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NIGNWAY
SKID
RESISTANCE

A symposium
presented at the
Fall Meeting
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR
TESTING AND MATERIALS
Atlanta, Ga., 29 Sept.-4 Oct., 1968

ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION 456

List price $6.00

j~[~ AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS


1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103

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~) BY AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS 1969
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 70-78858
SBN 8031-0015-9

NOTE
The Society is not responsible, as a body,
for the statements and opinions
advanced in this publication.

Printed in Union City, N. J.


September 1969

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Foreword

The Symposium on Highway Skid Resistance was presented during


the Fall Meeting of The American Society for Testing and Materials
held in Atlanta, Ga., 29 Sept.-4 Oct., 1968. The sponsor of this
symposium was Committee E-17 on Skid Resistance. T. L. Bransford,
Auburn University, presided as chairman.

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Relat:ed
ASTM PublicaEions

Measuring Road Surface Slipperiness, STP 366 (1965), $6.00

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Cont:ents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967-Skid Testing with


Trailers--L. L. S M I T H A N D S, L . F U L L E R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967-Skid Testing with


Automobiles--R. L. R/-ZENBERGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

The Cornering Capacity of Studded Tires--E. A. WHITEHURST . . . . . . . . 144

Pavement Dynamic Permeability T e s t i n g - - J . w. HUTCHINSON,


T . Y. KAO~ A N D L . C. P E N D L E Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

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STP456-EB/Sep. 1969

Introduction

The slipperiness of highway pavements has been a


concern of highway engineers and researchers for many
years.

In 1958 the Virginia Highway Department under the


direction of the late T. E. Shelburne, Director ef the
Virginia Council of Highway Research and Investigation,
sponsored the First International Skid Prevention
Conference in Charlottesville, Virginia. In connection
with this conference, a correlation study of the known
methods of measuring skid resistance in the field was
held. Following this initial conference the interest
in this area was greatly stimulated to the extent that
ASTMCommittee E-17 on Skid Resistance was organized.

In 1962 the Virginia Highway Department with the


cooperation of ASTMCommittee E-17 organized a Skid
Correlation Study to study the progress that had been
made in the methods of determining the skid resistance
of pavements in the field since the 1958 study. This
study was held near Tappahannock, Virginia on an aband-
oned airstrip where it was possible to construct four
pavement surfaces of four different degrees of slipper-
iness. Tests were run using the stopping distance method,
skid trailers and British Portable Testers. Both
governmental and private organizations who owned equipment
for this type of testing participated in the study using
their equipment. In addition to organizations from
this country two foreign countries were represented.

Data collected and analyzed from the 1962 Study


were largely the basis for the preparation of a Test
Method fer Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements
Using a Two Wheel Trailer designated as A S T M E 274-
65T and a Test Method for Measuring Surface Frictional
Properties Using the British Portable Tester, ASTM
Designation E 303-66-T.

Following the preparation of A S T M E 274-65-T,


The Florida State Road Department agreed to construct
a pilot model skid trailer in accordance with the
specifications for the equipment included in the test
method. While Florida was develeping their trailer,

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2 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

several other State Highway Departments and private


organizations also built trailers in substantial
compliance with the specifications in A S T M E 274-65-T.

In 1967 the State Road Department of Florida


in cooperation with the Bureau of Public Roads and with
the help and guidance of ASTMConm~ittee E-17 organized
another Skid Correlation Study along similar lines to
the 1962 study in Virginia. The primary objective of
this study was to evaluate the degree of standardization
achieved by the construction of the new trailers all
based on the same specification in A S T M E 274-65-T.
Stopping distance tests were also run using passenger
cars and a semi-trailer truck. In addition, a limited
number of tests were run using the portable testers.
Twenty different organizations participated in this
study.

The objective of the symposium at the Fall Meeting


of ASTM in Atlanta in September 1968 was to report the
test results of the Florida Correlation Study and to
report other recent research on the measurement of skid
resistance not covered in the correlation study. Four
papers are included in this publication.

The paper by L. L. Smith and S. L. Fuller, "Florida


Skid Correlation Study," is a report on the general
organization and conduct of the study and detailed report
on the tests using the skid trailers of which there were
twelve.

"Skid Testing With Automobiles at the Florida Skid


Correlation Study" by R. L. Rizenbergs, as the title
implies, is a report on the stopping distance tests
using automobiles. The description of the instrument-
ation used in one of the cars is an interesting report
by itself. Also the consistency of the results
obtained by this method is interesting.

"The Stopping and Cornering Capacity of Passenger


Car Studded Tires," by E. A. Whitehurst is a report
of the 1968 tests on ice using studded tires. It is a
continuing report of tests of this type run annually in
the winter in Wisconsin. These tests have been run for
several years.

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INTRODUCTION B

The paper, "Porous Pavement Testing," by J. W.


Hutchinson, T. Y. Kao, and L. C. Pendey is the descrip-
tion of a unique piece of equipment for measuring the
dynamic permeability of pavement surfaces and a discussion
of the test results obtained with it. There is also a
discussion of the contribution of the hydrodynamic
characteristics of pavement surfaces to their skid
resistance.

This publication contains therefore an up to date


description and discussion of the state-of-the-art of
measuring the skid resistance of pavement surfaces.
It should be of real interest to any one who is concerned
with pavement slipperiness.

T. L. Bransford

Professor of Civil
Engineering, Auburn
University

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L. L. Smith I and S. L. Fuller 2

FLORIDA SKID CORRELATION STUDY OF 1967 - SKID TESTING WITH


TRAILERS

REFERENCE: Smith, L. L. and Fuller, S. L., J'Florida Skid


Correlation Study of 1967 - Skid Testing with Trailers~'
Hiqhway Skid Resistance, STP 4~6, American Society for Testing
and Materials, 1969.

ABSTRACT: The Florida State Road Department, in cooperation


with the Bureau of Public Roads, conducted a skid resistance
correlation study at Dunnellon Airport in Marion County,
Florida, during October and November, 1967. Twenty different
organizations participated in the testing.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the
degree of standardization achieved by several skid test
trailers constructed in accordance with the newly developed
ASTM Test for Skid Resistance of Pavements Using a Two-Wheel
Trailer.
The experimental design for the trailer tests included
zoning of the test pavements and randomized testing sequence
to equalize the differences within a given surface and to
reduce the effect of extraneous variables. The trailers were
tested at 20, 40 and 60 MPH.
Results of the trailer tests indicate good reproducibility
within the individual trailers and fair correlation between
some of the trailers. However, a considerable interaction was
evident between the trailers and the sites tested. Good repro-
ducibility was obtained with trailers utilizing their self-
watering systems even though large differences resulted between
the trailers.

l
Deputy Engineer of Materials, Research and Training, Research
Section, Florida State Road Department, Gainesville, Florida.
2Research Engineer, Systems Development, Research Section,
Florida State Road Department, Gainesville, Florida.

4
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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 5

Texture measurements were also made on all surfaces using


the Texas Text-Ur-Meter, the NASA Grease Test and the Bureau
of Public Roads Outflow Meter. Satisfactory correlation
between the coefficient of friction, speed gradients and
texture measurements on the different surfaces was not
achieved.

KEY WORDS: testing, skid resistance, friction, skid number,


skid trailers, correlation, pavements, surfaces, texture,
self-watering.

INTRODUCTION

The field measurement of "skid or non-skid" characteris-


tics of pavements began in 1920. These measurements were a
part of a broad program of highway engineering research at the
Engineering Experiment Station of Iowa State College. This
program included a series of skid tests using the towed trailer
method of test. This research marked the beginning of field
and laboratory skid testing throughout the world.
In the late 1950's, it had become evident that there was
no accurate method of comparing the results obtained. An
exchange of information among agencies performing skid tests
became a necessity. The need for this exchange of ideas led
to the First International Skid Prevention Conference held in
1958 a t C h a r l o t t e s v i ] l e , V i r g i n i a . During the p l a n n i n g o f the
Conference, i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the l a c k o f data on the
r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the v a r i o u s machines t h a t measure the c o e f f i -
c i e n t o f f r i c t i o n was a s e r i o u s handicap in a t t a c k i n g s k i d
r e s i s t a n c e problems. So t h a t a basis f o r d i s c u s s i o n c ould be
e s t a b l i s h e d , a f i e l d " C o r r e l a t i o n Study" was held two weeks
p r i o r t o the Conference. The d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o be both
q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e and i n d i c a t e d a need f o r f u r t h e r
"correlation studies".(1) ~
During the summer of 1962, the Virginia Council of High-
way Investigation and Research supervised a skid correlation
study.(2) The study, conducted at Tappahannock, Virginia,
reflects the work of 21 agencies that cooperated in compara-
tive testing with trailers, stopping-distance vehicles, and
portable testers. The data obtained were presented to the

3The numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references


appended to this paper.

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6 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee


E-17 on Skid Resistance (June, 1963).
The ASTM E-17 Committee concluded that despite all the
improvements incorporated into the skid trailers, the spread
in data was statistically significant and indicated a defici-
ence in the expected accuracy. This led to the conclusion
that improvements should be made in the following areas:
(1) Calibration equipment and procedure, (2) instrumentation
with built-in gain control, (3) technique of trace evaluation,
(4) speed recording and brake sequence control, and (5) wet-
ting system. The ASTM revised its specifications to conform
to recommendations made by the E-17 Committee.
The revised skid trailer specifications (ASTM Designation:
E 274-65T, Test for Skid Resistance of Pavements Using a Two-
Wheel Trailer), necessitated another correlation study. It
was generally felt by the ASTM E-17 Committee that a state
developing a skid trailer in accordance with these latest
specifications should conduct the study. The Florida State
Road Department had decided to build a test trailer, and in
cooperation with the Bureau of Public Roads, conducted the
second skid correlation study in October and November, 1967.
The Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967 was held at the
Dunnellon Airport in Marion County, Florida.
The Study included the testing of towed skid trailers,
stopping distance vehicles (cars and a truck-tractor semi-
trailer), and portable testers. The Florida State Road Depart-
ment was responsible for the development of the test sites, the
coordination of the Study, and the reporting of trailer test
results. Companion reports by Rizenbergs (3) and by Easton (4)
report the stopping distance vehicle test results.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the s k i d t r a i l e r t e s t s were


as f o l l o w s :
1. To e v a l u a t e the degree o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n achieved by
s k i d t e s t t r a i l e r s c o n s t r u c t e d in accordance w i t h the newly
developed ASTM Test f o r Skid R e s i s t a n c e o f Pavements Using a
Two-Wheel T r a i l e r (ASTM D e s i g n a t i o n : E 274-65T).
2. To e s t a b l i s h the s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n and
between t r a i l e r s t e s t e d on s u r f a c e s w i t h v a r y i n g t e x t u r e s and
frictional coefficients.
3. To determine the probable cause o f any t a n g i b l e d i f -
ferences between r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h the v a r i o u s t r a i l e r s .
4. To e v a l u a t e the performance o f s k i d t r a i l e r s u s i n g
s e l f - w a t e r i n g systems.
5. To i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t o f pavement s u r f a c e t e x t u r e
as measured by s e v e r a l methods w i t h r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on these
s u r f a c e s w i t h s k i d t r a i l e r s and o t h e r s k i d t e s t i n g equipment.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 7

DESCRIPTION OF TEST SITES

Test Surfaces

For the study, four test sites were constructed. Test


Sites I and 1-r were for the external water tests, and each
included five 400-foot by 20-foot test strips. Surfaces at
both of these sites were constructed so that the coefficients
ranged from low to high. The surfaces at Site I were smooth-
textured, and the surfaces at Site ]Z[ were coarse-textured.
A typical detail of the sites is shown in Figure I. Test
Sites I and 1-r were for stopping distance vehicles and the
towed trailers.
Sites 1-rT and T E w e r e 2000-foot by 20-foot test strips
of smooth-textured pavement. One frictional level of pavement
was represented at each site. These sites were for towed
trailers using their self-watering systems.
Figures 2 through 13 show views of the test surfaces at
the four test sites. A general description of all test sur-
faces is as follows:
I. Test Site I - Smooth-Textured Surfaces
(a) Section A - A dense-graded, hot-mixed, asphaltic
concrete surface covered with a slurry seal. A coarse-graded
concrete sand was used as the aggregate in the slurry.
(b) Section B - A dense-graded, hot-mixed, asphaltic
concrete surface painted with one layer of white centerline
paint and covered with two additional layers of yellow center-
line paint. The final coat of paint was wetted and polished
with a steel bristle power broom. The traffic paint used was
a standard material meeting Florida State Road Department Spe-
cifications (Code T-l and T-2 Traffic Paint). (5)
(c) Section C - A dense-graded, hot-mixed, asphaltic
concrete surface treated with a heavy coat of AC-15 (150o200
penetration grade) asphalt. Difficulty was encountered in
curing this surface properly; the result was a variation in
skid numbers.
(d) Section D - A dense-graded, hot-mixed, asphaltic
concrete surface with slag (Victor, Florida) used as the coarse
aggregate. The top-sized aggregate used in this mixture was
3/8-inch.
(e) Section E - A one-inch layer of modified Ken-
tucky Rock Asphalt (Gripstop) was blended into a fine-textured
asphaltic concrete surface. The mixture contained 3/8-inch
maximum size aggregate. The raw material of Gripstop contained
approximately 98 per cent quartz (SiOp) and (from laboratory
extractions) 4.8 per cent natural aspffalt to which 3.3 per cent
standard commercial asphalt was added.
2. Test Site TT - C o a r s e - T e x t u r e d Surfaces
(a) Section A - A single course surface treatment
using a 3/8-inch maximum size aggregate. The aggregate was
Ocala limerock.

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8 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

(b)
Section B - A triple course surface treatment:
Ist Course - Ocala limerock with one-inch
maximum size.
2nd Course - Ocala limerock with I/2-inch
maximum size.
3rd Course - Ocala limerock with 3/8-inch
maximum size.
(c) Section C - A double course surface treatment:
Ist Course - Slag (Victor, Florida) with
one-inch maximum aggregate size.
2nd Course - Slag (Victor, Florida) with
I/2-inch maximum aggregate size.
(d) Section D - A single course surface treatment
using Ocala limerock with 3/4-inch maximum aggregate size.
(e) Section E - A double course surface treatment
using rounded river gravel:
Ist Course - One-inch maximum aggregate
size.
2nd Course - I/2-inch maximum aggregate
size.
3. Test Site
A double course slurry seal surface applied over an
existing pavement. Slag (Birmingham, Alabama) screenings were
used as the aggregate.
4. Test T~T
A double course slurry seal surface applied over an
existing pavement. Limerock screenings were used as the
aggregate.

External Watering System

The external watering system for Test Sites I and 1-T con-
sisted of two manifolds of 2-1/2-inch PVC pipe (one at each of
the two test sites) with impulse sprinkler heads spaced at 20-
foot intervals. Hand hoses were also installed on each mani-
fold to provide additional water when required. The manifolds
were portable and were placed adjacent to test sections while
testing. Water was furnished (by wells at each Test Site) in
sufficient quantity to inundate the pavement asperities on
Test Site I (smooth-textured surfaces). A similar quantity of
water was applied to Test Site ~ (coarse-textured surfaces),
however, complete inundation of the pavement asperities was
not achieved in all cases because of the coarse textures. The
watering system in operation is shown in Figure 14.

DESCRIPTION OF TEST VEHICLES

The p a r t i c i p a t i n g v e h i c l e s are l i s t e d below and are


shown in F i g u r e s 15 t h r o u g h 26.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 9

Vehicle Agency
I National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
2 Virginia Highway Research Council
3 Ford Motor Company
4 Louisiana Department of Highways
5 Bureau of Public Roads
6 Florida State Road Department
7 General Motors
8 Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
9 Portland Cement Association
lO Stevens Institute of Technology
II Maryland State Roads Commission
12 Tennessee Highway Research Program

A summary of the characteristics of the trailers is given in


Tables la and lb. The NASA vehicle which has been described
by Byrdsong (6) is not included in the tables since it is not
a skid trailer.
All vehicles were equipped and tested with the ASTM E-17
Standard Skid Test Tire conforming in all respects to ASTM
Specification E 249-65T for Standard Tire for Pavement Tests.

TESTING PROCEDURE

Trailer Tests

The trailer tests were designed to minimize the effect of


extraneous variables such as temperature, pavement condition,
and water depth fluctuation.
Generally the trailers were tested by locking the left
wheel only, although no particular mode of operation was speci-
fied. ASTM E-17 Test Tires were used in all tests, and only
locked wheel coefficients were reported.
Sites I and TT with External Waterinq--For testing trailers
on the ten surfaces of Sites I and l-F, water was applied by
sprinklers at a rate sufficient to cover the pavement asperi-
ties. The testing was conducted as follows:
I. Each surface representing a single frictional level
was divided into six zones as shown in Figure 27. For conven-
ience, all tests were completed on each surface before testing
another surface.
2. Each trailer tested the six zones one time at each
test speed.
3. Test speeds were 20 MPH, 40 MPH, and 60 MPH.
4. All trailers were organized into flights consisting of
one testing run for all trailers. Flight position in each
flight, test speed, and t~st zone were selected for each trail-
er on a random basis. Therefore, three speeds times six zones,
or 18 flights per surface were required.

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l0 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

This scheme required 18 flights times 10 surfaces or 180


flights to complete all tests on Sites I and ]-r. Master data
sheets as shown in Figure 28 were prepared for each surface to
control the testing sequence.
Self-Waterinq Systems on Sites ]-[-[ and ]~r--Sites TTT and
~were used to test trailers using their self-watering systems
and were tested simultaneously with Site I in the following
manner.
I. Since a dry pavement was required for testing with
self-watering systems, the zone concept was not used. Each
trailer operator selected a dry section of pavement.
2. Two trailers were selected by a random procedure from
each flight on Site I to make a test run on Site 1-l-[ and
S i t e TiT.
3. Each trailer made six tests at each test speed on both
Site TTT and Site TE.
4. Testing was conducted at 20 MPH, 40 MPH, and 60MPH.
5. On a run, each trailer tested Site ~ twice at a
constant speed and Site ]][ twice at a constant speed. The
test speeds were selected on a random basis.
This procedure required nine runs per trailer on these
self-watering sites. Each trailer was required to complete
36 individual skids on Sites ]-I-r and ]]Z-.
Self-Waterinq Systems on Sites I and l-r--During the Corre-
lation Study, some of the participants desired to test Site I
and Site ]-r utilizing the trailer self-watering system. These
tests were conducted at the convenience of the participants,
and no attempt was made to control or randomize the testing
sequence. Although an attempt was made to test dry pavement
only, this was not always possible because of the limited area
available on the surfaces of Sites I and l-I-.
Pavement Surface Condition Study--The experimental design
adapted for testing Sites I and ]Z[ deliberately equalized the
effects of any time dependent changes occurring in the pavement
surface as the result of wear, rubber deposit, pavement tempera-
ture, etc. An additional test procedure was conducted to mea-
sure changes which may have occurred in the frictional coeffi-
cients of the surfaces due to primary trailer testing.
Several selected trailers tested each surface immediately
before and after completing the primary testing. Six tests at
40 MPH (one test in each zone) were made prior to and after the
primary tests.
Trackinq vs. Non-Trackinq Trailers--0f the eleven trailers
reporting to the Study, only one (Tennessee Highway Research
Program) was constructed so that the trailer wheels did not
follow the same wheelpath (track) as the tow vehicle. By using
an offset hitch, limited tests were conducted with the General
Motors trailer to observe what effect, if any, that tracking
would have on the results. These offset tests were made at 20
and 60 MPH on Test Site I, Sections B and D.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 11

Texture Tests

Surface textures were measured by three methods. They


we re :
I. Text-Ur-Meter
2. NASA Grease Test
3. BPR Outflow Meter
The Text-Ur-Meter is a hand-operated instrument and is
shown in Figure 29. The instrument consists of a series of
29 evenly spaced, parallel rods spanning a distance of ten
inches and mounted in a frame. The rods can be moved indepen-
dently of one another against spring pressure. At either end
of the series of movable rods is a fixed rod attached to the
frame.
Each movable rod is pierced by a hole through which passes
a taut cord, one end of which is fixed to the frame and the
other to the spring loaded stem of a 0.001 inch per division
gauge mounted on the frame. When the instrument is in use,
the rods are held in a vertical position with their ends rest-
ing against the pavement surface. If the surface is not smooth,
the string will cause the cord to form a zig-zag line resulting
in a reading on the dial. The coarser the texture of the pave-
ment, the larger will be the reading. More detailed instruc-
tions can be found in the instrument's operating manual. (7)
The NASA Grease Test described by Leland, Yager and
Joyner (8) is essentially a method consisting of working a
known volume of grease into the pavement surface and measuring
the resulting grease-cover area. The grease-cover area is
then converted to average surface texture depth and is reported
in millimeters (Figure 30).
The BPR Outflow Meter (Figure 31) is essentially a water
reservoir which permits water to drain between a rubber gasket
and the pavement surface. Water drains from the 10-1/2-inch
diameter upper cylinder into a smaller 2-1/4-inch diameter
cylinder and passes out at the pavement surface-rubber gasket
interface. The elapsed time for the water to fall from ll-I/4
inches to 6-I/4 inches as measured above the pavement surface
in the larger cylinder is recorded. The total weight of the
large and small cylinder resting on the rubber gasket and any
additional surcharge weight, exclusive of water weight, is
recorded. The upper cylinder is leveled with the tripod legs.
Water temperature in the cylinder is also recorded. The out-
flow time is the time for the water in the upper cylinder to
fall from If-I/4 inches to 6-I/4 inches and is a function of
the pavement surface texture.
The instructions for making outflow measurements are to
level the upper cylinder by adjusting the legs of the tripod,
measure the distance from the pavement surface to the bottom of
the cylinder, record the temperature of the water in the cylin-
der, record the weight on the rubber gasket, record the loca-
tion of the test, and describe the pavement surface. Finally,

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12 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

the outflow time is recorded from the 5-inch drop in the water
level of the cylinder. It is recommended that at least three
consistent measurements be conducted for each location.

TRAILER RESULTS

The test results are presented and summarized along with


a discussion of general trends and apparent conclusions.
Extensive analyses of the results are left to the participants
in the trailer tests who, through familiarity with their indi-
vidual vehicles, are far more qualified to draw meaningful con-
clusions. Complete raw data from the trailer tests are inclu-
ded in the Appendices. Each participant interpreted their
resultant traces obtained on the various surfaces and reported
the results as Skid Numbers (SN). Vehicle 4, Louisiana Depart-
ment of Highways, and Vehicle lO, Maryland State Roads Commis-
sion, experienced mechanical difficulties and were not able to
obtain meaningful data.

Sites I and I-[ with External Watering

Trailer means (3) and standard deviations (O-) for each


surface and speed combination are listed in Table 2 for the
five surfaces of Site~T and in Table 3 for Site TT. The mean
of trailer averages (X) and pooled standard deviations (~)
for the surface and speed combinations are also shown. The
individual trailer means are presented graphically by bar
charts for Site I in Figures 32 through 36, and for Site TT in
Figures 37 through 41. =
The mean of trailer averages (X) for each surface of
Site [ at 20 MPH, 40 MPH and 60 MPH is shown in Figures 42
through 44, and for Site I-[ in Figures 45 through 47. These
graphs include the range of trailer means and a shaded band
indicating the 95 per cent confidence limit on the pooled
sigma.
The deviations of each vehicle average from the group
average for the three test speeds and the five surfaces of
Site I are shown in Table 4 and Figure 48. Similar data for
Site I-I-are shown in Table 5 and Figure 49.
Since Vehicle I (NASA) is not a skid trailer, the results
for this vehicle were not included in the computation of group
averages (~), pool standard deviations ((~), or any of the
various statistical analyses. During initial testing the vehi-
cles were checked for speed accuracy by radar. Those vehicles
having appreciable speed errors were asked to correct their
data for such speed deviations. These corrections, which were
prorated on a linear basis, are listed in Tables 2 and 3 and
are shown in the data in Appendix I. If speed corrections

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 13

were applied, the corrected means were used for computing


group means (~). Otherwise, the uncorrected trailer means
were used to compute group means (~). Since the speed cor-
rection was applied to the trailer means instead of the indi-
vidual skid numbers, raw data were used to compute the stan-
dard deviations (CT).
Although no clear and definite relationships are apparent
from the~data, the following trends are indicated by Tables 2
and 3 and Figures 32 through 41.
I. In general, the spread of results between trailers and
the standard deviations of the trailers are greater on the
coarse-textured pavements of Site ]-r than on the smooth-
textured pavements of Site I.
2. The standard deviations and the spread of results
between the trailers tend to be greater on the surfaces with
larger skid numbers.
3. Some interaction exists between the trailers, sur-
faces, and speeds. The average skid numbers and standard
deviations of the individual trailers as compared to other
trailers are affected by the surfaces and test speeds.
4. On Site I, the variability of the results was some-
what greater on the surfaces of Section C and Section A than
on the other surfaces. The probable cause for these variations
on Section C was the uncured asphalt. Large variations in
skid numbers have been noted during prior tests on slurry seals
similar to Section A.
The data are further analyzed and shown in Figures 42
through 47 to indicate the spread and variability of the
trailer results at each test speed for the surfaces on Site I
and Site -FT. For these figures, a large confidence limit
reflects large standard deviations and poor repeatability
within the trailers. These figures tend to substantiate the
trends listed above.
Figures 48 and 49 show the overall precision and relative
accuracy obtained by the trailers for each speed and surface
on Sites ~ and TT. While it would be tedious to make detailed
statements about each trailer, the following is typical of the
information indicated in these figures.
I. The precision and apparent accuracy of Trailer 8 is
excellent. The repeatability of the results obtained with
this vehicle as shown by the standard deviations in Tables 2
and 3 is exceptional also.
2. Trailer 5 exhibits a definite upward bias which could
be due to calibration of the force measuring system.
3. The precision and accuracy of Trailer 7 is very good
on Site I, but the results indicate a downward bias on Site TT.
4. Trailer 12 has an apparent downward bias at 60 MPH,
particularly on Site I. Possibly this is because the trailer
is non-tracking. The results of the tracking versus non-
tracking tests, which will be discussed later, substantiate
this opinion.

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14 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figures 50 and 51 show the Skid Number-Speed Gradient


based on average surface skid numbers for Sites I and lq.
These data indicate the tendency for smooth-textured pavements
to have steeper Skid Number-Speed Gradients than coarse-
textured pavements although there are exceptions in these data.
For example, on Site I, Section E has a lower skid number at
20 MPH than Section D, while the skid numbers at 40 MPH and
60 MPH are much higher on Section E. On Site l-r, the skid
numbers at 40 MPH are similar for Sections, A, B, C, and D,
while they are appreciably different at 20 MPH and 60 MPH.
The slope of the gradient curve for Section D on Site ]~s is
positive although the skid numbers at 20 MPH, 40 MPH, and 60
MPH are not significantly different statistically.
Statistical Analysis--Although sophisticated statistical
analyses, such as multiple factor analyses-of-variance (ANOV)
were attempted, they were inconclusive, primarily because of
numerous missing data. These preliminary ANOV methods did
indicate there were no statistical differences between the
zones (within surfaces) for any of the surfaces.
The least significant difference (LSD) was used for com-
paring trailer means to avoid reduction of the degree of con-
fidence resulting from multiple comparisons. The LSD for
Site I was found to be 6.9 SN which means that when any two
trailer means differ by 6.9 SN or less, the means are from
the same population at the 95 per cent confidence level. The
LSD for Site 1-l-was 8.5 SN. These LSD comparisons for every
trailer and speed combination are shown in Tables 6 through 8
for Site I, and in Tables 9 through II for Site l-I-.

Sites 1-l-r and T V w i t h Self-Watering Systems

Trailer means=(X), standard deviations (<9"-), means of


trailer averages (X), and pooled standard deviations (~-) are
shown for Site TTT and Site l~ in Table 12. The individual
trailer means are presented graphically with bar charts in
Figures 52 and 53. Test data are liven in Appendix I-I.
The spread of trailer means (X) and the standard devia-
tions (G-) are much greater on these surfaces than on the
externally-watered surfaces. This is due at least partially
to variations in the frictional coefficient inherent in slurry
seal surfaces. Also the rough existing pavement on these sites
was only partially leveled by the applied treatments. It was
believed that, since part of the variations was attributable
to the rough surfaces, additional self-watering tests on Site I
would be desirable. The study was expanded during testing to
include self-watering data for Site I.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 15

Self-Watering Systems on Site I

The limited data on self-watering tests on Site I which


were included in Appendix ~ and summarized in Table 13 also
point to inherent differences in trailer watering systems.
Although it is not surprising that self-watering and external-
watering results for individual trailers do not compare favor-
ably since water depths probably were different, the results
obtained by different trailers on the same surface differ by
large values. However, the repeatability of individual trail-
ers as indicated by the standard deviations (O'-) was very good.

Pavement Surface Condition Survey

The trailer test results taken before and after the pri-
mary trailer testing are given in Table 14. As noted earlier,
these tests were for the purpose of observing any changes which
may have occurred in the frictional coefficients of the sur-
faces due to primary trailer testing as the result of wear,
rubber d e p o s i t , pavement t e m p e r a t u r e , e t c . On s e v e r a l of the
surfaces, a significant change in the pavement s u r f a c e SN was
noted; however, t h i s does not a f f e c t the comparisons between
trailers. T h l s i n f o r m a t i o n is given to p r o v i d e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s
between t r a i l e r t e s t s and the s t o p p i n g d i s t a n c e v e h i c l e t e s t s .

Tracking vs. Non-Tracking Trailers

The results of the limited tests made to study the effect


of tracking are given in Table 15. While not generally signif-
icant, it is interesting to note that for the 20 MPH speeds,
the tracking trailer test data results were lower than the data
for the non-tracking trailer. The reverse was true at 60 MPH.
Such differences were only significant at 60 MPH. As noted
earlier, Vehicle 12 (the only non-tracking trailer) was biased
downward at 60 MPH. This trend is consistent with the results
of Table 15.
It is recognized that these data are limited. However,
except for Vehicle 12, it is felt that the condition of test-
ing will not affect the comparisons of the tracking trailers.

Additional Comments on Trailer Tests

Unfortunately, force measuring systems and watering sys-


tems of the trailers were not calibrated during the study.
Time trials were run by vehicles capable of recording speed
traces, and radar speeds were taken during part of the testing.
Since speed corrections were applied to the results of those

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16 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

vehicles whose actual test speeds were in error by any signifi-


cant degree, it is not believed that varying test speeds was
the source of any large errors.
Calibration of the force measuring systems undoubtedly
would have improved the overall accuracy of some trailers and
would have reduced the spread between the trailer results.
However, this is not believed to be the entire reason for the
differences between trailers. Calibration would not have im-
proved the repeatability of the trailers, which was greater
than was expected or desired.
Other sources of error, such as trace evaluation, trace
resolution, and recording response times due to electrical
damping of the force traces, also are not believed to be the
major reasons for the differences between trailers. Inherent
differences in basic trailer design probably account for a
large share of these differences.

TEXTURE TEST RESULTS

At the outset of the Correlation Study, the BPR Outflow


Meter was not available. For this reason, only the Text-Ur-
Meter and Grease Test could be used in connection with the
actual trailer testing. In most cases, the Text-Ur-Meter and
Grease Tests were used to measure the surface textures at
Sites I and 1-r just before and just after the trailer testing
(external-watering). The results of these tests are given in
Table 16. The relationship between texture depth (Grease
Test - mm) and mean of mean (~) skid number for Sites I and 1-r
are shown in Figure 54. The relationship between the Text-Ur-
Meter and Grease Test are shown in Figure 55.
When the BPR Outflow Meter was made available to the study,
it was observed to be much more time consuming than either the
Text-Ur-Meter or Grease Test. This method of measuring surface
texture was used on many of the test surfaces to observe the
instrument. The results of these tests are shown in Table 17.
Since the measurements were taken without any reference to
trailer tests, comparisons between these data and the trailer
test results are not attempted.
A limited number of Outflow Meter Tests and Text-Ur-Meter
measurements were made on the same area of a test surface.
These results are listed in Table 18 and are plotted in
F igu re 56.
Of the three methods of measuring texture, the Text-Ur-
Meter was the simplest, however, it was observed that this
method does not have sufficient accuracy for the smoother
pavements. The Grease Test, while somewhat more time consum-
ing than the Text-Ur-Meter, appeared to give good results for
the smoother surfaces, but lacked accuracy on the coarser sur-
faces. (Site ]-I]-D could not be tested by this method.) The

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 17

BPR Outflow Meter was by far the most time consuming of the
three methods used.
In Figure 54 there appears to be a relationship between
texture depth and skid numbers for many of the test surfaces.
Exceptions to this relationship are the surfaces with Kentucky
Rock (Gripstop) and River Gravel. These data are, of course,
too limited to be conclusive; however, it may be well to point
out that of the ten surfaces of Test Sites I and I-[, six were
either limerock or slag commonly used in Florida. Pavements
with these materials are known to have similar early skid
characteristics. Possibly such a relationship may exist for
different type aggregates.
There appears to be a relationship between the three
methods of test as indicated in Figures 55 and 56.

CONCLUSIONS

After a detailed analysis of the data by the participants


and other interested parties, many specific conclusions will be
drawn. However, the following general conclusions appear to
be justified from the treatment outlined in this paper:
I. Good reproducibility was achieved by the individual
trailers, and the individual trailers are satisfactory for
measuring pavement slipperiness.
2. While some agreement was achieved among trailers,
which probably could be improved with consistent calibration
techniques, standardization of the skid trailer as an accept-
able uniform testing method has not been achieved at this time.
3. Based on limited data, the agreement among trailers
using their self-watering systems was poor. The reproducibility
of individual trailers apparently was equal to the reproduci-
bility obtained on the externally-watered surfaces. Additional
study is needed on trailer watering systems with a view towards
more rigid standardization of design.
4. The causes for the differences between the various
trailers are difficult to define. Design differences between
trailer suspension systems and the dynamic response of the
force measuring systems should be investigated.
5. Satisfactory correlation between the coefficient of
friction~ speed gradients and texture measurements on the dif-
ferent surfaces was not achieved.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to express their appreciation for the


assistance and cooperation of the individuals, agencies and
organizations who participated in the Florida Skid Correla-
tion Study.

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18 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Particular thanks are given to the members of the ASTM E-17


Committee Task Group for their assistance and advice in the de-
sign of the trailer test procedures.
We also want to thank the personnel of the Florida State
Road Department, as well as the officials of Marion County,
Florida, who gave of their time and efforts.
We want to thank those employees of the Division of
Research of the Florida State Road Department who worked under
demanding circumstances while conducting this study. Their
efforts are also commended for the assistance in preparing
this report.
The Bureau of Public Roads is thanked for their coopera-
tion in financing of this study.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 19

LIST OF REFERENCES

(1) Moyer, R. A., "Historical Background of Skid Resistance


Measurement - American Experience," Proceedings, First
International Skid Prevention Conference, Part I, Virginia
Council of Highway Investigation and Research, 1959, pp.
227-231.

(2) Dillard, J. D. and Mahone, D. C., Measuring Road Surface


Slipperiness, ASTM STP 366, Am. Soc. Testing Mats., 1963.

(3) Rizenbergs, R. L., "Florida Skid Correlation Study of


1967 - Skid Testing with Automobiles".

(4) Easton, E. A., "Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967 -


Skid Testing with a Truck-Tractor Semi-Trailer".

(5) Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction,


Florida State Road Department, Edition of 1966, pp. 545-
548.

(6) Byrdsong, T. A., "Investigation of the Effect of Wheel


Braking on Side-Force Capability of a Pneumatic Tire,"
NASA TN D-4602, National Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration, 1968.

(7) Text-Ur-Meter Operatin 9 and Service Manual, Rainhart


Series 870, Rainhart Company, Austin, Texas, 1954.

(8) Leland, T. J. W., Yager, T. J. and Joyner, U. T., "Effects


of Pavement Texture on Wet-Runway Braking Performance,"
NASA TN D-4~2~, National Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration, 1968.

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20 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table la--Trailer Characteristics


(/3
r~
o
E
t~
o z ~ ~

t,9
= o =
z
P:I, ~,ri qu-
i ~ ,~"
z
u.I .J
~
u.l
z
Ld

i II
TRAILER NUMBER 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 II 12
|

, !

disc X xx :
shoe , X X X X xLx x x
z ~
~ vacuum
-- over X X X X
~ .~_ hydraulic L
>~ air
"--- over X X •
o~ hydroulic ,
electric X X X X
i 7

i.
positive
X X X X X

~'= centrifugal X X X
~_ c=,to~
film
I-- ~ ~= ~ thickness X X X X X X iX X X
= ,~ toA.S.T.~
~= ~ specs.
Constant ,I
discharge i X X

m
tachometer
off
drive X
shaft
o: 3 D.C.
~ generator
~ ~ ~ off truck X
I-- ,- wheel
m ~ u~ ~. 5th wheel X X X X X
" truck
speedomeler, X X X
it

least chart
divisions.MRH I.O 0.5 1.0 NO 0.41 1,0 0.5 NO~2.0 2.0 NO
| J

| i

leaf
SUSPENSION springs X X X X X X X X
SYSTEM coil
springs X X X

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING W}TH TRAILERS 21

Table l b - - T r a [ l e r Characteristics

TRAILER NUMBER ?_ 13 4 J5 I 6 7 I B 19,0lll [12

broke
pin in
bending X X

broke
pin in X
shear

stop
:5:1 ~ bar in X X
c~ z ~ u= tension

axle
tube in X X X X X
torque
brake
caliper in X
bending
least chart 1.5 I I 2 I I I 2 2 2 2
division - SN
Ab=obove system Ab Ab Be Ab Ab Ab Be Ab Ab Ab
response time
Be=below in HERTZ 60 20 5 160 20 35 5 . 20 60 60

I ZL~ ~. torque CJrm


rOcr on wheel X X X X

0: ~ i ~ . . loud through
a3~.s
.~ ~ o ar trailer X X X X
U~ ~
i tongue
b~ plottorm
=E load X X X
TRAILER CALIBRATION PROCEDURE_
LOAD THROUGH 1
TRAILER TONGUE LOAD THROUGH PLATFORM

Torque Arm ......... ~ r ~ )___


/ 1. Load ~ J

JackedJacked
Up|Up ~ LOAD THROUGH
_L~', TORQUE ARM

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r,.J
r.,a
m

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GOODYEAR _.

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9. - 4 f f ~ 4 o o CEMENTASSOCIATION
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SMITH A N D FULLER ON SKID TESTING W I T H TRAILERS 23

Table 3--Summary of Test Results - Site


-- ..oz

SITEII " ~~ j -
o_ ILl
uJ

T r a i l e r No. I 2 3 5 b 7 8 9 10 12 ~' C~
raw ~ 79.8 77.8 81.5 82.2 6.3 84.2 81.0 88.2 80.5
~0 cor. ~ 79.8 78.0 80.4 81.4"-
s.d. 7.~7 8.86 5.61 8,47 6.95 2.32 4.82 3.97 IU.3) 6.~1
raw ~ ,62.6 63.3 63.0 '2.8 66.2 58.0 68.3 70.8 72.7 62.8
A 40 cor. ~ 62.4
s.d. 8.56
64.2
9.93 5.66 3.43 I./2 7.38 2.06
68.0
2.86 5.89 12.06
66.2
6.6(
raw ~ 147.6 37.8 46.2 60.8 33.3 56.3 59.0 63.0 36.8 --
60 cor. ~ 55.4 38.1 55.8 "8.~
s.d. 7,02 9,85 3.66 3,06 6.02 3.2O 4.82 7.87 4.49 5.8,~

raw ~ 70.0 85.3 75.7 83.7 78.O


20 cor. x 70.4 Z6.0 78.7
s.d. 2.76 4.8q 3.~3 3.33 0.00 3.3)
raw Y, 62.2 78.0 69.5 73.2 64.8
B 40 cor. ~ 62.0 bb.O bS.~
s,d. 4,58 2,26 1.76 1.33 3.06 2.9,:
raw ~ 49.8 6~, 3 55.8 62.2 i4.7
60 cor. X 49.5 57-5
s.d. 4.96 1.63 3,37 3.60 3.39 3.5 c

raw ~ 79.2 7S.0 172.5 70.7 73.8


73.2 73,8 69.0
~O cor. ~ 73.0 73.0 72.6
s.d. 5.53 4.60 2.51 2.25 3.54 4.44 3.25 3.74 3.8~
raw ~, 76.2 72.2 67.8 64.0 65.5 69.3 66.7 64.2
C 40 cor. 2
s.d.
69.4
2.86
68.0
1.17 2.14 2.37 3,21 4.'46 4.32 4.12
67.2
3.2
raw ~ 69.3 64.5 61.2 60.3 64.0 6.3.7 65.3 64.7.
60 cor. ~ 57.9 62.8 62.6
d 4.88 3.39 3.7l 5.28 4.90 3.14 2.80 |.86 3.91

raw ~ 56.0 '6Lh2 66.3 6515 63.3 60.0


20 cor. ~ 55.4" 62.4
a 4.38 1,92 1.50 2.95 2.66 3.16 2.94
raw Z 58.4 59.2 64.7 66.0 66.5 59.8
D 40 cor. ~X 58.8 64.2
s.d, 2.61 3.27 1,37 3.75 0.55 2.14 2.54
raw ~ ~9,0 76.8 63.2 65.5 65.7 60.5
60 cor, ~ 58,7 64.7
s,d. 3.29 2.59 1.72 2,2~ 3.931 2.88 2,87

raw Y 64.0 61.7 ~ 55.2 61.2 55.2 56,8 59,8 61.7 55.8 51.8
~O r X 66.6 6~.0 58.4 57.5
s.d. 12.98 ~,93 3.66 2.9" 5.07 2.48 3.31 2.8~ 4.621 2.99 3.63
raw ~ 39.4 4 1 , 2 3 6 . 8 38.7 42.5 37.7 39.3 41.5 40.3 38.5
E 40 cor. ~ 38.9 39.0 39.3
s.d. 1.9~' 2,04 2.86 4.41 5.36 2.66 2.42 2.9{ 0'.52 3.62: 3.,26!
.0
60 cor. ~ 32.3 3 4 . ~ 32.8 14,l
s.d, 4 . 6 6 3. 4.41 2.0~ 0.97 2,6l 0.9~ 2.7 ~. 2.7e 3.O6 2.76 ~

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m
o! STEVENS INSTITUTE

.~ § , - ~, - & & -I
O0 ~C- 0 0 .~" ~I TENNESSEE
~ Do o,
IJl

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3 5 6 7 8 9 I0 12
AIB}ClDIE A)B}CIDIEAIBICID}E AIBICID)EAIBiCID{r AiB)CiD!EAIBiCIDIEAIBICIDIE
-~--N_ SN NN NN N N N N NN NN -i-
2 c - - N - - N N N
~- S N N N S S N N
7E- N N . N N N N $ N I
A N N N N N N N 0- >
3 C . . . . . . . ..<
o N S N N N N S o, b~
E N N N N N S N ,
A N S S S N N
~._ N N N N_ N N_ ~"
5 NN NN NN: NN N$ NN ;,.
(,~
~___ NN NN NN NN NN ~"
6 r - - N N N - Z
NN SNI NN NS NN _~. N
m
A_~ N N N N
7 C~ N N N N
NN NN NS NN
A N S N
8~ N_ N N ~,
NN N~ SN
A S N
9 :~ NN NN
_D_ N S -.
E $ iN N ~'
A
I0 ~
q_
D
NNN
E S
Note: N = Difference between means is no._.t significant at 0.05 level.
S = Difference between means is significant at 0.05 level.

SlTE ~ - 20 mph
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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 27

Table 7 - Statistical Difference Between Trailers

2 2 Z O" Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
N__ o z I I Z I I Z Z
m Z I Z Z Z Z Z Z
<Z z z Z Z Z
:~ (I) ~ Z 2 z (~
a Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
0~- z I I z I I Z
z I z z Z Z Z
<{ Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z 2
Z Z Z Z Z z
m (J Z I I Z I I
0
m Z I Z Z Z Z it)
Z Z 0
<Z Z (~ Z
Z Z Z Z
~ d
c~ z Z Z Z Z
I
m- Z i Z Z Z
,< 2: Z Z Z z
,~ Z Z Z 2 C)
a Z Z Z Z
~-- o I I I I
m z I z z -- .--~1
Z z Z Z
~ LU
o z co Z
~D o z I I EE ~
m Z I Z
Z z z o

(~ z
o Z r
o I I
~ z I
Z Z

a a
fo o I II l!
I Z 01
Z

loloh , loloh io folol Z

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28 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table 8 - Statistical Difference Between Trailers

__. ~ I z I =' z I ==
m 2 Z Z
~' Z Z r Z Z Z Z
_.o -G z i i Z I I Z
m Z I Z Z Z Z Z
,< Z Z Z Z U) Z Z
E Z 2
c~ Z (/) Z Z Z Z
m (~ Z I I Z I I 0
m Z I Z Z Z Z I11
Z =E 0
<Z Z Z Z
~ 6
L. := 2 2 2 Z
c~ Z Z ol Z Z
a) c) I I I I I
~- z i z Z Z
<Z Z Z Z Z
z 2 2 2
C~ Z Z U) Z
~1~ i I I I
'~ z i z Z
<Z Z ol ~) bj
c~ Z Z r
~0 ~ Z I I
m
.~ Z
Z
Z
I
Z
Z .:.= Q

I~- ~
m z I
~z z

Q t-~
i,~ u i i! ii
m i Z
~z .~
Q
o
Z
N I~ I~ ~ f..- CO 0) C)

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3 5 6 7 8 9 I0 I 12
ArBrCfDIE A;BICIDIE ,IBICiDIE 'A[BICIDIE AIBICIDIE AiBICIDiE A BiC D E AIBICIDIE
A N N - N N N S N
2 Bc -- SN -N -N -N NN SN NN
D - S S - - S N N
E N N N NI N N N $ b~
A N - N N N N N
R ~ ~ . . . . .
5 C . . . . . . .
0 . . . . . . . I
E N N N N N N N i
A -- N N N N N >
Z
!B _ _ N _ N SN N NNN NNN rf C3
5 ~ NNN -N -N N N S 2
r~

BA -- ~ ~ -- ~
r-
l-
6 C N N N N N m
7o
O - - N N N
E N N N N N 0
A N N S N Z
7 C
~)
N . .
N . .
N N
E N N N N U
A N N N --I
8 G N N N
O ~ ~ "-I
-E- N N N
A N N
B N N
9(: N N
D N N
E NIN N I
A
a N
I0 c N 7o
D N >
E N r-
m
Note= N = Difference between means is not significant at 0.05 level. 73
oo
S = Difference between means is significant at 0.05 level.

SITE ~ - E O mph ~0

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~u
3 5 6 7 8 9 I0 12 o

AIBICIDIE AIBICIDIE AIB~CiDIE AIBIC]D1E AIB'FCIDIE A]BIC]DJE AIBIC]DI,E AIB]CIDIE


- N N N N N S N
~_N SSN - - -N NN N N 2_
2 C - N N N
T - S N - - N N N
s N N N N N N N N 2_
o-
A S N N N N 5 N J
>
-<
3 ._r . . . . . . .
0 . . . . . .
N N N N N N -N i

A N S N NS NN SS
0J
5 ~ -N -N -N N N NS 3o
~--
E NN -N -N NNI NN N
A N N N N N
6 ~-- -N -N -N -N -N
~__ - - N N N Z
E N N N N N N
m
A S S S N
7 C N N N N
E N N N N (D

A N N N
8~-- N N N
7~- N N N
A N N
9 ~ NN NN
D N N
E N N
A 5
S N
I0 ~ N
D N
E N
Note; N = Difference between means Is no._.t significant at 0.05 level.
S = Difference between means I_s significant al 0.05 level,

SITE 77--4 0 m p h
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8 9 I0 12
3 5 AIB]6 DIE 7
,AI BIclDIE A[BIC[D[E AIBrC]O I '[.IcIol ,[.Iclol 'la[clDIs 'I"[clDIE
IN_ SS -_ N_ S S S ~1
- N S N
2 c _ N N N N N N N
o - S NN - -N NN NN NN
E N N N
A S - S s_ s_ s_ s_ _~
3 C_ - - - . . . . (I)
_ --I
N N N N N N N - -1-
A - S N N N S , ~>
-8- - -N - S N S Z
N N N N ~ o
5 ~ NSN -N - S S S =
N N N N -~.=
A . . . . ,"P r'--
. . . . . I"-
6-~-- -N N N N N '"" m
_ NN _ ~o
~-- -N N NN NN _~. 0
A S_ S_ S_ N_ ~ Z
N_ N_ N_ N_ ~
E N N N N =~
A N_ N_ S_ ~ --I
8_e~_ N_ N_ N_ ~,
N N N ~ -
Z
A NN SN ~ G~
B
9~-- NN NN ~ -
D
E N N -. -I
5 Z' -1-
N ; .-I
N
N >.
E N I'--
m
Note: N = Difference between means Is no._t significant at 0.05 level.
S = Difference between means i_s significant at 0.05 level.
Lu
SITE . ~ - 60 mph

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32 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table 12--Summary of Self-Watering Test Results

SITE TIT SELF-WATERING


Trailer No. 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 Poolec
20 ~
M 59.4 69.2 74.0 72.0 t2.0 74.0 74.5 70.5 70.5 70.7
P
H O~ 8.38 4.92 6.40 5.10 6.14 3.37 3.08 4.32 5.46
40
M X 49.2 56.2 61.0 68.6 55.5 64.3 65.0 60.0 54.3 59.3
P O"
H 5.60 8,09 7.97 2.61 8.46 2,51 4.82 7.39 6.3 ~
6O
M 42.6 54.3 61.3 46.0 147.3 56.7 55.4 47.0 69.7 53.4
P d
H 5.90 13.57 9.09 7.96 4.50 3.99 9..47 13.06 9.09

SITE SELF--WATER I N G
Trailer No. 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 'ooled
20
M X 66.0 70.7 31.o 79.0 76.5 72.o 77.2 7 9 . 7 77.3 75.5
P
H O" 4.69 6.83 4,82 2.19 5.24 1.03 4.23 4.27 4.49
4o ~
M 58.5 62.3 71,7 69.3 64.8 52.0 67,5 73.0 60.5 65.5
P O"
H 3.72 4.46 10,07 2.34 3.77 6,55 7.64 5.24 5,95
60 X
M
45.7 ~53.7 71.0 53,8 ~4.8 64.3 62.5 45.0 63.0 :57.1
m
H
O" 4.34 10.88 5.18 6.86 12.78 2.45 2.61 13.49 8.44

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 33

Table 13--Summary of Self-Watering Test Results

SITE I
SELF-WATERING SUMMARY

O ~ 4~
O .- "-
8 = .- o
O
u~ ~_'~ ~ _~ -~ ~ ~'o o
u~

0a
CD
o 0a
4a

2 6 7 8 9 I0 y O "

20 74.0 74.0
d 2.31 2.3l
A 40 X _ 20.8 ~0.8

3.77 3.77
6o 42.5 42.5
6 3.11 3.11
20
30.0 20.8 27.8 21,8 26.5 25.4
3.22 2.86 6.11 0.75 1.91 3.47
s 40 2].0 14.3 ]4.3 ]4.0 14.5 ]5.6
2.83 2.66 1.75 1.05 l .91 2.14
60 --X 16.0 I0.2 ll.0 ll.0 12.2 12.1
1.60 i.60 1.67 1.21 1.50 1.51
2o X 60.6 70.5 67.7 77.0 73.2 78.0 71.2
7.45 |.05 1.37 2.45 3.06 1.15 3.54

D 40 53.5 61.3 53.0 62.5 65.6 55.0 58.5


2.32 1.03 1.26 3.39 2.45 1.63 2.17
60 ,.~ 41.5 44.6 49.8 64.0 46.8 49.3
2.04 3.29 2.56 3.67 0,50 2.66
20
59.7 85.5 72.6
l .60 2.52 2. l l
61.0 73.5 67.3
E 4O
4.49 1.92 3.45
6o X 54.0 67.0 60.5
5.89 3.46 4.83

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34 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table 14--Summary of Test Results


(Pavement Surface Condltion)

PAVEMENT o

SURFACE x

CONDITION zlz
~<~ ~o = u') Ir

STUDY <~ ~- ~E: =E:


o_1<

SITE I PM ~ %

A 10-25-67 ] GOODYEAR #8 44.2 2. 287 43.3 2.175 98. c


TENNESSEE #12 45.5 I .871 45.2 3.487 99.3

B ,0-24-67 GOODYEAR #8 16.6 1.315 14.7 o.89~


TENNESSEE #12 14.2 2.324 13.5 0.894

GOODYEAR #8 59.6 1.472 59.2 2.978


D I0-26-67 _ TENNESSEE #12 63.2 2.040 62.0 3.225
FLORIDA #6 66.4 3.209 65.6 3.782

I~" 10-27-67 GOODYEAR#8 67.4 2.015 65.2 2.585


TENNESSEE #12 71.2 4.167 66.2 5.036

SITE II
I A I0-31-67 I GOODYEAR#8 I 69.3 I 2.2151 I 64.6 12,2 IF l
I B II-3-67 I P.C.A.#9 I 67.3 12858 1 I 65.0 I, 225 IF l
GOODYEAR#8 69.5 1.049 63.3 5.125
C 1,-1-67
FLORIDA#6 70.8 2.401 63.5 I.643

ID II-3-67 I P.C.A. #9 I 67.5 64.0

GOODYEAR #8 39.5 1.278 }8.~ I.II0


E Io-3o-67 TENNESSEE #12 38.2 1. 1 6 6 ~6.~ 2.337
FLORIDA #6 39.5 3. 728 41 .3 I .503

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Table 15--Tracking vs. Non-Tracking Test Results
(Vehicle 7 - Site I)
(/I

-r
>
Z
E~
Tracking Non Comments
Tracking
r-
I-
ra
24.30 27.50 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence
20 O
MPH O" Z
2.50 2.26 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence
5
6O 10.70 8.15 Slightly Significant at 95% Confidence

MPH O"
Z
2.14 0.55 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence G~

20 76.30 79.03 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence -r


MPH O"
2.42 2.38 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence >
I-"
m

6o 46.80 39.33 Significant Difference at 95% Confidence


MPH (],
1.33 1.83 No Significant Difference at 95% Confidence ~

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O~

Table 16--Test Surface Texture Measurements


(Text-Ur-Meter and Grease Test) -r

SITE SECTION TEXT-UR-METER GREASE TEST SKID NUMBER a -r


Texture Depth~mm
~B b X--AC ~-d ~B ~A 20 MPH 40 MPH 60 MPH -<

A . . . . . . . . . ,183 .226 .204 65.5 45.2 31.2 2~


B 13 x 10 -4 7 I0 .I01 .154 .127 23.7 15.0 11.O
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.2 18.1 13.4 m
m
D 30 If8 74 .437 .394 ,415 77.6 60.7 45.5
E 128 120 124 ,355 .301 ,328 74.6 66.4 59.9 >
A 298 750 524 1.09 .954 1.02 81.4 66.2 48.8 Z
t~
B 258 e 2.61 e rn
78.7 68.8 57.5
C 2158 1463 1810 5.47 5.68 5.57 72.6 67.2 62.6
D 2313 1760 2036 ........ f 62.4 64.2 64.7
E 1015 1335 I175 2.42 1,41 1.91 57.5 39.3 34.1

a Mean o f mean s k i d number f r o m Tables 2 and 3.

b --
XB i n d i c a t e s an average o f f o u r t e x t u r e measurements taken b e f o r e t r a i l e r testing.

c ~A indicates an average of four texture measurements taken after trailer testing.

d -=
X indicates an average of the before and after measurements.

e
An after test was not taken.

f This surface was so coarse that the Grease Test could not be made.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 37

Table 17--BPR Outflow Meter Data

OUTFLOW METER RESULTS


LOCATION WEIGHT Ia WEIGHT 2 b WEIGHT 3 c
d No. No. No.
Site Section Zone Time - s Test Time - s Test Time - s Test

Ie D 3 376 9 487 6 .....

I-[ A I 61 I0 96 9 .....

ZI A 3 33 5 54 5 53 3

D B 5 19 4 23 6 30 4

l-{ E 3 17 6 18 5 19 3

I-l-I - 52 7 88 7 .....

f
I A l 331 N/A . . . . . . . . . . .

I B I 134 N/A 46] N/A .....

I B 2 331 N/A . . . . . . . . . . .

I C I 159 N/A . . . . . . . . . . .

I D 4 210 N/A 320 N/A 529 N/A

I E 4 358 N/A I195 N/A .....

1-1- A l 59 N/A lO4 N/A 180 N/A

I-[ A 2 47 N/A 84 N/A 168 N/A

17" A 4 41 N/A 62 N/A 95 N/A

1-I C l 13 N/A 15 N/A 17 N/A

I-[ C 3 II N/A 13 N/A 16 N/A

I-[ E l 18 N/A 26 N/A 31 N/A

a e
Weight I - 1.72 pounds on base. Tests conducted by Florida

b State Road Department per-


Weight 2 - II.58 pounds on base.

c sonnel.
Weight 3 - 31.22 pounds on base.
f
Tests conducted by Bureau of
d
Average of observations as noted.
Public Roads personnel~

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38 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table 18--Comparison of Text-Ur-Meter and Outflow Meter

Location Outflow Meter


Site - Section Text-Ur-Meter Time - s a

T-D 60 x 10 -4 487

I-[-A 260 96

T-[-A 630 54

I-[-B 1300 23

T~-E 1500 18

1-rT 240 88

a 11.58 pounds on base.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 39

APPENDIX I

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0

o &;~ 0 .~:-~
~ ~ 0 - CO
, n m
I
"r
<
_ :~" T
co
rn
e., r~
>
o xl xl -<
~- " o,, v'~ .r- .,,, ,., -
o-
~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~- ~ _ C0

LO ' 0 0 N.A.S ,A. H 5


~ I
x)
rn
--H
VIRGINIA
.L'-,

- ~ I z ~ 0
FORD 7 Z
N
rrl
ul
BUREAU OF
. . . . . 0 PUBLIC ROADS
0
I

O~
0 FLORIDA
~_~ .Co. ~.0. .~ 0. ~.
..... .j GENERAL MOTORS
Q
_,~_ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ _
GOODYEAR m

LO
- ~ ~ -~- ~ ~- ~ ~ - ~ ~ PORTLAND
CEMENT ASSOC.
- ~ ~ _ ~
STEVENS INSTITUTE

o o TENNESSEE

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SMITH AND FULLER O N SKID T E S T I N G W I T H TRAILERS 41

Table I-2--Trailer Results - External Watering

SITE I
b o< o ~
B 4
-- -- u.I

-- o ~ D .J
z
i-

TRAILER NUMBER 1 2 13 I ~ I ~ I ~1 ~ 1 -~ I~o I'~


I 19 24 24 19 24 25 25 2~ r2s
2 19 26 27 25 26 22 26 30 28
3 20 25 30 19 21 23 24 26 ~6
20mph 4 17 24 26 20 23 20 22 28 125
5 17 18 25 19 20 22 25 22 24
6 19 24 27 20 26 20 25 30 22
raw data 18.5 23.5 26.5 20.3 23.3 22.0 24.5 26.8 25.0
corrected |8.1 23.5 26.8 24.3 22.1 21.0
stand, d e v i a t i o n 1.22 2.81 2.07 2.34 2.50 1.90 1.38 3.13 2.00

1 12 I14 5 12 16 17 16 I14 17
2 14 14 20 12 15 17 15 17 5

4Ore
ph 4
3 12 ,6
15
7 12 12 14 13 16 7
7 12 13 14 14 14 5
5 18 5 II 13 17 12 16 5
6 12 6 21 15 13 17 15 16
raw data ~ 12,5 5.5 7,5 12.3 13.7 16.0 14.7 15.5 5-7
corrected ~ !11.8 i15.3 I~.2 15.5 13.2
stand, d e v i a t i o n 1.00 1.52 2.51 1.37 1.50 1.56 1.03 1.221 1.03

1 I11 1~ I0 II 12 lO 14 lO
2
3
ll
8
11•
!13
l
0
11
9
12
8
I
0
12
12
9
I0
v~m~,, 4 9 =13 I13 0 12 I0 0 II 9
5 I0 116 i14 0 6 14 I 12 9
6 !13 12 0 I0 II I 12
raw data ~ 10.2 12.0 12.7 0.2 9.8 ll.2 0.5 12.2 9.3
corrected ~ 11.0 112.0 I0.7 II.o I0.0
stand, d e v i a t i o n 0.96 2.97

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42 H I G H W A Y SKID RESISTANCE

Table I-3--Trailer Results - External Watering

SITE I
C
9 ,., i - = ~
= =

TRAILER NUMBER 1 I 2 13 I 5 16 I 71 ~ I o I~o 112


I 34 29 21 32 29
2 25 Z3 22 7 14
3 21 Z7 20 26 71
20mph 4
18 ~9 18 I19 ]8
5 28 Z9 23 I28 24
6 26 ~6 23 ~20 18
raw data x 25.3 ~7.2 21.2 23.7 22.3
corrected x 26.0 21.6
stand, deviation 5.57 2.40 1.94 5.89 6.78

1 127 Z2 24 20 17
2 117 21 16 I2 14
3 21 16 2] 21 23
4Omph 4 I0 120 20 14 14
5 12 '26 2l 14 2~
6 17 120 15 16 3
raw data 17.3 20.8 19.~ 16.2 7.7
corrected 17.2 18.4
stand, d e v i a t i o n 6.15 3.25 3.39~ 3.60 5.12:

I 5 !17 15 20 13
2 8 ~17 16 12 I0
3 10 '16 14 16 13
60mph 4 17 14 14 8
5 16 18 16 17 II
6 I0 13 15 12
raw data ~" 9.7 16.3 15.0 15.2 0.7
corrected 9.8 15.2
stand, d e v i a t i o n 3.61 1.75 0.8@ 3.12 2.0~

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SMITH A N D FULLER O N SKID TESTING W I T H TRAILERS 43

Table I-4--Trailer Results - External Watering

SITE I o ~ r-

TRAILER NUMBER I 12 13 I 5 1 6 I 71 181 ~ I~o I ~


I 66 82 77 75 81 74 72 8S 178
2 66 81 77 82 83 77 72 83 86
3 70 81 69 78 BO 74 71 72 76 78
20mph 4 94 81 73 ,80 80 78 67 82 76 183
5 83 79 73 79 30 75 76 82 76 87
6 61 83 70 76 Bl 80 73 74 82
raw data 73.3 81.2 73.2 78.3 30.8" 76.3 71.8 78.7 78.3 82~3
corrected 72.8 82.6 72~2 75.0
stand, deviation 12.58 1.33 3.37 2.58 1.17 2.42 2=93 4.qO 3.83

! '59 65 58 64 68 63 58, 63 60 61
2 i46 59 54 64 B7 58 62 58 56 i63
3 56 62 58 67 55 61 60 66 60 61
4Omph 4 60 67 55 64 66 60 59 66 64 161
5 79 60 57 65 60 62 ~6. 6~ 58 61
6 i39 66 54 162 64 58. 158 6~ 58 161
raw data ~ 56.5 63.2 ;6.0 64.3 53.3 60.3 58.8 64.2 59.3 I61.3
corrected ~ 54.1 63.8 58.0 60.2
stand, devlation 13.72 3.31 1.90 1.63 4.97 2.06 2.04 3.76 2.73 0.82

I 144 43 54 ~4 /+6 144 151 47 38


2 ,46 43 ~52 L~3 49 48 58 51 '42
3 42 143 41 156 b~4 /46 45 50 45 35
60mph 4 ~6~ L~8 40 154 ~-3 46 44 r52 4-5 3
~ 42 157 48 44 152 45 ~2
5 ~3
6 ~+4 44 !53 46 48 I~5 46 ~2
raw data ~4.3 /+2.2 34.3. [+3.5 46.8 145.5 153,o 47.2 38.3
corrected ,3.6 L44.0 149.6
stand, deviation 2.42 1.47 1.86 0.58 1.33 1.97 2.97 2.40 4.59-~

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44 H I G H W A Y SKID RESISTANCE

Table I-5--Trailer Results - External Watering

SITE I o
F-
[~ ~ o
o~ -
E z
o ,=L - =~
o

TRAILER NUMBER , 12 13 5 1 6 17 18 19 1,0 ,~

I 72 68 76 76 78 7~ 73 69 86 183
2 87 70 77 78 77 69 72 77 87 i76
3 70 78 77 78 70 72 76 77 85 ~70
20mph 4 60 78 77 67 80 76 74 74 88 i78
5 67 70 68 61 71 71 72 84 74
6 60 66 66 72 79 76 71 74 87 60
raw data ~ 69.3 71.7 73.5 72.0 76.8 72.5 72.8 73.8 86.2 73.5
corrected ~ 68. 9 72.0 72.2
stand, deviation 9.9~ 5.12 5.09 6.84 3.9~ 2.8~ 1.94 3.06 1,47 7.89

i 80 68 60 74 64 7, 65 63 172 62
2 64 58 66 67 69 66 66 I7 0 54
3 60 69 64 76 74 69 67 66 172 63
~nnhlvmv. 4 69 61 69 66 74 67 66 69 ,74 71
63 60 66 69 69 61 66 ~72 60
6 68 58 62 66 74 67 58 66 74 68
raw data ~ 67.3 62.3 64.5 69.7 71.5 68.7 63.8 66.0 !72.3 63.0
,-c~ ~ 67.0 62.5 63.7
stand, deviation 7.03 4.93 3.21 4.32 5.0C 1.5 3.54 1.90 1.51 6.00

| 65 63 56 69 63 63 58 58 67 62
2 56 70 58 65 63 60 60 65 54
3 66 54 55 67 63 63 63 60 54
60mph 4 64 58 53 60 63 52 62 60 60 54
560 51 53 68 56 62 55 54 54
6 60 68 60 66 6~ 61 65 55 66 54
raw data 61.8 60.7 I55.8 65.8 63.0 59.7 61.7 58.5 62.0 55.3
corrected 62.2 60. 5 55.6
stand, deviation 3.82 7.63 2.79 3.19 4.63 2.42 3.15 4.94 3.27

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SMITH A N D FULLER ON SKID TESTING W I T H TRAILERS 4-/

Table ~-8--Trailer Results - External Watering

k-
SITE 13 0
z

C ul z
= L~
>
i LU
z (.~

TRAILER NUMBER | I 2 13 I ~ I ~ I ~1 ~1 ~ I10 1~2

| 70 76 74 72 72 80 74 168
2 76 75 76 69 68 72 70 67
3 80 74 1 73 73 77 72 73
20mph 4 82 77 70 72 77 72 72 63
5 86 81 74 67 77 69 76 71
6 81 67 0 71 76 69 79 72
raw data ~ 792 t5.0 72.5 70.7 73.8 73.2 73.8 69.0
corrected ~ 73.0 73.0
stand, deviation 5.53 4.60 2.51 2.25 3.54 4.44 3.25 3.74

! 74 72 67 65 61 69 64 71
2 78 73 70 65 67 63 72 67
3 72 72 69 64 62 77 70 63
4Omph 4 76 73 70 63 69 69 66 61
77 73 66 67 67 69 60 63
6 80 70 65 60 67 69 68 160
raw data ~ 76.2 72.2 67.8 64.0 65.5 69.3 66.7 I64.2
corrected ~ 69.4
.17 68.0
stand, dev~atTon 2.86 l 2.14 2.37 3.21 4.46 4.32 4.12

| 70 65 62 67 67 63 63 63
2 74 62 64 63 68 66 69 63
3 62 68 62 54 67 63 68 67
60mph 4 65 66 61 61 55 58 64 I66 .~
5 74 5~ 54 63 65 66 66 I66 |
6 71 67 64 ~4 62 66 62 63 _
raw data ~ 69.3 64.5 61.2 60.3 64.0 63. 7 65.3 64.7
corrected ~ 57.9 62.8
stand, devration 4.88 3.39 3.71 5.28 4.90 3.14 2.80 1.86

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50 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

APPENDIX .TT

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52 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table ll-2--Trailer Results - Self-Watering

o ~
SITE <
u_ o

= > o == o
SELF-WATERING ~o_ u- CD CD ~.J ~--

TRAILER NUMBER 1 2 3 5 6 7 o 1 12

I 70 ;65 82 77 81 7q 80 84 78
65 176 82 80 76 80 76 78
61 60 81 80 67 71' 80 85 79
20mph 4 70 175 89 76 75 82 76 83
5 70 71 76 82 80 66 82 76 70
6 60 77 76 79 80 80 81 76
r a w data x 66.0 ~0.7 81.0 79.0 76.5 72.0 80.7 79.7 77.3
corrected 66.0 77.2
stand, deviation 4.69 6.83 4.82 2.1~ 5.~ 1.03 4.23 4.27

! 58 65 80 . 70 64 66 77 81 61
2 58 70 62 66 60 72 62 53
3 60 61 78 73 69 57 74 81 66
40mph 4 62 59 84 69 66 63 76 61
5 52 61 64 70 63 69 68 66
6 62 ~8 62 68 60 70 $6
raw d a t a 58.7 62.3 71.7 69.3 64.8 62.0 69.2 73.0 60.5
corrected 58.5 67.5
stand, deviation 3.72 4.46 10.07 2.3~ 3.77 6.55 7.64 5.2~

I 52 50 !68 54 74 70 60 42 !46 J
2 42 55 168 63 65 66 43 i61
3 48 65 66 56 44 63 66 44 I77
60 mph 4 42 51 !70 52 40 6.3 145 181
5 48 65 ,74 ~ 54 60 6 ~, 147 159
6 36 80 52 66 !49 !54 I
i
raw data ~6.4 53.7 71.0 53.8 54.8 '64.3 164.0 145.0 S3.0_J
corrected L~5. 7 162 .r~ /_
stand, deviation 4.34 I0.88 5.18 6.8E 12.78 2.45 2.61 13.49j

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 53

APPENDIX

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54 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table ]Z]~-I--Trailer Results - Self-Watering

'r-A
9 -- -- .-I z

c~ ~ L,J Z
SELF -WATERING
TRAILER NUMBER

I I 72 ..
2 72
3
2Omph 4
76
76
5
6
raw data ~ ~4.0
corrected
stand, deviation 2.31

I 54
2 48

40mph 3
4
54
47

6
raw data ;0.8
corrected
stand, deviation 3.77

l 47
2 42
3 4O
60mph 4 41
5
6
raw data 42. 5
corrected
stand, deviation 3.1

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SMITH AND FULLER O N SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 55

Table ]~-2--Trailer Results - Self-Watering

o
T-B u_ o

,~ T= - - ~: >- -~z ~
SELF --WATERING ; o ~ ~ ~ o o~ ~
b- C3 ~.~ (j F-

TRAILER NUMBER , 1 2 I 3 I ~ I ~ I 71 ~ I ~ I~0 I~2


1 34 24 39 !22 27
2 34 22 24 23 25
3 32 20 22 23 25
20mph 4 27 16 25 24 29
5 32 23 30 23
6 27 20 27 22
raw data ~ 31.0 20.8 27.8 22.8 26.5
corrected ~ 30.0 21.8
stand, deviation 3.22 2.86 6.11 0.75 l.gl

I 20 15 15 13 17
2 25 15 15 14 ~13
3 24 16 13 15 15
40mph 4 19 16 14 16 13
5 18 12 14
6 12o 15 17 I~
raw data ~ 21.0 14.3 14.3 14.5 14.5
corrected ~ 21.0 14.0
stand, deviation 2.83 .2.66 1.75 1.05 1.91

I I14 11 lo 2 ;3
2 16 9 14 3 io
3 17 9 12 1 13
60mph 4 ~6 10 lO 3 13
5 ]8 13 lO lO
6 14 ? 10 ]
raw data ~ 15.8 10.2 11.0 1.7 12.2
corrected ~ 16.O 1.O
stand, deviation 1.60 1.60 1,67 1.21 1.50

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56 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Table 1-I-i'-3--Trailer Results - Self-Watering

•L• 0 ~ ~--
I-D

SELF -WATERING
TRAILER NUMBER , 12 I 3 I 5 I 6 I 71 ~ I o I!0 112
! 46 70 66 79 74 77
2 67 71 69 76 74 77
3 62 70 69 74 77 79
2Omph 4 61 72 66 79 77 79
5 62 69 68 69
6 65 71 68 72
raw data 60.5 70.5 67.7 77.0 73.8 ;78.0
corrected 60.6
stand, deviation 937 73.2
7.45 1.05 1 2.45 3,06 1.15

I 52 63 !55 64 66 53
2 55 61 53 62 66 55
3 58 61 '52 67 63 57
40mph 4
52 60 54 64 69 55
5 54 62 52 57 69
6 54 61 52 61 69
raw data ;4.2 61.3 53.0 62.5 67.0 55.0
corrected 6q,6
stand, deviation 2.23 1.03 1.26 3.39I 2.45 1.63

I ~2 43 49 60 47
2 38 41 50 60 46
3 ~3 43 46 66 47
60 mph 4 ~4 47 50 66 47
5 ~2 49 5O 66
6 ~2 54 69
raw data ~ ~1.8 44,6 49.8 64.5 46.8
corrected ~ ~1.5 64.0
stand, deviation 2.04 3.29 2.56 3.67 0.50

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 57

Table l-1~-4--Trailer Results - Self-Watering

I-
o
1-E u~
l.n
z

z g
)- _1 z
uJ ~-- uJ
~. ~_ ~m o
SELF-WATERING z ~ u_ c~
o OUJ

TRAILER NUMBER 3 84 I 5 I 71 BI I 1~ I ~
! 62 188
2 61 86
3 58 ~2
2Omph 4 60 86
s 6O
6 58
raw data ~59.8 185.5
corrected [59.7
stand, deviation I .60 2.52

74
2 68 '76
3 62 72
40mph 4 56 172
5 62
6 56
raw data 60.8 173.5
corrected 61.0
stand, devration 4.49 1.92

! 52 [7O
2 5o
6Omph ~ 56
64 170
5 48
6 58
raw data ~ 54.7 57.0
corrected ~ ;4.0
stand, deviation 5.89 3,46

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58 HIGHWAYSKID RESISTANCE

APPENDIX I"?/"

STATISTICAL METHODS

Least Significant Difference (LSD)

LSD = t#,a/2 n

Where:

S2 = mean error sum of squares from the


e
analysis of variance summary table

t
~',a/2 = student "t" statistic with-L/ degrees of
freedom at a/2 per cent confidence

n = number of data in each mean

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RETURN

SECTION E bO3

-H
-r

SECTION D Z
b
"11
C

ILl
DIRECTION OF TESTING
SECTION C o
X Z
0

SECTION B ACCELERATION MINIMUM "-I

AVAILABLE 2500' --I

SECTION A -.t
I
-.t

RETURN

APPROXIMATELY 400 FEET .-]


_1
V1
Figure l--Layout of Test Sites I and 1-r. ',O

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60 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 2--View of Surface at Test Site I - Section A.

Figure 3--View of Surface at Test Site I - Section B.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 61

Figure 4--View of Surface at Test Site I - Section C.

Figure 5--View of Surface at Test Site I - Section D.

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62 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 6--View of Surface at Test Site I - Section E.

Figure 7--View of Surface at Test Site IT - Section A.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 63

Figure 8--View of Surface at Test Site 11" - Section B.

Figure 9--View of Surface at Test Site TT - Section C.

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64 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure lO--View of Surface at Test Site T-F - Section D.

Figure ll--View of Surface at Test Site ~ - Section E.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 65

Figure 12--View of Surface at Test Site Iml-.

Figure |3--View of Surface at Test Site T~'.

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66 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 14--General View of the External Watering System.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 6-/

Figure 15--Vehicle l - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Figure 16--Vehicle 2 - Virginia Highway Research Council.

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68 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 17--Vehicle 3 - Ford Motor Company.

Figure 18--Vehicle 4 - Louisiana Department of Highways.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 69

Figure 19--Vehicle 5 - Bureau of Public Roads.

Figure 20--Vehicle 6 - Florida State Road Department.

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70 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 21--Vehicle 7 - General Motors.

Figure 22--Vehicle 8 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 71

Figure 23--Vehicle 9 - Portland Cement Association.

Figure 24--Vehicle 10 - Stevens Institute of Technology.

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72 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 25--Vehicle II - Maryland State Roads Commission.

Figure 26--Vehicle 12 - Tennessee Highway Research Program.

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SPRINKLING SYSTEM /
i
I
T VEHICLE PATH I
-1
I
ZONE I I z/ ZONE 2 >
I0' I Z

VEHICLE PATH I r-
r-

0
I ZONE 5 I / ZONE 4 Z
I
I VEHICLE PATH I -4

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Z
ZONE 5 I ,,/ ZONE 6
IO'
I -4
I
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Idirection of tests
I I N
APPROXIMATELY 4 0 0 '

Figure 27--Typical Test Section - Sites I and I-I-. L~

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74 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Site I ~ Section A
Flight Number l

Run Trailer Zone Speed Skid


NumBer Number Number MPH Number Remarks
l 15 4 4O
@
2 13 5 2O
3 14 4 60
4 I I 60
5 2 I 4O
6 3 l 60
7 II 3 60
8 5 3 4O
9 4 6 60
lO 12 l 60
II 6 2 60
12 lO 3 2O
13 9 2 60
14 8 4 60
15 7 I 60
Flight Number 2

16 6* 2O
17 9 2O
18 I 6O
19 10 20
20 5 2O
21 12 4O
22 2 20
23 3 60
24 14 60
25 II 20
26 7 40
27 8 20
28 4 2O
29 13 4O
30 15 4O

These t r a i l e r s shall test self-watering Sites ~ and 1"~ a l s o .

Figure 28--Typical Data Sheet - Trailer Tests.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 75

Figure 29--Text-Ur-Meter.

Figure 30--NASA Grease Test.

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96 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure 31--BPR Outflow Meter.

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 77

<,
9
.i..i
o_

u3

I'--

om
i,

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-r

T
>
-<

.-I
>
Z
n
ITI

Figure 33--Test Results - Site I-B.

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I
>
Z

F
F
m

O
Z

2K

Gh

r-
m

Figure 34--Test Results - Site I-C.

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oo
o

-r

-r

Z
m

Figure 35--Test Results - Site ~-D.

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-r

F
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O
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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 85

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N,A.S.A. VIRGINIA FORD O.P.R. FLORIDA GENERAL GOODYEAR RC.A. STEVENS TENN.
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SMITH A N D FULLER ON SKID TESTING W I T H TRAILERS 9-/

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98 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

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GREASE TEST

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SMITH AND FULLER ON SKID TESTING WITH TRAILERS 101

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R. L. Rizenbergsl

F L O R I D A SKID C O R R E L A T I O N STUDY OF 1967


SKID TESTING WITH A U T O M O B I L E S

REFERENCE." Rizenbergs, R. L., "Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967 - Skid Testing
with Automobiles", Highway Skid Resistance, STP 456, American Society for Testing and
Materials, 1969

ABSTRACT." The inclusion of automobiles in the Florida skid correlation study was
prompted by the recognition of the following needs: 1) to compare stopping-distance
measurements obtained with different instrumentation, 2) to suggest a standard method of
stopping-distance testing, 3) to relate skid-resistance measurements of trailer-type testers
with stopping distances of automobiles, and 4) to explore other skid-resistance measurement
techniques using an automobile.
The vehicles were all full-size automobiles. Each vehicle was instrumented to measure a
distance from a predetermined pressure in the brake hydraulic system to where the vehicle
came to rest. Stopping distance in most of the automobiles was read directly from
summating counters. Two of the automobiles were equipped with strip-chart recorders to
measure distance, velocity and deceleration during the skid.
The measured stopping distances displayed minor differences between automobiles
regardless of the instrumentation. The primary cause of variation in the test results was
attributed to the inability of the driver to apply brakes at the prescribed test velocity. Lag
between brake application and wheel lock and errors in the distance-measurement
instrumentation were of secondary concern.
The stopping-distance data were correlated with the trailer-measured skid resistances
for several velocities. Approximate stopping distance, therefore, can be predicted from
trailer tests, or vice versa.
The results of the stopping-distance tests were sufficiently encouraging to consider
standarization. Adoption of a standard method of test would serve several useful purposes.
The principal benefits would be derived from having a reliable, alternate method of skid
testing and references to "stopping distance" of automobiles would acquire a uniform
understanding of the measurement and, therefore, common usage of the term.

KEY WORDS: testing, stopping distance, skid resistance, friction, skid, automobiles, trailers,
correlation, pavements, highways.

1Chief Research Engineer, Division of Research, Kentucky Department of Highways,


Lexington, Kentucky

102
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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 103

INTRODUCTION

The automobile has been used to measure friction of higbway surfaces for many years
and predates any of the skid-testing devices now in common use. In retrospect, the
measurement of stopping distances or skid distances of automobiles has been regarded as a
semi-official standard method of test not only by the highway engineer but also by law
enforcement agencies. The highway engineer has utilized the automobile to measure
stopping distances, skid distances and other parameters associated with a decelerating or
accelerating vehicle as a means of assessing pavement friction from the standpoint of mix
design and maintenance requirements. Law enforcement agencies, on the other hand, have
conducted skid tests and measured skid distances of vehicles involved in accidents for the
purpose of ascertaining vehicle speeds and affixing causes contributing to the accidents.
However, the inherent hazards and limitations imposed by the automobi/e as a skid-testing
device has enhanced the development of other devices primarily as substitutes for the
automobile. The advent of the trailer method of test in particular has practically eliminated
the automobile as a skid-testing device. Yet, the question of what any particular
skid-resistance measurement obtained with these devices means in terms of stopping distance
and coefficient of friction at a specific velocity of an automobile remains unresolved.
The skid correlation study, sponsored by the Florida State Road Department and the
Bureau of Public Roads, provided an opportunity to reexamine the automobile as a device
for conducting skid tests with the ultimate aim of suggesting a standard method of test. The
primary investigation centered on comparing stopping-distance measurements which were
obtained with different automobiles, drivers and instrumentations. The "stopping distance"
was predefined in the context of a panic-stop situation, i.e. distance required to stop from
the moment of brake application. The study also afforded an opportunity to relate
skid-resistance measurements obtained with the trailer to stopping distances of automobiles.

TEST VEHICLES AND INSTRUMENTATION

The vehicles used in the study were all full-size automobiles -- three sedans and two
station wagons. The participating agencies and their automobiles were:
1. Virginia Highway Research Council- sedan (1964 Plymouth)
2. Florida State Road Department - sedan (1963 Ford)
3. Kentucky Department of Highways- sedan (1962 Ford)
4. Tennessee Highway Research Program - station wagon (1966 Chevrolet)
5. University of Wisconsin- station wagon (1961 Chevrolet)
Each vehicle was equipped with the following:
1. ASTME-17 skid-test tires
2. Pretested pressure sensitive (75 to 83 psi) switch in the brake hydraulic system
3. Fifth wheel with a tachometer generator and a distance transducer (exception -
Virginia used direct-drive mechanical speedometer and distance counter)
4. Speed-indicating meter- 1/4 mph resolution
5. Distance counter or recorder - one count per foot.
Kentucky and Wisconsin utilized strip-chaR recorders to measure stopping distances and to
record velocities of the vehicles during the skid. Additional information pertaining to the
equipment used by several of the participants is listed in Appendix I.

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104 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

PROCEDURES

Instrument Calibration

The velocity and distance measurement instrumentation was carefully calibrated each
day prior to skid testing. One of the automobiles (Kentucky) was driven at least twice on an
accurately surveyed two-mile section of Interstate 75 at 40 mph. The time of traverse was
obtained with a stop watch. The correct speed was computed from the known distance and
the measured time. The speed indicating meter was then corrected accordingly. Distance
calibration was achieved on the same test course at 25 mph by driving one-mile sections and
counting distance traversed at one count per foot with a magnetic distance counter. The
inflation pressure in the tire o f the fifth wheel was maintained at 24 psi.
At the test site equipment in each automobile was referenced for velocity and distance
calibration to the previously calibrated instruments in the Kentucky vehicle. Speed checks
were performed at least once daily by driving two vehicles at a time, side by side, at 40 mph
and at 20 mph until proper verification or meter adjustments were performed. Distance
calibration was conducted similarly by driving at least 1000 feet from a set starting point.

Skid Test

Testing with automobiles was initiated on November 1 and, except for Wisconsin,
completed in three days as shown below:
Nov. 1 - Site I, Section A, B and C
Nov. 2 - Site II, Section A, C and E
Nov. 6 - Site I, Section C and E
Site II, Section B and D
On every section, automobiles followed the trailer tests.
The test sections were subdivided into six zones. Detailed descriptions of the test sites
as well as other pertinent information concerning design, conduct and trailer data of the
correlation study may be found in the companion report prepared by Smith and Fuller2.
The results of the truck-tractor semi-trailer testing phase are to be found in the report by
Easton3. Location of the sprinkler system next to Zones 1 and 2 necessitated omission o f
these zones on some sections in order to protect the sprinkler system from the skidding
automobiles. In the case of Site II, Section D, the trailers had worn two distinct tracks. The
separation of the tracks coincided with the tread width of the cars and, therefore, testing
was confined to the tracks.
The test procedure required the automobiles to accelerate above test speed and coast
onto the proper zone. As the decreasing velocity reached test speed, the brakes were
promptly and firmly applied to facilitate quick lock-up of the wheels and to skid to a stop.
The stopping distance indicated on a counter, or recorded on a strip-chart recorder for later
determination, was noted. If the velocity at the moment of brake application deviated

2Srnith, L. L. and Fuller, S. L., "Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967 - Skid Testing
with Trailers".
3Easton, E. A., "Florida Skid Correlation Study of 1967 - Skid Testing with a Truck-
Tractor Semi-Trailer".

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 105

perceptably from the desired test speed or if the skidding excursion took place on an
improper zone, the test was repeated. Some tests were repeated if the driver felt that be did
not properly apply brakes. In all, six acceptable tests were performed on each section per
test speed as follows:
Sit..~.e Sections Zones No. of Tests
I A,B&C 3&4 3
I A,B&C 5&6 3
I D&E 1 thru 6 1 per zone
II A&C 3&4 3
II A&C 5&6 3
II B 1 &2 3
II B 5&6 3
II D 3&4 3 per zone
II E 1 thru 6 1 per zone

A fixed order o f sequence in testing was followed on all surfaces. Every section was tested at
20 mph and then at 40 mph. Section C on Site I proved to be impossible to test at 40 mph.
Differential lock-up of the automobile wheels caused the vehicles to spin around.
Inflation pressure in tires was monitored with a calibrated pressure gauge and was
maintained at 24 psi.

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Automobiles

The stopping distances measured at the correlation study represent a panic-stop


situation as defined earlier and no consideration was given to perception and reaction time
that would be involved when a driver was confronted with an impending hazard on the
highway. The measurement was in fact made from the moment pressure in the brake
hydraulic system was sufficient to close a pressure sensitive switch and not from the instant
of brake application. The test speed coincided with the brake application but not with the
beginning of the distance measurement. Therefore, between brake application and closing of
the switch, a loss in vehicle speed was involved. To determine if this speed loss was
sufficiently great to be of any particular concern, determination of the actual velocity at the
start of distance counting was made from velocity recordings obtained with the Kentucky
vehicle. When compared with the 40 mph test velocities, the average loss in velocity on a
given section did not exceed 0.5 mph and in most cases was much less. Since no effort was
made to record the moment of brake application, it is not possible to ascertain whether the
loss in velocity was primarily due to the lag time involved or due to other factors, such as
any bias of the test driver in reading the speed meter. In all probability, the test driver was
the most dominant influence. A previous study by Rizenbergs and Ward4 supports this
assumption.
Da.ta -. Test data for all automobiles are summarized in Table I in terms of stopping
distances and in Table II in terms of coefficients of friction, as computed using the

4Rizenbergs, R. L. and Ward, H. A., "Skid Testing With an Automobile", Record No. 187,
Highway Research Board, pp 115-137, 1967.

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106 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

V2
stopping-distance equation f = 30-30-ff" Average values shown are for four of the participating
vehicles. The data are also exhibited graphically in Figs. 1 and 2. Wisconsin data, while
presented, were not considered in the analysis since it was incomplete and quite likely
erroneous on some surfaces due to improper instrument calibration or malfunctions. No
further reference will be made to it in this discussion. The raw data for all cars are exhibited
in Appendix II.
The automobile data were subjected to various statistical analysis in an effort to
evaluate each vehicle and to relate data of one vehicle to another. The complete
mathematical procedure used in the statistical analysis is presented in Appendix III.
Repeatability -- Standard deviations were calculated for the six stopping-distance tests
conducted on each surface at the two test speeds. The results of tiffs analysis as well as the
arithmetical mean for each section and vehicle are presented in Table III.
The magnitude of the standard deviation is influenced by the friction level of surfaces
and by all the other variables associated with the test. The principal influences were the
driver who controls the velocity at which brakes were applied and how firmly they were
applied, the performance of the brake system, and the accuracy and performance of the
measuring equipment. Influence o f the surface was well noted in the increased standard
deviations for the more skid-resistant surfaces. Zone averages for each surface were
calculated and no signifcant variation in friction was noted.
Good repeatability of test data for both 20 mph and 40 mph was evidenced for all
vehicles except for Florida's at the 20-mph tests. Florida was experiencing brake
malfunctions, which apparently caused prolonged lags between brake application and wheel
lock. Difficulties with the brakes necessitated Florida to abstain from testing several
sections. The most repeatable results were obtained by Tennessee. More repeatable results
for all vehicles were obtained at 40-mph test speeds than at 20 mph. At 40 mph the stopping
distances were four to five times longer, and therefore, a greater proportion of each
pavement was sampled. Also, the variations in the lag time -- between brake application and
wheel lock -- and errors in velocity reading by the driver were less significant.
Judged on a group basis, the automobiles yielded more repeatable test results than the
trailers. At 40 mph the trailers sampled about 60 feet o f pavement for each test while the
automobiles usually skidded further with all four wheels locked, The automobiles, therefore,
had a built-in advantage.
The standard deviations were used to determine the number of tests required to achieve
the desired degree of accuracy. The number of required tests for the automobiles are
presented in Table IV. At the 95%-confidence level, the automobiles require a total of five
tests at a speed o f 40 mph.
Least Significant Difference -- The analysis for least significant difference (LSD) was
conducted to determine wl~ether the differences in the means (six measurements each) of
two vehicles are truly different or are due to chance variations. The standard deviations of
the data for each automobile within a section-speed combination were used to compute a
LSD. The results are presented in Table V. If the means of two cars differ in excess of the
LSD value for a given section and speed, significant difference was found; otherwise the
difference was due to chance variation. These data are summarized in Table VI and Table
VII.
Significant differences were found between Florida and the other vehicles on several
surfaces. The performance of the Florida automobile was discussed earlier.
Relative Precision -- The precision of a particular automobile as a testing device was
judged on the basis of group averages for each section-speed combination in the absence of

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 107

an "absolute" friction reference. The difference between the group mean and each
automobile was determined for every section-speed combination. The results of this analysis
are displayed in Table VIII and graphed in Fig. 3.
The best precision for the group as a whole was realized at the 40-mph test speed. A
brief statement regarding each automobile follows:
1. Kentucky - good precision at 40 mph, somewhat erratic results at 20 mph.
2. Tennessee - good precision on Site I, data biased upward on Site II at 40 mph.
3. Virginia - an upward bias on Site I.
4. Florida - a downward bias on Site I, especially on 20-mph tests; good precision on
Site II.
Correlation Equations -- In a further effort to relate the data of one vehicle to another
or to the average of all vehicles, linear regression equations were calculated along with the
statistical parameters, coefficients of correlation (R) and standard errors (Es). The
correlation equations for Site I are presented in Table IX and for Site II in Table X. These
equations are applicable in relating one vehicle to another only for the same set of
conditions and test influences prevailing at the Florida study. Somewhat different test data
are likely to result if, for instance, the drivers were interchanged. So, the equations really
express the performance relationship between specific functioning systems which include the
driver, vehicle, instrumentation, tires, etc.

Automobiles Versus Trailers

Data -- The test data for the automobiles and trailers are compared graphically in Figs.
4, 5 and 6. The best agreement between the two methods of test was obtained at the test
speed of 40 mph on the smooth-textured surfaces of Site I. On the same sections at 20 mph,
the data did not compare well at all, especially on Section D. Curiously, on Site II the best
relationship was found at 20 mpb. It should be remembered at this point that the
automobiles followed the trailers and it would be proper to assume that most of the test
surfaces experienced some reduction of friction. Friction characteristics on several of the
sections on Site 11 undoubtedly changed quite significantly.
Limited wear tests were conducted with trailers at 40 mph before and after the trailer
tests. Several sections exhibited significant reduction in skid resistance. Unfortunately, the
initial wear tests were performed in the mornings at lower surface temperatures than the
after-trailer tests in the afternoons. It would be erroneous to assume that the differences
between A.M. and P.M. measurements were entirely due to wear. Influences due to changes
in surface temperature must also be recognized. If the temperature influences were ignored
and the trailer data corrected to reflect the surface condition prior to automobile tests, some
improvement in relating the automobile and trailer data would be realized, but not on all
surfaces.
Correlation -- Statistical analysis of the automobile and trailer data was conducted to
find the most suitable regression lines and to assess the degree of correlation between any
two sets of data. Between eight and thirteen regression curves (Appendix III) were calculated
for each set of data and those lines having the best fit were plotted. Selection o f the final
equation was made mainly by noting how well the line expresses the general trend of the
data. An IBM 360 computer was used for these correlations as well as for most o f the
statistical analysis presented in this paper. Some reservation must be expressed concerning
validity of the regression analysis because of the limited number of data points available.
Four, or even five, data points unevenly distributed cannot be regarded to be sufficient for a

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108 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

good correlation. Too much emphasis or weight is given to a single point, such as data on
Site I, Section A.
Stopping distances of automobiles were correlated with the trailers for several velocity
combinations as shown in Table XI. The 20-mph tests on Site I did not correlate well. On
Site II the 40-mph tests did not correlate well and at some of the other speeds the data did
not correlate at all. The regression equations for Site I at test velocities of 20 mph and 40
mph are plotted as Fig. 7.
The coefficients of friction of automobiles were correlated with trailers for several
speed combinations on Site I only, as shown in Table XII. The 40-mph test results are
plotted as Fig. 8.
Correlation equations were also determined to relate the following:
1. Individual trailers versus automobile means for several velocity combinations
(Table XIII)
2. Individual automobiles versus trailer means for several velocity combinations
(Table XIV).
The analysis of these data was confined to the fine-textured surfaces (Site I). The
coarse-textured surfaces (Site II) would yield different regression curves as evidenced in
Table XI and, in fact, would not provide a correlation for many speed combinations.
Prediction of Stoppin~ Distances -- According to the test results of the Florida
correlation study, stopping distances of automobiles can be accurately predicted from the
trailer tests. For the trailers as a group, Fig. 7 provides the best curve from which to derive
equivalent stopping distances at the test velocity of 40 mph. An attempt was also made to
manipulate the stopping-distance equation so as to derive a suitable formula for use with the
trailer data. Two equation forms provided satisfactory predictions, particularly Equation 2.
These and the correlation equation are given below:

402 -202 + 202-0


30S
fT(40) fT(20)

2(402-202 ) 202-0
30S = +
fT(40) + fT(20) fT(20)
fT(40) +

where, S -- Predicted Stopping Distance in feet,


fT = Skid Number x 10-2 at parenthesized velocity, and
40 and 20 = velocities in mph.

= 8150 (Correlation equation


Y X1-3 + 45 from Fig. 7)

where, Y = Predicted Stopping Distance in feet and


X = Skid Number.

The resultant stopping distances obtained from these formulas and the actual stopping
distances of automobiles on Site I were as follows:

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 109

Predicted Stopping Distance


J Equation i Automobile
..Section I 1 i 2 i 3 i Stopping Distances
A 108 100 102 103
B 332 298 295 295
D 84 79 85 86
E 78 76 80 79

The reliability of predicting stopping distances for any given trailer by using the
foregoing formulas depends on how well that trailer relates to the rest of the trailers. Also, it
should be remembered that the trailers utilized external watering and not self-watering
systems in primary testing, Unfortunately, the study did not yield sufficient data to evaluate
the self- watering systems. Another factor that should be considered is that several of the
pavement surfaces were "artificial" in the sense that such surfaces are seldom found on
highways. Other sections were composed of pavements in common use, but they were in an
unpolished or untrafficked condition. Therefore, the skid resistancewelocity gradient of
these surfaces may be different from the ordinary bituminous surfaces in service. The
automobile stopping distance reflects the frictional characteristics of a surface from test
velocity to zero velocity which, in turn, would reflect a difference in the skid resistance-
velocity gradients. The ffailer testers, however, reflect the frictional characteristics of a
surface only at a given test velocity.
Assuming that there is a negligible contribution from the influence mentioned above,
the stopping distances measured on most highway surfaces are likely to be shorter for given
skid numbers measured by the same trailer. The automobile may initiate a skid in the
polished wheel track, but it seldom remains in the wheel track throughout the skid. As the
vehicle skids out of the wheel track, the tires begin to contact higher skid resistance. The
degree of the "skid out" will perceptibly change the stopping distance. Most of the surfaces
at the correlation study displayed homogeneous friction.

OTHER MEASUREMENTS

The Kentucky automobile was equipped with a two-channel strip-chart recorder to


record velocity and distance during the skidding excursions. An event marker was wired to
the brake light switch so as to note the moment from which to measure stopping distances.
From the resultant recordings, numerous coefficients of friction were determined (Table
XV). The coefficients for various velocity increments were calculated using the
stopping-distance formula. The coefficients for specific velocities were determined by
measuring the slope of the velocity curve.
The most noteworthy observation derived from the data is that the coefficients of
friction at specific velocities measured with the automobile were considerably lower,
especially at 40 mph, than those obtained with trailers. Figs. 9 and 10 show the test results
on two surfaces which were tested at 50 mph with the automobile. The automobile data
were not corrected for influences due to air resistance nor errors associated with the
coefficient of friction calculations in using the stopping-distance formula. The combined
effect would be a reduction in coefficient of friction by approximately 0.01 at 40 mph,
mainly due to air resistance since the deceleration of the vehicle was nearly linear. The wear
tests on Sections A and B indicated negligible reduction in skid resistance as a result of

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1 10 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

trailer testing. This suggests that on some surfaces the skid resistance in the non-steady-state
skid may be significantly lower than in the steady-state sliding mode. Some of the difference
may beatlributable to errors in the trailer data as a result of the torque calibration procedure
used by several of the participants. According to Goodenow, et a15, an error of about five
percent was found for the ASTM E-17 tires due to relocation of the tire patch center of
pressure. The magnitude of the difference no doubt is influenced by the velocity at which
the automobile initiates the skid.

CONCLUSIONS

The stopping distances of automobiles as measured at the Florida correlation study


yielded highly reproducible test results, especially at the test speed of 40 mph. While some
differences in test results were noted, no particular trends were evident due to varied
instrumentation, drivers or vehicles. The procedures employed for instrument calibration
and for skid testing proved to be quite adequate. Further refinement of techniques are not
likely to materially improve the stopping-distance test, and for that reason standarization of
the test method should be undertaken.
Skid numbers of trailers can be used to predict stopping distances of automobiles on
fine-textured surfaces, or vice versa, and several alternate procedures are suggested. The
degree of success, however, is contingent upon the relationship between measurements under
external and self-watering conditions, between the particular trailer and other trailers, and
between test surfaces and trafficked pavements. Additional work in this area is warranted on
trafficked highway surfaces and using self-watering systems for trailers.
Skid resistances encountered by a skidding automobile (Kentucky) were found to be
significantly lower than those measured with trailers. The difference could not be accounted
for by assuming possible errors in the torque measurement due to tire patch relocation. The
tests associated with this aspect of the investigation, however, were quite limited, and
therefore the results cannot be regarded as conclusive. Further testing for skid resistance
with automobiles at velocities of 50 mph and higher in conjunction with trailers is
recommended.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author wishes to express his appreciation for the assistance and cooperation of
many individuals and agencies participating or otherwise contributing to the automobile
phase of testing at the Florida skid correlation study.
A special word of thanks is due the Florida State Road Department for sponsoring and
implementing the study and to its employees for their assistance and hospitality.
Activities of the Kentucky Department of Highways were a part of Research Study
KYHPR-64-24, Pavement Slipperiness Studies, sponsored co-operatively by the Department
and the Bureau of Public Roads. The opinions, findings, and conclusions in this report are
not necessarily those of the Bureau of Public Roads nor the Highway Department.

5Goodenow, G. L., Kolhoff, T. R. and Smithson, F. D., "Tire-Road Friction Measuring


System - A Second Generation", Society of Automotive Engineers, No. 680137, Jan. 1968.

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 111

APPENDIX I

EQUIPMENT AND MANUFACTURERS

1. Florida State Road Department


G. M. Proving Ground
Pousemeter (fifth wheel assembly, tachometer generator, distance transducer)
Electronic Counter
Weston Model 901 Speed Indicating Meter

2. Kentucky Department of Highways


Laboratory Equipment Corporation
Model 5101 Fifth Wheel Assembly
Model C-5280 Eight-lobe Contactor (1 contact per foot)
Model E-160 Magnetic Counter
Model G-750 Weston 750 Type J-2 Tachometer Generator
Model M-901 Weston Model 901 Speed Indicating Meter
Brush Mark 280 Recorder (2-channel strip-chart)

3. Tennessee Highway ResearchProgram


Performance Measurements Company
Model MP 1625 Fifth Wheel Assembly
Model MP 1772 Contactor (1 pulse per foot)
Model MP 1625TC Tachometer Generator
Mode/MP 1000 Electronic Counter
Model MP 1625M Speed Indicating Meter

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112 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

APPENDIX 1I
AUTOMOBILE RESULTS - STOPPING DISTANCES

Test 20 mph 40 mph


Section No. Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis. Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis.

1 21 23 23 32 20 104 100 96 114 95


2 21.5 23 23.5 21 23 99 102 101 102 85
< 3 22 22 21 23 19 102 102 97 109 74
4 22.5 23 21.5 24 24 97 I00 105 101 70
~o
5 22.5 23 23 24 22 107 108 96 105 82
6 24 24 22.5 26 23 114 106 99 101 83
22.2 23.0 22.2 25.0 21.8 104 103 99 105 82

1 52 57 56 53 54 275 268 299 288


2 52 52 53.5 55 48 271 321 320 315
3 52 51 49 60 50 271 327 303 290
4 47 47 44 53 46 310 299 250 304
5 46 53 49.5 54 50 307 325 262 297
6 52 50 52 50 293 303 276 313
50.0 52.0 50.3 54.5 49.7 288 307 285 301

1 38 40 36
L~
2 42 53 36
3 44 46 44
";4 4 49 40 31
5 40 43 34
6 46 52 41
43.0 45.7 37.0

1 20.5 20 22 22 21 87 87 80 88 83
2 19.5 20 20 30 20 94 88 85 82 88
3 19.5 22 25 23 20 88 88 80 95 82
4 20 20 20 20 21 75 91 78 85 81
5 21 20 22 23 23 86 85 79 95 84
6 21 21 19.5 26 20 92 87 83 84 80
20.2 20.5 21.4 24.0 20.8 87 88 81 88 83

1 18 19 20 18 82 80 77 79
2 2O 18 18 18 76 74 75 82
3 18.5 19 18 24 76 76 78 84
4 2O 19 19 17 76 77 77 81
5 18.5 19 18.5 19 79 80 81 79
~3
6 20.5 19 19 26 86 81 79 86
19.2 18.8 18.8 20.3 79 78 78 82

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 113

Test 20 mph 40 mph


Section No. Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis. Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis.

1 20 19 20 16 22 82 74 77 80 81
2 22 20 20 20 20 82 78 75 77 79
,< 3 18.5 22 18 16 20 82 82 77 75 79
=~ 4 20 21 17.5 19 81 74 76 78
5 21 21 19 22 74 75 78 79
6 19.5 19 19 19 80 84 78 74
20.2 20.3 18.9 18.7 20.7 80 78 77 77 80

1 18.5 19 19 23 79 79 79
2 18.5 19 20 23 77 78 79
3 18 21 18 23 87 78 82
4 18 21 20 22 78 76 81
5 18 20 20 78 77 81
6 19.5 19 20 80 78 78
18.4 19.8 19.5 22.8 80 78 80

1 23 22 20 21 86 81 96 88
2 22.5 21 23 19 89 80 96 84
3 23 22 20 21 87 81 85 90
o 4 21.5 21 23 20 88 83 97 85
5 23 21 21 26 86 83 84
6 24 22 21 25 84 85 88
22.8 21.5 21.3 22.0 88 82 90 86

1 24.5 21 26 14 90 91 94 75
2 23.5 24 24 14 93 89 98 77
C~
3 24 25 22 14 88 89 94 78
4 24.5 22 25 92 92 98
5 22.5 24 26 102 87 95
6 26 24 23 104 87 93
24.2 23.3 24.3 14.0 95 89 95 77

1 23.5 24 25 25 110 118 116 116


2 22 23 24 32 124 112 109 112
3 23 26 27.5 24 116 114 116 122
==o
4 24 25 25 30 114 118 110 113
5 24.5 23 27 24 111 108 107 112
6 29.5 22 24 20 110 110 108
24.4 23.8 25.4 25.8 115 113 111 114

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114 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

APPENDIX III

STATISTICAL CALCULATIONS

REGRESSION LINES

All regression lines were of the form

Y=a+bZ

n(ZZY) - (ZZ) (ZY)


where b -
n(2;Z2) - (s

~ Y - b(2~Z)
a
n

n = number of observations,

Z = selected functions of X, and

X and Y = observed values of data.

For interrelation of automobile data, Z = X. For relationships of automobile data with


trailer data, analysis was performed using the following Z's:

X, In(X), eX, 1/ln(X), 1/eX, X 2, 1 / X 2 , , ~ , 1/~/X.

For those relationships where results indicated that the regression lines obtained for the
above Z's were not satisfactory, additional analyses was performed using the following Z's:

X 1.3, X1.5, X 1.8, X 3, 1/X1.3, l/X1.5, 1/X 1.8, 1/X 3.

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION
n(s - (2~Z) (ZY)
R=
C n ( 2 Z 2 ) - (I;Z)2 ff'n(ZY2) - (l~V)2

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 115

STANDARD ERROR OF ESTIMATE

Es = ~ " YI)2

where Y1 = calculated values of Y for observed values of X.

STANDARD DEVIATION

where X = mean of n number X's.

REQUIRED NUMBER OF TESTS

N = ( t -~) 2

where t = distribution constant for 95% confidence and N-1 degrees of freedom,

o = standard deviation of the sample, and

E = percent allowable error.

LEAST SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE

LSD = tOD

where o D = ~ Ol 2

nl
+
o2 2

n2
+ ...

o 1 and 02 = standard deviation of each automobile,

nl and n2 = number of tests made for each automobile, and


t = distribution constant for 95%-confidence level and rrl degrees of freedom.

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O~

"1-

I
0 o
o -<

2~
t-
--.ioo oo 0
~.o - - . ~ oo.~.

oo oo -.3 ~.~ O
7
t~
0 C
f~
r~
=r,

p~

r~

-~1 oo oo oo

C, oo -..I

-..ioo ',o ~D

J~

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 117

TABLE II -- AUTOMOBILE STOPPING DISTANCE COEFFICIENTS

Site I
20 mph

Section Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis. Avg. a

A 0.60 0.58 0.60 0.53 0.61 0.58


B 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.27 0.26
C 0.31 0.29 0.37 0.32
D 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.56 0.64 0.63
E 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.66 0.69

40 mph

A 0.51 0.52 0.54 0.51 0.65 0.52


B 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.18
C
D 0.61 0.61 0.66 0.60 0.64 0.62
E 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.65 0.67

Site II
20 mph

Section Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Wis. Avg. a

A 0.66 0.66 0.71 0.71 0.64 0.68


B 0.72 0.67 0.68 0.58 0.69
C 0.58 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.61
D 0.55 0.57 0.57 0.95 0.56
E 0.55 0.56 0.52 0.52 0.54

40 mph

A 0.67 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.67 0.69


B 0.67 0.69 0.67 0.68
C 0.61 0.65 0.60 0.62 0.62
D 0.56 0.60 0.54 0.70 0.57
E 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.47 0.47

a. Wisconsin data not included.

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118 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

TABLE III - STANDARD DEVIATIONS

Site Section Ky. Tenn. Va. Fla. Mean

20 mph

I A 0.023 0.015 0.023 0.067 0.032


I B 0.013 0.015 0.020 0.014 0.016
I C 0.026 0.031 0.040 0,032
I D 0.022 0.024 0.034 0.079 0.040
I E 0.033 0.015 0.018 0.101 0,042
Avg. 0.023 0.020 0.027 0.065 0.032

40 mph

I A 0.027 0.016 0.012 0.022 0.019


I B 0.010 0.015 0.014 0.007 0.012
I D 0.046 0.012 0.018 0,036 0.028
I E 0.031 0.021 0.018 0.023 0.023
Avg. 0.028 0.016 0.016 0.022 0.020

20 mph

II A 0.036 0.032 0,034 0.082 0.046


II B 0.022 0.031 0.027 0.027
II C 0.019 0.009 0.025 0.070 0.031
II D 0.025 0,034 0.039 0.033
11 E 0,050 0,033 0.027 0.084 0.048
Avg. 0.030 0.028 0,030 0.079 0.038

40 mph

II A 0.025 0.035 0.011 0.018 0.022


II B 0.027 0.009 0.012 0.016
II C 0.007 0.018 0.033 0.015 0.018
II D 0.037 0.011 0.019 0.022
II E 0.020 0.015 0.015 0.016 0.016
Avg. 0.023 0.018 0,018 0.016 0.019

o for 20 mph 0.026 0.024 0.028 0.072 0,035


o for 40 mph 0,025 0,017 0.017 0.019 0.020

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING W I T H AUTOMOBILES 119

.I

>. >.>.
[,.,.,

O O

[..,

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120 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

TABLE V -- LEAST SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE

Site I Site II
Section 20 mph 40 mph 20 mph 40 mph

A 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.04


B 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03
C 0.05 0.06 0.07
D 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.04
E 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.03

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TABLE VI -- S T A T I S T I C A L D I F F E R E N C E BETWEEN AUTOMOBILES

Site I

20 mph 40 m p h
m
Tenn. z
K•. Va~ Ky. Tenn. Va. CO

Sec. A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E
o
Fla. A yb z
N Y N N N
Fla. B Na N N N N N ~K
Fla. C
5
Fla. D Y Y N N N Y
Fla. E N N N N N

Ky. A N N N N 6D
Ky. B N N N N
Ky. C N Y
Ky. D N N N N
Ky. E N N N >
C
Tenn. A N N O
Tenn. B N N O
Tenn. C Y
F-
Tenn. D N N
Tenn. E N N

aN m e a n s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w a s found.
by m e a n s significant d i f f e r e n c e was found.

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TABLE VII -- STATISTICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A U T O M O B I L E S

Site II
-r
20 mph 40 mph
T
K•, Tenn. Va. Ky. Tenn. Va. >
-<
Sec. A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E (23

Fla. Na N N N N N 5
Fla. m
~9
Fla. N N N N N N (,/I
Fla. R

Fla. N N N N N N 7
63
rm

KY. A N N N N
Ky. B yb N N N
Ky. C N N N N
Ky. D N N N N
Ky. E N N N N

Tenn. A N N
Tenn. B N N
Tenn. C N N
Tenn. D N Y
Tenn. E N N

aN means no significant difference was found,


by means significant difference was found,

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RIZENBERG,S ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 123

TABLE VII1 -- DEVIATION FROM GROUP AVERAGES

Site I Site 1I

Participant A B C D E A B C D E

20 mph

Ky. +.02 a +.01 -.01 +.03 0 -.02 +.03 -.03 -.01 +.01
Tenn. 0 0 -.03 +.02 +.02 -.02 -.02 +.01 +.01 +.02
Va. +.02 0 +.05 +.01 +.02 +.03 -.01 0 +.01 -.02
Fla. -.05 -.02 -.07 -.03 +.03 +.01 -.02

40 mph

Ky. +.01 0 +.01 +.01 -.02 -.01 -.01 -.01 -.01


Tenn. 0 -.01 -.01 +.01 0 +.01 +.03 +.03 0
Va. +.02 +.01 +.04 +.01 0 -.01 -.02 -.03 +.01
Fla. -.01 0 -.02 -.02 0 0 0

aData in terms of coefficient of friction.

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124 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

TABLE IX - CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF AUTOMOBILES

Site I

X Y EQUATION R Es

20 mph

Ky. Tenn. Y = 1.041 X - 0.029 0.998 0.016


Ky. Va. Y = 0.942 X 4- 0.043 0.988 0.034
Ky. Fla. Y=0.919 X - 0.012 0.986 0.037
Ky. Avg. Y = 0.973 X + 0.005 0.996 0.020
Tenn. Va. Y = 0.904 X + 0.020 0.989 0.032
Tenn. Fla. Y = 0.895 X + 0.005 0.994 0.024
Tenn. Avg. Y = 0.935 X + 0.032 0.998 0.015
Va. Fla. Y = 0.909 X - 0.009 0.998 0.015
Va. Avg. Y = 1.022 X - 0.033 0.997 0.018
Fla. Avg. Y = 1.075 X + 0.008 0.998 0.019

40 mph

Ky. Tenn. Y -- 1.022 X - 0.011 0.999 0.008


Ky. Va. Y = 0.991 X + 0.012 0.995 0.027
Ky. Fla. Y = 0.954 X + 0.013 0.999 0.012
Ky. Avg. Y = 0.996 X + 0.004 0.999 0.012
Term. Va. Y -- 0.998 X + 0.023 0.996 0.025
Tenn. Fla. Y = 0.934 X 4- 0.023 0.999 0.008
Term. Avg. Y = 0.999 X + 0.015 0.999 0.009
Va. Fla. Y = 0.930 X + 0.004 0.998 0.016
Va. A~. Y = 0.997 X - 0.005 0.998 0.015
Fla. A~. Y = 1.044 X - 0.009 1.000 0.003

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 125

TABLE X -- CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF AUTOMOBILES

Site II

X Y EQUATION R Es

20 mph

Ky. Tenn. Y = 0.623 X+ 0.234 0.933 0.021


Ky. Va. Y = 0.900 X+ 0.067 0.870 0.044
Ky. Fla. Y = 1.603 X- 0.340 0.959 0.022
Ky. Avg. Y = 0.857 X+ 0.091 0.948 0.025
Tenn. Va. Y = 1.488 X- 0.299 0.961 0.025
Tenn. Fla. Y = 1.881 X- 0.537 0.996 0.006
Tenn. Avg. Y = 1.346 X- 0.213 0.995 0.008
Va. Fla. Y = 0.998 X+ 0.005 0.998 0.006
Va. Avg. Y = 0.851 X+ 0.090 0.974 0.018
Fla. Avg. Y = 0.736 X+ 0.156 1.000 0.000

40 mph

Ky. Tenn. Y -- 1.032 X - 0.007 0.990 0.010


Ky. Va. Y = 0.979 X + 0.014 0.979 0.021
Ky. Fla. Y = 1.038 X - 0.009 0.999 0.000
Ky. Avg. Y = 1.025 X - 0.003 0.999 0.004
Tenn. Va. Y = 0.789 X + 0.122 0.959 0.029
Tenn. Fla. Y = 0.949 X + 0.021 0.989 0.017
Tenn. Avg. Y = 0.970 X + 0.004 0.987 0.013
Va. Fla. Y = 1.059 X - 0.031 0.992 0.008
Va. Avg. Y = 1.010 X + 0.004 0.985 0.014
Fla. Avg. Y=X 1.000 0.000

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O~

TABLE XI -- CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF STOPPING DISTANCE VS TRAILER MEANS


-r
"r
X(Trailer Meansa) Y(Stopping Distance)
R Es -<
Velocity, mph Velocity, mph EQUATION
7~
Site I ID
70
20 Y = 16100 ( l / X 2) + 18 -0.982 3.20 m
20 m

40 Y = 8150 ( 1 / x l . 3 ) + 45 -1.000 1.18


40 ),
40 Y = 16900 (1/X 1.8) + 70 -1.000 0.89 7
60 t3
frl
20 y = 2530(1/X1.8) + 18 -1.000 0.27
60
20 Y = 1960 ( I / X 1 - 5 ) + 17 -1.000 0.27
40

Site II

20 Y = -0.242 X + 39 -0.970 0.72


20
40 Y = -0.010 X 2 + 129 -0.941 0.57
40
60 40 No Correlation

40 20 No Correlation

40 20 No Correlation

aSkid Number x 10 -2

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73
TABLE XII -- CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF AUTOMOBILE MEANS VS TRAILER MEANS N
m
Z
CO

Site I

X(Trailer Means a) Y(Automobile Meansb) O


7
Velocity, mph Velocity, mph EQUATION R L,q
Es 2g
20 20 Y = 0.706 (X) + 0.125 0.979 U7
0.046
--t
m
(./3
40 40 Y = -1.394 (1/eX) + 1.388 0.999 0.010 -H

60 40 Y = 0.294 (in(X)) + 0.836 0.998 0.019

---t
"3-
aSkid Numbers x 10-2
C
bCoefficient of Friction -q
O
/:
O
133
I'-
m
t,o

..d

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7-_,
GO

TABLE XIII - CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL TRAILERS VS AUTOMOBILE MEANS "1-


-i"
Site I
-<
Trailer (,o
X(Automobflesa) Velocity,
Velocity, mph Y(Trailerb) mph EQUATION R Es
70

20 Tennessee 20 Y = 1.37 4 ( X ) . 0.149 0.961 0.089


40 40 Y -- 1.121 (X 1.8) + 0.106 0.994 0.029
40 60 Y = 1.476 (X3) + 0.074 0.986 0.040 7
t')
m
20 Stevens 20 Y = -3.769 ( 1[,J')~) § 3.518 0.987 0,055
40 Inst. (N.J.) 40 Y = -0.294 ( I / I n ( X ) ) - 0.009 0.999 0.016
40 60 Y = -0.253 ( l / I n ( X ) ) - 0.031 0.996 0.024

20 Portland 20 Y = -3.426 (1/~r + 3.185 0.982 0.058


40 Cement Assn. 40 Y = 1.182 (X 1.8) + 0.077 0.997 0.023
40 60 Y --- -0.247 ( l / I n ( X ) ) - 0.048 0.995 0.026

20 Goodyear 20 Y = 0.527 ( l n ( X ) ) + 0.931 0.995 0.030


40 40 Y = 1.107 (X1.8) + 0.104 1.000 0.007
40 60 Y = 1.640 (X3) + 0,090 0.989 0.038

20 Gen Motors 20 Y = 0.742 (e X) - 0.702 0.970 0.071


40 Prov. Gr. 40 Y -- -0.284 ( i / I n ( X ) ) - 0.007 0.998 0.017
40 60 Y = 1.681 (X3) + 0.068 0.985 0.047

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I

T A B L E XIII - ( C o n t i n u e d ) N

Ut7
20 Florida (SRD) 20 Y = -2.381 (1/eX) + 2.026 0.982 0.065
40 40 Y = 0.805 (eX) - 0.839 1.000 0.010
40 60 Y = 1.282 (X2) + 0.067 0.996 0.026 o
z
20 Bureau of 20 Y = 1.169 ( X ) - 0.014 0.959 0.082 7K
40 Public Rds. 40 Y = 0.695 (eX)- 0.660 0.999 0.011 6
40 60 Y = 1.800 (X3) + 0.114 1.000 0.003

20 Virginia 20 Y = -2.116 (1/eX) + 1.840 .-4


0.963 0.084
40 (Right Wheel) 40 Y = 0.663 (e X) - 0.642 0.989 0.042
E
63
40 60 Y -- 1.577 (X3) + 0.096 0.989 0.038
i

.q
T
aln terms of coefficient of friction. >
C
--I
bin terms of skid numbers x 10-2. o

o
I

r--

',D

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uo
C)
TABLE XIV -- CORRELATION EQUATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL AUTOMOBILES VS T R A I L E R MEANS

"r
Site 1
"1-
Automobile
-<
X(Trai]ers a) Velocity,
Velocity, m p h Y(Automobiles b) mph Equation R Es
E~
20 Tennessee 20 Y = -1.934 (1]~-X) + 1.995 0.987 0.038

40 40 Y = -1.429 ( l / e X ) + 1.408 0.999 0.014


>
7
60 40 Y = 0.302 (ln(X)) + 0.843 0.998 0.017 r3
I'M

20 Virginia 20 Y = 0.299 (ln(X)) + 0.752 0.968 0.055

40 40 Y = 0.324 (ln(X)) + 0.810 0.998 0.017

60 40 Y = 0.301 ( I n ( X ) ) + 0.865 0.994 0.031

20 Kentucky 20 Y = 0.322 (In(X)) + 0.756 0.994 0.025

40 40 Y = -1.398 (1/eX) + 1.388 0.999 0.010

60 40 Y = 0.295 ( l n ( X ) ) + 0.836 0.999 0.009

20 Florida 20 Y = 0.301 ( l n ( X ) ) + 0.682 0.961 0.061

40 40 Y = -1.126 ( l i e X) + 1.217 0.987 0.035

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N

Co
I' n

63
t,o
TABLE XIV -- (Continued) O
Z
60 40 Y = 0.282 ( l n ( X ) ) + 0.810 0.997 0.020

-4
-4
aln terms of skid numbers x 1 0 -2. Z
63
bin terms of coefficient of friction.
-1-
>
c
-4
0
0
F"
1"17

t.u

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t~

TABLE XV - COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION AT VARIOUS VELOCITIES DURING SKIDDING


I

(Kentucky Automobile) "1-


>
-<
Test Sections Site 1 Site II
7~
Velocity, mph A B C D E A B C D E
7~
20 mph Tests

10-0 0.68 0.36 0.51 0.82 0.83 0.83 0.91 0.70 0.61 0.73
20- 0 0.60 0.27 0.31 0.65 0.70 0.66 0.73 0.59 0.54 0.55 7"
f3
15-5 0.70 0.30 0.34 0.83 0.87 0.96 0.98 0.76 0.65 0.67 [-n

t0 0.65 0.30 0.38 0.75 0.80 0.79 0.81 0.61 0.59 0.70

40 mph Tests

10- 0 O.76 0.41 0.95 0.95 0.83 0.83 0.69 0.63 0.75
20- 0 0.68 0.29 0.84 0.86 0.82 0.75 0.70 0.63 0.64
30- 0 0.60 0.22 0.75 0.78 0.77 0.73 0.67 0.62 0.55
40- 0 0.51 0.18 0.60 0.67 0.66 0.67 0.59 0.56 0.47
15- 5 0.70 0.34 0.88 0.88 0.83 0.81 0.74 0.63 0.71
25-15 0.61 0.21 0.76 0.78 0.84 0.72 0.72 0.63 0.55
35-25 0.49 0.17 0.61 0.82 0.71 0.71 0.64 0.59 0.45
20-10 0.65 0.26 0.81 0.79 0.70 0.77 0.69 0.63 0.61
30-20 0.55 0.19 0.69 0.73 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.49
40-30 0.43 0.15 0.65 0.57 0.56 0.60 0.52 0.52 0.38
30 0.52 0.16 0.57 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.61 0.59 0.45

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TABLE XV - (Continued)

20 0.63 0.23 0.72 0.74 0.78 0.69 0.67 0.61 0.55 I33
m
10 0.72 0.34 0.86 0.81 0.86 0.73 0.74 0.62 0.66
63
50 mph Tests 0
7"
10- 0 0.76 0.89
7~
20- 0 0.68 0.82
30- 0 0.61 0.72 "--I
40- 0 0.52 0.60
15-5 0.74 0.85 ---I
Y~
25-15 0.62 0.73 6-)
30-20 0.57 0.66
35-25 0.51 0.58
..-I
45-35 0.41 0.47 7-
40 0.39 0.44 >
3O C
0.49 0.57 ---I
20 0.61 0.72 0
10 0.74 0.86 0
U~3

LO
133

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COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
o 0 o o .o 0 p o .o
b i5
0 o
i
"1'1
&
O
.,-I
o m B
O
O
o~
o"
T
O
9
u o ;i. i
I
3DNVJ.SIS3~ GI>IS AVMHDIH ~E[
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0.80

0.70
Ii II ikll
IO
L 73
(
qA m
0.60 Z
133
Z r13
g ii 70
i-
_c2 0.50
n,'
h O
Z
I.t,.
o I
0.40
I-- LEGEND
Z
I.IJ --t
9 KY. m
(/3
E 0.30 9 TENN. --t
I.L :7
i,i 9 VA.
0 I
~0 ~, FLA.
0 WIS.
0.20- --t
"1"
>
c
0.I0
O
O
G0
0.00 r"
K-A I-i1
I-8 1ToE I-A Tr-D "IT-C I-D
L
11-B I-E co

TEST SECTIONS
Fig. 2. Coelticient of friction of each automobile (40-rnph test speed), to
u1

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uJ

SITE I SITE II
KY. TENN. VA. FLA. KY. TENN. VA. FLA. "T"

t,t.I -7-

~ +.05 -<

7~
0 0
,,, r ~o 7o

I -.05
Z
o r
Z
o

o
n.. +.05
EL
O. //-L
z E /
o
- 0 J

~ -,05

A B C D E A BC DEA B C DE A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C DE A B C D E

SECTIONS
Fig. 3. Deviations of the coefficient of friction of each automobile from the automobile
group average of each section-speed combination.

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0.80 ~ Lj
J
j
0.70 ~0
/ / /' \
1"13
Z
/ Z
,/ E;O
_o 0.60
~,~o G~
E/')
~L. x Y
~ 0.50 0
Z
(/3

9 TRAILERS (MEANS) .-I


8 0-- - - AUTOMOBILES --]
/
0.30 (KY.~ T E N N . , VA., FLA.)
Z

0.20 --I
"-i-
>
c
0.10 --I
0
0OO
0.00 r--
I-B I-C I-A I-E I-D II-E II-D II-C II-B II-A
TEST SECTIONS
Fig. 4. Coefficients of friction of automobiles compared with skid numbers of trailers for
all test sections (20-mph test speed). LU

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] 38 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

0.80 I
070

0.60 /

///f
z
o

,."7 -2 o.~o // ,

~- ~ 0.40

~ ~ o.~o 9 TRAILERS (MEANS)


8 9 - - - - AUTOMOBILES
(KY., TENN., VA., FLA.)
0.20

O.IO

O.OO
I-B I-A I-D I-E II'-E Ir-D "IT-A n-c n-B
TEST SECTIONS
Fig. 5. Coefficients of friction of automobiles compared with skid numbers of trailers for
all test sections (40-mph test speed).

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 139

0.80

0.~0 I

z 0.60 j" /
J j
~i ~'....
r--. j
~'Q

-
} 0 ~01 //
//
o~ o.~o ii / &--TR~JLERS (MEANS--60 mph TESTS)
O----AUTOMOBILES (40 mph TESTS)
0.20 I/ (K~, TENN.,VA., FLA.)

0.10

O.00
I-8 I-A I-0 I-E ]I-E n'-A ]I-8 ]1-C T-D
TEST SECTIONS
Fig. 6. Coefficients of friction of automobiles (40-mph test speed) compared with skid
numbers of trailers (60-mph test speed) for all test sections.

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140 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

300

250

20O

y= 8150/xl~'l" 4.5
<[ 150
40 mph R= - 1.000
Es = 1.18
z

z
0.
I00

5o 9 y= 16100/x2 4. 18
0 ' ~ R=--0.982
E== 3.20

0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

SKID NUMBER OF TRAILERS

Fig. 7. Graph of stopping distances of automobiles versus skid numbers of trailers for
20-mph and 40-mph test speeds on Site I.

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RIZENBERG,S ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 14]

0.80

0.70 a*

LIJ
0.60
/
/
--I

=E
0 0.50
I'--

I-
OgO /
0
u.
0.30
0

I--
Z Y= - 1.394 q Ve x) + 1.388
',' 0.20
u. R= 0.999
w Es= o.olo
0
0
0.10

0.00
0.~0 020 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

SKID NUMBER OF TRAILERS x I0" t

Fig. 8. Graph o f coefficient of friction as measured w i t h a u t o m o b i l e s versus skid numbers


of trailers for 4 0 - m p h test speed on Site 1.

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142 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

0.90
.\
0.80 X

0.70

0.60 ~ ~ " .
.........TRAILERS

o'" ,-.
0.50
/'IxNN
AUTOMOBILE (KY
z

0 0.40
0
0

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0 IO 20 30 40 SO 60 70
VELOCITY, mph
Fig. 9. Coefficients of friction at specific velocities of an automobile compared with skid
numbers of trailers (Site I, Section D).

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RIZENBERGS ON SKID TESTING WITH AUTOMOBILES 143

080

0.70 \
0.60

Z
o_~
~,_o
u.
r~ x 0.50

AUTOMOBILE
i~Ky}~ k ,TRAILERS
I--
z z
Lu 0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0 I0 20 30 40 ~0 60 70

VELOCITY, mph
Fig. 10. Coefficients of friction at specific velocities of an automobile compared with skid
numbers of trailers (Site I, Section A).

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E . A. W h i t e h u r s t 1

THE C O R N E R I N G CAPACITY OF S T U D D E D TIRES

REFERENCE: W h i t e h u r s t , E. A, " T h e C o r n e r i n g C a p a c i t y o f
Studded Tires," Highway Skid Resistance, STP 456, A m e r i c a n
S o c i e t y for T e s t i n g a n d M a t e r i a l s , 1969.

ABSTRACT: T e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l t i r e s on a s p e c i a l c o r n e r i n g
trailer show that studded tires, even when worn, have mate-
rially larger cornering capacity than do new tires without
studs. When mounted on an automobile, however, this in-
creased effectiveness i s n o t r e a l i z e d if t h e s t u d d e d t i r e s a r e
m o u n t e d on t h e r e a r w h e e l s o n l y . W h e n s t u d d e d t i r e s a r e
p l a c e d o n a l l f o u r w h e e l s t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e v e h i -
cle, as measured by developed lateral coefficient of friction,
m a y b e i n c r e a s e d b y 50 t o 60 p e r c e n t .

KEY W O R D S : s t u d d e d tires, cornering tests, cornering capac-


ity, ice skid tests.

The N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c i l C o m m i t t e e on W i n t e r
D r i v i n g H a z a r d s w a s e s t a b l i s h e d in 1 9 3 9 . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r
of m o s t y e a r s s i n c e t h a t t i m e t h e C o m m i t t e e h a s c o n d u c t e d a
w i n t e r t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . The p r o g r a m h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d in
e i t h e r M i c h i g a n o r W i s c o n s i n on i c e a n d , w h e n p o s s i b l e , on
packed snow, and has usually been two weeks in duration.
During these many programs a wide variety of vehicles, tires,
a n d d e v i c e s m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d s o l d a s a i d s in w i n t e r d r i v i n g

1professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Tennessee


Highway Research Program, University of Tennessee, and
C h a i r m a n , S u b c o m m i t t e e on T e s t i n g , N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c i l
Committee on Winter Driving Hazards.

144
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WHITEHURST ON STUDDED TIRES 145

have been tested and their performance evaluated. The results


of the Committee's investigations are m a d e available annually
in the form of an annual report of the Committee, and s u m m a -
ries of the Committee's activities have been published period-
ically (i-6). 2
Beginning with the test program of January, 1964 and
continuing through the program held in January and February,
1968, the Committee has concerned itself in part with the per-
formance of tungsten carbide steel studded tires. The earlier
portions of these investigations dealt primarily with the effect
of such studded tires upon the stopping capacity and the pull-
ing traction capacity of vehicles. The results of these inves-
tigations have already been reported (7). It m a y be stated
briefly that it has been clearly s h o w n that-the use of studded
s n o w tread tires on the rear wheels of a passenger car will
materially decrease the stopping distance of that vehicle w h e n
the brakes are locked on glare ice, and that if studded high-
w a y tread tires are used on the front wheels as well as studded
s n o w tread tires on the rear a further significant decrease in
stopping distance will occur. The shortest distance in a lock-
ed wheel slide on glare ice is still obtained however, w h e n
reinforced tire chains are used on the rear wheels of the vehi-
cle. It has further been s h o w n that the use of studded s n o w
tread tires on the rear wheels of a vehicle materially increases
either the break-away or spinning drawbar traction of the ve-
hicle, but again the greatest increase in traction is achieved
by using reinforced tire chains on the rear wheels.
During the 1967 and 1968 testing programs, primary
attention w a s directed toward the evaluation of the cornering
capacity of studded tires, since it is apparent that increased
control of maneuverability of the vehicle on very slippery sur-
faces is an important aspect of driving safety. Although the
1968 testing program w a s materially adversely affected by un-
seasonably w a r m weather, considerable data were collected
during the two programs. This paper describes the results of
these studies as they apply to the cornering capacity of tung-
sten carbide steel studded tires.

2The numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references


appended to this paper.

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146 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

TEST SITE AND FACILITIES


D u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s a c t i v i t i e s i c e
t e s t s w e r e p e r f o r m e d on t h e s u r f a c e s of f r o z e n l a k e s . Begin-
n i n g w i t h t h e t e s t i n g p r o g r a m of 1 9 6 3 , a n d c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h
the p r e s e n t t i m e , t e s t i n g has b e e n performed on ice c o u r s e s
c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r s o l i d g r o u n d . Both t h e 1967 a n d 1968 t e s t s
were performed on a c o u r s e l o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to the
city airport at Stevens Point, Wisconsin. An a e r i a l v i e w of
t h e c o u r s e i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1. The i c e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e
i n c l u d e a s t r a i g h t c o u r s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 0 0 0 f e e t l o n g b y 200
f e e t w i d e a n d a c i r c u l a r c o u r s e h a v i n g a r a d i u s to t h e i n n e r
e d g e of t h e i c e c i r c l e of 200 f e e t a n d a p a t h w i d t h of 50 f e e t .
T h i s c o u r s e h a s b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d a n n u a l l y for t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s
u s e b y t h e C i t y of S t e v e n s P o i n t s i n c e 1 9 6 5 . S u i t a b l e p a c k e d
s n o w t u r n - a r o u n d s a r e m a i n t a i n e d a t e a c h e n d of t h e s t r a i g h t
c o u r s e to p e r m i t v e h i c l e s t r a v e r s i n g t h e c o u r s e t o t u r n a n d r e -
t u r n to t h e c o u r s e w i t h o u t t r a c k i n g d i r t u p o n t h e i c e . T h r o u g h
a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h t h e C i t y of S t e v e n s P o i n t , b o t h t h e s t r a i g h t
course and the circular course were reflooded each night, tem-
p e r a t u r e p e r m i t t i n g , to r e m o v e t h e g r o o v e s m a d e i n t h e i c e b y
t e s t i n g of s t u d d e d t i r e s d u r i n g t h e d a y .
Two h o u s e t r a i l e r s w e r e p o s i t i o n e d j u s t off t h e s i d e of
t h e s t r a i g h t i c e c o u r s e n e a r i t s n o r t h e n d . O n e of t h e s e s e r v e d
as a data processing and instrumentation trailer. Careful re-
c o r d s w e r e m a i n t a i n e d of a m b i e n t a i r t e m p e r a t u r e , i c e s u r f a c e
temperature, solar radiation, and wind direction and velocity
whenever testing was in progress. The o t h e r t r a i l e r s e r v e d
p r i m a r i l y a s a w a r m - u p f a c i l i t y for p e r s o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
the testing program.

E Q U I P M E N T AND T E C H N I Q U E S
Two t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n
of t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of s t u d d e d t i r e s . O n e i n v o l v e d t h e
m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e t i r e i t s e l f t h r o u g h u s e of a
s p e c i a l c o r n e r i n g f o r c e t r a i l e r . The o t h e r i n v o l v e d a n e v a l u a -
t i o n of t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of a v e h i c l e o n t h e c i r c u l a r c o u r s e
when the selected test tires were installed thereon.
The e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of i n d i v i d u a l
t i r e s w a s m a d e i n 1967 t h r o u g h t h e u s e of a c o r n e r i n g t r a i l e r
p r o v i d e d for t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s u s e b y t h e G o o d y e a r Tire a n d
Rubber C o m p a n y . This is a two w h e e l t r a i l e r with e a c h w h e e l

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WHITEHURST ON STUDDED TIRES 147

b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y m o u n t e d , e x c e p t for a c o m m o n s t e e r i n g
m e c h a n i s m w h i c h a l l o w s b o t h w h e e l s to be s t e e r e d o p p o s i n g
e a c h o t h e r , e i t h e r r i g h t or l e f t , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Both w h e e l
h u b s a r e s o c o n s t r u c t e d a s to p r o v i d e c e n t e r s t e e r i n g w i t h
z e r o c a s t o r a n d z e r o c a m b e r . A l t h o u g h c a m b e r m a y be c h a n g e d
up to 7 d e g r e e s if s o d e s i r e d , it w a s s e t to 0 d e g r e e s t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s m a d e i n 1 9 6 7 . E a c h w h e e l of t h e t r a i l e r
is m o u n t e d on a s p l i n e d b e a r i n g a x l e w h i c h a l l o w s m o v e m e n t
in the h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e . T h e s e a x l e s are r e s t r a i n e d by force
m e m b e r s u p o n w h i c h s t r a i n g a u g e s a r e m o u n t e d . The c o r n e r -
ing force data are c o l l e c t e d on a n o s c i l l o g r a p h with the s i g n a l
b e g i n p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h p r o p e r a m p l i f i c a t i o n from t h e s t r a i n
gauges. The s t e e r i n g a n g l e ( s l i p a n g l e ) i s a l s o r e c o r d e d
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with the c o r n e r i n g force data u s i n g the same
oscillograph. The t r a i l e r i s a l s o c a p a b l e of r e a d i n g a l i g n i n g
t o r q u e v a l u e s if n e e d e d . T h i s w a s o m i t t e d from the i c e t e s t s
a s t h e v a l u e s w e r e s o s m a l l a s to b e i n s i g n i f i c a n t .
With the Goodyear cornering friction trailer, shown in
F i g u r e 2, a c t u a l d a t a is o b t a i n e d b y t o w i n g t h e v e h i c l e s t r a i g h t
a h e a d a n d t h e n s t e e r i n g t h e t r a i l e r w h e e l s b y m e a n s of a n h y -
d r a u l i c s t e e r i n g ram m o u n t e d o n t h e t r a i l e r a n d a c t u a t e d b y
power s t e e r i n g c o n t r o l in the t o w i n g v e h i c l e . The t o w i n g v e h i -
c l e w a s a 1965 D - 1 1 0 0 I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a v e l A l l . The t r a i l e r
w a s t o w e d s t r a i g h t a h e a d d o w n t h e m a j o r i c e c o u r s e a t 20 mph
a n d t h e t r a i l e r w h e e l s t h e n s t e e r e d to o b t a i n m a x i m u m d e v e l o p -
e d c o r n e r i n g f o r c e . T e n t e s t r u n s w e r e r e q u i r e d for e a c h t e s t
t i r e for e v e r y c o m p l e t e d t e s t .
Vehicle cornering capacity was evaluated by studying
the performance of a standard, current year model Chevrolet,
provided by the General Motors Proving Ground, on the ice
circle. Essentially the s a m e testing techniques were employed
in both 1967 and 1968. A trained driver w a s told to enter the
ice circle and, with the aid of appropriate markers, select
and follow a path which would put him on a selected radius.
In 1967, the radius w a s 210 feet and in 1968, 213 feet. H e
w a s instructed to then accelerate until he w a s traveling
around the circle at the m a x i m u m speed which he could main-
tain without having the car slip out. W h e n he had obtained
this speed, he signaled an observer w h o used a stop
watch to measure the time required for the vehicle to
travel several laps around the ice circle. From the k n o w n

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148 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

radius and measured time the average speed could be calculat-


ed. From the k n o w n radius and calculated average speed the
lateral coefficient of friction being developed by the vehicle
could finally be calculated.
All tires used in the testing program were donated for
the Committee's use by various tire manufacturers. In the
1967 tests all tires, highway tread, studded highway tread,
s n o w tread, and studded s n o w tread, were obtained from one
manufacturer. In the 1968 tests two manufacturers were in-
volved, one providing the highway and studded highway tread
tires and the other the s n o w and studded s n o w tread tires.
All tires were selected at random from stock by the manufac-
turer and tested on the ice courses in a n e w condition without
a run-in period. In 1967 additional studded highway tread
and studded s n o w tread tires were available which had been
used for 2500 miles of driving on bare pavements. Reinforced
tire chains were also provided by a tire chain manufacturer.

TEST R E S U L T S
Cornering Trailer Tests

A s u m m a r y of the results of all tests m a d e with the


cornering trailer is given in Table i. This table shows, for
each type of tire tested including the worn studded highway
and studded s n o w tires, the ice temperature at which tests
were conducted, the average m a x i m u m cornering force obtain-
ed, and the improvement in cornering capacity of each type
tire as compared to a n e w highway tread tire.
It should be noted that the coefficient of friction of
tires on ice is quite temperature sensitive, the coefficient
increasing as the temperature decreases. The experience of
the Committee has been that this relation holds at least over
a temperature range of 32~ to -5~ W h e r e the number of
tests completed during an annual testing program is sufficient
and where the ice surface temperature covers a wide range of
values it is customary to calculate the least m e a n square re-
lationship between the measured quantity and the ice tempera-
ture and then calculate and report the value of the measured
quantity at a selected ice temperature, usually 25~ In the
case of tests reported herein the tests of a given tire were
either conducted within too limited a range of temperature or
too few tests were completed to permit such treatment of the

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WHITEHURST ON STUDDED TIRES 149

data. Accordingly, the ice temperature and the measured val-


u e for a l l t e s t s o n e a c h t y p e of t i r e h a v e b e e n a v e r a g e d a n d
reported.
It m a y b e o b s e r v e d from T a b l e 1 t h a t e a c h of t h e t y p e s
of t i r e s w i t h s t u d s w h i c h w a s t e s t e d s h o w e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e
i n c r e a s e i n a b i l i t y to g e n e r a t e a c o r n e r i n g f o r c e o v e r t h e n e w
h i g h w a y t i r e . On the a v e r a g e , w i t h o u t r e g a r d to t e m p e r a t u r e
v a r i a t i o n s , t h e n e w studded h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e d e v e l o p e d a
c o r n e r i n g f o r c e 35 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e b a s i c n e w h i g h -
way tread tire and the new studded" snow tread tire developed
a c o r n e r i n g f o r c e 78 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e n e w h i g h w a y
t r e a d t i r e . A f t e r b e i n g w o r n to t h e e x t e n t c a u s e d b y 2500
m i l e s of t r a v e l o n b a r e p a v e m e n t s , 6 p e r c e n t of t h e i m p r o v e -
m e n t of t h e s t u d d e d h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e w a s l o s t , a s w a s 32
p e r c e n t of t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e s t u d d e d s n o w t r e a d t i r e .
The g r e a t e s t c o r n e r i n g f o r c e w a s d e v e l o p e d b y h i g h w a y t r e a d
t i r e s on which a r e i n f o r c e d tire c h a i n had b e e n m o u n t e d , the
i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h e t i r e a l o n e b e i n g 125 p e r c e n t .
It s h o u l d b e k e p t i n m i n d t h a t t h e c o r n e r i n g t r a i l e r
p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of a p a i r
of w h e e l s . It d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e i m p r o v e -
m e n t s h o w n With t h e c o r n e r i n g t r a i l e r w o u l d b e v e r i f i e d b y a
t e s t of a p a s s e n g e r c a r u n l e s s t h e w h e e l s w e r e l o c a t e d o n
t h o s e p o s i t i o n s on the car at w h i c h c o r n e r i n g is c r i t i c a l .
This s t a t e m e n t is s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the data g i v e n in
T a b l e 2 w h i c h s u m m a r i z e s t h e 1967 r e s u l t s of c o r n e r i n g t e s t s
on the ice circle. When new highway tread tires were mount-
e d o n a l l f o u r w h e e l s of t h e v e h i c l e t h e a v e r a g e m a x i m u m
s p e e d m a i n t a i n e d on t h e 2 1 0 - f o o t r a d i u s w a s 1 4 . 7 mph, a n d
the average developed lateral coefficient at that speed was
0.070. W h e n the rear h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e s were r e p l a c e d by
n e w s n o w t r e a d t i r e s t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d f e l l to 1 3 . 9 mph a n d
t h e d e v e l o p e d c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n w a s 0 . 0 6 2 . When new
tungsten carbide steel studded snow tread tires were placed
o n t h e r e a r of t h e v e h i c l e , w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h w a y t r e a d
t i r e s o n t h e f r o n t , t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d w a s 1 5 . 2 mph a n d t h e
average developed lateral coefficient 0.074, only 6 percent
greater than that developed when highway tread tires were
u s e d on a l l four w h e e l s . W h e n n e w s t u d d e d h i g h w a y t r e a d
t i r e s w e r e p l a c e d on t h e f r o n t of t h e v e h i c l e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e
s t u d d e d s n o w t r e a d t i r e s on t h e r e a r , t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d
m a i n t a i n e d on t h e c i r c l e w a s 1 8 . 2 mph w i t h a d e v e l o p e d
l a t e r a l c o e f f i c i e n t of 0. 1 0 5 , a n i n c r e a s e of 50 p e r c e n t o v e r

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150 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

that d e v e l o p e d with h i g h w a y tread t i r e s in all p o s i t i o n s .


W h e n n e w h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e s w e r e p l a c e d o n a l l four p o s i -
t i o n s of t h e c a r a n d r e i n f o r c e d t i r e c h a i n s m o u n t e d on t h e
r e a r w h e e l s t h e a v e r a g e s p e e d m a i n t a i n e d w a s 1 5 . 5 mph w i t h
a n a v e r a g e l a t e r a l c o e f f i c i e n t of 0 . 0 7 7 , o n l y 10 p e r c e n t g r e a t -
er t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d w h e n h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e s a l o n e w e r e
m o u n t e d on t h e c a r .
From t h e s e f i g u r e s it m a y be s e e n t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e
t r a c t i o n c a p a c i t y of t h e r e a r w h e e l s o n l y d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y
i n c r e a s e t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e v e h i c l e s . In d r i v i n g
w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l t i r e s on t h e i c e c i r c l e i t i s c u s t o m a r i l y t h e
r e a r e n d of t h e v e h i c l e w h i c h s l i d e s o u t a s s p e e d i s i n c r e a s e d .
T h i s i s d u e to t h e f a c t t h a t a p o r t i o n of t h e t r a c t i v e c a p a c i t y
b e t w e e n t i r e a n d i c e s u r f a c e i s b e i n g u s e d to d r i v e t h e v e h i -
cle, with the result that something less than the full tractive
c a p a c i t y i s a v a i l a b l e to r e s i s t t h e e f f e c t of c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e .
W h e n t h e t r a c t i v e c a p a c i t y of t h e r e a r t i r e s i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e
o b s e r v e d e f f e c t i s for t h e f r o n t e n d of t h e v e h i c l e t o s l i d e
out as s p e e d is i n c r e a s e d r a t h e r t h a n the r e a r , w h e n the full
t r a c t i v e c a p a c i t y of t h e f r o n t t i r e s a g a i n s t t h e i c e s u r f a c e
b e c o m e s t o o s m a l l to r e s i s t t h e e f f e c t of c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e .
Under these circumstances the total increase in cornering
c a p a c i t y of t h e v e h i c l e i s v e r y s m a l l . W h e n t h e t r a c t i v e
c a p a c i t y of b o t h f r o n t a n d r e a r w h e e l s i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e c o r -
n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e v e h i c l e i s i n c r e a s e d , a n d if t r a c t i v e
c a p a c i t y of b o t h f r o n t a n d r e a r w h e e l s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e
s a m e it i s a g a i n t h e r e a r of t h e v e h i c l e w h i c h s l i d e s o u t .
O n e o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be m a d e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o o r
p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e v e h i c l e w i t h s n o w t r e a d t i r e s o n t h e r e a r
w h e e l s and with c o n v e n t i o n a l h i g h w a y tread t i r e s on the
front. Although this paper deals only with the cornering
c a p a c i t y of t i r e s a n d v e h i c l e s , it s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e 1967 t e s t s a l l t e s t r e s u t t s i n d i c a t e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e
of t h e s n o w t r e a d t i r e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y to be i n f e r i o r
to t h a t of t h e h i g h w a y t r e a d t i r e s o n g l a r e i c e . For e x a m p l e ,
from 20 mph a t a n i c e t e m p e r a t u r e of 2 5 ~ a v e h i c l e e q u i p p e d
with n e w h i g h w a y tread t i r e s on the front and n e w s n o w tread
t i r e s on the rear s t o p p e d in a d i s t a n c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 p e r -
cent longer than the same vehicle equipped with new highway
tread t i r e s in a l l four p o s i t i o n s .
T a b l e 2 a l s o s h o w s t h e r e s u l t s of c i r c l e c o r n e r i n g
t e s t s in a v e h i c l e e q u i p p e d with s t u d d e d h i g h w a y tread t i r e s

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WHITEHURST ON STUDDED TIRES 151

on the front and studded s n o w tread tires on the rear w h e n all


four of the tires had been subjected to 2500 miles of travel on
bare pavement. In tlhis case the decrease in cornering capa-
city attributable to wear, as measured by developed lateral
coefficient of friction, w a s approximately 5 percent, the cor-
nering capacity of the vehicle so equipped still being approxi-
mately 43 percent greater than that of the vehic]e equipped
with four n e w highway tread tires.
Although Table 2 s h o w s that the use of studded tires
on all four wheels m a y increase the lateral coefficient of
friction developed by vehicles traveling a curvilinear course
on ice by as m u c h as 50 percent, it must not be concluded
that a vehicle so equipped m a y expect to turn on a given rad-
ius at a speed 50 percent greater than a vehicle not so
equipped. The centrifugal force developed upon a vehicle
traveling a curvilinear path is proportional to the square of
the speed at which the vehicle is traveling. In the case of
these tests the ability to develop increased lateral coefficient
of S0 percent w h e n studded tires were used on all positions
w a s sufficient to permit an increase of only 24 percent in
speed of the vehicle.
Because the number of circle cornering tests c o m -
pleted for each tire combination in 1967 w a s relatively limitec~
tests were repeated for most of the tire combinations in 1968.
In the 1968 series there were no worn studded tires and, be-
cause of the soft condition of the ice surface, no tests in-
volving tire chains were performed. The results of the tests
performed in 1968 are s h o w n in Table 3. It m a y be observed
that the use of studded tires on all four wheels increased the
cornering capacity of the vehicle, as measured by developed
lateral coefficient of friction, by approximately 6 1 percent as
compared to a 50 percent increase for the s a m e combination
in 1967. N o increase is s h o w n w h e n studded s n o w tread tires
are added to the rear wheels only.
In v i e w of the fact that different drivers were employ-
ed, a year later model car w a s used for the 1968 tests, tires
of different manufacture were used, and the average tempera-
ture in 1968 w a s a few degrees higher than that in 1967 (under
which circumstances the relative effectiveness of studded
tires has been found to be greater), it is felt that the results
of the 1968 tests are in good agreement with those of 1967.

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152 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

CONCLUSIONS
The t e s t s o u t l i n e d a b o v e r e v e a l t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n of
t u n g s t e n c a r b i d e s t e e l s t u d s t o e i t h e r a h i g h w a y t r e a d or s n o w
t r e a d t i r e m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e s t h e c o r n e r i n g t r a c t i o n of t h e
w h e e l u p o n w h i c h t h a t tire is m o u n t e d , as d o e s the i n s t a l l a t i o n
of a r e i n f o r c e d t i r e c h a i n o n a w h e e l h a v i n g a h i g h w a y t r e a d
t i r e . As s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t i r e s
with s u c h i n c r e a s e d t r a c t i v e c a p a c i t y on the rear w h e e l s o n l y
of a n a u t o m o b i l e d o e s n o t i n c r e a s e m a t e r i a l l y t h e c o r n e r i n g
c a p a c i t y of t h e v e h i c l e . To i n c r e a s e t h e c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y of
t h e v e h i c l e s t u d d e d t i r e s m u s t be i n s t a l l e d o n a l l f o u r w h e e l s .
C o m m o n u s e a g e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s to d a t e h a s i n -
v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y o n l y t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of s t u d d e d s n o w t r e a d
t i r e s o n t h e r e a r w h e e l s of v e h i c l e s . While such useage per-
mits the d r i v e r to m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e his s t o p p i n g c a p a c i t y
a n d h i s " g o i n g " c a p a c i t y , it i s b e l i e v e d t h a t it m a y s u b j e c t h i m
to a d r i v i n g h a z a r d w i t h w h i c h h e i s u n f a m i l i a r a n d m a y n o t be
p r e p a r e d to c o p e . It m a y c a u s e h i m w h i l e t r a v e l i n g a c u r v i l i n -
e a r p a t h to e x p e r i e n c e l o s s of c o n t r o l i n t h e f r o n t e n d of h i s
v e h i c l e (rather t h a n in the rear e n d , a p h e n o m e n o n with which
h e is more l i k e l y to b e f a m i l i a r ) , a n d m a y i n d e e d c a u s e h i m to
s l i d e t h r o u g h a n i n t e r s e c t i o n a t w h i c h he h a d a t t e m p t e d to m a k e
a turning maneuver.
It i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t if s t u d d e d t i r e s a r e i n s t a l l e d on
a n a u t o m o b i l e to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l t r a c t i o n u n d e r w i n t e r d r i v i n g
c o n d i t i o n s t h e y b e i n s t a l l e d o n a l l four w h e e l s . Under this
c o n d i t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l c o r n e r i n g c a p a c i t y (as d e f i n e d b y i n -
c r e a s e d d e v e l o p a b l e l a t e r a l c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n ) i n t h e o r d e r
of 50 p e r c e n t or more m a y be a n t i c i p a t e d .

REFERENCES
i. Moyer, R. A., "Jackknifing for Science," National Safety
Congress, 1946.
2. Moyer, R. A., "Braking and Traction Tests on Ice, Snow,
and on Bare Pavements," HRB Proc., Vol. 27, 1947,
pp. 240-360.
3. Moyer, R. A., "What the 1947 Winter Driving Tests Show,"
National Safety Congress, 1947.
4. Lasher, W . B., ~r., "Stability of Articulated Vehicles,"
National Safety Congress, 1954.

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WHITEHURST ON STUDDED TIRES 153

5. Easton, A. H., "Skid Prevention on Ice and Snow,"


Proc., First Internat. Conf. on Skid Prevention,
Charlottesville, Va., 1958, pp. 549-562.
6. Easton, A. H., "Summary of Tests on Motor Vehicles
Under Winter Conditions, " HRB Proc., Vol. 40,
1961, pp. 565-581.
7. Whitehurst, E. A. and A. H. Easton, "An Evaluation of
Studded Tire Performance," HRB Record, No. 171,
1967, pp. 14-27.

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C.
4~

"i-

7-
TABLE 1
>
-<
SUMMARY OF CORNERING TRAILER D A T A , 1967

Improvement
Average m a x i m u m over new 2~
Average ice
temperature cornering force highway tread o~
Tire tread (oF) _ (lbs .) >
(%k
z
new highway 24. ? 8O 6]
m

n e w studded highway 22.0 108 35

worn* studded highway 25.0 106 33

n e w studded s n o w 32.0 142 78

worn* studded s n o w 31.0 122 53

new highway w/new 30.0 180 125


reinforced chains

* 2500 miles on bare pavements

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TABLE 2
S U M M A R Y O F C O R N E R I N G TESTS O N C I R C L E , 1967

Improve ment
Average over new
Average ice Average deve loped highway
temperature maximum speed lateral tread
Tire t r e a d s (OF) (mph) coefficient (%)

new highway front - 25.0 14.7 0.070 -


new highway rear

new highway front - 21.5 13.9 0.062 -11


n e w s n o w rear -r

new highway front - 24.0 15.2 0.074 6 rr


I
new studded snow rear c

new studded highway front - 26.3 18.2 0.105 50


new studded snow rear o
z

worn* studded highway front - 24.0 17.8 0.100 43


C
worn* studded snow rear

new highway front - 25.0 15.5 0.077 10


new highway w/new M

reinforced chains rear

* 2500 m i l e s o n b a r e p a v e m e n t s
C~

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G
(h

T
"I-
>
TABLE 3 -<

SUMMARY OF CORNERING T E S T S ON CIRCLE, 1968


G
Improvement
Average over n e w T~
A v e r a g e ice Average developed highway
>
temperature maximum speed lateral tread z
(oF) (mph) coefficient (%) 6]
rll
Tire treads

new highway front - 28.4 15.0 0.071


new highway rear

new h i g h w a y front - 28.4 15.1 0.072 1.4


new s n o w rear

new highway front - 27.2 15.0 0.071 0.0


new studded s n o w rear

new s t u d d e d h i g h w a y front - 29.5 19.0 0.114 60.6


new s t u d d e d s n o w rear

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I

c
;D

o
z

c
o
u
m
o

Figure 1. Test Site at Stevens Point, Wisconsin,

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C.
OO

-<

;m

z
C~
m

Figure 2. Goodyear Cornering Friction Trailer.

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J. W. Hutchinson, T. Y. Kao and L. C. Pendley I

PAVEMENT DYNAMIC PERMEABILITY TESTING

REFERENCE: Hutchinson, J.W., Kao, T.Y. and Pendley, L.C.,


"Pavement Dynamic Permeability Testing," H__i~hway Skid Resis-
tance, STP 456, American Society for Testing and Materials,
1969.

ABSTRACT: Skid resistance of wet pavement surfaces decreases


with speed as hydrodynamic pressure builds up under vehicle
tires. Porous pavements have previously been tested for their
effectiveness in preventing this hydrodynamic reduction in
tire-pavement friction. It is suggested that factors as-
sociated with fluid inertia and flow velocities encountered
at the tire pavement interface are not accounted for in pave-
ment static permeability tests. The difference between static
and dynamic permeability is discussed and illustrated. A test-
ing device of the type needed in predetermining pavement sur-
face hydrodynamic drainage characteristics is described.

KEY WORDS: porous pavement, permeability, hydrodynamic


drainage, skid resistance

Because of the time, expense and public safety hazard


involved in determining the in-service skid resistance of ex-
perimental pavement, much emphasis has been placed on means of
predetermining the skid resistance of paving materials. Most
of the effort has been devoted to measurement of the polish
resistance of aggregate particles. However, skid resistance
of wet pavement surfaces depends upon rapid ejection of water
at the tire-pavement interface to achieve tire contact with
the aggregate. The faster the tire moves, the greater the
hydrodynamic reduction in skid number. Predetermination of

iCivil Engineering Department, University of Kentucky,


Lexington, Kentucky.

159

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160 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

pavement surface hydrodynamic drainage characteristics result-


ing from any combination of paving materials and construction
procedures is therefore just as necessary as predetermining
viscous sliding friction and aggregate weathering characteris-
tics and polish resistance.
The purpose of the research reported herein is to (i)
suggest that factors associated with fluid inertia and flow
velocities encountered at the tire-pavement interface are not
accounted for in the measurement of pavement static permeabil-
ity by ASTM standard methods, (2) illustrate the difference
between static permeability test results and the test results
from a dynamic permeabilitytest device developed for use in
this research, and (3) illustrate the type of testing device
that may be useful in studying pavement surface hydrodynamic
drainage characteristics including permeability.

METHOD

Pavement specimens consisting of dryheated, crushed


Kentucky rock asphalt, were compacted in rigid rectangular
molds shown in figures i and 2. Permeability tests were made
with a specially designed dynamic permeability testing device
(Fig. i, 2 & 3), consisting of a moveable rubber-faced 25 in 2
rectangular piston situated in a chamber explosively pre-
surized to force the piston, and the fluid (water, 3/16"
depth) beneathe it, against the specimen surface. Peak pres-
sures, ranging from 18 to 225 psi, were produced by solenoid
firing of a sawed-off 12 gage shotgun loaded with 0.5 to 1.2
grams of fast burning pistol powder and wadded with one shot
holder and filler wad. Pressure beneath the piston was
measured with a Kistler model 603 piezo-electric transducer
and Kistler Universal Dial Calibration model 503 charge ampli-
fier, with recordation on a Tektronix type 564 four beam
storage oscilloscope.
Typical pressure-time traces are shown in figure 4.
Pressure duration may be controlled through adjustment of the
volume of the gas outlet chamber illustrated in figure 3.
However, all data reported herein were obtained with a fixed
gas outlet port setting which gave a pressure duration of
about 40 msec.
The quantity of fluid forced through the specimens was
measured with an uniform cross-section glass tube level gage
as shown in figures 2 and 3.
Air permeability of the dried specimens was measured with
the Soiltest Asphalt Paving Meter, model AP-40OA, positioned
within the portion of the surface area of each specimen pre-
viously tested with the dynamic permeability device.

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HUTCHINSON ET AL ON PERMEABILITY TESTING 161

RESULTS

Air permeability test results are shown in Table 1 to-


gether with pertinent data concerning each specimen. Damage
to specimen number 1 during removal of the dynamic permeabil-
ity testing device prevented proper determination of air
permeability.
Air permeability was converted to static water permeabil-
ity assuming isothermal flow in accordance with analyses
suggested by Langfelder(1), wherein the ratio of permeability
coefficients for incompressible and compressible fluid is
expressed as

ki= (Pl + P2 )
kc 2P I

where:
ki, kc = coefficient of permeability for incompressible
and compressible fluid, respectively,
PI' P2 = exit and entrance pressure, respectively.

Employing the above relationship, flow of incompressible fluid


may be written as

Qi = kc (PI + P2 ) A A p ~c ,
9 L
2Pl ~l c

where:
A = Area,
Ap/L = pressure gradient,
~i' ~c = dynamic viscosity for incompressible and com-
pressible fluid, respectively.
Rearranging and comparing with the equation of flow for com-
pressible fluid (1) yields:

Qi = Qc ~c

Figure 5 shows the resulting static water permeabiliy


together with the dynamic water permeability for each speci-
men.
Static air flow from Table i, converted to static water
flow by means of the correlation developed by Gotolski (2), is
also shown in Figure 5.

The numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references


appended to this paper.

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162 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

The many factors related to bituminous pavement permeabil-


ity, such as aggregate shape and gradation, type and amount of
asphalt and type, amount and temperature of mixing and compac-
tion (2,3,4'5,~) were not controlled. No two specimens were
identical and even those with the same density, air voids or
thickness had different permeabilities. Only specimens I and
2, with the same densities and thicknesses and similar asphalt
and air void contents, had similar dynamic permeabilities (Fig.
5a).
Scatter of dynamic permeability data points is believed
to be related to a number of variables not controlled during
testing. The two most important factors involved in this
scatter appear to be test temperature and piston lubrication.
Firing of tests in fairly rapid succession heats the test
chamber fluid and coats the cylinder wall with burned gun-
powder deposits. However, the general relationship of fluid
flow to pressure and duration, as given in figure 5, is
apparently not affected by these factors; data points through-
out the given pressure range were obtained for the full range
to fluid temperature and test cylinder cleanliness conditions.

DISCUSSION

Horne (7) has demonstrated that, as vehicle speed in-


creases, the build-up of hydrodynamic pressures under a smooth
tire and between the grooves of a ribbed aircraft tire closely
approximates the build-up of stagnation pressure (0V2/2)
until total tire hydroplanning speed is developed. Hydro-
dynamic pressures under the dynamic permeability testing head
are similar, as shown in figure 6. Under these conditions,
flow through porous pavement is characterized by high pres-
sure and velocity.
In contrast, static permeability testing pressures and
flow velocities are extremely small. In fact, the design of
any static permeability testing device is governed by the need
to minimize and effects of flow velocity. When sizeable pres-
sure gradients are involved in flow through porous media, dis-
charge is no longer a linear function of velocity, i.e.,
V# ki.
Research (8,9) on flow through porous media has indicated
that transition from laminar (viscous) to turbulent flow
occurs at very low Reynolds number, somewhere between 0.i and
75, One investigator (8) has indicated that, for a sand with
porosity equal to 19.7%,deviation from viscous flow began for
Reynolds number less than 0.5. Because of this obvious limit
on the range of validity of Darcy's law, various means have
been suggested to accommodate the change from hydraulic grad-
ient,

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HUTCHINSON ET AL ON PERMEABILITY TESTING 163

v v n
i = ~ to some form of i - k or i = av n where n is

intermediate between 1 and 2. Some investigators prefer to


keep the linear velocity term as a means of expressing viscous
drag on the very large boundary area exposed to the fluid by
the irregular and capillary nature of the flow channels.
Adding a non-linear term, to account for friction losses in
the free pore volume, gives the "law of flow," i = av + bvn,
where neither of the coefficients are equivalent to
1 The added term becomes 1% of the linear term at veloci-
k

ties as low as .09 cm/sec.(8). When mean velocities on the


order of 4 to 6 cm/sec are involved, as in the case of the
dynamic permeability flow data shown in the 600 to 1200 psi-
msec range of figure 7, head loss due to friction must surely
become appreciable. Actually, Scheidegger (9) shows that, in
curved channels, non-linearity in laminar flow (v # ki)
occurs as soon as the inertia terms in the Navier-Stokes
equation become import@nt, long before the onset of turbu-
lence. Others (9) have found that neither air nor liquid
permeabilities were constant as calculated from Darcy's law;
both depend upon mean pressure or pressure gradient. It is
obvious that a definite practical limit to the use of Darcy's
law exists and that, when sudden high pressures of short
duration are involved, inertia effects must be expected to
dominate from the standpoint of either the artificially induced
turbulence or the expected transition to turbulent flow at
higher velocities, or both.
The transition from viscous to turbulent flow in porous
media does not appear to occur at a sharply defined Reynolds
number. With reference to the extremely long pressure
duration associated with static permeability testing,
Muskat (8) suggests that transition from strictly viscous to
completely turbulent flow involves a gradual dissemination of
turbulence throughout all the pores of the medium. The
occurrence of such gradual transition cannot be expected with-
in the extremely brief time intervals (.004 sec. or less) re-
quired in pavement permeability testing for hydroplanning re-
sistance. Therefore, in the-range from 0 to 1200 psi-msec,
the dynamic permeability flow values in figure 7 are assumed
to result from combined laminar and turbulent flow. Beyond
1200 psi-msec, viscous effects are assumed to be largely over-
shadowed by friction effects and although the flow curve for
each specimen then reappears in the relative order given by
static permeability testing, the relative magnitudes are
different and the curves are divergent.

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164 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

In the case of these specimens and these tests, diver-


gence is caused primarily by relatively small differences in
pore size, volume, shape, and accessibility. However, in the
actual case of a tire moving along the surface of a wet pave-
ment, hydrodynamic pressure release varies with many add-
itional factors. Water drainage from the tire footprint in-
volves not only flow into the pavement, but also flow out
through the grooves and sipes of tire tread, out between sur-
face aggregate asperities, out through specially developed
groove and texture channels, out between the tire and the tops
of pavement surface asperities, etc. Divergence of hydro-
dynamic flow curves is undoubtedly considerably greater for
the wide range in magnitude of all the combinations of these
variables represented in current paving and tire manufacturing
practice. The continuing effort in this research is therefore
devoted to predetermination of not just the dynamic permeabil-
ity of paving mixtures, but also the combined surface hydro-
dynamic drainage characteristics.
The early phases of this research were devoted primarily
to the study of pavement dynamic permeability because of the
attention given in the literature to pavement permeability as
a factor in skid resistance and because of the lack of any
reported attempt to measure pavement permeability under the
dynamic conditions actually existing at the tire-pavement in-
terface. Havens(I0,II) appears to have been one of the first
to recognize the possible beneficial effects of pavement
porosity in skid resistance. Goodwin (12,13) devoted early
attention to pavement static permeability testing as a
possible means of predetermining skid resistance and suggested
that both macro-texture and permeability contribute to
tire-pavement interface drainage. Meyer (14) and others have
pointed out the fact that friction values for open graded
bituminous surfaces do not drop off as sharply at the higher
speeds of 40 and 50 mph as do those for dense graded, water-
tight surfaces.
The most recent indication of the relative importance of
pavement permeability as a factor in skid resistance was
given by Smith(15) in reporting upon the results of the 1967
Florida Skid Correlation Study. Although some of the surfaces
in the Florida study exhibited "skid number-testing speed"
characteristics that were partially predictable on the basis
of texture depth, one of the most outstanding exceptions was
a sand textured permeable surface. Apparently,hydrodynamic
pressure release through the pores of this surface, at the
higher test speeds of 40 and 60 mph, prevented the rapid de-
crease in skid number that was noted for all except the most
deeply textured surfaces.
It appears as though pavement designers are forced to

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HUTCHINSON ET AL ON PERMEABILITY TESTING 165

choose either high pavement porosity or deep surface texture,


or a combination of these in providing adequate hydrodynamic
drainage at speeds above 40 mph. Substantial increases in
porosity will cause unacceptable decreases in durability for
many currently used paving materials; ( 1 ) increases in macro,
texture depth are normally accompanied by increased road
noise and tire wear. It is expected that the surface hydro-
dynamic drainage testing device shown schematically in figure
8 can serve as a tool for predetermining the drainage char-
acteristics of experimental surfaces resulting from this
trade-off between durability and road noise and tire wear.
As soon as time and financial resources permit, tests
will be performed on the Florida Skid Correlation Study
surfaces to determine what correlation, if any, exists
between the 40 and 60 mph skid test results and the hydro-
dynamic drainage characteristics of the test surfaces. In as
much as most surfaces at both the Florida and NASA Wallops
Station sites are relatively new and not worn appreciably by
test traffic, it is expected that this measure of surface
hydrodynamic drainage characteristics would correlate with the
SN40 + data far better than any of the macro-texture and static
permeability tests that have been performed on those surface
materials.
Any elastohydrodynamic reduction in skid number resulting
from aggregate and groove edge wear and polishing under
traffic would probably not be reflected in the results of such
surface drainage tests. However, as indicated bv Horne's
findings (7), and most lucidly stated by Moore (17), surface
drainage information combined with the measurement of skid
resistance at pne sliding speed will probably be sufficient to
determine frictional performance over a range of speeds. In
this approach, either the British Pendulum Number or Drag
Test Number could possibly provide all the viscous sliding in-
formation needed.
Figure 8 is a schematic of the device developed for deter-
mining differences in the hydrodynamic drainage characteristics
of pavement surfaces. For grooved, highly porous or deep
textured surfaces, static water depth under the testing head
is maintained by an exterior dam on the pavement surface.
Hydrodynamic flow is calculated from piston volume displacement,
sensed by an accelerometer, and read from an integrating
oscilloscope. The shape of the pressure-time trace is adjust-
able through the control of pressurization fluid inlet and
outlet conditions. The device is adaptable to field and
laboratory use in much the same manner as the California
Bearing Ratio test apparatus is used. Analyses of test data
have not progressed to the point where they would contribute
appreciably to the value of this paper.

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166 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

A study of the effects of piston head area is being con-


ducted. If, as expected, flow potential of water through
thin porous pavement layers (1/8" to 1 1/2") is governed
appreciably by the size of the tire footprint, more than one
size of piston head area will be required in examining the
hydrodynamic characteristics of various tire-pavement com-
binations involving porous paving mixes.
Air was not used as the fluid for the dynamic permeabil-
ity tests reported herein because, as pointed out by
Scheidegger (9), some researchers claim to have found no
correlation between the liquid and gas permeabilities of
porous media, the former depending upon pore diameter and
specific surface tension and the latter depending upon the
mean linear speed of the gas.
The air to water permeability conversions and correlations
suggested by others (Figures 5 and 7) were used only in an
attempt to graphically illustrate the differences between
static and dynamic permeability test results. However, the
rationale for the need of air-water and/or air-water-dust
mixture permeability studies lies in the long standing obser-
vation that some pavement surfaces are least skid resistant
at the very beginning of rainfall after a long dry spell (18).
There appear to be no reported results from studies of the re-
lationship between the rate of recovery from this early rain-
slick condition and pavement permeability to mixtures. In
this regard, it should be noted that rock flour slurry result-
ing from PCC pavement grooving operations appears to have
been readily pumped into and, apprarently, partially out of
the trafficked area of the sand textured porous bituminous
pavement section on the test runway at Wallops Station by the
passage of test vehicle tires (19).

CONCLUSION

The results from this study suggest that ASTM standard


static permeability test procedures are not applicable to
the testing of pavement surface permeability as a measure of
the contribution of permeability to the control of tire
hydroplanning at speeds above 40 mph. Rapid drainage of
water from the tire-pavement interface involves recognized
high velocity fluid flow phenomena which vary with tire de-
sign, tire inflation pressure, speed of travel, pavement
surface texture and pavement permeability, none of which are
adequately accounted for in static air and water permeability
measurements.

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HUTCHINSON ET AL ON PERMEABILITY TESTING 167

REFRENCES

i. Langfelder, Leonard J., Chen, C.F., and Justice, John A.,


"Air Permeability of Compacted Cohesive Soils," Journal
of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division~ ASCE,
Vol. 94, No. SM4, July 1968, pp. 981-1001.

2. Gotolski, W. H., Ciesielski, S. K., and Lucas, J. M.,


Study of Physical Factors Affecting the Durability of
Asphaltic Pavements, Department of Civil Engineering
Materials Research Report, Pennsylvania State University,
Special Report No. i, May 1966.

3. Ellis, W. H., and Schmidt, R. J., "A Method for Measuring


the Air Permeabilities of Asphalt Concrete Pavements,"
ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 294, 1961

4. Lingham, V. T., "Permeability of Fine Crushed Rock,"


Journal of the Australian Road Research Board, Vol. 1
No. 2, June 1962, pp. 5-11.

5. Ekse, M., and Zia, A. T., "Field Measurement of Air-


Permeability for Control of Bituminous Mat Construction,"
Proceedings~ Ass'n. Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol.
22, 1953.

6. Kari, W. J., and Santucci, L. E., "Control of Asphalt


Concrete Construction by the Air Permeability Test,"
ProceedinEs of the Association of Asphalt Paving
Technologists, Vol. 32, 1963, pp. 148-170.

7. Horne, W. B., and Joyner, U. T., "Pneumatic Tire


Hydroplanning and Some Effects on Vehicle Performance,"
Society of Automotive Engineers paper 970C, presented
at International Automotive Engineering Congress,
Detroit, Mich., Jan. 11-15, 1965.

8. Muskat, M., Flow of Homogeneous Fluids, McGraw-Hill


Book Co., 1937.

9. Scheidegger, Adrian E., The Physics of Flow Through


Porous Media, The Macmillian Company, 1960,

i0. Havens, James H., and Williams, Ellis G., A Preliminary


Report on the Performance of Kentucky (Natural Sandstone)
Rock Asphalt I Highway Research Laboratory, Kentucky
Department of Highways, April, 1955.

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168 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

ii. Havens, James H., and Williams, Ellis G., A Study of the
Properties and Performance of Kentucky (Natural Sandstone)
Rock Asphalt, Highway Research Laboratory, Kentucky
Department of Highways, 1956.

12. Goodwin, W. A., "Evaluation of Pavement Aggregates for


Non-Skid Qualities," Program of the Twelfth Annual
Symposium on Geology as Applied to Highway Engineering,
SEASHO Proceedings, 1960.

13. Goodwin, W. A., "Pre-evaluation of Bituminous Mixes


for Skid Resistance," paper presented at the Southeastern
Association of State Highway Officials 21st Annual
Convention, Louisville, Kentucky, October 28-November
i, 1962.

14. Moyer, R. A., "Effect of Pavement Type and Composition


on Slipperiness, California Experience," Proceedings
First International Skid Prevention Conference~ Part
II, August 1959.

15. Smith, L. L., and Fuller, S. L., Florida Skid Correlation


Study of 1967--Skid Testing With Trailers, Florida State
Road Department Division of Materials, Research and
Training Research Bulletin 125, September, 1968.

16. McLaughlin, J. F., and Goetz, W. H., "Permeability,


Void Content, and Durability of Bituminous Concrete,"
Highway Researh Board Proceedings, Vol. 34, 1955, pp.
274-286.

17. Moore, Desmond F., "The Logical Design of Optimum Skid


Resistant Surfaces," paper presented at the First
Annual Summer Meeting of the Highway Research Board,
Denver, Colorado, August 13, 1968.

18. Goetz, W. H., and Rice, J. M., "Factors Affecting the


Measurement of Skid Resistance," Proceedings~ First
International Skid Prevention Conference~ Part I,
August 1959.

19. Orientation film showing early F-4 Fighter aircraft


skid tests at Wallops Station, Virginia, National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1968.

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TABLE i--. PROPERTIES OF P A V E M E N T SPECIMENS

IE
Specimen Density a Air Voids Asphalt b Thickness Air C
ibs/ft 3 % Content in. Permeability N
% sec/1000ml I
Z
oo
1 114.8 20.2 8.8 1.188 O
Z
2 114.8 19.5 9.4 1.188 70.8
>
3 116.1 18.4 9.6 0.906 t-
55.6
O
Z
4 118.6 17.2 9.1 1.340 140.0 -o

5 116.1 19.5 8.4 1.030 88.3

F-

-<
a A S T M Method D 1188-56
m
b A S T M M e t h o d D 2172-67
2
6~

~o

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170 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Figure--i Dynamic Permeability Testing Device.

Figure--2 Set-up of Equipment for Test Operation~

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Figure--3 Schematic of Dynamic Permeability Testing Device.

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172 HIGHWAY SKID RESISTANCE

Fig~re--~4 Typical P.ressare Time Traces.

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Figure--5 Comparison of static and dynamic water permeability. L~

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Figure--6 Difference in pressure traces for static and dynamic permeability tests and
hydrodynamic pressure traces for an automobile tire~

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Thu Mar 3 04:41:01 EST 2011
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Figure--7 Variation in the relation between static and dynamic permeability with pressure-
time increase.

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ACCELEROMETER
Figure--8 S c h e m a t i c of d e v i c e for determining differences in h y d r o d y n a m i c characteristics
of s u r f a c e s 9

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Thu Mar 3 04:41:01 EST 2011
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Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Thu Mar 3 04:41:01 EST 2011
Downloaded/printed by
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.