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Grow Hybrid Varieties of Vegetables

for Nutritional Food

egetables play a significant role in quality food and nutritional security as well as
poverty alleviation. They are embedded with vitamins, proteins, minerals,
carbohydrates and fibers. The population of the country is constantly increasing
day by day. Therefore, the daily requirement of the vegetables will also grow
simultaneously. Hence, there is need for overall development and expansion in vegetable
production. It has now been understood that to achieve higher production levels,
productivity has to be
increased through the
adoption of hybrid
varieties and improved
production technology.
Presently, the
commercial vegetable
growers are quite aware
about the importance of
hybrid varieties as they
are high yielding, for
example, hybrid
tomatoes can yield 75-85 t/ha compared to the best open pollinated varieties (20-35 t/ha).
Similarity cabbage hybrids can yield 55-75 t/ha as against 25-35 t/ha by commercial
cultivars like Golden Acre or Pride of India. Uniform in maturity is of great importance of
hybrids, as they can tolerate the impact of abiotic and biotic stresses and have better quality
produce as compared to standard varieties/cultivars. Different ICAR research institutes have
contributed considerably to develop hybrid varieties. At present, more than 100 hybrid
varieties of 15 vegetables
have been developed in these
public sectors. The private seed
companies have done
commendable work in popularizing
the hybrid varieties in India. In the
present scenario, there is a very
tough competition amongst the
private seed companies
(both national and multinational)
due to liberalization of seed policy. The hybrids developed and released by public sector
have not gained popularity among the farmers either due to weak seed production or due to
poor marketing seed infrastructures at the Government level. In contrast, private sector
establishments are rather prompt and well planned from quality seed production to seed
distribution network. For this reason, hybrid varieties of vegetables developed by private
sectors have made a significant dent in the grower’s fields in India.

Important tips for growing hybrid vegetable crops

1. The seeds of hybrid varieties should be procured every year. Never use the selfed F1
seed as it would segregate and lead to drastic reduction in yield and quality of the
2. Always seek the guidance of scientists of National institutes, KVK’s, and Agricultural
Officers of state agriculture department to select the best hybrids for particular
locations/areas to get higher yields.
3. For certain vegetables viz., tomato,
capsicum, brinjal, chilli, cabbage,
cauliflower, broccoli etc., where seeds
are sown in nurseries, the nursery
beds should be treated with 5%
formalin before seeding as well as
seed treatment with bavistin or thiram
@ 2.5 gram /kg of seed.
4. Hybrid varieties are more responsive to higher doses to nutrients. Therefore, balanced
use of NPK fertilizers and proper methods of their application should be followed.
5. In case of tall hybrid varieties of tomato, proper training and staking is of utmost
6. Due to uniform maturity in hybrids, the incidence of insect-pests and diseases and
growth of weeds is also uniform. So, to minimize the risk of epidemic appearances of
disease and insects, pests and weeds, the recommended plant protection measures
must be followed strictly.
7. Finally, the vegetables must be harvested at
proper maturity stages depending upon
the kind of vegetables. While determining the
time of harvest, colour, shape,
tenderness, taste and flavour may be given due
Thus, using right variety of seed in right quantity
along with the scientific methods of production
technologies, the yields of vegetable crops can be
increased to manifolds, which ultimately can lead to
now-much-awaited nutritional security along with economic and food security in the country.

List of important hybrids of vegetables developed by public and private sector

Vegetables Hybrids of Public sector Hybrids of Private sector*

Tomato Arka Vishal, Arka Vardan, Arka NP-7730, Avtar, Dev (Nunhems),
Abhijit, Pusa hybrid-1, Pusa hybrid- Karnataka, Rupali, Vaishali, Mangla,
2, Pant hybrid-1, Pant hybrid-2, Naveen, Sheetal Avinash-2 (IASH),
NDTH-1, NDTH-2, NDTH-6, KTH-2, MTH-1, MTH-2, MTH-3, MTH-15,
Solan Sagun MTH-16, (Mahyco), Bhim, Krishna,
Arjuna (Sungrow), ARTH-3, ARTH-4
(Ankur seeds), Himsona (Syngenta)
Bell pepper Pusa Deepti, DARL-202, KT-2, Bharath (IAHS), Heera (Mahyco),
Solan hybrid-1, Solan hybrid-2 Anupam (Nunhems), Indira
(Novartis), NS-436 (namdhari)
Chilli CH-1, Hybrid-1 ARCH-136, ARCH-228 (Ankur),
Tejaswini (Mahyco), Agni (Sandoz0,
BSS-139, BSS-141 (Bejo Sheetal)
Brinjal Pusa hybrid-5, Pusa hybrid-6, Pusa Suphal (IASH), MBH-1, MBH-2,
hybrid-9, Arka Navneet, , BH-6, MBH-10, MBH-11, MBH-56
NDBH-1, NDBH-6, BH-2, VRBHR- (Mahyco), Sumex 9, Sumex 19
1, Pant hybrid-2, Punjab hybrid (Sumex), ARCH-228, ARBH 201
Okra DOH-3, DOH-4, DVR-1, DVR-2 Varsha, Vijay (IASH), AROH-8,
AROH-9 (Ankur), Panchali, Adhunik
(Century), Kanchan (Nunhems)
Cucumber Pusa Sanyog, KH-1, PCUC-1 Manvi (Noble), Malini (Seminis), GS-
16 (Golden), Rani, Noori (Nunhems),
Dynasty (Nong Woo Bio)
Bottle Pusa Meghdoot, Pusa Manjari, NS-421, NS-422, Kaveri (Namdhari),
Gourd Pusa hybrid-2, , NDBGH-4, Harit, Gutka (Century), Varad
NDBGH-7 (Mahyco)
Bitter Pusa hybrid-1, Pusa hybrid-2 Chaman, Summer Green (Nunhems),
Gourd NS-431 (Namdhari), MBTH-101
Water Arka Jyoti, Pusa Bedana NS-295, NS-246 (Namdhari), Madhu,
Melon Milan (IASH), MHW-4, MHW-5,
MHW-6, MHW-11, Nath-101 (Nath)
Musk Pusa Rituraj, Punjab hybrid-1, MH- Swarna (IASH), MHC-5, MHC-6
Melon 10 (Mahyco)
Cabbage H-64 BSS-32, BSS-50, BSS-44, BSS-115
(Bejo Sheetal), Varun (Choice),
Quisto (Sandoz), Cabbage No8, Sri
Ganesh Gol (Mahyco), Bahar, Unnati,
Vijay (Nunhems), Nath- 401, Nath-
501 (Nath), Sumit (Sungrow)
Cauliflower Pusa hybrid-2, DCH-541 Himani (IASH), Serrano (Sandoz),
Nath Ujwala, Nath Shweta (Nath), NS
60, NS 84, NS90 (Namdhari), Himlata
(Century), Swati, 71 No. (Pahuja)
Fusiyama (Tokita), NP-2801
(Nunhems), Megha (Seminis)

• IAHS; Indo American Hybrid Seeds

# Dr. K.C. Sharma, Scientist (Vegetables)

CSK HPKV, Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre,
Bajaura-Kullu-175 125 (H.P.)