables
throughout an office building or home.
As various wireless networking technologies advanced over time,
several WLAN technologies emerged, including: narrowband, spread
spectrum, frequency hopping spread spectrum, and direct sequence spread
spectrum. As the name suggests, narrowband technology uses a specific
radio frequency (in the range of 50 cpc to 64 Kbpc) for data transmission.
Originally developed for military use, spread spectrum technology allows
for grater bandwidth by continually altering the frequency of the
transmission signal, thus spreading the transmission across multiple
frequencies. Spread spectrum uses more bandwidth than narrowband, the
75
transmission is more secure, reliable, and easier to detect. Frequency
hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology synchronizes the changing
frequency of both the transmitter and receiver (using a narrowband carrier)
to, in effect, produce a single transmission signal. This frequency
“hopping” can occur as often as several times a second; it is constantly
changing from one frequency to another, transmitting data for a certain
period of time before changing frequency again. Direct sequence spread
spectrum (DSSS) technology breaks down the transmitted stream of data
into small pieces across a frequency channel. A redundant bit pattern
(known as a chipping code) is generated for each bit transmitted.
Generally, the longer the chipping code, the more likely it is that the
original transmitted data will be properly received. DSSS technology uses
more bandwidth than FHSS, but DSSS is considered to be more reliable
and resists interference.
As it is implied by the name, a WLAN allows users to connect to the
LAN wirelessly via radio transmission. The following are the most
common components of a WLAN: access point – a device that links a
wireless network to a wired LAN, increases the effective range of a
wireless network and provides additional network management and
security features; a wireless PC card enables laptop users to connect
wirelessly to the LAN; a wireless access PCI adapter allows desktop PC
users access to the LAN; a router is a device used for sharing a single
Internet connection across multiple computers (ideal in the home or office
where multiple computers and devices can be online at the same time with
only a single Internet connection).
The 802.11 specification defines two types of operational modes: ad
hoc (peer-to-peer) mode and infrastructure mode. In ad hoc mode, the
wireless network is relatively simple and consists of 802.11 network
interface cards (NICs). The networked computers communicate directly
with one another without the use of an access point. Ad hoc mode is
convenient for quickly setting up a wireless network in a meeting room,
hotel conference center, or anywhere else where sufficient wired
infrastructure does not exist. In infrastructure mode, the wireless network
is composed of a wireless access point(s) and 802.11 NICs. The access
point acts as a base station in an 802.11 network and all communications
from all of the wireless clients go through the access point. The access
point performs the conversion of 802.11 packets to 802.3 Ethernet LAN
packets. Data packets traveling from the LAN to a wireless client are
converted by the access point into radio signals and transmitted out into

76
environment. All wireless clients and devices within range can receive the
packets, but only those clients with the appropriate address will receive
and process the packets.
Much the same way a cordless phone works better when it is close to its
base, wirelessly networked computers function best when located
relatively close together and in open sight of each other. The level of
performance of an 802.11 WLAN is dependent on a number of important
environmental and product-specific factors. Access points will
automatically negotiate the appropriate signaling rate based upon
environmental conditions, such as:
 Distance between WLAN devices (AP and NICs)
 Transmission power levels
 Building and home materials
 Radio frequency interference
 Signal propagation
 Antenna type and location
Depending on environmental specifics, automatic downshifting by the
access point or client allows compatibility adjustment to prevailing radio
frequency conditions.

7. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:

a. WLAN gives users the mobility to move around within a broad


coverage area and still be connected to the net.
b. A wireless network is the linking of two or more computers based
on radio waves to enable communication between network devices.
c. Wireless network has become commonplace with the gaining
popularity of laptops.
d. A WLAN provides convenient computer integration and immediate
exchange of data, peripherals, music and video across the Internet.
e. DSSS is a spread spectrum modulation scheme that uses a
narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a pattern known to
both transmitter and receiver.
f. FHSS is a wireless network technology that generates a redundant
bit pattern for each transmitted bit.
g. DSSS technology uses more bandwidth than FHSS and is more
efficient and reliable than its counterpart.
h. Access points are used to connect wireless clients to wired LANs.
77
i. PCI adapter allows laptop users to connect wirelessly to the LAN.
j. Access points are required for network access but not for peer-to-
peer connection.
k. In infrastructure mode the wireless network is composed of wireless
access points and 802.11 network interface cards.
l. When data packet travel from wireless clients to hard-wired LAN
they are converted by access point into radio signals.
m.The contents of a home or office building influence the quality of
the signal obtained with an 802.11 wireless network.

8. Divide the text into logical parts and give a heading to each part.
Compare your headings in the group.

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.


range wireless access IEEE 802.11 simultaneous
interference mobile emergence
installation fixed peer-to-peer mode an access
point radio waves DSSS technology

1) A WLAN is a type of LAN that uses high frequency … rather than


wires to communicate and transmit data among nodes.
2) Public businesses such as shops or malls have begun to offer … to
their customers; some are even provided as a free service.
3) With the … of public wireless networks, users can access the internet
even outside their normal environment.
4) To obtain additional …, repeaters or additional access points will
have to be purchased.
5) Like any radio frequency transmission, wireless networking signals
are subject to a wide variety of … .
6) Wireless clients can be … devices such as laptops, personal digital
assistants, IP phones, or … devices such as desktops and
workstations that are equipped with a wireless network interface.
7) In a … wireless devices within range of each other can discover and
communicate directly without involving central access points.
8) Wireless LANs reduce … costs because there is no cabling; as a
result, savings are greatest in frequently changing environments.
9) … is a technical specification issued by the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers.

78
10) WLANs use …, which is extremely resistant to interference,
jamming, and detection.
11) … is a device used in conjunction with computer servers as a
communication hub for wireless clients and provides a connection to
a wired LAN.
12) The number of … users that an access point can support depends
primarily on the amount of data traffic encountered (heavy
downloads and uploads vs. light).

10. Think of the word which best fits in each space (noun, adjective,
preposition, …). Write only one word.

Bluetooth vs.802.11b

Those unfamiliar with wireless technology commonly confuse


802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. Both technologies use the 2.4 GHz
radio … for … communications; however, the goal, focus, and concept of
Bluetooth is different … 802.11b wireless networking. Bluetooth
technology is focused … replacing the short cables used to connect
consumer electronic … such as keyboards, mouse devices, personal …
assistants (PDAs), computers, printers, and cellular … . This type of close
proximity connectivity is often referred … as a Wireless Personal Area
Network (WPAN). Bluetooth devices differ from 802.11b … a number of
ways. Bluetooth is not a “true networking” standard in the manner that Wi-
Fi is, and its … is limited to approximately 10 to 30 feet (3 m to 9.1 m)
with a raw data rate of 1 Mbps/723 Kbps available. Bluetooth also limits
the maximum … of separate 1 MHz simultaneous connections (devices) to
seven at a single time. Since Wi-Fi was designed for higher through-put
and a multi-user environment, the two … have their own unique places in
home and office environments. Technical details about Bluetooth are
beyond the scope of this text, and additional information can be found at
http://www.bluetooth.com.

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. Look at the words in the list below.
Divide the words into two groups. One group will go under the
heading “WLAN Benefits”. The other group will go under the heading
“WLAN Drawbacks”. You must have a reason for putting the words
in each group.

79
mobility, cost, security, speed, convenience, range, productivity,
expandability, reliability

WLAN Benefits WLAN Drawbacks

Meet with another pair and compare answers. Discuss the reasons for
your choices.

12. Writing. Work in a small group to create your own advertisement of a


wireless network to perform for the class. Follow the steps below.

a. Decide what company you would like to perform and what


customers it would be oriented to.
b. Decide what emotional appeal you will use (humor, thriftiness,
desire for convenience or other).
c. Write the advertisement. Be creative! Explain what a WLAN is
and how it works. Use imperatives to make your message simple
and direct (see Grammar Reference Section).
d. Perform your advertisement for the class. Use sentence stress to
emphasize important words.

80
FIBER OPTICS

Unit 10

1. The following multi-syllable words have two stresses: the main stress
(') and the secondary stress (ˏ). Put the stresses in the words correctly:
telecommunications, transoceanic, transcontinental, installation,
electromagnetic, revolutionize, intermediate, interference,
intervention.
Practise saying the words.

2. Fill in the table below with the required words. Use your dictionary if
necessary. Check the meanings of the unknown words.

81
VERB NOUN

transmit …
apply …
… connectivity
conduct …
require …
… integrity
perform …
… installation
equip …

3. Match these words to the pictures below: copper wire, optical fiber

Work in pairs. Give as many examples as possible of the uses of


optical fiber. Then discuss your examples as a class. Which examples
show the most frequent area of application?

4. Match the terms in Column A with the statements in Column B.


Column A Column B
a. copper 1. a straight line that goes from one
side to the other of a circle, passing
through the center

b. diameter 2. the use of very thin pieces of glass,


82
etc. for sending information in the
form of light signals

c. attenuation 3. a rate at which a sound wave or


radio wave moves up and down

d. radius 4. the carrying capacity or size of a


communication channel

e. electromagnetic interference 5. the reduction of signal magnitude or


signal loss usually expressed in
decibels

f. bandwidth 6. a material with both conductive and


insulating electromagnetic
properties

g. fiber optics 7. the distance from the center of a


circle to the outside edge

h. frequency 8. causes undesirable response,


degradation, or failure in electronic
equipment

i. dielectric 9. a common reddish-brown metal


j. duct 10. a tube for carrying cables

5. Scan the text “Optical Fiber in Telecommunications” and find the


missing information to complete the sentences.

1) Fiber-optic communication system was developed in the … .


2) Fiber optics is a medium for carrying information from one point to
another in form of … .
3) It is not unusual for optical systems to go over … kilometers with
no active or passive processing.
4) The relatively small … and light … of optical cables makes
installations easy and practical.

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5) …- kilometer continuous optical cable lengths are common.
6) Optical designers typically plan optical systems that will meet
growth needs for a … to … year span.
7) Since optical fiber has no metallic components, it can be installed in
areas with … ….

Optical Fiber in Telecommunications

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information


from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber. The
light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry
information. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic communication
systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and played a
major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantage
over electrical transmission, the use of optical fiber has largely replaced
copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world.
[0 - C] The explosion in demand for bandwidth has been fueled by
the Internet as more information is handled electronically, as more homes
go online, and as more business is transacted over the web. Now, data
generated on the Internet takes many formats, such as audio or video clips
and large computer files. The need for high-capacity transmission over
long distances has grown as fast as the Internet. The need for connectivity
is driving optics closer to the end user. The optical communications
industry has seen phenomenal growth over the last few years, spurring a
significant commercial market in optical components and systems. This
growth has extended across all application spaces, from transoceanic and
transcontinental distances to regional networks to campus and building
wiring.
To understand these applications, it is important to define fiber
optics. In its simplest term, fiber optics is a medium for carrying
information from one point to another in form of light. Unlike the copper
form transmission, fiber optics is not electrical in nature. A basic fiber
optic system consists of a transmission device, which generates the light
signal, an optical fiber cable, which carries the light, and a receiver, which
accepts the light signal transmitted. [1 - …]
Optical fiber systems have many advantages over metallic-based
communication systems. These advantages include:
Long Distance Signal Transmission. The low attenuation and
superior signal integrity found in optical systems allow much longer

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interval of signal transmission than metallic-based systems. While single-
line, voice-grade copper systems no longer than a couple of kilometers
require in-line signal repeater for satisfactory performance, it is not
unusual for optical systems to go over 100 kilometers (km) with no active
or passive processing. [2 - …]
Large Bandwidth, Light Weight, and Small Diameter. While today’s
applications require an ever-increasing amount of bandwidth, it is
important to consider the space constraints of many end-users. It is
commonplace to install new cabling within existing duct system. The
relatively small diameter and light weight of optical cables makes such
installations easy and practical, and saves valuable conduit space in these
environments.
Long Lengths. Long, continuous lengths also provide advantages for
installers and end-users. Small diameters make it practical to manufacture
and install much longer lengths than for metallic cables: twelve-kilometer
(12km) continuous optical cable lengths are common.
Easy Installation and Upgrades. Long lengths make optical cable
installation much easier and less expensive. [3 - …] Optical cables can
typically be installed in duct systems in spans of 6000 meters or more
depending on the duct’s condition, layout of the duct system, and
installation technique. The longer cables can be coiled at an intermediate
point and pulled farther into the duct system as necessary. Optical
designers typically plan optical systems that will meet growth needs for a
15- to 20-year span. Although sometimes difficult to predict, growth can
be accommodated by installing spare fiber for future requirements.
Installation of spare fibers today is more economical than installing
additional cables later.
Non-Conductivity. [4 - …] Since optical fiber has no metallic
components, it can be installed in areas with electromagnetic interference,
including radio frequency interference. Areas with high electromagnetic
interference include utility lines, power-carrying lines, and railroad tracks.
All-dielectric cables are also ideal for areas of high lightning-strike
incidence.
Security. Unlike metallic-based systems, the dielectric nature of
optical fiber makes it impossible to remotely detect the signal being
transmitted within the cable. The only way to do so is by actually
accessing the optical fiber itself. Accessing the fiber requires intervention
that is easy detectable by security surveillance. [5 - …]

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Designed for Future Application Needs. Fiber optics is affordable
today, as electronic prices fall and optical cable pricing remains low. [6 -
…]
As bandwidth demands increase rapidly with technological advances,
fiber will continue to play a vital role in the long-term success of
telecommunications.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:
a. As the Internet becomes increasingly prevalent all over the world,
fiber optics is racing to keep up.
b. Fiber optics is electrical in nature.
c. The wide bandwidth of optical fiber is the key advantage associated
with an optical transmission system.
d. In comparison to fiber-optic systems, the lack of signal loss permits
to copper-based transmission systems transmit information for
longer distances before requiring the signal to be amplified.
e. Optical fiber transmission systems are almost always more
expensive than copper.
f. Because of their dielectric nature optical fibers are immune to
electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference.
g. Optical fiber transmission systems are difficult to install and
upgrade.
h. The signal being transmitted within the optical fiber cable is easy
detectable in a distance.

7. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Read the text
again and choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each
gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
There is an example at the beginning (0).

A. In many cases, fiber solutions are less costly than copper.


B. Emerging technologies promise even greater distances in the future.
C. As we entered the new millennium, optical networking represented
the fastest-growing segment in the rapidly developing field of
communications.
D. These circumstances make fiber extremely attractive to
governmental bodies, banks, and others with major safety concerns.

86
E. Optical fiber cables can be installed with the same equipment that is
used to install copper and coaxial cables, with some modifications
due to the small size and limited pull tension and bend radius of
optical cables.
F. The fiber itself is passive and does not contain any active,
generative properties.
G.The uses of optical fiber today are quite numerous and the most
common are telecommunications, medicine, military, automotive,
and industrial.
H.Another advantage of optical fibers is their dielectric nature.

8. What do the underlined words mean in the text? Choose one


explanation from the given variants. In some cases, you may need to
return to the text to deduce meanings correctly.

1) Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the


telecommunications industry and played a major role in the advent of
the Information Age.
a. arriving b. success c. progress
2) The explosion in demand for bandwidth has been fueled by the
Internet as more information is handled electronically, as more homes
go online, and as more business is transacted over the web.
a. made worse b. caused c. burned
3) The optical communications industry has seen phenomenal growth
over the last few years, spurring a significant commercial market in
optical components and systems.
a. slowing down b. forming c. encouraging
4) The relatively small diameter and light weight of optical cables makes
such installations easy and practical, and saves valuable conduit space
in these environments.
a. pipe/passage b. air c. conductivity
5) Installation of spare fibers today is more economical than installing
additional cables later.
a. new b. replaceable c. extra
6) Accessing the fiber requires intervention that is easy detectable by
security surveillance.
a. bodies b. (careful) watching c. study
7) Fiber optics is affordable today, as electronic prices fall and optical
cable pricing remains low.

87
a. can easily be bought b. easy to find c. low in quality

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.


Electrical signals copper cable conduits diameters
Light signals fiber-optic cables attenuation
Electromagnetic interference light weight bandwidth

1) The high information carrying capacity, or …, of fiber makes it the


perfect choice for transmitting signals.
2) You hear about … whenever people talk about telephone system, the
cable TV system or the Internet.
3) Unlike … in copper wire, … from one fiber do not interfere with those
of other fibers in the same cable.
4) Many companies are currently replacing their old … with new fiber-
optic-based systems to improve speed, capacity and clarity.
5) Optical fibers are thinner as they have smaller … than copper wire.
6) Optical fiber has low …, which permits extended cable transmission
distance.
7) … and small diameter of fiber permit high capacity through existing
….
8) In a copper cable environment the flow of electrons can be altered by
….

10. In the following examples the left attributes to the nouns consist of
two words joined together by a hyphen (-):
fiber-optic system, metallic-based communication.
Find ten more examples in the text (including sentences from Task 7)
and translate them into Russian.
Think of your own examples and ask your partner to translate them.

11. Problem-solving. Many scientists think that the technology of fiber


optics will lead to an enrichment of life like that following the
invention of steam engine, light bulb, and computer. As fiber optic
technology develops there is an enormous expansion of use. Read the
extracts below telling about some of the uses of fiber optics.

Optical fiber is used extensively for transmission of data signals.


Private networks are owned by firms such as IBM, banks,
universities, and more. These firms have a need for secure, reliable
systems to transfer computer and monetary information between
buildings to the desktop terminal88
or computer, and around the world.
Optical fiber is also used in the information booths equipped with
television-like, two-way video screens and speakers. A visitor can
activate the screen by touching it and select the information needed. Or
the guest can talk to an operator who appears on the screen if
requested.

One of the fastest growing markets for fiber optics is intelligent


transportation system, highways with intelligent traffic lights,
automated toll booths, and changeable message signs to give motorists
information about delays and emergencies.

Now work in groups, A and B. Share information on how fiber optics


is used in your city. Work out some new ideas about the possible use
of fiber optics in your region to improve life. Compare answers with
the other group and make two lists of uses for your class.

Current use Possible use


1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
… …

12. Writing. Complete this comparison table and write down a short
article summarizing the advantages of fiber optics. You can compare
and contrast these types of communication systems using such words
and phrases as both, like, unlike, whereas, but (with), than, however,
in contrast to, in comparison with (see Grammar Reference Section).

FEATURE OPTICAL FIBER COPPER


SYSTEMS SYSTEMS
electromagnetic no yes
interference
signal loss
signal repeater
large bandwidth

89
light weight
upgrading
high cost

Unit 11

1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the


pronunciation of the suffixes in these words:
/òn/ /ʒn/

transmission, modulation, communication, operation, application,


examination, fusion, elimination, collision, association, absorption,
revision, vibration ,reduction, specification, localization, inspection,
information, publication, dispersion, attenuation.
Practise saying the words.

90
2. Work with your partner. Think of the possible answers to the following
questions:

1) What do we understand under the optical fiber parameters?


2) Can you name the colors of the rainbow? What is the visible light
spectrum?
3) What has optical fiber to do with the light spectrum?

3. Match the following words on the left with their definitions on the
right:

optical fiber transmission a cable without a carrying wire


inside
laser the reason of becoming weaker
restriction a confidence that nothing will brake in
mechanical part
mechanical reliability the difference between the upper and
lower cutoff frequencies of a filter, a
communication channel or signal,
spectrum and is typically measured in
hertz
non-armored cable a type of optical fiber mostly used for
communication over shorter distances,
typical multimode links have data rates of
10 M bits/s to 10Gbit/s over link lengths
of up to 600 meters
cause of attenuation the phenomenon that the phase velocity of
a wave depends on its frequency
crushing force a terminology used by licensing boards
for various professions that defines the
procedures, actions and processes that
are permitted for the licensed individual
dispersion a device that emits narrow monochromatic
beam of light with a well-defined wave
length
pulse-width modulation a closed area or a field of knowledge
where smth is permitted and forbidden out
of it

91
scope of practice the process of data exchange using light-
transmitting cable to guide signal of light,
LEDs or lazers to create it
bandwidth destroying force
multi-mode optical fiber a signal or power source involves the
modulation of its duty cycle, to either
convey information over a
communications channel or control the
amount of power sent to a load

4. Guess what the underlined words mean in these sentences.

1) In the visible spectrum wavelength can be described as the color of


light.
a. area that is seen b. area that is out of sight
2) There is a small-scale distortion in a microbend, generally indicative
of pressure on the fiber.
a. changing of the shape b. reducing the shape
3) Microbending may be related to temperature, tensile stress, or
crushing force.
a. capable of being stretched b. capable of being longer
4) Microbending is very localized.
a. restricted to a particular place b. moved to a particular place
5) As the pulses spread, they tend to overlap.
a. go to share the same space or b. catch more spaces and time
6) Pulses are no longer distinguishable by the receiver as 0s and 1s.
a. dignified in appearance b. transmitted
7) Light traveling in the core can refract out, and loss occurs.
a. change the course of light b. stop the course of light
8) A fiber wrapped around a person’s finger.
a. covered b. spread
9) This loss is reversible once, bends are corrected.
a. able to return to a previous state b. able to be dynamic
10) This is a restriction on how much bend a fiber can withstand before
experiencing problems in optical performance or mechanical
reliability.
a. resist b. bear
11) Light pulses launched close together that spread too much result in
errors and loss of information.
a. sent b. stood
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12) The spreading of these light pulses causes them to merge together.
a. press b. blend

5. Read the text “Optical Fiber Parameters “and name the main optical
fiber parameters mentioned in the text.

Optical Fiber Parameters

As with any type of transmission system, there are certain parameters


that affect the system's operation.
Light that can be seen by the unaided human eye is said to be in the
visible spectrum. In the visible spectrum, wavelength can be described as
the color of light.
To put this into perspective, take a look at the figure below. Notice that
the colors of the rainbow - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, (indigo, not
shown), and violet - fall within the visible spectrum.

Optical fiber transmission uses wavelengths which are above the


visible light spectrum, and thus undetectable to the unaided eye. Typical
optical transmission wavelengths are 850 nanometers (nm), 1310 nm, and
1550 nm.
*Safety note: Never look into the end of a fiber which may have a laser
coupled to it. Laser light is invisible and can damage the eyes.
There are ranges of wavelengths at which the fiber operates best. Each
range is known as an operating window. Each window is centered around
the typical operational wavelength.

93
These wavelengths were chosen because they best match the
transmission properties of available light sources with the transmission
qualities of optical fiber.
The frequency of a system is the speed of modulation of the digital or
analog output of the light source; in other words, the number of pulses per
second emitted from the light source. Frequency is measured in units of
hertz (HZ), where 1 hertz is equal to 1 pulse or cycle per second. A more
practical measurement for optical communications is megahertz (MHZ) or
millions of pulses per second.

Attenuation is the loss of optical power as light travels down a fiber. It


is measured in decibels (dB/km). Over a set distance, a fiber with a lower
attenuation will allow more power to reach its receiver than a fiber with
higher attenuation.
While low-loss optical systems are always desirable, it is possible to
lose a large portion of the initial signal power without significant problems.
A loss of 50% of initial power is equal to a 3.0 dB loss. Any time fibers are
joined together there will be some loss. Losses for fusion splicing and for
mechanical splicing are typically 0.2 dB or less. Attenuation can be caused
by several factors, but is generally placed in one of two categories: intrinsic
or extrinsic.
Intrinsic attenuation occurs due to something inside or inherent to the
fiber. It is caused by impurities in the glass during the manufacturing
process. There is no way to eliminate all impurities, though technological
advances have caused attenuation to decrease dramatically since the first
optical fiber in 1970.

94
When a light signal hits an impurity in the fiber, one of two things will
occur: it will scatter or it will be absorbed.
Rayleigh scattering accounts for the majority (about 96%) of
attenuation in optical fiber. Light travels in the core and interacts with the
atoms in the glass. The light waves elastically collide with the atoms, and
light is scattered as a result. Rayleigh scattering is the result of these elastic
collisions between the light wave and the atoms in the fiber. If the scattered
light maintains an angle that supports forward travel within the core, no
attenuation occurs. If the light is scattered at an angle that does not support
continued forward travel, the light is diverted out of the core and
attenuation occurs.
The second type of intrinsic attenuation in fiber is absorption.
Absorption accounts for 3-5% of fiber attenuation. This phenomenon
causes a light signal to be absorbed by natural impurities in the glass, and
converted to vibrational energy or some other form of energy.
The second category of attenuation is extrinsic attenuation. Extrinsic
attenuation can be caused by two external mechanisms: macrobending or
microbending. Both cause a reduction of optical power.
If a bend is imposed on an optical fiber, strain is placed on the fiber
along the region that is bent. The bending strain will affect the refractive
index and the critical angle of the light ray in that specific area. As a result,
light traveling in the core can refract out, and loss occurs, you may see it in
the figure below.
A macrobend is a large-scale bend that is visible; for example, a fiber
wrapped around a person's finger. This loss is generally reversible once
bends are corrected. To prevent macrobends, all optical fiber (and optical
fiber cable) has a minimum bend radius specification that should not be
exceeded. This is a restriction on how much bend a fiber can withstand
before experiencing problems in optical performance or mechanical
reliability.

95
The second extrinsic cause of attenuation is a microbend. This is a
small-scale distortion, generally indicative of pressure on the fiber. (See the
figure below.) Microbending may be related to temperature, tensile stress,
or crushing force. Like macrobending, microbending will cause a reduction
of optical power in the glass. Microbending is very localized, and the bend
may not be clearly visible upon inspection. With bare fiber, microbending
may be reversible; in the cabling process, it may not.

Dispersion is the "spreading" of a light pulse as it travels down a fiber.


As the pulses spread, or broaden, they tend to overlap, and are no longer
distinguishable by the receiver as 0s and 1s. Light pulses launched close
together (high data rates) that spread too much (high dispersion) result in
errors and loss of information.
Chromatic dispersion occurs as a result of the range of wavelengths in
the light source. Light from lasers and LEDs consists of a range of
wavelengths. Each of these wavelengths travels at a slightly different
speed. Over distance, the varying wavelength speeds cause the light pulse
to spread in time. This is of most importance in single-mode applications.
Modal dispersion is significant in multimode applications, where the
various modes of light traveling down the fiber arrive at the receiver at
different times, causing a spreading effect.
In simplest terms, bandwidth is the amount of information a fiber can
carry so that every pulse is distinguishable by the receiver at the end.
As discussed above, dispersion causes light pulses to spread. The
spreading of these light pulses causes them to merge together. At a certain
distance and frequency, the pulses become unreadable by the receiver. The
multiple pathways of a multimode fiber cause this overlap to be much
greater than for single-mode fiber. These different paths have different
lengths, which cause each mode of light to arrive at a different time.
System bandwidth is measured in megahertz (MHz) at one km. In
general, when a system's bandwidth is 200 MHz·km, it means that 200
million pulses of light per second will travel down 1 km (1000 meters) of
fiber, and each pulse will be distinguishable by the receiver.

96
6. Read the text again and choose the right answer:

1) In optical fiber system what are the typical wavelengths of operation?

a.400nm 455nm 490nm


b.620nm 750nm 800nm
c.850nm 1310nm 1550nm

2) What is an optical window?

a. A glass object on the side of a building


b. A range of wavelengths at which fiber best operates
c. The movement in time when fiber became a commercially-viable
enterprise
3) Which of the following is not true of attenuation?

a. It is the loss of optical power as light travels down a fiber


b. It may be induced by scattering absorbing macrobending or
microbending
c. It is measured in nanometers

4) What is bandwidth?
a. A measure of the information-carrying capacity of an optical fiber.
b. The side-to-side measurement of a wedding ring.
c. A term used to express the total loss of an optical system.

7. Read the text again and answer these questions:

1) What does wavelength mean ?


2) What are used to transmit light through the optical fiber?
3) Why shouldn’t you look into the end of a fiber which may have a
lazer coupled to it?
4) Where is a window centered?
5) What is 1 hertz equal to?
6) What is attenuation measured in?
7) When does intrinsic attenuation occur?
8) When does extrinsic attenuation occur?
9) What is the result of elastic collisions between the light wave and the
atom in the fiber?
10) What does absorption cause?
97
11) How can macrobends be prevented?
12) When does chromatic dispersion occur?
13) When do the pulses become unreadable by the receiver?

8. Use these words in the box to complete the sentences:


speed decibels atoms absorption attenuation
window wavelengths hertz light pulse
large-scale bend small-scale bend frequency

1) Optical fiber transmission uses … which are above the visible light
spectrum.
2) Each range is known as an operating … .
3) Frequency is measured in … .
4) … is measured in … .
5) Light travels in the core and interacts with the … in the glass.
6) The … of a system is the … of modulation of the digital or analog
output of the light source.
7) … can be limited by controlling the amount of impurities during the
manufacturing process.
8) Microbend is a … .
9) Macrobend is a … .
10) The varying wavelength speeds cause … to spread in time.

9. Return to the text and label the given figure using the following words:
cladding, core, light ray.

10. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: active or passive.

a. In the visible spectrum wavelength (to describe) as the color of light.


b. Chromatic dispersion (to occur) as a result of the range of
wavelength in the light source.
c. Pulse width (to measure) at full width-half maximum.
d. Microbending (to cause) a reduction of optical power in glass.

98
e. Absorption (to limit) by controlling the amount of impurities during
the manufacturing process.
f. Light (to travel) in the core and (to interact) with the atoms in glass.
g. Each range of wavelength (to know) as an operating window.
h. Optical fiber transmission (to use) wavelengths which are above the
visible spectrum.

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. With the help of the information you
have got explain to your partner:

Student A - one of the optical parameters-a wavelength, two


categories of attenuation: intrinsic and extrinsic, a Raleigh scattering.

Student B - a window as a range of wavelength, a macrobending and


microbending, difference between them, an occurrence of dispersion.

12. Writing. Make up as many sentences as you can with the following
words and phrases:
Light pulses, multiple pathways ,multimode fiber, to limit, to overlap,
loss of information, light source, to travel, different speed, modal
dispersion, to launch, tensile stress, reduction of optical power, to
exceed, core, armored cable, natural impurities, to collide, window, to
transmit, visible spectrum.

Unit 12

1. Find the odd word out paying attention to the pronunciation of the
sound in bold:
a) core, cladding, coating, cylindrical;
b) thousand, boundary, would, bounce;
c) reach, spread, reason, repeat.
Practise saying the words.

2. We can use the –ing form of the verb as a noun. Fill in the table below
with the required words. Check the meanings of the unknown words.

99
VERB NOUN
provide …
… covering
bounce …
… spreading
go …
… coating
understand …

3. Work in pairs. Study this picture and answer the questions:


1) What materials used for optical fiber manufacturing do you know?
2) What is the function of each part?

4. Link the words below to form word combinations. In some cases,


more than one combination is possible. Use your dictionary if
necessary.

glass ray optics

reflection coating fiber

signal beam plastic

light strand
pulse

100
5. Read the text “Understanding Optical Fiber” and find the answers to
these questions:
1) What is cladding?
2) What is called jacket?
3) Where does the light travel in fiber optic cable?
4) What happens when the light hits the cladding?
5) What are the two general categories of optical fiber?
6) Which type of fiber is used for the transmission of light over
relatively short distances?
7) Which type of fiber allows only one mode of light at a time to
propagate through the core?

Understanding Optical Fiber

An optical fiber is cylindrical dielectric waveguide that transmits


light along its axis. Fiber optics are long, thin strands of very pure glass
about diameter of a human hair. If you look closely at a single optical
fiber, you will see that it has the following parts:
Core – thin glass center of the fiber;
Cladding – outer optical material surrounding the core. The cladding
consists of glass or plastic of a density different from that of the core and
functions as a mechanism to contain the light signal within the fiber;
Buffer coating – plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and
moisture.
Hundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are arranged in bundles
in optical cables. The bundles are protected by cable’s outer covering,
called jacket. The jacket usually consists of one or more layers of polymer
that insulate the core and cladding from shock as well as damage from the
outside environment.
The light in fiber-optic cable travels through the core (hallway).
When the light hits the cladding, it interacts with and reflects back into the
core. Because of this design, the light can “bend” around curves in the
fiber, and this makes it possible for the light to travel greater distances
without having to be repeated. The light that travels along the fiber is made
up of a binary code that pulses “on” and “off” and determines what
information a given signal contains. The advantage of fiber is that these
on/off pulses can be translated to video, computer, or voice data depending
on the type of transmitter and receiver used. The core and a cladding work

101
together to cause something called total internal reflection, which is the
key to fiber optics. The light beam is focused on the core of the fiber, and
it begins its journey down the fiber. Soon, because of a turn in the fiber or
the direction at which the light originally entered the fiber, the light
reaches the outside edge of the core. Normally, it would simply exit the
fiber at this point, but this is where the cladding helps. When the light hits
the cladding (which is made of a material selected especially because it
reacts differently to light than the core material), instead of going on
straight, it reflects. This creates a tunnel effect in which the light bounces
its way down the fiber until it exits at the other end of the fiber.

There are two general categories of optical fiber: single-mode and


multimode. Because multimode fiber was commercialized prior to single-
mode, let’s review their characteristics in their order of commercialization.
Multimode fiber has a much larger core than single-mode fiber;
therefore, multimode fiber permits hundreds to thousands of rays or modes
of light to simultaneously propagate through the fiber. This type of fiber
permits light to enter from different angles; as a result, the light bounces
along the inside of the fiber, reflected back into the core when it hits the
core-cladding boundary. This repeated bouncing continues until the light
reaches the end of the fiber. Because modal dispersion is caused by the
difference in the propagation times of light rays, which take different paths
along the fiber, a stretched light pulse at the end of the fiber results. That
stretched light pulse is reduced in amplitude at the output of the fiber,
making it more difficult for the receiver to detect. Thus, in general,
multimode fiber is used for the transmission of light over relatively short
distances, such as in a LAN environment. According to the boundary

102
between the core and cladding two types of multimode fiber are
distinguished: step-index fiber (abrupt) and graded-index fiber (gradual).
As mentioned above, a second general category of fiber is single-
mode fiber. This type of fiber has a much smaller core diameter and allows
only one mode of light at a time to propagate through the core; for this
reason, there is no modal dispersion or pulse spreading. Thus, an optical
signal can be transmitted over longer distances. In addition, because of the
lack of pulse spreading, the optical transmitter can reduce the gaps
between pulses necessary when multimode fiber is used. This allows the
use of a faster light source, which in turn supports a higher operating rate.
The index of refraction between the core and the cladding for single-mode
fiber is near uniform, resulting in light traveling parallel to the core axis.
The primary use of single-mode fiber is for long-distance communications,
with millions of kilometers of this type of fiber installed each year.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:
a. In an optical fiber, the light travels through the core by constantly
reflecting from the cladding.
b. Light exits the fiber when it gets bent.
c. A tunnel effect is created due to total internal reflection.
d. The glass used to make optical fiber must be very pure.
e. The core of an optical fiber is surrounded by an outer covering
called buffer coating.
f. The cladding is made of the same type of glass as the core of the
fiber.
g. Graded-index fiber is one of the types of multimode fiber.
h. Multimode fiber gives a higher transmission rate than single-mode
fiber.
i. Modal dispersion is characteristic of multimode fiber.

7. Draw a chart summarizing information from the text and use it to tell
about how fiber optics works.

8. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

cladding core light signal multimode light waves


waveguide single-mode distortion angle

103
1) Light reflects from the cladding no matter what … the fiber is bent
at.
2) Some of the … degrades within the fiber, mostly due to impurities in
the glass.
3) Because the … does not absorb any light from the core, the light
wave can travel great distances.
4) An optical fiber has a glass inner … .
5) Fiber with large core diameter is called … fiber.
6) Fiber optic cable functions as a …, guiding the light introduced at
one end of the cable through to the other end.
7) Most long-distance fiber optic telephone lines use … fiber.
8) In multimode fiber … enter from different angles and bounce around
inside the core as they travel down the path.
9) The small core and single light wave virtually eliminate any … that
could result from overlapping light pulses.

9. Think of the word which best fits in each space. Write only one word.

Glass Fiber
A glass-based fiber-optic cable has a glass (1)… and glass (2)…, with
impurities added to obtain the desired indices of refraction necessary to
guide light (3)… through the fiber. This type of cable has the lowest value
of attenuation; however, it is also the (4)… expensive of the three types of
materials used to (5)… an optical fiber. Concerning utilization, a (6)…-
based fiber-optic cable is by far the most commonly used type of (7)…
cable. Because of its low attenuation, a glass fiber is always used for (8)…
mode optical cable. Because this type of fiber requires a very thin case, its
(9)… eliminates the potential of plastic, which requires a thicker core.
Another characteristic of glass fiber is its (10)… to support a relatively
high signaling rate.

10. Complete the gaps in this plastic-based fiber-optic cable description


using these linking words and phrases (see Grammar Reference
Section):

in addition such as
as a result currently
because however

104
Plastic Fiber
Plastic-based fiber-optic cable is more durable than glass-based optical
fiber. _____, this type of optical cable is relatively inexpensive. _____, it
is difficult to fabricate with a thin core; _____, the plastic core and the
plastic cladding are relatively thick. Typical plastic-based fiber optic cable
is manufactured as 480/550-, 735/700-, and 9800/1000-nm cable. _____ a
large core is prone to ray dispersion, plastic fiber-optic cable has the
highest attenuation of the three types of material used for the construction
of fiber-optic cable. _____, this type of optical fiber is used mainly for
transmission over relatively short distances, ______ within a factory.

11. Problem-solving. Imagine that you are taking part in an online forum.
Role-play the forum as a class. Who is the most active participant?
The questions in the message window are:

- How do I know what type of fiber I need?


- What is difference between multimode and
single-mode fiber?
- Should I install single-mode or multimode
fiber?
- I already have single-mode fiber, but I am
only going a short distance. Can I use lower cost multimode
equipment?

12. Writing. Three types of material can be used to manufacture fiber-


optic cable: glass, plastic, and plastic-clad silica (PCS). The glass and
plastic fibers were described in Task 9 and Task 10. The table below
summarizes the properties of all three types of fiber.

Fiber material Attenuation Cost Utilization


Glass core Lowest Highest High bandwidth,
long distance
Plastic core Highest Lowest Low bandwidth,
short distance
Glass core (of Medium Medium Medium bandwidth,
vitreous silica) and short to medium
plastic cladding distance (both LANs
(with a lower and WANs)
refractive index
than in the core)

105
Study the table and write a similar description of plastic-clad silica
using linking words and phrases. You may choose any linking words
and phrases from the suggested list:
therefore, as a result, however, because (of), thus, although, for this
reason, in addition, but, such as, according to (see Grammar
Reference Section).

Unit 13

1. The following terms have been borrowed from English into Russian:

kilometer, laser, diode, microwatt, mineral, metal, pulse.

How do you pronounce them? Use your dictionary to check


pronunciation and stress in these words.

2. We can add –er and –or suffixes to the verb to form a noun. Fill in the
table with the required words and make any necessary spelling
changes. What technical terms have you got?

106
VERB NOUN
transmit transmitter

receive …
amplify …
couple …
detect …
compute …
modulate …
repeat …
regenerate …
convert …

3. Match each word in Column A with its similarity in Column B. The


first one has been done for you as an example:

Column A Column B
ensure get back
distorted in an orderly way
recover guarantee
coherent unclear
emit area
doping electricity
current send out
domain substance

4. Study these diagrams and match the labels to the four devices in the
diagrams. What functions do these devices perform?
a. amplifier
b. transmitter
c. modulator
d. receiver

light optical
source optical fiber detector

1 2

3
107
Input of electrical pulses Output of light pulses

5. Read the text “Components of an Optical Transmission System” and


find what these abbreviations and an acronym laser mean.

LED mW
laser MSM
nm CDR
Mbit/s Tbps
km WDM

Components of an Optical Transmission System

The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the


following basic steps: creating the optical signal using a transmitter,
relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not
become too distorted or weak, and receiving the optical signal and
converting it into an electrical signal.
Thus, modern fiber-optic communication systems generally include an
optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to
send into the optical fiber, a cable containing bundles of multiple optical
fibers that is routed through underground conduits and buildings, multiple
kinds of amplifiers, and an optical receiver to recover the signal as an
electrical signal. A special coupler must be used to focus light into a fiber
and at the opposite end focus light flowing out of the fiber to a light
detector. The information transmitted is typically digital information
generated by computers, telephones systems, and cable television
companies.
The most commonly used optical transmitters are semiconductor
devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The
difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce incoherent
light, while laser diodes produce coherent light. For use in optical
108
communications, semiconductor optical transmitters must be designed to
be compact, efficient, and reliable, while operating in an optical wave
length range, and directly modulated at high frequencies.
In its simplest form, a LED is a forward-biased p-n junction, emitting
light through spontaneous emission, a phenomenon referred to as
electroluminescence. The emitted light is incoherent with a relatively wide
spectral width of 30-60 nanometers (nm). LED light transmission is also
inefficient, with only about 1% of input power, or about 100 microwatts
(mW), eventually converted into “launched power” which has been
coupled into the optical fiber. However, due to their relatively simple
design, LEDs are very useful for low-cost applications. The large spectrum
width of LEDs causes higher fiber dispersion, considerably limiting their
bit rate-distance product (a common measure of usefulness). LEDs are
suitable primarily for LAN applications with bit rates of 10-100 Megabits
per second (Mbit/s) and transmission distances of a few kilometers (km).
LEDs have also been developed that use several quantum wells to emit
light at different wavelengths over a broad spectrum.
A semiconductor laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of
radiation) emits light through stimulated emission rather than spontaneous
emission, which results in high output power (~100 mW) as well as other
benefits related to the nature of coherent light. The output of a laser is
relatively directional, allowing high coupling efficiency (~50 %) into
single-mode fiber. The narrow spectral width also allows for high bit rates
since it reduces the effect of chromatic dispersion. Furthermore,
semiconductor lasers can be modulated directly at high frequencies
because of short recombination time.
The laser light used in fiber optic telephone or communications
systems is infrared. The frequency of infrared light is just below what
people can see with their eyes unaided. Infrared light is used in
communications systems because it can travel long distances through
optical fibers with less loss of power.
The transmission distance of a fiber-optic communication system has
traditionally been limited primarily by fiber attenuation and second by
fiber distortion. The solution to this has been to use opto-electronic
repeaters. These repeaters first convert the signal to an electrical signal
then use a transmitter to send the signal again at a higher intensity.
Because of their high complexity and the fact that they had to be installed
about once every 20 km, the cost for these repeaters was very high.

109
An alternative approach is to use an optical amplifier, which
amplifies the optical signal directly without having to convert the signal
into the electrical domain. Made by doping a length of fiber with the rare-
earth mineral erbium, and pumping it with light from a laser with a shorter
wavelength than the communications signal (typically 980 nm), amplifiers
have largely replaced repeaters in new installations.
The main component of an optical receiver is a photodetector that
converts light into electricity through the photoelectric effect. The
photodetector is typically a semiconductor-based photodiode. Metal-
semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors are also used due to their
suitability for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength-division
multiplexers.
The optical-electrical converter is typically coupled with a
transimpedance amplifier and limiting amplifier to produce a digital signal
in the electrical domain from the incoming optical signal, which may be
attenuated and distorted by passing through the channel. Further signal
processing such as clock recovery from data (CDR) by a phase-locked
loop may also be applied before the data is passed on.
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is the practice of dividing
the wavelength capacity of an optical fiber into multiple channels in order
to send more than one signal over the same fiber. This requires a
wavelength division multiplexer in the transmitting equipment and a
wavelength division demultiplexer (essentially a spectrometer) in the
receiving equipment. Using WDM technology now commercially
available, the bandwidth of a fiber can be divided into as many as 80
channels to support a combined bit rate into the range of terabits per
second (Tbps).
Through a combination of advances in dispersion management,
wavelength-division multiplexing, and optical amplifiers, modern-day
optical fibers can carry information at around 14 Tbps over 160 km of
fiber. Engineers are always looking at current limitations in order to
improve fiber-optic communication, and several of these restrictions are
currently being researched.

6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:

110
a. In an optical transmission system the transmitter and receiver are
used to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal and an
optical signal into an electrical signal.
b. An amplifier is needed to focus light onto the end of a fiber.
c. The two most common light sources are LEDs and lasers.
d. Laser is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent light when
biased in the forward direction.
e. The maximum light output of a LED typically is much higher than
the light output of a laser.
f. Lasers produce the best kind of light for optical communication.
g. LED signals work well enough for long-distance fiber optic
networks.
h. Light-emitting diodes are cheaper than laser diodes.
i. Like LEDs, lasers send out coherent light through stimulated
emission.
j. The advantage of an optical amplifier over a repeater is that it
increases the power of an optical signal directly without having to
convert the signal into the electrical domain.
k. The optical-electrical converters are called photodetectors.
l. Wavelength-division multiplexing technology allows sending
several signals through one fiber with different wavelengths of
light.

7. Read the text again and draw a flowchart to show each step in the
optical transmission system with the appropriate comments.

8. Match the terms in the box with the statements below.


optical amplifier modulator photodetector
transmitter coherent light LED
incoherent light wavelength division multiplexer
coupler laser receiver repeater

1) This device increases the optical signal strength without an optical-


to-electrical-to-optical conversion process. _________
2) This device senses light and converts it to electricity. __________
3) The function of this device is to couple light from an optical source
into a fiber or from a fiber into an optical receiver. __________

111
4) This term means that all emitted photons travel in the same wave
pattern. __________
5) This device in a fiber-optic system converts the electrical pulses
into pulses of light.__________
6) This device accepts coded electronic pulse information, processes it
and translates into equivalently coded light pulses. __________
7) This is an electronic device that converts optical signals to electrical
signals. __________
8) This is a fiber-optic device used to separate signals of different
wavelengths carried on one fiber. _________
9) This is a device that generates infrared light. __________
10) This light strengthener may be necessary to refresh the signal in
certain applications. ________
11) Optical radiation that radiates in all directions from the surface
of a LED. __________
12) This device represents a p-n semiconductor device to emit
incoherent light when a forward bias is applied to the
semiconductor. ________

9. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words formed from the words in
brackets. Make any necessary spelling changes using prefixes and
suffixes.

1) Recently silicon lasers have been produced through methods such


as fabricating the lasing material from silicon and other ______
materials, such as indium phosphide or gallium arsenide. (conduct)
2) _____ power is always less than the ____ power needed to generate
the beam. (put)
3) LEDs consume little power and are long-lasting and _______.
(expensive)
4) Photodiods are used to detect light pulses in optical fibers and other
light-______ applications. (sense)
5) Infrared light is _______ to the naked eye. (vision)
6) The process of adding ______ is called doping. (pure)
7) Unlike _______, which have to convert light to electricity in order
to amplify it and then convert it back again to light, the optical
amplifier amplifies the light signal itself. (generate)

112
10. Some technical terms include one of the prefixes listed below. Find
out what the most common prefixes mean in terminology and give
examples of such terms.

prefix meaning examples


Quantity
tera 1012 terabyte
nano
giga
mega
kilo
micro small
macro
multi
Prepositions
inter between Internet
trans
tele
infra
Others
semi
super
cyber

11. Problem-Solving. In groups, choose any domestic


appliance/equipment and decide what functions an in-built LED or
laser would allow it to perform in addition to its basic function.
Present your ideas to the rest of the class.

12. Writing. Study this diagram. Write a description of how it operates.


Your description should answer these questions:

1) What is its function?


2) What does it consist of?
3) How is the signal managed?

113
Unit 14

1. Math the words with the following pronunciation patterns:

purpose, transmission, extremely, contribution, suggestion, dispersive,


fabrication, image, lossy, advent, effects, amplifier, compression,
fiber, technique, concept, dimension.
114
2. Make four groups of the words in the list according to the
pronunciation of the sound in bold:

/ai/ /ei/ /ou/ /Ʌ/

fiber, wave, progress, process, fundamental, phase, pulse, result ,


ultrashort, decade, multichannel, gratings, bundle.
Practise saying the words.

3. Think of as many words as possible related to non-linear fiber optics.

NONLINEAR
FIBER OPTICS

4. Match the following words on the left with their definitions on the
right:

fiber optics the use of very thin pieces of glasses for


sending information in the form of light
signals

image transmission smth. that is lost

a bundle of glass fibers arrival, coming

lossy a package of material used as insulation

silica fibers sending or passing a picture or


information

scattering out of lines

115
advent to make the best use of

nonlinear dispersion

birefringence chemical element SiO 2

modulation a flat frame made of very thin pieces of


glass
dispersive effect changing effect

to exploit to cover the first layer with a special


material

to dope to use

photonic fluctuation, variation

fiber gratings a unit of a certain type of energy

5. Read the text “Non-Linear Fiber Optics” and find answers to the
following questions:

1) When did the situation change?


2) What did the availability of low –loss silica fibers lead to?
3) What kind of important contribution was made in 1973?
4) What is the decade of 80-s famous for?
5) When were the first fiber amplifiers made?

6. Choose the most suitable heading from the list (A-D) for each part of
the article (1-4).

A. The development of optical fibers.


B. The advent of the new field of non-linear fiber optics.
C. The use of fiber devices in the design of revolutionary systems.
D. The growing interest to non-linear fiber optics.

NONLINEAR FIBER OPTICS


1
116
The field of fiber optics developed rapidly during the 1960s, mainly
for the purpose of image transmission through a bundle of glass fibers.
These early fibers were extremely lossy (loss >1000 dB/km) from the
modern standard. However, the situation changed drastically in 1970
when, following an earlier suggestion, losses of silica fibers were reduced
to below 20 dB/km . Further progress in fabrication technology resulted
by 1979 in a loss of only 0.2 dB/km in the 1.55-m wavelength region, a
loss level limited mainly by the fundamental process of Rayleigh
scattering.
2
The availability of low-loss silica fibers led not only to a revolution in
the field of optical fiber communications but also to the advent of the new
field of nonlinear fiber optics. Stimulated Raman- and Brilloum-scattering
processes in optical fibers were studied as early as 1972. This work
stimulated the study of other nonlinear phenomena such as optically
induced birefringence, parametric four-wave mixing, and self-phase
modulation. An important contribution was made in 1973 when it was
suggested that optical fibers can support soliton-like pulses as a result of
an interplay between the dispersive and nonlinear effects. Optical solitons
were observed in a 1980 experiment and led to a number of advances
during the 1980s in the generation and control of ultrashort optical pulses.
The decade of the 1980s also saw the development of pulse-compression
and optical-switching techniques that exploited the nonlinear effects in
fibers. Pulses as short as 6 fs were generated by 1987. Several reviews and
books cover the enormous progress made during the 1980s.
3
The field of nonlinear fiber optics continued to grow during the decade
of the 1990s. A new dimension was added when optical fibers were doped
with rare-earth elements and used to make amplifiers and lasers. Although
fiber amplifiers were made as early as 1964, it was only after 1987 that
their development accelerated. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers attracted the
most attention because they operate in the wavelength region near 1.55 m
and can be used for compensation of losses in fiber-optic lightwave
systems. Such amplifiers were used for commercial applications beginning
in 1995. Their use has led to a virtual revolution in the design of
multichannel lightwave systems.
4

117
The advent of fiber amplifiers also fueled research on optical solitons
and led eventually to the concept of dispersion-managed solitons.
In another development, fiber gratings, first made in 1978, were
developed during the 1990s to the point that they became an integral part
of lightwave technology. Nonlinear effects in fiber gratings and photonic-
crystal fibers have attracted considerable attention since 1996. Clearly, the
field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown considerably in the 1990s and is
expected to do so during the twenty-first century. It has led to a number of
advances important from the fundamental as well as the technological
point of view. The interest in nonlinear fiber optics should continue in
view of the development of the photonic-based technologies for
information management.

7. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

fuel bundle reduce exploit


dimension lossy commercial

1) This work … the study of cosmic planets.


2) Lazers and LEDs are used to transmit light through different … of
glass fibers.
3) Microbending will … optical power in the glass.
4) Dispersion … different information that can be sent over an optical
fiber.
5) A new … of optical fibers was discussed in the last report of a
famous scientist.
6) The main difference between single mode and multimode fibers is
the … of the core.
7) Both lazers and LEDs are used for … application.

8. Link each word in Column A with a word it can be combined with


from Columns B, C, D, E. In some cases, more than one combination
is possible.

A B C D E
watches fiber transmission effect
silica + + - -
glass
optical

118
nonlinear

9. Give Russian equivalents to the following terms:

image transmission, glass fiber bundle, wavelength region, low–loss


silica fibers, optical fiber communications, parametric four-wave
mixing, self-phase modulation, solution–like pulses, optical–switching
techniques, rare-earth elements, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, fiber-
optic lightwave system, multichannel lightwave system, dispersion-
managed solitons, photonic-crystal fibers, photonic-based technologies
for information management.

10. Translate the following text from Russian into English paying
attention to the technical terms from this lesson.

В стандартных волоконных световодах Bm не является


постоянной вдоль волокна, а изменяется беспорядочно из-за
флуктуаций формы сердцевины и анизотропного давления. В
результате свет входит в волокно с установленным состоянием
поляризации, а затем изменяет поляризацию в произвольном режиме.
Это изменение поляризации обычно является безобидным для
незатухающих световых колебаний (непрерывного режима), потому
что большинство фотоприемников не реагирует на изменение
поляризации падающего света. Это становится важным для систем
оптической связи, когда передаются короткие импульсы по длинному
пути. Если входной импульс возбуждает обе составляющие
поляризации, то две составляющие перемещаются по волокну с
различными скоростями из-за их различных групповых скоростей.
Импульс становится шире на выходном конце, потому что групповая
скорость изменяются беспорядочно по причине произвольного
двойного лучепреломления (аналогично проблеме случайного
блуждания). Это явление, называемое поляризационно-модовой
дисперсией (PMD), интенсивно анализировалось в течение 1990-ых
из-за значимости линейных волновых систем.

11. Problem-solving. Each student should prepare to talk to the rest of the
class for two or three minutes on one of the following subjects.

- the appearance of fiber optics as a necessity for image transmission


- progress in fabrication technology in1970s
119
- a revolution in the field of optical fiber communications in 1980s
-1995s - the development of miltichannel light wave systems
- nonlinear fiber optics.

Prepare some notes but don’t read them. The rest of the students
should be ready to ask questions at the end.

12. Writing. Put the following words below in the right word order to
make a sentence.

1. The / changed / in / situation / drastically /1970


2. Pulses / 6 fs / generated / 1987/ as short as /were /by
3. 1995 /Such /were /for /applications / in /amplifiers /used
/commercial /beginning
4. was / only / 1987 / that / development / after / It / their /accelerated/
5. standard /These / fibers / extremely / lossy / modern / early / were /
from / the / early
6. has / to / advances / led / from / as well as / the fundamental /
technological / of view / It / a number of / important /the / point

Unit 15

1. The most common English sound is schwa - /ǝ/. It’s a weak and
reduced vowel that appears only in unstressed syllables, ex. computer
/kǝm'pju:tǝ/. Find the schwa sound in these words:
provider, capacity, error, suggest, technology, alternative, evolution,
obsolete, photonics, abandon.
Practise saying the words.

120
2. Find the odd word out paying attention to the meanings of the
prefixes:
a) asynchronous, misleading, increase, undiminished;
b) restoration, respect, replace, resurge.

3. Study these illustrations a) and b). What do they describe? Discuss in


pairs. Can you predict what the topic is about?

a)
b)

4. Do you know what this abbreviation and an acronym mean? What do


they stand for? Match the definitions to the given terms.
DWDM SONET

a. It is a standard for synchronous data transmission on optical media.


It is the United States version of the standard published by the
American National Standards Institutue (ANSI). Its international
equivalent is SDH - synchronous digital hierarchy.

b. It is a fiber-optic transmission technique. It involves the process of


multiplexing many different wavelength signals onto a single fiber.
121
So each fiber has a set of parallel optical channels each using
slightly different light wavelengths. It employs light wavelengths to
transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character.

5. Read the text about synchronous optical network and dense


wavelength-division multiplexing and fill in the table with the
information from the text. Put the cross (×) if there is no relevant
information in the text.

SONET DWDM
works well for
perspectives
advantages
features
network functions

SONET, DWDM, and Optical Networks

A. Although SONET carries multiplexed voice circuits well, the


multiplexing of voice is now a much less important task in optical
networks compared to the movement of data. In most systems today, data
is still multiplexed by SONET add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) before
transport by DWDM systems. One advantage of this approach is that
SONET provides many functions to simplify the management and
operation of transport networks. Network management functions are
performed by an embedded communications channel between network
elements that allows signal labels, remote error indicators, signal traces,
error detection, multiplexing, and synchronization.

B. DWDM increases the capacity of optical networks by increasing the


number of wavelengths, or “colors”, of light that can be transmitted down
a fiber optic path. At the same time, DWDM possesses advantages that
may reduce reliance on SONET in the network, at least in the form used
today. In particular, routing traffic by wavelength may render some of
SONET’s advantages obsolete.

C. While DWDM will not replace SONET entirely—at least not any time
soon—SONET’s long-term future is certainly not rosy. Whether SONET
can last or should be abandoned is a popular question, with more than a
few players in the business hoping for SONET’s speedy demise. Any
122
network architecture that requires significant SONET multiplexing also
requires burdensome optical-to-electrical conversion with added cost.
Misleading advertising by many vendors has unfortunately created
confusion by suggesting the imminent arrival of an “All Optical Network”.

D. Yet with so much data traffic in the form of pure Internet protocol (IP)
packets, service providers are tempted to boost the efficiency of their
networks by eliminating layers between IP and DWDM. Recently-
developed OC-48c and OC-192c high-speed interfaces enable routers and
switches to interface directly with DWDM systems without time division
multiplexing (TDM) from a SONET ADM. For the first time, carrying IP
or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic directly over photonics
becomes possible. Such a move could reduce the costs of high-capacity
networks, if the network functions now provided by SONET could be built
into the optical layer. Some of the SONET management functions can
indeed be provided by DWDM systems by using an optical supervisory
channel (OSC), which uses either a separate wavelength or a small amount
of bandwidth (per-channel) to facilitate communications among optical
network elements. The OSC typically provides an embedded data
communications channel, order-wire capability, signal label and trace, and
remote error indications. Some SONET features, however, such as fault
isolation, synchronization, protection, and restoration are not easily
duplicated within an OSC.

E. Forecasting demand for telecommunications services and equipment


has been a challenge for the last two years — especially with respect to
optical networks. During this time, SONET/SDH sales have tanked as
service providers chose to limit their capital investment in growth and
responded to additional capacity needs by using up the reserve capacity in
their well-engineered networks, leaving little margin for planning errors.
Insight’s research suggests that SONET/SDH will resurge as carriers again
see the need to add capacity in response to undiminished end-user demand
for ever-greater amounts of bandwidth. Carriers will continue using
SONET/SDH since it is an established technology that has already
performed well for voice transmission. Given the hype about replacing
SONET/SDH with alternatives such as dense wavelength-division
multiplexing (DWDM), the path of SONET’s evolution is not entirely
clear.

123
6. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False:
a. Existing SONET equipment is still being deployed alongside the
DWDM systems.
b. In optical networks the movement of data is as important as the
multiplexing of voice.
c. From both technical and economic perspectives, the ability to
provide potentially increased transmission capacity is the most
obvious advantage of DWDM technology.
d. DWDM technology can course renewal of SONET.
e. There is no need for optical-electrical-optical (OEO) conversion in
any network architecture that requires SONET multiplexing.
f. Sonet will be widely replaced by DWDM anytime in the future.
g. Thanks to recently developed OC48 and OC192 optical interfaces,
routers now can hook directly to DWDM systems and save carriers
the cost of optical-to-electrical conversion.
h. Innovations such as an "optical supervisory channel" allow DWDM
systems to match, at least in part, the management capabilities of
Sonet equipment.
i. According to the Insight’s research, the Sonet market will rise again
as carriers eventually will start to look more critically at Sonet's
complexities compared with optical switching.

7. The passages in the above article have been mixed up. Read the text
again and put the passages (A-E) in the right order.

8. What do the underlined words mean in the text? Choose one


explanation from the given variants. In some cases, you may need to
return to the text to deduce meanings correctly.

1) Network management functions are performed by an embedded


communications channel between network elements that allows
signal labels, remote error indicators, signal traces, error detection,
multiplexing, and synchronization.
a. inserted into b. passive c. wide
2) In particular, routing traffic by wavelength may render some of
SONET’s advantages obsolete.
a. up-to-date b. outdate c. in demand

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3) While DWDM will not replace SONET entirely—at least not any
time soon—SONET’s long-term future is certainly not rosy.
a. not decorated with roses b. red-colored c. gloomy/pessimistic
4) Whether SONET can last or should be abandoned is a popular
question, with more than a few players in the business hoping for
SONET’s speedy demise.
a. supported b. given up c. kept up
5) Any network architecture that requires significant SONET
multiplexing also requires burdensome optical-to-electrical
conversion with added cost.
a. troublesome b. helpful c. responsible
6) Misleading advertising by many vendors has unfortunately created
confusion by suggesting the imminent arrival of an “All Optical
Network”.
a. later b. doubtful c. expected to happen soon
7) Yet with so much data traffic in the form of pure Internet protocol
(IP) packets, service providers are tempted to boost the efficiency
of their networks by eliminating layers between IP and DWDM.
a. have to b. are invited c. are unwilling
8) Such a move could reduce the costs of high-capacity networks, if
the network functions now provided by SONET could be built into
the optical layer.
a. made a permanent part of b. involved into c. based on
9) During this time, SONET/SDH sales have tanked as service
providers chose to limit their capital investment in growth and
responded to additional capacity needs by using up the reserve
capacity in their well-engineered networks, leaving little margin for
planning errors.
a. have increased b. have leveled out c. have declined
10) Given the hype about replacing SONET/SDH with alternatives
such as dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM), the
path of SONET’s evolution is not entirely clear.
a. In the light of advertising activity
b. In the light of false claims
c. Given the wrong idea

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

bandwidth performance SDH TDM demand


synchronization All-Optical network DWDM SONET
O/E conversions cost OC-48 125interfaces wavelengths colors
1) It's possible to stack lots of … within a fiber optic cable and
provide incredible … to any location that can be reached with that
cable.
2) With the development of optical networks and the use of …
technology, a new and probably, a very crucial milestone is being
reached in network evolution.
3) An … is that wavelength-routed network that carries data across
from one access station to another without any … .
4) The carrier has to balance the … requirements with the … of the
system, which is the essence of optimization.
5) Originally developed in the U.S. and finalized in 1988, … shortly
thereafter was internationalized by the CCITT (now ITU-T) as … .
6) SONET employs …, which allows multiple communications
channels to be carved out of a single, digital transmission facility.
7) SONET multiplexing equipment can be avoided altogether by
interfacing directly to DWDM equipment from ATM and packet
switches, where … are common.
8) Different colors of light, called …, are combined into one optical
signal and sent over a fiber-optic cable to a far-end optical
multiplexing system.
9) SONET involves … of the digital signals arriving at the equipment.
10) The major manufacturers obviously have put all their resources
into the development of DWDM techniques to meet the rising …
from carriers and end users alike.

10. Role-play. Complete the gaps in this interview and play the parts of
the interviewer and Gray Smith. Then find another partner and change
the part to play it again.
Q: ……………………………………………..
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: Fundamentally, two things
have improved. You're getting a combination of more wavelengths on the
same fiber, which is WDM, and also higher speeds or higher bit rates per
wavelength. ……………………………………
Q: So, at present, telecoms are not using all-optical?
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: …………………………...
Q: ………………………………………………
126
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: It used to be done
electronically. But probably for the last five years, it's been done optically
with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. It's a piece of fiber that is doped
with the rare-earth element, erbium. When you pump it using another
semiconductor laser at the right wavelength, the atoms inside this fiber go
to an excited state. Now, when you get light coming in from your line that
needs to be amplified, these atoms drop back to their ground state, emitting
more photons.
Q: At the same frequency as the frequencies that have to be amplified?
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: Exactly, that's the magic.
…………………………………………………………………………….
Q: …………………………………………………
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: My work is in all-optical
network architecture, protocol, and control management issues. What
we've been doing, for example, is looking at a wavelength division
multiplexed ring or mesh, and for a given set of connections or paths that a
customer requires. How do you assign wavelengths so that the cost is at a
minimum? This cost could be in terms of bandwidth usage, delay,
equipment or devices involved, so on and so forth.
Another area, which is related, is looking at the evolution of an all-optical
network from the current, mainly SONET-based, network that simply uses
fiber links for transmission.
Q: What is a SONET network?
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: …………………………..
Q: ………………………………………………….
Gray Smith, ACD Telecommunications Inc.: An all-optical network in
the backbone certainly makes sense because it is transparent to bit rate,
coding format, and upper layer protocol. Therefore, it is kind of future
proof. I think it's coming, given the continued advances in WDM,
switching, and optical amplifier technologies. The good news about optical
technology is that it's scaled to start off with a relatively modest size
network - a few colors on the backbone and then gradually increasing it to
a large number of colors on the backbone. Some of the backbone can
actually be in space. The important point is this technology scale provides
us the ability to grow - there are no blind alleys in the technology, and
therefore it makes a good investment.

11. Problem-solving. Work in groups A and B. Be prepared to describe


the process shown in the diagram to another group. Take notes on the
127
process described to you. Ask your partners to repeat or explain
further if you do not understand any of the steps in their description.

12. Writing. Make a research for the latest developments in optical


networking. Make a summary of your findings in a written form. Your
report should have these sections:

1) Introduction
2) Main body (including examples to support your statements)
3) Conclusion

128
SATELLITES COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGY

Unit 16

1. Find the odd word out paying attention to the pronunciation of the
sound in bold:
a. navigation, geo-spatial, global, signal;
b. ground, generation, augmentation, integrity;
c. progress, regardless, angle, longitude.

2. Match the following multisyllable words in Column A with their


pronunciation patterns in Column B.

Column A Column B
129
satellite
navigation
longitude
latitude
experiment
integrity
geostationary
terrestrial
superimpose
measurement
Practise saying the words.

3. Discuss the following questions as a class:


1) What do you know about satellites?
2) What do we need them for?
3) When was the first navigation system used?

4. Think of as many words as possible related to global


navigation satellite system.

GLOBAL
NAVIGATION
SATELLITE
SYSTEM

5. Match the following words on the left with their definitions on the
right:

generic angular distance measured in degrees


N or S of the equator
latitude of a class or a group
altitude increasing
augmentation height above sea level
civilian quality of being united
predecessor ancestor
integrity not belonging to the armed force
precise exact, accurate in every detail

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fix move, transfer
shift place permanently
constellation external frame of something
shell group of stars

6. Read the text “History and theory of Global Navigation Satellite


System” and fill in the gaps with the relevant information from the
text.

1) A GHSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their…. .


2) Early predecessors were the ground based DECCA, LORAN and
OMEGA Systems, which used terrestrial … … … instead of satellites.
3) The distance to each of the slaves could be determined providing a
….
4) The satellites traveled on well-known paths and broadcast their
signals on a well-known … .
5) Modern systems are more … .
6) The satellite uses an … … to maintain synchronization of all the
satellites in the constellation.
7) Each distance measurement places the receiver on a … … at the
measurement distance from the broadcast.

History and Theory of Global Navigation Satellite System

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic


term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial
positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allows small electronic
receivers to determine their location, (longitude and altitude) to within a
few meters using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio
from satellites. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be
used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments.
The United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is the
only fully operational GNSS. The Russian GlONASS is a GNSS in the
process of being restored to full operation.
GNSS-1 is the first generation system and is the combination of
existing satellite navigation systems (GPS and GLONASS)
GNSS-2 is the second generation of systems that independently provides a
full civilian satellite navigation system, exemplified by the European
Galileo positioning system. These systems will provide the accuracy and

131
integrity monitoring necessary for civil navigation. This system consists of
L1 and L2 frequencies for civil use and L5 for system integrity.
Early predecessors were the ground based DECCA, LORAN and
Omega systems, which used terrestrial longwave radio transmitters instead
of satellites. These positioning systems broadcast a radio pulse from a
known "master" location, followed by repeated pulses from a number of
"slave" stations. The delay between the reception and sending of the signal
at the slaves was carefully controlled, allowing the receivers to compare
the delay between reception and the delay between sending. From this the
distance to each of the slaves could be determined, providing a fix.
The first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by
the US military in the 1960s. Transit's operation was based on the Doppler
Effect: the satellites traveled on well-known paths and broadcast their
signals on a well known frequency. The received frequency will differ
slightly from the broadcast frequency because of the movement of the
satellite with respect to the receiver. By monitoring this frequency shift
over a short time interval, the receiver can determine its location to one
side or the other of the satellite, and several such measurements combined
with a precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit can fix a particular
position.
Part of an orbiting satellite's broadcast included its precise orbital data.
In order to ensure accuracy, the US Naval Observatory (USNO)
continuously observed precisely the orbits of these satellites. As a
satellite's orbit deviated, the USNO would send the updated information to
the satellite. Subsequent broadcasts from an updated satellite would
contain the most recent accurate information about its orbit.
Modern systems are more direct. The satellite broadcasts a signal that
contains the position of the satellite and the precise time the signal was
transmitted. The position of the satellite is transmitted in a data message
that is superimposed on a code that serves as a timing reference. The
satellite uses an atomic clock to maintain synchronization of all the
satellites in the constellation. The receiver compares the time of broadcast
encoded in the transmission with the time of reception measured by an
internal clock, thereby measuring the time-of-flight to the satellite. Several
such measurements can be made at the same time to different satellites,
allowing a continual fix to be generated in real time.
Each distance measurement, regardless of the system being used,
places the receiver on a spherical shell at the measured distance from the
broadcaster. By taking several such measurements and then looking for a

132
point where they meet, a fix is generated. However, in the case of fast-
moving receivers, the position of the signal moves as signals are received
from several satellites. In addition, the radio signals slow slightly as they
pass through the ionosphere, and this slowing varies with the receiver's
angle to the satellite, because that changes the distance through the
ionosphere. The basic computation thus attempts to find the shortest
directed line tangent to four oblate spherical shells centered on four
satellites. Satellite navigation receivers reduce errors by using
combinations of signals from multiple satellites and multiple correlators,
and then using techniques such as Kalman filtering to combine the noisy,
partial, and constantly changing data into a single estimate for position,
time, and velocity.

7. Read the text again and mark the following statements as True or
False.
a. Transmitters on the ground with a fixed position can be used to
calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments.
b. GNSS-1 is the combination of the existing navigation system (GPS
and GLONASS).
c. Early predecessors were the ground based two systems-LORANS
and OMEGA.
d. These systems used terrestrial long wave radio transmitters.
e. GNSS will provide the accuracy and integrity monitoring necessary
for military navigation.
f. The first satellite navigation system was Transit.
g. The received frequency will differ slightly from the broadcast
frequency because of the movement of the satellite with respect to
the receiver.
h. As a satellite’s orbit deviated, the USNO would receive the updated
information from the satellite.
i. The satellite broadcasts a signal that contains the position of the
satellite and the precise time the signal was received.
j. The satellite uses a kinetic clock to maintain synchronization of all
the satellites in the constellation.
k. Each distance measurement places the receiver on a spherical shell
at the measured distance from the broadcaster.
l. The basic computation attempts to find the longest directed line
tangent to four oblate spherical shells centered on four satellites.

133
8. To summarize the information from the text answer the following
questions:

1) What do satellite navigation systems provide?


2) What does a GNSS allow to determine?
3) How can GNSS be classified?
4) What were early predecessors?
5) How do they broadcast a radio pulse?
6) What was the first navigation system and when was it used?
7) What is the Doppler Effect?
8) What is used to ensure accuracy?
9) What can you say about modern systems of navigation?
10) What clock does the satellite use?
11) Why does the receiver’s angle vary?

9. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences:

time signal calculate accuracy integrity slave orbital


information location transit paths reduce fix atomic clock
ionosphere internal clock superimposed data

1. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can be used … the


precise time as a reference for scientific experiments.
2. A GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their
location to within a few meters using … …. transmitted along a line
of sight by radio from satellites.
3. The first satellite navigation was …. .
4. The systems will provide the …. and … monitoring necessary for
civil navigation.
5. The positioning systems broadcast a radio pulse from a known
“master” location, followed by repeated pulses from a number of
“…” stations.
6. The satellites traveled on a well-known … .
7. By monitoring this frequency shift over a short time interval, the
receiver can determine its … to one side or the other of the satellite.
8. Part of an orbiting satellite’s broadcast included its precise … … .
9. Broadcast from an updated satellite would contain the most recent
accurate … about its orbit.

134
10. The position of the satellite is transmitted in a data message that is
… on a code that serves as a timing reference.
11. The satellite uses an … … to maintain synchronization of all the
satellites in the constellation.
12. The receiver compares the time of broadcast encoded in the
transmission with the time of reception measured by an … …. .
13. From this the distance to each of the slaves could be determined,
providing a … .
14. The radio signal slow slightly as they pass through the … .
15. Satellite navigation receivers … errors by using combinations of
signals from multiple satellites and multiple correlators.

10. Read the questions to the frequently asked questions (FAQ) found on
the Internet. Role-play a dialogue of your own using them.
1) Why do satellite navigation systems work when it’s cloudy?
2) How strong is the signal of satellite navigation?
3) What is the word that is used for geographic satellite location
system?

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. Look at the words in the list below.
Divide the words into two groups. One group will go under the
heading “The predecessors of the satellites”. The other group will go
under the heading “Modern satellite system”. You must have a reason
for putting the words in each group.

The predecessors of the satellites Modern satellite systems


Transit, Decca, USNO, LORAN, code, timing reference, Omega,
constellation, Kalman filtering, Doppler effect, internal clock, slave,
longwave radio transmitters.
Discuss the differences in their work.

12. Writing. Make predictions about the future applications of the GNSS.
Put the most certain at the beginning of you report and the least certain
at the end. You can use this list of certainty expressions:
will (won’t), could, may, might, certainly, probably, possibly, certain,
likely, unlikely.

135
Unit 17

1. Make two groups of the words in the list according to the pronunciation
of the letter “i”:
/ai/ /i/
satellites, include, microwave, information, identify, light, divide,
different, visible, involve, interest, highest, define, discrete, particular,
design, describe, signature, while, time, white.

2. Fill in the table below with the required words and make any necessary
spelling changes. Use your dictionary if necessary. Check the meaning
of the unknown words.

VERB NOUN
define …
… development

136
… information
identify …
measure …
… absorption
divide …
… reflection
collect …

3. Match each word in Column A with its similarity in Column B:

Column A Column B
remote ability of definition
sensor long strip of cloth wrapped around
smth
refer polished surface for reflecting light
land ability to take in
identify affect
resource single line or narrow beam of light
ray source of help
involve prove or recognize as being a
certain thing
absorption earth

reflector be relevant to
swath far away
resolution device that detects the presence of
smth

4. Think of the primitive methods of remote sensing, continue the list:


balloon, kites…

Think of the modern methods of remote sensing, continue the list:

137
aircraft, satellites…

5. Scan the text “Introduction to remote sensing and fill in the gaps with
relevant information from the text.

1) Aircraft and satellites are the common … for remote sensing of the
earth and its natural resources.
2) The EM spectrum can be divided into … different regions.
3) The measurement of this radiation takes place in what are known as
… bands.
4) When radiation from the Sun reaches the surface of the Earth, some
of the energy is … and the rest of the energy is … by the surface
material.
5) A … is a device that measures and records electromagnetic energy.
6) The path followed by a satellite is referred to as its … .
7) The spatial … is the area imaged for the instantaneous field of
view of the sensing device.
8) Temporal … is a measure of the … cycle or … with which a sensor
revisits the same part of the Earth’s surface.
9) The spectral … of a sensor system is the … and …of spectral
bands in the sensing device.

Introduction to Remote Sensing

Remote sensing can be broadly defined as the collection and


interpretation of information about an object, area, or event without being
in physical contact with the object. Aircraft and satellites are the common
platforms for remote sensing of the earth and its natural resources. Aerial
photography in the visible portion of the electromagnetic wavelength was
the original form of remote sensing but technological developments has
enabled the acquisition of information at other wavelengths including near
infrared, thermal infrared and microwave. Collection of information over a
138
large numbers of wavelength bands is referred to as multispectral or
hyperspectral data. The development and deployment of manned and
unmanned satellites has enhanced the collection of remotely sensed data
and offers an inexpensive way to obtain information over large areas. The
capacity of remote sensing to identify and monitor land surfaces and
environmental conditions has expanded greatly over the last few years and
remotely sensed data will be an essential tool in natural resource
management.
1
The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the continuous range of
electromagnetic radiation, extending from gamma rays (highest frequency
& shortest wavelength) to radio waves (lowest frequency & longest
wavelength) and including visible light.
The EM spectrum can be divided into seven different regions —— gamma
rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwaves and radio
waves.

Remote sensing involves the measurement of energy in many parts of the


electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The major regions of interest in satellite
sensing are visible light, reflected and emitted infrared, and the microwave
regions. The measurement of this radiation takes place in what are known
as spectral bands. A spectral band is defined as a discrete interval of the
EM spectrum.
2
When radiation from the Sun reaches the surface of the Earth, some of
the energy at specific wavelengths is absorbed and the rest of the energy is
reflected by the surface material. The only two exceptions to this situation
are if the surface of a body is a perfect reflector or a true black body. The
occurrence of these surfaces in the natural world is very rare. In the visible
region of the EM spectrum, the feature we describe as the color of the
object is the visible light that is not absorbed by that object. In the case of
139
a green leaf, for example, the blue and red wavelengths are absorbed by
the leaf, while the green wavelength is reflected and detected by our eyes.
In remote sensing, a detector measures the electromagnetic (EM) radiation
that is reflected back from the Earth’s surface materials.
The reflectance of radiation from one type of surface material, such as soil,
varies over the range of wavelengths in the EM spectrum. This is known as
the spectral signature of the material.
3
A sensor is a device that measures and records electromagnetic
energy. Sensors can be divided into two groups. Passive sensors depend on
an external source of energy, usually the sun. The most common passive
sensor is the photographic camera. Active sensors have their own source of
energy, an example would be a radar gun. These sensors send out a signal
and measure the amount reflected back. Active sensors are more controlled
because they do not depend upon varying illumination conditions

4
The path followed by a satellite is referred to as its orbit. Satellites
which view the same portion of the earth’s surface at all times have
Geostationary orbits. Weather and communication satellites commonly
have these types of orbits. Many satellites are designed to follow a north
south orbit which, in conjunction with the earth’s rotation (west-east),
allows them to cover most of the earth’s surface over a period of time.
These are Near-polar orbits. Many of these satellites orbits are also Sun-
synchronous such that they cover each area of the world at a constant local
time of day. Near polar orbits also means that the satellite travels nortward
on one side of the earth and the southward on the second half of its orbit.
These are called Ascending and Descending passes. As a satellite revolves
around the earth, the sensor sees a certain portion of the earth’s surface.
The area imaged is referred to as the Swath. The surface directly below the
satellite is called the Nadir point.
5
The basic function of most satellite sensors is to collect information
about the reflected radiation along a pathway, also known as the field of
view (FOV), as the satellite orbits the Earth. The smallest area of ground
that is sampled is called the instantaneous field of view (IFOV). The IFOV
is also described as the pixel size of the sensor. This sampling or
measurement occurs in one or many spectral bands of the EM spectrum.

140
The data collected by each satellite sensor can be described in terms of
spatial, spectral and temporal resolution.
6
The spatial resolution (also known as ground resolution) is the ground
area imaged for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the sensing
device. Spatial resolution may also be described as the ground surface area
that forms one pixel in the satellite image. The IFOV or ground resolution
of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor, for example, is 30 m.
7
Temporal resolution is a measure of the repeat cycle or frequency with
which a sensor revisits the same part of the Earth’s surface. The frequency
will vary from several times per day, for a typical weather satellite, to 8—
20 times a year for a moderate ground resolution satellite, such as Landsat
TM.
8
The spectral resolution of a sensor system is the number and width of
spectral bands in the sensing device. The simplest form of spectral
resolution is a sensor with one band only, which senses visible light. An
image from this sensor would be similar in appearance to a black and
white photograph from an aircraft.
A panchromatic image consists of only one band. It is usually displayed as
a grey scale image. Thus, a panchromatic image may be similarly
interpreted as a black-and-white aerial photograph of the area, though at a
lower resolution.
Multispectral and hyperspectral images consist of several bands of data.
For visual display, each band of the image may be displayed one band at a
time as a grey scale image, or in combination of three bands at a time as a
color composite image.

6. Read the text and mark the following statements as True or False:

a. The development of manned and unmanned satellites offers an


inexpensive way to obtain information over large areas.
b. The electromagnetic spectrum (EM) can be divided into ten
different regions.
c. The measurement of the radiation takes place in spectral bands.
d. When radiation from the Sun reaches the surface of the Earth, some
of the energy at specific wavelengths is reflected and the rest of the
energy is absorbed by the surface material.

141
e. A sensor is a device that only measures electromagnetic energy.
f. The most common passive sensor is the photographic camera.
g. An example of an active sensor is a radar gun.
h. Near polar orbits means that the satellite travels southward on one
side of the earth and northward on the second half of its orbit.
i. The surface directly below the satellite is called the Nadir point.
j. Spatial resolution may be described as the ground surface area that
forms two pixels in the satellite image.
k. Temporal resolution is a measure of the repeat cycle or frequency
with which a sensor revisits the same part of the Earth’s surface.
l. The spectral resolution of a sensor system is the width of spectral
bands in the sensing device.

7. Read the text again and give a heading to each part (1-8). Compare
your headings in the group.

8. Look at these illustrations and discuss where you can see active and
passive sensors. Label these pictures: active, passive. What is the
difference between them?

Fig 1 Fig 2

9. Fill in the necessary prepositions from the text:

1) Remote sensing can be defined as the collection and interpretation …


information … an object, area, or event … being … physical contact
… the object.

142
2) Remote sensing involves the measurement … energy … many parts
…the EM spectrum.
3) The occurrence … these surfaces … the natural world is very rare.
4) The reflectance … radiation … one type … surface material, such as
soil, varies … the range …wavelengths …the EM spectrum.
5) Sensors can be divided …two groups.
6) The path followed … a satellite is referred …as its orbit.
7) As satellite revolves … the earth, the sensor sees a certain portion …
the earth’s surface.
8) The frequency will vary …several times …day.

10. Semantic groups. Divide the following means of remote sensing into
7 groups and fill in the table:

forest fire mapping, crop yield estimation, mineral exploration, flood


delineation, wildlife protection, future urban expansion planning, storm
forecasting, deforestation mapping, crop type classification, navigation
routing, infrastructure mapping, natural resource management, ground
water targeting, environmental geology, mapping of soil characteristic,
forest cover and density mapping.

Applications of Remote Sensing

1. Forestry and Ecosystem


2. Agriculture
3. Geology
4. Hydrology
5. Land Use/Land Cover
mapping
6. Urban Planning
7. Ocean application

11. Problem solving. Study the four photos below. These are the images
that show different objects, weather and atmosphere conditions. Work
in pairs. Discuss how, where, and with what purpose these pictures
were taken. Use the key words to help you:
mid-latitude cyclone, hurricanes, bridges on the image, baseball
stadium, vertical aerial photographs.

143
Fig 1 Fig 2

Fig 3 Fig 4
12. Writing. The following sentences of the passage are given in the
wrong order. Rewrite the sentences putting them in the right order and
title the passage.

1. The frequency of the emission may then be related to the


temperature in that region via various thermodynamic relations.
2. For example, while it is impossible to directly measure temperatures
in the upper atmosphere, it is possible to measure the spectral
emissions from a known chemical species (such as carbon dioxide)
in that region.
3. While the object or phenomenon of interest (the state) may not be
directly measured, there exists some other variable that can be
detected and measured (the observation), which may be related to
the object of interest through the use of a data-derived computer
model.
4. Generally speaking, remote sensing works on the principle of the
inverse problem. The common analogy given to describe this is
trying to determine the type of animal from its footprints.

144
Unit 18

1. Find the odd word out paying attention to the sound in bold:
a. sky, dry, fry, city, by;
b. traditionally, stationary, trajectory, accuracy, simplify.

2. Match the items in Column A with their functions in Column B:

Column A Column B
receiver displays its position as longitude/latitude

navigation satellites monitor the position and health of


satellites
tracking stations picks up signals

users terminals tell you where you are

satellite navigation receive the satellites’ navigation signals


device

Describe the functions of the items in two ways: used + to-infinitive,


used for + -ing form.

145
3. Look at the photos and answer the following questions:
1) What do you see in figure 1?
2) How can you describe figures 2 and 3 using the key words
(receiver, satellite, augmentation)?
3) Can you predict what the topic is about?

Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3

4. Read the text “Satellite Navigation System”. Match the beginnings and
the endings of these sentences to show the general understanding of the
text.

1. You can determine your position a. where you are to the nearest few
anywhere on the Earth’s surface meters or better whatever the
weather.
2. Navigation satellites can tell you b. using the fixed stars.

3. The ground or control segment c. to calculate an exact location


consists of through triangulation.
4. Navigation satellite receivers use d. several tracking stations placed
the information at different locations over the
Earth’s surface.
5. The distance of the receiver from e. its position on the surface of the
three or more satellites reveals planet.

Satellite Navigation System

Using the fixed stars, you can determine your position anywhere on the
Earth’s surface to within a few hundred meters, provided the weather is
fine. But navigation satellites can tell you where you are to the nearest few
meters or better, whatever the weather.
All you need to take advantage of this sophisticated new technology is
a receiver to pick up signals transmitted by navigational satellites. The

146
receiver technology is small enough to be incorporated into the electronics
of a car, or even a mobile phone.
The US and Russia provide the two global satellite navigation systems
now available. A third system, Galileo, being built and operated in Europe,
is due to come on line early in the next decade. [1 - …]
A satellite navigation system consists of a space segment, typically 24
navigational satellites, a ground or control segment and a user segment.
The satellites are placed in circular orbits at heights of about 20 000 km so
that at least four are visible from any point on the Earth’s surface at any
time.
The ground or control segment consists of several tracking stations
placed at different locations over the Earth’s surface, and a central ground
station. The tracking stations monitor the position and health of the
satellites, send data back to the central station for processing and then relay
accurate measurements of each satellite’s position to the satellite for
incorporation into its navigational signal.
The user segment consists of the users of the GPS system who are
equipped with terminals to receive the satellites’ navigational signals.
Global navigation satellites continuously transmit time and distance
information as they orbit the earth in a precise formation. Navigation
satellite receivers use this information to calculate an exact location
through triangulation. Every point on Earth is identified by two sets of
numbers called coordinates. [2 - …] The receiver locks on to at least three
satellites and uses the information received to determine the coordinates of
the device.
By comparing the time the signals were transmitted from the satellites
and the time they were recorded, the receiver calculates how far away each
satellite is. The distance of the receiver from three or more satellites
reveals its position on the surface of the planet. [3 - …]
The satellite navigation device may display its position as
longitude/latitude, Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), Military Grid
(MG) or simply as a point on an electronic map. Many Thales Navigation
receivers provide comprehensive mapping data, making satellite
navigation an easy tool to enhance your recreational and industrial
activities.
Satellite navigation receivers operate by line of sight with global
positioning satellites. This means that at least three satellites must be in
"view" of a receiver in order to calculate longitude and latitude. A fourth
satellite must also be within line of sight to calculate altitude. On average,

147
eight satellites are continuously within line of sight of every position on
Earth; the more satellites in view, the more accurate the positioning.
The radio signals of navigation satellites will pass through clouds,
glass, plastic and other lightweight materials. [4 - …]
On average, a satellite navigation receiver is accurate to within 15
meters. Thales Navigation employs several technologies to increase the
accuracy of their Ashtech and Magellan receivers. An accuracy of 3 meters
or better is achieved using correction signals from satellite navigation
augmentation systems. In the U.S., an accuracy of 3 meters is achieved
using signal corrections from a network of ground stations and fixed
position satellites known as WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System). [5-
…] In Asia, satellite navigation signal correction is provided by MSAS
(Multifunctional Transport Satellite-based Augmentation System). Other
ways to increase the accuracy of satellite navigation include the use of
DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System).
A number of positioning errors can occur, limiting accuracy to within
15 to 25 meters. These errors are monitored and compensated for in a
number of ways:
 Orbiting errors - Occasionally a satellite's reported position does not
match its actual trajectory.
 Poor geometry - If all the satellites within line of site of a receiver are
clustered closely together, or lined up relative to the position of the
receiver, the geometric calculations necessary for triangulating a position
become difficult and less reliable.
 Multi-path signals - Signals may be reflected off tall buildings or
other obstructions before reaching the receiver, increasing the distance a
signal travels, reducing accuracy.

5. Mark the following statements as True or False.

a. The US and Russia provide the two global satellite navigation systems
now available.
b. A satellite navigation system consists of a space segment, typically 26
navigational satellites, a ground or control segment and a user
segment.
c. The ground or control segment consists of several tracking stations
placed at the same locations over the Earth’s surface.
d. Every point on Earth is identified by two sets of numbers called
coordinates.

148
e. The receiver locks on to at least five satellites and uses the
information received to determine the coordinates of the device.
f. The distance of the receiver from three or more satellites reveals its
position on the surface of the planet.
g. A fourth satellite must not be within line of sight to calculate altitude.
h. The less satellites in view, the more accurate the positioning.
i. On average, a satellite navigation receiver is accurate to within 15
meters.
j. In Asia, satellite navigation signal correction is provided by MSAS
(Multifunctional Transport Satellite-based Augmentation System).
k. Occasionally a satellite's reported position does not match its actual
trajectory.
l. If all the satellites within line of site of a receiver are
clustered closely together, the geometric calculations
become difficult and less reliable.
m. Signals may be reflected off tall buildings or other obstructions
before reaching the receiver, decreasing the distance a signal travels,
reducing accuracy.

6. Six sentences have been removed from the text. Read the text again and
choose from the sentences (A-F) the one which fits each gap (1-5).
There is one extra sentence you don’t need to use.

A. The three systems will be fully interoperable, which means that


users on will be able to determine a position by picking up signals
from any combination of satellites belonging to any of the three
systems.

B. The day is fast approaching when we will be using satellite


navigation routinely to avoid traffic jams in city centers.

C. These coordinates represent the exact point where a horizontal line,


known as latitude, crosses a vertical line, known as longitude.

D. With these distance measurements, the receiver might also


calculate speed, bearing, trip time, distance to destination, altitude
and more.
E. Though satellite navigation receivers will not work underground or
in other enclosed spaces.

149
F. Throughout Europe a similar system provides the same accuracy;
EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System).
7. To summarize information from the text answer the following questions:

1) How can you determine your position anywhere on the Earth’s


surface?
2) What can pinpoint your position whatever the weather?
3) How many satellite navigation systems are there?
4) What does a satellite navigation system consist of?
5) What does the ground or control segment consist of?
6) How can an exact location be calculated?
7) What calculates how far away each satellite is?
8) How many satellites must be in “view” to calculate longitude and
latitude?
9) What is an average number of satellites that are continuously within
line of sight of every position on Earth?
10) How is an accuracy of 3 meters achieved?
11) Why can a number of positioning errors occur?

8. Fill in the correct word from the list below, one word you don’t need to
fill in:

transmitted, picking up, determine, users, location, sight, underground.

1) The user segment consists of the … of the GPS system who are
equipped with terminals to receive the satellites’ navigational signals.
2) All you need to take advantage of this sophisticated new technology is a
receiver to pick up signals … by navigation satellites.
3) The three systems will be fully interoperable, which means that users
on will be able to determine a positively … signal from any combination
of satellites.
4) Navigation satellite receivers use the information to calculate an exact
… through triangulation.
5) Satellite navigation receivers operate by line of … with global
positioning satellites.
6) Through the radio signals of navigation satellites will pass through
clouds, glass, plastic and other lightweight materials, satellite navigation
receivers will not work … or in other enclosed spaces.

150
9. Think of the word which best fits in each space. Write only one word.

The Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) allows small


electronic devices to … their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) as
well as time with an … of up to a few centimeters using time signals
transmitted along a line of … by radio from satellites. Receivers on the
ground with a … position can also be used to … the precise time as a
reference for scientific experiments. The … used satellite navigation
system is the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). This ... of
29 satellites in full operation capability (FOC) status that orbit in six
different planes. They … at an altitude of approximately 20,000 km with
an inclination of 55 degrees, making a … orbit in approximately 11 hours,
58 minutes. The satellites are … by a world-wide network of monitor
stations.

10. Sentence building. Make one sentence, incorporating the extra


information into the main sentence. Make any necessary changes and
additions.

Example
Navigation systems are widely available.
corresponding/ that display map images/ with a geographic location.

Navigation systems that display map images corresponding with a


geographic location are widely available.

a. The clock is not as accurate as the atomic clock.


on a navigation satellite/built into a receiver.
b. Users of satellite navigation decide to use the differential technique.
such as large airports/major/ may/ by installing /their own fixed
receivers.
c. All satellites need to be synchronized.
so that they can start/ for this system of measurement to work/
at precisely the same time/transmitting their signals.
d. Inaccurate distance measurements will also occur.
because it is reflected off/ if the signal takes/ tall buildings or other
surfaces/an abnormally long path/ before reaching the receiver.

151
11. Problem-solving. Work in groups. Discuss these two statements.

a. Satellite navigation is the easiest way to find the nearest free parking
space.
b. Constellation is the easiest way to determine your position on the
Earth’s surface.
Present your ideas to the class supporting them by examples.

12. Writing. Make a research to give your detailed written reply to these
questions:

1) How to achieve continuous synchronization of all on-board atomic


clocks?
2) What are the ways of overcoming different inaccuracies in position
measurement?

Unit 19

1. Practise saying the words paying attention to the pronunciation of


the sound in bold: /kw/ - frequency, question, equator, require,
equipment, quick, quiz.

2. How do the following words formed? Explain the meaning of each


part. Can you give any other examples?

Meteorologist
Ecosystem
Geosynchronous
Geographic
Infrastructure
Maritime

3. Match each word in Column A with its partner in Column B to make


a term. More than one combination is possible in some cases. What
do these terms mean?

152
Column A Column B
valuable satellite
communication location
orbital data
radio speed
high frequency
fixed network
terrestrial antenna
rural telephony

4. Scan the text “Satellite Basics” and fill in the gaps with the relevant
information from the text.

1) As long as a satellite is positioned over the equator in an


assigned orbital location, it will appear to be “….” with respect
to a specific location on the Earth.
2) These orbits are reserved for communications satellites that
cover the … and … … .
3) Communications require the use of … … .
4) A single transponder is capable of handling up to 155 million
bits of … per second.
5) The … can be tailored to include beams with different
frequencies and power levels.
6) Depending on the application, satellites can be used with
different ground network designs or … … .
Satellite Basics
A communications satellite is a radio relay station in orbit above the
earth that receives, amplifies, and redirects analog and digital signals
carried on a specific radio frequency. In addition to communications
satellites, there are other types of satellites:
 Weather satellites: These satellites provide meteorologists with
scientific data to predict weather conditions and are equipped with
advanced instruments.
 Earth observation satellites: These satellites allow scientists to gather
valuable data about the earth's ecosystem.
 Navigation satellites: Using GPS technology these satellites are able
to provide a person's exact location on Earth to within a few meters.

153
An orbit is the path that a satellite follows as it revolves around Earth.
In terms of commercial satellites, there are three main categories of orbits:

Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO): 35,786 km above the earth

 Orbiting at the height of 22,282 miles above the equator (35,786


km), the satellite travels in the same direction and at the same speed
as the Earth's rotation on its axis, taking 24 hours to complete a full
trip around the globe. Thus, as long as a satellite is positioned over
the equator in an assigned orbital location, it will appear to be
"stationary" with respect to a specific location on the Earth.
 A single geostationary satellite can view approximately one third of
the Earth's surface.

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): 8,000-20,000 km above the earth

 These orbits are primarily reserved for communications satellites that


cover the North and South Pole.

Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 500-2,000 km above the earth

154
 These orbits are much closer to the Earth, requiring satellites to
travel at a very high speed in order to avoid being pulled out of orbit
by Earth's gravity.
 At LEO, a satellite can circle the Earth in approximately one and a
half hours.
Most communications satellites in use today for commercial purposes
are placed in the geostationary orbit, because of the following advantages:
 One satellite can cover almost 1/3 of Earth's surface, offering a reach
far more extensive than what any terrestrial network can achieve.
 Communications require the use of fixed antennas.
 GEO satellites are proven, reliable and secure - with a lifespan of 10-
15 years.
Communications data passes through a satellite using a signal path
known as a transponder. Typically satellites have between 24 and 72
transponders. A single transponder is capable of handling up to 155
million bits of information per second. With this immense capacity, today's
communication satellites are an ideal medium for transmitting and
receiving almost any kind of content - from simple voice or data to the
most complex and bandwidth-intensive video, audio and Internet content.
Diagrammatic Representation of a Satellite

The location of a geostationary satellite is referred to as its orbital


location. The geographic area of the Earth's surface over which a satellite
can transmit to, or receive from, is called the satellite's "footprint." The

155
footprint can be tailored to include beams with different frequencies and
power levels.
Satellites transmit information within radio frequency bands. The
frequency bands most used by satellite communications companies are
called C-band and the higher Ku-band. Over the next several years, the use
of a higher frequency band known as Ka-band is expected to increase.
Modern satellites are designed to focus on different ranges of frequency
bands and different power levels at particular geographic areas.
All communications with a geostationary satellite require using an
earth station or antenna. Earth Stations may be either fixed (installed at a
specific location) or mobile for uses such as Satellite News Gathering
(SNG) or maritime applications. Antennas range in size, from large
telecommunications carrier dishes of 4.5 to 15 meters in diameter, to
VSAT antennas which can be as small as under one meter, designed to
support services such as Direct to Home TV (DTH) and rural telephony.
The antenna, itself, will generally be connected to equipment indoors
called an indoor unit (IDU), which then connects either to the actual
communications devices being used, to a Local Area Network (LAN), or
to additional terrestrial network infrastructure.
Depending on the application, satellites can be used with different
ground network designs or network topologies. At its simplest, satellite
can support one-direction or two-direction links between two earth stations
(called respectively simplex transmission and duplex transmission). More
complex communications needs can also be addressed with more
sophisticated network topologies, such as star and mesh.
Applications for simplex services include broadcast transmissions such as:
 TV and video services
 Radio services
Applications for duplex services include:
 Voice Telephony transport
 Data and IP transport (especially in asymmetric configurations)
 Corporate networks
 TV and Broadcast program contribution and distribution
(May be simplex or duplex, symmetric or asymmetric).
Applications for point-to-multipoint services include:
 Corporate networks, including VSAT services and business
television
 Video and broadcast distribution, including Direct-to-Home Internet
services

156
Applications for mobile antenna services include:
 Satellite News Gathering
 Special Event Backhaul and Broadcasting
 Maritime services
Applications for Star Networks include:
 Corporate Networks
 Distance Learning
Applications for Mesh Networks include:
National and International Telephony and Data
Rural telephony

5. Read the text and mark the following statements as True or False:

a. In addition to communications satellites there are weather


satellites, Earth observation satellites and navigation satellites.
b. In terms of commercial satellites, there are four main categories
of orbits.
c. One satellite can cover almost 1/3 of Earth’s surface.
d. The location of a geostationary satellite is referred to as its
stationary location.
e. The frequency bands most used by satellite communications
companies are called C-band and the higher Ku-band.
f. The antenna, itself, will generally be connected to equipment
outdoors called an outdoor unit.
g. Applications for Simplex Transmission include TV and video
services and radio services.
h. Applications for Point-to-Point Transmission include voice
telephony transport, corporate networks.
i. Applications for mobile antenna services include Satellite News
Gathering, Maritime services.
j. Applications for Star Networks include corporate networks,
distance learning.
k. A single transponder is capable of handling up to 155 million
bits of information per second.

6. Using the following words draw a diagram to show the operation of


a communications satellite. You can add any other words you need
from the text.

157
Solar arrays, high power amplifier filter, uplink, downlink, fuel
batteries, antenna, transponder, transmitter section.

7. To summarize the information from the text answer the following


questions:

1) How many satellites are there in addition to communication


satellites?
2) How far is the Geosynchronous Orbit above the Earth?
3) How far is the Medium Earth Orbit above the Earth?
4) How far is the Low Earth Orbit above the Earth?
5) Why are the communications satellites placed in the geostationary
orbit?
6) How many transponders do satellites have?
7) What is a “footprint”?
8) What frequency bands do you know?
9) What is installed on the ground?
10) How many network topologies do you know? Name them.

8. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences.

location equator Earth lifespan information


footprint Ku-band topologies C-band

1) Orbiting at the height of 22,282 miles above the …, the satellites


travels in the same direction and at the same speed.
2) Using GPS technology these satellites are able to provide a
person’s exact … on Earth to within a few meters.
3) GEO satellites are proven, reliable and secure-with a … of 10-15
years.
4) More complex communications needs can also be addressed with
more sophisticated network … .
5) The … can be tailored to include beams with different
frequencies and power levels.
6) A single transponder is capable of handling up to 155 million
bits of… per second.
7) The frequency bands most used by satellite communications
companies are called … and the higher … .
8) Low Earth orbits are much closer to the … .
158
9. Put one of the following words or phrases into each gap. Two of
them are not used.
Necessary, subjected, cause, designed, pointed, transmitted, send
signals, to make corrects, to tumble freely, to examine thoroughly,
predicted.

Stabilization and attitude control are …. to ensure that the satellite


maintains the proper attitude. Satellites are … to a number of forces in
space such as particles streaming from the Sun, meteorites, atmospheric
drag, gravity from the Moon, gravity gradients and other perturbations.
These forces … satellites to wobble, spin, drift, or move in other ways
not desired. Most satellites which provide visual or electronic images of
the Earth or its environment maintain three axis stabilization (roll, pitch
and yaw). Many communications satellites are … to rotate about their
longitudinal axis (roll) and thus have only two axis stabilization. Two
and three axis stabilization allow sensors and antennas to be … in
specific directions. Devices such as momentum wheels on the satellite
help to stabilize the satellite while in orbit. Position, velocity and
attitude data from onboard sun sensors, star trackers, horizon scanners
and other devices is … to ground control stations. When momentum
wheels and other such passive devices cannot compensate or adjust the
orbit, the satellite controllers … ... to the satellite to fire thrusters in
short spurts to control roll, pitch, yaw and … … in orbital altitude. To
reduce size, mass, complexity and cost some small satellites are
designed … … through space without any stabilization or attitude
control.

10. Fill in an appropriate modal verb in its correct form into each gap.
Some of the verbs may be used more than once.

can be able to may must

1) Satellites … to provide a person’s exact location on Earth to


within a few meters.
2) A single geostationary satellite … view one third of the Earth’s
surface.
3) A satellite … circle the Earth in approximately one and a half
hours.

159
4) Users … point their satellite dishes in the right direction, without
costly tracking activities.
5) A single transponder … handle up to 155 millions bits of
information per second.
6) Over the next several years, the use of a higher frequency band
known as Ku-band … increase.
7) Earth Stations … either fixed or mobile for uses such as Satellite
News Gathering or maritime applications.
8) The antenna … connected to equipment indoors called an indoor
unit.
9) Depending on application, satellites … used with different
network topologies.

11. Problem-solving. Work in pairs. Look at the words in the list


below. Divide the words into two groups. One group will go under
the heading “ADVANTAGES OF A SATELLITE”. The other
group will go under the heading “DISADVANTAGES OF A
SATELLITE”. You must have a reason for putting the words in
each group.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
H access toi remote areas
g h i n
licensing requirements i t
licensing requirements, access to remote areas, high bandwidth,
distance-insensitive costs, propagation delay with GEO systems,
environmental interference problems, insensitivity to topology,
coverage of large geographical position, regulatory constraints in
some regions, distance-intensive costs, danger posed by space
debris, solar flare activity, meteor showers.

12. Writing. With the help of the given words, label these different
network topologies of satellites. Give a short description of each
figure.

a. Mesh Network
b. Star Network
c. Mobile Antenna Service
d. Point-to-Point Duplex Transmission
e. Point-to-Multipoint Transmission
f. Simplex Transmission
160
Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig 5

161
Fig 6

Grammar Reference Section

COMPOUND NOUNS

Formation
Words can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very
common, and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally
have two parts. The second part identifies the object or person in question
(man, friend, tank, table, room). The first part tells us what kind of
object or person it is, or what its purpose is (police, boy, water, dining,
bed):

What type / what purpose What or who


mainframe user
laser printer
copper cable
computer program
work station

The two parts may be written in a number of ways :


162
1. as one word.
Example: workstation, firewall
2. as two words joined with a hyphen.
Example: lightning-strike
3. as two separate words.
Example: laser printer
There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds that you know well as one
word, and the others as two words.

The two parts may be: Examples:


printer cartridge
noun + noun
end-user
noun + verb train-spotting
noun + adverb passer-by
verb + noun coding sublayer
verb + adverb* drawback
adjective + noun software
adjective + verb public speaking
onlooker
adverb + noun
bystander
output
adverb + verb*
input

Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the two
separate words.
Stress is important in pronunciation, as it distinguishes between a
compound noun (e.g. greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e.g.
green house).
In compound nouns, the stress usually falls on the first syllable.
* Many common compound nouns are formed from phrasal verbs (verb +
adverb or adverb + verb).
Examples: breakdown, outbreak, outcome, cutback, drive-in, drop-out,
feedback, hold-up, hangover, outlay, outlet, inlet, output, set-back.

THE PASSIVE VOICE

163
PASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTS

Notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is the same as
the tense of the main verb in the active voice.
Example: to keep

TENSE / VERB FORM ACTIVE PASSIVE VOICE


VOICE

Simple present keeps is kept

Present continuous is keeping is being kept

Simple past kept was kept

Past continuous was keeping was being kept

Present perfect have kept have been kept

Past perfect had kept had been kept

future will keep will be kept

Conditional present would keep would be kept

Conditional past would have would have been


kept kept

present infinitive to keep to be kept

perfect infinitive to have kept to have been kept

present participle/gerund keeping being kept

perfect participle having kept having been kept

'- ING' FORM

164
THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

The present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and can be
used in the following ways:
1. to replace a sentence or part of a sentence:
When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same person
or thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:
 They were excited. They launched the satellite. They were excited
launching the satellite.
 DVD drives read DVD disks. DVD drives use blue laser light.
Using blue laser light, DVD drives read DVD disks.
When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same
person or thing, we can express the first action with a present participle:
 He switched off his computer and left the room. Switching off his
computer, he left the room.
The present participle can be used instead of a phrase starting as, since,
because, and it explains the cause or reason for an action:
 Hitting Enter, he activated the program. (= because he hit Enter...)
 Being tired, he didn't spend much on cabling.

'- ING' FORM

THE GERUND

This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it is
now common to call both forms 'the -ing form'. However it is useful to
understand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the
same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used:
1. as the subject of the sentence:
 Accessing the fiber requires intervention that is easy detectable by
security surveillance.
 Reflecting light is one of the characteristics of optical fiber.
2. as the complement of the verb 'to be':
 Another characteristic of glass fiber is supporting a relatively high
signaling rate.
 One of the hardest thing about communications is understanding
fiber optics.
3. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verb comes
after a preposition:
165
 Optical fiber is used for transmitting light signal.
 An issue that occurs at every level is how to keep a fast sender from
swamping a slow receiver with data.
This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spite
of, there's no point in..:
 There's no point in O/E conversion.
4. after a number of phrasal verbs which are composed of a verb +
preposition/adverb
Example:
to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to
keep on:
 When are you going to give up deploying SONET?
NOTE: There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include
the word 'to' as a preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive: - to look
forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to be used to. It is important to
recognise that 'to' is a preposition in these cases, as it must be followed by
a gerund:
 She didn't really take to studying computer networks.
It is possible to check whether 'to’ is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive:
if you can put a noun or the pronoun 'it' after it, then it is a preposition and
must be followed by a gerund:
 She didn't really take to studying it.
5. in compound nouns
Example:
 an engineering discipline, a networking lesson, a broadcasting
system, train-spotting
It is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb.
6. after the expressions:
can't help, can't stand, it's no use/good, and the adjective worth:
 It's no use/good violating the protocol.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or


identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only
necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.
Example:
You only need the network printer that is connected to the server.
166
In this sentence we understand that there are many network printers, but it
is clear that we are only talking the one that is connected to the server.
Punctuation
Commas are not used in defining relative clauses.
Relative pronouns
The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:

  Person Thing Place Tim Reason


e
Subject who/that which/that
Object who/whom/that/ which/that/ wher when why
ø ø e
Possessiv whose whose      
e

Notes:
1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun.
This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence:

The who/that spoke at the was very


woman meeting knowledgeable.
Noun, relative verb + rest of verb + rest of main
subject of pronoun relative clause clause
main referring
clause to 'the
woman',
subject of
'spoke'

2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common in
spoken English.
3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (ø) when it is the object of the
clause:
The network printer that I need is connected to the server.
OR The network printer I need is connected to the server.
Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more
common in spoken English.
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(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it
is normally followed by another subject + verb.)
4. Whose is used for things as well as for people.
Examples:
The engineer whose computer broke down.

5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use
who/that, or omit the pronoun completely :
The managing officer whom/who/that/ø I was hoping to see wasn't on
duty.
6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything,
nothing, all, and superlatives. That can also be used instead of which
and who.
Examples:
 There's something that you should know.
 It was the best application that I've ever seen.

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


It is important to see the difference between the two types of clause, as it
affects:
a. the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause,
b. the punctuation - you must use commas with a non-defining clause.
The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more about
someone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it.
Compare:
1. The application program that you gave me is really good. (This tells us
which application program we are talking about).
2. The application program, which I haven’t used, is still on the shelf.
(This gives us some extra information about the application program).
Notes:
1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use ‘that’ instead of who, whom or
which.
2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the object of
the verb in the relative clause.
3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. This
is the program, which you have all heard about.
This pattern is often used in spoken English.
4. Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many
of + relative pronoun:
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  Person Thing
all of + whom + which

any of + whom + which


(a) few of + whom + which
both of + whom + which
each of + whom + which
either of + whom + which
half of + whom + which
many of + whom + which
most of + whom + which
much of + whom + which
none of + whom + which
one of + whom + which
two of etc… + whom + which

WILL + VERB
will + {verb}
It will revolutionise the way we communicate.
Note that will is sometimes abbreviated to 'll in informal speech and
writing.
It’ll revolutionise the way we communicate.
Usage
1. We can use will to make predictions and promises:
English will no longer be the commonest language for websites.
There will be more robots than people in developed countries.
2. We can also use will when we just decide to do something (i.e. a
spontaneous action):
I think I heard something about VoIP phones; I'll get it.
3. Formally, it's used to talk about planned events:
The conference will begin at 4 o'clock precisely.

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IMPERATIVES

Form
The form of the imperative is the same as the infinitive. To be polite, we
add please to the end of the sentence:
Shut the door, please.
To tell someone we want something very much, we put please or do at the
beginning:
Do tell me!
Please tell me!
We can use the imperative as a subject of a sentence. We often follow it
with and:
{imperative} + {and} + {clause}
Get this done and you can leave early.
Complain again and we will leave.

Usage
We use the Imperative form of the verb:
1. To give orders:
Stop!
Shut the door!
2. To give instructions:
Go out the door and turn left.
3. To make informal offers or invitations:
Want a ride?
4. To give warnings:
Do try to take care!
5. To give suggestions:
Don’t delay! It’s available in most software sores

MODAL VERBS
There are not many modal verbs: can, could, dare*, need*, may, might,
must, shall, should, will, would. There are also modal constructions: be
able to, ought to, be allowed to.
They always come first in a verb formation, before other auxiliaries and
the main verb:
{modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb}

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Modal verbs do not take a final -s for the third person singular. The verb
which follows is always in the infinitive form:
He might be...
They should stay...
She could have...

We can use them with the -ing form to show continuous modality:
{modal} + {be} + {-ing}
He might be working late.
They should be coming soon.
He must be having a party.

We can use them with the past participle to show past modality:
{modal} + {have} + {past participle}
They should have seen him.
He must have gone away.

We can use be able to, be allowed to and have [got] to after modals:
{modal} + {phrase}
I will be able to...
She might not be allowed to...
They should have to...
Note that we do not use these in continuous forms.

We use modal verbs to show:


1. What we think or feel about a situation (must, can’t, may, might, could):
They might have been working hard.
2. Ability to do something (can, be able to):
He could beat the record easily.
3. Necessity, obligation (must, have to, should, ought to, is/are to):
He must stop.
4. Possibility (could, might):
He could be there.
They might not win.

ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY

These adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or


event. Common adverbs of certainty:

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certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, unlikely, likely
Adverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb 'to be':
 He is definitely left his mobile at home this morning.
 It’s unlikely that we’ll use cable connections in future.
With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the
main verb:
 We will probably develop alternatives to silicon.
 Computers will certainly become more powerful.
Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence:
 Undoubtedly, doctors may be able to operate on patients at a
distance.
BE CAREFUL! with surely. When it is placed at the beginning of the
sentence, it means the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking for
confirmation:
Example:
 Surely we won’t use magnetic tapes?

EXPRESSING REASON, TEXT ORGANISERS

Reason
1. As, since and for
As and since have the meaning of because and can begin a sentence.
For also has the meaning of because but cannot begin a sentence and is
followed by a clause. It is only used in written language.
2. On account of, owing to and due to
On account of has the meaning of because of.
Everyone was depressed on account of system failure.
Due to and owing to also have the meaning of because of, and can be
used in the same way as on account of. However, some grammars make
this difference between them:
Sue’s success was due to her hard work. (noun+to be+due to)
Sue’s succeeded owing to her hard wprk. (verb+owing to)

Text organisers
There are several types of text organisers. Each one of them is used to
express a different relationship between ideas, like:
1. Sequencing

172
In writing, we often order the points we are making by showing their
order or sequence. Points can be introduced by:
First (of all), secondly, next, then, finally/lastly/last of all, etc.
In narrative, the sequence of the events can be introduced by:
First, then, after that, finally/in the end, etc.
2. Adding
In writing, we can introduce additional points with these words and
phrases. These are all formal in use:
Furthermore, moreover, in addition to this, as well as this, besides this
3. Giving opinions
Personal opinions can be introduced in writing by:
Personally, in my own opinion/view
4. Giving examples
Examples are introduced by:
For example, for instance
Such as is another way of giving examples. It is not used at the
beginning of the sentence.
5. Showing result
Some formal ways of showing result are:
Consequently, as a result, thus
6. Making contrasts
In writing, a contrasting point can be introduced by:
On the other hand, however, nevertheless, in contrast, in comparison,
although, though, while, whereas, despite, in spite of, but
Though can come at the end of a sentence, although cannot.
While and whereas are more common in writing and formal speech.
They contrast opposite ideas.
Nevertheless is a very formal way of expressing however.
Despite and in spite of are followed by nouns (or gerunds), and not by
clauses.
7. Comparison
Comparison can be expressed be comparative clauses:
More … than, not as … as, just as … as, such … as
Adverbs and adjectives also express comparison:
Similarly, like, unlike
8. Summing up
We can introduce a summing up of our points with:
In conclusion, to sum up

173
Vowel Sounds

The main vowel sounds in English are shown in this (simplified) IPA chart.

In terms of sound production, a vowel is a sound which has an


uninterrupted air flow. The most common sound in English is the vowel
sound schwa which is represented thus: ə. It occurs in words like
 about - /əbəʊt/
 america - /əmɛrɪkə/
Diphthongs are two vowel sounds said as one. This occurs when the mouth
changes shape during production in such words as:
 pie - /paɪ/
 boy - /bɔɪ/
Glossary

access link in Frame Relay, a link between a router and a Frame Relay
switch.
amplifier any device used in boosting the strength of an electronic signal.
antenna aresonant device that picks up faint radio signals and feeds them
into a receiver.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) a multiplexing/switching
technique in which information is organized into fixed-length cells with
each cell consisting of an identification header field Copyright 2001 The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use and an
information field. The transfer mode is asynchronous in the sense that the
use of the cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate.
atom a particle consisting of an inner nucleus surrounded by electrons
that circle the nucleus.
attenuation a reduction of optical power as photons flow down fiber.

174
attenuation coefficient a loss of optical power per a given length of fiber,
commonly expressed in dB/km.
bandwidth the carrying capacity or size of a communications channel;
usually expressed in hertz (cycles per second) for analog circuits (the
original meaning of the term) and in bits per second (bps) for digital
circuits (newer meaning).
baseband a method of communication in which a signal is transmitted at
its original frequency without being impressed on a carrier.
bend radius the smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend
before increased attenuation or breakage occurs.
bi-directional operating in both directions. Bi-directional APS enables
protection switching to be initiated by either end of the line.
Bird (inf) industry slang for a communication satellite.
broadband a method of communication where the signal is transmitted by
a high-frequency carrier. Services requiring 50— 600 Mbps transport
capacity.
broadcast domain a set of all devices that receive broadcast frames
originating from any device within the set. Devices in the same VLAN are
in the same broadcast domain.
broadcast subnet when subnetting a class A, B, or C address, the subnet
for which all subnet bits are binary 1.
Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN)
a single ISDN network that can handle voice, data, and eventually video
services.
bit the smallest unit of information upon which digital communications are
based; also an electrical or optical pulse that carries this information. It is
one binary digit, or a pulse of data.
bite built-in test equipment. Features designed into a piece of equipment
that enable an online diagnosis of failures and operating status.
bits per second (bps) the number of bits passing a point every second.
The transmission rate for digital information.
cable one or more optical fibers enclosed within protective covering(s) and
strength members.
cable assembly a cable that is connector-terminated and ready for
installation.
carrier class carrier class refers to products designed specifically to meet
the capacity, performance scalability, availability, and network
management requirements of network service providers.

175
channel a generic term for a communications path on a given medium;
multiplexing techniques enable providers to put multiple channels over a
single medium.
circuit a communications path or network; usually a pair of channels
roviding bi-directional communication.
circuit switching a switching system that establishes a dedicated physical
communications connection between end points,through the network, for
the duration of the communications session; this is most often contrasted
with packet switching in data communications transmissions.
cladding material that surrounds the core of an optical fiber. Its lower
index of refraction, compared to that of the core, causes the transmitted
light to travel down the core.
CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. A
media-access mechanism where devices ready to transmit data first check
the channel for a carrier. If no carrier is sensed for a specific period of
time, a device can transmit. If two devices transmit simultaneously, a
collision occurs and is detected by all colliding devices. This collision
subsequently causes each device to delay retransmissions of the collided
frame for some random length of time.
chromatic dispersion a change in the speed of optical pulses as their
wavelength changes, resulting in a broadening of pulses.
cladding the area between the core and outer area of a fiber that coats the
fiber.
coaxial cable a pair of conductors consisting of a central conductor
surrounded by an outer conductor. Coaxial cables have relatively good
immunity to interference and low power losses when carrying high
frequency transmissions.
communication satellite an electronic relay station orbiting in space that
picks up messages transmitted from the ground and retransmits them to a
distant location, usually on a different frequency.
constellation any collection of similar satellites designed to provide
multiple coverage or multiple redundancy. Also, a group of stars regarded
to be grouped together into a recognizable pattern by the people living on
earth.
coupling method the method by which connectors mate. The coupling
method includes threaded, bayonet, and push-pull.
cross-phase modulation the broadening of light pulses in a
densewavelength division multiplexing environment.
crosslink a communication link between two satellites.

176
data communications channels OAM&P channels in SONET that enable
communications between intelligent controllers and individual network
nodes as well as inter-node communications.
data rate the number of bits of information in a transmission system,
xpressed in bits per second (bps), and which may or may not be equal to
the signal or baud rate.
decibel a physical unit for expressing the ratio of two quantities of signal
power. One decibel is equal to 10 times the common logarithm of this
ratio.
demultiplexer a module that separates two or more signals previously
combined by compatible multiplexing equipment.
demultiplexing a process applied to a multiplex signal for recovering
signals combined within it and for restoring the distinct individual
channels of the signals.
digital signal an electrical or optical signal that varies in discrete steps.
Electrical signals are coded as voltages; optical signals are coded as pulses
of light.
dark fiber fiber strands not yet used or illuminated.
decibel a more precise power measurement than bel. A decibel equals one-
tenth of a bell.
direct ray the flow of light through a fiber on a direct route from end to
end.
dispersion the smearing or broadening of an optical signal.
downlink the portion of a communications link used to transmit signals
from a satellite to an Earth –based terminal (on land, ship, or aircraft).
earth station any ground based communication facility capable of
transmitting, receiving, and processing data relayed to and from orbiting
satellites.
electromagnetic wave a continuum of oscillating electric and magnetic
fields moving in a straight line at a constant velocity.
electromagnetic interference (EMI) any electrical or electromagnetic
interference that causes undesirable response, degradation, or failure in
electronic equipment. Optical fibers neither emit nor receive EMI.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) a dual counterrotating ring
local area network or a connector used in a dual counter-rotating ring local
area network.
fiber the structure that guides light in a fiber optic system.
fiber channel an industry-standard specification that originated in Great
Britain that details computer channel communications over fiber optics at

177
transmission speeds from 132 Mbps to 1062.5 Mbps at distances of up to
10 kilometers.
footprint the area of Earth with sufficient antenna gain to receive a signal
from a satellite
framing a method of distinguishing digital channels that have been
multiplexed together.
frequency the number of cycles of periodic activity that occur in a discrete
amount of time.
gain the amount by which the intensity of light is increased in a laser
diode by amplification.
gamma rays radiation with the highest frequency and shortest wavelength.
glass fiber a cable with a glass core and glass cladding.
geosynchronous orbit an equatorial orbit roughly 35,800 kilometers
above Earth in which a satellite can remain fixed relative to Earth’s surface
geolocation (see also navigation) the process of fixing the position of a
moving or stationary craft in longitude and latitude on the surface of the
earth.
graded-index fiber a fiber whose refractive index gradually diminishes
from the center of the core outward towards the cladding.
horizontal cabling cabling between a telecommunications outlet in a work
area and the horizontal cross-connect.
Hertz a measure of radio frequency equal to one cycle per second; often
rendered in terms of kilohertz (one thousand cycles per second), megahertz
(one million cycles per second), and gigahertz (one billion cycles per
second).
hub station the master station through which all communications to and
from the users must flow.
incoherent light that radiates in all directions.
inclined orbit a satellite orbit for which the orbital plane is not in Earth’s
equatorial plane
index of refraction the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to that in
a material.
infrared waves above the microwave region but below visible light.
Ka band the range of electromagnetic frequencies from 18 to 31 GHz.
Ku band the range of electromagnetic frequencies from 10.9 to 17 GHz.
laser a device that generates coherent light.
light-emitting diode a semiconductor device that emits incoherent optical
radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves when biased in the forward
direction.

178
lighted fiber fiber illuminated and in use.
material dispersion the non-linear relationship between frequency and the
index of refraction in the core of a fiber that broadens an optical pulse.
media interface connector a connector used to connect multimode fiber
to an FDDI station.
microwaves waves shorter than radio waves but longer than infrared.
modal dispersion the spreading of light pulses.
multimode fiber fiber with a relatively large core, which allows
multiplerays of light to simultaneously propagate through the fiber.
index of refraction also refractive index. The ratio of the velocity of light
in free space to the velocity of light in a fiber material.
infrastructure mode a wireless LAN that includes the use of access
points. Infrastructure mode connects wireless users to a wired network and
allows wireless users to roam throughout a facility between different
access points. All 802.11 data frames in an infrastructure wireless LAN
travel through the access point.
interface ID 64 bits at the end of an IPv6 global address, used to uniquely
identify each host in a subnet.
infrared (IR) light from the region of the spectrum with wavelengths
between 750nm (red) and 0.1mm (microwave)
interference randomly varying electromagnetic energy that tends to distort
and attenuate the desired signals being picked up.
LAN local area network
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) a network covering an area larger
than a local area network (LAN); a wide area network (WAN) covering a
metropolitan area. Usually, it is an interconnection of two or more LANs.
micrometer one millionth of a meter. Abbreviated _m.
multimode fiber an optical fiber with a core large enough to propagate
more than one mode of light. The typical diameter is 62.5 micrometers.
multiplex (MUX) to transmit two or more signals over a single channel.
multiplexer a device for combining several channels to be by one line or
fiber.
nanometer one billionth of a meter.
nanosecond one billionth of a second.
narrowband services requiring up to 1.5 Mbps transport capacity.
navigation (see also geolocation) the process of fixing the position of a
craft and directing that craft along a preferred route from one known
location to another.

179
OSI seven-layer model a standard architecture for data communications.
Layers define the hardware and software required for multi-vendor
information processing equipment to be mutually compatible.
photon an elementary bundle of electromagnetic radiant energy.
polar orbit any orbit that carries an orbiting satellite alternately over the
North and South Poles.
radio waves waves that have the longest wavelength and lowest
frequencies of all waves within the frequency spectrum.
rayleigh scattering a phenomenon recognized by Lord Rayleigh that
notes that short wavelengths scatter more strongly than longer
wavelengths.
receiver (see also transmitter) any electronic device that enables the
desired modulated signal to be separated from all the other signals coming
into the antenna.
refraction the bending of an electromagnetic wave due to density
variations in the medium (water, air, metal) through which that
electromagnetic wave is passing.
satellite (1) any artificial or natural body orbiting a larger body such as the
earth. The satellite is held in its circular or elliptical trajectory by the
combination of its tangential velocity and the gravitational force of the
larger body pulling it radically inward toward the center of the
gravitational field. (2) any object that orbits the earth.
saturation the point at which an amplifier cannot deliver more power
despite a further increase in input level.
scattering the spreading of optical pulses as photons collide with
impurities in a fiber.
self-phase modulation the broadening of light pulses as they flow down a
river.
semiconductor any substance such as silicon, germanium, or selenium
that normally insulates against the flow of electricity, but that can, when
infused with trace amounts of certain specific impurities, be made to
conduct the flow.
signal-to-noise ratio the ratio of signal power divided by noise power on a
transmission medium.
single mode a flow of light that lacks refraction, resulting in pulses
traveling the fiber in one mode.
spacecraft any vehicle designed to operate in space.
subnet mask a dotted-decimal number used to help define the structure of
an IP address. The binary 0s in the mask identify the host portion of an

180
address, and the binary 1s identify either the combined network and subnet
part (when thinking classfully) or the network prefix (when thinking
classlessly).
total internal reflection the refraction of a beam of light so that virtually
100 percent remains in a medium.
transponder (transmitter/responder) a device on a communication
satellite that receives signals from Earth, alters their frequency, amplifies
them, and retransmits them to Earth on a different frequency.
transceiver any electronic device that can transmit and receive modulated
electromagnetic waves.
ultraviolet radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum above visible light.
uplink the portion of a communications link used to transmit signals from
an Earth-based terminal (on land, ship, or aircraft) to a satellite.
visible light wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm.
virtual LAN a group of devices on one or more LANs that are configured
(using management software) so that they can communicate as if they
were attached to the same wire, when, in fact, they are located on a
number of different LAN segments. Because VLANs are based on logical
instead of physical connections, they are extremely flexible.
wavelength the period of an oscillating signal.
wavelength division multiplexing the process of transmitting multiple
optical signals at different wavelengths over a common optical fiber.
Wide area network (WAN) a data communications facility involving two
or more computers with the computers situated at different sites.
wavelength division multiplexer a passive device that combines light
signals with different wavelengths on different fibers onto a single fiber.
The wavelength division demultiplexer performs the reverse function.
wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) sending several signals
hrough one fiber with different wavelengths of light.
wideband services requiring 1.5 to 50 Mbps transport capacity.
zenith the point in the sky directly above an observer who is located on the
ground or in space

181
Литература

1) Cisco CCIE Fundumentals: Networking Design / e-book (PDF)


2) Eric H. Glendinning, John McEwan Oxford English for Information
Technology. – Second Edition. – Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2006 – 224p.
3) Govind P. Agrawal Nonlinear Fiber Optics / Teacher’s Edition. -
Academic Press, 2001 – 466p.
4) Gilbert Held Deploying Optical Networking Components / e-book
(PDF). - McGraw – Hill Telecom, 2001
5) Internetworking Technologies /Handbook. - Fourth Edition by Cisco
Systems, Inc.: Cisco Press, USA, 2004
6) Michael Vince First Certificate Language Practice. – Oxford:
Heinemann Publishers, 1993 – 270p.

182
7) Regis J. Optical Switching and Networking Handbook / e-book
(RDF). - McGraw – Hill Telecom, 2001
8) http://www.answers.com/topic/satellite-navigation-system?
cat=technology
9) http://componentworking.about.com/library/weekly/aa04801a.htm
10) http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/
11) http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~jain/cis788-99/ftp/dwdm.pdf
12) http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis788-97/satellite_nets/index.htm
13) http://doe.sd.gov/octa/ddn4learning/statewide/gps/sateworks.htm
14) http://www.esa.int/esaNA/SEMMU7ARR1F_index_0.html
15) http://www.electronics-manufacturers.com/info/satellite-
communications/satellite-navigation-system.html
16) www.english4today.com/englishgrammar/grammar/index.cfm
17) http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication
18) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_Internet_access#One-
way_multicast
19) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_television#History
20) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_area_network
21) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network
22) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_network
23) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_navigation
24) http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/army/ref_text/chap07a.htm
25) http://www.gilat.com/Content.aspx?Page=introduction_sat
26) http://icalweb.com/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Grammar
27) http://www.insight-corp.com/reports/opticalnetworks.asp
28) http://www.linktionary.com/s/satellite.html
29) http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid40_gci
212939,00.html
30) http://www.tech-faq.com/

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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ, ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ ПО
НАПРВЛЕНИЮ «ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ И ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИЯ
ОПТИЧЕСКИХ И МЕЖСПУТНИКОВЫХ КОММУНИКАЦИЙ»

Учебное пособие

184
ГАЗИЗОВА Лилиана Васимовна
УСАНОВА Светлана Сергеевна

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