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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ГРОДНЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИМЕНИ ЯНКИ КУПАЛЫ»
ИНСТИТУТ ПОСЛЕДИПЛОМНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ГРОДНЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИМЕНИ ЯНКИ КУПАЛЫ»

С. В. ФЕТИСОВА

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК:
обсуждаем устные темы

Учебное пособие
для слушателей переподготовки
специальности П 02. 07. 00 П «Английский язык»
и Г. 02. 05. 00 «Современные иностранные языки»

Гродно 2004

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее пособие является частью учебно-методического комплекса по практике
английского языка и предназначено для студентов специальностей П.02.07.00П «Английский
язык» и Г.02.05.00П «Современные иностранные языки».
Цель данного пособия состоит в развитии умений устного иноязычного общения с
акцентом на неподготовленную, инициативную, спонтанную речь.
Часто приходится наблюдать как обучаемые, научившись довольно свободно
оперировать учебным материалом в процессе тренировочных упражнений, оказываются в
затруднительном положении, когда им приходится использовать тот же самый материал в
условиях естественного иноязычного общения, особенно если необходимо высказать свое
собственное суждение и отстоять свою точку зрения, аргументируя ее.
Пособие основано на принципах коммуникативного метода обучения иностранным
языкам. Система речевых упражнений позволит обеспечить достаточно высокий уровень
речемыслительной активности, развитие умений ведения дискуссий и дебатов.
Использование групповых и парных видов работ поможет преподавателю увеличить объем
речевой практики каждого студента, сделать работу более мобильной, интересной,
стимулировать заинтересованное обсуждение.
Учебный материал пособия объединен в 5 тематических циклов:
1.Family. 2.Leisure Time. Hobbies. 3.Shopping. 4.Character and Appearance. Relationships.
5.Food and Meals.
Каждый цикл состоит из двух разделов:
1 - Reading
2 - Follow-up Activities
Раздел 1 содержит тексты, чтение которых вводит обучаемых в атмосферу изучаемой
темы, пробуждает интерес к ее изучению и является стимулом для обсуждения самых
разных проблем.
Основная коммуникативная задача, которая стоит перед студентами, заключается в
извлечении основной информации из текстов, с целью дальнейшего ее использования при
обсуждении проблемных вопросов и оформлении собственного высказывания по
предложенной тематике, а также в развитии умений трансформации и комбинирования
текста, с целью успешного выполнения речевых упражнений из раздела 2.
Раздел 2 построен на основе пошагового выполнения коммуникативных заданий
(Step 1, Step 2 etc), позволяющих обеспечить одинаковую последовательность работы в
рамках тематического цикла. Выполнение упражнений пособия смогут способствовать
созданию мотивации общения на иностранном языке в учебных условиях, а также развитию
способностей обучаемых к эвристичности, незаученности высказывания, и умению
осуществлять стратегию и тактику своего речевого поведения.
Step 1 предполагает обсуждение вопросов в парах с целью активизации знаний по
данной теме.
Step 2 развивает умения соглашаться с мнением собеседника или опровергать его,
строя систему доказательств своей точки зрения.
Step 3, 4 включают смысловые опоры (пословицы, поговорки, цитаты), которые
только подсказывают идею и требуют самостоятельного поиска средств и способов речевого
выражения.
Step 5 совершенствует речевые навыки и развитие способностей целенаправленного,
логического и последовательного изложения материала по ситуации, предлагаемой в тексте.
Step 6 включает коммуникативные ситуации общения, предназначенные для развития
навыков диалогической речи, речевого этикета, а также способности прогнозирования
высказываний речевых партнеров.
Step 7 направлен на совершенствование навыков группового общения и актуализацию
взаимоотношений его участников.
Step 8 предлагает обучаемым спорные утверждения по обсуждаемой теме с целью
развития умений ведения дебатов, логически и критически мыслить, организовывать свои
мысли, излагая аргументы и контраргументы.
Step 9 включает коммуникативные задания, направленные на совершенствование
навыков письменной речи и творческого письма.
В заключительный раздел Supplementary Reading включены тексты, которые могут
быть использованы для подготовки к дискуссиям, дебатам, написанию аргументированных
эссе и других видов письменных заданий.
Материал пособия представлен в таком объеме, который обеспечивает возможность
выбора речевых средств в зависимости от индивидуальных особенностей, способностей и
уровня языковой подготовленности обучаемых.
CONTENTS

Предисловие………………………………………………………………………

Unit 1.
Family……………………………………………………………………………….
Reading.......................................................................................................................
Follow-up Activities....................................................................................................

Unit 2.
Leisure Time. Hobbies……………………………………………………………..
Reading………………………………………………………………………………
Follow-up Activities…………………………………………………………………
.
Unit 3.
Shopping……………………………………………………………………………..
Reading……………………………………………………………………………….
Follow-up Activities…………………………………………………………………..

Unit 4.
Character and Appearance. Relationships………………………………………..
Reading……………………………………………………………………………….
Follow-up Activities…………………………………………………………………..

Unit 5.
Food and Meals..........................................................................................................
Reading……………………………………………………………………………….
Follow-up Activities…………………………………………………………………..

Supplementary Reading…………………………………………………………….

References……………………………………………………………………………
UNIT 1

FAMILY

READING

Read the texts below attentively in order to immerse into the atmosphere of the topic under
discussion and be able to use information and ideas from them in the activities following
afterwards.

Text 1.1.

The Family in the Past and Present

A hundred years ago there was only one acceptable model of a family: the father, the mother
and children. A man was the head of the family and the most important person in the home. He was
the master and the ruler who treated his wife and children as his private property. A woman was
financially dependent on her husband and had little to say. Her only role was to bear and rear
children. The children, in turn, were brought up in discipline and obedience. Still, their situation
was much better than that of those who were born out of wedlock. In the past single unmarried
mothers with illegitimate children were stigmatized and barely tolerated in society.
The situation improved a lot with the Liberation Movement which started at the end of the
th
19 century. Women were given more rights and their role in society was strengthened but at the
same time the traditional family pattern began to change.
Nowadays we can forget the stereotype of the bread-winning father and the child-raising
mother. The term “traditional” or “typical” applies to fewer and fewer families. Although still the
most common type of household is the couple with one or two children, more and more people
decide not to get married claiming that legislation is unnecessary to prove their love. This more
“informal” family pattern is particularly popular in Sweden which in 1997 had the highest
percentage of children born out of wedlock in Europe – fifty four percent. Another common family
structure today is the single mother, either unwed or divorced, who raises one or two children.
There has also been an increase in the number of men who are being granted custody after divorce,
especially in the United Kingdom.
Over the last twenty years the percentage of European children living in single parent
households has nearly tripled, and in 2000 amounted to nearly ten per cent. A recent hot issue was
giving homosexual couples the same legal rights as heterosexuals in the Netherlands. Now lesbian
or gay couples can adopt children and raise them together – something unthinkable even a
generation ago.
To sum up, the structure of the European family is changing drastically. A married couple
with children, once the model, is being replaced by all kinds of different relationships, not
necessarily based on marriage. Although governments hope to encourage the traditional nuclear
family made up of two parents and their children, there isn’t much they can do. They have to adapt
to the new realities by legally recognizing and giving certain rights to nontraditional families
instead of telling people how they should live together.
Text 1.2.

Family Life

The English are a nation of stay-at-home. “There is no place like home,” they say. And
when the man is not working he is at home in the company of his wife and children and busies
himself with the affairs of the home. “The Englishman’s home is his castle,” is a saying known all
over the world. And it is true.
A “typical” British family used to consist of mother, father and two children, but in recent
years there have been many changes in family life. Some of these have been caused by new laws
and others are the result of changes in society. For example, since the law made it easier to get a
divorce, the number of divorces has increased. In fact one marriage in every three now ends in
divorce. This means that there are a lot of one-parent families. Society is now more tolerant than it
used to be of unmarried people, unmarried couples and single parents.
Another change has been caused by the fact that people are living longer nowadays, and
many old people live alone following the death of their partners. As a result of these changes in the
pattern of people’s lives, there are many households which consist of only one person or one person
and children.
You might think that marriage and the family are not so popular as they once were.
However, the majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a
second family.
Members of a family – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – keep in touch, but they see less
of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to
work, and so the family becomes scattered. Although the family group is smaller nowadays than it
used to be, relatives often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together.
In general, each generation is keen to become independent of parents in establishing its own
family unit, and this fact can lead to social as well as geographical differences within the larger
family group.
Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat their children more as equals
than they used to, and children have more freedom to make their own decisions. The father is more
involved with bringing up children, often because the mother goes out to work. Increased leisure
facilities and more money mean that there are greater opportunities outside the home. Although the
family holiday is still an important part of family life (usually taken in August, and often abroad)
many children have holidays away from their parents, often with a school party or other organized
group.
Who looks after the older generation? There are about 10 million old age pensioners in
Britain, of whom about 750,000 cannot live entirely independently. The government gives financial
help in the form of a pension but in the future it will be more and more difficult for the national
economy to support the increasing number of elderly. At the present time, more than half of all old
people are looked after at home. Many others live in Old People’s Homes, which may be private or
state owned.
Text 1.3.

Varieties of Families in the United States

In the United States, there are now families that would not have been called “families” fifty
or one hundred years ago. The largest percentage is still the traditional family with two parents and
children, but this type is not even the majority of families in certain areas. Children can belong to
two families, for example, if their parents are divorced. They may live with one parent for half the
week and the other parent during the second half of the week. A family may be a “blended” one in
which both parents have been divorced, each with their own children. They remarry and bring both
sets of children into the marriage. Two women or two men with or without children can also
constitute a family. Couples who have decided not to have children or unmarried couples who have
chosen to live together may likewise see themselves as a “family”. A single parent (e.g., divorced or
widowed) having complete responsibility for the care of the children would not want to be
considered to have “less” of a family than someone in a family with two parents.
The regional, ethnic, and religious heterogeneity in the United States means that people will
react differently to families that are nontraditional. Individuals also vary in their reactions to
diversity in family type. (In other words, people within a region or an ethnic group will disagree on
what constitutes a family.) In general, on the West and East coasts, there is more tolerance for
diversity in family structures than there is in the South or the Midwest. Also, in areas where people
tend to be more religious, there seems to be less acceptance of the nontraditional family.
The various family types found in the United States may not have much in common, but
they do demonstrate that the family as an institution is not dying. It is instead one that is changing
and is being accommodated by a society that does not enforce “sameness” in family life style. The
changes in the traditional family structure are seen by some as a breakdown or disintegration of
values and a decline in morality. Others, however, believe that these shifts in family shape are
inevitable in a rapidly changing society.

Text 1.4.

Single-Parent Families

Changes in the American family structure are evidenced by high rates of separation and
divorce. It is estimated that almost 50 percent of all marriages end in divorce. These trends have
resulted in a high number of single-parent families headed mostly by women many of these women
do not receive alimony or child support payments, and are more likely to be poor than married
women. Single mothers (and fathers) often feel “stretched to their limits” with the unending
responsibilities that face them. They carry the burden of supporting a family and being totally
responsible for their children. They have very few opportunities for rest and relaxation, unless they
have supportive extended family members who will help them.
Despite the high numbers of single parents in the United States, there is no indication that
marriage is becoming less popular. The remarriage rate remains high, with approximately four out
of five divorced couples eventually remarrying other people. When single parents marry each other,
they create “stepfamilies” or “blended families.”
Text 1.5.

Alternative Families

There’s really no such thing as a “typical” family these days. Sure, a “traditional” family is
defined by Mom, Dad, siblings and pets all living and coping together under one roof. But there’s
room for all sorts of families on this planet, and just because they may not be conventional doesn’t
mean they’re not cool.
Families today are of all shapes and sizes. Besides the traditional tribe, there are real-life
Brady Bunches (divorced or widowed moms and dads who remarry others and start stepfamilies),
joint-custody arrangements and single-parent homes. There are gay unions with children from
previous (straight) relationships, parents who adopt children, kids being raised by grandparents or
older siblings and all sorts of combinations of the above.
“Over the last 15 years, the kinds of families we have in this country have changed
dramatically,” says David S. Liederman, executive director of the Child Welfare League of
America. “What has evolved is a wonderful concept of the blended family. What matters is whether
the adults and the children feel supported and loved, and that the kids get good values and role
models.”
The average American teen today lives in one of three types of households: with the
biological father and mother; with mom, a stepdad and his kids; or just with the biological mother.
According to the Children’s Defense Fund’s 1996 data, of children under age18: - 71.6 percent
live with two parents
- 24.2 percent live only with a mother
- 3.4 percent live only with a father
- 0.6 percent are foster children
While these statistics show that the two-parent home is still in the majority, data from the
Stepfamily Association of America indicate that 35 percent of all children born in the 1980s will
experience life in a single-parent family for a total of about five years before their eighteenth
birthday.
Growing up – whether your family is traditional or alternative – is rarely easy. If you’re
having problems coping within your family structure, remember to take stock in yourself. “Do well
in school, have something spiritual in your life, participate in activities you enjoy and have a
support group of friends you can really talk to,” says Child Welfare’s Liederman.
Also, don’t be afraid to reach out to others. Discussing family problems with a caring yet
objective adult you trust (school counselors are pretty hip, and a good place to start) can really help.
If your family is currently in a state of flux, bear in mind that change is often good – even if you
don’t understand why it’s happening or you wish things would just “be normal.” And it’s important
to remember that love and happiness can grow in any home.

Text 1.6.

Parents and Children

“When children find true love, parents find true joy.”

Parenting is the process of caring for one’s child or children. This process, however, is very
complex and difficult. Some people even call it “the most intense training programme ever”. Since
many parents have to raise their children without much guidance, knowledge or experience, they
are likely to make mistakes. When bringing up a child, they adopt a certain “parenting style” and
tend to act as martyrs, friends, autocrats, coaches or teachers. All these parenting styles, however,
have some disadvantages.
Martyr parents believe that they should do everything they can for the sake of their children.
They always do what their children want, buy them almost anything they like or ask for, and do not
impose any duties on them. At the same time, martyr parents refuse to satisfy their own needs or
pleasures, and always put their children first. However, when something goes wrong or when they
find it impossible to carry out certain goals they set, they feel guilty and frustrated. They do not
particularly enjoy the role of parenting and treat it as their obligation the children brought up by
martyr parents have the impression that they are the hub of the universe and are usually spoiled
brats, egoists or show-offs.
There are some parents who feel that they should be their children’s friends or pals to build a
close relationship with them. They tend to treat their children as their equals, give them a lot of
freedom, let them do anything they want and do not control them. They do not impose any rules,
limits, orders or bans either. Unfortunately, it often happens that children abuse their “pal” parents
trust and become juvenile delinquents or drug addicts.
The opposite of the laissez-fair policy is the autocratic model. The parents are despotic
rulers who have complete power in the family. They expect to be obeyed by their children and do
not care about their opinions or feelings. They bring them up in strict discipline and make sure that
the children act according to the rules and limits they set. If the children are not obedient and do not
carry out their parents’ orders, they are punished, even for minor offences. However, the autocratic
parenting does not produce any positive results. Instead, it causes conflicts, widens the generation
gap, weakens the emotional bonds between parents and children, and makes it impossible to
develop a relationship of trust and affection. Children usually resist their parents’ tyranny, rebel
against them and eventually confront them. They also run away from home, use drugs or show a
tendency to commit crimes.
The coach style of parenting is slightly similar to the dictatorial one. The coach parents treat
their children as players who should do their best to succeed. They establish certain rules for the
household and enforce appropriate penalties when these rules are broken. Children must be
disciplined and pull their weight to improve their skills and develop their talents. Moreover, coach
parents aim at making their children physically strong and able to deal successfully with difficult
conditions or situations. The problem is, however, that at the same time they teach their children not
to show feelings. Hence, very often “tough kids” have emotional problems or even use violence
against other people.
It seems that the most effective is the teacher-guide style of parenting. The best parents are
the ones who encourage their children to develop both physically and intellectually, offer them
advice and help, motivate them to work, teach them respect for others, praise them for doing the
right things but also rebuke them for doing the wrong ones, and try to be experts in everything.
Still, they are often disappointed if the children do not come up to their expectations and fail to
become improved versions of their parents. The children, on the other hand, are often unwilling to
consider their parents as the oracle and reject their authority.
After having looked at some parenting styles, it seems that there are no ideal parents.
Nevertheless, parents should do the best they can because the fewer mistakes they make, the more
chances their children have to be successful, wise and happy.

Text 1.7.

The Qualities We Prize in Our Children

A recent international study has shown some surprising and apparently contradictory results
on the question of the priorities parents around the world have when raising their children. While
the survey showed that some virtues are universally prized, interesting regional and national trends
emerge when parents are asked to rate the importance of various qualities they wish to instill in
their children.
Parents around the world seem to agree that good manners, a sense of responsibility and
respect for others are important qualities to teach their children. But while West Europeans give all
three qualities more or less equal importance, East Europeans and North Americans rate a sense of
responsibility as by far the most important, and relegate respect for others to fourth place.
Interestingly, a sense of imagination ranked the lowest priority worldwide, although West
Europeans gave the quality of flexible thinking twice the importance any other group did. The
Italians stress the virtue of cultivating their youngsters’ imagination more than most others
surveyed, with the exception of Switzerland. The supposedly staid Swiss prize imaginative youth.
Etiquette-minded Belgians, Spaniards and Greeks placed the highest premium on politeness,
while the Danes and Swedes put good manners lowest on the list. The newly-capitalist Eastern bloc
countries also rated good manners as relatively unimportant, perhaps they are being confronted with
commercial competition for the first time. Together with the Swiss and the Turks, on the other
hand, they prized the ability to communicate with others.
The virtues of tolerance and respect for others were most highly regarded in Scandinavia,
France, Britain, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Spain. This was not the case in Greece and the
former Eastern bloc nations, which rated these of being of lesser importance.
Germans, Austrians and Swedes esteem personal independence, but the industrious French
hold the quality of conscientiousness at work more dear than any other European nationals. The
responses in the industrialized nations of Sweden and Britain showed, perhaps bewilderingly, that
nations of those countries gave little importance to conscientiousness at work.
Polite Belgians answered that for them, obedience is among their paramount values; this
sentiment is shared to a lesser degree by the British, Greeks and Irish. The Italians, according to
their questionnaires, ranked this very low.
When rearing their children, the Greeks, Turks and Irish are alone in their emphasis on
instilling strong religious beliefs.
One of the primary difficulties the researches faced was translating the questions as perfectly
as possible in order not to distort the result. “Imagination”, for example, can be translated into
Dutch as “conceitedness”; perhaps this explains why the Dutch appeared to give imagination a low
priority.
Also, some qualities are so ingrained in certain cultures that they are taken for granted, while
others are given great emphasis because they are felt to be lacking in a particular society.

Text 1.8.

Adoption

The term “adoption” means taking somebody else’s child and becoming its legal parents.
The adopted child is raised in a family which is not the one he or she was born. For many childless
couples adoption is the only way to become a mother or a father, and for abandoned or orphaned
child it is a great chance to have a normal life.
However, obtaining adoption rights is not always easy. Prospective foster parents must meet
certain requirements, which is often a lengthy procedure. Firstly, they have to prove that they are
able to provide a child with a high standard of living and security. Secondly, they have to be in
good health and cannot have a criminal record. Thirdly, they must not be too young or too old
because age is a very important factor. Still, the decision whether the child can be adopted by a
particular couple or not lies with the court.
Although many people are interested in becoming foster parents, “the waiting list” of
children is very long. The most sought-after ones are those under three and without any congenital
defects or health problems. Others, especially the handicapped or retarded children, have poorer
chances of finding a loving family.
In the West and in the United States a popular form of adopting a child is over the Internet.
With a click of a mouse people can choose from white, black or yellow children. Adoption on-line
has both its proponents and opponents. When the first list including the pictures of the children
awaiting their new parents was placed on the Net in 1994, most people were delighted with the new
possibilities. Newspapers were full of stories with happy endings, for example about a woman from
Sweden who became the loving mother of a Korean boy or the American family which took care of
a little girl from China. In two years more than twenty children from all over the world were
adopted.
However, today virtual adoption is perceived in a negative way. Many critics say that
potential parents are choosy and treat the children as a commodity which can be bought or sold. The
price of a child is higher if it is white and healthy but it goes down if it is black and ailing.
Moreover, many adoption agencies are only interested in making money and do not even carry out
any thorough tests for the suitability of the potential parents, which may pose a threat to the child’s
health or life. Meanwhile, the business is flourishing although everyone claims that children are not
for sale.

Text 1.9.

The Elderly

Societal and familial treatment of the elderly also reflects the values of independence and
individualism. Their financial support is often provided by government-sponsored social security
of welfare systems that decrease their dependence on the family. Additionally, older people often
seek their own friends rather than becoming too emotionally depended on their children. Senior
citizen centres provide a means for peer-group association within their age group. There are
problems, however, with growing old in the USA. Indifference to the age and glorification of
youth have left some old people alienated and alone. It is estimated that 15% of men aged 65 to
74 and 35% of women in the same age group live alone.
It is a common practice for families to place their older relatives in nursing homes because
of physical disabilities or illness rather then caring for them in their homes. There is, however, less
common for those cultural groups within the USA whose values include fulfilling obligations
to the extended family. Yet, some “non-ethnic” families (i.e., those who typically emphasize
obligations to the nuclear family rather than to the extended family) are realizing that the care in
many nursing homes is inadequate, and thus they are looking for better alternatives to nursing
homes. Some middle-age children provide care for older relatives in their own homes, while others
attempt to find nursing care for them in their parents’ own homes. The ideal situation is when
parents can stay in their own homes even if they cannot care for themselves. Many older people do
not want to have to rely on their grown children. The same spirit of independence that guides child
raising and young adulthood affects older people. If given a choice (financial status is large
consideration), many older people would choose to live in retirement communities where they have
the companionship of peers and many recreational and health services. The disadvantage of this
type of living arrangement is that it results in a separation of the generations. Some people see this
as psychologically unhealthy; others prefer the separation.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Step 1. Discuss the questions below in pairs.

1. What is a family in your understanding?


2. What are the main functions of the family? Which of them are the most important? Why?
3. What is a “traditional” family? Why was it the most acceptable model of a family in the past?
4. What other common structures of the family exist today? How do they differ from each other?
5. What “parenting styles” can you name? Which of them do you personally approve of? Why?
6. Why do the older and younger generations have problems understanding each other?
7. Why do so many couples get divorced nowadays?
8. What kinds of conflicts occur in the family when several generations live under the same roof?
9. What obligations should children have towards their elderly parents? What is the common
practice of treating the elderly in this country?
10. Why is the family size decreasing in the European countries including Belarus? How many
children is it better for a family to have in your opinion?
11. Why do so many couples cohabit without being married these days? Is it a fashion of the day?
12. What were the traditional roles of a husband and wife in the past? How have their
responsibilities changed since then? What influenced this change?
13. What are the main family problems that affect the relationship among members of the family?
14. What does it depend on that some families can easily solve their problems and others just can’t?
15. What makes a perfect husband or wife?
16. Why does verbal and physical abuse have a deleterious effect on children?
17. What do you think of arranged marriages? What are the advantages and disadvantages of them?
18. What are the positive and negative sides of marriage bureaus?
19. Is it possible to be a successful career woman and a mother at the same time? Why? Why not?
20. What makes a happy family?

Step 2. Approve or disapprove of the following ideas reasoning your own opinion.

1. Family life is the most important thing in life.


2. Marriages are getting younger these days.
3. The only responsibility of a man is that of a “breadwinner”.
4. Young couples should live with their parents and grandparents in order to gain family life
experience.
5. Marriage is less respected today than it was yesterday.
6. Children should take part in making important decisions in the family.
7. Fathers usually have more powerful effect on children.
8. Parents should spoil their children.
9. Most marriages end in divorce if both spouses are perfect.
10. It is important for both mates to get on with in-laws.
11. The main reason for divorce has always been adultery.
12. It is impossible to bring up a child without beating.
13. Elderly parents shouldn’t depend on their children.
14. Adopted children have little chance of being happy.
15. The duties in the family should be distributed only between both parents.
16. Marriage of convenience will never lead to divorce.

Step 3. Comment on the quotations below. Be as specific as you can.

1. “Men make houses, women make homes”. O. Wilde


2. “Many men can make a fortune, but very few can build a family”. J.C. Bryan
3. “Marriage is like life in it – it is a field of battle and not a bed of roses”. R.L. Stevenson
4. “It is a woman’s business to get married as soon as possible and a man’s to keep unmarried as
long as he can”. G.B. Shaw
5. “There is no such thing as a good wife or a good husband – there is only a good wife to Mr. A
or a good husband to Mrs. B”. G. Mikis
6. “The happiest unions are those mixed marriages in which one of the mates is perfect and the
other is not”. A. Buchwald
7. “Parents can rely on their feelings in rearing their children, rather than having to adhere to a set
of rigid rules”. Dr. B. Spock
8. “Most parents want their children to succeed and lead full, happy lives. It is in trying to help
them achieve this goal that, ironically, harm is sometimes done”. Dr. J. Brothers
9. “Families give us a sense of belonging and a sense of tradition. Families give us strength and
purpose. Our families show us who we are”. M. Christopher
10. “If you can take in another person’s point of view, even if you don’t like it, and say ‘I’ll think
about what you said’, rather than dismiss it, you will have a more resilient family”. T. Peck
11. “It is important to remember that love and happiness can grow in any home”. D. Martin-Morris

Step 4. Make up stories using the following proverbs and sayings. The contents of the story
should reveal the gist of the proverb/saying.

1. Little children – little sorrow, big children – big sorrow.


2. A good husband makes a good wife.
3. Marriages are made in heaven.
4. Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterwards.
5. First thrive and then wive.
6. To understand your parents’ love, bear your own children.
7. If you look for a faultless woman, you will remain a bachelor.
8. Marry with your match.
9. Every man is the architect of his own happiness.
10. Every family has a skeleton in the cupboard.

Step 5. Read the beginning of the text about sibling rivalry and develop the idea touched upon
in it.

When I was a small child, my sister and I used to torture my mother with all sorts of typical
kids’ questions:” If the house was on fire, Mummy, which one of us would you rescue first?” “If
you had to go away and could take only one of us, which one would it be?” and so on.
“Why do you ask me these things?” my mother would respond irritably. “You know that your
father and I love you both the same. Will you stop this nonsense?”
But we didn’t…

Step 6. Make up and act out conversations that would be appropriate in the situations below.
Work in groups of 2 or 3.

1. You are a childless couple. You want to adopt a child badly, but your husband disapproves of
this idea being afraid of the possible negative consequences of it. You are trying to convince
him that adoption is the only way to become a mother and a father and have a chance to have a
normal family life.
2. You are married and live in your spouse’s house. Your mother-in-law turns out to be a bossy
woman. She thinks she has the right to decide about everything in her own house. You are not
willing to obey and make up your mind to have a talk with her in order to solve the problem.
3. You are a single mother. You have a teenage daughter and son. You find it really difficult to
understand your children and this leads to endless rows in the family. You’ve come to a
psychologist in order to find a qualified help.
4. You consider yourself to be successfully married. Your husband makes good money and wants
you to stay at home to run the household and look after the children. But you want to combine a
job and a family. Discuss this problem with your spouse.

Step 7. Arrange a group discussion on the problems suggested below.

1. Express your opinion on the following Leo Tolstoy’s quotation “All happy families resemble
one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way”.
2. Old people should be encouraged to stay in Old People’s Homes rather than live with the
family. What is your point of view?
3. A single- parent family. Is it a family at all? Give your reasons.
4. Adoption of children has become a flourishing business. Foster parents pay enormous sums of
money to adopt a child. Are adoption agencies interested in making money or making children
happy?
5. Violence in the family is a serious problem nowadays. Victims of brutality at home are usually
children or women. What measures should be taken to protect them?
6. Upbringing of children is a very long and complicated process. What is the most effective way
of rearing children: strict or permissive? Give your reasons.
7. About half of all marriages in Belarus end in divorce. What are the main reasons for it? Is it
possible to save family before it splits up? Do you know any tips?
8. Parents all over the world value and give priorities to different qualities in their children. What
are the reasons for this phenomenon? What qualities would Belarusians like to see in their
children?

Step 8. Debate on the controversial statements. Work in two groups. One group should agree
with the statements below and the other should disagree. Put forward the appropriate
arguments and convince the members of the other group.

1. Divorce is better than unsuccessful marriage.


2. Marriage should be sustained for the sake of children.
3. The spouses whose educational background is different will never be happy together.
4. Parents should let their teenage children have their own way.

Step 9. Fulfill the following written assignments.

1. Write a thank you letter to the psychologist who helped you to solve the problem with your
teenage daughter.
2. Write an argumentative essay on the topic “Parents shouldn’t be permissive”.
3. Write a magazine article entitled “Love begins at home”.
4. Write a letter to your pen-pal telling about the relationship with your parents and siblings.
5. Write about your experience of bringing up your child pointing out the advantages and
disadvantages of the parenting style that you adhere.
UNIT 2

LEISURE TIME. HOBBIES.

READING

Read the texts below attentively in order to immerse into the atmosphere of the topic under
discussion and be able to use information and ideas from them in the activities following
afterwards.

Text 2.1.

Historical Background of Hobby

In the 16th century a favourite toy for children of all ages was the hobbyhorse. In
appearance a hobbyhorse could be as simple as a stick, or it could have a decorated wooden
framework with an imitation horse's head attached. Whether simple or elaborate, children used
them for the games of the time involving war and knighthood, much as children in the early part of
the 20th century played cowboys and Indians. In time the popularity of the hobbyhorse declined, but
the pleasure of doing something outside the routine activities of daily life had brought a new word
into the language, the word hobby, which is shortened form of hobbyhorse.
Hobbies today include a vast range of activities. The definition that best covers all these
activities is probably constructive leisure-time activities. This definition excludes games and
sports, and it leaves out purely spectator activities, like watching television. It also excludes
schooling and work done to make a living. A hobby, like playing with a hobbyhorse, is an activity
apart from the ordinary routines of life. It should encourage the use of creativity and imagination
and bring the reward of learning. Some hobbies bring monetary rewards as well.
Before the 20th century, hobbies were something that only wealthy people had the time and
money to enjoy. The present-day interest in hobbies throughout the world is the product of more free
time for far more people, resulting from shortened working hours and greater prosperity.
Some popular hobbies are as old as civilization. These include such activities as music,
dance, literature, painting, sculpture, carving and whittling, weaving, raising pets, astrology,
and the making of pottery, baskets, beadwork, kites, toys, leather goods, dolls, hunting decoys,
fishing lures, jewelry, and miniatures or models.
Rulers in ancient times often collected valuable objects, rare manuscripts, and art treasures.
The monasteries of the Middle Ages maintained libraries to store the valuable documents and art
works that they collected and produced. Later, individuals who were well educated and had a broad
range of interests made field trips and travelled to other countries, bringing back fossils, plants,
artifacts, and other objects. Such people also built up extensive personal libraries and collections.
During the second half of the 19th century the Arts and Crafts Movement in England appeared
as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and prompted a great popular interest in handicrafts
through its magazine, appropriately named The Hobby Horse. There were public exhibitions of
handicrafts in England between 1888 and 1896, followed by similar expositions in Boston and
Chicago in 1897.
Hobbies are either consciously chosen, or they arise from an individual’s interests, skills,
daily work, tastes, ambitions, or past schooling. Stamp or coin collecting are example of hobbies
based on deliberate choice. Making model airplanes can be something to do for a pastime, or it might
develop as a result of service in an air force or as an airline pilot. Designing computer programs is apt
to be a hobby based on work experience or schooling. All hobbies involve activity, but some involve
more than others. Collecting – whether of antiques, coins, or first editions of books – is relatively
passive compared to doing one’s own paintings or making furniture.
There have traditionally been four types of hobbies – those relating to history, nature,
handicrafts, and the arts. Recently, with advances in electronics, many individuals have made
computer use a hobby, while other use videocassette cameras to make their own movies. There can be
considerable overlap between some types, especially between hobbies relating to the arts and those
that have to do with the past. Scrimshaw, for instance, is an art, but it is also a kind of memorabilia
relating to 19th century sailing. Many hobbies require both collecting and creating.

Text 2.2.

Tastes Differ

Our everyday life is rather tough and busy. It is full of work, troubles, unexpected
situations, problems. People get really tired and stressed that they need time for relaxation and
recreation. That's why they look forward to their weekends and holidays and plan their leisure. We
should balance our work and pastime in order to gain strength, refreshment, energy and high spirits. I
think our hobbies can help us. A hobby is something you enjoy doing in your spare time, actually,
it’s your favourite pastime. For some people hobby is travelling, changing something, for others hobby
is sitting and doing nothing. Well, tastes differ... Much depends on what this or that person does
in his or her everyday life, on his or her mode of life, education and even fashion. But if you have
chosen a hobby to your liking, lucky you are: you have made your life more interesting and exciting.
Hobbies broaden our outlook and enrich our mind; they develop our personal gifts and talents,
increase our knowledge and help to socialize with people.
Numerous hobbies can be subdivided into four large classes: doing things, making things,
collecting things and learning things. The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things. It
includes a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to travelling and from playing sports
to mountaineering. Gardening is one of the oldest man's hobbies whereas playing computer
games and gambling are relatively new.
Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing costumes and
handicrafts like knitting, sewing, embroidery, pottery, carving.
Almost everyone collects something at some period of his life: stamps, coins,
matchboxes, books, records, postcards, CDs. Many people collect antiques and paintings and their
private collections become so large and valuable that they are housed in museums and galleries, so
that others might take pleasure in seeing them.
No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the opportunity of learning from
it. By reading about the things he is interested in, he is adding to what he knows. Learning things can
be the most exciting aspect of a hobby.
Sometimes people's hobbies turn into a life passion, become an all-absorbing interest of the
whole life which brings satisfaction and pleasure.

Text 2.3.

Hobby

Almost any kind of leisure activity can become a hobby. Hobby is an activity pursued in
spare time for pleasure or relaxation. Hobby can be any type of activity that people do during their
leisure time. Most people take up a hobby for relaxation, pleasure, or friendships, or to develop new
interests. A hobby can also lead to additional income.
Hobbies occupy much of the leisure time of many people. Large numbers of people enjoy
raising flower or vegetable gardens or indoor plants. Other popular hobbies include stamp
collecting, coin collecting, and photography.
People of almost any age can enjoy hobbies. A hobby offers a way to relax after periods of
hard work. Hobbies offer broadened areas of interest and ways to pass the time pleasantly. Hobbies
can be important in helping patients recover from physical or mental illness because they provide
distractions from the patients’ problems. For people who are ill or bedridden, hobbies offer
fascinating ways to pass the time. Hobbies can be an important form of occupational therapy.
In the past, hobbies were largely limited to the wealthy. The average person was too busy
earning a living to find time to pursue a hobby. People today generally have more leisure time
because of higher incomes and improvements in working conditions. In addition, most people also
live longer and retire from their jobs at an earlier age. To fill their free time, they often develop
interests in hobbies.
Most hobbies fall into one of four general categories, which may overlap. They are: the arts,
collecting, handicrafts, and games and sports.
The Arts provide outlets for hobbyists with a special interest in such art forms as dancing,
drama, painting, graphic arts, and music. Each art form has many separate possibilities for a hobby.
For example, music may include singing or playing an instrument. Painting offers the hobbyist a
wide choice of materials, such as oil paints or water colours.
Collecting is probably the most widespread kind of hobby, because almost anything can be
collected. Stamps and coins are probably the most popular collected items. Hobbyists also collect
such things as autographs, comic books, costumes, and baseball cards.
Handicrafts attract hobbyists who can work skillfully with their hands. Many hobbyists
engage in needlework activities, notably crocheting, needlepoint, knitting, and sewing. Hobbyists
use kits to make model airplanes, boats, and trains. Using woodworking tools, they can create
carvings, furniture, and bowls. Other handicrafts include ceramics, metalworking, jewelry making,
weaving, batik, and leatherworking.
Games and sports are popular with many hobbyists who enjoy competition, physical
activity, and healthful exercise. Thousands of hobbyists take part in sports, such as bowling,
fishing, mountain climbing, skiing, and tennis. These sports give hobbyists the opportunity to
display their individual skills and sportsmanship. Popular indoor games include bridge and other
card games, backgammon, chess, and Monopoly.
Electronics-related hobbies are becoming increasingly popular. Many hobbyists enjoy flying
model airplanes by remote control or assembling and operating ham radios. Both young people and
adults take up computers as a hobby, frequently assembling computers from kits. Some people raise
pets as a hobby. For many people gardening and photography are rewarding hobbies.
People sometimes choose a hobby without realizing they are doing so. A casual interest
grows into a fascination as the person learns more about the subject and devotes an increasing
amount of time to it. After deciding on a hobby, individuals may gather as much information as
they can from reference sources, especially books and magazines. They can also gain information
by taking courses in school, attending hobby conventions, and joining hobby clubs. Hobbies often
can study exhibits relating to their hobby in museums and galleries. Clubs and other organizations
sponsor tours that allow hobbyists to visit places where they can pursue their hobby and meet
people with similar interests.
In most cases, beginning hobbyists should start with a few basic items. As they become
more experienced and enthusiastic, they may buy more elaborate materials. Hobby dealers provide
information about equipment, supplies, and techniques.

Text 2.4.

Collectors

What is a collector? After all, people collect a wide variety of things, from the obvious ones
like stamps, coins or autographs, to the less common ones, such as beer bottle labels, bus tickets or
gramophone-needle tins. The economies of several small countries rely heavily on the sale of
colourful stamps. Some collectors spend hours looking through junk shops and build up a collection
for a few pence per item, while collectors of antiques, fine china or paintings might spend
thousands of pounds on a new acquisition. Some people collect as an investment, but most do it for
fun. Collecting is basically illogical. If you simply want to listen to Elvis Presley’s first record, you
can get a copy at most record shops. A collector, however, will want to own an original 1955 disc,
complete with its original sleeve and label, and will be willing to pay for it.
What makes an item valuable? Rarity and condition are the most important factors. A coin
or stamp which is worth hundreds in mint condition might be worth only pence in average or poor
condition.
What should you collect? Most collectors begin acquiring things which interest them, and as
the collection grows, knowledge of the subject grows. If you want your collection to grow in value,
it is probably best to avoid things which are sold especially for collectors. Nearly everybody who
buys a set of new coins or stamps will preserve them in perfect condition, so that a mint set will
never become rare. The most valuable items are often things which were widely available, but
which usually thrown away after use, such as Coca-Cola bottles or toy cars. An interesting
collection can be started very cheaply.
One collector has started a collection of 1950s and 1960s ball-point pens (‘biros’). At the
moment it’s worth nothing, but she predicts it will one day be valuable. Ball-points were widely
available, and were made in a large range of colours and styles. They were often designed to be
thrown away when they were empty. Many people are reluctant to throw away used pens, and put
them in a drawer or box, perhaps hoping they might work again one day. So it is possible to find
unusual examples, made thirty years ago or more, for nothing.

Text 2.5.

Hobbies in Britain

In Britain, one of the most popular hobbies is do-it-yourself (DI Y). People choose to maintain
and improve their homes by doing their own building work, carpentry, painting, electrical work and
plumbing. Almost every town has a large DIY store where all the necessary materials can be bought.
Gardening is also very popular and one reason why the British prefer houses to flats is that they
like to have a garden. Some people grow their own vegetables, others take pride in their lawn or
specialize in growing a particular type of plant, for example roses or alpine flowers. Most towns
have at least one garden centre, at which everything needed for the garden can be bought.
Collecting is a hobby that can become an obsession. People collect all kinds of objects, from
beer-mats and matchbox labels to antiques and old cars. There are collectors of stamps, coins,
medals, first editions of books, records, prints, picture postcards, etc. Some people specialize in
objects from a particular period or region, for example Victorian dolls or Chinese stamps. Train-
spotters visit stations and collect the numbers of the locomotives they see, and autograph hunters
collect the signatures of famous people.
Creative hobbies include photography, painting, brass rubbing and model making. People
who want to write can join a local writers' group to discuss their work with other enthusiasts.
People with musical talent can join a local choir, choral society or orchestra. Many communities,
even quite small ones, have their own amateur dramatic societies, which perform plays locally.
Similar groups, organized nationally, include the Sealed Knot Society, whose members dress up
and re-enact battles of the English Civil War.

Text 2.6.

Fitness or Fun?

We British as a nation do all kinds of things in our spare time: we go shopping or jogging,
we play darts or football, we collect records or stamps, we go to church or to the pub. The average
working person has 40 hours of free time a week, sleeps for 49 hours, spends 45 hours at work or
tavelling to and from work. The remaining hours are spent on ‘essential activities’ (food shopping,
housework, child care, cooking, etc.). Of course, some of our free time activities, like visiting
relatives or taking driving lessons, may not be fun, but whatever we do, the way we spend our free
time is probably providing other people with work. Leisure is our fastest growing industry.
According to the latest figures, during the past year, the most popular activity of all was
walking: 35 million British people regularly walked two miles or more. More energetically, ten
million people went to keep fit classes or took part in aerobics or yoga and half as many did some
kind of weight training in a gym. Not only did nine million people go cycling but four million went
jogging and the same number played football and played golf. Other popular sports were bowling
(six million), badminton (five million) and squash (three million). Less actively, twelve million
people played snooker or pool, seven million played darts and three million went fishing.
Watching other people playing is also a popular leisure activity: the favourite sports among
TV viewers are football, horse-racing, snooker, cricket and tennis. But although millions watch the
matches on TV, not so many regularly go to watch football matches. ‘New’ television sports like
American football, basketball or even darts are attracting loyal armchair experts.
The fitness boom of the eighties led to a big rise in the numbers of people participating in
sports. To cater for this boom and provide the up-to-date facilities people want, over 1,500 private
health and fitness clubs and the same number of public leisure centres have been built during the
past twenty years. These modern centres, with their swimming pools (22 million people went
swimming last year), squash courts, gyms and indoor courts for tennis and other sports, are
competing with clubs, pubs and cinemas as places for people to go to spend their leisure time – and
their money. Now practically every town has a leisure pool, often with a wave machine, water
slides and tropical plants. Families can even spend their holidays at huge indoor water parks, where
they can play or relax all day long in warmth and comfort without worrying about the weather
outside. But this may not be helping us to get fitter: we may be becoming a nation of splashers, but
not a nation of swimmers. The big question fitness experts are asking is: should sport be taken
seriously or should it just be fun?

Text 2.7.

The Use of Leisure

By the way in which a man uses his leisure his character can be told – more surely, in all
probability, than by the way he does his work. For most men, work is necessity in order to gain a
living. Vast numbers of men have not even been able to choose what work they would do, but have
been forced by economic necessity to take the first job that came their way. But in their leisure
time, they do what they really want to do and their real selves are reflected in their actions.
Some people are completely passive during leisure hours. If such people go out they go to
some places of entertainment where no effort is required by them, a cinema or a dance-hall, and if
the latter, they do not dance but simply sit and watch others dancing.
A different type of person hurries home from work full of eagerness to begin on some
scheme which he has been planning for his leisure time. Perhaps his hobby is carpentry or model
engineering or gardening; or he might wish to write, or to study some subject in which he is
interested. This is a creative type of character. For him, his leisure hours are full of promise and he
can look back on them with satisfaction when he reviews what he has achieved in them.
Leisure should be refreshment; it should send a man out with fresh spirits to battle with the
problems of life. Sometimes this freshness comes not from doing anything, but by filling one’s
mind with fresh springs of beauty. Many a man gets full value from his leisure by contemplating
nature, listening to music, or reading noble books. By this sort of occupation he may not have made
anything that he can show, but he has none the less recreated his own source of inspiration and
made his own mind a richer and fuller treasure house. This is the true use of leisure.
Text 2.8.

Americans and Leisure

Americans spend their leisure time in many different ways. Although in general they lead a
rather hectic life, they find it important to relax and to have some fun.
At least once a week they go out to dinner after work. In America there is no tradition of
cafes which are so popular in many European countries. Instead of sitting over a cup of coffee and a
piece of cake, Americans prefer going to a restaurant for pizza, hamburger or some Italian or
Chinese specialty.
At home they like watching television, playing games with children, making, improving
and mending things in the house, or fumbling with the car. Many of them also find some time for
fitness activities, such as jogging or cycling.
Americans are very sociable people. They often get together and give parties for kids and
grown ups on various occasions. It is also quite common that they invite their friends or relatives
for a barbecue and a few drinks.
On Saturday afternoon they go to drive-in movies which are especially popular with families
with little children (no need to get a babysitter!).
Another popular pastime in the US is going to sporting events together with some friends
and having parties afterwards.
Camping and family picnics are a great way of spending a weekend break. Americans are
very mobile and sociable. They like travelling, visiting new places and meeting new people. On
Saturday they head towards the recreation areas – campsites located in picturesque places, state or
county parks, or public beaches. Unfortunately, they cannot rest wherever they like because
practically there is no informal countryside in the US. In some places money is charged for each car
coming while to others access is forbidden because they are usually someone’s property.
During the summer vacation Americans also travel a lot. Many go to visit the old home or
relatives while others visit beautiful or historic places. The most popular tourist destinations are the
cities of New York and San Francisco; Yosemite, Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks; the
Grand Canyon; Niagara Falls; the White House in Washington, D.C.; and Mount Rushmore with
four famous presidential heads hewn in rock. If Americans want to relax and enjoy the sunshine,
they go to sunny Florida or Hawaii.
Many Americans visit foreign countries as well. They usually travel to Europe, South
America, West India and the Caribbean. Also Asian and African countries attract more and more
tourists every year. Americans are indeed a nation on the move.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Step 1. Discuss the questions below in pairs.

1. Why do people need leisure?


2. How do people usually spend their leisure hours?
3. What is it possible to learn about people’s character by the way they use their leisure?
4. What is the difference in the ways of spending leisure time by active and passive people?
5. What is the positive effect of a well-spent leisure?
6. What are the most popular ways of spending spare time among the youth and the elderly these
days?
7. What is hobby? What does the choice of hobby depend on?
8. What is the historical background of hobby?
9. What is the origin of the word ‘hobby’?
10. What impact do hobbies have on our life?
11. Should we balance our work and pastime? Why? Why not?
12. What kind of activities do hobbies include and exclude?
13. What categories do all hobbies fall into?
14. Is there any difference between hobby and pastime? If yes, what?
15. What are the most popular leisure pastimes in Belarus?
16. What do we consider taking up a hobby?
17. What is your hobby now? How does it influence your personality and way of life?
18. What kind of hobbyist are you?
19. What kinds of hobby are enjoyed by the British and Americans?
20. What hobbies are considered fashionable nowadays?

Step 2. Approve or disapprove of the following ideas reasoning your own opinion.

1. Hobbies reveal one’s creativity.


2. Occupation can be hobby as well.
3. Taking up hobbies is a complete waste of time.
4. It is necessary to encourage children’s hobbies.
5. Collecting requires a lot of expenses on the part of the collector.
6. Watching TV can’t be considered a hobby.
7. Some people take up hobbies because they are fashionable.
8. Male and female hobbies are completely different.
9. Going to the cinema and theatre is just a remarkable pastime.
10. Leisure activities must always be enjoyable.
11. Hobbies promote communication among people.
12. Using the Internet is a fast growing leisure time activity.
13. Some hobbies bring monetary rewards.
14. The majority of people like passive way of spending leisure hours.
15. Betting and gambling have become very popular nowadays.
16. Leisure gives energy and refreshment.
17. Hobbyists are interesting people to know.
18. Times change and hobbies change.
19. Hobbies provide opportunities for self-expression.
20. Recreation is big business.

Step 3. Comment on the quotations below. Express your own attitude towards their essence.

1. “Labour is doing what we must; leisure is doing what we like”. Bernard Shaw
2. “If you collect books, that is a hobby. If you actually read them, it’s not. If you watch a butterfly
in the field, that is not a hobby. If you put a pin through its little heart, that is a hobby.” Richard
Cohen
3. “What is this life if full of care
We have no time to stand and stare?” W.H. Davies
4. “For too much rest itself becomes a pain”. A. Pope

Step 4. Make up stories using the following proverbs and sayings. The contents of the story
should reveal the core of the proverb/saying.
1. Every man has his hobby-horse.
2. Tastes differ.
3. The busiest man finds the most leisure.
4. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
5. Work done, have your fun.
6. Business first, pleasure afterwards.

Step 5. Read the beginning of the text about spare time and develop the idea.

People always lack free time and dream of having more. These days our life is so busy and
stressed and people get so tired that they really need spare time to relax and have a rest. That’s
why they look forward to their weekends and holidays. Isn’t that also the time when they can take
up their hobbies? ...

Step 6. Make up and act out conversations that would be appropriate in the situations below.
Work in groups of 2 or 3.

1. You are planning to spend a weekend together with your friend. The problem is that you prefer
an active way of spending your leisure. You are keen on hiking and doing all kinds of sports.
You friend considers that the best way of spending spare time is to stay at home, watch his/her
favourite programmes or read a book. Try to find a compromise.
2. Ask your parents what interests they used to have when they were young, when and why they
took up their hobbies. During the conversation try to compare the way of spending spare time of
older generation with that of your peers.
3. You have been collecting stamps since childhood. You are absolutely crazy about your
collection. Your mother is sick and tired of your hobby considering that it is a great waste of
time and money. She is sure that you need to give up collecting and take up something else to
enrich your life and experience. Try to persuade your mother that you find satisfaction and
inspiration from your hobby.
4. While visiting Art Gallery you accidentally meet the author of your favourite paintings. You are
in heaven as it has always been your dream to talk to this famous artist. Surprisingly you find
out that he doesn’t really have any special education. Moreover, painting used to be his hobby
which gradually turned into an occupation and passion of his life.
5. You are a TV reporter. You are preparing a programme about famous people and their hobbies.
Invite some celebrities in your studio and ask about their interests and favourite ways of
spending leisure.

Step 7. Arrange a group discussion on the problems suggested below.

1. For many people what they do in their leisure hours depends on what the weather is like and
what mood they are in. And what about you? Do you plan you plan your weekends and days
off? What does your choice of leisure activities depend on?
2. There is a saying that by the way “man uses his leisure his character can be told more surely,
than by the way he does his work”. Comment on this idea reasoning your opinion.
3. People usually think of a positive effect of hobby. Can hobbies do us any harm? Could you
think of any examples?
4. Think of the reasons why people take up different hobbies. What influences their choice of
hobbies? Have your hobbies changed since childhood? Share your experience.
5. When we compare pastimes and hobbies enjoyed by people of different nations we find both
similarities and differences. How can we possibly reason this phenomenon?
Step 8. Debate on the controversial statements. Work in two groups. One group should agree
with the statements below and the other should disagree. Put forward the appropriate
arguments and convince the members of the other group.

1. It is necessary to plan leisure.


2. Hobby is always an obsession.
3. People collect as an investment.
4. Sport can never be a hobby.
5. Once you have chosen a hobby you never give it up.
6. Passive people do not have hobbies.
7. Nowadays people lack time for taking up hobbies.

Step 9. Fulfill the following written assignments.

1. Write an article into a magazine under the title “Hobbies make our life full and enjoyable.”
2. Write a letter to your English friend describing your way of spending spare time and ask
him/her some questions concerning the leisure activities which are popular with the young
British people today.
3. Write an argumentative essay “Hobbies never have negative influence on people”.
4. Express your opinion on the problem “Why do young people take up dangerous kinds of
hobbies these days?”
5. Write a composition “The story of my hobby”.

UNIT 3

SHOPPING

READING

Read the texts below attentively in order to immerse into the atmosphere of the topic under
discussion and be able to use information and ideas from them in the activities following
afterwards.

Text 3.1.

Shops

Britain has two main types of shops: those that are part of a chain or a group, and those that
are individually owned.
A typical high street in a smallish town in Britain will contain a mixture of chain stores and
individual shops. The individual shops sell goods that are also available in larger stores, but often
pride themselves on the quality of their goods and service. Typical examples of such shops are
clothes shops, cake shops ( many of which also have tea-rooms), butchers, bakers, gift shops,
newsagents (which also sell sweets), antique shops, chemists’ shops, pet shops, greengrocers, china
and glassware shops, delicatessens, jewellers, bookshops, florists, hairdressers, furniture and carpet
shops, and shops that provide services such as opticians and estate agents. Most towns also have a
gas and an electricity showroom where bills can be paid.
A special kind of general shop is the ‘corner shop’, so called because it is often on a street
corner in a part of town where there are no other shops. It is similar to a newsagent’s but has a
wider variety of goods, including food and drink, cleaning materials, stationary, etc. In rural areas a
similar shop is called the ‘village shop’, often the only shop in a village. Like the corner shop it
normally stocks a mixed range of goods and may also be the local post office. In the USA, a similar
kind of shop is called a ‘variety store’.
In Britain, the usual opening hours for shops are 9.00 am until 5.00 pm. Some places have
an ‘early closing day’ when the smaller shops close at midday on one day of the week. Newsagents
open much earlier, and corner shops, too, often open early and close late in the evening. Chain
stores usually have the normal opening hours, but supermarkets, which sell mainly food, often stay
open until 8.00 0r 9.00 pm.
The largest type of shop in Britain is called a hypermarket or superstore, which is a
supermarket on a large scale and usually situated outside a town, where there is space for a large
car-park. Many supermarkets have cash dispensers, petrol pumps and a café.
Whereas, formerly, the High Street was the main shopping street in a town, larger towns
now usually have a shopping centre, which is in area for pedestrians only, with shops grouped
together, sometimes enclosed in a large building.
Goods can be bought not only in shops and stores but also in outdoor markets. Almost all
towns and cities have a market once or twice a week. A market today will have a number of stalls,
mostly selling cheap or second-hand goods, but also flowers, fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as
meat and fish.
In the USA people do most of their shopping not in individual shops but in department
stores, supermarkets or shopping malls. These are mostly far larger than their British counterparts,
with supermarkets more like hypermarkets, for example. Rather than go to separate shops such as
the baker, butcher, greengrocer, etc, most Americans prefer to do their shopping in a single store.
Supermarkets sell not only foods but household goods, and some sell goods as diverse as cameras,
guns and ammunition.
Opening hours vary widely, but most suburban department stores are open from 9.00 am to
9.00 pm, while city-centre stores usually close at 6.00 pm. Sunday opening is more widespread than
in Britain, although some states, especially in the Midwest, restrict Sunday sales. Often shopping
malls outside city centres will open on Sunday afternoons, while city-centre store do not.
A typically American kind of shop is the ‘drugstore’, which usually includes a chemist’s
(called a pharmacy in the USA) but also sells food, alcoholic drink, stationary and even clothes, as
well as drinks and snacks. Rural areas often have roadside stalls where local produce is sold, and
many cities have ‘farmers markets’, similar to the weekly markets in British towns.

Text 3.2.

Shopping in New York

Any visitor to New York will inevitably include shopping in their plan of action. The city is
the consumer capital of the world: a shopper’s paradise which is a constant source of entertainment,
with dazzling window displays and a staggering display of goods.
Opening Hours
Most shops in New York are normally open from 10am to 6pm, Monday to Saturday. Many
department stores, though, are open all day Sunday and until 9pm at least two nights a week. The
best time to avoid crowds is weekday mornings. The most crowded times are lunch hours (noon to
2.30pm), Saturday mornings, sales and holidays.
Taxes
The New York city sales tax, 8.25%, is added to the price when you pay. But you may still
be asked to pay duty on goods at customs if you exceed the allowance. If the goods are sent direct,
you won’t have to pay sales tax.
Department Stores
Most of New York’s large department stores are in midtown Manhattan. Allow plenty of
time to explore as all these stores tend to be enormous, with an amazing range of goods. Prices are
often high, but you can get bargains during the sales.
Stores such as Saks Fifth Avenue, Bloomingdale’s and Macy’s provide a diverse and
extraordinary range of shopping services, including doing the shopping for you. But then you would
miss out on what may be the shopping experience of a lifetime.
Abraham & Strauss, more familiarly known as A&S, is a bustling store which carries
reasonably-priced ready-to-wear fashions for adults and children. It is the centerpiece of an Art
Deco-style mall, the largest in Manhattan.
Barney’s New York is a favourite among the young professional New Yorkers. It
specializes in excellent, but expensive designer clothes. A branch for men is located in the glittering
World Financial Centre.
Bergdorf Goodman is luxurious, very elegant and understated. It carries top-quality
contemporary fashions at high prices, specializing in European designers. The men’s store is right
across the street.
Almost every visitor to New York includes Bloomingdale’s on their sightseeing list.
“Bloomies” is the Hollywood film star of the department stores, with many eyecatching displays
and seductive goods. Its ambience is of a luxurious Middle Eastern bazaar, filled with wealthy,
immaculately dressed New Yorkers seeking out the newest trendiest fashions. Bloomingdale’s also
has a high reputation for household goods and gourmet food – it has a shop devoted entirely to
caviar. Extensive shopping services and amenities include a noted restaurant, Le Train Bleu, and a
theatre ticket discount agency.
Lord & Taylor is renowned for its classic and much more conservative fashions for men
and women. The store places an emphasis on US designers. You need a strong pair of legs, comfy
shoes and lots of spare time to wander around.
Macy’s, the self-proclaimed largest store in the world, manages to sprawl over an entire city
block. It has ten floors, and sells everything imaginable from tiny openers to massive TVs.
Saks Fifth Avenue is synonymous with style and elegance. It has long been considered one
of the city’s top-quality department stores, with service to match. It sells stunning designer clothes
for men, women and children.

Text 3.3.

How to Shop

In America, just as in England, you see the same shops with the same boards and windows
in every town and village.
Shopping, however, happens to be an art of its own and you have to learn slowly where to
buy various things. If you are hungry, you go to the chemist’s. A chemist’s shop is called a drug-
store in the United States; it is a national institution and a very good institution at that. In the larger
drug-stores you are likely to get drugs, too, but their main business consists of selling stationary,
candy, toys, braces, belts, fountain pens, furniture and imitation jewellery. Every drug-store has a
food counter with high stools in front of it and there they serve various juices, coffee, sundaes, ice-
cream, sandwiches, omelettes and other egg dishes.
If you want cigarettes, you are expected to go to the grocer; if you want your shoes cleaned,
go to the barber; if you want a radio, go to a man’s shop; if you want a suit-case, go to the
chemist’s. On the other hand if you want to send a telegram, avoid the post office, because
telegrams are sure to be handled by private companies. Nor has the post office anything to do with
the telephone either, as telephone service is supplied by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
Nor will you find public conveniences in America in the British sense of the word because a
lavatory turned out to be a strictly private enterprise in the United States, well hidden from the
public eye.
Whatever you buy, it may be exchanged later for something else in the same shop. This
seems to be a great pastime with the Americans. A great many people do not really buy things –
they only want them to be exchanged later for something else. It is not unusual at all to see a lady
bringing back a hat with a lot of fruit on it and exchanging it either for real fruit or a real hat; or to
see somebody bringing back a refrigerator with the remark that he made a mistake and now he
wants to subscribe to the Reader’s Digest instead.

Text 3.4.

Shops and Markets in London

London is still one of the most lively shopping cities in the world. Within just a few
minutes’ walk you can find both vast department stores, with glittering window displays, and tiny,
cluttered rooms where one customer almost fills the entire shop. Many of the most famous London
shops are in Knightsbridge or Regent Street, where prices can be steep, but Oxford Street, which is
packed with a huge number of shops offering quality goods at a range of prices, is also worth a
visit. All over London, there are plenty of places tucked away down side-streets – and don’t forget
to try the markets for antiques, crafts, household goods, food and clothing.

When to shop
In Central London, most shops open somewhere between 9am and 10am and close between
5pm and 6pm on weekdays; some earlier on Saturdays. The ‘late night’ shopping (until 7pm or
8pm) is on Thursdays in Oxford Street and the rest of the west End, and Chelsea; some shops in
tourist areas, such as Covent Garden and the Trocadero, are open until 7pm or later every day,
including Sundays.
Best of the department stores
The king of London’s department stores, by tradition, is Harrods, with its 300 departments
and staff of 4,000. Prices are not always as high as you may well expect. The spectacular food hall,
decorated with Edwardian tiles, has splendid displays of fish, cheese, fruit and vegetables; other
specialities include fashions for all ages, china and glass, electronics and kitchenware. Though
Harrods is still just as popular, especially with well-heeled visitors, Londoners often head instead
for nearby Harvey Nichols, which aims to stock the best of everything with the price tags to match.
Clothes are particularly strong, with the emphasis firmly on very high fashion, with many talented
British, European and American names represented. There is also an impressive menswear section.
The food hall, opened in 1992, is one of the most stylish in London.
Selfridge’s vast building on Oxford Street houses everything from Gucci bags and Hermes
scarves to household gadgets and bed-linen. Miss Sefridge, the popular high street fashion chain,
also has a branch in the store.
The original John Lewis was a draper and his shop still has a gorgeous selection of fabrics
and haberdashery. Its china, glass and household items make John Lewis, and its well-known
Sloane Square partner, Peter Jones, equally popular with Londoners.
Liberty, the last privately owned department store in London, still sells the hand-blocked
silks and other oriental goods at was famed for when it opened in 1875. Look out for the famous
scarf department.
Fortnum and Mason’s ground floor provisions department is so engrossing that the upper
floors of classic fashion remain peaceful. The food section stocks everything from baked beans to
the beautifully prepared hampers.
Marks and Spencer
Marks and Spencer has come a long way since 1882 when Russian émigré Michael Marks
had a stall in Leeds’s Kirkgate market under the sign, ‘Don’t ask the price – it’s a penny!’ It now
has over 680 stores worldwide and everything in them is ‘own label’. It stocks reliable versions of
more expensive clothes – Marks and Spencer’s underwear in particular is a staple of the British
wardrobe. The food department concentrates entirely on upmarket convenience foods. The main
Oxford Street branches at the Pantheon (near Oxford Circus) and Marble Arch are the most
interesting and well stocked.

Text 3.5.
The Big Stores of London

One of the features of London is the number of big stores, most of which are to be found in
or near the West End. These stores are a mixture of tradition and modernity.
They developed in the nineteenth century; they maintain the dignity of that century, yet they
are always ready to follow new trends.
The big stores of London are vast buildings, many storeys high, equipped with speedy lifts
and escalators, with well-planned lighting, ventilation and heating.
Departments are carefully named; “Budget Dresses” are really cheap dresses – but no
customer likes to be thought of as a “cheap” shopper. The same applies to “Ready-to-wear”. It used
to be used for the garments that were not made-to-measure, though now off-the-peg clothes are the
rule rather than the exception. “Mother-to-be” or “Lady-in-waiting” will often be found instead of
the conventional “Maternity Wear”. Then there are newer words for the new trends in fashion –
“Mix-and-match”, “Unisex”, which are used alongside the more old-fashioned names:
“Haberdashery”, “Millinery”, “Gowns”, and sometimes still the words derived from the French –
“Mantles” for coats, “Layette” for baby-wear. Another feature of London’s shopping life is the
chain-stores, on which the goods are displayed on open counters. A wide variety of goods is offered
– chiefly foodstuffs, household goods, clothing and stationery. These chain-stores have branches in
most British towns of importance.
One very well-known firm of chemists has shops in many parts of London (and elsewhere);
here you may buy not only medicines but also cosmetics and toilet supplies.
Dairy firms have shops in various parts of London, too, and in these you may buy not only
dairy produce but also groceries, soap and household articles.
Most of the food stores, called supermarkets, operate on the self-service system: you go in,
pick up a basket, walk round the shop and choose what you want. At the exit there is a check-out
point, a cash-desk where you pay for all your goods together.

Text 3.6.

Shopping in Hypermarkets

Nowadays more and more small local shops in Poland are closing because people prefer to
drive to huge shopping centres outside town. According to many surveys, about 57% of Polish
families regularly do their weekly shopping in very large chain-stores such as Hit, Jumbo, Auchan
or Real.
Why is out-of-town shopping so popular in Poland? Firstly, there are no problems with
parking the car and people can do all their shopping in one place. Secondly, many Poles treat
shopping as a pleasant way of spending their leisure time. The whole families usually go to a
shopping centre on Saturday or Sunday and spend long hours walking round, examining the items,
looking for bargains and drinking coffee in the store cafeteria. Thirdly, hypermarkets are well-
stocked. They offer a great variety and a wide choice of things. They are organised in departments
in which customers can find almost everything they want. They can buy food, clothes, shoes,
cosmetics, sports equipment, toys, records, books, household goods and many other products – all
under one roof. What is more, the goods in hypermarkets are generally sold more cheaply than
those in small local shops. A lot of items are reduced or sold off at lower prices. Bargain hunters
can save a lot of money on things which are on sale or special offer.
If customers buy something they are not satisfied with, they have the right to take it back
and get their money back. They can also choose the method of payment. They can pay cash or by
credit card. In most hypermarkets it is possible to buy an article on hire purchase, which means that
people can make regular payments for it over a period of time, for example several months.
All hypermarkets are open until late in the evening, as well as on Sunday. This is very
convenient for people who work.
To sum up, the success of hypermarkets comes from many different factors. A wide
assortment of goods, the possibility of having a close look at each item, competitive prices,
convenience, good service and caring about customer satisfaction make shopping in hypermarkets
pleasant. Therefore, it is not surprising that they attract more and more shoppers in Poland.

Text 3.7.

About Online Shopping

Every year, more and more people are using the Internet to do their shopping. That’s
because more and more people are discovering that shopping on the Internet is fast, easy and safe.
Unlike many stores, the Internet is open 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. You can shop at your
convenience, from your home or office.
Things bought over the Internet are usually cheaper, even when you include delivery costs.
This is because online stores don’t cost as much to run as ordinary stores. They also want to attract
new Internet consumers so they keep their prices down.
In fact, you can get almost everything over the Internet today. You can buy movies, music,
books, games and software and it is even possible to send flowers and gifts. But perhaps the most
exciting new service is online supermarket shopping. Most major British supermarkets in big towns
now offer an Internet shopping service so you can do your weekly supermarket shopping from your
home and receive your delivery the next day.

Text 3.8.

Customer-Clerk Relationships

One of the points about customer-clerk relationships is that clerks or salespeople are not
normally looked down on or treated in a way that makes them seem less worthy than people in
higher status occupations. In fact, foreign visitors are often startled by the degree of informality
with which some salespeople treat them.
Commercial transactions do not normally emphasize a personal relationship between the
buyer and the seller. Both parties are considered to have a role to play, and they play their roles
without necessarily making an effort to learn about each other’s personal viewpoints or lives. This
fact is quite plain to a customer who notices the mechanical smiles of clerks in many stores, and
who hears again and again the refrains, “Have a nice day” and “Thank you for shopping at…” The
customer-clerk relationship may seem utterly dehumanized.
There are exceptions. Experienced sellers of automobiles, houses, major appliances, and
other so-called “big-ticket items” will pay much attention to the buyer as an individual human
being. People selling these products will operate on the assumption that they must become
acquainted with their clients in order to help them select a product that will suit them and, at the
same time, in order to understand what “pitches” are most likely to be effective with them. For
example, an automobile salesman is likely to try to determine whether a particular customer will be
more attracted to a high-performance sports car or to a “sensible”, more conservative automobile. A
person selling clothing may try to determine whether a particular customer is the type who will
prefer something unusual or something that is popular.
Foreign visitors will notice striking differences in the degree to which clerks and
salespeople are able to be helpful. Some are well informed about their products and can answer
questions about them and their employer’s policies and procedures. Others seem to know little
other than how to operate the cash register and fill out the forms involved in credit sales.

Text 3.9.
Sales Tactics

Sales tactics, like advertising, reflects aspects of the basic assumptions and values that
prevail in a country. By carefully listening to salespeople who are actively trying to sell them
something, foreign visitors can enlarge their understanding of the way Americans perceive and
think about things. Common sales tactics include trying to make the buyer feel sympathetic toward
the seller; trying to make a male buyer feel that his masculinity is at issue when he is considering
buying something, and that he will be less manly in some way should he not make the purchase;
trying to make a female buyer believe that her attractiveness in the eyes of males will be enhanced
by a particular purchase; placing a premium on a rapid decision to buy, with the idea that the
opportunity to make the purchase will soon be gone; and trying to make the buyer believe that a
particular purchase would be “ wise”, an example of the buyer’s cleverness and foresight.
No doubt many of these tactics are used in some form or other in other countries. But the
subtleties with which they are employed in the States are likely to be distinctive.
Two phenomena that startle some foreign visitors are those of the telephone solicitor and the
door-to-door salesperson. Salespeople will telephone a person’s home or just appear unannounced
at the door and attempt to sell something to the occupant. Foreign visitors may need to realize they
are not obligated to be courteous or attentive to such people. They need not be discourteous, but
they can interrupt the salesperson, state that they are not interested, and hang up the telephone or
close the door.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Step 1. Discuss the questions below in pairs.

1. What is your favourite day of the week for shopping? Why?


2. What kinds of shops exist in your town? Which ones are the most popular?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of shopping in a supermarket?
4. What products can you not buy in department stores in your town? Where would you buy these
items instead?
5. Can shopping be a hobby? Why? Why not?
6. If you had a chance to go shopping at any place in the world where would you go? Why?
7. Why do some people enjoy looking for bargains?
8. What factors are important for you when you do shopping? What do you think first about: the
price, the quality or the brand name?
9. Where do you prefer to buy foodstuffs: in small shops or in a supermarket? Why?
10. What is sold at the butcher’s, fishmonger’s, baker’s?
11. What sorts of vegetables and fruit can be found at the greengrocer’s?
12. Why do so many people prefer purchasing at the market nowadays?
13. Where do people buy consumer goods? Where do you personally prefer shopping for consumer
goods? Why?
14. What departments are department stores composed of? What goods do they sell?
15. What is your favourite department and why?
16. What types of trade can you name? How do they differ?
17. What modern ways of shopping are used today to attract customers?
18. Why is advertising a very specific phenomenon of our life? What is your attitude to TV
commercials?
19. Why is it important to know the customer’s rights? Is it easy for you to complain about faulty
goods?
20. What are the advantages of shopping in hypermarkets?

Step 2. Approve or disapprove of the following ideas reasoning your own opinion.

1. The prices for foodstuffs are quite reasonable in the stores of Belarus.
2. Merchandise in the boutiques is extremely expensive.
3. Some people dislike doing shopping in big stores.
4. Many department stores in Belarus organize clearance sales.
5. The worst thing about shopping is standing in queues.
6. Door-to-door salespeople are very pleasant and easy to deal with.
7. Fruit and vegetables can be bought cheapest at the open-air markets.
8. Shop-assistants are never polite and helpful in this country.
9. London’s shopping life is very busy.
10. Shopping is an art.
11. Shopping is a great pastime with young people.
12. You can get only drugs in a drug-store in the USA.
13. Customers prefer to go to self-service shops.
14. Buyers always want to buy merchandise at a lower price and sellers want to make some profit.
15. Salespeople must always be helpful and well-informed about the product they sell.
16. In the USA the price marked on an item doesn’t include the sales tax.
17. You will never get cash refunds for a faulty item in Belarus.
18. Bargaining over prices is acceptable at “garage” and “yard sales” in the USA.
19. Harrods in London can supply anything a customer orders.
20. Chain-stores have branches in most British cities.

Step 3. Comment on the quotations below. Express your own attitude towards their essence.

1. “The customer is always right”. H.G. Selfridge


2. “Do not buy what you want, but what you need; what you do not need is dear at a farthing”.
Cato the Elder
3. “Advertising may be described as the science of arresting human intelligence long enough to get
money from it”. G. Orwell
4. “Necessity never made a good bargain”. B. Franklin

Step 4. Highlight the meanings of the following proverbs and sayings and make up situations
to illustrate them.

1. Shop till you drop.


2. You get what you pay for.
3. A bargain is a bargain.

Step 5. Read the beginning of the text and develop the idea.

Today, mass advertising persuades people of many different nationalities to use the same
products. Millions of people around the world drink the same soft drinks, drive the same cars, wear
the same clothes, and eat the same hamburgers. People’s tastes are getting more homogeneous
today…
Step 6. Make up and act out conversations that would be appropriate in the situations below.
Work in groups of 2 or 3.

1. You are invited to your friend’s party. You’ve made up your mind to go to the jeweller’s to buy
a present. There is such a variety of rings and earrings, necklaces and brooches, pendants and
bracelets there. It’s very hard for you to make a choice, but you are lucky because a salesgirl
turns to be very polite, patient and helpful. At last you decide on purchasing a gorgeous silver
bracelet.
2. You feel frustrated as you’ve found out that a beautiful expensive watch you bought two weeks
ago doesn’t go when you wind it. Your mother starts criticizing you for being in a rush and
inattentive while making a purchase. You are mad at yourself and looking for the receipt
everywhere. At last you calm down and together with your mother think the problem over and
decide what to do.
3. You’ve just come back from the United States. Your friends ask about your impressions
concerning American stores. You tell your friends about the easy procedures of returning and
exchanging purchases, importunate telephone salespeople and on the contrary extremely polite
shop-assistants in practically all stores.
4. You are visiting your grandparents in the village on the occasion of their golden wedding
anniversary. You go to a local shop together with your sister/brother. You need to buy a lot of
foodstuffs to cook dinner for the special occasion. The salesgirl is rather nervous and impatient
especially when you are not sure what you particularly want.

Step 7. Arrange a group discussion on the problems suggested below.

1. All shoppers fall under different customer categories: fun shoppers, practical shoppers, reluctant
shoppers. What category do you personally belong to? Justify it.
2. Many people are fond of window-shopping and they do get much pleasure out of it. For others
it’s just a mere waste of time. What’s your attitude to window-shopping?
3. Modern ways of shopping such as TV shops, online stores are getting more and more popular.
Have you ever purchased anything this way? Think of the advantages and disadvantages of such
kinds of shops. Think of the advantages and disadvantages of such kinds of shops.
4. What type of shop do you personally give preference to? Explain your choice.
5. Some advertisements help us choose right things to buy. Do you agree? Have you ever been
influenced by adverts? Share your shopping experience.
6. Nowadays shopping has become more exciting than it used to be. Can you explain why?
7. Some people shop till they drop. What’s your way of doing shopping?

Step 8. Debate on the controversial statements. Work in two groups. One group should agree
with the statements below and the other should disagree. Put forward the appropriate
arguments and convince the members of the other group.

1. It is uncommon for Belarusians to stock up for the week at weekends.


2. Shops must be open seven days a week.
3. Shopping over the Internet is the most convenient way of shopping nowadays.
4. Bargaining over prices at the market is considered to be rude.
5. Shoplifting can never be stopped.
6. Men’s and women’s shopping styles are opposite.

Step 9. Fulfill the following written assignments.

1. Write an argumentative essay “Advertisements persuade people to buy things they don’t need”.
2. Write an article “Hypermarkets: Future belongs to them”.
3. Write an essay about your memorable purchase.
4. Create a shopping list of Christmas presents you want to buy for your family and friends.
5. Write a letter of complaint expressing your strong dissatisfaction with the quality of jeans you
bought in a specialized jeans store.
6. Write a letter to your friend sharing your shopping experience in London.

UNIT 4

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE. RELATIONSHIPS.

READING

Read the texts below attentively in order to immerse into the atmosphere of the topic under
discussion and be able to use information and ideas from them in the activities following
afterwards.

Text 4.1.

Is it Worth Judging by Appearances?

Appearances are deceptive. It is a common truth; practically everyone has met at least
someone whose character and appearance differ radically.
When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and
brave. One thinks: ‘A model to follow!’ How often a good-looking individual turns out to be petty,
weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks: ’A mediocrity!’
At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of a poor build: short and
fragile. It did not stop them from displaying intelligence and courage. Ingenuity does not depend on
one’s complexion or constitution.
Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely
enough, not rarely they may be thrifty or even greedy. One usually thinks: ‘A scrooge!’
On the other hand, thin or slim nervous ladies often tend to be lavish. They like to buy and
never think twice when they pay. One thinks: ‘I would call her open-handed and Mother would call
her a spendthrift’. Yes, mothers are always stricter in judgements.
Has it ever happened to you that you come to an important office and see an important boss?
You immediately evaluate his looks: ‘Round-faced, small narrow eyes, dimples on the cheeks and
an up-turned nose. What a kind-hearted person! A simpleton!’ You tell the boss of your troubles
and expect immediate help. But the boss appears to be rude, harsh and willful. You never get your
help and think: ‘A stone heart and an iron fist’.
When someone sees a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight
nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be
disappointing to think later: ‘What a stupid, capricious, impolite bore!’
On the contrary, when one sees a skinny brunette with ugly irregular features – a hooked
nose, pointed chin, close-set eyes and thin lips, strange thoughts come to one’s head; because it is
the image of evil people – cruel and cunning. It may be a relief some time later to find her a clever,
gentle and good-mannered lady and think: ‘What charm! A heart of gold!’
Another general misconception lies in the fact that children are always expected to resemble
their parents. And parents like it when children take after them. Relatives like to compare moles,
the shape of noses, etc. the greatest compliment is: ‘They are as like as two peas’. The greatest
disappointment is to find nothing in common. We want to deny people their exclusiveness, we
don’t want to admit that nature has selected other options from enormous genetic fund developed
over generations. Why do we like our copies? Who knows!
Nature likes to play tricks on us. But don’t you think it is a present on the part of nature?
Life becomes not a boring routine, but a brilliant kaleidoscope of characters and appearances which
often clash.

Text 4.2.

Looking Good Gets the Goodies

Whereas intelligence can be tested on paper, looks are tested only by your experiences with
other people. Your appearance affects how other people behave towards you and probably how you
behave in return.
From childhood we are always measuring our own looks against those of other people.
Meanwhile as they measure themselves other people are giving us messages about how we look.
Certain qualities are attributed to looks such as the stereotype of the fat jolly person or the
tall powerful man. If you are fat and sad or tall and insecure people have to readjust their first false
impression before they try to cheer you up or reassure you.
Yet the interferences made about such characteristics as sallow complexion (hostility), blond
hair (goodness and virtue), high forehead (intelligence) are not generally supported by scientific
testing of their owners. (Although some people do fit the stereotype: for example short-sighted
people do tend to average higher IQ scores.)
Attractiveness is the key word. Time and again in experiments people judged as attractive by
their peers prove to have the edge on others. People sometimes said they preferred intelligence and
charm to looks, but when their behaviour was tested they showed preferences for attractive people
as friends, dates, sex-partners and spouses. In most cases they are favoured by juries in mock trials,
and even attractive mental patients get preferential treatment from nurses.
One group of scientists arranged a blind-date dance for students at the University of
Minnesota and found that they could predict how much someone would like his or her partner and
want to see them again according to the partner’s attractiveness.
And the old cliché that looks don’t bring happiness seems to be untrue at least for women.
For, while an international happiness survey in the mid-seventies found no relationship between
physical attractiveness and self-esteem (no one factor or small set of factors seems to determine
happiness), another study found that attractive women were psychologically healthier.
But what is attractive? In scientific terms it’s usually measured by experiments in which
photographs are shown to peers who then rate them. Outside the laboratory you only have to look at
people whose raw material doesn’t fit the stereotype (for example Barbara Streisand) to see that
many people can be attractive by virtue of self-confidence, talent and self-projection.
Clothes and make-up play their part, too: a woman deliberately dressed and made-up to look
physically attractive influenced the opinion of a male audience more than when she appeared before
them as her unadorned self.
Is it worth the effort? If you are someone who feels good when they look good (and not
everyone does), people probably respond to your glow. Then your self-esteem goes up and while
it’s high you beam out more welcome signals that elicit more positive responses and so on. In
reverse gear, when depression sets in, you keep off signs which deflect people, you feel worthless
and you’re in a downward spiral.
Text 4.3.

Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder?

Is there such a thing as the perfect face? Is beauty something you can measure?
Recent scientific evidence suggests that the answer is ‘yes’. A new science, the science of
attraction, has come to the conclusion that beauty is objective and quantifiable and not, as the
romantics believe, in the eye of the beholder.
For more than a century it was thought that a beautiful face was appealing because it was a
collection of average features. Using his computer system, Dr David Perrett of the University of St.
Andrews has challenged the theory. In a key experiment, photographs of women were ranked for
their attractiveness by a number of volunteers. Two composite pictures were then created: one, the
average of all the pictures; the other made from those rated most attractive. Although the faces
looked very similar at first glance, a significant number said they the composite of most attractive
faces.
‘The conclusion I reached,’ said Dr Perrett,’ was that the most attractive shape was not
average. If you look at famous film stars and supermodels, most of them have ideal features – larger
than normal eyes, higher arched eyebrows, slightly smaller noses, cheekbones are a little more
prominent. Even popular cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Yasmin from Aladin and Bambi
have big eyes, small turned-up noses, big mouths and small chins. And if these features are
exaggerated, the attractiveness rating goes up even more. Julia Roberts is a good example of this.’
But what do scientists make of men’s faces? Do men with large eyes, high cheekbones and a
small chin have the same irresistible appeal? Researchers were a bit shocked at the top-ranking
male face. They expected it to have the classic square jaw and strong cheekbones, but instead,
women seem to prefer men with gentle faces. Although there is more pressure on females to be
perfect, research suggests that men and women look for many of the same things: for example,
expressive features such as arched eyebrows and a big smile were associated with attractiveness in
men.
Dr David Perrett puts forward an evolutionary reason to explain why so many women now
swoon over baby-faced stars such as Leonardo Di Caprio and Tom Cruise. Women like a man with
a feminine face because he is more likely to have higher levels of the female hormone oestrogen
and therefore to make a kinder and more trustworthy husband and father.
But do these ideals of beauty manage to cross cultural boundaries? For instance, in some
cultures, lips discs, scars and tattoos are considered to be attractive. Professor Cunningham of the
University of Louisville, Kentucky, found that there were only very subtle differences between
ethnic groups. For example, Asians tended to prefer faces that were slightly less mature and slightly
less expressive, whereas blacks preferred faces that were a little more plump. In other words,
although there might be a little truth in the old adage that the beauty is in the eye of the beholder, by
and large, we all seem to be attracted to the same things.

Text 4.4.

He and I

He’s always warm, I’m always cold. In summer, when it is really hot, he never stops
complaining how hot he is. If he sees me putting on a jersey in the evening, he is scornful.
He speaks several languages well; I don’t speak a single one properly. Even languages he
doesn’t know he manages to speak in a way of his own.
He has a good sense of direction; I have none. After a day in a town abroad he gets about as
carefree as a butterfly. I get lost in my own town, and I have to ask how to get myself home. He
hates asking the way; when we drive about towns we don’t know he refuses to ask the way and tells
me to look at the map. I can’t read maps, I get all tangled up in those little red circles and he gets
angry.
He isn’t shy; I am. Sometimes I’ve seen him shy, though. With policemen, when they come
up to our car armed with notebooks and pencils. With them he turns shy, feeling he’s in the wrong.
And even not feeling in the wrong. I think he feels respectful towards established authority.
I’m scared of established authority, and he isn’t. He respects it. That’s different. If I see a
policeman coming along to fine us, I think straight away he’s going to drag us off to prison. Prison
doesn’t enter his head; but out of respect he grows timid and agreeable.
To me, every activity is extremely hard, wearisome, uncertain. I’m very lazy, and if I want
to get through anything I’ve simply got to spend long hours lazing on a sofa. He never lazes, he is
always doing something; he types at top speed with a wireless on; when he goes to lie down in the
afternoon, he takes along proofs to correct or a book of notes; on the one day he wants us to go to
the cinema, then to a party, then to the theatre. In a single day he manages to do, and to make me to
do as well, any number of different things; to meet the most disparate people; and if I’m alone and
try to do as he does, I can’t manage anything, because I stay stuck for the whole afternoon where I
meant to stop for half an hour, get lost and can’t find the way, or because the dreariest person I least
want to see drags me off to the place I least want to go to.
If I tell him what I’ve done with my afternoon he thinks it completely wasted, he’s amused,
teases me and gets annoyed; and says I’m hopeless without him.
I can’t arrange my time. He can.
He has sudden rages that overflow like froth on a glass of beer. My tempers are sudden as
well. But his pass off quickly; whereas mine leave a complaining, insistent trail behind them, which
I think is tremendously irritating, a sort of bitter whine. Sometimes, in the whirlwind of his temper,
I weep; and far from softening and soothing him, my tears make him angrier than ever. He says
they’re all play-acting; and maybe he’s right. Because, in the midst of my tears and his rages, I am
completely calm. Over my real sorrows I never weep.
At one time I would hurl plates and crockery on the floor in a rage. No longer now, though.
Perhaps because I’ve grown older, and my rages are less violent; and then I wouldn’t dare touch our
plates now, as I’m fond of them and we bought them in London, one day, in the Portobello Road.

Natalia Ginzburg

Text 4.5.

Interpersonal Relationships

Dear Tom,
I’m 23 and hope to graduate with a good degree this summer. I’m told I’m attractive, and I have
lots of friends. The problem is, I hate my sister. Everything I do, she seems to do much better: she
has s successful career, a loving husband, a wonderful house and a beautiful child. Every time I go
to see my parents, my sister’s name comes into the conversation, and I feel depressed that I can
never do anything right or, at least, never do anything as well as my sister. I really hate her. I have
always hated her. But can I ever change my feelings towards her? I don’t like myself for feeling like
this. Please help. L

It’s tough when a sister (or brother) is better looking, more intelligent, even better loved
than you. But do we have to compare? Shouldn’t everybody be special? We all have our own gifts.
Do we have to hate? It solves nothing for you to hate your sister. You buzz around in a cloud of
hate; she sits there, tranquil, a smile on her face, the winner.
To get rid of hate you must ask, ‘Why am I doing this? Who am I doing it for? Who am I
trying to beat?’ then say, ‘Because I want to. I’m doing this for me. I’m trying to beat my previous
best.’ Life is about listening to the whisper of your own soul, setting your own targets. Please stop
denying your own uniqueness.
To clear all this hatred out of your mind you must accept the reality. Your sister is more
loved, more highly rated by your parents. That’s painful but, out there in the world, among the rest
of us, we might like you just as you are. Give us that chance. Relate to your parents as an adult.
They have their little scenario of where you feature in the play of life. Now, write your own
scenario. It’s time to stop collaborating with their fantasies, stop playing winners and losers – with
you always getting the sticky end of the lollipop.
When you are ready, talk to your sister. Not to tell her that you hate her; rather to tell her
some of the things you feel. When you begin to see your sister as a real person, whom you either
like or dislike – but not hate – then you’re free to live your own life how you want.
Stop making comparisons. Try to succeed against yourself. March to the beat of your own
heart, along the road you choose. Your sister must make her journey through life; yours is a
different road, a different journey. And life can be hard on family favourites, too.

Text 4.6.

Friendship

It’s good to know that you’ve got a friend when people can be so cold…
They’ll hurt you and they’ll desert you and take your soul if you let them…

Carole King

Songs, poems and proverbs about friendship are common and can be found in all languages.
It is so because friendship has great value in our life. Everyone would like to have a bosom friend;
someone trusted, loyal, sincere and faithful. Friends do not have to be the same age. It sometimes
happens that mothers are the greatest friends of their daughters and grandparents are the best friends
of their grandchildren. It is good to have a friend in the family.
Some people consider animals as their friends. Everyone knows, for example, that dogs
make goods pets. They have been our faithful companions for centuries. It has been scientifically
proved that animals have a great therapeutic effect on people who are ill; if they have an animal to
care for, they will get better more quickly.
“A friend in need is a friend indeed” – according to this old saying a good friend should
always help us in difficulties, cheer us up and raise our spirits when we are down, troubled or when
it is going right. That is what friends are for…
However, friendship must be cherished to become stronger and stronger, it must be “planted
like a seed”. We should never let our friends down when they count on us or otherwise we may
destroy our close relationship with them.
It is more and more difficult to make a friendship nowadays, especially in big cities where
people are anonymous and where we sometimes don’t know who lives next door. However, if we
feel lonely, we can always look around and try to strike up a friendship with someone who also
longs for it…

Text 4.7.
The older I get, the more I learn to appreciate the value of friendship. These days it seems
everyone is so busy, we practically have to schedule time on our calendars just to keep in touch. But
even though we can’t spend as much time together as we’d like, we know we can always count on
each other to be there when needed.
The more we share, the closer I feel to you. Because of your caring, I’ve felt comfortable to
tell you things I wouldn’t share with many other people, and it makes me feel special to know you
confide in me, too.
The longer we’re friends, the more grateful I am for all the special feelings our closeness
brings. And the closer we grow, the more I appreciate a friend as wonderful as you.
Renee Duvall

Text 4.8.

Male and Female Friendship

Nigel was one of my best friends. In the seventeen years we have known each other, we’ve
done the sort of things that mates do. We’ve gone out for drinks together, played in a number of sad
rock bands together. We’ve got a history, as they say.
When a personal disaster of catastrophic proportions left me out on the streets with a couple
of cardboard boxes and a rucksack, it was Nigel who supplied a sofa and well-stocked fridge. And
when I got married, it was Nigel’s plum-coloured Rover P5 Coupe that was waiting, engine purring,
outside the registry office.
However, it came as something of a shock when I realized that I hadn’t actually seen Nigel
for nearly six months. What had gone wrong? It’s not as if we’d fallen out. We still worked and
lived in the same town. We had simply fallen victim to something that afflicts millions of men in
their late twenties and thirties. They start misplacing their friends.
Once you and your mates were inseparable. Now there never seems to be enough time to
cram everything in. There is work, a home, kids even. In reality, it’s getting to the point where it is
not so much a question of meeting up, more a question of having a reunion. It’s being so long since
you got together it’s actually becoming embarrassing.
The irony is that you’ll continue to insist that these men, whom you hardly ever see, are
your closest friends in the world, even though in every meaningful sense they now barely qualify as
acquaintances. You probably have a closer relationship with the man who collects your ticket at the
railway station.
Men seem to need a practical reason to spend time together. Psychologist Dr Malcolme
George says, “As men, we very much form our friendship around doing something mutually. But
the problem is that the maintenance is dependent on doing the thing. When the demands of career
and family kick in, those relationships get squeezed out”.
Dr George believes that there is an essential difference in the nature of male and female
friendship. Men have a more limited expectation of their friendships partly because the man-woman
relationship is still looked upon as the vehicle for emotional fulfilment. Men’s relationships with
other men are regarded as having no real emotional content. They serve a function – playing in the
football team or whatever. Women actually expect to share their emotional life with their friends –
that’s the difference.
It’s seems as though your partner may determine the friends you keep. This may be because
people tend to make new acquaintances at work and it’s very hard to convert those work friends
into family friends. When men launch into a relationship and loose contact with their friends they
make bigger demands on their partner to supply all the friendship that’s missing.
Most women want men to keep their friends – as long as they can express themselves within
these friendships and talk problems over. After all, men’s inability to express their feelings is one of
the things that makes relationships flounder.

Text 4.9.

Love

We often ask ourselves what love is and although sometimes we cannot give a satisfactory
answer, we all agree that life without love would be impossible. Love gives us almost everything
we need: the feeling of safety, joy, happiness and the sense of belonging. It is not only our best
friend but also our greatest teacher. It teaches us devotion, fondness, responsibility, tolerance,
loyalty and flexibility.
“Would you believe in love at first sight? I’m certain that it happens all the time” – sang the
Beatles. However, some experienced people say that they do not believe in love at first sight. They
claim that it is not possible to fall in love with someone you do not know. They are very often right.
As the old saying goes, beauty is only skin-deep and other qualities, not outward appearance, show
the true nature of a person. A pleasing appearance is sometimes misleading and deceitful and it
makes people feel disappointed and disillusioned. Hence, love should be not based on mutual
attraction only, but first of all on close acquaintanceship.
Although falling in love is not a privilege of youth, it is young people who go though it most
frequently. First love is a mixture of folly and curiosity, tears and laughter. It usually does not last
long and is nothing but a sort of disease – you cannot eat, you cannot sleep and cannot think
sensibly. The first stage of love, claims an American psychologist, lasts about three months. During
this time people in love do only two things: either they are inseparable or they endlessly think of
each other. They swear eternal love and are convinced that their feeling will last forever. When it
vanishes, however, they are ready to fall in love again.

Text 4.10.

I Thought I Was Too Old to Fall in Love Again

I have always considered myself to be contentedly settled, assured, and experienced. How,
then, could this stranger come along and bewitch me so completely? By Jack D.
Minzey

I never believed in love at first sight until, most unexpectedly and bewilderingly,
it happened to me. From the moment I first saw her, it was as though her eyes entered my heart and
pierced clear through to my soul. What else could it be but love?
She should have known that I was a happily married, contentedly middle-aged man. But she
was beautiful and, oh, how she knew it – and she used that beauty to overwhelm me. I tried to
ignore the feelings she stirred in me, but with each day that passed, I knew I was becoming a
captive to her charm. I was under her spell completely.
She had so many enchanted moods: She was happy, sad, sweet, cute, pouty, serious, funny,
and flirtatious. Each mood followed the other in dizzying succession. And each was effective –
helplessly I reacted to each in exactly the manner she expected.
I tried to appear blasé about our relationship; however, that was clearly a façade, and my
friends saw through it instantly. Even my wife became aware of the new object of my affections.
Surprisingly, she was more tolerant about what was happening than I would have expected. She
even seemed to share my excitement over this new woman in my life. This, I might add,
immediately gave our marriage a whole new dimension.
Where will it all lead? It’s hard to say. I thought the thrill of this new relationship would be
soon gone. And yet, a year has passed since she first entered my life, and I am still helplessly
smitten. Each time I see her she is more bewitching, and each time she finds a new way to claim my
heart. It used to be just a shy glance or gesture. Now she is bolder and offers me a touch with her
little hand, a hug, an occasional kiss on the cheek. I would gladly give her the world at such
moments.
I guess it’s possible that our relationship is just a figment of my imagination, and she has
never spoken to me of love. And yet, when I look at that pretty, dimpled face, when I gaze into her
dark, shining eyes, I know in my heart that she is thinking…
“I love you, Grandpa.”

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Step 1. Discuss the following questions in pairs.

1. What do you notice first about a person when you meet him/her for the first time?
2. If you had a chance to change something in your appearance and character what would you
change and why?
3. What is beauty in your understanding?
4. What kind of people will always/never arrest your attention?
5. What is your birth sign? Do you think this affects your character?
6. What kind of people do you find it hard to get on with? Why?
7. What traits of character are necessary to possess in order to be successful at work?
8. What is the difference between an acquaintance and a friend? Is it easy for you to make friends
and be a true friend?
9. What kind of people do you prefer to spend your time with: introverts or extroverts? Why?
10. What relationships do you appreciate most of all? Why?
11. Why do friends drift away from each other sometimes? What are the reasons that we drop
friends?
12. What do men and women value in friendship?
13. What do you think is most important in people’s relationship?
14. What is your own definition of love?
15. How do men differ from women in loving?
16. What is your ideal of a woman/man?

Step 2. Approve or disapprove of the following ideas reasoning your own opinion.

1. Characters and appearances always clash.


2. Children always take after their parents.
3. You inherit a character from your parents and can’t really change it.
4. Our relationship with people depends on our attitude to them.
5. You should always praise your friend’s merits.
6. Love fades away with years.
7. Very often we “grow out” of some friendships.
8. We are always attracted to people who resemble us.
9. Parents should choose friends for their children.
10. Colleagues at work can’t become friends.
11. It is impossible to eradicate negative traits of character in a person.
12. Business relations are never sincere.
13. It’s better if a friend has different interests.
14. It is rude to talk about people’s faults behind their backs.

Step 3. Comment on the quotations below. Be as specific as you can.

1. “Take away love and our earth is a tomb”. R. Browning


2. “To love is to admire with the heart; to admire is to love with the mind”. T. Gautier
3. “The really great person is the person who makes everybody feel great”. G.K. Chesterton
4. “Be nice to people on the way up because you’ll meet them on the way down”. W. Mizner
5. “People hate, as they love, unreasonably”. W. Thackeray
6. “The better I get to know men, the more I find myself loving dogs”. Charles de Gaulle
7. “I hope I shall always possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most
enviable of all titles, the character of an Honest Man”. G. Washington
8. “Human nature is rarely uniform”. W. Scott
9. “You shall judge a man by his foes as well as by his friends”. J. Conrad
10. “A friend is a present which you give yourself”. R. L. Stevenson
11. “Friendships are fragile things and require as much care in handling as any other fragile and
precious thing”. R. S Bourne
12. “A friend is a single soul dwelling in two bodies”. Aristotle
13. “Everything must be beautiful in a person – face, clothing, spirit and mind”. A. Chekhov
14. “We reproach people for talking about themselves; but it is the subject they treat best”. A.
France
15. “We make more enemies by what we say than friends by what we do”. J. Collins

Step 4. Make up stories using the following proverbs and sayings. The contents of the story
should reveal the gist of the proverb/saying.

1. Happiness is based on relationships with people you love and respect.


2. Treat everyone you meet like you want to be treated.
3. Lend your money and lose your friend.
4. Clothes do not make the man.
5. Beauty lies in lover’s eyes.
6. A fair face, but a foul heart.
7. To err is human.
8. Nature is stronger than rearing.
9. Do as most men do, and most men will speak well of you.
10. Love not at first look.
11. Love is ageless.
12. Hate not at the first harm.
13. The way to have a friend is to be one.
14. Be slow in choosing a friend, but slower in changing them.
15. Better be alone than in bad company.
16. A man must eat a peck of salt with his friend, before he knows him.

Step 5. Read the beginning of the text about friendship and develop the idea touched upon in
it.

A proverb advises “Hold a true friend with both hands”. True and faithful friends are
indeed a treasure. It’s one of life’s blessings to have a friend with whom we can discuss our fears
and problems, share our joys and dreams. A true friend is someone who accepts us totally as we
are in spite of our faults. A true friend stands at our side during the best and the worst of times.
That’s why we speak of “friends and acquaintances” because we know the difference…

Step 6. Make up and act out conversations that would be appropriate in the situations below.
Work in groups of 2 or 3.

1. You want to go on a blind date with a person you chatted on the phone. Describe to him/her
your appearance and the clothes you will be wearing so that she/he can easily recognize you.
2. You are the director of a private language school. You urgently need a teacher of English. There
are several candidates. You’ve looked through their CVs and now are going to interview one of
them. Find out as much as possible about his/her character and decide whether he/she will be
suitable for this position.
3. You are a psychologist. A married couple has come to you in hope to get your professional
advice. They claim that psychological incompatibility makes their marriage unhappy. Try to
find a way to save their marriage.

Step 7. Arrange a group discussion on the problems suggested below.

1. It’s a common truth that appearances are deceptive. So is it worth judging by appearances? Give
your reasons.
2. There are people with whom we make our relationships just immediately and there are those
with whom we find it hard to get on with. What does it depend on? Share your thoughts on this
problem.
3. Do you remember your first meeting with your friend? What were your first impressions of
him/her? Were they right or wrong?
4. “Beauty is only skin deep”. Do you agree?
5. How do you understand the following idea: “Treat everyone you meet like you want to be
treated”?
6. Will you agree with the saying “Friends are thieves of our time”?
7. Practically everyone is dreaming of having a perfect partner in life. Give your idea of an ideal
man/woman.
8. “True love doesn’t consist of holding hands, it consists of holding hearts. O.A. Battista. Do you
approve of this point of view? What’s your own definition of love?
9. These days horoscopes can be found not only in newspapers and magazines but also on the
Internet. What do you think about astrology and horoscopes? Do you believe in them?

Step 8. Debate on the controversial statements. Work in two groups. One group should agree
with the statements below and the other should disagree. Put forward the appropriate
arguments and convince the members of the other group.

1. Appearance counts more than character.


2. Friendship between a man and a woman just can’t exist.
3. Love at first sight always brings disappointment afterwards.

Step 9. Fulfill the following written assignments.

1. Write a description of the character and appearance of a person you admire.


2. Write about your first impressions of someone who later became very close to you.
3. Write a description of how your classmate /friend has changed in appearance and behaviour
since you were at school.
4. Write a paragraph giving a detailed description of your favourite film star or singer.
5. Write a letter to a newspaper entitled “Love is all you need”.
6. Write an argumentative essay on the topic “You can’t be a close friend with someone in your
own family”.

UNIT 5

FOOD AND MEALS

READING

Read the texts below attentively in order to immerse into the atmosphere of the topic under
discussion and be able to use information and ideas from them in the activities following
afterwards.

Text 5.1.

Correct Eating Habits

“Eat to live. Do not live to eat” is an old saying the truth of which a person realises only
when he or she suffers from some serious ailment like a heart condition and is advised by his or her
physician to cut down on his or her food. All schools of medicine lay emphasis on correct eating
habits for a healthy life.
Remember that after you have had a hearty meal, the pressure on your heart is increased.
The amount of food should be such that the hunger is assuaged, but there is no feeling of fullness.
The second golden rule is to avoid fats and too much starch and carbohydrates derived from
sugar. In communities where sugar intake is low, there is very little incidence of heart disease.
The third rule is that stimulants like spices (chillies etc.) should be avoided. A bland diet
with a little salt and a pinch of pepper may not taste as good as highly spiced food would, but it
would be safer in the long run.
Kids with high cholesterol need an exotic diet. Mostly, they should stick to the guidelines
that apply to all adults. Officially, the American Heart Association recommends that kids get no
more than 30 percent of their calories from fat. That means (1) Limiting fast-food runs to once or
twice a week. Otherwise, push the salads and leave out the jumbo fries, high-fat sauces, and
everything-but-the-kitchen-sink burgers; (2) Sticking to lower-fat pizza toppings like mushrooms,
ground beef, veggies, and plain cheese; (3) Choosing peanut butter, lean meat or skinless chicken or
turkey for lunchtime; put limits on high-fat items like hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deep-fried
anything; (4) Serving more complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain
products. Kids may not always eat them, but at least they’ll recognise them on sight.
Fortunately, lots of foods that kids like are also good for them. Most breakfast cereals are
low in fat, for instance, as are pasta, lean meats, bread, tuna, skinless chicken, and fruit.

Text 5.2.

Do You Eat the Right Food?

What do we mean by a well-balanced diet? This is a diet that contains daily servings from
each of the basic food groups: meat, vegetable and fruit, milk, bread and cereals. There’s no doubt
that food tastes and preferences are established early in life. No one is born a “sugar freak” or a salt
craver. An incredible statistics is that between 30 and 50% of all the calories eaten each day are
consumed in the form of between-meal snacks. Unfortunately, the usual between-meal foods are
low in nutritive value and too high in calories and refined sugar. Some excellent snacks that should
always be available are plain yoghurt, carrots, pieces of apple, cheese and natural fruit juice. Eating
yoghurt as a snack food is far healthier and more nutritionally sound than eating so-called “junk”
food, which is less nutritious and too high in sugar and calories. Salted peanuts seem to be the least
popular snacks today.
People who diet know that if they stick to a low-fat, high-fibre intake they will be able to eat
well without putting on weight. Instead of going on crash diets they are learning to educate their
stomachs by eating sensible food. They can still enjoy chocolates and cream cakes once a week or
so, but they know they have to cut down their intake slightly the next day.
Research is indicating that “we are what we eat”. Recent work shows that Italians, who tend
to eat lots of fresh fruit and vegetables that contain vitamins C and E, have low levels of heart
attacks. Scots, however, tend to have a diet that is high in animal fat and low in fibre. Heart disease
is a widespread problem in Scotland.
Now, evidence shows that it is especially vitamins C and E which control the probability of
attacks of angina – the severe chest pains which are usually a warning of heart disease. The value of
vitamin C and E was shown in a recent survey of Scotsmen. Scientists studied 110 people who
suffered chest pain but had not consulted their doctors or changed their diets. The results showed
that the people with low levels of each vitamin had experienced three and a half times more angina
than those in the control group of men who had not had chest pain. The answer seems to be cut
down on meat, cheese, lard and butter and tuck into fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and other vitamin C
and E-rich foods.

Text 5.3.

Another View of Fast Food

I would like you to try a little thought experiment with me. Let’s put our heads together to
see if we can design the Worst Diet in the World, one that would be most likely to undermine health
and shorten life.
To begin, let’s stuff it with calories, more than most people will be able to burn off, so that it
will promote obesity. We should overload it with carbohydrate calories from high-glycemic-index
foods. That means lots of refined flour in fluffy breads and pastries, a lot of potatoes, sweets, and
sweet drinks…
For fat we will need a glut of saturated fat in the form of cheese, butter, cream, and other
whole-milk products, along with a lot of beef and unskinned chicken. That will ensure that most
people will develop unhealthy levels of cholesterol and increased risks of cardiovascular disease.
We should also include plenty of hydrogenated fat in the form of margarine, vegetable shortening,
and snack foods made with partially hydrogenated oils… We should also throw in some well-used
cooking fat, consisting of cheaper vegetable oils…
As for protein, we should probably go for as much as we can eat and make it mostly
commercially raised meat and poultry rather than fish or vegetable protein. That will maximize
intake of drugs and hormones used to raise animals for meat as well as environmental toxins
concentrated in their fat and other tissues. A lot of the meat in the diet should be processed (into hot
dogs, lunch meats and the like) to add more sodium, saturated fat, and unhealthful chemical
additives. We should encourage everyone to drink cow’s milk throughout life to make sure we
affect the lactose-intolerant fraction of the population…
The Worst Diet in the World should also be distinguished by what it does not provide. We
will want very inadequate amounts of the micronutrients, especially those that protect the body
from effects we are trying to achieve by the above selection of macronutrients. The easiest way to
make sure of that is to restrict fruits and vegetables. Of course, we will allow unrestricted amounts
of floury potatoes (preferably French fried or otherwise prepared with quantities of margarine,
butter, and sour cream)…but we don’t want people eating too many greens and brightly colored
fruits and vegetables… Perhaps pickles, high in sodium, and ketchup, high in sugar and sodium,
will count as vegetables in our diet. These rules will keep fiber intake low, prevent people from
eating too many protective phytochemicals, and maybe even get levels of vitamins and minerals
down low enough to cause suboptimal functioning of many systems of the body without producing
overt deficiency symptoms that might lead people to take corrective action.
From what I know about the scientific basis of human nutrition, I am quite sure that a diet of
this sort, though it will sustain life and growth, will also have tremendous consequences as people
age. It will increase the frequency of degenerative diseases, lowering the age at which they appear,
accelerating their progression, and worsening their severity. It will certainly promote obesity,
hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cancer and probably will adversely affect liver, kidney,
and brain function…It might even make people less energetic and worsen their moods…
Thank you for indulging this exercise in fantasy. Now I have a real-world assignment for
you. I would like you to visit three different fast-food restaurants of your choice, study the menus in
them, and observe what the customers are eating. Then I want you to think about how closely those
menus approximate the Worst Diet in the World we have just designed…

Text 5.4.

In Search of Good English Food

How come it is so difficult to find English food in England? In Greece you eat Greek food,
in France French food, in Italy Italian food, but not in England, in any High Street in the land, it is
easier to find Indian and Chinese restaurants than English ones. In London you can eat Thai,
Portuguese, Turkish, Lebanese, Japanese, Russian, Polish, Swedish, Spanish, and Italian – but
where are the English restaurants?
It is not only in restaurants that foreign dishes are replacing traditional British food. In every
supermarket, sales of pasta, pizza and poppadoms are blooming. Why has this happened? What is
wrong with the cooks of Britain that they prefer cooking pasta to potatoes? Why do the British
choose to eat lasagne instead of shepherd’s pie? Why do they now like cooking in wine and olive
oil? But perhaps it is a good thing. After all, this is the end of the 20th century and we can get
ingredients from all over the world in just a few hours. Anyway, wasn’t English food always
disgusting and tasteless? Wasn’t it always boiled to death and swimming in fat? The answer to
these questions is a resounding “No”, but to understand this, we have to go back to before World
War II.
The British have in fact always imported food from abroad. From the time of the Roman
invasion foreign trade was a major influence on British cooking. English kitchens, like the English
language, absorbed ingredients from all over the world – chickens, rabbits, apples, and tea. All of
these and more were successfully incorporated into British dishes. Another important influence on
British cooking was of course the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green
grass, and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of meat, fruit and
vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces or complicated recipes to disguise their taste.
However, World War II changed everything. Wartime women had to forget 600 years of
British cooking, learn to do without foreign imports, and ration their use of home-grown food. The
Ministry of Food published cheap, boring recipes. The joke of the war was a dish called Woolton
Pie (named after the Minister for Food!). This consisted of a mixture of boiled vegetables covered
in white sauce with mashed potato on the top. Britain never managed to recover from the wartime
attitude to food. We were left with a loss of confidence in our cooking skills and after years of
Ministry recipes we began to believe that British food was boring, and we searched the world for
sophisticated, new dishes which gave hope of a better future. The British people became tourists at
their own dining tables and in the restaurants of their land! This is a tragedy! Surely food is as much
a part of our culture as our landscape, our language, and our literature. Nowadays, cooking British
food is like speaking a dead language. It is almost as bizarre as having a conversation in Anglo-
Saxon English!
However, there is still one small ray of hope. British pubs are often the best places to eat
well and cheaply in Britain, and they also increasingly try to serve tasty British food. Can we
recommend to you our two favourite places to eat in Britain? The Shepherd’s Inn in Melmerby,
Cumbria and the Dolphin Inn in Kingston, Devon. Their steak and mushroom pie, Lancashire
hotpot, and bread and butter pudding are three of the gastronomic wonders of the world!

Text 5.5.

American and British Dinner Manners

Every land has its own peculiar dinner manners, and the USA is no exception. Americans
feel that the first rule of being a courteous guest is to be prompt. If a person is invited to dinner at
six-thirty, the hostess expects him to be there at six-thirty or not more than a few minutes after.
Because she usually does her own cooking, she times the meal so that the hot rolls, coffee and meat
will be at their best at the time she asks the guests to come. When the guest cannot come on time,
he calls his host or hostess on the telephone, gives the reason, and tells at what time he thinks he
can come. British people actually are also very punctual and respect time.
When the guests sit down at a dinner table, it is customary for the men to help the ladies by
pushing their chairs under them.
There is a difference between American and European customs in using the knife and fork.
The European keeps the knife in the right hand, the fork in the left. He uses both hands in
eating. The American, on the contrary, may use just one hand when possible, and keep the other
one on his lap. He constantly changes his fork to the left hand when he has to cut his meat. Between
bites he lays his fork on his plate while drinking his coffee or buttering his bread. The British, like
other Europeans, usually drinks his coffee after the meal, and keeps his knife and fork in hand until
he finishes eating.
Since Americans lay their silverware down a great deal during the meal, certain customs
have developed. It is not considered good manners to leave a spoon in a soup bowl or coffee cup or
any other dish. It is put where it will lie flat (a coffee spoon on the saucer, a soup spoon on the soup
bowl etc.) By doing this one is less likely to knock the silverware onto the floor or spill the food.
Another difference in customs is that the American uses the side of his soupspoon, not the
tip like the Briton. In a good British home with traditions, it is not a custom today to use a fork or a
knife for bread. Americans do not use silverware for eating bread, either. They hold it in their
fingers usually breaking at first. A person is considered peculiar either in the USA or Britain, if he
puts a slice of bread firmly on his plate with his fork, butters the whole slice with his knife and then
cuts it up and eats it with his knife and fork. Other things that Americans eat with their fingers are
corn on the cob, celery, radishes and olives. In Britain you eat celery and the like in the same way,
but Britons do not as a rule eat corn on the cob.
In both countries a person does not eat lettuce that way, nor does he pick up his soup bowl to
drink what remains at the bottom.
If for any reason a guest has to leave the table during a meal, he always asks his hostess,
“Will you please excuse me for a minute.” A well brought-up Briton will do exactly the same.
When the meal is finished, the guests put their napkins on the table and rise, the men again helping
the ladies with their chairs. Guests do not fold their napkins in the original folds unless they intend
to stay for more than one meal.
After dinner, the guests usually stay for two or three hours, but the thoughtful person is
careful not to overstay. The host and hostess may ask him or her to stay longer in order to be polite,
but most dinner parties break up about eleven o’clock in both countries. Neither men nor women do
smoke at table. It is considered bad manners at a formal dinner party.
As the guests leave, it is the custom to thank the hostess for a very pleasant evening. One
may say anything that truly expresses his or her appreciation. Common expressions are, “Good-bye,
it was so nice of you to have me,” or “Good-bye, it’s been an enjoyable evening,” or “Thank you,
I’ve had such a good time.” If one stays overnight, or in case of a weekend visit, it is customary in
the USA and Great Britain to send a thank-you note. It is often called a “bread-and-butter letter”.
Quite often people later send a small gift such as a box of candy or some flowers as a sign of their
appreciation.
Flowers and a bottle of good wine are always welcome in any British or American home
whenever you come for a visit.

Text 5.6.

Meals in Britain

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal – sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes,
mushrooms… But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with
marmalade, jam, or honey. Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The
traditional breakfast drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often
instant coffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this coffee
disgusting!
For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where
office workers can choose the kind of bread they want – brown, white, or a roll – and then all sorts
of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and
cold. School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home – a
sandwich, a drink, some fruit, and perhaps some crisps.
‘Tea’ means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have afternoon tea, with
sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of
cake) with cream and jam.
The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite
early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole family eats together.
On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb,
chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices.
The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese, and
Indian. People often get take-away meals – you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it
home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!

Text 5.7.

American Food

The popular view outside the US is that Americans survive on cheeseburgers, Cokes, and
French fries is as accurate as the American popular view that the British live on tea and
fish’n’chips, the Germans only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and
garlic.
America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is that as the leading
agricultural nation, she has always been well supplied with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in
great variety at relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or roast beef is probably the most
“typical” American food; it has always been more available. But good Southern-fried chicken also
has its champions, as do hickory-smoked or sugar cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other
seafood such as crabs or clams.
In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and vegetable growing regions,
such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce,
avocados, and cranberries do not have to be imported. This is one reason why fruit dishes and
salads are so common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby and as a
way to save money, from the days when most Americans were farmers. They also help to keep
fresh food on the table.
The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought with them, and
continue to bring, the traditional foods of their countries and cultures. The variety of foods and
styles is simply amazing. Whether Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French, German,
Greek, Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican, Vietnamese or what have you,
these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.
There seem to be four trends in America at present which are connected with foods and
dining. First, there has been a notable increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants which
offer specialty foods. These include those that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes,
those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are buffets or salad bars.
Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One
lesson is that they are not too expensive. Another reason, probably more important, is that many
American women do not feel that their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay a
professional chef and also enjoy a good meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking
as a hobby for both men and women. For some two decades now, these have been popular
television series on all types and styles of cooking, and the increasing popularity can easily be seen
in the number of bestselling specialty cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often
exotic cooking devices and spices.
A third trend is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in general are
eating much lighter food. Cereals and grain foods, fruit and vegetables, fish and salads are
emphasized instead of heavy and sweet foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food”
chains which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and sandwiches, sea-foods,
and various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent this trend and while,
as may be expected, restaurants also dislike it, many young middle-aged and old people, both rich
and poor, continue to buy and eat fast foods.

Text 5.8.

Eating Out

There is a wide variety of places to go when you want to eat out in Britain. In the most
expensive restaurants and hotels, the style of cooking is often French and the menu is usually
written in French, often with an English translation. Almost all hotels have a restaurant where non-
residents can have lunch or dinner, and a lounge where they can have tea, coffee or a drink before
their meal.
Most towns have a variety of restaurants offering the cuisine of several different countries,
with Indian, Chinese, and Italian restaurants being the most popular. In London especially it is
possible to eat the food of most countries in the world. Most of these ethnic restaurants are owned
and run as small family businesses. Other restaurants are part of a chain, for example Berni or
Harvester, and offer a standard menu throughout the country. Many of these are primarily steak
bars with a choice of other dishes also available. They are often located in old or even historic
buildings in town centers.
Almost all pubs now offer food, which may be snacks bought at the bar or meals in a
separate dining area. Certain pubs have gained a reputation for their excellent food and service, and
a guide to good pubs is now published annually in addition to the guides to good hotels and
restaurants. Wine bars also serve meals and snacks with a wide selection of wine, whereas in pubs
beer is the main drink.
Fast-food restaurants serving American –style pizzas and hamburgers are very popular,
especially with children and young people. There are fewer cafes than there once were, but they can
still be found in most towns. They provide a cheap place to have a cup of tea or a meal and are
usually open all day.
Another feature of British life that is found less frequently nowadays is the” fish and chip”
bar or shop, where you can buy fried fish and chips to eat at home. Other kinds of “take-away
meals” are provided by Chinese, Indian or pizza restaurants.
Many towns, especially those in popular tourist areas, have tea-shops. Although they mainly
provide afternoon tea, with scones, buns and cakes, many also serve morning coffee and lunch.
Tea-shops are often in old buildings and the atmosphere is old-fashioned. There are also-coffee
shops open throughout the day, which serve food as well, mainly cakes and biscuits rather than full
meals.
One of the cheapest places to eat is a snack bar, a type of café. It may not serve meals at all,
but only tea and coffee with food such as rolls, soup and sandwiches. The buffets at railway stations
are often similar, although many serve alcoholic drinks as well. There are eating places for the
motorists on main roads and motorways. They are usually large fast-food restaurants that belong to
a chain and have largely replaced the roadside cafes that were used especially by long-distance
lorry drivers.
The range of restaurants available in the USA is in many ways similar to that in Britain.
Many fast-food chains found in Britain, such as McDonald’s, Burger King, Kentucky Fried
Chicken and Pizza Hut, are American companies. The variety of ethnic restaurants is even greater
in the USA than in Britain.

Text 5.9.

Vegetarianism

It is theory or practice of living solely upon vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts, generally for
ethical, ascetic, or nutritional reasons. Meat, fowl, and fish are excluded from all vegetarian diets,
but some vegetarians use milk and milk products; those in the modern West usually eggs also, but
most vegetarians in India exclude them, as did those in the classical Mediterranean lands.
Vegetarianism – belief in and practice of eating foods obtained exclusively from the
vegetable kingdom, and hence of abstaining from meat and other animal foods. Non-vegetable food
is usually considered by vegetarians to include fowl and fish but practice varies. Vegetarianism is
an ancient custom. It has long existed among certain Hindu and Buddhist sects that consider an
animal life sacred, and it was advocated by numerous philosophers and writers of ancient Greece
and Rome.
Although vegetarianism originated as a religious or ethical practice, it has also gained
acceptance among many for aesthetic, nutritional, and economic reasons.
Humanitarian vegetarians refuse meat because they believe that the killing of animals is
unnecessary or cruel, or that such a practice can conceivably lead to a disregard for human life; the
trades that the slaughter of animals support, such as butchering, are considered degrading. People
who adhere to vegetarianism for health reasons believe that meat is harmful to the human body and
that a purely vegetable diet is more nutritious. Some vegetarians reject meat eating because of the
poor conditions in which livestock may be kept. Others argue that eating meat is a waste of precious
resources when there are so many people in the world who are starving. Because a meatless diet
might result in a protein deficiency, vegetarians need to satisfy their protein needs with corn and
seeds of legumes.
The strictness of diet also varies among vegetarians. Purist vegetarians reject all foods that
are derived from animals, including dairy products such as eggs, milk, cheese and butter. Other
vegetarians abstain only from foods whose production involves the destruction of living animals.
Moderate practitioners allow themselves to eat foods that can be obtained without what they believe
to be unnecessary suffering or pain, for example, net-caught fish. Most vegetarians, preferring food
in its most natural state, oppose the use of both agricultural chemicals and of food processing or
canning.
Vegetarianism is the practice of eating only foods from plants and avoiding all animal flesh
including red meat, poultry, fish and sometimes dairy products. A vegetarian diet consists of grains,
beans, vegetables, and fruits and the foods made from them, such as tofu, pasta, rice dishes, bean
burritos and even simulated meats.
People may choose a vegetarian diet because of a variety of religious, philosophical and
ethical beliefs. Some people abstain from eating meat for religious reasons. They believe that the
killing and eating of animals violates the ethical precept of non-violence. Ecological reasons
motivate other people, because much less land and food outlay is required to raise vegetables and
grain than livestock. Some people avoid animal products for health reasons. Vegetarians may live
longer and have much lower risks for heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other serious illnesses.
They also tend to be thinner, to have lower blood pressure. Vegetarian diets tend to be lower in fat
and cholesterol and higher in fibre and certain vitamins.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

Step 1. Discuss the questions below in pairs.

1. Why is healthy and nutritious food so much spoken about these days?
2. When do people keep the diet?
3. What are the negative consequences of using exhausting diets?
4. Why should people be aware of correct eating habits?
5. What is “junk” food? How can you characterize it?
6. What is your attitude to farinaceous foods? Are they healthy?
7. What kind of food do you enjoy? What are the most delicious things you have ever eaten?
8. Do you ever count calories in food you eat? If yes/no, why?
9. What is your attitude to eating out? Where can people go to eat in Belarus?
10. What are your eating habits? What do you usually have for breakfast, lunch and dinner?
11. What does a traditional English breakfast consist of?
12. What is a continental breakfast?
13. What time do they have lunch in England? What kind of meal is it?
14. What is the difference between the evening meal in Britain and Belarus?
15. Why are take-away restaurants so popular in England and the USA?
16. What is your speciality? Can you share your recipe with your classmates?
17. Why do so many people consider cooking an art?
18. What are the pros and cons of being a vegetarian?
19. What is traditional food? What determines national food?
20. Why has fast food spread all over the world?

Step 2. Approve or disapprove of the following ideas reasoning your opinion.

1. People don’t pay attention to what and when they eat.


2. Belarusian food is really healthy.
3. Meals at weekends always differ from the ones during the working week.
4. Very few people consider themselves gourmets.
5. The variety of cuisines in America is amazing.
6. Americans prefer eating out in restaurants.
7. Cooking can be a great hobby for both men and women.
8. The best chefs in the world are men.
9. Overeating leads to cardiovascular disease.
10. Pubs are good places to go for lunch in Britain.
11. Some people dislike fast food for its predictability.
12. One should be born a cook.
13. People keep the recipe of their specialities as treasure and never share them with anybody.
14. We choose our favourite dishes in childhood and never change our tastes ever since.
15. To make good tea is very simple.
16. Really delicious food always leads to obesity.
17. All women are fed up with cooking.
18. Undernourishment is better than overeating.
19. After being on a diet people always regain the weight.
20. It’s necessary to observe table manners only in a company.

Step 3. Comment on the quotations below. Be as specific as you can.

1. “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are.” A. Brillat-Savarin
2. “A gourmet is just a glutton with brains” P.W. Haberman Jr.
3. “Man is the only animal that can remain on friendly terms with the victims he intends to eat
until he eats them.” S. Butler
4. “The whole of nature, as has been said, is a conjugation of the verb to eat in the active and
passive.” W.R. Inge
5. “Where the guests at a gathering are well-acquainted, they eat 20 percent more than they
otherwise would.” E. W. Howe
6. “On the Continent people have good food; in England people have good dinner manners.” G.
Mikes
7. “Food comes first, then morals.” B. Brecht
8. “It takes some skill to spoil a breakfast – even the English can’t do it.” J. K. Galbraith
9. “If the English can survive their food, they can survive anything.” G. B. Shaw

Step 4. Make up stories using the following proverbs and sayings. The contents of the story
should reveal the gist of the proverb/saying.

1. The appetite comes with eating.


2. Too many cooks spoil the broth.
3. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
4. Hunger finds no fault with the cookery.
5. Enough is as good as a feast.
6. You can not make an omelette without breaking eggs.
7. Square meals often make round people.

Step 5. Read the beginning of the text and develop the idea touched upon in it.

The most important thing about healthy eating is that it gives you the best chance of having
a fit and healthy life. Experts agree that good food reduces the risk of heart attacks, cancer and
many other common diseases. So it’s worth knowing the difference between good and bad food. The
simplest guide to healthy eating is …
Step 6. Make up and act out conversations that would be appropriate in the situations below.
Work in groups of 2 or 3.

1. You are looking forward to entertaining your guests tonight. Your friend and her new boyfriend
are coming. Accidentally you find out that the boyfriend is a vegetarian. Discuss a suitable meal
with your friend. The meal should at least consist of three courses.
2. You are sick and tired of your extra kilogrammes. You consider yourself obese and it makes
you unhappy. You’ve tried numerous diets but in vain. In search of professional help you make
up your mind to go to a dietician. You are given some pieces of advice how to lose weight and
stay healthy. You are eager to start your new life.
3. The three of you are sitting in a restaurant looking at a menu. You are very hungry and are
going to order lots of delicious things. The problem is that you don’t know some dishes. Ask the
waiter to explain to you what ingredients these dishes include and how they are prepared. Order
the starter, main course and desert.
4. Discuss a two-minute radio or TV commercial for your new product: a soft drink, a yoghurt, an
ice-cream or chocolate. Think of the new flavours. Perform your commercial for the class.

Step 7. Arrange a group discussion on the problems suggested below.

1. There is a well-known old saying “Eat to live. Do not live to eat.” Could you comment on it?
2. Food is as much a part of a country’s culture as its landscape, language and literature. Actually,
the national cuisine is a visiting card of a country. How would you advertise Belarusian cuisine
to foreign guests?
3. There are people who compare cooking with painting a picture or writing a book. Every meal is
an act of creation for them. Try to find arguments to prove that cooking is an art.
4. Today most people tend to rely on fast food and convenience food. Is it a fashion of the day or a
life necessity?
5. Fast food restaurants are extremely popular, especially with the young. Are there any reasons
for that? What’s the difference between fast food and home-made meal? Which do you
personally prefer and why?
6. What’s your attitude to vegetarianism? Have you ever tried a vegetarian diet? Would you ever?

Step 8. Debate on the controversial statements. Work in two groups. One group should agree
with the statements below and the other should disagree. Put forward the appropriate
arguments and convince the members of the other group.

1. People eat and drink only for nourishment.


2. We have become a fast food world.
3. Advertisements make people buy unhealthy produce.
4. Snacks ruin our health.
5. Dinner manners are mere formality these days.
6. Dieting can be hazardous for people.

Step 9. Fulfill the following written assignments.

1. Write a list of foods that begin with each letter of the alphabet.
2. Write a description of a visit to your favourite place for eating out.
3. Write a dream menu for a day.
4. Write the recipes of some Belarusian/Russian dishes to be included into the World Cookery
Book.
5. Write a letter to your English/American friend sharing the recipe of your speciality for
Christmas. Describe the way how it is to be made step by step.
6. Work out and write down a dieting program, mentioning foods that should be taken.
7. Design a menu for your favourite restaurant.
SUPPLEMENTARY
READING

FAMILY

Text 1

Twins

I am an identical twin and as children we looked exactly identical. So identical that we had
to wear initials on our shirts so that teachers could tell us apart in school. And I think that’s quite
often the case with identical twins – that when they are young children they tend to be more
identical physically than when they grow up and I think that twins tend to diverge more as they get
into adolescence and then into adulthood.
And I think it reaches its climax when you‘re an adolescent because as an adolescent you are
striving to be an individual but of course everybody looks upon you as one of a pair, so you have
this real problem of identity.
My theory is that twins actually look alike physically but often they complement each other
when it comes to their personalities and natures, if you like. And I think in our experience we
complemented each other, we were the mirror image of each other. So my brother was more
introvert, more academic and I was, perhaps, or still am extrovert.
As children going through primary school we got on very well. We played together, we had
common interests. Our parents actually encouraged that, so that when we were young children we
had piano lessons and we did this and we did that together, and we were just like very, very close
friends. And it was natural for us to play together rather than to play with other children.
When we got to adolescence, then that’s where the truly competitive element came in and
we found ourselves more likely to want not to be together. Not that we argued tremendously but
that we just were searching for our own identities and therefore we would clash more.
Up until the age of eighteen we were always together, but when we left school I went to
teach in France for a year, my brother went straight to university to read sciences. I was doing
languages. So that when I came to go to university he was a year ahead of me and by sheer chance
we ended up in the same college in the same university. The interesting fact was that we had
deliberately aimed not to go to the same university, but because I had this year off and he went
straight in and through a quirk of the selection process, we ended up in the same college. This
college, one of the Cambridge University colleges, seemed to specialise in twins because there were
about half a dozen sets of twins in the college in that year, but what we discovered was that we were
very unlike them because in virtually all cases those sets of twins in our college were reading the
same subjects, lived in the same rooms, wore the same clothes, went to the same lectures. We
actually felt quite different, because my brother was doing sciences, I was doing languages, we had
different rooms, we had different friends in different years.
So we realized that we were actually not anything like as close as other twins that we came
into contact with.

Text 2

Bond of Brotherly Hate


Mary, fifteen months old, would brush her newborn brother’s head with her hairbrush so
hard that she almost drew blood. Three-year-old Bobby sang nursery rhymes and gave four-month-
old Eliza’s cradle such a hard push that she fell out on several occasions.
Sibling rivalry can often be caused by one child feeling, rightly or wrongly, that the parents
prefer the other child or children in the family to them. An eight-year-old girl started having asthma
attacks because she felt her mother was devoting more time and attention to her two younger sisters,
aged five and seven.
A teenage boy of religious parents dropped out and adopted a ‘hippie’ lifestyle because he
believed his parents preferred his younger sister.
According to research, the arrival of a new baby causes most trouble in families where the
mother is particularly close to an elder daughter. But where the child has a close relationship with
the father, there is usually far less conflict after the new birth. Temperament, too, is important.
Children who are irritable or difficult react most strongly to the birth of a sibling.
Not surprisingly it is often when mothers are attending to the new baby that siblings play up.
Rosie Summers recalls: ‘Literally, no sooner had I started to feed the baby than Lisa, then two,
would announce that she wanted a drink or would go into another room and start dropping things. It
was extremely irritating.’
What families forget is that not only is sibling rivalry normal, it can also have a positive
side. It is important to remember Freud’s view that if you cannot hate you cannot love. In most
families, sibling rivalry and sibling affection are two sides of the same coin. A mother of two boys
aged sixteen and ten has this experience: ‘My kids will be at each other’s throats, complaining to
me about the other has done or has got. Yet if someone is unpleasant to one, or if either hurts
himself, nobody could be more caring or concerned than the other.’

LEISURE TIME. HOBBIES

Text 1

Recreation

The word “recreation” brings to mind activities that are relaxing and enjoyable. Such
activities as an evening walk around the neighborhood, a Sunday picnic with the family, and
playing catch in the yard with the children seem relatively spontaneous and relaxing.
Much American recreational activity, however, seems to foreign visitors to be approached
with a high degree of seriousness, planning, organization, and expense. Spontaneity and fun are
absent, as far as the visitor can tell. “These crazy Americans!” a South American exclaimed on
seeing yet another jogger go past her house in sub-freezing, winter weather. Many Americans jog
every day, or play tennis, handball, racquetball, or bridge two or three times a week, or bowl every
Thursday night, or have some other regularly scheduled recreation. They go on vacations, ski trips,
and hunting or fishing expeditions that require weeks of planning and organizing. In the Americans’
view, all these activities are generally fun and relaxing, or are worth the discomfort they may cause
because they contribute to health and physical fitness.
Much American recreation is highly organized. There are classes, clubs, leagues,
newsletters, contests, exhibitions, and conventions centered on hundreds of different recreational
activities. People interested in astronomy, bird watching, cooking, dancing, ecology, fencing,
gardening, hiking – and on and on – can find a group of like-minded people with whom to meet,
learn, and practice or perform.
In America recreation is big business. Many common recreational activities require supplies
and equipment that can be quite costly. Recreational vehicles (used for traveling and usually
including provisions for sleeping, cooking, and bathing) can cost as much as $35,000. in 1984
Americans owned approximately 3,982,000 recreational vehicles, valued at about $&,733 million.
Jogging shoes, hiking boots, fishing and camping supplies, cameras, telescopes, gourmet cookware,
and bowling balls are not low-cost items. Beyond equipment, there is clothing. The fashion industry
has successfully persuaded many Americans that they must be properly dressed for jogging, playing
tennis, skiing, swimming, and so on. Fashionable outfits for these and other recreational activities
can be surprisingly expensive.
A final point that astute foreign observers notice is the relationship between social class and
certain recreational activities. The relationship is by no means invariable, and the element of
geography complicates it. (For example, a relatively poor person who happens to live in the
Colorado mountains may be able to afford skiing there, while an equally poor resident of a plains
state could not afford to get to the mountains and pay for lodging there.) In general, though, golf
and yachting are associated with wealthier people, tennis with better-educated people, and outdoor
sports (camping, fishing, hunting, boating) with middle-class people. Those who bowl or square
dance regularly are likely to represent the lower-middle class. Foreign observers will be able to find
other examples of these relationships in whatever part of the United States they come to know.

SHOPPING

Text 1

Harrods

Welcome to Harrods – a different world for a million reasons. Harrods is the largest store in
Europe with goods displayed in 60 windows and five and a half hectares of selling space. In one
year over 14 million purchases are in the 214 departments where you can buy anything from a pin
to an elephant – if you can convince the manager of the Pet Department that you are a suitable
elephant owner, that is! It is Harrods’ policy to stock a wide and exciting range of merchandise in
every department to give the customer a choice of goods which is unique in its variety and which no
other store can match; Harrods stocks 100 different whiskies, 57 single malts, 450 different cheeses,
500 types of shirts and 9,000 ties to go with them, 8,000 dresses and 150 different pianos.
Harrods also offers a number of special services to its customers including a bank, an
insurance department, a travel agency, London last circulating library, a theatre ticket agency and a
funeral service. £40 million worth of goods are exported annually from Harrods and the Export
Department can deal with any customer purchase or order and will pack and send goods to any
address in the world. Recently, for example, six bread rolls were sent to New York, a handkerchief
to Los Angeles, a pound of sausages to a yacht anchored in the Mediterranean, a Persian carpet to
Iran and £5,000 chess set to Australia. Harrods has a world-wide reputation for first-class service. It
has a staff of 4,000, rising to 6,000 at Christmas time.
Harrods sells 5 million different products, not all of which are actually kept in stock in the
store itself. To handle this enormous range, a new computerized warehouse is being built. It will be
the largest warehouse in Britain and the second largest in Europe and will deal with a wider range
of goods than any other distribution centre in the world. Thanks to its modern technology a
customer will be able to order any product from any assistant in the store. The assistant will be able
to check its availability immediately on a computer screen, decide with the customer on a suitable
delivery date and time and then pass the order directly to the warehouse through the computer. The
time of delivery will be guaranteed to within one hour.
For many of London’s visitors Harrods is an important on their sightseeing programme.
Henry Charles Harrod’s first shop was opened in 1849, but the building as it stands today was
started in1901 and it has become one of London’s landmarks. It has many items of architectural
interest: the plaster ceilings are original, as is the famous Meat Hall with its Victorian wall tiles, and
the light fittings on the ground floor date back to the 1930s. A morning spent strolling round
Harrods is guaranteed to give any shopper an appetite, and feed its customers Harrods has six
restaurants, ranging from the Circle self-service restaurants offering delicious food at reasonable
prices to the famous Harrods Restaurant, where queues form every afternoon for the “Grand Buffet
Tea”, which for a fixed price allows you to eat as many cream cakes and gateaux as your greed will
allow while waitresses serve you with India or China tea. If you feel like a drink you can choose
between the pub atmosphere of the Green Man Tavern and the sophistication of the Cocktail
Lounge. Harrods truly is a different world.
(Advertising Leaflet)

Text 2

Know Your Rights

Complaining about faulty goods or bad service is never easy. Most people dislike making
a fuss. However, when you are shopping, it is important to know your rights. When you buy
something from a shop, you are making a contract. This contract means that it’s up to the shop – not
the manufacturer – to deal with your complaints if the goods are not satisfactory. What do we mean
by satisfactory?
The goods must not be broken or damaged and must work properly. This is known as
“merchantable quality” .A sheet, say, which had a tear in it, or a clock that didn’t go when you
wound it would not pass this test.
The goods must be as described – whether on the pack or by the salesman. A hairdryer,
which the box says is blue, should not turn out to be pink, a pair of shoes the salesman says is
leather should not be plastic.
The goods should be fit for their purpose. This means the purpose for which most people
buy those particular goods. If you wanted something for a special purpose, you must have said
exactly what for. If, for instance, the shop assures you that a certain glue will mend broken china,
and it doesn’t you have a right to return it.
If the shop sells you faulty goods, it has broken its side of the bargain. If goods are faulty
when you first inspect or use them, go back to the shop, say that you cancel the purchase and ask
for a complete refund. If you prefer, you can accept a repair or a replacement.
If the goods break down through no fault of yours, after you have used them for a time, you
may still be entitled to some compensation. In some cases it would be reasonable to expect a
complete refund – if, for instance, without misuse your shoes came apart after only one day’s wear,
or your washing machine irreparably broke down after only three wash days.
But if your washing machine worked perfectly for a while and then broke you could only
expect some of the purchase price back. You and the supplier must negotiate a reasonable
settlement.
You need never accept a credit note for faulty goods. If you do so, then later find you do not
want anything in the shop or store, you may not get your money back.
If you have to spend money as a direct result of goods being faulty, you can also claim this
from the shop. You could, for example, claim the cost of using a laundry while the washing
machine wasn’t working. But you must keep such expenses down to a minimum.
There are four golden rules:
1. Examine the goods you buy at once. If they are faulty, tell the seller quickly.
2. Keep any receipts you are given. If you have to return something the receipt will help to
prove where and when you bought it.
3. Don’t be afraid to complain. You are not asking a favour to have faulty goods put right.
The law is on your side.
4. Be persistent (but no aggressive). If your complain is justified it’s somebody’s
responsibility to put things right.
Remember:
1. You can’t complain about defects that were pointed out to you, or that you could
reasonably have been expected to notice.
2. Stop using the item as soon as you discover a fault.
3. You are not entitled to compensation if you simply change your mind about wanting the
goods.

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE. RELATIONSHIPS.

Text 1

Friends and Friendship

What is more welcome than the sound of a friend’s voice, the sight of her smiling face, the
warmth of an embrace? It’s one of life’s finest blessings to have a friend with whom we can safely
discuss our fears and enthusiastically share our dreams – someone who accepts us totally as we are
in spite of our shortcomings.
A true friend encourages us, comforts us, supports us like a big easy chair, offering us a safe
refuge from the world. A true friend stands at our side during the best and the worst of times. A true
friend listens when we need to talk through a problem. A true friend answers the phone at midnight
and doesn’t resent the call. A true friend will defend us to the world.
We speak of “friends and acquaintances” because we know the difference. Acquaintances
we meet, enjoy and can easily leave behind; but friendship grows deep roots. Even when we are
separated by time and distance, friendship continues to grow and mature.
We’ve all had the experience of meeting an old friend after many years and discovering that
we are able to renew our relationship as if the separation had only bee a few minutes. A proverb
advises “Hold a true friend with both hands”.
True and faithful friends are indeed a treasure, touching our hearts and strengthening our
spirit with their words, their touch, and sometimes by their silent presence.
H. Jackson Brown

Text 2

Astrology

Aries (The Ram) – 21st March-20th April


You want to be important and successful. You are very positive. You say what you think.
You are sometimes selfish and you are always the first to start arguing. Taurus (The Bull)
– 21st April-21st May
You always tell the truth. When you promise to do something you do it. You need to have
things more than you need people. You often refuse to accept new ideas.
Gemini (The Twins) – 22nd May-21st June
You are charming, intelligent, and creative. Most people like you, but you are two- faced –
you can say one thing and mean another. You don’t concentrate and you get bored easily.
Cancer (The Crab) – 22nd June-23rd July
You like being at home. You always try to look after your family. You are kind and
sympathetic. You enjoy eating and relaxing. You don’t like working too hard.
Leo (The Lion) – 24th July- 23rd August
You always expect to be the leader. You like giving things to people, and you enjoy having
people in your home. You are not good at being polite.
Virgo (The Virgin) – 24th August-23rd September
You tell people everything about yourself. People can trust you. You like helping others.
You hate quarrelling and you hate things being untidy. You dislike spending money.
Libra (The Scales) – 24th September-23rd October
You enjoy being with other people. You care about other people’s feelings. You don’t
always say what you mean. You day-dream a lot. You have a high opinion of yourself.
Scorpio (The Scorpion) – 24th October-22nd November
You believe in yourself. You are brave. You don’t stop doing something until you have
finished the job. Scorpios often talk about themselves. You need to control others. You are a very
dangerous enemy.
Sagittarius (The Archer) – 23rd November-22nd December
You are good at doing practical things. You love playing sports. You are honest, optimistic
and cheerful. You don’t mind taking risks. You don’t tell others what to do.
Capricorn (The Goat) – 23rd December-20th January
You like being the boss. You need to have money and status. You don’t mind working hard.
When you decide to do something, you do it. You don’t like sitting around and doing nothing.
Aquarius (The Water Carrier) – 21st January-19th February
You want to help the whole world and everyone in it. The group is more important then the
individual for you. Your temper goes up and down. You are good at concentrating. You are not
good at doing practical things.
Pisces (The Fish) – 20th February-20th March
You believe people, and you do what they tell you to do. You have a strong imagination.
You like music and art. You are very sympathetic, kind and friendly. You get depressed easily.

FOOD AND MEALS

Text 1

How Do You Make…?

Vegetable Soup
Peel and cut into very small pieces three onions, three turnips, one carrot and four potatoes,
put them into a pan with 100g of butter, 150g of ham and a bunch of parsley; pass them ten minutes
over a sharp fire, then add a spoonful of flour, mix well; add 2 litres of broth and 0.5 litre of boiling
milk; boil up, keeping it stirred; skim it; add a little salt and sugar and run it through a sieve into
another pan; boil again and serve with fried bread in it.
Stewed Beef and Pork
Put into a saucepan about 800g of beef cut into 8 pieces; 200g of pork cut into 2 pieces; six
table spoonfuls of rice; 4 middle sized onions peeled and sliced; a table spoonful of sugar; a little
pepper and salt; add 2 litres of water; simmer gently for three hours; remove the fat from top and
serve.
Home Made Cake
250g of flour; 250g of castor sugar; 250g of seedless raisins; 50g of chopped almonds; 50g
of preserved cherries; 170g of butter; 4 eggs; pinch of soda. Sieve the flour, sugar and soda together
into a basin, add the prepared fruit-chopped cherries and almond. Add eggs and butter. Mix it
thoroughly. Place in a tin lined with greaseproof paper and brush with some melted butter. Bake in
a slow oven for 2 hours. Leave for 5 minutes in a tin, then turn it out and cool.
Text 2

British Meals

British people usually eat three meals a day – breakfast, lunch and the evening meal. There
are numerous myths about the traditional English breakfast. Many foreigners believe we eat a huge
plateful of fried eggs, bacon, sausages and goodness knows what else. No doubt they have this idea
because many of them stay at hotels or bed and breakfasts, where they do get offered such a meal.
But normally we don’t eat this sort of thing.
Instead of that huge fry-up, the vast majority of British people eat a healthy breakfast. The
most popular item is a bowl of cereal, for example Corn Flakes, with cold milk. After our bowl of
cereal we’ll often have some toast. And the traditional thing to put on your toast at breakfast time is
marmalade.
In the past, lunch, traditionally eaten at one o’clock, was the main meal of the day. In the
fifties and sixties, when it was normal for shops and businesses to close for lunch, my grandfather
used to leave his office and go and eat at home.
But since the 1980s very few businesses have closed for lunch, and today, if they have a
lunch break, most working people grab a chicken tikka masala sandwich from a kiosk or have a
quick Greek salad in a lunch bar. And of course most wives go out to work as well. But working
lunches at a restaurant, where business will be discussed, are very common. These occasions are
sometimes known by the formal title of “luncheon”. Schools usually have a one-hour break for
lunch.
The more traditional or formal lunch will be composed of two or three courses. A two-
course meal – the more popular but less formal variation – consists of a main course and pudding.
A three-course meal usually consists of soup, the main course then pudding, which may be given its
more formal name of “dessert”.
Nowadays the evening meal is often the main meal of the day. Popular meals are spaghetti
Bolognese, lasagna or similar pasta dishes, chillis and curries, which may also be served for lunch.
Puddings may be eaten in the evening too, especially if you’ve got guests. In this case the evening
meal is not called supper, but rather “dinner”, a more formal name which derives from the verb “to
dine”, meaning “to eat a meal”.

Text 3

Foods To Help Keep You Healthy

Do you feel weak and worn out halfway through your daily routine? Eating right can help
boost your energy and make you feel stronger.
Food is what makes your body perform to its fullest. There are many foods that give you a
quick burst of energy including candy bars, cakes and ice-cream. These foods do not provide a
constant energy source, and give no lasting power. Foods that are high in sugar give you a high that
lasts about an hour and then takes two hours of exercise to burn off its calories. There are other
foods that give you energy that continues for hours at a higher level. These are carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are an important energy source that can be stored until needed by the body.
Carbohydrate is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the body needs energy, it breaks
off pieces of glycogen and releases it into the blood stream. The saying “If it tastes good, then it is
not good for you” is not always true. Here are some foods that are healthy, renew our energy and
taste good too.
Bagels are a great source of complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates can be stored and
keep your body running at an even level for hours. Bagels are an excellent quick, energy snack.
You can bring a bagel anywhere and eat it when you get hungry or tired.
Tuna fish is loaded with proteins, which are necessary to keep you feeling alert. Too many
carbohydrates without protein will leave you without energy. Tuna contains an amino acid that
helps produce brain neuro-transmitters. These bring your brain to full attention and allow you to
think clearly.
Fruits are a great source of energy also. The energy in fruits is in the form of complex
carbohydrates. Strawberries are an especially rich source of Vitamin C. Bananas supply a large dose
of potassium that helps maintain muscle and nerve functions and helps prevent overheating. The
sugars in fruits are easily digested in the form of carbohydrates.
A balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, fish and grains will keep you healthy, energetic, and
alert during your daily routine.
It is recommended you exercise at least thirty to sixty minutes each day. Most daily
activities are aerobic since they require little power and occur over prolonged periods. Aerobic
exercise can include any combination of running, swimming, canoeing, walking or even raking and
mowing the lawn. Aerobic exercise increases your stamina and keeps your body healthy.
Next time you reach for a candy bar as a source of quick energy, try having a bagel or fruit
instead. Eating these foods, other carbohydrates, and protein-filled foods, you will feel a difference
in your overall performance in a few days.

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