Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 285

Высшее профессиональное образование

И. В. Зыкова

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ
курс
АНГЛИЙСКОЙ
ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИИ

A PRACTICAL COURSE
IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

3 -е и з д а н и е

Языкознание
В Ы С Ш Е Е П Р О Ф Е С С И О Н А Л Ь Н О Е О Б Р А З О В А Н И Е

И. В.ЗЫКОВА

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОЙ
ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИИ

A PRACTICAL COURSE
IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

Рекомендовано
Учебно-методическим объединением по образованию в об ла сти лингвистики
Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации
в качестве учебного пособия для сту д е н то в лингвистических вузов
и ф акультетов иностранных языков

.’ (ГХНИКАЛЫК.
V-. ^КСИТЕТ!
К :Т А П Х м Н А
БИ БЛИ О ТЕКА
КОСТАтЫЙСКИЙ С '‘ •.^.Ъ и О ТЕХНИЧЬСКИЙ
Москва УНИос' «ТЕГ
Издатель Ь тУ Г
У Д К 802.0:801.3(075.8)
Б Б К 81.2Англ-3 я73
3-966

Р е й с н з е и т ы:
доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры стилистики английского
т ы к а Московского государственною лингвистического университета
F . Г. IБеляеве к а я :
до цент кафедры английского языка Московского государственного
лингвистического университета Т. В . Тидевосян:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка
Московской государственной юридической академии А . В .Л ор о ш енкп

З ы к о в а И .В .
3-966 Практический курс английской лек си к ологи и = A Practical
Course in English Lexicology : учеб, п особи е для стул, ли н гв ,
вузов и фак. нн. языков / И . В. Зыкова. — 3-е изд.. стер. — М . :
Издательский центр •А кадем ия». 2008. — 288 с.
IS B N 978-5-7695-5568-8
Учебное пособие охватывает всю программу курса лексикологии анг­
лийского языка. В нем рассматриваются важнейшие проблемы лексико­
логии в свете ведущих принципов современной линг мистики Введение в
теоретические проблемы курса осуществляется на ф оне обобщ ающ ею
описании основ лексического строя английского языка. Каждый раздел
пособия снабжен вопросами и практическими заданиями, контролирую­
щими и углубляющими понимание языковых явлений, а также стимули­
рующими самостоятельный анали i фактов языка.
Д ля студентов лингвистических вузов н факультетов иностранных язы­
ков

У Д К 802.0:801.3(075.8)
Б Б К 81.2Англ-3 я73

Оригшш . 1 -м акет да я ш м и ик/ни я являет ся собствен нос п и jo


И irkim e ./некого цент ра -А кад ем и я-, и его воспроизведение лю бым способом
без согласия правообладат еля запрещается

© Зыком И В . 200"
© Образовательно-издательским центр -Академия». 2007
IS B N 9 7 Н - 5 - 7 6 9 5 - 5 5 6 8 - 8 © О ф о р м л е н и е . ИхительскмП центр-Академии». 2007
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

П редлагаем ое у ч ебн ое п о соб и е представляет со б о й курс лек ­


с и к о л о г и и а н гл и й ск о го язы ка и пред н азн ачен о д ля студен тов
лингвистических университетов и институтов, а также д ля студен­
тов Ф акультетов иностранны х языков. П о с о б и е может бы ть и с­
пользовано при изучении элементов лексикологи и на занятиях по
речевой практике и культуре речевого общ ен и я , а также на заня­
тиях, посвящ енны х проблем ам м еж культурной коммуникации.
П о соби е может бы ть использовано также при написании курсо­
вых и дипломны х работ, при вы полнении сам остоятельны х у ч еб­
но-исследовательских заданий и при сам остоятельной работе нал
языковым материалом.
П рактические цели учебного п особи я предполагают усвоение
осн ов частной лек си к ологи и , ознаком ление студентов с наиболее
важными особен н остям и структурно-семантического строя анг­
ли й ск ого языка, что поможет им в дальнейш ем созн ательно под­
ходить к изучению лексики в практическом плане.
В п особи и осущ ествлен единый подход к излож ению материа­
л а . осн овн ой особен н о стью которого являются поэтапная прора­
ботка теоретических полож ений курса и контроль, осущ ествляе­
мый посредством вопросов и практических заданий. С облю дение
о б щ е го при н ц и п а ор ган и зац и и материала сп особств ует б о л е е
мрфективному усвоению всех вклю ченных в п особи е тем.
Теори я является неотъ ем лем ой частью процесса подготовки
специалистов по межкультурной коммуникации. Без углублени я
в теоретические аспекты языка невозмож на подготовка квалиф и­
цированных кадров в обла сти лингвистики, а также ф илологии
Знание теоретических о с н о в как частных, так и общ и х л и н гв и ­
стических дисциплин способствует достиж ению высоких резуль­
татов в ходе обучения иностранном у языку, позволяет сф орм иро­
вать прочные навыки практического использования того и ли ино­
го и н ос тр а н н о го язы ка. В настоящ ее время и сслед ов атели все
чаще приходят к выводу о том . что б е з зн а н и я т еории изучение
Я ш к о в сущ ест венно осл ож н я ет ся . О бучаю щ ийся, нс имею щ ий
пр едставлен ия о стр у к ту р н о-д ер и в а ц и о н н ы х , сем анти чески х,
прагматических и других особен ностях изучаем ого языка, а так­
же е г о разнообразны х закономерностях, н с сп особен п л а н и р о ­
ваться к новой д ля него язы ковой среде, к новым для н его язы ­
ковым стандартам и речевым ситуациям, не готов к адекватному
использованию изучаемых языковых средств, поскольку в значи-
»е льн о и степени оп ирается на знани я и возм ож н ости р о д н ого
языка. Таким об р а зо м , овладени е теоретической базой данны х
того или и н ого ин остранн ого языка гарантирует успех в п роцес­
се м еж культурного общ ен и я, сн им ает п р о б лем у возникновения
различны х межъязыковых конф ликтов, сущ ественно пониж аю ­
щ их степень эф фективности процесса межкультурной ком м уни­
ка ц и и . и ф ор м и р уе т п р о ч н ы е р е ц еп т и в н ы е и п р од укти в н ы е
межъязыковые умения, необходимы е для достиж ения понимания
на межкультурном уровне общ ения.
Характер и о бъ ем теоретического материала оп ределен прак­
тической необходим остью и целесообразностью . Теоретические
сведения предлагаются в объ ем е, необходимом для практическо­
го оаладения определенны м и лингвистическим и понятиями. Т е ­
оретический материал во м ногих случаях сопровождается схема­
ми и таблицам и, что делает теори ю более наглядной и запомина­
ющейся.
Практическая часть учебн ого пособия начинается с серии воп­
росов. которые даются после каждой части или главы. Вопросы,
выносимые на обсуж дение, предшествуют блоку практических за­
даний, что. безусловн о, облегчает их вы полнение, поск ольку дан­
ные вопросы способствую т не тольк о повторению пройденного
теоретического материала, н о и концентрации внимания студ ен ­
тов на наи более важных научны х понятиях и явлениях языка.
О с о б о е вн им ан ие в книге уделяется ор ган и зац и и работы с
практическим материалом. Б ольш инство практических заданий
содержит образцы их вы полнения. П рактические задания — это
осн овн ой сп о с о б выработки ум ени й и приобретения навыков в
работе с английским языком.
О сн овой д ля практических заданий служат разнообразны е с о ­
временные английские лексикограф ические источники, а также
соврем енны е английские тексты. Практический материал о тби ­
рался с таким расчетом, чтобы он . с одной сторон ы , расш ирял и
од н овр ем ен н о у гл у б л я л представление о том и ли ином ли н гв и ­
стическом явлении, с другой сторон ы , облегчат понимание самой
сути этого янления. формируя прочны е навыки не тольк о его рас­
познавания среди множества других фактов языка, н о и научно­
го анализа лингвистических данных.
П особи е содержит б о л е е 160 разнообразны х практических за­
даний. В соответствии с задачами практической лексикологи и ав­
тор предлагает для вы полнения следую щ ие практические задания:
I ) развивающие ум ение анализировать язы ковы е факты на о с н о ­
ве приобретенны х знаний: 2) направленные на нахождение прак­
ти ч еск ого реш ен ия п р о б л ем ы на са м о сто я тельн о о то б р а н н о м
материале; 3 ) развивающ ие аналитическое м ы ш ление и ум ение
обо б щ а ть и систематизировать конкретны й язы ковой материал;
4 ) развивающие языковую догадку. Б ольш ое количество практи­
ческих заданий и наличие клю чей к ним даю т установку на само­
стоятельн ое творческое изучение англи йск ого языка, позволяю т
значительно расш ирить сферу его практического применения. Та­
ким обр азом , вы полняя эти задания, студенты развивают чувство
языка, пополняю т свой словарны й запас, а также знакомятся с со­
временными тенденциями в английской языковой системе.
П рактические задания м ож но рассматривать также как д о п о л ­
нительны й иллю стративны й материал к теоретическим полож е­
ниям курса.
У ч е б н о е п о соб и е заверш ается вы п олн ен и ем теста п о всему
пройденном у материалу. В опросы теста построены в строгом с о ­
ответствии с той п ослед ова тельн остью , в которой представлен
теоретический материал. Клю чи к тесту помогаю т студентам са­
м остоятельно оц ени ть свои знания и степень усвоени я той или
ин ой темы.
А втор сердечно благодарит рецензентов книги за реком енда­
ции, сделанны е ими при ознаком лении с пособием , а также, н е­
сом н ен н о. свою сем ью за понимание, терпение и поддержку.

И. В. Зыкова
INTRODUCTION

1.1 T h e O b je ct o f L ex ico lo g y . Links o f L e x ic o lo g y w ith O th er


I Branches o f Linguistics
2.1 T w o Approaches to Language Study
3.J The Course o f M o d em English Lexicology

1. TH E O B JE C T OF LEXICOLOGY.
LINKS O F LEXICOLOGY WITH OTHER BRANCHES
OF LINGUISTICS

T h e term ‘lexicology' is com posed o f tw o G reek morphemes: lexis


denoting ‘word* and logos denoting ‘ learning’ . Thus the literal meaning
o f the term ‘ lexicology’ is ‘ the science o f the w ord'. In m odem linguistics
lexicology is on e o f the branches o f science dealin g with different
properties o f words and the vocabulary o f a language.
T h e term ‘word’ denotes the basic unit o f a language resulting from
the association o f a particular meaning w ith a particular group o f sounds
capable o f a p a rticu la r gram m atica l em p lo y m e n t. T h e w ord is a
structural and semantic entity within the language system.
T h e term ‘vocabulary’ is used to denote the system form ed b y the
total sum o f all the words that the language possesses.
D istin ction is naturally m ade between G en eral L e x ic o lo g y and
Special Lexicology.
T h e general study o f words and vocabulary, irrespective o f the specific
features o f any particular language, is known as General Lexicology.
Special Lexicology is the le x ic o lo g y o f a particular language
(e.g . English, Russian, etc.), i.c . the study and description o f its words
and vocabulary. Special Lexicology m ay be historical and descriptive.
T h e evolution o f any vocabulary, as w ell as o f its single elements,
forms the object o f Historical Lexicology. Th is branch o f linguistics
deals with the origin o f various words, their change and development,
and investigates the linguistic and extra-linguistic forces m odifying their
structure, meaning and usage. In the past historical treatment was always
combined with the comparative method. Historical lexicology has been
criticized for its atomistic approach, i.c. for treating every w ord as an
individual and isolated unit. Th is drawback is, however, not intrinsic
to the science itself.
D e s c rip tiv e L e x ic o lo g y deals w ith the vocabu lary o f a given
language at a given stage o f its development. It studies the functions o f
words and their specific structure as a characteristic inherent in the
system (D iagram 1).

D ia g r a m I

LEXICOLOGY

Lexicology has close ties with oth er branches o f linguistics as they


also take into account words in on e way o r another approaching them
from different angles.
T h ere is a relationship between lex ic o lo g y and phonetics since
phonetics is also concerned with the study o f the w ord, i.e. with the
sound-form o f the word. A close connection between lexicology and
grammar is conditioned by the manifold ties between the objects o f their
study. Even isolated words as presented in a dictionary bear a definite
relation to the grammatical system o f the language because they belong
to som e part o f sp eech and c o n fo r m to som e lexico-gram m atical
characteristics o f the w ord class to w hich they belong. Lexicology is
linked with the history o f a language since the latter investigates the
changes and the development o f the vocabulary o f a language. There is
also a close relationship between lexicology and stylistics. Stylistics
studies many problems treated in lexicology. These are the problems o f
m eaning, synonymy, differentiation o f vocabulary' a ccord in g to the
sphere o f communication and some other issues. Lexicology is bound
up w ith sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics investigates the extra-linguistic
o r social causes o f the changes in the vocabulary’ o f a language. T h e
word-stock o f a language directly and im m ediately reacts to changes in
social life. T h e intense development o f science and technology, which
is a social, i.e. an extra-linguistic factor, has lately given birth to a great
num ber o f new w ords, e .g .: C D - R O M ( ‘ com p act disc rea d -on ly
m em ory: a C D on which large quantities o f information can be stored
to be used b y a computer, etc.'), e -m a il ( ‘a system that allows you to
send and receive messages by c o m p u te r'). S M S ( ‘ te c h n ic a l short
m essage service: a m eth od o f sendin g a text m essage t o a m obile
p h o n e'): p a g er ( a small radio device, activated from a central point which
em its a series o f bleeps or vibrates to inform the wearer that someone
wishes to contact them or that it has received a short text message’ ).
2. TW O APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE STUDY

There are tw o principal approaches in linguistic science to the study


o f language m aterial, nam ely the synchronic ( o r d esc rip tiv e) and
the d ia ch ro n ic ( o r h is to ric a l) approach . T h e d is tin ctio n betw een
a synchronic and a diachronic approach is due to the Swiss philologist
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 — 1913) who separated the two approaches
stating that syn ch ron ic linguistics is con cern ed w ith systems and
diachronic linguistics — with single units. Subsequent investigations,
however, have shown the possibility and the necessity o f introducing the
historical point o f view into systematic studies even in lexicology’.
T h e term 'synchronic' is com posed o f tw o G reek morphemes syn
meaning 'together, w ith ' and ch ro n o s which denotes 'tim e'. Thus, w ith
regard to special lexicology the synchronic approach is concerned with
the vocabulary o f a language as it exists at a given period o f tim e,
e.g. at the present time.
T h e term ‘diachronic' is com posed o f the G reek morphemes dia
meaning 'through' and ch ro n o s meaning ‘ tim e’. Thus, the diachronic
approach in terms o f special lexicology deals with the changes and the
development o f vocabulary in the course o f time.
T h e tw o approaches in le x ic o lo g y (syn ch ron ic and d ia ch ro n ic)
should not be contrasted or set on e against the other; in fact, they are
interconnected and interdependent: every’ linguistic structure and system
exists in a state o f a constant developm ent so that th e s y n ch ro n ic state
o f a language system is a result o f a long process o f linguistic evolution,
the result o f th e h is to ric a l development o f the language.
A g o o d exam ple illustrating both the distinction between the tw o
approaches and their interconnection is furnished b y the words to beg
and beggar. Synchronically, these words are related as a sim ple word
(to b e g ) and a derived w ord*1 (b eg g a r). T h e noun b egga r is derived from
the verb to b e g b y means o f the suffix -ar. Diachronically, however, we
leam that the noun b egga r was borrowed from O ld French and the vert)
to beg appeared in the English language as a result o f back derivation2,
i.e. it was derived from the noun beggar.
Thus, the synchronic approach studies language at a theoretical ‘ point'
in time. It refers to Descriptive Lexicology as this branch o f Linguistics
deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary units o f language at a certain
tim e. T h e diach ronic approach refers t o H istorical L ex ico lo g y that
studies the developm ent o f language o r languages over time.

1Derived word — a word formed or originated from another or from a root in the
same or another language.
1 Back derivation — the formation o f a wold from the stem (base) of another word,
i.e. by means o f cuning o ff suffixes (prefixes) from the source word. See also the
formation of the words: to burgle from the word burglar, to enthuse from enthusiasm,
to legislate from legislator.
3 . TH E COURSE O F MODERN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

M o d e r n E n g lis h L e x i c o lo g y a im s a! g iv in g a sy s te m a tic
d e s c rip tio n o f the w o rd -s to c k o f M o d e r n E n glish . W o rd s, th eir
com ponent parts — m orphem es — and various types o f word-groups,
are subjected to structural and semantic analysis prim arily from the
synchronic angle. Thus, M o d em English L ex ico lo g y investigates the
problem s o f word-structure and w ord-form ation in M o d e m English,
the semantic structure o f English words, the main principles underlying
the classification o f vocabulary units in to various groupings, the laws
governing the replenishment o f the vocabulary with new vocabulary'
units.
M o d em English Lexicology studies the relations between various
layers o f the English vocabulary and the specific laws and regulations
that govern its developm ent at the present time. T h e source and growth
o f the English vocabulary, the changes it has undergone in its history
are also dwelt upon. A section dealing with Lexicography, the science
and art o f dictionary-com piling, is also traditionally included in a course
o f Lexicology.
T h e course o f M o d e m English L e x ic o lo g y is o f great practical
im p o rta n c e as th e la n gu a ge le a r n e r w ill o b ta in m uch valu ab le
in form a tion co n cern in g the English w ord -stock and the laws and
regulations governing the form ation and usage o f English words and
word-groups.
T h is text-book treats the follow ing basic problems:
1. Semasiology;
2. Word-Structure;
3. W ord-Form ation:
4 . Etymology- o f the English W ord-Stock;
5. W ord-G roups and Phraseological Units;
6. Variants and Dialects o f the English Language;
7. English Lexicography.

QUESTIONS
1. What G reek morphemes is the term ‘ lexicology’ com posed of?
2. W hat does lexicology study?
3. W hat does the term ‘ w ord' denote?
4. W hat is the term ‘vocabulary’ used to denote?
5. W hat is the object o f study o f General Lexicology?
6. W hat does Special Lexicology study?
7. W hat forms the object o f study o f Historical Lexicology?
8. W hat does Descriptive Lexicology deal with?
9. W hat branches o f linguistics does lexicology have close ties with?
10. W hat are the prin cip a l a pproach es in lingu istic science to
the study o f language material?
11. W hat scientist m ade the distinction between a synchronic and
a diachronic approach?
12. W hat is the literal m eaning o f the term •synchronic’ w hich is
G reek by origin?
13. What is the synchronic approach concerned with?
14. W hat is the literal m eaning o f the term ‘ diachronic* which is
G reek b y origin?
15. What does the diachronic approach deal with?
16. W hy are the synchronic and the diachronic approaches inter­
connected and interdependent? G ive an example.
17. W hat does M o d em English Lexicology aim at?
18. W hat problems does M o d em English Lexicology investigate?
19. W hat s e c tio n is also tra d itio n a lly in c lu d ed in a co u rse o f
Lexicology? Why?
20. W hy is the course o f M o d em English Lexicology o f great practical
importance fo r the language learner?
SEMASIOLOGY

1. M eaning as a Linguistic N otion


1 .1 . Referential o r Analytical Definitions o f M eaning
1. 2 . Functional or Contextual Definitions o f Meaning
1.3. Operational o r Information-Oriented Definitions o f Meaning
2. Twt> Approaches to the Content Facet o f Linguistic Units. Nam ing
3. Types o f Meaning
4. Aspects o f Lexical M eaning

T h e branch o f lexicology that is devoted to the study o f meaning is


called semasiology. What is meaning? T o define meaning is especially
difficult due to the com plexity o f the process b y which language and
human consciousness serve to reflect outward reality and to adopt it to
human needs.
T h e definition o f lexical meaning has been attempted m ore than once
in accordance with the main principles o f different linguistic schools .
At present there is n o universally accepted definition o f m eaning, or
rather a definition reflecting all the basic features o f m eaning and being
at th e same tim e operational. N everth eless d ifferen t d efin itio n s o f
m ea n in g help to sum up the gen eral characteristics o f the notion
com paring various approaches to the description o f the content side o f
the language.

1. M EANING AS A LINGUISTIC N O TIO N

Th ere are three main categories o f definitions o f meaning which may


be referred to as
— referential or analytical definitions o f meaning:

1The disciples o f F. de Saassure. a Swiss linguist (1857 - 1913). consider meaning


Ю the relations between the object or notion named and the name itsdf. Descriptive
linguistics o f the Bloom field ian trend defines meaning as ihe situation in which the
word is uttered.
— functional o r contextual definitions o f meaning;
— operational or information-oriented definitions o f meaning.

1.1. Referential or Analytical Definitions


of Meaning
T h e essential characteristic o f the referential approach is that it
distinguishes between the three com ponents closely connected with
meaning:
1) the sound-form o f the linguistic sign:
2 ) the concept underlying this sound-form:
3 ) the referent, i.c. the part or aspect o f reality to which the linguistic
sign refers.
T h e referential m odel o f meaning is the so-called 'basic triangle'
which is graphically represented on Diagram 2.

Diagram 2

T h e sound-form o f the linguistic sign [dAvJ is connected with our


concept o f the bird which it denotes and through it with the referent,
i.e . the actual bird. T h e diagram im plies that m eaning is in a way
a correlation between the sound-form o f a word, the underlying concept
and the concrete object it denotes. Hence, the questions arise: in what
way does m eaning correlate with each element o f the triangle and in
what relation does m eaning stand to each o f them?
1- It is easily observed that the sound-form o f the w ord is not identical
with its meaning. There is no inherent connection between the sound-
cluster |d.\v| and the m eaning o f the w ord d ove. T h e con n ection is
conventional and arbitrary. This can be easily proved by com paring the
so u n d -fo rm s o f d iffe re n t languages co n ve y in g on e and the same
meaning: English |d\v| and Russian (gohrb']. T h e words have different
sound-form s but express the same meaning.
2. When we examine a w ord w e see that its m eaning though closely
connected with the underlying concept o r concepts is not identical with
it o r with them. Concept is a category o f human cognition (категория
м ы ш лен ия). Concept is the thought o f an object that singles out its
essen tial featu res. Concepts are th e results o f a b stractio n and
generalization. Thus they are almost the same for the whole o f humanity
concept “ a building for human “ fixed residence o f family
language habituation- or household"

English house home

Russian ДОМ лом

in on e and the same period o f its historical developm ent. T h e meanings


o f w ords, how ever, are d ifferen t in d ifferen t languages. C om p a re
the linguistic expression o f on e and th e sam e con cept in different
languages (Table I ).
T h is comparison proves the fact that the concepts expressed by one
and the same w ord in on e language (in Russian), can be expressed by
tw o different words in the other language (in English).
3. Distinguishing m eaning from the referent, i.e. from the thing
denoted by the linguistic sign, is o f the utmost importance. T o begin
with, meaning is linguistic whereas the denoted object o r the referent is
beyond the scope o f language. O n e and the same object can be denoted
b y m ore than on e word o f a different meaning. For exam ple, in speech
the referent

can b e d en oted b y the w o rd ca r.


a n im a l, pussy. T om . th is . p e t. etc. A ll these w ords have the same
referent, but different meanings. Besides, there are w ords that have
distinct meaning but d o not refer to any existing thing, e.g. m erm a id —
‘an imaginary sea creature that has the upper body o f a wom an and a
fish’s tail”; a n gel — ‘ a spirit that in some religions is believed to live in
heaven with G o d : in pictures, angels are shown as people with wings':
p h o e n ix — ‘ in ancient stories, an imaginary bird which set fire to itself
every 500 years and was b o m again, rising from its ashes <= the powder
left after its body has been burnt)’ : etc.
T h e conclusion is that m eaning is not to be identical with any o f the
three points o f the triangle — the sound-form , the con cept and the
referent, but is closely connected with them.
T h e referential definitions o f meaning are usually criticized on the
ground that: I ) they cannot be applied to sentences; 2 ) they cannot
account fo r certain sem antic additions em ergin g in th e process o f
com m unication; 3 ) they fail to account for the fact that o n e word may
denote different objects and phenomena <polysem y) w hile on e and the
same object m ay be denoted by different words (synonym y).
1.2. Functional or Contextual Definitions of Meaning

The functional approach to meaning maintains that the meaning


o f a linguistic unit can be studied o n ly through its relation to other
linguistic units. A cco rd in g to the given approach the m eanings o f
the words to m o v e and m ov e m en t are different because these words
function in speech differently, i.c. occupy different positions in relation
to other words. To m ove can be followed by a noun ( to m ove a c h a ir)
and preceded by a pronoun (w e m ov e ). M o v e m e n t m ay be follow ed bv
a preposition ( m ovem en t o f a c a r ) and preceded by an adjective (slow
m ovem en t). T h e position o f a word in relation to other words is called
distribution of the word. A s the distribution o f the words to m ove and
m ovem en t is different they belong to different classes o f words and their
meanings are different.
T h e same is true o f different meanings o f on e and the same word.
Analyzing the function o f a word in linguistic contexts and comparing
these contexts, we conclude that meanings are different. F o r example,
we can observe the difference o f meanings o f the verb to ta k e i f we
exam ine its functions in different linguistic contexts, to ta k e a seat
П о sit down ) as opposed to to take to sm b. (*to begin to like someone ).
T h e term 'context' is d e fin e d as the m in im u m stretch o f speech
necessary and sufficient to determine which o f the possible meanings
o f a polysemantic word is used.
T h e functional approach is sometimes described as contextual as it
is based on the analysis o f various contexts. In the functional approach
which is typ ica l o f structural linguistics sem antic investigation is
con fin ed to the analysis o f the d ifferen ce o r sameness o f meaning:
meaning is understood as the function o f a linguistic unit.

1.3. Operational or Information-Oriented Definitions


of Meaning

The operational or information-oriented definitions o f meaning


are centered on defining m eaning through its role in the process o f
communication. Thus, this approach studies words in action and is more
interested in how meaning works than in what it is. T h e inform ation-
oriented approach began to take shape with the growing interest o f
linguistics in the communicative aspect o f the language when the object
of study was shifted to relations between the language we use and the
situations whithin which it is used, thus exploring the capacity o f human
beings to use the language appropriately.
W ithin the framework o f the trend described meaning is defined as
information conveyed from the speaker to the listener in the process o f
communication. This definition is applicable both to words and sentences
and thus overcom es on e o f the alleged drawbacks o f the referential
I4
approach. T h e problem is ihai it is more applicable to sentences than to
words and even as such fails to draw a clear distinguishing line between
the direct meaning and implication (additional information).
Th us, the sentence J o h n ca m e a t 6 o 'c lo c k besides the direct
meaning may im ply that John *was tw o hou rs la te , fa ile d to keep his
prom ise', ca m e th ou gh h e d id n o t w ant to ; was p u n ctu a l a s usual.
e tc . In each case the implication would depend on the concrete situation
o f com m unication and discussing m eaning as inform ation conveyed
w ou ld amount to the discussion o f an almost infinite set o f possible
com m unication situations. T h e distinction between the tw o layers in
the information conveyed is so important that tw o different terms may
be used to denote them. The direct information conveyed by the units
co n stitu tin g th e sen ten ce m ay b e referred to as m ea n in g w h ile
the information added to the cxtralinguistic situation may be called
sense.

2. TW O APPROACHES TO TH E C O N TE N T FACET
O F LINGUISTIC UN ITS. NAMING

Since w ords d en ote ob jects, processes, phenom ena o f concrete


reality, the first thing to be discussed is correlation between meaning
and the thing denoted by the word. In studying such correlation tw o
different approaches are possible. T h e study o f the semantic side o f the
w ord may start with the name or with the object denoted. In the First
case the study will consist in considering different meanings o f the word,
determining interrelations between them, as well as discovering semantic
relations between different words. Such approach is called semasio-
logical. T h e second approach is the reverse o f the first: it starts from
an object and consists in analyzing different words correlated writh it.
T h is approach is called onomasiological (fro m the G reek on om a =
= ‘ n am e’ ). T h e o n o m a sio lo g ica l a pproach helps t o d is co v er how
m eaning is formed, considering its basic properties and peculiarities.
T h e difference between the tw o approaches m ay be illustrated by
Diagram 3.
D ia g r a m 3

the scmasiolngical approach


There are tw o main participants in the process o f nomination: the
on e w ho gives a name to an ob ject (th e n o m in a to r ) and the obiect
which is given a name (th e referen t). T h e process o f giving a name to
an object consists o f several stages.
I. 1 he process o l nomination starts with form ing a co n ce p t o f the
object. T h e concept is a generalized idea o f a class o f objects, summing
up the most essential features o f the given class thus distinguishing it
from o th er classes. T h ere are several factors w h ich in flu e n ce the
form ation o f concepts: I > the objective reality itself. This factor accounts
lor differences in concepts in different language communities. This can
be illustrated by the collocability o f w ords in different languaees- in
Russian ест ь суп - in English d rin k soup; 2) the level o f knowledge
about the nature and structure o f the given object. For exam ple the
concept o f - s t a r ' differs for the I5'h century and 21“ centurv European
3 ) th e g e n e ra l system o f n o tio n s ty p ic a l o f th e g iv e n language
com m unity, e .g . ph ilosophic, m oral, religious and oth er principles
existing at the given period o f time.
2 .1 he next stage in the process o f naming is the designation o f class
o f objects under nomination with the help o f linguistic means. T o form
meaning certain features (n ot necessarily the most important in shaping
the concept) are singled out to underlie w ord semantics. The features
chosen as the basic characteristics o f the obiect form the denotatu m
It is really what the word denotes, w hile the concept and the referent
are what the word is correlated with. T h e interrelations o f concept and
denotatum m ay be different, in some cases the denotatum is close to
the concept, in other cases it is much narrower than the underiving
concept as can be seen from Diagram 4. ‘

D ia g r a m A
Ibc fcjcreni

concept

Ihe denotatumof ihe word cor ihe denotatumof the word mouser
•‘small fury domesticanimal often O.e not any cat. but 'a cal that
Lcpi asa pet. io caich mice, etc.) catches mice’ )
T h e denotational part o f meaning is relatively stable and it stands to
represent all the characteristics o f the object - general, individual, and
those to be discovered.
3. D e fin in g a set o f denotational features constituting the most
important part o f m eaning (i.e . the semantic co re ) in the process o f
nom ination is not the final stage. T h e next step is the form ation o f
Junctional significance o f a linguistic unit. T h e attitude o f the speaker
towards the object, the place it is ascribed am ong other things also finds
its reflect1011 in shaping lexical m eaning. Information suggested in
addition to the denotatum m ay refer to the positive o r negative attitude
o ! the n o m in a to r, o r it m ay in d ic a te a ce rta in s itu a tio n o f
communication and point out at the participants and their roles. This
addition al in form a tion shapes the com m u n icative value o f lexical
meaning.
4. Com ing to the final stage it should be noted that to becom e a word,
the semantic side formed in the process o f nomination is to be correlated
with certain material structure, i.e . the sound form and the graphic
form. T h e acquisition o f the sound and graphic forms makes it possible
lo r the w ord to be conveyed from on e person to another to serve the
purposes o f communication.

3 . TY P E S OF MEANING

W o rd -m e a n in g is n ot h om ogen eou s. It is m a d e up o f various


com ponents. These com ponents are described as types o f meaning.
I he tw o m ain types o f m eaning are the gram m atical m eaning and
the lexical meaning. Still one more type o f meaning is singled out. It is
based on the interaction o f the m ajor types and is called the part-of-
speech (o r lexico-gram m atical) meaning.
The grammatical meaning is defined as an expression in speech
ot relationship between words. Gram m atical meaning is the component
o l m eaning recurrent in identical sets o f individual forms o f different
w ords as. fo r exam ple, the tense m ea n in g in th e w o rd -fo rm s o f
the verbs: asked, th ou g h t, w alked : the case meaning in the word-form s
o f various nouns: g irT s , boy 's, n ig h t's ; the meaning o f plurality which
is found in the w ord-form s o f nouns: Joys, ta b les, places.
The lexical meaning o f the w ord is the meaning proper to the given
linguistic unit in all its form s and distributions. T h e w ord-form s go,
g o e s , w en t. g o in g , g o n e possess different gram m atical meanings o f
tense, person, number, but in each form they have on e and the same
semantic component denoting ‘ the process o f movement*
Both the lexical!
/*ПШ ^ ? ^ * * * * ^ О Т Iword
m eaning as neither ta n exist without, .the o th e n [That can be
in th e sem antic an lysis o f co rrela ted v o r d ^ w d ifferen t languages.
T h e Russian w ord с в е д е н и я ife n e / s e ro a fiH tfe lly id e n tica l w ith
КОСТАНАЙСКИЙ CP ►" oh O TCXHHMtCKHH ,
ihc English equivalent in form a tion because unlike the Russian сведения
the English w ord does not possess the grammatical meaning o f plurality
which is part o f the semantic structure o f the Russian word.
In some pans o f speech the prevailing component is the grammatical
typ e o f m eaning. F o r exam ple, in the verb t o b e the gram m atical
meaning o f a linking element prevails: H e is a teacher.
T h e essence o f the part-of-speech meaning o f a w ord is revealed
in the classification o f lexical items into m ajor word-classes (nouns,
verbs, a d jec tiv es and a d verb s) and m in o r w ord -cla sses (a rticles,
prepositions, conjunctions, etc).
A ll members o f a m ajor word-class share a distinguishing semantic
component which, though very abstract, may be viewed as the lexical
component o f part-of-speech meaning. For example, the meaning o f
thingness o r substantiality m ay be found in all the nouns, c.g . ta b le ,
lo v e , su g a r, though they possess different gram m atical m eaning o f
number and case.
T h e grammatical aspect o f part-of-speech meaning is conveyed as
a rule by a set o f forms. I f we describe the w ord as a noun we mean to
say that it is bound to possess a set o f forms expressing the grammatical
meaning o f number ( ta b le -ta b le s ) and case ( b o y -b o y 's ).
T h e part-of-speech meaning o f the words that possess only on e form,
e .g . p r e p o s itio n s , som e adverb s, e tc . is o b serv ed o n ly in th eir
distribution, e.g . to co m e in {h e re , th e re ): in {o n , u n d e r) th e table.
T h e interconnection between the three types o f meaning is shown
in Diagram 5.

Diagram 5
M EANING

L e x i c a l --------- Part-of-Speech--------Grammatical

4. A S PECTS OF LEXICAL MEANING

In the general framework o f lexical meaning several aspects can be


singled out. Th ey are:
a) the denotational aspect;
b ) the connotational aspect:
c ) the pragmatic aspect.
The denotational aspect o f lexical m eaning is the part o f lexical
meaning which establishes correlation between the name and the object,
ph en om en on , process o r characteristic featu re o f co n crete reality
(o r thought as such), which is denoted b y the given word. T h e term
denotational' is derived from the English w ord to d en ote which means
'b e a sign o f. indicate, stand as a name o r symbol for'. For example.
the denotations] m eaning o f b o o k le t is 'a small thin book that gives
information about something’ . It is through the denotational aspect o f
m eaning that the bulk o f inform ation is conveyed in the process o f
communication. T h e denotational aspect o f lexical meaning expresses
the notional content o f a word.
The connotational aspect o f lexical meaning is the pan o f meaning
which reflects the attitude o f the speaker towards what he speaks about.
C o n n o ta tio n c o n v e y s a d d itio n a l in fo r m a tio n in th e p ro c es s o f
communication. Connotation includes:
1) the emotive charge, e.g. daddy as compared to fa th e r,
2 ) evaluation, which m ay be positive o r negative, e.g. c liq u e (a small
group o f people w ho seem unfriendly to other p eop le) as compared
to g ro u p (a set o f people);
3 ) intensity (o r expressiveness), e.g . a d o re as compared to love;
4 ) imagery, e.g. to w ade — to walk with an effort (through mud.
water o r anything that makes progress difficu lt). T h e figurative use o f
the w ord gives rise to another meaning which is based on the same image
as the first — to w ade through a book.
The pragmatic aspect o f lexical meaning is the pan o f meaning,
that conveys in form ation on the situation o f com m u nication. Like
the connotational aspect, the pragmatic aspect falls into fo u r closely
linked together subsections:
1) information on the “time and space" relationship of the
participants. Som e information which specifies different parameters o f
communication m ay be conveyed not only with the help o f grammatical
means (tense forms, personal pronouns, etc ), but through the meaning
o f th e w o rd . F o r in stan ce, the w ords c o m e and g o can in d icate
the location o f the Speaker w h o is usually taken as the zero point in
the description o f the situation o f communication.
T h e tim e elem ent w hen related through the pragmatic aspect o f
m eaning is fixed indirectly. Indirect reference t o tim e im plies that
the frequency o f occurrence o f w ords m ay change w ith tim e and in
extrem e cases words m ay be ou t o f use or becom e ob solete. Thus,
the w ord b e h o ld - ‘ take n o tice , see (es p . som eth in g unusual or
striking) as well as the noun b e h o ld e r — ‘ spectator* are out o f use now
but w ere w idely used in the l ? h century;
2 ) information on the participants and the given language
community. T o illustrate this type o f pragmatic information in the word
meaning one can cite an exam ple analysed by G .L eech in “ Semantics".
Discussing tw o sentences
( I ) They ch u ck ed a s ton e a t th e cops, a n d then d id a b u n k w ith
the lo o t. (2 ) A fte r ca stin g a ston e a t the p o lic e , they absconded w ith
th e m oney,
G .L eech points out that sentence ( I ) could be said b y tw o criminals,
talking casually about the crim e afterwards; sentence ( 2 ) might be said
by the c h ie f inspector in making his official report. Thus, the language
used may be indicative o f the social status o f a person, his education,
profession o r occupation, cic. T h e pragmatic aspect o f the w ord may
also convey' information about the social system o f the given language
community, its ideology, religion, system o f norms and customs:
3) information on the tenor of discourse. T h e tenors o f discourse
reflect how the addresser (th e speaker o r the w rite r) interacts with
the addressee (the listener o r the reader). Tenors are based on social or
fam ily roles o f the participants o f communication. A m other will talk
in a different way (a ) with her small child and (b ) about her children.
There may be a situation o f a stranger talking to a stranger, o r tw o friends
discussing matters o f interest, o r a teacher talking to a student, or
a student interviewed by the dean, etc.;
4) information on the register of communication. T h e conditions
o f communication form another important group o f factors. T h e register
defines the general type o f the situation o f com m unication grading
the situations in form ality (variations ranging from extreme degrees o f
form ality through norm to extreme non-form ality). Three main types
o f the situations o f com m unication are usually singled out: form al,
neutral and informal. Practically every word in the language is register-
orien ted. T h u s, the pragm atic aspect o f m eaning refers w ords like
c o rd ia l, fra te rn a l, a n ticip a te , a id . san guina ry, ce le s tia l to the formal
register w hile units like c u t i t o u t. to b e k id d in g , h i. s tu ff are to be used
in the informal register.
T h e a sp ects o f le x ic a l m ea n in g are presen ted g ra p h ic a lly on
Diagram 6.

D ia g r a m 6
LEXICAL M EANING

Denotational aspect------------ Connotational aspect Pragmatic aspect

Emotive^charge '
/
Evaluation
71
/
Expressiveness Imagers'

Information on the “ time and space" ’


relationship o f the participants 1
/ /
Information on the participants and
the given language community I

Information on the tenor o f discourse |

Information on the register


o f communication
QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is the significance o f semasiology?


2. What are the three main trends in defining meaning?
3. What is the essence o f the referential (o r analytical) approach to
meaning?
4. In what relation d o cs m eaning stand (1 ) t o the sound-form .
( 2 ) to the concept and (3 ) to the referent?
5. H ow is m eaning defined on the functional (o r contextual) basis?
6. What is meant b y ‘ the distribution o f the w ord'?
7. What does the term ‘context* mean?
8. What is the essence o f the operational (o r information-oriented)
approach to defining meaning?
9. What is the difference between ‘ meaning* and ‘ sense*?
10. What is the difference between the semasiological and onomasi-
ological approach to linguistic phenomena?
11. What are the main stages o f the process o f naming?
12. What factors influence the form ation o f the concept?
13. What types o f meaning can be singled out?
14. What is meant by (1 ) the grammatical meaning. (2 ) the lexical
meaning. (3 ) the part-of-spccch meaning?
15. What aspects o f lexical meaning can be singled out?
16. What is the denotational aspect o f lexical meaning?
17. W hat is the con n otation al aspect o f lexical m eaning? What
constituents may be distinguished in it?
18. W hat is th e p ra g m a tic a spect o f le x ic a l m ea n in g ? W hat
constituents can be singled out in the pragmatic aspect o f meaning?

II. T A S K S

1. Analyze the distribution o f the words r e n e w a l and to re n e w and different


contexts in which these words are used. Apply the functional approach to
meaning to prove that these words have different meanings. G ive ihc meanings
o f these words.

M o d e l : s e a r c h : 1 the s e a rc h fo r survivors: a thorough s e a rc h o f


the undergrowth; a fruitless se arch for a replacement. Th e police have already
carried out a search. Rescuers were forced to abandon their.1 s earch. 2 an online
se a rc h ; a computerized se arch o f 10.000 medical journals. 1 did a quick search
on the Internet and found three airlines with tickets available o n that date.
A se arch found 46 websites. 3 the se arch for a cure; the se arch for happiness.
Th e committee is involved in a search for solutions to key international problems.

0 Th e word se arch is preceded by: an article, a notional veib. a possessive


pronoun, an adjective. T h e word se a rc h is follow ed by: a preposition.
a notional verb. Th e meanings o f this word are: D an attempt to find someone
or something; 2 ) a series o f actions done by a computer to find information;
3) an attempt to find an explanation o r solution.

renew al
1 a ren ew a l o f war; a ren ew a l o f hostilities; a ren ew a l o f an old
friendship; the ren ew a l o f youth. Recently there has been a ren ew a l
o f interest in environmental issues. H e felt the ren ew a l o f affection.
2 a re n e w a l o f lease (а р е н д а ); a re n e w a l o f b ill; a re n e w a l o f
a passport; a re n e w a l o f a d riv in g lic e n c e . T h e re n e w a l o f y ou r
contract is just a form ality. M y m em bership is up fo r ren ew a l again
next year. 3 a p e rio d o f e c o n o m ic re n e w a l; the n eed fo r urban
re n e w a l.

to renew
1 to ren ew a passport; to ren ew a book. H e failed to ren ew his
contract, which expired last month. 2 T h e reunion offers an opportunity
to ren ew acquaintance with old friends. She w ill renew her strength
when she comes back from her holiday. 3 T h e parties renew ed their
efforts to agree the treaty. Student organizations renew ed their call for
a reduction in tuition fees. In the morning the enemy renew ed his attack.
4 You may need to renew the brake linings. I must renew my library
ticket.

2 .’ G ive possible interpretations o f the sentences paying special attention


to the italicized words. State the difference between meaning o f the italicized
words and sense which these words lend to the whol e utterance o r the
situation.I.

M o d e l : I w on’t go further. I am afraid o f the dog ahead. D on't worry.


To all appearances, it w on’ t bile, it is just b a rk in g .

0 to b ark

Meaning Sense

to make the short sharp (loud) such behaviour o f the dog implies
sound that dogs and some other that the dog itself is frightened
animals make by the appearance o f the people

I. T h e d iscreet d o o r was shut with a bang. 2. She failed to buy an


expensive little box and she felt a strange p a n g. 3. I turned to my friend
but he had gone to the house and was lea n in g a g a in st it with his face
t o t h e w a ll. 4. R o s e m a ry b ro u g h t th e b e g g a r t o h e r lu xu riou s
apartment. She helped the girl o f f with her coat. But what was she to
d o with it now ? Rosem ary le ft the coat on the floor. 5. She didn’ t dine
with them. She in sisted on leaving. 6. H e got up from his chair, but
he was m ov in g slow ly , like an old man. H e put the newspaper down
very carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. T h ey were
trembling a little. 7. H e felt that he had behaved badly in losing his
tem per w hile she had so adm irably co n tro lled hers. H e sought for
a crushing phrase, som e final intim idating repartee. But before that
(th e phrase) came she d o s e d q u ie tly the d o o r in his face. 8. T h e girl
went to her lather and p u lle d his sleeve. 9. H e was longing to begin to
be generous. 10. She was a resigned little wom an with shiny re d hands
and w ork-swollen fin ger knuckles.

3.1. Analyze the following features regarded as the basic characteristics o f


the given objects forming the denotatum.

a large yellowish-brown animal o f the cat


fam ily which hunts and lives m ainly in
A frica, the male having a thick growih o f
hair (a mane — грива) over ns head and
shoulders

a large tree that can live fo r a very long


tim e and p rod u ces hard fru its c a lled
acorns (ж елуди)

3 .2 .’ Analyze the given expressions and answer the question: what


characteristics o f the lion and the oak not reflected in the denotatum are proper
to the concepts about these objects?

1) a lion-hunter; to have a heart like a lion; to feel like a lion, to roar


like a lion; to lionize someone; to beard the lion in his den; to be thrown
. to the lions; the lion 's share; to put on e’ s head in lion's mouth;
2 ) great/mighty oaks from little acorns grow ; a heart o f oak; oaks may
fall when reeds stand the storm.

4. * Group the following words into three columns in accordance with


the sameness o f their I >grammatical; 2) lexical; 3) pan-of-speech meaning.

Boy’ s, nearest, at. beautiful, think, man. drift, wrote, tremendous,


ship’s, the most beautiful, table, near. for. went, friend’s, handsome,
thinking, boy. nearer, thought, boys. lamp. go. during.

5. ' Identify the denotational and connotational aspects o f lexical meaning


o f the given words. A nalyze the sim ilarity and d ifferen ce between
the components o f the connotational aspect o f lexical meaning in the given
pairs o f words.
0
Components
Denotatinnal & connotarional o f the connoiaiion.il aspect
Words of lexical meaning which
aspects
specify the difference between
the words

celebrated widely known, admired evaluation (positive)


and talked about by many
people because o f good
qualities

notorious widely known because evaluation (negative)


o f something bad.
for example, for being
criminal, violent,
or immoral

T o deal with — to grapple with, sophisticated — hardened, adven­


ture — ordeal, perfect — flawless, to glance — to glare, adulation —
respect, ugly — repulsive, to murmur — to mutter.

6.* State what image underlies the meaning o f the italicized verbs. Give the
meanings o f these verbs.

M o d e l : I heard what she said, but it didn’ t sink in to mv mind until much
later.

0 The meaning o f the verb sink is based on the image of'something going
down below the surface or to the bottom o f a liquid or soft substance’ .
S in k in to means 'to be gradually understood and accepted by (o n e ’s
mind)’ .

1. Y ou should be ashamed o f yourself, cra w lin g to the director like


that. 2. T h e crow d f ir e d questions a t the speaker fo r o v e r an hour.
3. Even though divorce is legal, it is still fro w n e d upon . 4. i take back
my unkind remarks. I see that they were not justified. 5. Ideas were fly in g
a b o u t in the meeting. 6. T h e children seized on the idea o f cam ping in
the mountains, and began making plans. 7. I was follow in g the man
when he dined in to a small restaurant and 1 lost track o f him. 8. You
m ight c a tc h him in about II o 'clo c k . 9. I should im agine that the
President was glad to la y dow n his o ffice. 10. W hy are you trying to p in
the blame on me?

7 * . State the difference in the pragmatic aspect o f lexical meaning in the


following pairs o f words. Pay special attention to the register o f communication.
State the possible participants o f the communicative situation and their roles
on which tenors o f discourse are based.
M o d e l : to interrupt — to butt in : Don’t interrupt when your mother is
speaking. There is an awful man in the front row who butts in whenever you
pause.

Roles, which
Register Participants o f the tenors o f
Words
o f communication communicative situation discourse are
based on

interrupt neutral parent — child family roles

butt in informal people w ho know social roles


each other well enough

1. certainly — unquestionably: I 'm sorry i f upset you. dear.


I certa in ly didn't mean to. Japan has un qu estion a b ly on e o f the most
successful econom ies in the world. 2. dough — money: H e only married
her for her d ough. H o w much m on ey w ill you pay m e for this work,
sir? 3. picture — photograph: Karen showed m e a p ic tu re o f her new
boyfriend — he's very' good -lookin g. Visitors are not allow ed to take
p h otogra p h s inside the museum. 4. skirt — girl: So. Bill, o f f to chase
some sk irt? I didn't know you were friends with the g ir l I had seen you
w ith last night. 5. quality — thing: T h ere are certain q u a litie s in
O rw ell's prose that I greatly admire. O ne o f the things I like about Mary
is the way she always keeps smiling, even when there are problems.

Chapter 2

1. W ord-M eaning and M otivation


2. Causes. Nature and Results o f Semantic Change
3. Polysemy
3.1. Diachronic and Synchronic Approaches to Polysemy
3.2. Historical Changeability o f Semantic Structure
3.3. Polysemy and Context. Types o f Context
4. Hom onym y. Classification o f Hom onym s 1

1. W O R D -M EAN IN G AND MOTIVATION

The process o f motivation depends upon the inner form o f a word


( c f . : in Russian в н утр ен н я я ф ор м а с л о в а ). The inner form is
the pivotal point in the lexical meaning which helps to get an insight into
the features chosen as the basis for nomination. In linguistics the term
motivation' is used to denote the relationship between the phonetic o r
m orphem ic com position and structural pattern o f the w ord on the one
hand, and its m eaning on the other. Th ere are three main types o f
motivation:
a) phonetical motivation;
b ) m orphological motivation;
c ) semantic motivation.
The phonetical motivation implies a direct connection between the
phonetic structure o f the word and its meaning. F o r instance, the word
cu ck o o (cf. in Russian кукуш ка) denotes a bird whose call is like its
name. Thus, there is a certain similarity between the sound-form o f the
word and the sounds the bird produces.
It is also suggested that sounds them selves can be em otion a lly
expressive w hich accounts fo r the phonetical m otivation in certain
words. F o r exam ple, the sound-cluster |-ioJ is imitative o f sound or swift
m ovem ent as can be seen in the words a rin g (bell sound), to s in g (to
make musical sounds), to sw ing (to move quickly round to the opposite
directions), to f lin g (to move suddenly o r violently).
The morphological motivation implies a direct connection between
the lexical meaning o f the component morphemes1, the pattern o f their
arrangement and the meaning o f the word. Thus, the main criterion in
m orphological motivation is the relationship between morphemes. For
e x a m p le , th e d e rived w o rd to r e th in k is m o tiv a te d through its
m orphological structure which suggests the idea o f ‘ thinking again’. The
direct connection between the order o f the arrangement o f morphemes
in words and their meaning can be illustrated b y the semantic analysis
o f different words com posed o f phonetically identical morphemes with
identical lexical m eaning. T h e difference in the arrangem ent o f the
com ponent morphemes in the words fin g e r -r in g (к о л ь ц о ) and rin g -
fin g e r (безы м янны й naneu) accounts for the difference in the meaning
o f these words.
The semantic motivation im plies a direct connection between the
central and marginal meanings o f the word. For example, the compound
noun eyewash has two meanings: 1 ) a lotion for the eyes (примочка
л л я глаз); 2 ) som ething said o r done to deceive a person so that he
thinks what he sees is g o o d though in fact it is not (c f. in Russian
очковтирательство). T h e first meaning is based on the literal meanings
o f the components, i.e. the meanings o f the morphemes ey e- and -wash.
Thus, the m otivation o f the noun eyew ash in its first m eaning is
m orphological. T h e second meaning o f the word eyewash is metaphoric
o r figu rative. In this case th e m otiva tion is sem a n tic. Sem antic
motivation is based on the coexistence o f direct and figurative meanings
w ithin the sem antic structure o f th e w ord . M o u th . fo r instance,
continues to denote a part o f human face, and at the same tim e it can
mean metaphorically any opening o r outlet, as in th e m ou th o f a riv e r

Morphem e — the smallest meaningful language unit. e.g. the word w rite r
consists o f two morphemes u n t(e ) + -e r
2. CAUSES, NATURE AND RESULTS
OF SEM ANTIC CHANGE

W ord m eaning is liable to change in the course o f the historical


developm ent o f language. There are distinguished causes o f semantic
change, nature and results o f the process o f change o f meaning.
Causes of Semantic Change. The factors accounting for semantic
changes may be roughly subdivided into tw o groups: a ) extra-linguistic:
b ) linguistic.
By extra-linguistic causes various changes in the life o f the speech
comm unity arc meant, i.e. changes in econom ic and social structure,
changes in scientific concepts. For example, changes in the way o f life
o f the British brought about changes in the meaning h la fo rd . Originally
the w ord meant •bread-keeper* («х р а н и т е л ь х л е б а * ), and later on
‘ master, ruler* («п о в ели т ель, л о р д * ).1
Som e changes o f meaning occur due to purely linguistic causes, i.c.
factors acting within the language system. T h e comm onest form which
this influence takes is the so-called ellipsis. In a phrase made up o f two
words one o f these is omitted and its meaning is transferred to its partner.
For example, the verb to starve in O ld English (O E ) meant T o d ie' and
was habitually used in collocation with the w ord h u n ger. In the 16,!
century the verb to starve itself acquired the meaning 'to die o f hunger'.
A n o th er linguistic cause is discrimination/differenliatlon of
synonyms which can be illustrated by the semantic development o f a
number o f words. In O E the w ord la n d meant both ‘ solid pan o f earth's
surface' and ‘ the territory o f a nation’ . In the M iddle English period the
word cou n try was borrowed as its synonym. T h e meaning o f the word
la n d was somewhat altered and ‘ the territory o f a nation' came to be
denoted by the borrowed word country.
Fixed context m ay be regarded as an oth er linguistic fa ctor in
sem antic change. For exam ple, the w ord to k e n , when brought into
com petition with the loan w ord s ig n , becam e restricted in use to a
number o f set expressions, such as love tok en , token o f respect and also
becam e specialized in meaning (D iagram 7).
Diagram 7

CAUSES O F SEM ANTIC CHANGE

Linguistic Extra-linguistic

Ellipsis Differentiation o f synonyms Fixed contexts

1 The etymological sense expresses the relation o f the head o f a household to his
dependants who eat his bread'. { T h e C o n cise O x fo rd D ic tio n a ry o f English
Etym ology, /9У6»
Nature of Semantic Change. A necessary co n d itio n o f any
semantic change is some connection, some association between the old
meaning and the new one. There are tw o kinds o f association involved
in various semantic changes:
a ) sim ilarity o f meanings:
b ) contiguity o f meanings.
S im ila rity o f m eanings o r metaphor m ay b e describ ed as the
semantic process o f associating tw o referents, on e o f which in some way
resembles the other. T h e word ha nd , fo r instance, acquired in the I6,h
century the meaning o f *a pointer o f a clock o r a watch* because o f the
similarity o f on e o f the functions perform ed by the hand (*to point to
smth. ) and the function o f the clock-pointer. Sec the expression hands
o f th e c lo c k {w a tch ).
C on tig u ity o f m eanings o r metonymy m ay b e described as the
semantic process o f associating tw o referents one o f which makes part
o f the other o r is closely connected with it. This can be illustrated by
the use o f the word lon g u e — ’ the organ o f speech* in the meaning o f
'language (as in m o th e r to n gu e). T h e word bench acquired the meaning
judges because it was on the bench that judges used to sit in law courts,
similarly th e H ou se acquired the meaning o f'm e m b e rs o f the House*
(Parliam ent) (D iagram 8).

Diagram 8

NATURE O F SEM ANTIC CHANGE

Similarity o f meanings Contiguity о Г meanings


METAPHOR METONYM Y

Results of Semantic Change. Results o f semantic change can be


generally observed in the changes o f the denotational m eaning o f the
word. i.c . in restriction or extension o f meaning.
Restriction of meaning can be illu strated b y the sem antic
development o f the w ord h o u n d which used to denote d o g o f any breed'
but now denotes only 'a d o g used in the chase*. I f the w ord with a new
restricted meaning conies to be used in the specialized vocabulary o f
some lim ited group within the speech comm unity it is usual to speak o f
the specialization o f meaning.
Extension of meaning may be illustrated by the w ord ta rget which
originally meant *a small round shield’ but now means anything that is
lired at*. I f the w ord w ith the extended m eaning passes fro m the
specialized vocabulary into com m on use. the result o f the semantic
change is described as the generalization o f meaning.
See the grap h ic representation o f the processes in question on
Diagram 9.
Results o f semantic change can be also observed in the alteration o f
the c o n n o ta tio n a l a sp e ct o f m e a n in g , i. e . in a m e lio r a tio n o r
deterioration o f meaning.
A m e lio r a t io n o f m e a n in g im p lie s the im p ro v e m e n t o t the
connotational com ponent o f meaning. F o r instance, the w ord m in is te r
originally denoted ‘ a servant' but now - *a civil servant o l higher rank,
a person administering a department o f state .
Deterioration (o r the pejorative developm ent) o f meaning implies
the acquisition by the w ord o f some derogatory' em otive charge. For
exam ple, the w ord b o o r was originally used to denote a peasant and
then acquired a derogatory connotational meaning and cam e to denote
‘a clumsy o r ill-bred fellow ' (D iagram 10).

Diagram 10

RESULTS O F SEM ANTIC CHANGE

Change Change
o f ihc denotation*! component o f the connotational componcni

Restriction Extension Deterioration Amelioration


o f meaning o f meaning3 o f meaning o f meaning

3. POLYSEMY

Polysem y is a phenom enon which has an exceptional importance


fo r the description o f a language system and for the solution o f practical
tasks connected with an adequate understanding o f the m eaning o f a
w ord and its use. . . . .
A w ord m ay have several meanings. Then it is called a polysemantic
w ord. W ord s having o n ly on e m eaning are ca lled m onosem antic.
M onosem antic words are few in number. These are m ainly scientific
terms. T h e bulk o f English words are polysemantic.
* ^ \ “ и,ЮП '? .lhc devcloPment o f l h c problem o f polysemy
J S Z n n r L T RuT r f ngU' « V:V V m 0?rad ov n c * * m tis t admitted
the im p o rta n c e o f d iffe r e n tia tin g th e m ea n in g fro m th e usage
^ C
T CXUl T lam ) M e a n in s s are axed and com m on to all people
o f on e oW
f ,hC EUagC' SyS,Cfm- T h c USaBC iS ° n,y a P0^ 1^ application
° ,h e теаП |п8 * o f a p o lysem a n tic w ord , som etim es very
whh S SOmC,,meS m o re o r less fa m ilia r ’'le a n in g is not identical

O f s p e c ia l im p o r ta n c e is th e fa c t that p o ly s e m y ex ists o n ly in
Potvsern v 1( 1г!.'Г SPf Ch У е С meanj nS o f a » o r d in speech is contextual.
P o lyse m y d o e s n ot in terfere w ith th e c o m m u n ic a tiv e fu n c tio n o f a
language because in every particular case the situation o r context, i.e

т ^ Г ^ Т и п ^ Г : cancelsan,heunnecessary -
A further developm ent o f V.V.Vinogradov's theory was A I Sm ir-
mtsky s w ork in the linguistic field under consideration. According to
sunn^neH hva, i / meafn ' ngS o f ,h e w ord fo rm id en tity (т о ж д е с т в о )
supported b y the fo rm o f the w ord. A .I.S m im its k y in trodu ced the term
f l ^ man" C Vanant' <LSV’ A « « d e o - s e m a r t i c variant is a two-
tacet unit (двусторонняя единица), the form al facet o f which is the
»u n d - fo r m o f a word, while the content face, is on e o f the m ea n in g
l e c e deM®na,mn (обозначение) o f a certain claw
У егетЬ ° ! t W" hl ° nC m eaning are represented in the language
system by on e LSV, polysemantic words - by a number o f LSVs8
" le' ltu " scmantic variants o f a w ord form a homogenous semantic
structure ensuring the semantic unity o f thc given word. A ll LSVs are
y ? n ! ? , 'b0?C C y a C e n a m m caninS - lh e sem antic p ivo t о Г И к w ord
ca iled th e sem antic cen ter o f the w ord. Th u s, the semantic center o f
the w ord is the part o f meaning which remains constant in all the lexico-
semantic variants o f the w ord1.

3 .1 . Diachronic and Synchronic Approaches to Polysemy

a„HlfaP° ‘r my iS Viewed d“*chronically it is understood as the growth


and developm ent o r as a change in the semantic structure o f the word
Polysemy in diachronic terms implies that a w ord m ay retain its previous
Г У Т - meanings and at the same tim e acquire on e o r several new
stm c.,TreUn r f a1" 8 IO ,h e diach ron ic aPP r» a^ in the semantic
n r i m i^ , Г l " ° '>’Р « o f m eaning can b e sin gled out: the
primary meaning and the secondary meaning. T h e polysemantic
\ V Гь Г examP|e- has al lcasl nine meanings in M od em English
» n lhc cou ™ o f a diachronic semantic analysis it is found that
o f all the meanings this word has in M o d E the primary meaning is а 1Ы

See also: Бе.гяевская Е . Г . Семантика слова. - M.. 1987.


slab o f sionc or w ood ' which is proper 10 the w ord in the O E period.
A ll olh er meanings are secondary as they are derived from ihc primary'
meaning. Semantic changes result as a rule in new meanings which are
added to the ones already existing in the semantic structure o f the word.
Som e o f the o ld m eanings m ay becom e obsolete or even disappear
but the bulk o f English words tend to an increase in the number o f
meanings.
Synchronically polysemy is understood as the coexistence o f various
m eanings o f the sam e w o rd at a certa in h is to ric a l p e rio d o f the
developm ent o f the English language. In the course o f a synchronic
semantic analysis o f the w ord ta b le the follow in g question arises: d o all
the nine meanings o f the w ord ta b le equally represent the semantic
structure o f this word? T h e meaning that first occurs to us whenever
we hear or see the word ta b le is *an article o f furniture’ . T h is emerges
as the central (o r basic) meaning o f the word, and all oth er meanings
are marginal (o r minor) meanings. T h e central m eaning occurs in
various and w idely different contexts, marginal meanings are observed
o n ly in certain contexts. There is a tendency in m odem linguistics to
interpret the concept o f the central meaning in terms o f the frequency
o f occurrence o f this meaning. A s far as the word ta b le is concerned
the meaning ‘ piece o f furniture’ possesses the highest frequency o f value
and makes up 52 % o f all the uses o f this word.

3 .2 . Historical Changeability of Semantic Structure

A s the semantic structure is never static, the prim ary m eaning o f


the w ord m ay becom e synchronically on e o f its marginal meanings
and diachronically a secondary m eaning m ay b ecom e the central
m eaning o f the word. T h e relationship between the diach ronic and
synchronic evaluation o f an individual m eaning m ay be different in
different periods o f the historical developm ent o f language. T h is can
be illustrated by the semantic analysis o f the w ord evid ence. Originally,
when this w ord first appeared in M id d le English in the 13,h century it
d en oted ‘ sign ifica n t appearance, tok en ’ . T h is m eaning in M id d le
E nglish was b o th p rim a ry (d ia c h ro n ic a lly ) and cen tra l (syn ch ro-
nicaliy). Later on , the w ord acquired other meanings and am ong them
‘ inform ation lending to establish fa ct’. In M o d em English, however,
w h ile w e still can diachronically describe the m eaning ‘ significant
appearance, token’ as prim ary it is n o longer synchronically central
as the arrangement o f meanings in the semantic structure o f the word
e v id e n ce has changed and its central and the most frequent meaning
is T h e available body o f in form ation indicating w hether a b e lie f or
proposition is true or valid’.
T h e results o f historical changes in the semantic structure o f the word
evid en ce are given in Table 2.
Tabic 2

evidence 'significant appearance, information tending


token' to establish bet'
Middle English
diachronicaily primary secondary
synch ronically central marginal
Modern Fiiglkh
diachronicaily primary
synchronically marginal central

3.3. Polysemy and Context. Types of Context

T h e term 'context' d e n o te s the m in im a l stretch o f sp eech


determining each individual m eaning o f the word. Contexts may be o f
tw o types: linguistic (verbal) and extra-linguistic (non-verbal)
Linguistic contexts m ay be subdivided into lexical and grammatical.
In lexical contexts o f prim ary im portance are the groups o f lexical
items com bined with the polysem antic w ord under consideration This
can be illustrated by the results o f the analysis o f d ifferen t lexical
contexts in w h ich a polysem an tic w ord is used. F o r exam ple, the
a d jective h e a v y used w ith the w ords lo a d , ta b le m eans ' o f great
w eig h t. W hen com bined with the words denoting natural phenomena
such as ra m s torm , snow , w in d the adjective hea vy is understood as
denoting 'abundant, striking, falling with force', i f used with the words
in d u s try , a r tille r y , a rm s and the like, hea vy has the m eaning the
larger kind o f smth\
It can be easily observed that the main factor in bringing ou t the
individual meanings o f the adjective heavy is the lexical m eaning o f
the words with which this adjective is com bined. Thus, the meanings
o f h e a vy m ay be analyzed through its co llo c a b ilitv w ith the words
w eigh t safe, ta b le : snow , w in d : in d u stry , a rtille ry , e tc. T h e meaning
at the level o f lexical contexts is sometim es described as m eaning bv
collocation. *
In grammatical contexts it is the grammatical (syntactic) structure
o f the context that serves to determine various individual meanings o f a
polysemantic word. T h e meaning o f the verb to m a k e — *to force, to
induce* is found only in the grammatical context possessing the syn­
tactic structure t o make + pm . + verb (to m a k e sm b. la u g h , to m ake
sm b. w ork , to m a k e sm b. s ir). A nother meaning o f this verb — 'to be­
c o m e ' is observed in the context o f a different syntactic structure - to
make + adj. + noun (to m a k e a g o o d w ife, to m a k e a g o o d tea ch er).
buch meanings are sometimes described as grammatically bound mean-
There are cases when the meaning o f a w ord is ultimately determined
by the actual speech situation in which the w ord is used. i.c. by the
extra-linguistic context (o r context of situation1). In the sentence
T h e ЫН is la rg e , the meaning o f the w ord b ill is clearly ambiguous as
it has tw o "readings” resulting from the tw o meanings o f the w ord b ill.
T h e sentence can. however, be ‘disambiguated’ , i.e . on e o r the other
o f its tw o readings can be established i f it is extended with ... b u r need
n o t b e p a id . This extension is. o f course, possible only with on e o f the
meanings o f the w ord b ill T h e noun rin g in ‘ to give smb. a ring’ may
possess the m eaning ‘ a circlet o f precious m etal' o r ‘ a call on the
telep h o n e’ depending on the situation in w h ich the w ord is used.
A nother example is the w ord glasses in the sentence: J o h n was lo o k in g
f o r th e glasses. This is ambiguous because it might refer to ‘ spectacles’
or to ‘ drinking vessels’ . S o it is possible to state the meaning o f the word
glasses only through the extended context or situation’ .

4. HOM ONYM Y. CLASSIFICATION O F HOM ONYM S

T w o or more words identical in sound form , spelling but different in


meaning, distribution and in many cases in origin arc called homonyms.
T h e term is derived from G reek h o m o s — ‘ sim ila r' and o n o m a —
‘ name’ , and thus expresses the sameness o f name combined with the
difference in meaning. M o d em English is rich in homonymous words
and w ord -fo rm s. It is som etim es suggested that the abundance o f
h o m o n y m s in M o d e r n E n glish is t o b e a cco u n ted fo r b y the
monosyllabic structure o f the com m on ly used English words.
T h e m ost w id ely accep ted cla ssifica tio n o f h om on ym s is that
recognizing homonyms proper, hom ophones and homographs.
I. Homonyms proper arc words identical in their sound-form and
spelling but different in meaning. C om pare the words:

p il(n ,) pi* (n: )


a large hole in the ground the stone o f a fruit

ball <n,) ball <n2)


a round object used in games a gathering o f people for dancing

back (n> back (adv)


pan o f the body away from the front

The term context o f situation' is associated with two scholars: B. Malinowski


tan anthropologist) and J.R Firth (a linguist). Both were concerned with stating
meaning in terms o f the context in which language is used, but in rather different ways.
■’ See also: Palm er F. R Semantics. Л New Outline. — M.. 1982.
2. Homophones are words o f the same sound-form but o f different
spelling and meaning. Com pare the words:

p iec e (n ) |prs| peace (n ) |pis|


part separated from smlh. a situation in which there is no war
between countries or groups

knight (n ) (naitl night (n ) |nait)


in the рам. a European soldier from the pan o f each 24-hour period
a high social class who wore a suii when it is dark
o f armour t = a metal suit) and rode a horse

3. Homographs are words different in sound-form and in meaning


but identical in spelling. Com pare the words:

bow ( I ) |Ы>и| bow ( 2 ) |bau|


a weapon made from a long curved a forward movement o f the top pan
piece o f wood, used for shooting arrows o f the bodv. especially to show respect

lead ( 1 ) |li:d| lead (2 ) |lcd|


the first position at a particular time a soft heavy grey metal
during a race or competition

Q U E S T IO N S A N D TA S K S I.1

I. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What does the process o f motivation depend on?


2. What is the term 'm otivation' used to denote?
3. What is the phonetica! motivation?
4. What is im plied by the term ’ m orphological motivation*?
5. What does the semantic motivation mean?
6. What linguistic causes o f semantic change can be singled out?
7. What are the basic types o f association involved in various semantic
changes? G iv e examples.
8. What are the results o f the change o f the denotational aspect o f
lexical meaning? G ive examples.
9. What are the results o f the change o f the connotational aspect o f
lexical meaning? G ive examples.
10. What is polysemy?
11. W h y is it im portant to differen tiate betw een ’ m eaning* and
'usage*?
12. What are lexico-sem antic variants?
13. What does the term 'semantic center o f the word* denote?
14. What types o f m eaning in terms o f the diachronic approach to
polysemy can be singled out ?
15. W hai types o f meaning in terms o f the synchronic approach to
polysemy can be singled out?
16. W hat is m eant b y the historical ch an geab ility o f sem antic
structure o f the word?
17. W hat does the term 'context' denote?
18. What types o f linguistic contexts d o you know?
19. What is the extra-linguistic context?
20. What are homonyms? W hat types o f homonyms d o you know?

II. T A S K S

1. " Suggest the meanings o f the words according to their sound-form. Check
yourself by a dictionary
Buzz, click, bang, sizzle, boom , quack.
2. * Analyze the meanings o f the given words. State what common
associations, given by the graphic/sound-clusters sp- |sp-|. -ash |-acj'l and g l-
|gl-| unite these words.
S p rin k le (to shake small amounts o f a liquid over the surface o f
som ething), spray (to send liquid through the air in tiny drops either
by the wind or some instrum ent), splash (t o wet o r soil by dashing
masses o r panicles o f water), s p it (send liquid out from the mouth).
sp a tter (to scatter drops o f a liquid on a surface), s p ill (to accidentally
pour a liquid out o f its container), sp u rt ( i f a liquid spuns from smth..
it com es out in a sudden strong (low ).
Sm ash (break violently into small pieces), dash (m o ve o r be moved
violently), cra sh (strike suddenly violently and noisily), bash (to hit hard
and violently), gash (a long deep cut o r w oun d), slash (to m ove in a
violent way that causes a lot o f dam age), trash (to criticize in a very
strong way).
G la m o u r (a special quality that makes a person, place, o r situation
seem very exciting, attractive, o r fashionable), g le a m (a bright light
reflected from something), glisten (to shine and look wet or o ily ), glossy
(shiny in an attractive way), g lin t (to shine with quick flashes o f light), glow
(to shine with a soft light), g lim m e r (a soft weak light that is not steady).
3. * Analyze the meanings o f the italicized words. Group the words according
to their type o f motivation: a) words morphologically motivated; b) words
semantically motivated.
D riv e r — someone w ho drives a vehicle, especially as his/her job;
careless — not taking enough care: leg — the part o f a piece o f furniture
such as a table or chair that supports it and raises it o f f the flo o r, horse —
a piece o f equipment shaped like a large box that is used in gymnastics;
s in g le h o o d — the state o f being single rather than m arried: w a ll —
em otions o r behaviour that prevent people from feeling close to each
other: h a n d -m a d e — made by hand, not machine; p iggish — selfish:
b lu e -e y e d — having blue eyes; s o u n d b ite — a sh o n com m en t by
a p o liticia n o r a n oth er fam ou s person that is taken from a longer
conversation o r speech and broadcast a lon e because it is especially
interesting o r effective; le a fle t — a small, often folded piece o f printed
paper, often advertising som eth in g, usually given free to p eop le;
strea m let — a small stream (a natural flo w o f water).
4. " Define the kind o f association involved in the semantic change.

M o d e l : glass (a transparent solid substance used for making windows,


bottles, etc.) — a glass (a container used for drinking, made o f glass)
0 The kind o f association involved in the semantic change in the *ordsg/ass —
a glass is known as metonymy or the contiguity o f meaning.

I ) the f o o t o f a person — the f o o t o f a mountain; 2) je a n (heavy


twilled cotton cloth, csp. d en im ) — je a n s (trousers made o f den im );
3) M a tisse (prop er nam e) — a M a ttisse (a painting); 4 ) the w in g o f
a bird — the w in g o f a building; 5 ) the k ey to a d o o r — the k ey to
a mystery; 6 ) co p p e r (m etal) — co p p e r (c o in ): 7 ) the hea rt o f a man —
the h e a rt o f a city: 8) crow n (a circular ornamental headdress worn by
a m onarch) — crow n (m onarchy): 9 ) a w h ip (a lash used to urge horses
o n ) — a w hip (an official in the British Parliament to see that members
are present at debates); 10) C h in a (a country ) — ch in a (dishes made
o f porcelain (ф арф ор).
5. * Analyze the meanings o f the italicized words. Identify' the result of
changes o f the denotational aspect o f lexical meaning in the given words.
M o d e l : loan: *a gift from a superior; a thing borrowed' — ‘ a sum o f money
which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, usually together
with an additional amount o f money that you have to pay as a charge for
borrowing'
0 The result o f the change o f the denotational aspect o f lexical meaning o f the
word loan is that the word became more specialized in meaning ( restriction
of meaning, specialization).
I) cam p: 'a place where troops are lodged in tents’ — *a place where
people live in tents o r hunts'; 2 ) g ir t: 'a small child o f cither sex' —
•a small child o f the fem ale sex'; 3 ) b ird : 'a young bird’ — *a creature
with wings and feathers which can usually fly in the air’ : 4 ) a rriv e : 'reach
the shore after a voyage' — 'reach a place at the end o f a jou rney or
a sta ge in a jo u r n e y ’ ; 5 ) d e e r: 'a n y q u a d ru p e d (ч е т в е р о н о г о е
ж и в о тн ое)’ — 'a h oofed grazing o r browsing anim al, with branched
bony antlers that are shed annually and typically borne o n ly by the
m ale'; 6 ) rug-, 'rough w oolen s tu ff — 'a small carpet'; 7 ) b a m : 'a place
for keeping barley’ — ‘ a large farm building used for storing grain, hay.
o r straw o r fo r hou sing livestock ’ ; 8 ) g lid e : 't o m o v e gen tly and
sm oothly’ — 'П у with no engine’ ; 9 ) ro o m : 'space' — 'a part o r division
o f a building enclosed by walls, floor, and ceiling'; \0)/1y: 'm ove with
wings’ — ‘ lo m ove through the air o r in the ou ter space'; 11) a rtist:
‘ a master o f the liberal arts (гуманитарны е на ук и )' — *a person who
produces paintings o r drawings as a profession o r hobby’ : 12 ) ch a m p ion :
'a fighting man’ — ‘ a person w ho has defeated o r surpassed all rivals in
a com petition, especially a sporting contest*; 13) ca m p a ign : ‘ army's
operations in the fie ld ' — ‘a connected set o f actions intended to obtain
a particular result, in military operations, in politics and business'.
6. * Analyze the meanings o f the italicized words. Identify the result o f the
changes o f the connoiational aspect o f lexical meaning in the given words.
M o d e l : villain-, ‘a feudal serf, peasant cultivator in subjection to a lord' —
'a person guilty or capable o f a crime or wickedness’
0 The result o f the change o f the connotational aspect o f lexical meaning of
the word v illa in is that the word acquired a derogatory emotive charge
I deterioration o f meaning).

1) cu n n in g: ‘ possessing erudition o r skill' — ‘ clever in deceiving’ :


2 ) k n igh t: ‘ manservant’ — ‘ noble courageous man’ : 3 ) fo n d : ‘ foolish,
infatuated (лиш ивш и йся рассудка)’ — ‘ loving, affectionate'; A )ga n g:
‘ a group o f people goin g together* — ‘ an organized group o f criminals';
5 ) m arshal: ‘ manservant attending horses* — ‘ an o ffice r o f the highest
rank in the armed forces': 6 ) coa rse: ‘ ordinary, com m on ’ — ‘ rude or
vulgar'; 7 ) m in ister, ‘a servant' — ‘ a head o f a government department’ ;
8 ) enthusiasm : *a prophetic o r poetic frenzy (безум и е, беш ен ств о)' —
‘ intense and eager enjoym ent, interest, or approval'; 9 ) v io le n t, ‘ having
a m arked o r pow erfu l e ffe c t ’ — ‘ using o r in volvin g physical force
intended to hurt, damage, o r kill som eone o r som ething’ ; 10) gossip:
‘a godparent, a person related to on e in G o d ' — ‘ the on e w h o talks
scandal; tells slanderous stories about oth er people'.
7. Read the given passage. Speak on the linguistic phenomenon described
in it. Find examples o f your own.

COWBOY
This is an interesting example of how a lexeme can have its
meaning deteriorate in several directions at once. C o w b o y originally
developed quite positive connotations, with its romantic associations
of the Wild West. To these have now been added a number of
distinctly negative overtones in certain regional varieties.
• In British English, it can mean an incompetent or irresponsible
workman or business: c o w b o y p lu m b e r s , c o w b o y d o u b le -ta x in g f ir m .
• In Northern Ireland, it can mean a member of a sectarian gang
• In American English, it can mean an automobile driver who docs
not follow the rules of the road or a factory worker who does more
than the piece-work norms set by his union or fellow-workers.
(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia
o f the English language by David Crystal)
8. * Read the sentences in which the polysemantic word sim ple is used- Give
all the lexico-semantic variants coaslituting the semantic structure o f this word.
Check yourself by a dictionary.

I. T h e b o o k tries to give sim p le explanations o f some very complex


scientific ideas. 2. Sally likes clothes that are sim p le but elegant. 3. The
sim p le fact is that he wants a divorce. 4. Archaeologists found several
sim p le tools at the site. A knife is a sim p le tool. 5. H er grandparents
w ere s im p le p eople w h o never had much m oney. I 'm just a sim p le
farmer. 6. Y ou may be jok in g but she's sim p le enough to believe you.
7. I'm afraid old Jack is a bit sim ple.

9. * Analyze the meanings o f the given polysemantic words taken from the
Concise O x fo rd D iction a ry o f English Etym ology. These meanings are
considered primary and central in Middle English. What are their basic (or
central) meanings from the point o f view o f the present-day language? What
can you say about the historical development o f their semantic structure?

M o d e I: pension — ‘ fixed or regular payment, s-pec. out o f the revenues


o f a benefice* (X IV c.)

0 In modem English the central meaning o f the word is ‘ a regular payment


made by the state to someone who can no longer cam money by working’.
Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning o f the word pension
remains central.

I ) lik e ly — ‘ probable* (X I I I c .); 2 ) revolu tion — 'm oving o f a celestial


body in an orbit’ (X IV c .); 3 ) to p e ris h — 'com e to a violent o r untimely
end. cease to exist’ ( X I I I c .); 4 ) ch a llen g e — 'accusation' ( X I I I c.);
5 ) s in g le — ‘ u naccom pan ied, unm arried; in d ivid u a l; n ot d o u b le ’
(X I V c . ); 6 ) to b etra y — ‘ to give up treacherously' ( X I I I c.).

10. * Classify' the given words into: I) homonyms proper; 2) homophones;


3) homographs. Give meanings o f these words.

Made (adj) — maid (n); row- (n) — row (n); week (n) — weak (adj);
seal (n) — seal (n); tear (v) — tear (n); bread (n) — bred (adj);
band (n) — band (n); sum (n) — some (pron); fall (n) — fall (v );
wind (n) — wind (v); base (n) — base ( v ) ; desert ( v ) — desert (n );
hare (n) — hair (n); sewer (n) — sewer (n); com (n) — com (n).
11. * Fill in the blanks choosing the right word.
1. O ut o f ... ou t o f m ind (c ite , s ite . s ig h t). 2. D o not look a g ift ...
in the mouth {h orse, h o a rse ). 3. It never rains, but i t ... (p o u rs , paw s).
4. N o ... w ithout sweat (sw eet, s u ite ). 5. D o not run with the ... and
hunt with the hounds (h a ir . h a re ). 6. A ll is ... in love and w ar (fa re ,
f a ir ). 7. Fam e is ch iefly a matter o f ... at the right m om ent (d ie , d y e).
8. W h en tw o p e o p le rid e th e .... on e m ust rid e behind ( h o a rs e .
h o rs e ).
C h ap ter 3

1. Intralinguistic Relations o f Words


2. Types o f Semantic Relations
2 1 Proxim ity
. .

2. 2. Equivalence
2.3. Inclusion. H vponym ic Structures
2.4. Opposition
3. Semantic Classification o f Words
3.1. Synonymy. Classification o f Synonyms
3.2. Lexical and T e rm in o lo g ica l Sets, L cxico-S em an tic G roups
and Semantic Fields
3.3. Antonymv. Classification o f Antonyms

1 . I N T R A L I N G U I S T I C R E L A T IO N S O F W O R D S

T h e principles which determine the internal structure o f the language


system were derived by F. de Saussure from tw o basic notions w hich have
b ecom e traditional in linguistics. W ord -m ea n in g can be perceived
through intralinguistic relations that exist between words. Intralinguistic
re la tio n s o f w o rd s are b a s ic a lly o f tw o typ es: sy n ta gm a tic and
paradigmatic.
S y n ta g m a tic rela tio n s are the relationships that a linguistic unit has
w ith o th e r units in the stretch o f langu age in w h ich it occurs.
Syntagmatic relations define the meaning the w ord possesses when it is
used in combination with other words. For example, the meanings o f
the verb to g e t can be understood from the follow ing contexts: H e g o t
a le tte r ( ‘ to receive'); H e g o t tire d ( ‘ to becom e*); H e g o t to L on d on
( ‘ to arrive ); H e c o u ld n o t g e t the p ia n o through th e d o o r ( ‘ to move
smth. to o r from a position o r place*). S o syntagmatic relations are linear
(simultaneous) relationships between words.
P a ra d ig m a tic rela tio n s are the relationships that a linguistic unit
has with units by which it may be replaced. Paradigmatic relations exist
between w ords which make up on e o f the subgroups o f vocabulary units,
c.g . sets o f synonyms, lexico-sem antic groups. Paradigmatic relations
d efin e the meaning the w ord possesses through its interrelation with
oth er members o f the subgroup in question. F o r exam ple, the meaning
o f the verb to g e t can be fully understood in comparison with other units
o f the synonymic set: to o b ta in , to re ce iv e . to g a in , to a cq u ire , etc. So
paradigmatic relations arc associative (non-sim ultaneous) relationships
between words.
T h e distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations is
conventionally indicated by horizontal and vertical presentation as it is
shown on Diagram II.
S y n t a g m a t i c relations
и
He goi a lener.

l l I received an e-mail.

i l She obtained a note.


a
£L
etc.

2. TYPES O F SEM AN TIC RELATIONS

T h e r e are fo u r ba sic typ es o f sem an tic rela tio n s: p ro x im ity ,


equivalence, inclusion and opposition.

2.1. Proximity

W ords very seldom are the sam e sem antically, i.e . th ey are not
identical in meaning and show a certain semantic difference as well as
similarity. M ean ing similarity is seldom com plete and is nearly always
partial which makes it possible to speak about the semantic proximity
o f words and, in general, about the relations o f sem antic proximity.
Com pare the words used for describing a female appearance from the
point o f view o f sim ilarity and dissimilarity in their content side:

beautiful extremely good-looking, much more so than most women

pretty good-looking in an ordinary way but not really beautiful


or sexually exciting

attractive good-looking, especially in a way that makes you feel sexually


interested

striking very attractive, especially because a woman has a particular


feature, such as hair or eyes, that is beautiful and unusual

handsome good-looking in an unusual way, especially because a woman


is tall or strong or looks as if she has a strong character

A n obvious conclusion is that the adjectives discussed arc charac­


terized by certain features o f semantic dissimilarity which shows that they
are not absolutely identical in meaning.
Semantic proximity implies that tw o (or m ore) words however different
may enter the semantic relations o f proximity i f they share certain semantic
features, e.g . the words re d and gre e n share the semantic features o f
‘ colou r', ‘basic or rainbow colour*, complementary c o lo u r , etc.
T h e words m ay be graded in semantic proximity. A higher degree o f
semantic proxim ity helps to single out synonyms w hile a low er degree
o f proxim ity provides fo r a description o f broader and less homogeneous
semantic groups. For exam ple, the degree o f proxim ity w ill b e much
lower in the words re d and green which share the semantic feature o f
‘ colour* than in re d vs s ca rle t or g re e n vs e m era ld . T h e words ta b le
and c h a ir share the semantic features o f ‘ thingness’ , ‘ object*, ‘ piece o f
furniture* that forms a g o o d basis fo r grouping them together with other
nouns denoting ‘ pieces o f furniture*.

2.2. Equivalence

Semantic equivalence implies full sim ilarity o f meaning o f tw o or


m ore language units. Being an extreme case o f semantic proxim ity it is
qualitatively different from all oth er cases suggesting the existence o f
units different in form but having identical meaning, i.e . on e and the
same content side.
Semantic equivalence is very seldom observed in words and is claimed
to be much oftener encountered in case o f sentences, e.g . the phrase
J o h n is ta lle r th a n B ill m ay be considered equivalent to the phrase B ill
is s h o rte r th a n Joh n , and the phrase S h e liv e s in P a ris is semantically
equivalent to S h e liv e s in the c a p ita l o f France.
T h e relations o f semantic equivalence in words can be illustrated by
tw o phonetic terms stops and plosives both used to denote the English
sounds |p. b|, |t. d|. |k. g j. T h e meaning o f the w ord stop is defined as
‘ consonant sound made by closure o f organs follow ed b y audible release
o f air’ , w hile the meaning o f the word p lo s iv e is defined through the
m eaning o f the w o rd s to p . Both w ords in the g iv e n m ea n in g are
semantically identical and m ay be used interchangeably.
Semantic equivalence in words is highly unstable, it tends to turn into
the relations o f sem antic proxim ity. T h is pron oun ced tendency to
semantic differentiation m ay be viewed as a realization o f the economy
principle in the language system which “ does not need** words different
in form and absolutely similar in meaning.

2.3. Inclusion. Hyponymic Structures

A nother type o f semantic relations is the relationship o f inclusion


which exists between tw o words i f the m eaning o f on e w ord contains
the semantic features constituting the meaning o f the other word. The
semantic relations o f inclusion are called hyponymic relations. Thus,
fo r exam ple, v e h icle includes c a r, bus, ta x i. tram and / lo w e r includes
d a ffo d il, ca rn a tio n , snow drop, lily . T h e hyponym ic relation m ay be
view ed as the hierarchical relationship between the meanings o f the
general and the individual terms.
T h e general term — v e h icle . tre e , a n im a t — is referred to as the
classifier or the hvperonym. T h e more specific term is called the hyponym
(c a r . tra m : o a k . a s h ; c a t. to rto is e ) . T h e m ore sp ec ific term (the
hyponym) is included in the more general term (the hvperonym), c.g. the
classifier m ove and the members o f the group — w alk, ru n , saunter. The
individual terms contain the meaning o f the general term in addition to
their individual meanings which distinguish them from each other.
It is important t o note that in hvponym ic structures certain words
m ay be both cla ssifiers (h y p e ro n vm s ) and m em bers o f th e group
(hyponym s) (D iagram 12 ).

D ia g r a m 12

plant

grass bush tree shrub (lower

pine oak ash maple

while pine yellow pine

From the diagram above it is quite clear that the words tre e and p in e
are both hyperonyms (th e classifiers) and hyponyms (th e members o f
the group).

2.4. Opposition

T h e contrast o f semantic features helps t o establish the semantic


relations o f o p p o s itio n . Th us, the m eaning o f the w ord b la c k is
contrasted to that o f the word w hite. T h e relations o f opposition imply
the exclusion o f the meaning o f one w ord by another, which, in fact,
implies that the referential areas o f the tw o (o r m ore) words are opposed.
Thus, b la ck is opposed to w h ite but it is not opposed to either re d o r
y ellow . In the latter case w e can speak about contrast o f meaning, but
not the semantic relations o f opposition.
T h ere arc tw o types o f relations o f sem antic o p p o s itio n : polar
oppositions and relative oppositions. Р Ы а г op position s are those which
are based on the sem antic feature u nitin g tw o lin gu istic units by
anlonvmous relations, e.g . ric h — p o o r, d ea d — a liv e , y o u n g — old .
R e la tiv e o p p osition s im ply that there are several semantic features on
which the opposition rests. F o r exam ple, the verb to lea ve means To
g o away from ' and its opposite, the verb to a rriv e denotes ’ reaching a
place, esp. the end o f a journey'. It is quite obvious that the verb to leave
implies certain finality and movement in the opposite direction from the
place specified. T h e veib to a rriv e lays special emphasis semantically
on ‘ reaching smth.\ i.c . attaining a point which is set as an aim and
im plies effort in achieving the goal. Thus, it is not just on e semantic
feature the presence o f which in on e case accounts fo r the polarity o f
meaning, but a whole system o f semantic features which underlies the
opposition o f tw o words in the semantic aspect.

3. SEM AN TIC CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS

In general there are tw o basic principles o f grouping words together


according to the properties o f their content side. T h ey are:
1. T o classify’ words proceeding from the basic types o f semantic
relations.
2. T o group words together starting o f f with associations connecting
the given words with other vocabulary units.
According to these principles o f classifying linguistic units the following
semantic classes (o r categories) can be singled out: synonyms, lexical and
terminological sets, lexico-semantic groups, semantic fields, antonyms.

3 .1 . Synonymy. Classification of Synonyms

S y n o n y m s are usually defined as w ords belonging to on e part o f


speech, close in meaning and interchangeable at least in some contexts.
S y n o n y m s are ch a ra cterize d b y c ith e r the sem antic rela tio n s ot
equivalence or by the semantic relations o f proximity. A s the degree o f
semantic proxim ity m ay be different, different types o f synonyms can
b e sin gled out. Full (to ta l) synonym s, i.e . w ords ch aracterized by
semantic equivalence, are extrem ely rare.
T h e degree o f semantic proxim ity is best o f all estimated in terms ol
the aspects o f meaning, i.e. the denotational. the connotational. and
the pragmatic aspect. .
T h e highest degree o f proxim ity is observed in synonyms w hicn nave
similar denotational aspects but d iffer either in the connotational ( l ) o r
the pragmatic (2 ) aspect o f meaning.
1. T h e difference in connotation m ay be illustrated b y the words
fa m o u s meaning known widely, having fam e’ and the word n otoriou s
which is defined as widely known because o f smth. bad. fo r example
for being crim inal, violent, immoral*. Thus, the w ord fa m o u s im plies a
positive em otive evaluation, and the w ord n o to rio u s — negative.
2. T h e difference in the pragmatic value o f words is found in a lar
greater number o f words than the difference in the connotational aspect.
It can b e observed in synonym ic pairs consisting o f a native and a
borrowed word. In most cases the native word is more informal, whereas
the foreign w ord has a learned o r abstract air, cf.: b roth erly — fra te rn a l,
b o d ily — co rp o ra l. In a few cases these synonym ic values arc reversed,
e.g. d eed — a c tio n , f o e — enem y.
Taking into account the difference o f synonyms by the three aspects
o l their m eaning they may be classified into stylistic, ideographic and
ideographic-stylistic synonyms.
S ty lis tic synonym y implies no interchangeability in context because
the underlying situations are different, e.g . ch ild re n — in fa n ts, d a d —
fa th e r. Stylistic synonym s are sim ilar in the denotational aspect o f
m eaning, but different in the pragmatic (and con n otalion al) aspect.
Substituting one stylistic synonym fo r another results in an inadequate
presentation o f the situation o f communication.
Id e o g r a p h ic syn o n ym y presents a still low er degree o f semantic
proximity and is observed when the connotationai and the pragmatic aspects
are similar, but there are certain differences in the denotational aspect o f
meaning o f tw o words, e.g.fo re s t — w ood, apartm ent - f l a t , shape -
fo rm . Though ideographic synonyms correspond to on e and the same
referential area, i.e. denote the same thing o r a set o f closely related things,
they are different in the denotational aspect o f their meanings and their
interchange would result in a slight change o f the phrase they are used in.
Ideograph ic-stylistic synonymy' is characterized by the lowest degree
o f semantic proximity. This type o f synonyms includes synonyms w hich
differ both in the denotational and the connotationai and/or the pragmatic
aspects o f meaning, e.g. ask — in q u ire , ex p ect — a n ticip a te. I f the
synonyms in question have the same patterns o f grammatical and lexical
valency, they can still hardly be considered interchangeable in context.
Each s y n o n y m ic g ro u p c o m p ris e s a d om in an t e le m e n t. T h is
synonym ic d om in an t is the most general term potentially containing
the specific features rendered by all the other members o f the synonymic
group. In the series lea ve — d ep a rt — q u it — re tire — c le a r o u t the
verb leave, being general and both stylistically and em otionally neutral,
can stand fo r each o f the oth er four terms. T h e other four can replace
lea v e only when some specific semantic com ponent prevails over the
general notion. For exam ple, when it is necessary to stress the idea o f
& vm g up em ploym ent and stopping w ork q u it is preferable because in
this word this particular notion dominates over the more general idea
com m on to the w hole group.

3.2. Lexical and Terminological Sets, Lexico-Semantic


Groups and Semantic Fields

Words denoting different things correlated on extralinguistic grounds


lorm le x ic a l s e ts (п р ед м е тн ы е и л и тем ати ч ески е гр уп п ы ). F o r
example, the words lio n . tig er, leopa rd, p u m a , c a t refer to the lexical set
o f ‘ the animals o f the cat fam ily’. Depending on the type o f the notional
area lexical sets may acquire a more specialized character, e.g. names o f
'musical instruments': p ia n o . organ, v io lin , d ru m : names o f ‘ parts o f the
car mechanism': ra d ia to r. m o to r, handbrake, wheels. Such classes o f
words arc called terminological sets (терминологические группы).
W ords describing different sides o f on e and the same general notion
are united in a lexieo-semantic group if
a ) the underlying notion is not to o generalized and all-embracing,
like the notions o f ‘ tim e’ , 'space', 'life ', 'process', etc.;
b ) the reference to the underlying notion is not just an implication in
the meaning o f the lexical unit but forms an essential part in its semantics.
Thus, it is possible to single out the lexico-semantic group o f names o f
'colours' consisting o f the words p in k , red . b la ck . green, w hite: the lexico-
semantic group o f verbs denoting ‘ physical movement’ — to g o . to turn ,
to ru n : o r ‘destruction’ — to ru in . to destroy, to explod e, to k ill: etc.
I f the underlying notion is broad enough t o include alm ost all-
em bracing sections o f vocabulary we deal with semantic fields. For
example, the words cosm on a u t (n .). spaciou s (a d j.), to o rb it (v.) belong
to the semantic field o f 'space'. These broadest semantic groups are
sometimes referred to as conceptual fields which might be in many cases
misleading. T h e members o f the semantic fields are join ed together by
some com m on semantic com ponent, i.e. the com ponent com m on to
all the members o f the semantic field, which is sometimes described as
the com m on denominator o f meaning.
T h e starting point o f the th eory o f sem antic field s and lex ico-
semantic groups was J.Trier’ s work (a G erm an linguist; the beginning
o f the 20th centu ry) on intellectual terms in O ld and M id dle High
G erm a n . J.Trier show ed that they form an interdependent lexical
sphere w h ere the s ig n ific a n c e o f each unit is d e te rm in ed b y its
neighbours. T h e sem antic areas o f the units lim it on e an oth er and
cover up the w hole sphere.
T h e correlation between the semantic classes may be graphically
presented by means o f concentric circles (D iagram m 13).
D ia g r a m m 13

a semantic field
a lexico-semantic group
a lexical/terminolo0 cal set

3.3. Antonymy. Classification of Antonyms

Antonyms — a class o f words grouped together on the basis o f the


semantic relations o f opposition. Antonym s are words belonging to one
part o f speech sharing certain com m on semantic characteristics and in
this respect they are similar to such semantic classes as synonyms, lexical
sets, lcxico-scm an tic groups. T h ere exist different classifications o f
antonyms.
Structurally, antonyms can be divided in to antonyms o f the same
root ( I ). e.g . to d o — to u n d o. c h e e rfu l — cheerless: and antonyms o f
diflerent roots (2 ), e.g . day — n igh t. ric h — p o o r.
Sem antically, antonym s m ay be classified in to contradictories,
contraries and incompatiblcs.
1. C o n tra d ic to rie s represent the type o f semantic relations that exist
between pairs like, fo r exam ple, d e a d — a liv e , s in g le — m a rrie d .
Contradictory antonyms are mutually opposed, they deny on e another.
Contradictories form a privative binary opposition, they are members
o f two-term sets. T o use on e o f the words is to contradict the other and
to use 'n ot before on e o f them is to make it sem antical^ equivalent to
the o th e r n o t d ea d = a liv e : n o t sin gle = m a rried .
2. C o n t r a r ie s are antonym s that can be arranged in to a series
according to the increasing difference in one o f their qualities. T h e most
distant elem ents o f this series w ill be classified as contrary notions.
Contraries are grad ab le antonym s, they are polar members o f a gradual
opposition which may have intermediate elements. This may be observed
in c o ld — h o t and c o o l — w a rm which are intermediate members.
Thus, we m ay regard as antonyms not only c o ld and h o t but also c o ld
and w arm . C on trary antonym s m ay also be considered in terms o f
degrees o f the quality involved. Thus, water m ay be c o ld o r v e ry c o ld
and water in on e glass m ay be c o ld e r than in another glass.
3. In c o m p a tib le s are antonym s w hich are characterized b y the
relations o f exclusion. Semantic relations o f incompatibility exist among
antonyms with a com m on component o f meaning and mav be described
as the reverse o f hyponymy. For example, to say m orn in g is to say n o t
a p e m o v n . n o t even in g. n o t n ig h t. The use o f on e m em ber o f this set
im plies the exclusion o f the oth er members o f the set. Incompatibles
d ille r from co n tra d ictories as in com p a tib les arc m em bers o f the
multiple-term sets w hile contradictories are members o f two-term sets.
A relation o f incompatibility may be also observed between colour terms
since the choice o f red . for example, entails the exclusion o f b la ck , blue,
y e llo w , etc.

Q U E S T IO N S A N D T A S K S

/. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What are the basic types o f intralinguistic relations o f words?


2. What d o syntagmatic relations mean?
3. What relations are called paradigmatic?
4. What are the main types o f semantic relations?
5. What is the semantic proxim ity o f m eaning? What are the tw o
extreme cases o f semantic proximity?
6. What is semantic equivalence? Is semantic equivalence a stable
type o f semantic relations?
7. What is meant by inclusion as a type o f semantic relations? What is
the other linguistic term used to denote semantic relations o f inclusion?
8. W hat does the term ’ hyperon ym ' m ean? W hat docs the term
‘ hyponym* denote?
9. What is opposition as a type o f semantic relations?
10. What types o f semantic opposition can be singled out?
II W hat are the tw o basic principles o f semantic classification o f
words? What are the resulting word-classes?
12. What are synonyms?
13. What semantic relations are synonyms characterized by?
14. According to what principles are synonyms classified? W hat are
the main types o f synonyms?
15. What is meant by the synonymic dominant?
16. What are lexical sets? What are term inological sets?
17. What is a lexico-semantic group?
18. What is a semantic field?
19. What d o we call antonyms?
20. What structural types o f antonyms d o you know?
21. What semantic types o f antonyms d o you know?
22. What is the difference between: a ) contradictories and contraries:
b ) contradictories and incompatibles?

//. TA S K S

I C o m p a r e the meanings o f the given words. Define what semantic features


are shared by all the members o f the group and what semantic properties
distinguish them from each other.

I)
wage a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a daily or weekly
basis, made by an employer to an employee, especially
to a manual or unskilled worker

salary a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly basis but


often expressed as an annual sum. made by an employer to an
employee, especially a professional or white-collar worker

pay the money' paid to someone for regular work

fe e a payment made to a professional person (e g. to a lawyer, writer)


or to a professional or public body in exchange for advice or
services

incom e money received, especially on a regular basis, for work


or through investments
reputation the general opinion that people have about a person,
organization based on what they have heard, read. seen,
or experienced
image the idea or opinion that people have about a person,
organization, especially when this has been deliberately made
or planned
name the reputation a person or an organization has because
o f something they do o r because o f the quality o f what thev
produce, usually when this is good
prestige the respect and good reputation a person, organization has
because they have a high position in socictv. are admired
by people
stature a reputation for being very good at something very important
or influential that makes people respect you

2:• Organize the given words in accordance with [heir hvponvmic relations
tnumerate the general terms (hyperonyms).
1) train, light lorry, bicycle, vehicle, cabriolet, car. heavy lorry, estate
car motorcycle, bus. lorn-, three-door hatchback, three-way dump truck:
2 ) turtle, m am m al, squirrel, anim al, rep tile, seal, tiger, lizard
leopard, fox. w olf, iguana, bear, snake, feline, panther.
3. Group the sentences into pairs so that in one sentence there should be a
hyperonym (the more general term) and in the other - the hyponvm (the more
concrete term).

M o d e l : P te m an was murdered. — The man was poisoned.


1. H e gave her a ring with five emeralds as a birthday present 2 77te
m an was p o is o n e d . 3. She looked at him. 4. H e heard a nightingale
singing. 5. H e is an officer. 6. It s an old car. 7. She was wearing a black
dress. 8. T h ey built a boat. 9. The m an was m urd ered . 10. She stared
at him. 11. H e is a colonel. 12. It's an old vehicle. 13. H e gave her a ring
with five precious stones as a birthday present. 14. T h e v bought flowers
m the shop. 15. She was wearing a dark dress. 16. She has got a child.
I/. T h ey built a yacht. 18. Th ey bought lilacs in the shop. 19. She has
got a daughter. 20. H e heard a bird singing.
4.* Cuve meanings o f the following synonyms. State the difference in the
connotational aspect o f their meaning.
M o d e I: love — worship

love — an intense feeling o f deep affection Emotive charge and


worship — the feeling o f profound reverence expressiveness (intensity)
and strong adoration are different.
C on fid en ce - assurance: to satisfy - to delight; a lon e - lonely;
t o create - to m anufacture; to blush - t o redden; to trem ble -
to shudder.

5. * State the difference in the pragmatic aspect o f meaning o f the given


synonyms. Consult a dictionary.
M o d e l : to see — to behold

0 The verb to behold is formal, whereas the verb to see is neutral.

C a r - automobile; refreshment - bite: soldier — warrior: to begin -


to com m ence; face - puss; to leave - to abandon; hearty - cordial,
hand — fin: to cry — to weep.

6. * Look up in a dictionary meanings o f the given pairs o f synonyms. Classify


synonyms into stylistic, ideographic and ideographic-stylistic.
M o d e l : mum — m other

0 The words have the same denotational meaning *a female parent’ , but they
difler in the pragmatic aspect o f meaning as the word m um is informal. Thus’.
this pair o f synonyms belongs to the group o f stylistic synonyms.

Inform ation - data; associate - pal; infectious - contagious; to


ask - to interrogate: to meet - to encounter; to reckon - to estimate*
m um — m oth er, faculty - talent; to foretell — to predict: to walk - to
promenade: blemish - flaw; heaven - sky; intelligent - smart; affair -
business.

7 . * Find the synonymic dominanl in the following groups o f synonyms.


T o sob - to weep - to cry; to brood - to reflect - to mediate -
to think: to glare - to peep - to look - to stare - to glance: strange -
quaint - odd — queer, terror — fear - horror; angrv — furious —
enraged; to flash - to gleam - to sparkle — to bla/e - to shine.

8. * Arrange the following units into two lexical and two terminological sets
Give them corresponding names.

Detached house, wire-haired fox terrier, clim bing robe, bull terrier,
disk, horse (vau lting h orse), hardware, m ulti-storey b lock o f flats
m on itor, terraced house, Scottish terrier, m ain fram e, tra m p o lin e’
interface. Bedl.ngton terrier, floor, high-rise block o f flats, landing mat.
Pekinese, asym m etric bars, software, weekend house, springboard
server, cottage, beam , semi-detached house.

9. * Classify the following words and word-combinations into lexico-semantic


groups ( I ) and semantic fields (2 ) under the headings education’ and feeling’.

Book, to bear malice, displeased, to teach, intelligent, indifference,


classmate, to adore, affection, to coach, frustrated, pedagogical, college,
hatred, day-student, in a temper, to repeat a year, passion, calm (ad j)
exercise, reader, satisfaction, t o w rite, wrathful, knowledge, tuition.
jealousy, course, to supervise, to infuriate, disciplined, happy, to develop
habits, unrest, shock, m ethodological, to hurt, to smatter o f (in ), angry.
10.* Give antonyms to the following words. Group them into antonyms o f
the same root (a) and antonyms o f different roots (b).
M o d e I: artistic
0 The antonym o f the word artistic is inartistic. These words belong to the
group o f antonyms o f the same root (group a).
Happy (a d j). carcful (adj). dw arf (adj). obedience (n ). criticism (n ).
a b ove (a d v ). regular (a d j). a sleep (a d j), back (a d v ). p o lite (a d j).
triumph (n ), hope (n ). a rtis tic (a d j). appear (v ), prewar (adj), far (adv).
logical (a d j), love (n ). known (adj).

11-* Classify antonymous pairs into contradictories, contraries and


incompatibles. To prove the division give intermediate members o f the
antonymous set where it is necessary, or give other members o f the group which
arc excluded in the given antonymous pair.
M o d e I: arid — awash

0 These antonyms refer to the group o f contraries as they are polar members o f a
gradual opposition which has the following intermediate members: dry — wet.

P o e try — prose, inch — fo o t, m an — w o m a n , o ld — you ng,


beautiful — ugly. M onday — Sunday, teacher — pupil, to adore — to
loathe, on e — thousand, tremendous — tiny, iron — copper, to accept —
to reject, round — square, creditor — debtor, im m aculate — filthy,
b o y — man. day — night, clever — stupid, red — brown, a rid — aw ash.
inside — outside, open — shut. N ovem ber — March, evil — good.
12. Read the following passage. Speak on the difference between such
linguistic phenomena as hyponymv and incompatibility.

S H O W IN G O U R T R U E C O LO U R S
T h e w a y the linguistic w o rld fails t o correspond t o the physical
w o rld is w e ll illustrated b y th e use o f the lex em e c o lo u r . A physical
account recogn izes re d , y e llo w , and b lu e as p rim a ry colours, and
g r e e n , v io le t , and o r a n g e as th e ir com plem entaries. In a large b o x
o f paints, several d o ze n co lo u rs w ill b e found, including b la c k , w h ite ,
g r e y , b r o w n , and a num ber o f increasingly fin e discriminations (Ш а с ,
m a u v e , p u r p le , in d ig o , etc).
In language, w hat is considered t o b e a hyponym o f c o lo u r depends
v e ry m uch on th e c o n te x t
• In th e fie ld o f sn ooker1, the c o lo u r s exclu de r e d . T h e c o lo u r e d
balls can b e played o n ly a fte r a red ball has b een potted.

1Snooker — a game played on a large table covered with green cloth. Player, try
lo hit coloured balls into holes called pockets with a long stick called a cue.
• By contrast, in the fie ld o f health (fo r Caucasians), c o lo u r can
mean o n ly red. o r at least pink (in the c o lo u r ca m e b a ck to h is cheeks).
• In publishing, a b o o k printed in black typ e o n w h ite paper is
n ot considered t o b e in colour. Yet i f blue. say. Is introduced to add
interest t o the page, this is called using a second co lo u r (b la c k being
the ‘first’ colour).
• In the fie ld o f South A frican racial relations, c o lo u re d excludes
black and white.
• In the cinem a and on television, th ere is a contrast betw een films
m ade in colours (as in T ech n icolor) and in Ыаск-and-whitc. Camera
film and television sets. too. are categorized in this way.
(from the Cam bridge Encyclopedia o f
the English language by David Crystal)
WORD-STRUCTURE

C h ap ter 1

1. Morphemes. Classification o f Morphemes


2. Types o f M eaning in Morphemes
3. M orphem ic Types o f Words
4. Types o f Word-Segm eniability
5. Procedure o f M orphem ic Analysis

1. M ORPHEM ES. CLASSIFICATION O F MORPHEMES

Words consist o f morphemes. T h e term 'm orp h em e' is derived from


G ree k m o rp h e — 'form * + -e m e . T h e G ree k su ffix -e m e has been
adopted b y linguists to denote the smallest unit (cf. p h on em e. sem em e).
The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit o f form . Morphemes
cannot be segmented into smaller units without losing their constitutive
essence, i.e. two-faccledness — association o f a certain meaning with a
certain sound-pattern. M orphem es occur in speech o n ly as constituent
pans o f words but not independently.
M orphem es may have different phonetic shapes. In the word-cluster
p lea se. p lea sin g, plea su re, p lea sa n t the root m orphem e is represented
by the phonetic shapes: |plLz-J in p lea se, p lea sin g; (p le j- l in p lea su re;
|plez-| in pleasant. A ll the representations o f the given m orphem e are
called allomorphs o r m orphem e variants.
M orphem es may be classified from the semantic point o f view and
from the structural point o f view.
Semantically morphemes fall into tw o types: 1) root-m orphem es and
2) non-root morphemes.
Root-morphemes (o r radicals) are the lexical nucleus o f words. For
example, in the words rem a k e, gla ssfu l, d isord er the root-m orphemes
-m a k e , g la s s - and -o rd e r are understood as the lexical centres o f the
words. T h e root-m orphem e is isolated as the m orphem e com m on to a
set o f words making up a word-cluster, e.g . the m orphem e te a c h - in to
tea ch . tea ch er, teaching.
N on-root morphemes in c lu d e in fle c t io n a l m o rp h em es (o r
inflections) and affixational morphemes (o r affixes). Inflections carry
only grammatical m eaning and are thus relevant o n ly fo r the formation
o f word-form s, whereas affixes are relevant fo r building various types
o f stems'. Lexicology' is concerned only with affixational morphemes.
A ffixes are divided into prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is a derivational
m orphem e preceding the root-m orphem e and m odifying its meaning
<cf. p ro n o u n c e — m is -p ro n o u n c e , s a fe — u n -s a fe ). A su ffix is a
derivational m orphem e follow ing the root and form ing a new derivative
in a different part o f speech o r a different word class (c f. - e n , -v. -less
in h e a rt-e n , h e a rt-у . h ea rt-less).
Structurally m orphem es fall into three types: I ) free morphemes;
2) bound morphemes: 3 ) semi-bound (sem i-free) morphemes.
A fr e e m orp h em e is defined as on e that coincides with the stem or
a w ord-form . F o r exam ple, the root-m orphem e f r ie n d - o f the noun
frie n d s h ip is naturally qualified as a free morpheme because it coincides
with on e o f the forms o f the w ord frie n d .
A bound m o rp h e m e occurs only as a constituent part o f a word.
A ffixes are bound morphemes for they always make pan o f a word. For
ex a m p le, the su ffixes -n e s s . -s h ip , -iz e in the w ords d a rk n e s s .
frie n d s h ip , to a ctiv iz e ; the prefixes im -. d is -, d e - in the words im p o lite ,
to d isregard, to d em ob ilize.
Som e root-m orphemes also belong to the class o f bound morphemes.
These are. as a rule, roots which arc found in quite a lim ited number o f
words and never independently o r pseudo-roots, i.e. root-m orphemes
which have lost most o f the properties o f “ fu ll" roots. Such are the root-
morphemes goose- in gooseberry, -c e iv e in con ceive. Com bining forms,
i.e. morphemes borrowed namely from G reek o r Latin in which they
existed as free forms, are considered to be bound roots. F o r example,
the word te le -p h o n e consists o f tw o bound roots, whereas the word
c y c l-ic — o f a bound root and an affix.
Semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes are m orphem es that can
fu n ction in a m orp h em ic sequ ence both as an a ffix and as a free
morpheme. For example, the morphemes w e ll and h a lf on the on e hand
occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form
in the utterances to sleep w ell, h a lf an h o u r, on the other hand w ell
and h a lf occur as bound morphemes in the words w ell-k n ow n , h a lf-
done.

2. TYPES OF M EANING IN MORPHEMES

In m orp h em es d ifferen t types o f m ea n in g can b e s in g le d out


d e p e n d in g on th e sem an tic class m o rp h em es b e lo n g to . R o o t-
m orphem es possess lexical, differen tial and distributional types o f

A Mem is the part o f a word that remains unchanged ihroughout its paradigm.
m eaning. A ffix a tio n a l m o rp h em es have le x ic a l, p a rl-o f-s p e e c h .
differential and distributional types o f meaning. Both root-m orphem es
and affixational morphemes are devoid o f grammatical meaning.
Lexical meaning. T h e lexical meaning o f root-m orphem es differs
fro m that o f a ffix a tio n a l m orph em es. R o o t-m o rp h e m e s h ave an
individu al lex ica l m eaning shared by n o o th er m orphem es in the
language. T h e lexical m eaning o f affixational morphemes is. as a rule,
o f a m ore generalizing character. For example, the suffix -e n carries the
meaning 'the change o f a quality'. Verbs form ed with the help o f this
suffix express the idea that someone or something has m ore o f a quality
than it had previously. If. for example, a river deepens, it becomes deeper
than it was before, and i f a person is d eafened, he has lost temporarily
the power o f hearing.
A s in words lexical meaning in morphemes may also be analyzed into
d en ota tion a l and co n n o ta tio n a l co m p on en ts. T h e co n n otation a l
component o f meaning m ay be found not only in root-m orphem es but
in affixational morphemes as w ell. Endearing and dim inutive suffixes,
such as -e tte [ k itc h e n e tte . le a / le lte ) : - ie [y ) ( d e a rie . g ir lie ) ; -lin g
[d u c k lin g , w o lflin g ) bear a heavy em otive charge. T h e affixational
morphemes with the same denotational meaning sometimes d iffer only
in connotation. F o r exam ple, the m orphem es -ly , -lik e , -is h in the
words w om a n ly , w om a n lik e, ivom anish have the same denotational
meaning o f similarity but d iffer in the connotational component (cf. the
Russian equivalents: ж енственный — женский — бабий).
Stylistic reference m ay also be found in morphemes o f different types.
F o r e x a m p le , th e a ffix a tio n a l m orp h em es -in e [c h lo r in e ). - o id
[ rh o m b o id ) are bookish.
Differential meaning. D iffe r e n tia l m ea n in g is the sem antic
component that serves to distinguish one word from all others containing
identical morphemes. In words consisting o f tw o o r m ore morphemes,
one o f the constituent morphemes always has differential meaning. For
e x a m p le , in the w o rd b o o k s h e lf the m o rp h e m e - s h e lf serves to
distinguish the word from other words containing the morpheme b o o k -:
bookcase. b o o k sta ll.
Distributional Meaning. Distributional meaning is the meaning o f
the order and arrangement o f morphemes making up the word. It is
found in all words containing m ore than on e m orphem e. F o r example,
the w ord s in g e r is com posed o f tw o morphemes s in g - and -e r both o f
which possess the denotational m eaning — ’ to make musical sounds'
and 'th e d o er o f the a ction '. A d ifferen t arrangem ent o f the same
morphemes *e rsin g ' would make the word meaningless.
Part-of-speech meaning. In most cases affixational morphemes are
indicative o f the pan o f speech to which a derivational w ord belongs.
For exam ple, the affixational morpheme -m e rit ( m ovem en t) is used to 1

1 *er$ing - violation o f ihe order o f ihc morphemes.


form nouns, w hile ih e affixational m orphem e - less ( ca reless) forms
adjectives. S om etim es the p a rt-of-sp eech m eaning o f m orphem es
predom inates. F o r exam ple, the m orphem e -ic e in the w ord ju s tic e
serves p rin cip a lly to tran sfer the p a rt-o f-s p e e c h m eaning o f the
m orphem e ju s t- into another class and namely that o f the noun.

3. MORPHEMIC TYPES OF WORDS

According to the number o f morphemes words are classified into:


1 ) monomorphic:
2 ) polymorphic.
Monomorphic o r root-words consist o f only on e root-m orphem e
(s m a ll, dog, m a k e ). Polymorphic words according to the number o f
r o o t-m o r p h e m e s are c la s s ifie d in to : a ) m o n o ra d ic a l (o n e - r o o t
m orphem e) and b ) polyradical (w ords consisting o f tw o or m ore roots).
Monoradical words fall into three subtypes:
1) r a d ic a l-s u ffix a l w ord s, i.e . w o rd s co n sis tin g o f o n e r o o t-
m orphem e and on e or m ore suffixal m orphem es (e . g . a cce p ta b le ,
a c c e p ta b ility );
2) r a d ic a l-p r e fix a l w ord s, i.e . w o rd s c o n s is tin g o f o n e ro o t-
m orphem e and a prefixal m orphem e (e .g . o u td o , u n b u tto n );
3 ) prefixo-radical-suffixal w ords, i.e . w ords which consist o f one
root, prefixal and suffixal morphemes (e.g . disagreeable, m is in te rp re ­
ta tio n ).
PolyradicaJ words fall into tw o subtypes:
1) polyradical words w hich consist o f tw o o r m ore roots with no
affixational morphemes (e .g . b o o k -s ta n d , la m p -sh a d e):
2 ) polyradical words w hich contain at least tw o roots and on e o r more
affixational morphemes (e.g . sa fety -p in . ligh t-m in d ed n ess, p e n -h o ld ­
e r).

4. TYPES OF W O R D -SEG M EN TA BILITY

Th ree types o f morphemic segmentability o f w ords are distinguished:


com plete, conditional, defective1.
Complete segmentability is characteristic o f a great num ber o f
words, the morphemic structure o f which is transparent enough, as their
individual m orphem es clearly stand ou t within the w ord and can be
e a sily is o la te d . T h e m o rp h em es m a k in g up w o rd s o f c o m p le te
segmentability are called m orphem es proper o r full m orphem es. T h e 1

1 Cf. the Russian terms- живое, условное н дефектное морфологическое


членение слов
transparenl m orphem ic structure o f ih e segm entable w ords e n d le s s .
useless is conditioned by the fact that their constituent m orphem es recur
with the sam e m eaning in a number o f o th er words: a n e n d . t o e n d ;
use, to use and nam eless, pow erless.
Conditional segmentability c h a r a c te r iz e s w o rd s w h o s e
segmentation into the constituent m orphem es is doubtful fo r sem antic
reasons. In the words re ta in , d e ta in o r re ce iv e , d e ce iv e the s o u n d -
clusters - [n-1- |di-| seem t o b e singled ou t quite easily due to th e ir
recurrence in a number o f words. O n the o th er hand, they have n oth in g
in co m m on with the phonetically identical m orphem es r e -, d e - w h ich
are fou n d in the w ords re w rite , re o rg a n iz e , d e c o d e , d e o rg a n iz e
N eith er the sound-clusters |n-|. |di-| n or the |-tem|. |-si.*v| possess
any lexical o r p a rt-o f-sp ee ch m ea n in g o f th eir ow n . T h e typ es o l
m eaning that can be ascribed to them is differential and distributional:
the |n-J distinguishes re ta in from d e ta in and the |-tein| distinguishes
re ta in from re ce iv e , whereas their o rd er and arrangement point t o the
status o f the r e -, d e - as d ifferen t from that o f the -ta in and -c e iu e
within the structure o f the words. T h e m orphem es making up w ords
o f c o n d it io n a l s e g m e n ta b ility d o n o t r is e t o th e status o f fu ll
m orphem es for sem antic reasons and that is w hy are called pseu do-
m orphem es or quasi-morphemes.
Defective segmentability is the p r o p e r ty o f w o rd s w h o s e
component morphemes seldom o r never recur in other words. O n e o f
the com ponent morphemes o f these words is a unique m orphem e in the
sense that it d o es not recur in a d ifferen t lingu istic en viron m en t.
A unique m orphem e is isolated and understood as meaningful because
the constituent m orphem es display a m ore o r less clear denotational
meaning. In the w ord h a m le t (деревуш ка) the m orphem e -le t has the
meaning o f diminutiveness. T h is m orphem e occurs in the words rin g le t,
le a fle t, s tre a m le t. T h e sound-clu ster |hiem-| that is left a fte r the
isolation o f the morpheme -le t does not recur in any other English w ord.
T h e m orphem e h a m - carries a differential and distributional meaning
as it distinguishes h a m le t from strea m let, rin g le t. Th is m orphem e is
qualified as unique.

5. PROCEDURE OF MORPHEMIC ANALYSIS

T h e procedure generally em ployed for the purposes o f segmenting


w ords into the constituent m orphem es is known as the method of
Immediate and Ultimate Constituents'.1
1 Immediate Constituents any o f ihc two meaningful parts forming a larger
linguistic unit The analysis inlo Immediate Constituents (IC s) was first suggested b>
L. Bloomfield and later developed by many linguists. (See Bloomfield t~ language -
I ondon. 1935. - P. 210.)
T h is m ethod is based on a binary principle, i.e . each stage o f the
procedure involves tw o components the word immediately breaks into
At each stage these tw o components are referred to as the Immediate
Constituents (IC s ). Each IC at the next stage o f analysis is in its turn
broken into smaller meaningful dements. The analysis is completed when
w e arrive at constituents incapable o f further division, i.e. morphemes
These morphemes are referred to as the Ultimate Constituents (U C s).
F o r exam ple, the noun frie n d lin e s s is first segmented in to the ICs
V fn e n c U y - (recurring in the adjectives J J W f r and.frie n d ly -lo o k in g )
and - я ш (fou n d in a countless number o f nouns, e.g . happiness.
™ rkm >ss). The IC - / ie « is at the same time a U C o f the noun, as it cannot
be broken into any sm aller elements possessing both sound-form and
m eaning The IC frie n d ly - is next broken into the ICs I ) fr ie n d - (recurring
it {frien d sh ip . u n frien d ly ) and 2 ) -ly (recurring in w ifely, b roth erly ). The
IC s fr ie n d - and -fy are both UCs o f the word under analvsis.
T h e division into ICs and U C s can be carried out on the basis o f two
principles: I ) the a ffix principle and 2) the root principle. According to
the a ffix principle the segmentation o f the w ord into its constituent
m orphem es is based on the identification o f an affixational morpheme
within a set o f words, e.g . the identification o f the morpheme -less leads
to tlie segmentation o f words like useless, hopeless, m erciless into the
suffixanonal m orphem e -less and the root-m orphem es u s e -, h o p e -
m e r e ,- w ithin a w ord-cluster. A cco rd in g to the root principle the
identification o f the root-m orphem e a g re e - in the words agreea ble
agreem ent, disagree makes it possible to split these words into the root
a g ree- and the affixational morphemes -a b le , -m e n t d is-
A s a rule, ih c appiiealion o f on e o f ihese principles is sufficient for
the m orphem ic segmentation o f words.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. QUESTIONS

1. What do words consist of?


2. What is a morpheme?
« S aI ,S mcani by l*ie lerm aN °morphs' (o r ‘ m orphem e variants )?
- „ ? al lypcs o l morPhemes can be singled out semantically?
5. What do w e call root-m orphem es (o r radicals)?
6. What d o we call non-root morphemes?
7. What is a suffix? What is a prefix?
8. W hat stru ctu ral typ es o f m o rp h e m e s can b e s in g le d out**
Characterize each type.
9. What types o f meaning d o root-m orphem es possess?
10. What types o f meaning d o affixational morphemes have?
11. In what way does the lexical m eaning o f root-m orphem es differ
from the lexical meaning o f affixational morphemes?
12. What is the differential meaning o f morphemes?
13. What is the distributional meaning o f morphemes?
14. What is meant by the part-of-speech meaning o f morphemes?
15. What words are called m onomorphic?
16. What are polym orphic words? What types o f polym orphic words
can be singled out?
17. What subtypes d o m onoradical words fall into?
18. What subtypes can polyradical words be divided into?
19. W h a t are th e th ree ty p e s o f m o rp h e m ic s e g m e n ta b ilily ?
Characterize each type.
20. W h a t are m o rp h e m e s m ak in g up w o rd s o f c o m p le te
segmentabilily called?
21. W h y are m o rp h e m e s m a k in g up w o rd s o f c o n d itio n a l
segmentability called pseudo-m orphem es (o r quasi-morphemes)?
22. What is on e o f the component morphemes making up words o f
defective segmentability called?
23. What is the procedure o f m orphem ic analysis based on?
24. What are the tw o principles applied in the analysis o f words into
IC s and UCs?

II. TASKS

1. * Segment the following words into morphemes. Define (a) the semantic
types and (b ) the structural types o f morphemes constituting the given words.
M o d e l : aimless
0 The word aimless can be segmented into two morphemes: aim - * -less.
a) semantically a im - is a root-morpheme; -less is an affix.
b) struerurally a im - is a free morpheme; -less is a bound morpheme.

Beggarly, postm an, shorten, destabilize, sympathy, fruitfulness,


maltreatment, disaffected, overrule, photographic, half-eaten, theory,
rent-free.
2. Read the following passage. Speak on the difference between inflectional
and affixational morphemes and their peculiarities.

T H E D ER IVAT IO N A L F IE L D O F A S IN G L E W O R D
(fr o m J.Tou m ier, 1985)
Inflections are a qu ite distinct grou p, always occu rrin g at the very'
end o f a w o rd ( gra ces, d is g ra ce d ), and fo llo w in g th e derivational suf­
fix es i f th ere arc any. I f there w e r e several instances o f gracelessness
t o b e talked about, w e could say (adm ittedly, n ot w ith any grea t ele­
gan ce) gracelessnesses.
Tou m ier’s detailed study also includes extrem ely full listings o f the
derivational affixes in English. T h ere are a su rprisingly large num ber
o f them : ex c lu d in g varian t form s, he g iv e s 386 p r e fix e s a n d 322
suffixes. T h e latter total includes d ozen s o f form s w h ich are rare in
e v e ry d a y conversation (e x c e p t am on g sp ecialists), such as -acea,
-ectom v, -gynous, -татку, and -p to id .
A f f i x e s o f th is k in d c o m e a n d g o : -n ik , fo r e x a m p le , is a
develop m en t in English w h ich becam e h ig h ly productive in th e late
1950s, fo llo w in g th e launch o f S p u tn ik /. and such su bsequ ent
op era tio n s as th e launch o f a d o g in to space (p u p n ik , w o o fn ik .
m u ttn ik . e tc .) and the failu re o f a US sa tellite ( Y a n k n ik , d u d n ik .
s ta ll n ik , etc.). This usage seem s t o have d ie d ou t in the early 1960s.
A related suffix, w ith citations since the 1940s, and seen in b ea tn ik
and sim ilar uses (1b ea eh n ik .JU m n ik .ja zzn ik. etc.), w as productive into
the early 1970s, bu t seems t o have since d ie d ou t (a fte r LBauer, 1983).
Inflectional suffixes, b y contrast, d o not com e and go. Th ere h a w
been n o changes in the system since th e Early M odern English period.
(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia o f
the English luinguage by D.Crystal)

3. “ Translate the following words into Russian, taking into account the lexical
meaning o f the root and affixaiional morphemes.
M o d e I: weekly
0 The lexical meaning o f the root-morpheme week- is *a period o f seven days'.
The lexical meaning o f the affixaiional morpheme -ly is 'frequency. The
w ord weekly is rendered in Russian by the w ord еженедельно.

E yelet, dehouse, neurosis, hostess, betrayal, antipathy, briefly,


horsemanship, prewar, famous.
4. * Define the morphemes the differential meaning o f which helps to
distinguish between words in the given sets.
M o d e l : phraseology, ideology. mythology\ neurology•
0 The morphemes phrase-, id e ia )-. myth-and neuro- possess the differential
meaning as each o f them may serve to distinguish the word it forms from the
other words in the given set.
1) n oteb ook , co p y b o o k , cxercisebook. textbook: 2 ) crossroads,
cross-legged, crosswind, cross-current; 3 ) city-based, hospital-based,
ocean-based, foreign-based: 4 ) forefoot, forehead, forepart, foreground:
5 ) raspberries, elderberries, strawberries, cranberries.
5. * Classify the following words according to the part-of-speech meaning
o f their affixaiional morphemes.
M o d e l : criticism
0 The affix -ism indicates that the derived word is a noun.
Suitability, hatless, accordingly, com bination, befriend, sideways,
hospitalize, boyhood, congratulatory, enlarge, northwards, spacious,
bureaucracy, quarrelsome, clarify, breakage, drinkable, weaken.
6. ' Analyze the following words according to their morphemic types. Defin
the subtypes o f polymorphic words. Classify polyradical words into two groups:
1) words consisting o f two or more roots with no affixational morphemes:
2) words containing two roots and one or more affixational morphemes.
M o d e l : duck. illiterateness. back-bencher
0 The word duck is monomorphic. The word i//iieraieness is polymorphic,
m onoradical, prefixo-radical-suffixal. T h e word b a c k -b e n ch e r is
polymorphic, polyradical, contains two roots and one affixational morpheme
(group 2).
H ou se, uncover, dark-brow n, disap poin tm en t, effe c tiv e , black,
historian, book-keeper, cry, mistrust, unanswerable, home-sick. good,
ex -w ife, laughter-filled, g o , unfortunately, a ge-lon g, manageability,
short-sightedness.
7. * Group the words according to the type o f word-segmcntabilily they m
be referred to.
M o d e l : exceed, tablet. lifeless

Complete Conditional Defective


segmcntabilily segmcntabilily segmcntabilily

lifeless exceed tablet

H ostage, nameless, fraction, perceive, pocket, discuss, fem inist,


contain, overload, pioneer, underestimate, proceed, athlete, pretend,
am oral, m irror, unfriendly, assist, gooseberry, obsess, earcfulness.
manic, attract, budget.
7.1. * In case o f conditional segmcntabilily give words possessing the sam
morphemes.
M o d e l : relieve
0 The word relieve can be conditionally segmented into two morphemes re-
and -lie v e which occur in a number o f other words, e.g. re-lax. be -lie ie .
7.2. * In case o f defective segmcntabilily identify the denotauonal meani
o f afTixational morphemes.
M o d e l : barbarism
0 The denotational meaning o f the affix -ism is ‘ behaviour'.
8.* Analyze the following words from the point o f view o f their ICs and UCs
applying an affix o r a root principle.

M о d с I: uncommonly
0 The morphemic analysis o f the word uncommonly is based on the application
o f the affix principle and includes the following stages:
1) uncommon- (1C) + -ly {strangely, sadly) (\C /V C ),
2) un- ( unsafe. unclean) (1C/UC) + -common (IC/UC).
The word consists o f 3 UCs.
In d e p e n d e n c e , b e a u iifu ln c s s . u n fo r g e lla b le . u ltr a - c r e a tiv e ,
sp otlcssness. d is resp ec tfu l, u nladylike, d is a rm a m e n t, in ju stice,
disobedience.

Chapter 2

1. Derivational Structure
2 . Derivational Bases
3. Derivational A ffixes
4. Derivational Patterns
5. Historical Changeability o f Word-Structure

1 . D E R IV A T IO N A L S T R U C T U R E

T h e nature, type and arrangement o f the immediate constituents o f


the w ord arc known as its derivational structure.
Though the derivational structure o f a word is closely connected with
its m orphem ic (o r m orphological) structure and often coincides with
it. it differs from the m orphem ic structure in principle.
T h e analysis o f the derivational structure reveals the hierarchy o f
m orphem es making up the word, the way a word is constructed, the
structural and the semantic type o f the w ord and how' a new w ord o f
s im ila r structure should b e understood. F o r exam ple, the w ords
un m ista k a b le and d iscou ra g in g morphemically refer to one and the
sam e typ e as th e y b o th are segm en ted in to th ree U ltim a te
C onstitu ents — on e prefixation al, one root and on e su ffixational
m orphem e. However, the nature and arrangement o f m orphem es in
these words indicate that these words belong to different derivational
types. In u n m ista k a b le the prefixational m orphem e is added t o the
sequ ence o f the root and the suffixational m orphem es. Th us, the
m eaning o f the w ord is derived from the relations between u n - and
-m is ta k a b le — ‘ n ot m istakable'. In the w o rd d is c o u ra g in g the
suffixational m orphem e is added to the combination o f the prefixational
and the root morphemes and the meaning o f the w ord is understood
from the relations between d iscourage- and -in g — ‘ something that
discourages’ . H ence, the w ord unm istakable refers to a prefixational
derivative and the w ord discouraging — to a suffixational one.
T h e basic elementary units o f the derivational structure o f words are:
derivational bases, derivational affixes and derivational patterns.
2. DERIVATIONAL BASES

A derivational base is the part o f the w ord , w hich establishes


co n n ectio n w ith the lexical unit that m otivates the derivative and
determ ines its individu al lexical m eaning describing the d ifferen ce
between words in on e and the same derivational set. For exam ple, the
individual lexical meaning o f the words sin ger. w rite r, te a ch e r which
denote active doers o f the action, is signaled by the lexical m eaning ot
the derivational bases: s in g -, w rite -, te a ch -.
Derivational bases d iffer from m orphological stems both structurally
and semantically (Table 3):

T a b le 3

A Morphological A Derivational
Stem Base

1 ) the starting point for the forms 1)the starting point fo r different
o f the word words
(e.g. heart — hearts) (e.g. heart — hearty, heartless,
heartbeat)

2 ) predicts the part-of-spccch 2 ) does not predict the part-of-


meaning o f the word speech meaning o f the word
(e .g . daydreamer (n )) (e.g- daydreamer (n)
from daydream ( v ) )

3 ) stands for the whole semantic 3) represents only one meaning


structure o f the word, represents o f the source word
all lexical meanings o f the word (e.g. glassful — a drinking vessel;
(e.g. glass (n ) — 1 a hard dea r glassy — smooth and shiny like
substance: 2 a small container glass)
for drinking out o f: 3 attractive
objects made o f glass; 4 mirror.
5 a barometer)

Structurally derivational bases fall into three groups:


1. Bases that c o in c id e w ith m o rp h o log ica l stem s, e .g . d u tifu l.
d u tifu lly ’, to d a y -d re a m , d ayd ream er.
Stems that serve as this class o f bases may be o f different derivational
types thus form ing derivational bases o f different degrees o f complexity:
a ) sim p le stem s, w h ich consist o f o n ly o n e , sem antically n on -
motivated constituent, e.g. p o c k e t, m o tio n , re ta in ’,
b ) derived stems, w hich are semantically and structurally motivated.
Th ey are as a rule binary (m ade up o f tw o IC s), e. g. g irlis h , girlishness.
T h e derived stem o f the w ord g irlis h is g ir l- , whereas the derived stem
o f the w ord girlishn ess — girlish --,
c) com pound stems are always binary and semantically motivated,
but unlike the derived stems both IC s o f com pou nd stems are stems
them selves, e.g . m a tc h -b o x (t w o sim ple stem s), te tte r-w rite r (on e
sim p le and on e d erived stem ); a ir c r a ft-c a r r ie r ( a com p ou n d and
derived stem).
2. Bases that co in cid e w ith w ord-form s, e.g . u n s m ilin g , p a p e r-
b ou n d . T h is class o f bases is represented by verbal w ord-form s — the
present and the past participles. T h e c o llo c a b ility o f this class o f
derivational bases is con fin ed to: 1) a few- derivational affixes such as
the prefix u n - and the suffix -ly . e.g . unnam ed, u n know n; sm ilin gly ,
k n o w in g ly , 2 ) o th er bases w h ich co in c id e o n ly w ith n om in al and
adjectival stems, e.g. m o c k in g -b ird , d a n c in g -g irl, ic e -b o u n d , easy-
g o in g .
3. Bases that coincide with word-groups, e .g .fla t-w a is te d . s econ d -
rateness. Bases o f this class allow a rather lim ited range o f collocability.
T h e y are m ostly co m b in ed w ith derivation al a ffix es in the class o f
adjectives and nouns: b lu e -e y e d , lo n g -fin g e re d , o ld -w o rld is h . Free
word-groups make up the greater pan o f this class o f bases.

3 . D E R IV A T IO N A L A F F IX E S

Derivational affixes are Im mediate Constituents o f derived words


in all parts o f speech.
Derivational affixes have tw o basic functions: I ) stem building which
is co m m o n to all a ffix a tio n a l m orph em es: d eriva tion al and non-
derivational. cf.: -is h in the words g irlis h , grey ish and -is h in the words
p u b lish , d istin gu ish ; 2) word-building. It is the function o f repatteming
a derivational base and thus form ing new words. T h e repatteming may
result in transferring a derivational base into the stem o f another part
o f speech, e .g . the derivational suffix -ness in the words frie n d lin e s s
and girlish n ess repattems the adjectival derivational bases frie n d ly - .
g ir lis h - in to the n ou n stems. T h e rep a ttem in g m ay also result in
transferring a derivational base into stem o f the same part o f speech, e.g.
-d o m applied to the noun o ffic ia l turns it in to the stem o ffic ia ld o m and
thus forms a new noun.
Semantically derivational affixes arc characterized by a unity o f part-
of-sp eech m eaning, lexical m eaning, differential and distributional
meanings.
T h e part-of-speech meaning is proper to derivational suffixes and
prefixes in different degrees. It stands out clearly in derivational suffixes
but it is less evident in derivational prefixes. Prefixes like e n -, d e -, Re­
possess the part-of-speech meaning and function as verb classifiers, e.g.
enslave, d e ice . b efrien d . T h e prefix o v e r- evidently lacks the part-of-
speech m eaning and is freely used both for verbs and adjectives, e.g.
oversleep, overea t. o v e r-co n fid e n t, o v e r-w o rrie d .
T h e lexical m eaning in derivational affixes also has its peculiarities
and m ay be viewed at different levels:
1) the lexical m eaning o f a generic type proper not to an individual
a ffix but to a set o f affixes, form ing a semantic subset. For example, the
m eaning o f resem blance fou n d in the su ffixes -is h . -lik e . -y . -ly
( boy ish . la d y lik e , sp id ery , m a n ly ): the m eaning o f abstract quality
conveyed b y the suffixes -ness, -ir y ( blindness. e q u a lity ): the meaning
o f absence conveyed b y the prefix u n - and the suffix -less ( u n cle a n .
u n lu ck y , speechless, heartless).
2 ) an individu al lex ica l m eaning shared by n o oth er a ffix . F o r
instance, the suffixes -is h . -lik e , ->* all have the meaning o f resemblance
but -lik e conveys an overall resemblance, -is h conveys likeness to the
most typical qualities o f the object; -y conveys likeness to outer shape,
form , size o f the object.
Derivational affixes m ay be m onosem antic, e.g . the prefix o m n i-
meaning ‘ Ы Г ( om n ipresence. o m n is cie n ce ), and polysemantic, e.g. the
su ffix -le s s m eaning ‘ lackin g som eth ing’ ( b ra in le s s , e n d le s s ) and
•exceeding a category’ ( tim eless, cou n tless).
There is a specific group o f morphemes whose derivational function
does not allow on e to refer them either to derivational affixes o r to bases,
e.g . h a lf- in the words h a lf-d on e, h a lf-b rok en : s e lf- in the words s e lf-
m ade. se^'-intercst; i l l - in the w ords ///-dressed, ///-behaved. Such
morphemes are called s e m i-a ffix e s , i.e. elements which stand midway
between roots and affixes. On the one hand, these morphemes retain
certain lexical ties with the root-m orphem es o f independent words, on
the other hand, they function as derivational prefixes.

4. DERIVATIONAL PATTERNS

A derivational pattern (D P ) is a regular meaningful arrangement,


a structure that imposes rigid rules on the order and the nature o f the
derivational bases and affixes that m ay be brought together. D P s are
studied with the help o f distributional analysis at different levels. Patterns
are usually represented in terms o f conventional symbols: small letters
v. n. a. d, num stand for the bases which coincide with the stems o f
the res p ective parts o f speech: verbs, nouns, a d jectives, adverbs,
numerals; v„,. stand for the bases which are the past and the present
participles respectively.
DP's m ay represent the derivational structure at different levels o f
generalization:
a ) at the level o f structural types. Patterns o f this level are known
as structural formulas. Structural form ulas specify o n ly the class
m e m b e rs h ip o f Im m e d ia te C o n s titu e n ts and th e d ir e c t io n o f
m otivation, such as: a + -s f —» N . prf- + n - » V. n + - s f - * N , n + -sf
—> V, v - » N .
A ccording to structural formulas all words m ay b e classified into:
l ) s u f f i x a l derivatives: b la c k n e s s ; 2 ) p re fix a l derivatives: re w rite :
3) conversions: a cu t: 4 ) com pound words: m u s ic-lo v er.:
b ) at the level o f structural patterns. Structural patterns specify the
base cla sses and in d iv id u a l a ffix e s thus in d ic a tin g th e le x ic a l-
gram m atical and lexical classes o f derived words. T h e affixes refer
derivatives to specific parts o f speech and lexical subsets. F o r example,
the D P и + -is h - * A signals a set o f adjectives with the lexical meaning
o f resemblance, whereas a + -is h —* A signals adjectives meaning a small
degree o f quality:
c ) at the level o f structural-semantic patterns. Structural-semantic
patterns specify semantic peculiarities o f bases and individual meanings
o f affixes. F o r example, the nominal bases in the pattern n + -ess —» /V
are confined to nouns having in their semantic structures a component
*a male animate being': lion ess, tra itress, actress. There are certain
semantic constrains imposed on both the bases and the su ffix in the
pattern n + -y —» A . Nom inal bases denoting living beings are collocated
w ith the suffix - y meaning 'resem blance', e.g . birdy. ca tty , but nominal
bases denoting material, pans o f the body attract another meaning o f
the suffix -y that of'co n sid erab le am ount, size* resulting in adjectives
like grassy, leggy, starry.
It follows that derivational patterns may be classified into tw o types:
structural patterns (b ) and structural-semantic patterns (c).

5. HISTORICAL CHANGEABILITY O F W O R D -S TR U C TU R E

T h e derivational structure o f a w ord is liable to various changes in


the course o f time. Certain morphemes m ay becom e fused together or
may be lost altogether. A s a result o f this process, known as the process
o f sim p lifica tion 1, radical changes in the w ord m ay take place: root
morphemes may turn into affixational or sem i-affixational morphemes,
compound words may be transformed into derived o r even simple words,
polym orphic words may becom e m onom orphic.
T h e M odern English derived w ord w isdom goes back to the O ld
English com pound w ord w isdom in which the component -d o m was a
root-m orphem e and a stem o f an independently functioning w ord with

1 Simplification is defined as a morphological process by which a word o f a


complex morphological structure loses the meaning o f its separate morphological parts
and becomes a mere symbol o f the notion given ( А р н о л ь д И . В . Л ск си к оло 1 ия
современного английского языка. — М.. 1973. — С . 80).
the m eaning ‘ decision, ju dgm ent, ordinance*. T h e w hole com pound
w ord meant ‘a wise decision, judgment*. In the course o f its historical
development the m eaning o f the second c o m p o n e n t---- d om became
more and m ore generalized till it turned in to the suffix form ing abstract
nouns (cf.: fre e d o m , b ored om ).
T h e noun la d y is a simple m onom orphic word in M o d em English.
T h is noun underwent the process o f sim plification and shortening as
in O ld English it was a com pound w ord h lx f d iy consisting o f h ld f
meaning ‘ bread* and d ije having the m eaning ‘ kneading* (месящ ая,
замеш ивающая).
Sometimes the spelling o f some M o d em English words as compared
with their sound-form reflects the changes these words have undergone.
T h e M odem English w ord cu p b o a rd judging by its sound-form |fatod)
is a m onom orphic non-m olivated sim ple word. But earlier it consisted
o f tw o bases represented by m onom orphic stems |клр| and |br>:d) and
was pronounced |*клр ba:d|. T h e w ord signified ‘ a board to put cups on*.
Nowadays, however, having been structurally transformed into a simple
word, it denotes neither cu p n or b oa rd as may be seen from the phrases
a b o o t cu p b oa rd , a clo th e s cup b oard .

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

I. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is a derivational structure?


2. W hat is the difference between the derivational structure and the
m orphem ic structure o f a word?
3. What are the basic elementary' units o f the derivational structure?
4. What is a derivational base?
5. W h a t are the stru ctu ral and sem antic d iffe re n c e s betw een
derivational bases and m orphological stems?
6. What structural classes d o derivational bases fall into?
7. What are the three types o f stems form ing derivational bases o f
different degrees o f complexity?
8. What are derivational affixes?
9. What functions d o derivational affixes have?
10. What are derivational affixes characterized by semantically?
11. What can you say about the pan-of-speech meaning proper to
derivational suffixes and derivational prefixes?
12. What are the peculiarities o f the lexical meaning in derivational
affixes? W hat levels can the lexical meaning o f derivational affixes be
viewed at?
13. What is a derivational pattern?
14. In what way are derivational patterns represented?
15. What levels o f generalization can derivational patterns represent
the derivational structure o f a w ord at?
16. W hat d o structural form ulas ( I ) . structural patterns ( 2 ) and
structural-semantic patterns (3 ) specify?
17. What changes m ay take place in the structure o f w ords in the
course o f time? G ive examples.

II. T A S K S

1. * Group the given words according to their derivational structure into


suffixal and prefixal derivatives.
M о d e I : unwifely — un- + -wifely (a prefixal derivative): embittered —
embitter- + -e d (a suffixal derivative)
Insensible, discouragement, unwomanly, impassioned, befriended,
a sy stem ic. u n im a g in a b le , d is c o v e ry , irre s p o n s ib le , im p ression ,
dish earten , in d efe n sib le, disgu isem en t. accou n ta b le, u nfrien dly,
outrageous, impersonal, renewable, underdeveloped, endangerment.
2. * Group derivational bases o f the given words into three structural classes:
a) bases that coincide with morphological stems o f different degrees o f
complexity: b) bases that coincide with word-forms; c ) bases that coincide with
word-groups.
M o d e l : colour-blindness. unwrupped. white-skinned
0 The derivational base o f the word colour-blindness coincides with the
compound morphological stem colour-blindness which consists o f one
simple and one derived stem (class a). The derivational base o f the word
unwrapped coincides with the verbal word-form -wrapped — the past
participle (class b). The derivational base o f the word w hite-skinned
coincides with the word-group white skin (class c).
Illiterateness, waterskier, unprotected, brainstruster1. ihrce-com crcd.
frie n d lin e s s , a ll righ t n ik . im p o s sib le, g r e e n -e y e d , p a in s -ta k in g ,
landlordism , absent-m inded, brainless, understanding^’, w eather­
beaten, long-legged, broaden, heart-breaking, frecstyler. seemingly,
liv e lih o o d , uninspiring, back-bencher, acceptability, d o -g o o d is m .
laughingly, d o -it-y o u rselfer, u n im p ortan ce, on e-sid ed , unnamed,
allatonceness. fam iliarity, w hitefeathery. sn ow -covered, weekender,
long-running, idletalker.
3. * Combine the words the derivational affixes o f which express: a) 'not'/
•without' or ‘opposite o f : b) ‘exceeding/а great extent' or 'a large amount of/
a great deal o f : c) •similarity/resemblance'; d ) '(very) small' or ‘ not enough':
e ) Miking for'.
Nameless, hyperactive, sneaky, oversleep, microsurgery, frolicsom e,
anti-war. disapprove, booklet, priceless, cuboid, overwork, superclever.

B rains trust — (Brit.) a group o f experts who give Impromptu (not planned or
prepared) answers to questions on topics o f general or current interest in front o f an
audience or on the radio.
d e p o p u la te d , w h itis h , b ib lio p h ile , n o n sm o k e r, o u tg ro w ,
paraprofcssional. a p o litica l, spheru le, talkative, lifeless, fiendish,
duckling, mistrust. Francophilia, feathery, unhappiness, m uch-wom .
superrich, underdevelopm ent, childless, m ini-m arket, m ulticolored,
kitchenette, disorder, ladylike, quarrelsom e, hypcrcrcative. am oral,
m ic ro film , babyish, ageless, u ltram odern , inattention, flow erlik e,
h u m an oid, cre a tive , u n d e rc o o k ed , m u ltitalen ted . su b -V icto ria n ,
m iniskirt, anticlim ax, extra-soft, hypotherm ia, outlive, paramilitary,
greyish, countless, clockwise, lambkin, duty-free, megabucks, starlet.

4 . * Give structural formulas o f the following words. Classify the words into:
I ) sufftxal derivatives; 2) prcfixal derivatives: 3) conversions: 4) compound words.

M o d e l : blackness, table-cloth

0 The structural formula o f the word blackness is a + - s f —» N . The given


word is a sulfixal derivative. The structural formula o f the word table-cloth
is n + n - » N. Table-cloth is a compound word.

T o paper, speechless, p e n -h o ld er, irrep la ceab le, nothingness,


to winter, age-long, fearsomely. sharpen, w ind-driven, independence,
ex-housewife.
5. * Give structural patterns o f the following words. Stale to what pans of
speech and lexical subsets affixes refer the given derivatives.

M o d e l : threesome

0 The structural pattern o f the word threesome is nura + -som e - * N . The


D P signals a set o f nouns with the lexical meaning o f *a group consisting of
a certain number o f people'.

Yearly, engineer, diseased, completion, incurable, to ape. fair-haired,


customary, overtim e, miscalculation.

6. * Give structural-semantic patterns o f the following words. Specify


semantic peculiarities o f derivational bases and indiv idual meanings o f affixes
o f the words under analysis.

M o d e l : ex-president, ex-secretary, ex-journalist. ex-policeman

0 The structural-semantic pattern o f the given words is ex- + n - * N . In this


D P the nominal bases arc confined to nouns denoting professions. The prefix
ex- combined with these bases possesses the meaning 'former'1

1) L on d on er, villager. N e w Yorker, tow ner; 2 ) tallish, thinnish,


biggish , lon gish . low ish ; 3 ) lu n gfu l, arm fu l, m o u th fu l, handful;
4 ) savagery, fo o lery , snobbery, rogu ery; 5 ) decency, com placency,
obstinacy’, hesitancy; 6 ) advocacy, accountancy, presidency, consultancy;
7) demist, defrost, deice, dewater, degas; 8 ) rapidly, slowly, gradually,
quickly; 9 ) schoolm ate, clubm ate. flatm ate, room m ate; 10) jo y fu l,
delightful, hateful, cheerful, sorrowful.
7 . ' Analyze the historical changeability ol the word-structure o f the following
words.
M o d e l:

kindred — k in - ( ‘ family, race') + -rxden ( ‘ advice, rule, condition')


0 The root-morpheme -rxd en lost its lexical meaning and turned into the
suffix -red. Later -re d became unproductive. As a result the compound word
became a simple one.

n e c k la c e |neklis|: h n e cca - ( ‘ back o f the n eck'; ‘ nape’ ) + -la (a )s


{-/ a c e ) ( ‘noose’ ; ‘ string or cord for tying )

0 The compound word underwent the process o f simplification o f the


morphological structure accompanied by certain phonetical changes. As a
result the compound word became a simple one.

1 ) isla n d : ё а - ’ water, a river' + -lo n d ‘ solid portion o f the earth's


surface; groun d": 2 ) w o rld : w e r- ‘ m an, w arrior' + - a id ‘ o ld a g e ';
3 ) f h e n d ly f ie o n d - friend’ + -H e ‘ appearance, form , bodv'; 4 ) ca b in et,
c a b in - ‘ hut. tent* + -e t ‘ sm all'; 5) always: a//-/ea/l- ‘ all* + -weges ‘ road,
path; distance travelled'; 6 ) c a re fu l: c a r u - g r ie f, ‘ burdened state o f
m ind' + - f u l l lull о Г ; 7 ) freedo m : f r e o - ‘ not subject to control from
outside* + -d a m ‘ju dgm en t, c h o ic e , h o n o u r'; 8 ) c h ild h o o d : ci/d-
‘ child + -h a d ‘ condition, title, quality*; 9 ) reckless: re cce - ‘ concern,
care + -lea s devoid o f ; 10) linen'. Ftn - ‘ Пах’ + -e n ‘ made o r consisting
о Г , ‘ o f the nature o f ; 11) h a ire d ' h a te - ‘ suffering’ , ‘ anger, insult,
trouble* + -rx d e n ‘ advice, rule, condition'; \D fo r e h e a d f o r e - ‘ before’ +
+ -h e a fo r d ‘ anterior part o f the body, containing the m outh, sense
organs, and brain*.
WORD-FORMATION

Chapter 1

1.
Various Types and Way's o f Form ing Words
2. A ffixation
2 . 1. SufFixation. Classification o f Suffixes
2. 2 . Prefixation. Classification o f Prefixes
3. Productive and N on-Produ ctive Affixes
4. Etym ology o f Derivational Affixes
5. Valency o f A ffix es and Bases

1. VARIOUS TY P E S AND WAYS O F FORMING WORDS

Word-formation is the system o f derivative types o f words and the


process o f creating new words from the material available in the language
after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. A distinction
is made between tw o principal types o f word-form ation: word-derivation
and word-composition.
T h e basic ways o f form ing words in word-derivation arc affixation
and conversion. Affixation is the formation o f a new word with the help
o f a ffix e s , e .g . h e a rtle s s (fr o m h e a r t ), to o v e r d o (fr o m to d o ).
Conversion is the formation o f a new w ord by bringing a stem o f this
w ord into a different formal paradigm, e.g. a f a l l (from to f a l l ) , to slave
(from a slave). T h e basic form o f the original and the basic form o f the
derived words in case o f conversion are homonymous.
Word-composition is the form ation o f a new word by combining
tw o o r m ore stems which occur in the language as free forms, e.g. d o o r­
ha n d le. house-keeper.
Apart from principal there are some m inor types o f m odem word-
form ation, i.c . shortening, blending, acronymy. sound interchange,
sound imitation, distinctive stress, and back-formation.
Shortening is the form ation o f a w ord by cutting o f f a part o f the
word. According to the part o f the word that is cut o f f (initial, middle
o r fin a l) th ere are th e fo llo w in g typ es o f sh orten in gs: l ) in itial
(ora p h e sis), e .g .f e n d ( v ) < d efen d , p h o n e < te le p h o n e ; 2 ) medial
( o r s y n c o p e ), e .g . specs < s p e c ta c le s , f a n c y < fa n ta s y , 3 ) final
(o r a p o c o p e ), e .g . a d , a d v e rt < a d v e rtis e m e n t, v e g < vegetables',
4 ) both initial and final, e .g . f l u < influ enza , f r id g e < refrigerator.
Blending is ihe form ation o f a new w ord by com bining parts o f tw o
w ords. B lends m ay be o f tw o types: I ) a d d itive ty p e that m av be
transformed into a phrase consisting o f com plete stems com bined by the
conjunction a n d , e.g. s m og — sm (ok e) and (f)o g ; 2 ) restrictive type that
can be transformed in to a phrase, the first element o f which serves as a
m odifier fo r the second, e.g.: telecast — television broadcast.
Acronymy (o r graphical abbreviation) is the form ation o f a word
from the initial letters o f a w ord com bination. There are tw o basic types
o f acronyms: I ) acronym s which are read as ordinary English words,
e .g . U N E S C O jju: neskau) — th e U n ite d N a tio n s E d u c a tio n a l.
S c ie n tific a n d C u ltu ra l O rga n iza tio n ; 2 ) acronyms with the alphabetic
reading, e.g. B B C |Ъ1‘ hi: 'si:| — th e B ritish B roadcasting C orp oration.
Sound-interchange is the form ation o f a word due to an alteration
in the phonem ic com position o f its root. Sound-interchange falls into
tw o groups: I ) vowel-interchange (o r ablaut): f o o d — to fe ed . In some
cases vo w e l-in te rc h a n g e is c o m b in ed w ith su ffix a tio n : s tro n g —
strength; 2) consonant-interchange: a d vice — to advise.
Consonant-interchange and vowel-interchange m ay be com bined
togeth er life — to live.
Sound imitation (o r onomatopoeia) is the nam ing o f an action o r
a thing by a m ore o r less exact reproduction o f the sound associated with
it, c f.: c o c k - a - d o o d l e - d o (E n g lis h ) - к у - к а - р е - к у (R u ss ia n ).
Semantically, according to the source sound, many onom atopoeic words
fall into a few very definite groups: I ) words denoting sounds produced
b y human beings in the process o f communication o r expressing their
feelings, e.g . ch a tte r, babble; 2 ) words denoting sounds produced by
animals, birds, insects, e.g . m o o . croa k , buzz; 3) words imitating the
sound o f water, th e n oise o f m eta llic things, a fo rc e fu l m otion ,
movements, e.g. splash, c lin k . w hip, swing.
Back-formation is the formation o f a new word by subtracting a real
o r supposed suffix from the existing words. T h e process is based on
analogy'. For example, the word to b u tle ‘ to act o r serve as a butler' is
derived by subtraction o f - e r from a supposedly verbal stem in the noun
butler.
Distinctive stress is the form ation o f a w ord b y means o f the shift
o f the stress in the source word, cf.: increase (n ) — in crea s e (v ), absent
(a d j) — a b s e n t (v).

2. AFFIXATION

Affixation is generally defined as the form ation o f words b y adding


derivation al a ffix es t o d ifferen t types o f bases. A ffix a tio n includes
suffixation and prefixation. Distinction between suffixal and prefixal
derivatives is made according to the last stage o f derivation. F o r example.
from the point o f view o f derivational analysis the w o rd unreasonable —
un + (reason- + -able) is qualified as a prefixal derivative, w hile the word
discouragem ent — (dis- + -cou rage) + -m en t is defin ed as a suffixal
derivative. T h e last stage o f derivation determ ines the nature o f the ICs
o f the pattern. But from the point o f view o f m orphem ic analvsis these
words are specified as prefixal-suffixal derivatives.

2.1 . Suffixation. Classification of Suffixes

Sufflxation is the form ation o f w ords w ith the help o f suffixes.


Suffixes usually m odify the lexical m eaning o f the base and transfer
words to a different part o f speech. Th ere are suffixes, however, which
d o n ot shift words from on e part o f speech in to another. T h ey can
transfer a w ord into a different semantic group, c.g . a concrete noun
becomes an abstract one: f r ie n d — frie n d s h ip .
Suffixes can be classified in to different types in accordance with
different principles.
1. A ccording to the lexico-grammatical character o f the base suffixes
are usually added to, they m ay be:
a ) deverbal su ffixes (th o s e a d d ed to th e verbal b a se), e .g . - e r
( speaker) ; -in g {reading)', -m e n t ( agreem ent); -a b le ( s u ita b le);
b ) denom inal suffixes (those added to the nominal base), e.g . -less
{endless); - f u l {a rm fu l); -is t {n ovelist); -som e {troublesom e);
c ) deadjectival suffixes (those added to the adjectival base), e.g . -en
{w id en ); - ly {ra p id ly ); - ish {w h itish ); -ness {brightness).
2. A ccording to the pan o f speech form ed suffixes fall into several
groups:
a ) noun-form ing suffixes: -a g e {breakage, bondage); -a n ce / -e n ce
{a ssista n ce, re fe re n c e ); -d o m {fre e d o m , k in g d o m ); - e r {te a c h e r,
b a k e r ); -ess {lio n e s s , a c tre s s ); - in g {b u ild in g , w a s h in g ); - h o o d
{ m a n h o o d . c h i ld h o o d ); -n e s s {te n d e rn e s s , p r e t tin e s s ); -s h ip
{ rela tion sh ip, pa rtn ersh ip );
b ) adjective-forming suffixes: -a ble/-ible/-uble {unbearable, audible,
s o lu b le ); - a ! {fo rm a l, o ffic ia l); - i c {p o e tic ); -a n t/ -e n t {rep en ta n t,
d ep en d en t); -e d {w ooded, shaped); - f u ! {d eligh tfu l, d o u b tfu l); -ish
{reddish, b o o k is h ); -iv e {a ctiv e ); -ou s {courageous, cu riou s );
c ) nu m eral-form ing suffixes: - f o ld {tw o fo ld ); -te e n {fo u rte e n );
-th {seven th); - t y {sixty );
d ) verb-form ing suffixes: -a te (fa c ilita te ); - e r (g lim m e r); -fy / -ify
(te rrify , speechify); -iz e ( equa lize. h a rm in ize): -ish (establish);
e ) adverb-form ing suffixes: - ly (q u ic k ly , c o ld ly ); -w ard /-w a rds
(upw ard , n orthw ard s); -w ise (likew ise).
3. Semantically suffixes fall into:
a) m o n o s em a n tic , e .g . the su ffix -ess has o n ly o n e m eaning
‘ fem ale’ — tigress, tai/oress;
Ы p o ly s e m a n tic , e . g . the s u ffix - h o o d has tw o m ea n in gs
1) condition o r quality- - fa ls e h o o d . w om anhood-. 2 ) 'collectio n o r
group — brotherhood.
A. According to their generalizing denotational m eaning suffixes may
denoting*SeVera gr° UpS' F o r ,nstancc- n ou n-suffixes fall in to those

a) the agent o f the action, e.g. - * r ( b a k e r); -a n t (assistant)-


( c S ) UrlenanCC’ e g ' - a n / ~ia n < V ic t o r ia n . R u s s ia n ): -es**

c ) collectivity, e.g . -d om ( o ffic ia ld o m ); -/? (peasantryY


djdim mutiveness. e.g . - ie (b ird ie ): - le t (c lo u d le t): -lin g (w offlin g).
5 A ccordm g to their stylistic reference suffixes mav be classified into
a )th o s e ch aracterized by neutral stylistic reference, e .g -a b le
( agreeable); - e r (w rite r): -in g (m eetin g):
. b/ ! b0S? h; l ving a “ na,n s,y,is*tc « l u e . e.g. -a id (a s te ro id ): -m m
{C yclotron). These suffixes occur usually in terms and are bookish.

2.2. Prefixation. Classification of Prefixes

Prefixation is the form ation o f w ords with the help o f prefixes


Prefixes are denvational morphemes affixed before the derivational base’
Prefixes m odify the lexical meaning o f the base. Th ey seldom shift worcis
from one part o f speech into another and therefore both the source word
and us prefixed denvative mostly belong to the same part o f speech e g
to rew rite < to write.
Prefixes can be classified according to different principles
I. According to the lexico-gram m aiical character o f the base prefixes
are usually added to. they may be:
a ) deverbal (those added to the verbal base), e.g . r e - (re w rite )- o v e r-
(o v e rd o ): o u t- (outstay):
b ) denom inal (those added to the nom inal base), e .g u n - ( u n ­
b u tto n ): d e - (d e tra in ): e x - (ex -p res id en t):
c ) d e a d jec tiv a l (th o s e added t o the a d jec tiv a l b a se), e .g . u n -
( uneasy); b i- (b ia n n u a l).

d iv id e d T m a '" 8 ' ° ' hC daSb ° f W° rd'’ ,h cy Prefcrabl>' form prefixes are

a l v e rb -fo rm in g p rc fix e s. e .g . e n -/ e m (e m b e d , e n c lo s e ), b e -
(b e/ n end ): d e - (d e th ro n e ):
b) n ou n -form in g prefixes, e .g . n o n - (n o n -s m o k e r ): s u b - (s u b -
co m m m e e ): e x - (ex -h u s b a n d ):

r0rming PrefiXeS' C g - (un-f a ir ): « - (illite r a te ): ir -

f 1 adverb-forming prefixes, e.g . u n - (un fon u n a te/ y ): u p - (u p h ill)


i „ i , ! h°.UKd * * 4>CCIa,ly rponuoned lhai ihe majority o f prefixes fiinciion
in more than on e part o f speech.
3. Semantically prefixes fall into:
a ) m o n o s e m a n lic , e .g . the p r e fix e x - has o n ly o n e m eaning
form er' — e x -b o x e r,
b ) polysem antic, e.g . the p refix d is - has fo u r meanings: I ) *not'
(d isa d va n ta ge)'. 2 ) ‘ reversal o r absence o f an action o r state' ( d is ­
econ om y. d is a ffirm ): 3 ) ’ removal o f (t o d is b ra n ch ): 4 ) ‘ completeness
o r intensification o f an unpleasant action ' ( disgruntled).
4. A ccording to their generalizing denotalional m eaning prefixes fall
into:
a ) negative prefixes, e.g . u n - (u n g ra te fu l): n o n - <n o n p o litic a l): in -
( in c o rre c t): d is - (d is lo y a l): a - (a m o ra l):
b ) reversative prefixes, e.g . unr (u n tie ): d e - (d e ce n tra liz e ): disr
(d is co n n e ct):
c ) pejorative prefixes, e.g . m is - (m is p ro n o u n ce ): m a t- (m a ltre a t):
pseud o- (p s e u d o -s cie n tific):
d ) prefixes o f tim e and order, e .g . f o r e - (fo re te ll): p r e - (p re -w a r):
p o s t- (p o s t-w a r), e x - (ex -p res id en t):
e ) prefix o f repetition: r e - (reb u ild , rew rite):
0 locative prefixes, e.g . s u p e r- ( su perstructu re) . s u b - (subway)*
in te r - (in te r-c o n tin e n ta l), tran s- (tra n s a tla n tic).
5. According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into:
a ) th ose ch aracterized b y neutral stylistic reference, e .g . o v e r -
(oversee): u n d e r- (u n d erestim a te): u n - (u n k n o w n ):
b ) those possessing qu ite a d efin ite stylistic value, e .g . p s e u d o -
(pseudo-c/assical): s u p er- (su perstru cture): u ltr a - (u ltra v io le t): u n i-
(u n ila r e r a l): h i- (b if o c a l). Th ese prefixes are o f a literary-bookish
character.

3. PRODUCTIVE AND N O N -P R O D U CTIV E AFFIXES

T h e w ord-form ing activity o f affixes m ay change in the course o f


time. Th is raises the question o f productivity o f derivational affixes, i.e.
the ability o f being used to form new, occasional or potential words,
which can be readily understood b y the language-speakers. Thus,
productive affixes are those used to form new words in the period in
question.
T h e m ost productive prefixes in M o d ern English are: d e - (d e ­
c o n t a m in a t e ), r e - ( r e t h i n k ) , p r e - ( p r e f a b r ic a t e ) , n o n - ( n o n -
o p e ra tio n a l), un - (u n fu n n y ), a n ti- (a n tib io tic ).
T h e most productive English suffixes are given below:

Noun-forming ~er (manager), -in g (fighting), -ness (sweetness),


suffixes -ation (automation), -ее (cvacucc), -ism (materialism).
-isf (impressionist), -ance/-ancy (redundancy),
-ry (gimmickry), -o r ( reactor), -ics (cybernetics)
Adjective-forming -able (tolerable), -ic (electronic), -ish (smartish).
suffixes -e d (learned), -less (jobless), ->• (tweedy)

Verb-forming -ize/-ise (vitaminize), -are (oxidate), -ify (falsify)


suffixes

Adverb-forming -Iv (equally)


suffixes

Non-productive a ffix e s are the affixes which are not able to form
new w ords in the period in question. N o n -p ro d u c tiv e a ffix es are
recog n ized as separate m orphem es and possess clear-cut semantic
characteristics. In some cases, however, the lexical meaning o f a non­
prod u ctive a ffix fades o f f so that o n ly its p a rt-o f-sp eech m eaning
remains, e.g . the adjective-form in g su ffix - s o m e ( lon esom e. lo a th ­
so m e ).
Som e non-productive English suffixes are given below:

Noun-forming suffixes -th (truth), -hood (sisterhood), -ship (scholarship)

Adjective-forming -ful (peaceful), -ty (sickly), -some (tiresome),


suffixes -en (golden), -ous (courageous)

Verb-forming suffixes -en (strengthen)

It is w orthy o f note that an a ffix m ay lose its productivity and then


b e co m e prod u ctive again in th e process o f w o rd -fo rm a tio n . T h is
happened to the suffix -d o m . For a long period o f tim e it was non­
productive but in the last hundred years -d o m got a new lease o f life so
that a great amount o f words was coined with its help, e.g. serfd om ,
sla ve dom .
T h e p ro d u c tiv ity o f an a ffix sh ou ld not b e c o n fu se d w ith its
frequency of occurrence. T h e frequency o f occurrence is understood
as the existence in the vocabulary o f a great number o f words containing
the a ffix in question. A n affix m ay occur in hundreds o f words, but i f it
is not used to form new words, it is not productive. For exam ple, the
adjective suffix - f u l is m et in hundreds o f adjectives ( beautiful. hopeful,
trustful, useful), but n o new words seem to be built with its help, and
so it is non-productive.

4. ETYM O LO G Y O F DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES

From the point o f view o f their etym ology affixes are subdivided into
tw o main classes: native affixes and borrowed affixes.
Native affixes arc those existed in the O ld English period or were
fo rm e d from O ld English w ords. T h e latter ca teg ory is o f special
importance. T h e changes a morpheme undergoes in the course o f time
m ay be o f different kinds. A bound m orphem e, for exam ple, m ay be
developed from a free one. Such are the suffixes -d o m (< dom ‘ fate,
power’ ); -h o o d (< h a d ‘ stale’ ); -lo c k ( < la c ‘ actions or proceedings,
p ra ctice'), -s h ip (< s cip e 'state, con d ition ’ ), and the prefixes o v e r-
(< o fe r ‘ in excess, extra, upper'), o u t- (< ш ‘ foreign, external’ ), etc.
Som e native English affixes are given below:

Noun-forming suffixes -er teacher, driver, painter


-ness loveliness, ugliness, coldness
-Ing meaning, singing, understanding
-dom wisdom, freedom, kingdom
-hood manhood, motherhood, neighbourhood
-ship mastership, workmanship, leadership
-th health, length, truth
-let booklet, coverlet, islet

Adjective-forming -ful joyful, sinful, skilful


suffixes -less sleepless, senseless, harmless
-У tidy, merrv. cozy
-ish childish, stylish, snobbish
-»y ugly, likely, lovely
-en silken, golden, wooden
-some handsome, tiresome, burdensome
-like dreamlike, ladylike, cowlike

Verb-forming suffixes -en redden, sadden, widen

Adverb-forming -iy hardly, rarely, simply


suffixes -wise clockwise, otherwise, likewise

Prefixes be- befool, befriend, befog


mis- mismanage, misname, misuse
un- unselfish, unacademic
over- overdo, overact, overanalyze

Borrowed affixes are those that have com e to the English language
from d ifferen t foreign languages. T h e a ffix es o f foreign o rig in are
classified according to their source into:

Latin -аЫе/-1Ые advisable, profitable, divisible


-ant/-ent attendant, servant, student
extra- extraterritorial, extracurricular
pre- pre-school, pre-race, prc-clcction
ultra- ultra-high, ultra-intelligent

Greek -ist artist, realist, leftist


-ism materialism, darwinism, marxism
-ite thatcherite. I s r a e l i t e , vulcanite
anti- anti-pollution, anti-democratic
sym-/syn- symmetrical, synthesis

French -age wreckage, peerage, percentage


-ance/-ence perseverance, extravagance, coherence
-ard wizard, drunkard
-ate doctorate, electoraic. filtrate
-ec employee, addressee, absentee
-ess princess, captainess. authoress
en-/em- enlist, enclose, embed

T h e adoplion o f countless foreign words caused the appearance o f


many hybrid words in the English vocabulary. Hybrids are words that
are made up o f elements derived from tw o or m ore different languages.
There are tw o basic types o f form ing hybrid words: I ) a foreign base is
combined with a native affix, e.g . colourless, u n ce rta in ; 2 ) a native base
is combined with a foreign affix, e.g . d rin k a b le , e x-w ife. There are also
m any hybrid com pounds, such as b la c k g u a rd (E n glish + French);
s ch oolb oy (G ree k + English).

5. VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES

Valency’ of a ffix e s is understood as their capability to be combined


with certain bases. For example, adjective form ing suffixes are mostly
attached to nominal bases. Th ey are: -e n {gold en ). - f u l {m e a n in g fu l).
- less {careless), -ty {s old ierly ), -lik e {ch ild lik e ). T h e highly productive
suffix -a b le, however, can be combined with nominal and verbal bases
alike {h on o ra b le, advisable).
Valency of bases is the possibility o f a particular base t o take a
particular affix. T h e valency o f bases is not unlimited. For example,
noun bases can be follow ed by;
1) the noun-form ing suffixes, e.g. -e e r {p ro fite e r), -fu ! {sp oonful),
-ic s {lin gu istics), -le t {cloudlet)-.
2 ) th e a d je c tiv e - fo r m in g s u ffix e s , e . g . - a ! { d o c t o r a l ) , -a r y
(jre v olu tio n a ry ). -ou s {spaciou s), - i c {h is to ric );
3) the verb-form ing suffixes, e.g . -e n {h e a rte n ), -iz e {sym pathize).
T h e c o m b in in g p o s s ib ilitie s ( o r valency) are v e ry im p ortan t
semantically because the meaning o f the derivative depends not only on
the morphemes o f which it is com posed but also on combinations o f
bases and affixes that can be contrasted with it. Contrast is observed in
the use o f the same m orphem e in different environment o r in the use
o f different m orphem es in the same environm ent. F o r exam ple, the
difference in the suffixes -it y and -ism becom es clear when comparing
them as co m b in ed with id en tica l bases: f o r m a li t y — f o r m a lis m :
re a lity — realism . Thus, the words in -it y mean the quality o f being
what the corresponding adjective describes, or an instance o f this quality.
T h e resulting nouns are countable. T h e suffix -is m form s nouns naming
a disposition to what the adjective describes, o r a corresponding type
o f ideology. These nouns arc uncountable.
A description o f affixes according to the bases with which they are
com bined and the lexico-grammatical classes they serve to differentiate
is very helpful in the analysis o f the meanings the affixes arc used to
render.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is word-form ation?


2. What arc the principal types o f word-form ation?
3. What are the basic ways o f form ing words in word-derivation?
4. What is meant by word-com position?
5. What are the m inor types o f m odem word-formation?
6. What is shortening? What groups o f shortenings can be singled out?
7. W hat d o e s b le n d in g m ean? W hat typ es o f b len d s can be
distinguished?
8. What type o f word-form ation is called acronymy? What basic types
o f acronyms d o you know?
9. What is sound-interchange? What groups does sound-interchange
fall into?
10. What is meant by sound imitation or onomatopoeia? What groups
o f onom atopoeic words can be singled out according to the semantic
principle?
11. What d o we call back-formation?
12. What type o f w ord-form ation is known as distinctive stress?
13. What is affixation?
14. What is the role o f suffixes in the formation o f new words?
15. What are the principles o f the classification o f suffixes?
16. W hat is prefixation?
17. What principles o f the classification o f prefixes can be singled out?
18. What does the term 'productivity o f derivational affixes' denote?
19. What affixes arc called productive?
20. What affixes are known as non-productive?
21. In what w ay can the productivity o f an affix change in the course
o f time?
22. What is the difference between the productivity o f affixes and
their frequency o f occurrence?
23. What main classes o f affixes can be distinguished from the point
o f view o f their etym ology?
24. What affixes are called native?
25. What are the sources o f borrowed affixes?
26. What words arc called hybrids? What arc the basic types o f hybrid
words?
27. What is meant by the valency o f affixes?
28. What is the valency o f bases?
29. W h y is it important to investigate o r to take into account the
com bining possibilities o f affixes and bases?

II. T A S K S

!•* In accordance with the part that is eul o ff to form a new word classify
cases o f shortening into four groups: I ) initial shortenings (aphesis): 2) medial
shortenings (syncope): 3) final shortenings (apocope): 4) both initial and final
shortenings.
M o d e l : n e t< internet
0 The initial part o f the original word is cut off. Consequently, the new word
refers to the first group.
h o ls < holidays: v a c < vacuum cleaner; te c < detective: p la n e <
aeroplane: F ris co < (San) Francisco; q u iz < inquisitive; bus < omnibus:
c u rio < curiosity; m iss < mistress; sport < disport: s o cce r < Association
F o o tb a lle r / < fanatic; circ s < circumstances: ch u te < parachute; A lin e
< Adelin e; ce rt < certainty; te n d < attend: m a rt < market; cok e < coca-
co la ; L i z < Elizabeth: p r e p -s c h o o l < preparatory-school; g a t o r <
alligator: cuss < customer.

2 * Determine the original components o f the following blends. Define which


type (additive or restrictive) the blends belong to.
M o d e l : to guesstimate, seadrome
0 The verb to guesstimate is formed by combining the words guess and
estimate. The given blend may be transformed into a phrase consisting of
complete stems combined by the conjunction and. Thus, to guesstimate
belongs to the additive type o f blends.
0 The noun seadrome is formed by combining the words sea and airdrome.
The given blend may be transformed into a phrase, the first element o f which
serves as modifier to the second. Thus, seadrome belongs to the restrictive
type o f blends.

Positron, brunch, absotively, motel, spam, flush, slanguage, twirl, bit.


mingy, transceiver, paratroops, crocogator. oilitics. dipward, windoor.
newtopia. glumpy, cablegram, smaze, flextim e. Oxbridge.
3. * Define which words have been combined to form the following computer
terms. Give their meanings.

Netiquette, em oticon, netizen, technophobe.


4. * According to their pronunciation classify the given acronyms into two
groups: 1) those that are read as ordinary' English words: 2) those with the
alphabetic reading.
М о d е I: N A T F H E I'nacifcl — National Association ofTeachcrs in Further
and Higher Education (group I): M P |'em 'pi:| — Member o f Parliament
(group 2)
N A T O — N o rth A tla n tic T rea ty O rganization , U N O — U nited
N a tion s O rg a n iza tion , W H O — T h e W orld H ea lth O rganization .
B U P A — British United Provident Association. A G M — annual general
meeting, W l — W om en 's Institute. U C A S — Universities and Colleges
Admissions Service. I R A — Irish Republican Arm y. N A S A — National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, C I D — Crim inal Investigation
Department, S A L T — Strategic Arm s Limitation Talks. U E F A — Union
o f E u ropean F o o tb a ll A sso cia tio n s, I Q — in tellig en ce q u otien t.
N A A F I — N a v y . Army, and A ir Force Institutes. M R B M — medium-
range ballistic missile. F B I — Federal Bureau o f Investigation, T E F L —
teaching o f English as a foreign language. U F O — unidentified flying
object. U N R R A — United Nations R e lie f and Rehabilitation A dm in i­
stration. V I P — very important person. F IF A — Federal International
Football Association. G l — government (o r general) issue.

5 .’ Group the words formed by sound-interchange into: I) those formed by


vowel-interchange or ablaut (& su(fixation); 2) those formed by consonant-
interchange: 3) those formed by combining both means, i.e. vowel- and
consonant-interchange.

M o d e l : re lie f (n) — relieve (v): consonant-interchange


Long (a d j) — length (n ), speak ( v ) — speech (n ). wreathe ( v )
wreath (n ), bake ( v ) — batch (n ). strike ( v ) — stroke (n ), house (n ) —
house (v ), breathe (v ) — breath (n ), believe ( v ) — b elief (n ), full (ad j) —
fill (v ). lose (v ) — 1ояя (n ). prove ( v ) — p r o o f (n ). knot (n ) — knit (v),
glaze ( v ) — glass (n ). shelve ( v ) — sh elf (n ). wake ( v ) — watch (n ).
lo a th e ( v ) — loath ( n ) , use ( v ) — use (n ) . sing ( v ) — so n g (n ).
c lo th e ( v ) — c lo th (n ) . bite ( v ) — bit ( n ) . halve ( v ) — h a lf ( n ) .
abide (v ) — abode (n ). serve ( v ) — serf (n ). deep (a d j) — depth (n ).
bathe (v ) — bath (n ). ride ( v ) — road (n ).

6 .* Match the Russian words with their English equivalents.

Russian English
1. писк 1. grumble
2. бах. бац : си льн ы й удар 2. hushaby/hush
3. хихикать 3. pop
4. мычать 4. thump-thump
5. квакать 5. cheep
6. ворчать 6. giggle
7. свист 7. m oo
8. тук-тук, наносит тяжелый 8. croak
удар
9. баю -бай, убаюкивать 9. whiz
10. куковать 10. bang
11. мяукать 11. babble
12. шикать 12. quacking
13. жужжать 13. neigh
14. леп ет 14. mew
15. х л о п , хлопнуть 15. mumble
16. кряканье 16. fizz
17. шамкать 17. boo
18. шипение 18. cackle
19. кудахтать 19. buzz
20. ржание 20. cuckoo

7** From the sentences given below write out the words built up by back-
formation. Give the original words from which they arc formed.

M o d e l : They commentate on live Monday matches.

0 The word commentate (v ) is formed by means o f back-derivation. The word


from which it was formed is commentator (n).

I. T h ey both enthused over my new look. 2. She didn't like that he


frivoled in such a serious situation. 3. It was pure greed that made me
finish all those chocolates. 4. T h e y 'v e asked me to ed it on e o f the
volumes in their new series o f Shakespeare plays. 5. T h e police found
the people w ho burgled ou r house w hile we w ere away on holidays.
6. Th ey televised a live debate between the party leaders. 7. There is no
one today worth butling for. 8. T h e existing systems begin to obsolesce.
9. T h e y didn’ t want him to orate at the meeting. 10. I was very peeved
b y his refusal to cooperate. И. I intuited his real identity. 12. Mountain
peaks are classified according to their shape.

8. * What serves as a word-formation means in the given pairs o f words. Stress


these words.

M o d e I: alternate (v ) — alternate (adj)

0 The distinctive stress is a word-formation means in the given pair o f words:


alternate (v ) |o:lt^neu j — alternate (adj) |л:1Ъ:п^[|.

I) com pound (n . a d j) — com pound (v ); 2 ) perfect (a d j) — perfect


( v ) ; 3 ) perm it (n ) — p e rm it ( v ) ; 4 ) p rogress ( n ) — progress (v );
5 ) frequent (a d j) — frequent (v ); 6 ) affix (n ) — a ffix (v ); 7 ) contact (n ) —
contact ( v ) ; 8 ) insult (n ) — insult (v ); 9 ) abstract (a d j) — abstract (v );
10 ) d ecrea se (n ) — d e c re a s e ( v ) : 1 1 ) protest ( n ) — protest ( v ) ;
12) produce (n ) — produce ( v ) ; 13) survey (n ) — survey ( v ) ; 14) conflict
(n ) — con flict (v ); 15) subject (n . adj) — subject (v ).

9. * Define and write down the derivational base o f the given nouns into the
first column. Classify the derivational suffixes according to the lexico-
grammaiical character o f the base they are added to.
M o d e I: arrival
0 The derivational base o f the noun arrival is arriuie)-. The suffix -a l is added
to the verbal base and thus it may be qualified as a deverbal suffix.

Derivational base Suffix Derived nouns

arrivie)- -a! arrival

-(an)ce abundance

-cy constancy

-dom kingdom

-(cn)cc independence

-ful mouthful

-hood boyhood

-ing dancing

• •• -ion invention

-ism criticism

... -ity sensitivity

-ment agreement

-ness happiness

-ship ownership

-ian musician

10. * Distribute the given words formed by means o f the polysemantic suffix
-ship according to three meanings o f this suffix into three corresponding groups:
I ) skills or ability"; 2) 'position or occupation"; 3) ’ relationship or connection
between people".

Workmanship, comradeship, musicianship, chairmanship, friendship,


professorship, showmanship, lectureship, kinship, sportsmanship,
acquaintanceship, studentship, salesmanship, doctorship. partnership.

11. * Classify suffixes forming the given nouns according to their generalizing
meaning into three groups: 1 ) suffixes denoting people o f different professions
or o f different kinds o f activity; 2) suffixes denoting collectivity o r collection of;
3) suffixes denoting diminutivcncss.

Membership, assistant, lecturette. trainee, sisterhood, actress, piglet,


painter, m achinery, aunty, vu p p ied om , historian, duckling, finery,
scientist, babykins. readership, supervisor, nightie, aristocracy.
12. * Translate the given combinations o f words into English. Pay special
attention to the formation o f different in meaning adjectives by means o f adding
different suffixes to one and the same derivational base.
M o d e l : favour, любимый автор - благоприятная погода
0 The English for любимый автор is a favourite author. The English for
благоприятная погода isfavourable weather.
I ) e x h a u s t: изнурительная работа — исчерпы ваю щ ий ответ:
2) history, историческая победа — исторический ф ильм: 3 ) honour.
почетный гражданин — почетная обязанность: 4 ) respect: почти­
тельн ое молчание — почтенный человек: 5 ) skill: квалифицирован­
ный рабочий — опытный, искусный хирург: 6 ) culture, культурная
ж изнь — культурный человек: 7) tou ch : трогательные слова — оби д ­
чивый человек: 8) delight, восхищенные зрители — восхитительные
каникулы: 9 ) econom y, экономический кризис — эконом ны е рас­
ходы: 10) c on tem p t презренный предатель — презрительная улыбка.
13. ’ Combine the prefixes in the box with the appropriate derivational base
from the list. Classify- the prefixes according to the lexico-grammatical character
o f the base they are attached to and according to the pan o f speech they form.
M o d e I: dis-
0 The prefix d is - can be combined with the bases: -advantage. -favour.
-order. It is added to the nominal bases to form new nouns. Thus, this prefix
can be qualified as a denominal and noun-forming prefix.

dis-. il-, non-, ir-. un-, im-, in-, dc-, a-

Lcgal. relevant, mature, regulate, m oral, ability, payment, happy,


responsible, patient, stabilize, honour, smoker, learn, formally, typical,
logical, rational, possible, classify, agreement, verbal, lock, practical,
dependently, mystify, resistible, sensual, literate, obedience, academic,
tic. adequately, septic, clean.

14.* Analyze different meanings o f the prefix over- forming the given words.
Classify these words according to the generalizing meaning o f the prefix over-
underthe following headings: 1) ‘excess'; 2) time (age)*; 3) ‘ position or place’;
4 ) addition*; 5) ‘outer, covering*; 6) ‘ a person engaged in a certain activity or
an agent o f an action*.
M o d e l : overlord (n ), overpaint (n ). ouereager (adj>
0 As the noun overlord means ‘ a ruler, especially a feudal lord', it refers to
group 6. The word overpaint has the meaning ‘ paint added as a covering
layer* and may be referred to group 5. The adjective overeager means
‘excessively eager’ and so it refers to group 1.
O ve rla y (v. n ), o v e r-k in g (n ), o v e r -fo r ty (n ) . o v e rd e v e lo p (v ).
o v erh a n g ( v ) , o v e rp rin t ( v ) , o v e rc o a t ( n ) , overa m b itio u s (a d j).
overseventeen (n ), overhead (a d v ), ovcrreacher (n ), overtim e (a d v).
overstitch (n ), overman (n ), overprotective (adj). overseer (n ). overcast (v).
overtly (v ), overdose (n ), overtwenty (n ). overlap ( v ) , ovem ightcr (n ),
overleaf (adv). overdub (v ), overboot (n ), overcareful (adj). overside (adv).
overlooker (n ). overall (n ). overdress (v ). overground (adj), overlander (n).

15.* The prefix p re - making up the italicized words has two different
meanings. Write ‘ X* in the space provided i f it means that one thing happens
before another. Write *Y" if it means that something has already been done.

1. I hate the p re -C h ris tm a s panic that seems to hit my fam ily in the
m iddle o f December.

2. Eventually the p re -p a id envelopes were sent from the mail order


company.

3. H is precon ceived ideas m ade it impossible fo r anyone to get him


to listen to their side o f the argument.

4. T h e r e w ere m any p r e -f o u r t e e n t h c e n tu ry p o rtra its in the


exhibition.

5. T h e ju ry unanimously reached the decision that the killing was


prem editated.

6. H e married late and his w ife predeceased him.

7. Bake the cake in a p re -h e a te d oven fo r twenty minutes.

8. A nn had invited us round early for a p re -d in n e r drink.

9. Som e football players develop a special routine to cope with p re ­


m atch nerves.

10. W e had been given tickets to a preview o f the film.

16.* Write out the italicized words from the sentences taken from “ The
In d epen den t" and classify them according to the productivity o f their
derivational affixes. Translate the sentences into Russian.
I. T h en he read extracts from it. secret histories o f those whom he
chooses to call the unpeople o f this w orld — the slave labourers < ...>
sacked in the w inter o f 1995. w ho were refused support by their union.
2.1 am not over-optim istic about m y chances o f winning any o f these
three Firstships.
3. T h e locals call this place Pitta straat due to the number o f ethnic
fast-food places, which becom e a w elco m e refuge fo r p u b b e rs and
clubbers.
4. T h e key players left the encounter sounding unimpressed by M r
Y eltsin 's efforts t o ca jo le them into supporting the 3 5 -year-old e * -
p ro v in c ia l banker and form er energy minister, Sergei Kiriyenko.
5. But the interesting point about the legend is that it shows the
icon isis had the notion o f ‘ painting from life*.
6. T h e problem in my own case is not sexism, but alphabetism . My
partner can vote in the proposed Halifax conversion, but I cannot. My
surname begins with G and hers with C . O n ly the first-nam ed person
in a jo in t mortgage is entitled to vote and to participate in any subsequent
shares handout.
7. Bespectacled Kate spanned some eighteen p e e p fu l years before
being yanked back from retirement fo r further snoopings.
8. H e may say the same thing with the release o f every new movie,
but this tim e it needs to be said m ore forcibly, because Harry Block is a
writer w ho specializes in tabooish relationships...
9. T h e risk lies not in these elements sin glely but in the danger that
they might com bine to create a w hole, which is greater than the sum o f
its pans producing a chain reaction.
10. Som e people have cupboardfuls o f um vearable outfits without
which they simply cannot live: badly fiared trousers, nickel belts that give
you a nasty rash, and expensive peep -toed stilettos w ith em balm ed
goldfish in the heels.
11. M y mother-in-law is a b a ia h o lic person.
12. It's lovely to com e back and re v is it these places and re fee l these
emotions.
13. There are still on e o r tw o paintings that strike me as having a
w rongish size, and therefore give an eccentric scale to the figure.
14. Invariably, some not just name but place-dropping m em ber o f
London's C e le b rito cra cy is boasting about her high-powered, action-
packed day beginning with breakfast in bed.

17.* Study the given words illustrating the fact that productivity o f affixes is
a historical phenomenon.
Explain what the derivational affixes mean.
M o d e l : arrestee, impeachee. persuader, seconder

0 The suffix -ее means ‘ recipient o f an action’.

1) g ro ce te ria , b o o te te ria , b o o k e te ria . w asheteria; 2 ) spydom .


b lo k e d o m , c o m p u te rd o m , sn o b d o m , b ik e rd o m ; 3 ) u n takeab le.
uncducative, undutiful, unbrotherly: 4 ) taxiful. potful. cupboardful.
harpful: 5) emailable. rideable, passable, doable; 6 ) cm ailer. channeler.
bagger, clubber: 7 ) c o o lth . thickth. rcsideth; 8 ) to b clg iu m ize, to
vacationize, to citizenize, to fre(e)ize; 9 ) ex-analyst, ex-wages (clerk),
ex-superior, ex-provincial; 10) m ilkaholic. ncwsaeholic, bookacholic.
chocoholic, hataholic, workacholic. shopacholic: I I ) refeel, reinterest,
re-aim . rebalance: 12 ) genderism. ableism, heightvism. alphabetism.
18. * Define Ihe etymology o f the derivational affixes forming the given
words.
M o d e l : risky (full o f the possibility o f danger, failure, o r loss)

0 The suffix -y is Old English.

1) re fu s e n ik (a Jew in the form er Soviet U n ion w h o was refused


permission to emigrate to Israel), b ea tn ik (a young person in the 1950s
and early 1960s b elon gin g to a subculture associated w ith the beat
generation); 2 ) p ro -fa m ily (prom oting fam ily life and traditional moral
values); 3 ) d o a b le (within on e's powers); 4 ) m e rrim e n t (gaiety and fun);
5 )f o r e t e ll (to predict the future o r a future even t): 6) breakage (a thing
that has been broken): 7) n o n -c itiz e n (a person w ho is not an inhabitant
or national o f a particular state or town): 8 ) tru is m (a statement that is
obviously true and say's nothing new or interesting); 9 ) o v erexcite (excite
excessively); 10) h in d ra n ce (a thing that provides resistance, delay, o r
obstruction to something o r som eone): 11) c o o la n t (a languid o r gas that
is used to remove heat from something): 12 ) p a ra le g a l (a person trained
in subsidiary legal matters but not fully qualified as a lawyer).

19. * Form adjectives from the italicized words given in brackets by means o f
attaching appropriate suffixes to them. Analyze the valency o f the adjective-
forming affixes in terms o f the bases they are attached to.

M о d e I: The time seemed to stretch out in a ( dream...) manner

0 The adjective-forming suffix -lik e is attached to the nominal base dream -


to form the adjective dreamlike.

1. She smiled a slightly {iro n ic ...) smile. 2. He felt very {protect...)


towards her and loved her dearly. 3. T h e newspapers printed a shocking
and {s h a m e ...) story. 4. She slept on a {c o lla p s e ...) bed with rough.
{p ric k le ...) sheets. 5. He filled the frequent silences w ith {c o m ic ...)
anecdotes. 6. There were tw o letters from Michael, warm, {h u m o r...), and
full o f information. 7. M r and M rs Bixby lived in a {sm all...) apartment.
8. His voice was cold and {dead...). 9.1 have extra French lessons with a
{retire...) schoolmaster. 10. Judy was very {com p lim ent...) about my work.
II. There is the danger o f an {a ccid en t...) explosion that could be caused
by a gas leak. 12. 1 understood that it was (p erm it...) to ask a question.
13. She thought how {fo o l...) h e'd been and was not angry any more.
14. It's tim e you chose between the tw o {a lterna te...) lifestyles.

20. * Add appropriate suffixes to the verbal bases to form words corresponding
to the meaning o f the given sentences. Analyze the valency o f the verbal bases
in terms o f the suffixes they can be combined with.

M o d e l : There was an ... story in the paper this morning, (amuse)


0 The verbal base amuse- is combined with the adjective-forming suffix -ing
to form the adjective amusing.
I. H e made him self... by handing round ih c coffee cups, (u se) 2. He
felt strongly that schools did not provide the kind o f . . . needed for the
development o f good leadership qualities which should be instilled from
early childhood, (encourage) 3. T h e photos made him look quite ... .
(attract) 4. H e explained that he w ould like to becom e ... in industry,
(m an age) 5. M r Smith told m e a lot about ... o f printing in the I5lh
century, (in ven t) 6. Deaths caused by reckless driving are ... . (a void )
7. H er ... on staying in the best hotel was very ... and ... . (insist, lire,
annoy) 8. She is suing the com pany for u n fa ir.... (dism iss) 9. M y little
daughter has an ... friend (im a g in e ) 10. I did not want to encounter
o t h e r ... to the post, (appoint)

C h ap ter 2

1. Conversion. Typical Semantic Relations in Conversion


2. Diachronic Approach to Conversion
3. Basic Criteria o f Semantic Derivation in Conversion
4. W ord-Com position. Types o f M eaning o f Com pound Words
5. Classification o f C om pound Words
6. Correlational Types o f Com pounds

1. CONVERSION. TYPICAL SEM AN TIC RELATIONS


IN CONVERSION

Conversion is on e o f the principal ways o f form ing w ords in M odem


English. It is highly productive in replenishing the English word-stock
with new' words. Conversion consists in making a new w ord from some
ex istin g w ord b y ch an gin g the c a te g o r y o f a part o f sp eech ; the
m orphem ic shape o f the original word remains unchanged, e.g. w ork —
to w ork. p a p e r — to paper. The new word acquires a meaning, w hich
differs from that o f the original on e though it can be easily associated
with it. T h e converted w ord acquires also a new paradigm and a new
syntactic function (o r functions), which are peculiar to its new category
as a part o f speech, e.g . garden — to ga rd e n (Table 4).
A m o n g the m ain va rieties o f c o n ve rs io n arc: I ) verb a liza tio n
(th e formation o f verbs), e.g . to ape (fro m ape n.); 2 ) substantiation
(t h e fo rm a tio n o f n o u n s ), e .g . a p r i v a t e (fr o m p r i v a t e a d j.):
3 ) adjectivation (th e form ation o f adjectives), e.g . dow n (a d j) (from
dow n adv.); 4 ) adverbalization (the form ation o f adverbs), e.g . hom e
(adv.) (from h o m e n.).
T h e tw o c a te g o rie s o f parts o f sp eech e s p e c ia lly a ffe c t e d by
conversion are nouns and verbs.
T a b le 4
garden > t o garden

Meaning Paradigm Function(s)

garden ’a piece o f land, often -5 (plural) Subject


around or at the side - s (possessive case) Object
o f a house, which may -s ' (possessive case, Predicative
be covered with grass plural)
or planted with flowers,
fruit, and vegetables’

to garden ‘to work in a garden. -5 (3го person, singular) Predicate


keeping it tidy, making -e d (Past Indefinite,
Past Participle)
-in g (Present Participle.
ueruna)

1. Verbs convened from nouns are called denom inal verbs. I f the
noun refers to som e o b ject o f reality (a n im ate o r in a n im a te) the
convened verb m ay denote:
1 ) action characteristic o f the object: ape n. > ape v. ‘ imitate in a
foolish way’ ;
2) instrumental use o f the object: w hip n. > w hip v. ’ strike with a w hip':
3 ) acquisition o r addition o f the object: f is h n. > fis h v. ’ catch o r try
to catch fish*:
4 ) deprivation ot the object: d u s t n. > dust v. "rem ove dust from
smth.';
5 ) location: p o ck e t n. > p o ck e t v. ’ put into o n e ’s pocket’ .

2. Nouns convened from verbs are called d everb al substantives. I f


the verb refers to an action, the convened noun may denote:
1 ) instance o f the action: ju m p v. > ju m p n. ’sudden spring from the
ground’ ;
2 ) agent o f the action: help v. > help n. ’ a person w ho helps';
3 ) place o f the action: d riv e v. > d riv e n. ’a path o r road along which
one drives';
4 ) result o f the action: p e e ! \. > p e e ! n. ’ the outer skin o f fruit or
potatoes taken o fT ;
5) object o f the action: le t v. > le t n. ’a property available for rent*.
In case o f polysem an tic w ords on e and the sam e m em ber o f a
conversion pair may belong to several groups. For example, the deverbal
substantive slide is referred to the group denoting ’ place o f the action'
(point 2.3) in the meaning a stretch o f sm ooth ice o r hard snow on
which people slide’ and to the group ’ agent o f the action’ (p oin t 2.2)
when this noun means "a sliding machine p a n ’.
2. DIACHRONIC APPROACH T O CONVERSION

T h e causes that m ade c o n ve rs io n so w id e ly spread are ю be


approached diachronically.
Nouns and verbs have becom e identical in form firstly as a result o f
the loss o f endings. When endings had disappeared phonetic develop­
ment resulted in the merging o f sound forms fo r both elements o f these
pairs, e.g . c a n o n (v ). c a m (n ) > ca re (v, n): lu fu (n ). lu fia n ( v ) >
love (n , v).
T h e similar phenomenon can be observed in words borrowed from
the French language. In French these words w ere o f the same root but
belonged to different pans o f speech. In the course o f time they lost their
affixes and became phonetically identical in the process o f assimilation,
e .g . c r i e r ( v ) . c r i (n ) > c r y (v , n ): e s e h e q u ie r ( v ) . e s ch ec ( n ) >
ch e ck (v, n).
Thus, from the diachronic point o f view distinction should be made
between homonymous word-pairs, which appeared as a result o f the loss
o f inflections, and those form ed by conversion.
T h e diachronic semantic analysis o f a conversion pair reveals that
in the course o f tim e the semantic structure o f the base m ay acquire a
new meaning o r several meanings under the influence o f the meanings
o f the convened word. This semantic process is called reconversion,
e .g .s m o k e (n ) — sm oke (v ). T h e noun sm ok e acquired in 1715 the
meaning o f “the act o f smoke com ing ou t into a room instead o f passing
up the chim ney' under the influence o f the meaning o f the verb sm oke
‘ to em it smoke as the result o f imperfect draught o r im proper burning*,
acquired by this verb in 1663.

3. BASIC CRITERIA O F S EM A N TIC DERIVATION


IN CONVERSION

There are different criteria o f differentiating between the source and


the derived word in a conversion pair.
I. The criterion of the non-correspondence between the lexical
meaning o f the root-m orphem e and the pan-of-speech meaning o f the
stem in one o f the tw o words in a conversion pair.
In the p a ir f a t h e r (n ) — f a t h e r (v ). the noun is the nam e fo r a
being. The lexical m eaning o f the root-m orphem e corresponds to the
part-of-speech m eaning o f the stem . T h e verb to f a t h e r denotes a
process, therefore the part-of-speech m eaning o f its stem does not
correspond to the lexical meaning o f the root which is o f a substantive
character. T h is distinction accounts for a com p lex character o f the
sem antic structure o f verbs o f this type. D u e to the fact that the
semantically simple is the source o f the semantically com plex, the verb
to f a t h e r can be considered the derived m em ber in the conversion pair
in question.
2. The synonymity criterion. T h is c rite rio n is based o n the
com parison o f a conversion pair with analogous synonym ous word-
pairs. For exam ple, com paring the conversion pair c h a t ( v ) — c h a t (n )
with the synonym ous pair o f words to con verse — c o n v e rs a tio n . it
becom es obviou s that the noun c h a t is the derived m em ber as the
semantic relations in the case o f to c h a t — c h a t are similar to those
between to c o n v e rs e — c o n v e rs a tio n . T h e synonym ity criterion is
considerably restricted in its application, it m ay be applied o n ly to
deverbal substantives (v > n).
3. The criterion of derivational relations. In the word-cluster, for
instance, h a n d (n ) — h a n d ( v ) — h a n d fu l — handy the derived words
o f the first degree o f derivation1have suffixes added to the nominal base:
h a n d fu l, handy. Thus, the noun h a n d is the center o f the word-cluster.
T h is fact makes it possible to conclu de that the verb to h a n d is the
derived member in the conversion pair under analysis.
4. The criterion of semantic derivation. T h is criterion is based on
semantic relations within conversion pairs. T h e existence o f relations
typical o f denom inal verbs within a conversion pair proves that the verb
is the derived m em ber, the existence o f relations typical o f deverbal
substantives marks the noun as the derived member. F o r example, the
semantic relations between crow d (n ) — crow d (v ) are perceived as those
o f *an object and an action characteristic o f the object'. Th is fact makes
it possible to conclude that the verb crow d is the derived member.
5. The criterion of the frequency of occurrence. According to this
criterion a low er frequency value testifies to the derived character o f the
w ord in question. F o r exam ple, according to M .W est's *‘A G eneral
Service List o f English W ord s", the frequency value o f the follow ing
verb-noun conversion pair is estimated as follows: to answ er (63 % ) —
answ er (35 *%). Thus, the noun answ er is the derived member.
6. The transformational criterion. T h e a p p lic a tio n o f the
tran sform ation a l p roced u re m ay b e illu strated b y a ch an ge o f a
predicative syntagma into a nominal syntagma: R o y loves n a tu re —»
R o y 's lo v e o f nature. This transformation is made by analogy with the
transformation o f T h e com m ittee e le cted J o h n into J o h n 's election by
the com m ittee in which the word election is a derived one. This makes
it possible to conclude that the noun lo v e is the derived member.
Failure to apply this transformational procedure proves that nouns
cannot be regarded as derived from the corresponding verbal base. c.g.
S h e bosses th e establishm ent —> * H e r boss o f th e establishm ent.

1Derived words may have different degree o f derivation. For example, the derived
words hasty, delation arc described as having the first degree o f derivation, whereas
the derived words hastily, dei'otional are o f the second degree o f derivation.
4. W O R D -C O M P O S ITIO N . TY P E S O F MEANING
O F COM POUND WORDS

Word-composition is the ly p e o f w ord-form ation, in which new


words are produced by com bining tw o o r more Im mediate Constituents
(IC s ). which are both derivational bases. T h e IC s o f com pound w'ords
represent bases o f all three structural types: I ) bases that coincide with
m orphological stems; 2 ) bases that coincide with w ord-form s; 3) bases
that co in cid e with word-groups. T h e bases built on stems m ay be o f
different degrees o f complexity': I ) sim ple, e.g. w eek -en d ; 2 ) derived,
c.g . lette r-w rite r. 3 ) com pound, e.g. a irc ra ft-ca rrie r.
C a r e sh ou ld b e taken n ot t o co n fu se c o m p o u n d w o rd s w ith
p o ly m o rp h ic w ords o f secon d a ry d eriva tion , i. e . derivatives built
according to an afTixal pattern but on a com pound stem as its base. e.g.
sch ool-m a stersh ip — |n + n) + suf.; ex-hou sew ife — p r f + |n + n|.
T h e meaning o f a com pound w ord is made up o f tw o components;
structural and lexical.
The structural meaning o f compounds is form ed on the base of:
1 ) the meaning o f their distributional pattern and 2) the meaning o f their
derivational pattern.
T h e distributional pattern o f a com pound is understood as the order
and arrangement o f the IC s that constitute a com pound word. A change
in the order and arrangement o f the same IC s signals the compound
words o f different lexical meanings, cf.: a fr u it-m a r k e t ( market w here
fruit is sold ) and m a rk e t-fru it ( ‘ fruit designed for selling ). A change
in the order and arrangement o f the IC s that form a com pound may
destroy its meaning. Thus, the distributional pattern o f a com pound
carries a certain meaning o f its ow n which is largely independent o f the
actual lexical meaning o f their ICs.
T h e m eaning o f the d erivation al pattern o f com p ou n ds can be
abstracted and described through the interrelation o f their ICs. For
exam ple, the derivational pattern n + v „ underlying the com pound
a d jec tiv es d u ty -b o u n d , w in d -d r iv e n , m u d -s t a in e d c o n ve ys the
generalized meaning o f instrumental o r agentive relations which can be
interpreted as ‘done b y' o r ‘with the help o f something’ . Derivational
patterns in compounds may be monosemantic and polysemantic. For
exam ple, th e pattern n + n - * N conveys the fo llo w in g sem antic
relations: I ) o f purpose, c.g. booksh elf, 2 ) o f resemblance, e.g . need le­
fish-, 3) o f instrument o r agent, c.g . w in d m ill, sunrise.
The lexical meaning o f compounds is form ed on the base o f the
combined lexical meanings o f their constituents. T h e semantic center
of the com p ou n d is the lexical m eaning o f the second com p onent
m odified and restricted by the meaning o f the first. T h e lexical meanings
o f both components arc closely fused together to create a new semantic
unit with a new' meaning, which dominates the individual meanings o f
the bases, and is characterized by some additional component not found
in any o f the bases. For instance, the lexical meaning o f the compound
word h a n d b a g is not essentially *a bag designed to be carried in the
hand' but *a wom an's small bag to carry everyday personal items'.

5. CLASSIFICATION OF CO M P O U N D WORDS

Com pound words can be classified according to different principles.


1. According to the relations between the IC s com pound words fall
in to tw o classes: I ) co ord in a tive com pou nds and 2 ) s u b o r d in a te
compounds.
In coordinative compounds the tw o IC s are semantically equally
important. T h e coordinative compounds fall into three groups:
a ) reduplicative compounds which are made up b y the repetition o f
the same base. e.g . p o o h -p o o h , f if t y -f ift y ;
b ) com pounds form ed b y join in g the phonically variated rhythmic
twin forms, e.g . c h it-c h a t. z ig -z a g (with the same initial consonants
but different vow els): w a lk ie -ta lk ie , d a p -tr a p (w ith different initial
consonants but the same vowels);
c ) additive compounds which are built on stems o f the independently
functioning w ords o f the same part o f speech, e .g . a cto r-m a n a g e r,
qu een -bee.
In subordinative compounds th e c o m p o n e n ts are n eith er
structurally nor semantically equal in im portance but arc based on the
dom ination o f the head-member which is. as a rule, the second 1C. e.g.
ston e-d eaf, a g e -lo n g . T h e second IC preconditions the part-of-speech
meaning o f the w hole compound.
2. According to the part o f speech compounds represent they fall into:
1) compound nouns, e.g . sunbeam, maidservant'.
2) compound adjectives, e.g. h e a rt-fre e , fa r-rea ch in g:.
3) compound pronouns, e.g. som ebody, nothing:
4 ) compound adverbs, e.g. now here, inside:
5) compound verbs, e.g. to offset, to bypass, to m ass-produce.
From the diachronic point o f view m any com pound verbs o f the
present-day language are treated not as com pound verbs proper but as
polym orphic verbs o f secondary derivation. T h ey arc termed pseudo-
com pounds and are represented by tw o groups: a ) verbs form ed by
m eans o f con version from the stem s o f com p ou n d nouns, e .g . to
spotlight (from spotlight): b ) verbs formed by back-derivation from the
stems o f com pound nouns, e.g. to babysit (from b aby-sitter).
H o w e v e r s y n c h r o n ic a lly co m p o u n d verbs c o rre s p o n d t o the
definition o f a com pou nd as a w ord consisting o f tw o free stems and
functioning in the sentence as a separate lexical unit. Thus, it seems
lo g ic a l to c o n s id e r such w o rd s as co m p o u n d s b y righ t o f th eir
structure.
3. A cco rd in g lo ihe means o f com p osition com pou nd w ords arc
classified into:
1) co m p o u n d s c o m p o s e d w ith o u t c o n n e c tin g ele m en ts, e .g .
h e a rta ch e , dog-house',
2) compounds com posed with the help o f a vow el o r a consonant as
a linking element, e.g . h a n d icra ft, speedom eter, statesm an’,
3 ) c o m p o u n d s c o m p o s e d w ith th e h elp o f lin k in g e le m e n ts
represented b y preposition o r conju n ction stem s, e.g . s o n -in -la w ,
p e p p e r-a n d -s a lt.
4. According to the type o f bases that form compounds the follow ing
classes can be singled out:
1 ) compounds proper that are form ed by join in g together bases built
on the stems o r on the w ord-form s with o r without a linking element,
e.g . d oor-step , street-fighting',
2) derivational compounds that are form ed by join in g affixes to the
bases built on the word-groups o r by converting the bases built on the
word-groups into other parts o f speech, e.g . lon g-le gge d - » (long legs) +
+ -e d : a tu rn k e y - » (t o turn key) + c o n v e rs io n . Th us, derivational
com pounds fall into tw o groups: a ) derivational com pou nds m ainly
form ed with the help o f the suffixes -e d and - e r applied to bases built,
as a rule, on attributive phrases, e.g. n a rro w -m in d e d , d o ll-fa ce d , le ft­
h a n d er. b ) derivational com pounds form ed by conversion applied to
bases built, as a rule, on three types o f phrases — verbal-adverbial
phrases ( a b re a k d o w n ), ve rb a l-n om in a l phrases ( a k i l l - j o y ) and
attributive phrases ( o sw eet-tooth ).

6. CORRELATIONAL TY P ES O F COM POUNDS

There exists a regular correlation between the system o f free phrases


and com pound words. Correlation embraces both the structure and the
meaning o f com pound words. For exam ple, com pound nouns o f the
pattern n + n ( s to ry -te lle r, w a tch -m a k e r) reflect the agentive relations
proper to free phrases o f the N who V + N type ( o n e w ho tells stories,
o n e w ho m akes watches). Thus, correlation is a regular interaction and
interdependence o f com pound words and certain types o f free phrases,
which condition the potential possibility o f appearance o f compound
words, their structure and semantic type.
T h e description o f com pound words through the correlation with
variable free phrases makes it possible to classify' them into four m ajor
classes: 1) adjectival-nominal; 2 ) verbal-nominal; 3) nominal; 4 ) verbal-
adverbial.
Adjectival-nom inal com pounds com prise four subgroups o f com­
pound adjectives: three o f them are proper compounds and on e subgroup
includes derivational compounds. T h e structural-semantic correlation o f
compound adjectives with free phrases is presented in Table 5.
The compound The structural pattern The corresponding
adjective of the compound adjective free phrase

C-ompound
1) a) snow-while n+a a) as white as snow
b) care-free b) free from care

2) duty-bound n + vra bound by duty

3) two-day num ♦ n two days

Derivational
4) long-legged (a + n) + -cd with long legs
one-sided (num + n) + -cd with one side
doll-faced (n + n) + -ed with the face o f a doll

The compound The structural pattern The corresponding


noun o f the compound noun free phrase

Compound

Verbal-nominal

1) peace-fighter n + (v +-er) to fight for peace


2) rocket-flying n + (v + -ing) to fly a rocket
3) price-reduction n + (v + -tion/-mcnt) to reduce prices
4) wage-cut n + (v + conversion) to cut wages

Nominal

ash-tray n2 + n, tray for ashes


country-house house in the country

Derivational

Verbal-adverbial

a break-down (v + adv) + conversion to break down


a run-away to run away
The structural type
Semantic relations
o f the corresponding free phrase

a d jectives p ro p er

a)as + A + as + N a) o f resemblance
b ) A + prp + N b) adverbial

♦ РФ + N instrumental (locative, temporal, etc.)

Num + N quantitative

com pou nd a d jectives

with/having + A + N possessive
with/having + Num + N possessive
with + N + o f + N possessive

T a b le 6

The structural type


Semantic relations
o f the corresponding free phrase

nouns p rop er

compounds

V + рф + N agentive
V+ N agentivc
V+ N agentive
V+ N agentive

compounds

o f purpose
. N, + рф + N ,
o f location

com pou nd noons

compounds

V +Adv o f result
T h e three oth er types arc classed as compound nouns. Verbal-
nominal and nominal represent com pound nouns proper and verbal-
adverbial — derivational com pound nouns.
T h e structural-semantic correlation o f com pound nouns with free
phrases is presented in Tabic 6.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. QUESTIONS

1. W hat is conversion?
2. In what way is a new w ord form ed under conversion? What does
a converted w ord acquire?
3. W hat are the main varieties o f conversion?
4. W hat parts o f speech are especially affected by conversion?
5. What verbs are called denom inal? What m ay the converted verb
denote i f the noun from which it is formed refers to some object o f reality?
6. W hat nouns arc c a lled deverbal substantives? W hat m ay the
converted noun denote i f the verb from which it is formed refers to an
action?
7. W hy have nouns and verbs becom e identical in form?
8. W hat tw o groups o f words identical in form should be distinguished
from the diachronic point o f view?
9. W hat is meant by the term ‘ reconversion*?
10. What arc the basic criteria o f semantic derivation in conversion?
11. What is word-com position?
12. What types o f bases d o the IC s o f com pound words represent?
13. W hat is the difference between com pound words and polym or­
phic words o f secondary derivation?
14. What components does the meaning o f a compound word consist
of?
15. What is meant by the structural meaning o f a com pound word?
16. What is the form ation o f the lexical meaning o f compounds based
on?
17. W hat classes o f compounds can be singled out according to the
relations between the IC s that constitute them?
18. W hat groups d o com pound words fall into according to the part
o f speech they represent?
19. H o w can com pounds be classified according to the means o f
composition?
20. What classes o f com pound words can be singled out according
to the type o f bases?
21. W hat does correlation between the system o f free phrases and
com pound words embrace?
22. What four m ajor classes o f compounds can be singled out on the
basis o f their correlation with free phrases?
23. What subgroups do adjectival-nominal compounds comprise?
24. What structural patterns o f com pound adjectives can be singled
out? W hat sem antic relations m ay co m p ou n d adjectives and their
corresponding free phrases have?
25. What types o f com pound nouns d o you know?
26. What patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
free phrases do verbal-nominal compounds have?
27. W hat patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
Iree phrases d o nominal compounds have?
28. W hat patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
free phrases d o verbal-adverbial compounds have?

II. TASKS

!•* Define the pan o f speech o f the italicized words. State w hat pans of
speech they arc derived from and what word-formation means is applied here.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
M o d e l : Still water o f the lake mirrors the trees.
0 The word m irror is a verb w hich is derived from the noun m irror by means
o f conversion. Неподвижная гладь озера отражает деревья.

1. T h a t fe llo w re a lly w h a te v e rs m e. 2. She m a d e a tw o -p a rt


d ocu m en ta ry about the war in Kosovo. 3. Local politicians were found
to p o ck e t the money o f fund-raisers. 4. Th is video is a m ust fo r everyone.
5. T h e story was in all the dailies. 6. W ill you h o lid a y in Switzerland?
7. H e busied him self with plans for the future. 8. There is a great deal
o f difference between before and after. 9. I asked him to m od em this
information tomorrow. 10. It was a g o o d buy. 11.1 don't like a chemistry
p ra ctica l. 12. H is skin was w eathered almost black by his long outdoor
life. 13. T h e path is steep and dangerous in the wet. 14.1 w on 't jo in your
plan. T h ere are to o many ifs and burs in it. 15. T h e arm v's actions
d irtie d its reputation.

2. * In the given conversion pairs state the semantic relations between the
denominal verb and the noun it is derived from.

M o d e l : coat — to coat ‘ to cover something with a coat'


0 The semantic relation between the words making up the conversion pair
coat — to coat is ‘ the addition o f the object'.

I ) b on e — to b on e To rem ove the bones from (m eat o r fish ) before


cooking it'; 2 ) eye — to eye T o watch carefully (with eyes)’ ; 3 ) crow d —
to crow d to com e together in large numbers’ ; 4 ) garage — to garage
T o put o r keep (a m otor vehicle) in a garage'; 5 ) n u t — to n u t ‘ to gather
nuts’ ; b ) f o o l — to f o o l T o act in a joking, frivolous, o r leasing way*;
7) s ton e — to stone T o throw stones at' & t o remove the stone from
(a fru it)’ ; 8 ) lea ther — to le a th e r T o cover with leather’ ; 9 ) sk in — to
s k in *to rem ove ihe skin from (an anim al o r a fruit o r ve getab le)':
10) w o lf — to w o lf ‘ to devour (fo o d ) greedily’ ; I I ) la n d — to la n d *to
put ashore: to com e down through the air and alight on the ground’ ;
12) g r i l l — to g r i ll *to cook (som ething) using a grill’: 13) m ushroom —
to m ushroom ‘ to gather m ushroom s': 14) breakfast — to breakfast to
eat breakfast'.
3. " In the given conversion pairs state the semantic relations between the
dcvcrbal substantive and the verb it is derived from.
M o d e l : to leak — leak 'a hole in a container or covering through which
contents, especially liquid or gas. may accidentally pass'
0 The semantic relation between the words making up the conversion pair to
leak — leak is 'the place o f the action'.
I ) to f l i r t — f l i r t *a person w h o habitually flirts'; 2 ) to k n o c k —
k nock *a sudden short sound caused by a blow, especially on a d o o r to
attract attention o r gain entry'; 3 ) to c u t — c u t 'damage from something
sharp’ : 4 ) to w atch — w atch 'a film o r programme considered in terms
o f its appeal to the public': 5 ) to ch e a t — ch ea t ‘ a person w ho behaves
dishonestly in order to gain an advantage': 6 ) to stand — stand ‘ a place
where o r object on w hich someone or something stands, sits, o r rests,
in particular'; 7) to g o — g o ‘ an attempt o r trial at som ething': 8 ) to
lik e — lik e is ) ‘ the thing(s) one likes o r prefers’ ; 9 ) to te a r — te a r a
h o le o r split in som eth in g caused b y it having been pu lled apart
forcefully’ ; 10) to until — w ait 'a period o f waiting': 11) to fo r g e — fo r g e
“a blacksmith's w orkshop'; 12) to s co ld — s co ld *a wom an w ho nags or
grumbles constantly'; 13) to re a d — re a d 'som ething o f the slated kind
to read'; 14) to lif t — lift ‘ a rise in price o r am ount’ .
4. * Analyze the origin o f the given pairs o f wortis. Slate whether the given
word-pairs from the diachronic point o f view are homonymous or they arc
formed by means o f conversion.
M o d e l : h it (v ) - hit ( n) (O E hittan v.); hope (n ) - hope (v ) (OE
hopa n. — hopian v.)
0 The words h it (v ) — hit (n ) form a conversion pair. The words hope (n ) —
hope (v ) are a homonymous pair.
I) smoke (n ) — sm oke (v ) (O E smoca n. — smocian v.); 2) sm ile (v ) —
smile (n ) (Scan, smirk v.); 3) w ork (n ) — w ork (v ) (O E wcorc n. — wyrean
v.): 4 ) note (n ) — note (v ) (O F note n., noter v.); 5) dream (n ) — dream
(v ) (O E dream n.); 6 ) drink (v ) — d rin k (n ) (O E drincan v. — drinc n.):
7 ) m ove (v ) — m ove (n ) (O F movier v.); 8) nose (n ) — паче (v ) (O E nosu
n.); 9 ) rest (v ) — test (n ) (O E restan/nestan v. — rest/rcest n.): 10) laugh
(v ) — laugh (n ) (O E hkehhan, hlichhan v.); 11) change (v ) — change (n )
(O F change n.. changer v.); 12) p la c e (n ) — p la c e ( v ) ( L platea n.):
13) answer (n ) — a n s u v rly ) (O E andswaru n. — andsw-arian v.j; 14) hand
(n ) — hand (v ) (O E hand/hond n.); 15) p ity (n ) — p ity (v ) (O F pile n.):
16) hate (v ) — h a te (n ) (O E hatian v. — hclc n.); 17) praise (v ) — praise
<n) (O F preisier to prize, to praise'); 18) p o in t (n ) — p o in t ( v ) (O F point,
pointe n.. pointer v.); 19) ch a n ce (n ) — ch a n ce ( v ) (O F cheance n.):
20) sorrow (n ) — sorrow (v ) (O E sorh/sorg n. — sorgian v.).
5. * Apply the criterion o f derivational relations to define the derived member
in the given conversion pairs.

.M o d e l: flo a t (n. v): floatable, floater, floatation, floating


E As the derived words o f the first degree o f derivation have affixes added to
the verbal base, the noun flo a t is the derived member.
C a ll (n . v ). tim e (n , v ). break (n . v ) . age (n , v ), effect (n . v).
recover (n . v ), harm (n . v ). mix (n. v ), sleep (n , v). wash (n . v).

6. * State the difference in meaning o f the given compounds possessing


different distributional patterns. Find examples o f your own.
M o d e l : f in g e r -r in g — r in g -fin g e r
0 The compound w o r t f in g e r -r in g denotes ‘ a ring which is worn on a finger',
whereas the compound word r in g -f in g e r means 'the finger next to the little
finger, especially o f the left hand, on w hich the wedding ring is worn*. The
different order and arrangement o f the same ICs (i.e. different distributional
patterns) signal the difference in meaning.
Boathouse — houseboat: play-boy — boy-play; pot-flow er — flower­
pot; life-boat — boat-life: board-school — school-board: dog-house —
h ou se-dog; p ot-p ie — p ie -p o t: b o y-toy — toy-b oy, plant-house —
house-plant.

7. * Distribute the given compound words according to their derivational


patterns into three groups: I ) compounds o f the n + n - * N pattern; 2) compounds
o f the a + a -> A pattern; 3) compounds o f the n + v „, -♦ N pattern. Define the
generalized meaning o f these patterns.

M o d e l : greenhouse . sw eetm eat, la zyb o n e s, lo w -c la s s , d a rk ro o m


E The derivational pattern a + n -* N expresses the generalized meaning: 1) o f
purpose: g re e n h o u s e , d a r k r o o m ; 2) o f certain qualities o f an object:
sw eetm eat, la zyb o n e s, lotv-cla ss.

D og-fighting, garden-party, white-hot. summer-house, south-east,


peace-loving, raincoat, breath-taking, light-green, sea-front, picture­
going, suitcase, blue-black, day-train, sum m er-flowering, dark-purple,
textbook, tea-teaching, season-ticket, awe-inspiring, red-hot, bath-robe.

8. * Choose one o f the compound words from the box to fill in the gaps in
the sentences given below. Give lexical meanings o f these compound words.

t o keyboard, a shareholder, a breakdown, awestruck, t o blackball,


a plantswoman, an argy-bargy, lowbrow, pea-souper, a bodyguard,
a go-getter, a scatterbrain
1. T o d a y's ... forced drivers to slow dow n that caused an enormous
traffic congestion. 2. A ll the data then has to be . . . . 3. You are getting
on my nerves. I w on 't discuss this matter with such a ... as you are. 4. She
m oved to Lon d on after the ... o f her marriage. 5. Fred has been working
as a ... fo r the last fe w years. 6. H e has t o leave the clu b as a ll its
m e m b e rs ... him . 7. H e r aunt is a ... o f a big prosperous company.
8 . 1 can't stand many ... programmes showed on T V every day. 9. She
has a reputation as a real .. . . 10. W e sat in ... silence hearing the truth
at last. 11. W e didn't know how to plant these bushes and asked a ... to
consult us. 12. W e became unintentional witnesses o f a bit ... between
actors and their director.
9 .’ Group the given compound words according to the relations between
the ICs into: I ) co o rd in a te compounds; b> subordinate compounds. Within
the coordinative type o f compound words single out: a ) reduplicative
compounds; b) phonically variated rhythmic twin form s; c ) additive
compounds.

M о d e I: tip -top . snow-white


0 The compound tip -top meaning 'o f the very best class o r quality; excellent'
is a coordinative compound formed by joining the phonically variated
rhythmic twin forms (group b). The compound word snow-white meaning
'very*1white* is a subordinate compound.
W o lf-d o g , d u ty-free, bla h -b lah 1, secretary-stenographer, ticky-
tacky2*, road-building, ch i-ch i’ , wrist-watch, dark-brown, ping-pong.
ha-ha45 , a baby-sitter. Anglo-Saxon. r iff- r a ff, knowledge-hungry (eyes).
w illy -w illy 6*, fighter-bom ber, w eek -lon g, ru g g er-b u g g er, fa ct-fille d
(report), easy-peasy8*. boy-friend, war-weary (peop le), hush-hush'*, iron-
poor (b lo o d ), hob-nob10I, home-sick, oak-tree, hand-made, w illy-n illy",
world-famous.

1b la h -b la h — "used to refer to something which is boring o r without meaningful


content'
* lick y-ta c k y — ‘(especially o f a building or housing development! made o f inferior
material cheap or in poor taste'
I c h i-c h i — 'attempting stylish elegance but achieving only an over-elaborate
affectedness’
* h a -h a — ‘a ditch with a wall on its inner side below- ground level, forming a
boundary- to park or garden without interrupting the view*
5 r i f f - r a f f — ‘disreputable or undesirable people'
* w illy -w illy — ‘a whirlwind or dust storm'
' rugger-bugger — 'a boorish, aggressively masculine young man who is devoted
to sport'
* easy-peasу — (inf) 'very straightforward and easy (used by or as if by children!'
4 h u s h -h u s h — '(especially o f an official plan or project) highly secret or
confidential'
10hob -no b — ‘to mix socially, especially with those o f perceived higher social status'
II w illy -n illy — 'whether one likes it or not*
10. * Distribute the given compound words according to the part o f speech
they represent into five groups: I ) compound nouns; 2) compound adjectives;
3) compound pronouns: 4) compound adverbs; 5) compound verbs. Make a
diachronic division o f the compound verbs into: a) verbs formed by means o f
conversion; b) verbs formed by means o f back-derivation.
M o d e l : h e a rt fre e , to p o stca rd
0 H e a rtfre e is a compound adjective (group 3). To p o s tc a rd is a compound
verb (group 5) formed by means o f conversion from the noun a p o stca rd
(subgroup a).

N a tion -w id e, everyon e, elsew here, sleeping-car. to hon eym oon,


sweet-sm elling, to vaeuumclean, sunbeam, anybody, t o finger-print,
tim e-server, upright, housekeeping, to care-take, som ething, sick-
making. to nickname, maidservant, to sightsee, reddish-brown, outside,
to whitewash, nobody, to type-write, dog-tired, to week-end, downhill,
broadway. to fortune-hunt, everything, to hunger-strike, knee-deep,
indoors, to merry-make.

11. * Classify the given compound words according to the means o f


composition into three groups: I » compounds composed without connecting
elements: 2) compounds composed with the help o f vowels or consonants as
linking elements; 3) compounds composed with the help o f prepositions or
conjunctions as linking elements.
M o d e l : O x fo rd -e d u c a te d , e le c tro -m a g n e tic , u p -a n d -u p
0 O x fo rd -e d u c a te d is a compound composed without connecting elements
(group I ). E le c tro -m a g n e tic is a compound composed with the help o f the
linking vowel о (group 2). U p -a n d -u p is a compound composed with the
help o f the conjunction a n d as a linking element (group 3>.
M ake-and-break, saleswoman, up-to-date, heart-beat, down-and-
ou t. electrom otive, pale-blue, tragicom ic, m atter-of-fact, day-tim e,
handiw ork, u p-an d-com in g, w in d-d riven , m oth er-in -law . o il-rich ,
craftsmanship, spokesman, sit-at-home, play-acting, good-for-nothing,
A nglo-Saxon, blacklist, bridesmaid, on e-to -on e. water-mark, step-by-
step. politico-military-, sunflower, Anglo-C atholic, door-handle, ou t-of-
town.

12. * Group the given compound words in accordance with the type o f their
bases into: 1) compounds proper. 2) derivational compounds. Give derivational
patterns that will help you to distribute the derivational compounds into: a) those
formed by means o f suffixation; b) those formed by means o f conversion.
M o d e l : s k y -b lu e , a s h o w -o f f
0 S k y -b lu e is a compound proper (group 1). A s h o w -o f f is a derivational
compound (group 2). Its derivational pattern is (v +- adv) + conversion
(subgroup b).

Heavy-hearted, low -born, a buyout, a peace-maker, a scatterbrain,


pea-souper, thoroughgoing, to blackball, a businesswoman, an old -

A
timer, a side-track, to keyboard, ill-mannered, awestruck, a baby-sitter,
a low-brow, bluish-black, a go-getter, a looking-glass, a getaway, a type­
w rite r . o n e - e y e d , a m ill- o w n e r , t o b lu e - p e n c il, h o m e -m a d e ,
a sportsman, a teenager, stone-deaf, a castaway, a videodisc.
13. ' State the structural-semantic correlation between the given compound
adjectives and corresponding free phrases following the scheme that consists in
defining: I ) the structural pattern o f a compound adjective; 2) the corresponding
free phrase; 3) the structural type o f the corresponding free phrase; 4) the
semantic relations between a compound adjective and its corresponding free
phrase.
M o d e l : home-made'.
1) n + v№
2) 'made at home'
3 ) Ven+ prp + N
4) semantic relations o f place
Sum mer-flowering, noteworthy, black-haired, blood-red. awestruck,
kin d-hearted, seven-year (p la n ), safety-tested, pitch -black, three-
coloured, sea-going, man-made.
14. * State the structural-semantic correlation between the given compound
nouns and corresponding free phrases following the scheme that consists in
defining: I ) the type o f a compound noun; 2) the structural pattern o f a
compound noun; 3) the corresponding free phrase; 4) the structural type o f the
corresponding free phrase; 5) semantic relations between a compound noun
and its corresponding free phrase.
M o d e l : maidservant:
1) a nominal compound
2) n2 + n,
3) ‘the servant is a maid*
4) N, + is + N :
5) appositional relations
Make-up. door-handle, bottle-opener, getaway, pencil-case, shop-
owner, teach-in, office-m anagem en t, country-club, setback, match-
breaker. football-playing, w indm ill, go-between, woman-doctor.
ETYMOLOGY
OF THE ENGLISH WORD-STOCK

1. Origin o f English Words


II. Words o f N ative Origin
1. 2 . Borrowed Words
2. Assim i’ation o f Borrowings
3. Influence o f Borrowings

1. ORIGIN O F ENGLISH WORDS

According to their origin English words m ay be subdivided into two


main sets. T h e dem ents o f on e are native words, the elements o f the
other are borrowed words.
A native word is a w ord which belongs to the original English word
slock, as known from the earliest available manuscripts o f the O ld
English period. A borrowed word o r a borrowing is a word taken over
fro m another language and m o d ified in p h on em ic shape, spelling,
p a rad igm o r m ea n in g a c c o rd in g to the standards o f the E nglish
language.

1.1. Words of Native Origin


Diachronically native words are subdivided into three main layers.
I. Words of the Indo-European origin. These words have cognates
in the vocabularies o f different Indo-European languages and form the
oldest layer. Words belonging to this layer fall into definite semantic groups
and express the most vital, important and frequently used concepts:
— kinship terms, e .g .fa th e r, m o th e r, s o n . d a u gh ter, b ro th e r,
— w ords nam ing the most im portant objects and phenom ena o f
nature, e.g . sun. m oo n , s ta r, w in d . u>ater, w ood , h id , stone;
— names ol animals and plants, e.g . goose, w olf. cow . tre e , c o m :
— words denoting parts o f the human body. e.g . ea r. to o th , eye.fo o t,
h e a rt, lip ;
— words naming concrete physical properties and qualities (including
some adjectives denoting colour), e.g. hard, q u ick , slow , red . w hite, new;
— numerals from on e to a hundred, e.g . o n e , tw o, tw enty, eighty ;
— pronouns' (personal, demonstrative, interrogative), e.g . I , y o u .
h e, m y , th a t, w ho;
— some o f the most frequent verbs, e.g . b ea r, d o , be, s it, sta n d and
others.
2. Words of Common Germanic origin. T h e C om m on Germanic-
stock includes words having parallels in G erm an. Norwegian, Dutch.
Icelandic. It contains a great number o f semantic groups some o f which
are the same as in the Indo-European group o f native words:
— nouns denoting parts o f the human body. e.g . h ea d , a rm , fin g e r.
— nouns denoting periods o f time, e.g. sum m er, w in ter, tim e , week;
— words naming natural phenomena, e.g . s torm , ra in , f o o d , ice .
grou n d , sea. earth;
— words denoting artefacts and materials, e.g. b rid g e, house, shop,
ro o m . c o a l. iro n , lea d , d o th ;
— words naming different kinds o f garm ent, e.g. h a t, s h irt, shoe;
— words denoting abstract notions, e. g. ca re , e v il. h o p e . life , need;
— names o f animals, birds and plants, e.g. sheep, horse, fo x . crow ,
oa k , grass;
— various notional verbs, e.g . bake, b u m , buy. d riv e , h ea r, keep,
le a rn , m a k e. m eet, ris e , see, send, sh oot;
— adjectives, denoting colours, size and other properties, e.g . broad,
dead, d ea f, d eep, g re y , b lu e ;
— adverbs, e.g. dow n, o u t, before.
3. English words proper. English w ords p ro p er d o n ot have
cognates in other languages. These words are few and stand quite alone
in the vocabulary system o f Indo-European languages, e.g. b ird . boy.
g ir l, lo rd , lady.
N ative words for the most part are characterized by:
1 ) a wide range o f lexical and grammatical valency and high frequency
value (e.g. the verb w atch (from O E w u cca n ) can be used in different
sentence patterns, with o r without object and adverbial m odifiers and
can be com bined w ith different classes o f words: D o y o u m in d i f l
watch'? H a rrie t w atch ed h im w ith interest. S h e 's a stud ent a n d has
to w a tch h e r b u d ge t clo s e ly . A m e ric a n com p a n ie s a re w a tch in g
Japanese developm ents closely . /f e e l lik e Г m b ein g w a tch ed .);
2 ) a developed polysem y (e .g . the noun w atch has the follow in g
meanings: *a small clock to be w orn, esp. on the wrist, o r carried’ : ‘ the
act o f w atching’ ; ‘ a person o r p eople ordered t o watch a place or a
person’ : ‘ a fixed period o f duty on a ship, usually lasting four hours’ : ‘ a
film o r programm e considered in terms o f its appeal to the public': etc.);
3 ) a grea t w o rd -b u ild in g p o w e r (e . g . w a tch is the ce n ter o f a
numerous w ord-fam ily: w a tch -d o g . w atch er, w atch ful, w atchfulness,
w a tch -o u t. w atchw ord, w atch able. w a tc h fre , etc.);

' Except lhe personal pronoun they which is a Scandinavian borrowing.


4) ihe capacity o f form ing phraseological units (e .g . w atch enters the
structure and forms the semantics o f the follow ing phraseological units:
to b e o n th e w atch, to keep w atch. to w atch o n e 's b a ck , to w atch
o n e 's step).

1.2. Borrowed Words

Borrowings enter the language in tw o ways: through oral speech


(by immediate contact between p eop le) and through written speech
(through books, newspapers, etc.). Oral borrowings took place in the
early periods o f history, whereas in recent lim es written borrowings have
gained importance. Words borrowed orally arc usually short and they
u ndergo considerable changes during the act o f adop tion . Written
borrowings preserve their spelling and som e peculiarities o f their sound
form , their assimilation is a long process.
Borrowings may be direct or indirect, i.e . through another language.
Such languages-intermediaries were, for exam ple. Latin through which
many G reek words cam e into the English language and French by meaas
o f which many Latin words w ere borrowed.
Thus, distinction should be m ade between the term ‘source of
borrowing' and the term 'origin of borrowing’. T h e First should be
applied to the language fro m which the loan w o rd w as taken in to
English. T h e second refers to the language to which the w ord m ay be
traced. For exam ple, the w ord p a p e r < F r p a p ie r Lat p a p y ru s <
G r papyros has French as its source o f borrowing and G reek as its origin.
T h e fact that different languages served as sources o f borrowing at
d iffe re n t p erio d s o f the d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e E nglish langu age is
accounted for by purely historical causes and facts am ong which the
most important and the most influential are: the Roman invasion, the
introduction o f Christianity, the Danish and N orm an conquests, and,
in m odem times, direct linguistic contacts and political, econom ical and
cultural relationships with other nations. So English during its historical
developm ent borrowed words from:
1) Celtic: 5,h - 6,h c. A .D .;
2 ) Latin
Iя group: Iй с. B .C .
2nd group: 7’h c . A . D.
group: the Renaissance period (1 4 * — 16,h c .);
3) Scandinavian: 8,h — l l ,h c. A .D .;
4 ) French:
Norm an borrowings: 11th — 13th c. A . D.;
Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period:
5 ) Greek: the Renaissance period;
6 ) Italian: the Renaissance period and later;
7 ) Spanish: the Renaissance period and later;
8 ) Russian: the Renaissance period and later.
9 ) G erm an. Indian and other languages.
Alongside borrowings proper1, translation and semantic borrowings
can be d istin gu ish ed . Translation borrowings arc w o rd s and
expressions form ed from the material already existing in the English
language but according to patterns taken from another language, by way
o f literal m orphem e-for-m orphem c translation, e.g . w a i! n ew sp a p er::
Russian ст енная га зет а . Semantic borrowing is understood as the
developm ent in an English word o f a new meaning under the influence
o f a related w ord in another language. For exam ple, the English word
p io n e e r meant ‘explorer and ‘ on e w ho is am ong the first in new fields
o f activity*. U nder the influence o f the Russian word пи онер it has com e
to mean ‘a m em ber o f the Young Pioneers' Organization'.
Borrowing plays a very im portant role in the developm ent o f the
English language. D u e to this process the English w ord-stock was
replenished b y international wonts, i.e. words o f identical origin that
occu r in several languages as a result o f sim ultaneous o r successive
b o rrow in g fro m o n e ultim ate source, e .g . a n te n n a , m u s ic, ra d io .
In tern a tio n a l w ords are o fte n c o n fu se d w ith o th e r w o rd s which
ultimately com e from the same source but have diverged in meaning.
Such words are called 'false friends' o r false cognates, e.g . a ccu ra te
and аккурат ны й, conserves and консервы .

2 . ASSIM ILATION OF BORROW INGS

T h e term ‘assimilation of borrowings* is used to denote a partial


or total conform ation to the phonetical. graphical and m orphological
standards o f the English language and its semantic system.
According to the degree o f assimilation all borrowed words can be
divided into three groups:
1) com pletely assimilated borrowings:
2) partially assimilated borrowings:
3) unassimilated borrowings o r barbarisms.
I. Completely assimilated borrowed words follow all m orpholo­
gical. phonetical and orthographic standards. Th ey take an active part
in w ord-form ation . T h e m orph ological structure and m otivation o f
com pletely assimilated borrowings remain usually transparent, so that
they are m orphologically analyzable and therefore supply the English
vocabulary’ not only with free forms but also with bound forms, as affixes
are easily perceived and separated in series o f borrow ed w ords that
contain them (e.g. the French suffixes -a g e , -a n c e and -m e n t).

‘ Borrowings proper arc words taken over from another language and modified
in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards o f the
English language.
C om pletely assimilated words arc found in all the layers o f older
borrowings, e.g . cheese (th e w ord o f the first layer o f Latin borrowings),
husband <Scand)./a«* (F r ), a n im a l (the Latin w ord borrowed during
the revival o f learning).
It is important to m ention that a loan w ord never brings in to the
r e c e iv in g la n gu a ge th e w h o le o f its se m a n tic stru c tu re i f it is
polysemantic in the original language. A n d even the borrowed variants
may change and becom e specialized in the new system. For example,
th e w ord s p o rt had a m uch w id e r scop e in O ld Fren ch den otin g
pleasures, making m erry and entertainments in general. Being borrowed
into M id dle English in this character it gradually acquired the meaning
o f ou td oor games and exercise.
2. Partially assimilated borrowed words m ay be subdivided
depending on the aspect that remains unaltered into:
a) borrowings not com pletely assimilated graphically. These are. tor
instance, words borrowed from French in which the final consonant is
not pronounced: b a lle t. b u ffet. Som e may keep a diacritic mark: ca fe
c lic h l Specifically French digraphs {c h . q u . o u . etc.) m ay be retained
in spelling: b ou qu et, b rio ch e ;
b ) borrowings not com pletely assimilated phonetically. For example,
som e o f French b o rrow in gs keep the a ccen t on the fin al syllable:
m a ch in e , ca rto o n , p o lice . Others, alongside the peculiarities in stress,
contain sounds o r combinations o f sounds that are not standard for the
English language and d o not occu r in the native w ords, e.g . |з! —
b ou rgeois. p restige, regim e,
c ) borrowings not assimilated grammatically. F o r exam ple, nouns
borrow ed from Latin o r G reek have kept their original plural forms:
cris is :: crises, p h en om en on :: p h en om en a . Som e o f these also have
English plural forms, but in that case there m ay be a difference in lexical
m eaning, as in in d ices Can alphabetical list o f names, subjects, etc. at
the back o f a book, with the numbers o f the pages where they can be
found ) :: indexes (*a standard by which the level o f something can be
judged o r measured'); ,
d ) borrowings not assimilated semantically because they denote objects
and notions peculiar to the country from which they com e. T h e y may
denote foreign clothing (e. g. sari, som brero); foreign titles and professions
(e.g . sh a h , ra ja h , torea d or); foreign vehicles (e .g . rickshaw (C hinese));
foreign food and drinks (e .g . p ila u (Persian), sherbet (A rabian)); etc
3. Cnassimilated borrowings or barbarisms'. This group includes
words from other languages used by English people in conversation o r in
writing but not assimilated in any way, and for which there are correspond­
ing English equivalents, e.g. the Italian a d d io. c ia o — good-bye*.1

1The third group is not universally accepted, as it may be argued that words not
changed at all cannot form a part o f the English vocabulary as they occur in speech
only, but do not enter the language.
T h e changes a borrowed w ord has had to undergo depending on ihc
dale o f ils penetration are the main cause fo r the existence o f the so-
called etymological doublets. Etym ological doublets are tw o o r more
words originating from the same etym ological source, but differing in
phonetic shape and meaning. F o r exam ple, the words w hole (originally
meant healthy’ , ‘ free from disease ) and h a le both com e from O E h a t:
on e by the normal development o f O E a into o. the other from a northern
dialect in which this m odification did not take place. O nly the latter has
survived in its original meaning.

3. INFLUENCE OF BORROWINGS

T h e role o f borrowings was so great that they exerted much influence


on the developm ent o f English and brought about different changes or
innovations practically on all the levels o f the language system. Borrowed
words have influenced: I ) the phonetic structure o f English words and
the sound system: 2 ) the w ord-structure and the system o f w ord-
building: 3 ) the semantic structure o f English w ords: 4 ) the lexical
territorial divergence.
1. The influence of borrowings on the phonetic structure of
English words and the sound system resulted in:
1) the appearance o f a number o f words o f new phonetic structure
with strange sounds o r fam iliar sounds in unusual positions, e.g . w a ltz.
p s y ch o lo g y , s o u fflk T h e initial |ps|. |pnj. |pt| are used in English
alongside the forms without the initial sound |p|;
2 ) the appearance o f a new diphthong |d i | which cam e into English
together with such French words as p o in t, jo in t , poise'.
3) the reappearance o f the initial |sk] m ostly due to Scandinavian
borrowings:
4 ) the developm ent o f the O ld English variant phonemes |fl and |v|
into different phonemes: |v| came to be used initially {v a in , v a lle y ) and
(П in the intcrvocal position (e ffe ct, a ffa ir);
5 ) the appearance o f the affricate |(fc| at the beginning o f w ords', e g .
ju n g le , jo u rn e y , gesture.
2. The influence of borrowings on the word-structure and the
system of word-building resulted in:
1) the appearance o f a number o f new structural types in which some
highly-productive borrow ed affixes (e .g . r e - , in te r -, -e r , -is m ) can
combine with native and borrowed bases. Other borrowed affixes, not
so productive (e .g . с о - , d e -, -a n t. - i c ), com bine only with Latinate
bases, i.e . bases o f L atin . G reek o r French origin , e.g . in fo rm -a n t

In the Middle English period the affricate |<fe| was found at the end or in the
middle o f words, e.g. bridge - OE briej. singe - OE sene jean.
(in fo r m - < O ld French < Latin ), d e fe n d -a n t (d e fe n d - < O ld French <
Latin);
2 ) the ousting o f native affixes b y borrowed ones. e.g . the prefix p re -
has replaced the native p refix f o r e - w hich was highly-productive in
M id dle and Early N e w English;
3 ) the appearance o f a great number o f w ords with bound m or­
phemes. e.g. to le ra te , to le ra b le , to le ra n ce , to le ra tio n ;
4 ) the change o f the very nature o f word-clusters which now unite
not only words o f the root-m orphem es, but o f different synonymous
root-m orphem es, e.g . sprin g — v e rn a l: sea — m a ritim e .
3. The influence of borrowings on the semantic structure of
English words resulted in:
1 ) the differentiation o f borrowed w ords and synonym ous native
words in meaning and use. cf.: fe e d (native) — n ou rish ( L ) ;
2) the narrowing o f meaning o f native words due to the differentiation
o f synonyms. For instance, the word s to o l o f native origin in O ld English
denoted any article o f furniture designed fo r sitting o n '. U nder the
influence o f the French borrowing c h a ir the word s to o l cam e to be used
as the name for o n ly on e kind o f furniture, i.e. *a seat that has three or
four legs, but n o back o r arms';
3 ) the extension o f meaning o f native English words or the acquisition
o f additional o r new meanings, e.g. the political meanings o f sh ock and
d e via tio n have com e from the Russian уда р н ы й and уклон.
4. The influence of borrowings on the lexical territorial
divergence resulted in:
1) the intensification o f the difference between the word-stock o f the
literary national language and dialects ow in g to the borrow ing o f words
into the literary national language which are not found in the dialects,
and vice versa;
2) the enlargement o f the word-stock o f different dialects and national
variants o f English in the U K . For example. Irish English has the following
w ords o f C eltic o rig in : s h a m ro ck — т р и л и ст н и к , d u n — хол м ,
colleen — девуш ка, etc. In the Northern and Eastern dialects there are
many Scandinavian borrowings, e.g. busk — ‘get ready': т ип — ‘ mouth*;
3 ) the acquisition by literary national words o f a status o f dialectal
words, e.g . h e a l — скры ват ь, п окры ват ь (O E h e la n ).

Q U E S T IO N S A N D T A S K S

I. QUESTIONS

1. What sets o f English words can be singled out according to their


origin?
2. What w ord is called ‘ native'?
3. What does the term *a borrowed word/а borrowing' mean?
4. What is the diachronic division o f native words?
5. W hal semantic groups arc words belonging to the Indo-European
stock divided into?
6. What words does the C om m on Germ anic stock include?
7. What semantic groups does the C om m on Germ anic stock contain?
8. What words refer to the English words proper?
9. What are native words characterized by?
10. What are the ways o f borrowing?
11. What d o the terms ‘direct borrowings' and ‘ indirect borrowings'
denote?
12. What is meant by the term ‘ source o f borrowing'?
13. What is meant by the term origin o f borrowing'?
14. W hat historical facts and events stipulated the great influx o f
borrowings from different languages?
15. W hat languages did the English language borrow words from?
16. What borrowings are called translation borrowings?
17. What is meant by ‘ semantic borrowing'?
18. What words are called international?
19. What does the term ‘ assimilation o f borrowings' denote?
20. What degrees o f assimilation can be singled out?
21.1 n what cases can borrowed words be considered completely assimilated?
What are the peculiarities o f completely assimilated borrowed words?
22. W hat borrowings are regarded as partially assimilated?
23. W hat is the principle o f the classification o f partially assimilated
borrowed words?
24. What words are called unassiniilated words or barbarisms?
25. What does the term ‘ etym ological doublets' imply?
26. What levels o f the language system were influenced by borrowings?
27. What did the influence o f borrowings on the phonetic structure
o f English words and the sound system result in?
28. What did the influence o f borrowings on the word-structure and
the system o f word-building result in?
29. In what way did borrowings influence the semantic structure o f
English words?
30. In w hat w ay d id borrow in gs influ ence the lexical territorial
divergence?

II. T A S K S

I .* Subdivide the following words o f native origin into: I ) words o f Indo-


European origin; 2) words o f Common Germanic origin; 3) English words
proper. In case o f difficulty consult the C o n cise O x fo rd D ic t io n a r y o f E n g lis h
E tym o lo g y -.

M о d с I: te ll, sh eriff, w h a t
0 The native English word te ll is o f Common Germanic origin (group 2). The
native English word sAcrr#" belongs to the English words proper (group 3).
The native English word w h a t is o f Indo-European origin (group I ).
Woman, blast ( ‘gust o f wind o r a ir'), sister, glove, lady, tooth, always,

Г
slow, green, know, daisy, sand. long, grass, flood , boy, seven, high. cat.
sheriff, widow, answer, life. lip. call, swine, small, bird, co m . silver, ten.
day. lord, ship, w e. bench, sun. girl.
2. Analyze the original meanings o f the given native words o f the English
language. State: a) the lexical and grammatical valency o f these words; b) the
semantic development o f these words.
M o d e l : fo o l (n ) < O E Jot — *pan o f the leg beyond the ankle*
0 a) the lexical as well as grammatical valency o f the wordfo o t (feet pi.) is very
high. The word can be used in different sentence patterns in various
meanings, e.g.: H e stepped on a n a il, and his fo o t is very sore. M ary slid
her feet into her sandals. She paused a t the fo o t o f the stairs. There teas
an error message a t thefo o t o f the page. A young o ffice r a t the foot o f the
table objected to the plan:
b) the word fo o t {feet pi.) has extended its semantic structure by acquiring
new meanings and is now a polysemantic word: ‘ the part o f a sock or stocking
that covers the foot', ‘ particular manner o f walking: step'. *thc bottom part
or lower end', ‘a device on a sewing machine for holding the material steads
as it is sewn’ , “a unit ofleancr measure equal to 12 inches', 'a division o f a
line in poetry, in which there is usually a strong beat and one or two weaker
ones*.
1)fa th e r ( n ) < O E f x d e r ‘ a male parent o f a child o r anim al’ ; 2) sin g
(v ) < O E singan ‘ utter with musical inflexions o f the voice*; 3 ) lo r d (n )
< O E h la fo rd ‘ bread-keeper*: 4 ) h ig h (a d j) < O E hea h ’ o f great vertical
extent’ ; 5) m ake (v ) < O E m a cia n ‘ bring into existence, subject to an
operation'; 6 ) book (n ) < O E h o c "beech* (on which runes were carved);
7) s illy (a d j) < O E sx/ 1'3 ’deserving o f pity or sympathy*: 8) sta n d ( v ) <
O E sta n d a n ‘ assume or maintain an erect position on the feet: be
upright'; 9 ) o ld (a d j) < O E e a ld (a id ) grown-up. adult’ ; 10) h ea d (n )
< O E h ea fod anterior (in man. upper) part o f the body, containing the
m outh, sense organs, and brain*.
3.* Give derivatives o f the following words o f native origin. In case o f
difficulty consult a dictionary.
M o d e l : heat
0 The word heat has the following derivatives: to heat, hea ler, heated,
heatedly, heating, heatstroke, heatproof heat-lightning.
Lord, hat. red, grass, to feed, quick, stone, to feel, heavy, to look.
4.* Write out phraseological units formed with the help o f the italicized
words which are o f native origin. Slate w hat these phraseological units denote.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
M o d e l : I am completely at one with Michael on this issue.
0 The phraseological unit a t one with smh. denotes ’ in agreement or harmony*.
Я полностью согласен с Майклом в jtom вопросе.
1. I 'm sure I can finish the article — I just need t o g et m y hea d
dow n this afternoon. 2. I’ m afraid Lisa's fam ily d o not sta n d a chance.
I doubt i f their advisers w ill let them take it to court. 3. You know Jack.
H e ca n 't help chatting up any pretty girl he meets. It doesn 't mean
a thing, but i f you d o n ’ t like it w hy not show him it's a g a m e that
tw o can play. 4. T h e s m a ll fr y are soon goin g t o b e pushed out o f
business by all these m ultinationals. 5. T h e organ ization that looked
so so lid and dep en d a b le turned ou t to be a h o u s e o f cards. 6. It
really knocked m e fo r s ix w hen m y ex -b oyfrien d announced he was
gettin g m arried. 7. M a lco lm , w h o is a quiet but determ in ed young
rider, has now m a d e his mark on the international show ju m ping
front. 8. 1 swept the flo o r and polish ed the table, and then, fo r g o o d
measure. 1 cleaned the windows. 9. H e was very much the blue-eyed
hoy in the o ffic e . 10. She criticized m em bers o f the co m m ittee for
s ittin g on the fence and failing to make a useful contribution to the
debate. II. T h e legal d ifferen ce betw een negligence and recklessness
is a bit o f a g re y area. 12. I f the insurance com pan y w on 't pay for
the dam age. I 'l l be up a tre e .

5. " State whether the given words were borrowed into the English language
directly or indirectly, i. e. through another language. Define the source and origin
o f the given borrowed words.

M o d e I: sphinx < M E < L < G r Sphlgx

0 The word sphinx was borrowed into the English language indirectly, i.e.
through another language. The source o f borrowing is Latin, whereas the
origin o f borrow ing is Greek.

I ) obelisk < L obeliscus < C.r obelfskos: 2) please ( v ) < M E plaise.


plese < O F plaisir < L placere; 3) easy < M E < O F aisi6; 4 ) ch a ra cte r
< M E caracter < O F caractdrc < L character < G r kharakter: 5 ) p o o r <
M E povere. pore < O F p o vre < L pauper; 6 ) a verse < L aversus:
1 ) c lim a te < ( O ) F clim a t o r L c llm a . c llm a t < G r klfm a. klim at;
8 ) m a n ia < M E < L mania < G r mania; 9 ) h u rrica n e < Sp huracan;
10) risk < F risque < It risco; I I ) fa te < It fato < L fatum; 12) d am e <
( O ) F dam ner < I. damnare; 13) obese < L obesus: 14) te n d e r < O F
tender < L tener: I5)£rros/s < G r gnosis; 16) a la rm < M E < O F alarme
< It allarme.

6. * Write down in the space provided a letter, which indicates the language
from which the given words were borrowed. In case o f difficulty consult the
Concise O xford D ictionary o f English Etymology'.
a — Celtic c — Scandinavian e — Greek g — Spanish i - German
b — Latin d — French f — Russian b — Italian

M o d e l : m uzh ik... f
to b a coo ... g
s t r o ll... i
c u p ... criterion ... w a ll...
to cast ... armada ... eponym ...
anemia ... Exe ... Kilbride ...
sa m o va r... cosmonaut ... guerilla ...
A von ... a n g e r... p o od le ...
kindergarten ... m o t to ... lieu ten an t...
banana ... p o w e r... tornado ...
law ... candle ... the Downs ..
government ... mosquito ... kvass...
violin ... waltz ... b a n d it...
halt ... hormone ... in te rio r...
fellow ... plant ... restaurant ...
Lon d on ... v e rs t... tundra ...
promenade ... to tak e... gondola ...
umbrella ... n ic k e l... anamnesis ...

7. * Identify the period o f borrowing o f the French. Greek. Russian and


German words given in task 6.
M o d e l : m uzhik, stroll
0 The word muzhik was borrowed from Russian in the 17я’ century. The word
s tro ll was borrowed from German in the 17* century.

8. " Match the translation borrowings on the left with the original phrases/
words on the right. State the origin o f the latter.
M o d e l : 11 — h (L a tin )
1. the moment o f truth a ) infra dignitatem
2. word-combination b ) Wunderkind
3. below o n e 's dignity c ) попутчик
4. first dancer d ) el m om ento d e la verdad
5. that goes without saying e ) circulus vitiosus
6. fellow-traveller 0 колхоз
7. wonder child g ) словосочетание
8. vicious circle h) sub ju d ic e
9. famous case i) cel a va sans dire
10. collective farm j ) cause celebre
11. u n d e r con sid era tion k) prima-ballerina

9." Write out international words from the given sentences.


M o d e l : This music is by Beethoven.
0 The word music is an international word.

1. H e gave a false address to the police. 2. I'v e seen many g o o d films


lately. 3. D o you take sugar in y ou r co ffee? 4. D o you play tennis?
5. Arrange the words in alphabetical order. 6. Charlotte Bronte wrote
under the pseudonym o f Currer Bell. 7. H e worked in radio fo r nearly
40 years. 8. Many people feel that their interests are not represented by
mainstream politics. 9. W e ’ve visited the open-air theatre in London's
Regents Park. 10. I ’ m w orried about m y son ’ s lack o f progress in
English. II. T h e go ve m m e n l has prom ised to introduce reform s o f
the tax system . 12. H e went on to stu dy m e d ic in e at Edinburgh
U niversity.
10. * Give the false cognates ( ‘ false friends') in the Russian language to the
given English words. State the difference in their meanings.
M o d e l : argument
0 The false cognate o f the word argument is the Russian word аргумент.
The word argument means ‘ an angry disagreement between people*, whereas
the word аргумент has the meaning ‘ reasoning’
Paragraph, baton, order, to reclaim, delicate, intelligent, revision,
artist, sympathetic, capital, fabric, ambitious, concourse, romance, to
pretend, command.
11. * State the etymology o f the given words. Write them out in three columns:
a) completely assimilated borrowings: b) panially assimilated borrowings;
c) unassimilated borrowings or barbarisms.
Torchere, wall, maharani, й la m ode, datum , perestroika, gate, tet-
й-tet. want, chalet, ad h oc. sheikh, parlando. nucleus, parquet, matter,
bagel, a la carte, kettle, chauffeur, form u la, pari-m utuel, shaman,
finish, corps, alcazar, com m edia d e lfa rte . money, souvenir, bacillus,
pas de deux. ill. spahi. stratum, nota bene, spaghetti, menage a trios,
od d. m em oir, parenthesis, hibakusha. padrona. incognito, thesis, coup
de maitre, tzatziki. sabotage, ad libitum, stimulus. Soyuz, alameda.
street, b o u le va rd , c r ite r io n , d eja vu . to re ro , y in . U b erm en sch ,
m acaroni, tzigane. sensu lato. hypothesis, bagh. pousada, shiatsu.
shapka.
12. * Study changes in the semantic structure o f the completely assimilated
words given in task 11.
M o d e I: anim al ‘ a mammal, as opposed to a bird, reptile, fish, o r insect’
< Latin animalis 'having breath'
13. * Transcribe the following borrowings not completely assimilated
graphically and/or phonetically. Pay special attention to their spelling and
pronunciation.
Torchere, chalet, parquet, chauffeur, corps, souvenir, spaghetti,
memoir, incognito, sabotage, boulevard, macaroni.
14. * Give the plural form o f the nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek
M o d e l : sanatorium sanatoria', terminus — term ini
Datum , nucleus, form ula, bacillus, stratum, parenthesis, thesis,
stimulus, criterion, hypothesis.
15. * Give meanings o f ihc following borrowed words noi assimilated
semantically. State the source o f borrow ing o f these words.
M o d e l : tsuba

3 The meaning o f the borrowing rsuba is *a Japanese sword guard, typically


elaborately decorated and made o f iron or leather*. The source o f borrowing
is the Japanese language.

M ah aran i, perestroika, sheikh, bagel, sham an, alcazar, spahi.


hibakusha. tzatziki. Soyuz. torero, yin. tzigane, bagh. shiatsu. shapka.
16. * Translate or give the English equivalents to the unassimilated words/
word-combinations (or barbarisms) given in task 11. State the origin o f these
words. Consult the Concise O xford D ictionary o f English Etymology*.
M o d e I: affiehe

0 The English equivalent to the borrow ing affiehe is placard. The origin o f
affiehe is the Italian language.

17. * In the given sentences find etymological doublets. State their origin.
M o d e l : 1 spent the afternoon reading under the shade o f an umbrella.
The trees cast long, scary shadows in the evening light.

0 The etymological doublets are the words shade and shadow. They are of
Germanic origin; related to Dutch schaduwand German Schatten (nouns),
from an Indo-European root shared by Greek skotos ‘ darkness*.

1. W e tried lo calm her. but she just screeched more loudly. 2. The
audience shrieked with laughter. 3. H e always stays in the best hotels.
4. H e spent a week in hospital with food poisoning. 5. For birth rates
in the 1990s. see the chan on page 247. 6. She sent m e a lovely card on
my binhday. 7. The Editor reserves the right lo abridge readers* letters.
8. T h is book is an abbreviated version o f the earlier work. 9. T h is is
advice for those w ho wish to save great sorrow and travail. 10. I have a
jo b w hich involves quite a lot o f travel. II. A nne stayed close enough to
catch the child i f he fell. 12. The band have often been chased dowm the
street by enthusiastic fans. 13. I didn't know that his grandfather was a
chieftain o f the clan. 14. She was captain o f the Olym pic swimming team.
18. * Write out from (he given extract words borrowed from: 1) Latin; 2) Old
French/French: 3) Old Norse/Scandinavian: 4) Spanish or Italian. Comment
on the peculiarities o f their phonetic structure and word-structure. Speak on
the influence o f borrowings from the languages in question on the sound system
and the system o f word-building o f the English language.

In 1922 w hen A n so n w en t ab roa d w ith th e ju n io r p a rtn er to


investigate some London loans, the journey intimated that he was to be
taken into the firm. H e was twenty-seven now. a little heavy without
being defin itely stout, and with a manner old er than his years. Old
people and young people liked him and trusted him. and mothers fell
safe when their daughters were in his charge, fo r he had a way, w hen he
cam e into a room , o f putting him self on a footin g with the oldest and
most conservative people there. " Y o u and I ," he seemed to say, “ w e're
solid. W e understand."
H e had an in stin ctive and rather ch aritab le k n ow led ge o f the
weaknesses o f men and women, and. like a priest, it made him the more
concerned for the maintenance o f outward forms. It was typical o f him
that every Sunday morning he taught in a fashionable Episcopal Sunday-
school — even though a cold shower and a quick change into a cutaway
coat were all that separated him from the w ild night before.
(from 7he R ich Boy. Ch. V by F. S. Fitzgerald)
19.* State the source ofborrowing o f affixes and bases ofthe following words.
M o d e l : copilot
0 Hie prefix с о - is Latin; the base -p ilo t is French.
Endanger, citizenship, com putaholic. pan-Am erican, leatherette,
vice-chair, slavery, superman, disobey, payable, foreleg, politeness,
befriend, outclass, childish.
20.* Arrange the words from the columns so that they form double o r triple
synonymous series. State the difference in meaning and in use between words
in each synonymous scries.
M o d e l : to wish — to desire
0 The word to desire is a French borrowing. The difference in meaning of
these two verbs is the following: to wish — *to want something to happen
although it is unlikely'; to desire — *to want something'. These verbs are
used differently as to desire is a more formal word.
Native English French Latin
words borrowings borrowings
1. guts 1. flame 1. lassitude
2. ask 2. sacred 2. felicity
3. fire 3. courage 3. ascend
4. house 4. attire 4. conflagration
5. kingly 5. mount 5. consecrated
6. weariness 6. mansion 6. interrogate
7. rise 7. question 7. regal
8. happiness 8. royal
9. holy
10. clothes
21.* Give adjectives o f Latin origin corresponding to the following nouns.
M o d e l : hand — manual
T o oth , sun. cat. youth, death, son. eye. uncle, dog. star. sea. nose,
town, sight.
11.* Match the words given in the left column with their synonyms in the
right column. State the difference between them.
M o d e l : 15 — d
0 The wordfeminine is a Latin borrowing, while the word womanly is o f native
origin.
1. matutinal a. hom ely
2. filial b. bodily
3. paternal c. fatherly
4. nebulous d. w om anly
5. benevolent e. early
6. infantile f. brotherly
7. annual g. daughterly
8. maternal h. friendly
9. corporeal i. earthly
10. celestial j. yearly
11. terrestrial k. heavenly
12. nocturnal I. childish
13. fraternal m. elder
14. domestic n. cloudy
15. fe m in in e o. motherly
16. senior p. nightly
17. mortal q. deathly
23.“ State the meaning o f the following Scottish wo
different languages. Consult the New O xford D ictionary o f English.
M o d e I: loch (from Gaelic)
0 The Scots word loch means a lake’

I) g le n (fro m G a e lic ); 2 ) to fa s h (fro m French): 3) in g le (from


G a elic); 4 ) k irk (from O ld N o rse ); 5 ) d o m in ie (fro m L atin ); 6 ) p ib roch
(fro m G a elic); 7) b ra e (fro m O ld N orse); 8) dram (fro m O ld French
or L atin ); 9 ) d re ich (from O ld N o rse ); 10) b on n y (from O ld French).

2 4 .* Read the passage describing some important historical facts o f


Yorkshire1that influenced the development o f the Yorkshire dialect in the UK.
Speak on the influence o f borrowings on the lexical territorial divergence. In
the table given below' the passage match Yorkshire dialectal words with: I ) Old
Norse words from which they originated; b) their meanings.
M o d e l : nang

0 The Old Norse word from which the Yorkshire word nang originated is angr.
The word nang means ‘troublesome, painful, irritating'.

Yorkshire —a former county of northern England, traditionally divided into East.


West, and North Ridings. Since 19% the northern part of the area has formed the
county o f North Yorkshire, while the rest of the Yorkshire area consists o f unitary
councils.
...The influence o f Viking language on the regional speech varieties
o f northern and eastern England is w ell documented. It is not surprising,
therefore, that numerous 'Viking’ lexical items are to be found in the
traditional dialects o f places such as, for instance, Yorkshire.
York has for many centuries been an important place in the history
and geography o f England. Romans, Angles, Vikings and Normans all
used York as a capital for governing and keeping military control over
a large part o f northern England. It also was an important religious
centre.
Eoforwic’ fell to Scandinavian invaders in A D 866. The veterans of
the Viking Great A rm y settled, “ ...proceeded to plough and support
themselves", and mixed with the local population through marriage. The
Vikings, like the Romans and A n gles before them, appreciated the
importance o f Jorvic's location for control o f the region. It became the
capital o f a Viking kingdom within the Danelaw*, a kingdom which
more o r less extended over what became known as Yorkshire (M a p I ).
The Vikings spoke O ld N orse which, like O ld English spoken b y the
Anglo-Saxons, had a Germanic origin. A fe w hundred years before the
Viking A ge, the tw o languages must have been very similar, probably
dialects o f the same language. By the Viking A g e they had developed
into tw o distinct languages, though still similar in many ways.
In the Danelaw, w here the Vikings settled and started to merge with
the English, there had to quickly d evelop a form o f language which
e v e r y o n e c o u ld sp ea k and u nderstan d , so that p e o p le c o u ld
communicate with each other easily in matters o f work, the home, trade
and administration. If, for instance, an O ld N orse speaker wished to
discuss the sale o f a horse with an O ld English speaker, they would 1

1 Eboracum — Eoforwic — Jorvic — York. To the Romans i! was Eboracum.


И is said that this name comes from the Celtic personal name. Eburos. For almost four
hundred years the Romans kept a strong military presence in Eboracum. to held control
over the Celtic British tribes and to provide reinforcements for Hadrian's Wall to the
north. The Romans built the first stone walls around Eboracum. so it could be
defended.
When the area was invaded and settled by the Angles, from the 5th century onwards,
it is said that they mistook “ cbor" for “eofor", which in Old English meant “ wild boar” .
To this they added the Old English “ wic", giving the name Eoforwic. Eoforwic became
the capital of the Anglian kings o f Northumbria and. when the Anglo-Saxons were
eventually converted to Christianity, it also became a center for the new religion.
The city fell to Scandinavian invaders in AD 866. The first part of the name was
simplified to “jor", perhaps a result of the Old English and Scandinavian languages
being combined. The Old English “ wic** became the Scandinavian “ vik“ and the
settlement's new name. Jorvik. emerged.
J Five settlements became particularly important after the establishment of The
Danelaw when they became fortified “ boroughs" to help defend against English
reconqucst. These were Lincoln. Nottingham. Stamford. Leicester and (the only one
renamed by the Vikings) Derby. These have become known collectivcly as ‘The Five
Boroughs' of the Danelaw.
1ю|Ь understand that a horse sale w as involved because the languages
wece simdar enough tor this. But because O ld Norse and O ld English
had different rules of grammar, it could lead to confusion between it
being on e horse, or more than on e horse, that was for sale.
Vikings affected the language spoken throughout England, but in the
D anelaw the effect was much m ore pow erful, goin g beyond 'lo a n ­
words to the creation o f n ew Anglo-Norse dialects which were, in manv
w ays, m ore Scandinavian than English. T h e tradition al' dialects
am ongst others, o f Yorkshire. Lancashire, T h e Lake District and
Lincolnshire emerged from this process.
In Yorkshire, the Viking rulers divided the county into three separate
units tor ease o f administration. The O ld N orse w ord for 'a third of
something Uhnthiungr) becam e m odified to 'riding', giving rise to the
East R id in g, N orth R id in g and W e s t R id in g o f Yorkshire. These
administrative Ridings existed right from the Viking age until 1974, when
rhev w ere dismantled by the UK Boundary Commission. Since 1974
Yorkshire p e o p le con sciou s o f their heritage has pressed fo r the
restoration or the ancient Viking Ridings. At the sub-shire county level
the Viking administrative unit was the ' v a p n a ta k which is expressed
as wapentake today. The term suggested the freemen vote by a show
of weapons, which were then counted at the periodic meetings of the
wapentake (a kind of local parliament and court). T h e wapentakes still
exist today for certain administrative purposes and they can be found
marked on local maps.
Yorkshire
Old Norse
dialectal Generally accepted meaning
source word
words

1. barf bekkr way, street

2. yawd a n gr basket for holding grain: metal bucket for coal

3. gate kista hill, especially one which is long and low

4. scuttle gata marshy woodland o r shrubland

5. mense tjam horse o f inferior breed

6. beck jalda lake o r pond (especially in an upland location)

7. carr bjard a stream, a brook

8. nang skutill decency; neatness, tidiness

9. tarn mennska large box. chest or trunk

10. kist kjarr troublesom e, p a in fu l, irrita tin g


WORD-GROUPS
AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Chapter 1

1. Lexical and Grammatical Valency


2. Structure and Classification o f W ord-G roups
3. Types o f M eaning o f W ord-G roups
4. M otivation in W ord-Groups

1. LEXICAL AND GRAM M ATICAL VALENCY

T h e aptness o f a w ord to appear in various combinations is described


as its le x ic a l va len cy o r co llo c a b ility . T h e noun jo b , fo r exam ple, is
often combined with such adjectives as b a ck b rea k in g, d iffic u lt, h a rd :
fu ll-tim e , p a n -tim e , sum m er, cushy, easy; d em a nd in g: m e n ia l, etc.
T h e noun m yth m ay be a com ponent o f a number o f word-groups, c.g.
to cre a te a m yth , to d is p e l a m y th , to e xp lod e a m y th , m yths a n d
legen d s, etc. Lexical valency acquires special im portance in case o f
p o lysem y as through th e lex ica l v a le n c y d iffe re n t m eanings o f a
polysemantic word can be distinguished, for instance, cf.: hea vy ta b le
{safe, luggage); heavy snou’ {ra in , s to rm ); heavy d rin k e r {e a te r); heavy
sleep (sorrow . d isa ppointm ent); heavy in d u stry {ta n k s ).
T h e range o f the lexical valency o f words is linguistically restricted
by the inner structure o f the English word-stock. Though the verbs lift
and ra ise are usually treated as synonyms, it is only the latter that is
collocated with the noun qu estion .
T h e restrictions o f lex ica l valency o f w ords m ay also manifest
themselves in the lexical meanings o f the polysemantic members o f word
groups. F o r exam ple, the adjective h ea vy in the m eaning 'ric h and
difficu lt to digest' is combined with the words fo o d , m eals, supper. But
it cannot be used with the words cheese o r sausage (the words with more
or less the same component o f m eaning) im plying that the cheese or
the sausage is difficult to digest.
W ords habitually collocated in speech tend to constitute a cliche,
fo r instance, the noun a rm s and the noun ra ce . Thus, a rm s ra ce is a
cliche.
T h e lexical va len cy o f correlated w ords in d ifferen t languages is
different, c f : in English p o t flo w e rs — in Russian ком нат ны е цвет ы .
Grammatical valency is the aptness o f a w ord to appear in specific
grammatical (o r rather syntactic) structures. T h e minimal grammatical
context in which words are used when brought together to form word-
groups is usually described as the pattern o f the w ord-groups. For
instance, the verb to o ffe r can be followed b y the infinitive (to o ffe r to
d o s m th .) and the noun {to o ffe r a cu p o f te a ). T h e verb to suggest can
be follow ed by the gerund (to suggest d o in g s m th .) and the noun (to
suggest a n id e a ). T h e grammatical valency o f these verbs is different.
T h e adjectives cle v e r and in telligen t are seen to possess different gram­
matical valency as cle v e r can be used in word-groups having the pattern:
adjective + preposition 'at' + noun (c le v e r a t m athem atics), whereas in ­
te llig e n t can never be found in exactly the same word-group pattern.
T h e grammatical valency o f correlated words in different languages
is n ot identical, c f.: in English to in flu e n c e a p e rs o n , a d e cis io n ,
a c h o ic e (v e rb + n o u n ) — in Russian в л и я т ь н а ч е л о в е к а , н а
реш ение, н а вы бор (verb + preposition + noun).

2. S TR U C TU R E AND CLASSIFICATION
O F W ORD-GROUPS

T h e term ‘syntactic structure (formula)’ implies the description


o f the order and arrangement o f member-words in word-groups as parts
o f speech. F o r instance, the syntactic structure o f the w ord-groups
a c le v e r m an, a re d flo w e r may be described as made up o f an adjective
and a noun. i.e. A + N ; o f the word-groups to ta k e books, to b u ild
houses — as a verb and a noun. i.e. V + N.
T h e structure o f word-groups m ay also be described in relation to
the head-word. In this case it is usual to speak o f the pattern but not o f
formulas. F o r exam ple, the patterns o f the verbal groups to rake books,
to b u ild houses are to take + N . to build + N. T h e term syntactic
pattern' implies the description o f the structure o f the word-group in
which a given w ord is used as its head.
According to the syntactic pattern word-groups may be classified into
predicative and non-predicative. Predicative word-groups have a syntac­
tic structure similar to that o f a sentence, e.g. h e w ent, Joh n w orks. All
other word-groups are called non-predicative. N on-predicative word-
groups may be subdivided into subordinative (e.g . re d flo w e r, a m an o f
w isdom ) and coordinative (e.g . w om en a n d ch ild re n , d o o r d ie ).
Structurally, all word-groups can be classified b y the criterion o f
distribution into tw o extensive classes: endocentric and exocentric.
Endocentric word-groups are those that have on e central member
functionally equivalent to the w hole w ord-group, i.e . the distribution
o f ihc w hole word-group and the distribution o f its central m em ber are
identical. F o r in stan ce, in the w o rd -g ro u p s re d flo w e r , k i n d to
p e o p le , the head-words are the noun flo w e r and the adjective k in d
correspondingly. These word-groups are distributionally identical with
th e ir c e n tra l c o m p o n e n ts . A c c o r d in g t o th e ir ce n tra l m em bers
w o rd -g ro u p s m ay b e cla ss ified in to: n o m in a l grou p s o r phrases
(e .g . re d flo w e r ), adjectival groups (e .g . k in d to p e o p le ), verbal groups
(e .g . to speak w e ll), etc.
Exocentric word-groups are those that have no central component
and the distribution o f the whole word-group is different from either o f
its members. For instance, the distribution o f the word-group s id e by side
is not identical with the distribution o f its component-members, i.e. the
com ponent-m em bers are not syntactically substitutable for the whole
word-group.

3. TYPES O F M EANING O F W ORD-GROUPS

T h e m eaning o f word-groups can be divided into: I ) lexical and


2 ) structural (gram m atical) components.
1. The lexical meaning o f the word-group m ay be defined as the
combined lexical meaning o f the com ponent words. Thus, the lexical
meaning o f the word-group re d flo w e r may be described denotationally
as the combined meaning o f the words re d and flo w e r: However, the
term 'com bined lexical m eaning' is not to im ply that the meaning o f
the word-group is a mere additive result o f all the lexical meanings o f
the co m p on en t m em bers. T h e lexical m eaning o f the w ord -grou p
predominates over the lexical meanings o f its constituents.
2. The structural meaning o f the word-group is the meaning conveyed
mainly by the pattern o f arrangement o f its constituents. For example, such
word-groups as s ch o o l gra m m a r (ш кальная грамматика) and gram m ar
s ch o o l (грамматическая ш кала) are semantically different because o f the
difference in the pattern o f arrangement o f the component words. The
structural meaning is the meaning expressed by the pattern o f the word-
group but not either by the word s ch o o l o r the w ord gram m ar. It follows
that it is necessary to distinguish between the structural meaning o f a given
type o f a word-group as such and the lexical meaning o f its constituents.
T h e lexical and structural components o f meaning in word-groups
are interdependent and inseparable. F o r instance, the structural pattern
o f the word-groups a ll d a y lo n g , a ll n ig h t lo n g , a ll w eek lo n g in
ordinary' usage and the word-group a ll th e sun lo n g is identical. The
generalized meaning o f the pattern m ay be described as ‘ a unit o f time*.
Replacing day. n ig h t, w eek by another noun — the sun the structural
m eaning o f the pattern does not change. T h e group a ll th e sun lo n g
functions semantically as a unit o f time. But the noun sun included in
the group, continues to carry the semantic value, i.e. the lexical meaning
that it has in word-groups o f oth er structural patterns, e g. t h e s u n r a y s ,
A f r ic a n s u n .
Thus, the m eaning o f the word-group is derived from the combined
lexical meanings o f its constituents and is inseparable from the meaning
o f the pattern o f their arrangement.

4. MOTIVATION IN W OR D-GR O UPS

Semantically all word-groups can be classified into motivated and


non-m ot ivated.
A word-group is lexically motivated i f the combined lexical meaning
o f the group is deducible from the meanings o f its components, e.g . r e d
f lo w e r , h e a v y w e ig h t, te a c h a le s s o n .
I f the combined lexical meaning o f a word-group is not deducible
from the lexical meanings o f its constituent components, such a word-
group is lexically non-motivated, e.g . r e d ta p e ( ‘ official bureaucratic
methods*), ta k e p la c e ( ‘ occur’ ).
The degree o f motivation can be different. Between the extremes o f
com plete m otivation and lack o f m otivation there are innumerable
intermediate cases. F o r example, the degree o f lexical motivation in the
nominal group b la c k m a r k e t is higher than in b la c k d e a th , but lower
than in b la c k d r e s s , though n on e o f the groups can be considered
completely non-motivated. T h is is also true o f other words-groups. e.g.
o l d m a n and o l d b o y both o f which m ay be regarded as lexically motivated
though the degree o f motivation in o l d m a n is noticeably higher.
It sh ou ld b e n oted that seem in g ly id en tica l w o rd -g ro u p s are
sometimes found to be motivated or non-m otivated depending on their
semantic interpretation. Thus, a p p le s a u c e is lexically motivated when
it means *a sauce made o f apples’ but when used to denote ‘ nonsense*
it is clearly non-motivated.
C om pletely non-m otivated o r partially m otivated word-groups are
described as phraseological units o r idioms.

Q U E S T IO N S A N D T A S K S

I . Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is lexical valency?


2. W hy d o es lexical valency acquire special im portance in case o f
polysemy?
3. What restricts the range o f the lexical valency o f words?
4. What are words habitually collocated in speech called?
5. Is there any difference in the lexical valency o f correlated words
in different languages? G ive examples.
6. What is grammatical valency?
7. Is there any difference in the grammatical valency o f correlated
words in different languages? G ive examples.
8. W hat does the term ‘ syntactic structure (form u la)' imply?
9. W hat does the term ‘ syntactic pattern' mean?
10. W hat kinds o f word-groups can be singled out according to the
syntactic pattern?
11. What classes o f word-groups can be singled ou t according to the
criterion o f distribution?
12. What word-groups are called endocentric?
13. W hat word-groups are called cxocentric?
14. W hat types o f meaning can be singled out in word-groups?
15. W hat is the lexical meaning o f the word-group?
16. W hat is the structural meaning o f the word-group?
17. In what way d o the lexical and structural types o f m eaning o f
word-com bi nations interact? What does the connection between lexical
and structural types o f meaning o f word-groups imply?
18. What is meant by the lexical motivation o f a word-group?
19. In what cases is a word-com bination considered to be lexically
non-motivated?
20. What degrees o f motivation can be singled out?

II. T A S K S

1.* Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the correct form o f the italicized
words. Pay special attention to the restrictions o f their collocability. What
conditions these restrictions? Give meanings o f the italicized words.

a) to m end, lo re p a ir
I. These socks need to be . . . . 2. It is difficult to find anyone who
knows how ... a clock. 3. T h e convicts were em ployed in ... the highway.
4. H e had been ... a tiny hole in the lining o f his leather coat. 5. Please
have this typ ew riter.... 6. T h e gate needs to be ... so it closes properly.
7. I know how ... my car m yself but 1 can't do w ithout necessary tools.
8. Let m e ... your shirt. 9. In those day’s, all the farming equipment was
made and ... in the village. 10 .1 got into conversation with the man who
cam e ... the roof.
b) m istake, e rro r
1. I was trying to dial m y m other's number but I ended up phoning
my friend by .... 2. G ood s dispatched to your branch were in .... 3. The
crash was caused by human .... 4. She made the ... o f thinking they were
im portant. 5. It's tim e you poin ted ou t t o him the ... o f his ways.
6. Children learn from th e ir.. . . 7. M rs Sm ith's huge phone bill was the
result o f a com puter ... . 8. T h e accident was caused by a (n ) ... o f
judgment on the pan o f the pilot. 9. H e is an od d character and no ....
10. I f w e d o n 't finish the jo b today they w on 't pay us; make n o ...
about it. И. I taught m yself how to cook through trial and ....
2. * Stale meanings o f the given polysemantic adjectives on the basis o f their
lexical valency, i.e. with the help o f nouns they arc combined with.
M o d e l : smart. I ) shin. car. garden, officer: 2) person, child, carpenter;
3) blow, rise/fall. attack: 4) restaurant, set (society)
0 According to its lexical valency the adjective sm art has the following
meanings: I) 'neat and stylish in appearance': 2) 'good or quick in thinking.
clever’ : 3) ‘quick and forceful*; 4) 'being o r used by very fashionable people’.

f u ll: I ) bottle, glass, train, drawer, mouth; 2) truth, name, address,


year, height; 3 ) speed, marks, force, gallop;
d ry : I ) shirt, soil, paint; 2 ) climate, month, heat, summer; 3) sherry,
wine; 4 ) book, subject, lecture, text: 5 ) jok e, answer, humour, thanks,
manners;
b roa d : I ) shoulders, river, chest, staircase, smile; 2 ) lands, plains,
fields; 3) opinions, view, taste, ideas; 4 ) outline o f a plan (fram ework),
sense; 5 ) hint, statement, purpose, distinction; 6 ) jo k e , laugh, story,
humour:
ugly. I ) face, man. houses, furniture, building, picture, surroundings;
2 ) scene, wound, confrontation, clouds; 3) ideas, feelings, rumours,
moment:
w ide: I ) road, gate, river, gap. avenue, foot; 2) interests, experience,
support, variety, selection, choice.

3. * Analyze the lexical valency o f the polysemantic words to run and to


charge. Translate the sentences into Russian.

to run
I. T h e horse runs. 2. T h e film runs for two hours. 3. T h e water runs.
4. T h e tap run s. 5. H is nose run s. 6. T h e m otor run s. 7. T h e w ine ran
over the floor. 8. T h e w hole argument runs on this point. 9. She ran
the water into the bath-tub. 10. He ran his business well. II. T h e ic e ­
cream is beginning to run.

to charge
I. H e ch a rged the man ten cents fo r the pencil. 2. H e ch a rged the
battery. 3. He ch a rged them to d o their duty. 4. H e ch a rged these goods
to the man's account. 5. The soldiers ch a rged the enemy. 6 . 1 don't want
to ch a rge my m em ory with trifles. 7. T h e judge charged him with the
crime.
4-1.* Translate the sentences into Russian paying special attention to the
grammatical valency o f the italicized words. State the difference in the
grammatical valency o f Russian and English words.
M o d e l : to die — to succumb: These animals died o f starvation. About
400.000 Americans succumb each year to smoking-related illnesses.
0 Эти животные умерли от голода. Каждый гол около 400.000 американ­
цев умирают от боде гной, святайных с курением.
Russian: умирать от чсго-л. — English: ю die of smth.; lo succumb lo smih.

1. to su ffoca te — to ch o k e : T h e d o g was suffocated by smoke. I broke


the window's for us not to be su ffoca ted by the petrol. She was ch o k e d
with sobs. H e was ch o k e d with angry emotion.
2. to rid e — lo g o : M y little daughter can rid e a bike. H e rid es a horse
perfectly. I don t want to g o by train. I f w e g o by bus w e’ ll be in tim e there.
3. to cu re — to trear. This m edicine will c u re you o f vour cough.
N othing seemed to c u re him o f his nervousness. In this hospital A nn is
trea ted for her headaches w ith quite a new drug. T h e boys u c r e trea ted
fo r cuts and bruises rather long.
4 to b la m e — to accuse: T h e investigator b la m e d the driver for
meeting w ith the accident. H e b la m ed her sister fo r her child's death. I
d o n 't want to accuse him o f telling lies. She said that her employers
accused her o f theft.
5. to le t — to a llo w : L e t m e have a look at that letter. Sue doesn't
le t her kids eat candy. W e do not a llow people to smoke anywhere in
the building. D on 't a llo w your problems to dominate your life.

4 .2 .’ State the difference in (he grammatical valency o f (he five pairs of


words from task 4.1. Give their syntactic patterns.

M o d e I: to care - to interest. She's never cared very much about her


appearance. Spon has never really interested me.
0 The syntactic pattern o f the verb care is: care * preposition ‘about’ + noun
( pronoun). The syntactic pattern o f the verb interest is: interest + pronoun
(noun).

5. " Translate the sentences into Russian paying special attention to the
grammatical valency o f the italicized words. State the difference in the grammatical
valency o f the corresponding words in the Russian and English languages.
M o d e I: I f you're not s u re o f the answers, say so.
0 Если ты не уверен в ответах, гак и скажи.

Russian: быть уверенным в чем-л. - English: to be sure of smth.

1 H e firm ly believes that she is in n o ce n t o f the crim e. 2. I exp la in ed


the situation to the bank manager and he arranged a loan. 3. Several
children in the class cannot speak English. 4. D id the newspapers really
a ffe ct the outcome o f the election? 5. Robson strongly o b je cted to the
terms o l the contract. 6. I first e n co u n te re d him when studying at
Cambridge. 7. A 23-year-old w oman was found g u ilty o f murder in the
C en tral C ou rt today. 8. H e r fa m ily stron g ly d is a p p ro v e d o f her
behaviour. 9. D o n 't W / e r h im with your complaints. 10. I'll stav here
and w ait fo r Mike.

6. " Read the passage below. Write out combinations o f words distributing
them among the following groups: a) predicative; b) non-predicative. In the
non-predicative group single out coordinate word-combinations.
She was silent. Vaguely, as when you are studying a foreign language
and read a page which at First you can make nothing o f. till a word o r a
sentence gives you a clue: and on a sudden a suspicion, as it were, o f
the sense flashes across your troubled wits, vaguely she gained an inkling
in to the w ork in g o f W a lter's m ind. It w as like a dark and om inous
landscape seen b y a flash o f lightning and in a moment hidden again by
the night. She shuddered at what she saw.

(from The Painted Veil. XXVI by W.S. Maugham)


7. " Taking into account the criterion o f distribution, from the passage given
in task 6. write out: I) endocentric; 2) cxocentric word-combinations. What
subgroups o f endocentric word-combinations can be singled out?
M o d e I: lo study a language
0 The word-combination to study a language is endocentric. According to its
central member, i.e. the verb to study, this word-combination is verbal.
8. * Arrange the word-groups according to the degree o f their motivation,
starting with the highest.

1) gay bird, beautiful bird, blackbird; 2 ) cold w ind, cold feet, cold
war, cold hands; 3 ) light hand, light burden, light supper, light artillery ;
4 ) blue funk (стр ах), blue skirt, blue stocking, blue fox; 5 ) big cheese,
delicious cheese, white cheese. Swiss cheese: 6) wicked tongue, smoked
tongue, coated tongue; 7 ) big b oy. big house, big m oney, big talk;
8) angry tone, high tone, mental tone.

Chapter 2

1. Free W ord-G roups versus Phraseological U nits versus Words


1. 1. Structural Criterion
1. 2 . Semantic Criterion
1.3. Syntactic Criterion
2. Semantic Structure o f Phraseological Units
3. Types o f Transference o f Phraseological Units
4. Classification o f Phraseological Units

1. FREE W O R D -G R O UPS VERSUS PHRASEOLOGICAL


UNITS VERSUS WORDS

A phraseological unit can be defined as a reproduced and idiomatic


(n on -m otivated ) o r partially motivated unit built up according lo the
m od el o f fr e e w o rd -g rou p s ( o r sen ten ces’ ) and sem antically and
Prosebs and savings.
syntactically brought in to correlation with words. H ence, there is a need
fo r criteria ex p o s in g th e d eg ree o f s im ila rity / d iffe re n c c betw een
phraseological units and free w ord-groups, phraseological units and
words.

1.1. Structural Criterion

T h e structural criterion brings forth pronounced features which on


the on e hand slate a certain structural similarity between phraseological
units and free word-combinations at the same tim e opposing them to
sin g le w ords Га), and on the o th e r hand sp ec ify th e ir structural
distinctions (b).
(a ) A feature proper both to free phrases and phraseological units is
the divisibility (раздсльн ооф ор м лен н ость) o f their structure, i.e. they
consist o f separate structural elem ents. T h is fa ct stands them in
| opposition to words as structurally integral (ц е л ь н о о ф о р м л е н н ы е )
units'. T h e structural integrity o f a word is defined by the presence o f a
. com m on grammatical form fo r all constituent elements o f this word. For
• exam ple, the grammatical change in the w ord shipw reck implies that
inflexions are added to both elem ents o f the w ord simultaneously —
s h ip -w re c k -( ). s h ip -w re ck -s , while in the word-group th e w reck o f a
sh ip each element can change its grammatical form independently from
the other — {th e ) w re ck -{ ) o f the sh ip -s. (t h e ) w re c k s o f {the) s h ip s .
Like in word-groups, in phraseological units potentially any component
may be changed grammatically, but these changes arc rather few. limited
and occasional and usually serve for a stylistic effect, e.g. a B la ck M a ria
‘ a van used b y p olice fo r bringing suspected crim inals to the police
station': the B lackest M a ria . B la ck M a ria s.
(b ) T h e principal difference between phraseological units and free
word-groups manifests itself in the structural invariability o f the former.
T h e structural invariability suggests no (o r rather lim ited) substitutions
o f com ponents. F o r exam ple, to g iv e som eb od y th e c o ld s h o u ld e r
means ‘ to treat som ebody coldly, to ignore o r cut h im ', but a w arm
s h o u ld e r o r a c o ld e lb o w m akes n o sense. T h ere are a ls o strict
restrictions on the componental extension and grammatical changes o f
com ponents o f phraseological units. T h e use o f the words b ig . g re a t in
a w hite elep h a n t meaning ‘an expensive but useless thing’ can change
o r even destroy the meaning o f the phraseological unit. T h e same is true
i f the plural form fe e t in the phraseological unit fr o m hea d to fo o t is
used instead o f the singular form. In a free word-group all these changes
are possible.

1 For more detailed information about ’divisibility' o f phraseological units and


word-combinations and ‘ integrity' o f words see A.I.Smirnilsky. 'English
Lexicology'.
1.2. Semantic Criterion

T h e sem antic criterion is o f great help in stating the sem antic


differencc/similarity between free word-groups and phras:ological units,
(a ), and between phraseological units and words (b).
(a ) T h e m ea n in g in p h ra seologica l units is created b y mutual
interaction o f elem ents and con veys a sin gle con cep t. T h e actual
m eaning o f a p h raseological unit is figu rative (tra n sferred ) and is
opposed to the literal meaning o f a word-com bination from w hich it is
derived. T h e transference o f the initial w ord-group can be based on
sim ile, metaphor, m etonym y, and synecdoche. T h e degree o f trans­
ference varies and may affect either the w hole unit or only on e o f its
constituents, cf.: to skate o n th in ic e — ‘ to take risks'; the s m a ll hours —
‘ the early hours o f the m orn in g'. B esides, in the form ation o f the
semantic structure o f phraseological units a cultural com ponent plays a
special and very important role. It marks phraseological units as bearers
o f cultural information based on a unique experience o f the nation. For
example, the phraseological unit re d ta p e originates in the old custom
o f G overnm ent o fficia ls and lawyers tying up (п ерев язы в ать) their
papers with red tape. H eads o r ta ils com es from the o ld custom o f
deciding a dispute o r settling which o f tw o possible alternatives shall be
follow ed b y tossing a coin (h ea d s refers to the sovereign's head on one
side o f the co in , and ta ils means the reverse side).
In a free phrase the sem antic correlative ties are fundam entally
different. T h e m eaning in a w ord-grou p is based on the com bined
meaning o f the words constituting its structure. Each element in a word-
combination has a much greater semantic independence and stands for
a separate concept, c. g. to c u t b read . to c u t cheese, to e a t b read . Every
w ord in a free phrase can form additional syntactic ties with other words
outside the expression retaining its individual meaning.
(b ) T h e semantic unity, however, makes phraseological units similar
to words. T h e semantic sim ilarity between the tw o is proved b y the fact
that, fo r instance, k ick the b u ck e t whose m eaning is understood as a
w h o le and n ot related to the m eaning o f in d ividu al w ords can be
replaced within context b y the w ord to d ie . the phraseological unit in a
brow n study — by the w ord gloom y.

1.3. Syntactic Criterion

T h e syntactic criterion reveals the close tics between single worcls and
phraseological units as well as free word-groups. L ike words (as well as
word-com binations), phraseological units m ay have different syntactic
(unctions in the sentence, e.g . the subject ( n a rrow escape, f ir s t n ig h t,
b a k e rs d o ze n ), the predicate (t o have a g o o d m in d , to p la y Russian
ro u le tte , to m a k e a v irtu e o f necessity). an attribute ( h ig h a n d m igh ty.
q u ic k on the trig g e r. as u gly as sin ), an adverbial ( in f u l l sw ing, on
secon d thoughts. o f f th e re co rd ). In accordance with ih e function they
p erform in the sentence phraseological units can b e classified into:
substantive, verbal, adjectival, adverbial, intcrjectional.
L ike free w ord -grou p s ph raseological units can be d ivided into
coordinativc ( e g . th e life a n d s o u l o f som ething, fr e e a n d easy, neck
a n d c ro p ) and s u b o rd in a te (e.g . lo n g in th e to o th , a b ig fis h in a little
p o n d , th e v illa in o f th e p ie ce ).
Thus, the characteristic features o f phraseological units are: readv-
m ade reproduction, structural d ivisib ility, m orp h ologica l stability,
permanence o f lexical com position, semantic unity, syntactic fixity.

2. SEM AN TIC S TR U C TU R E O F PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

T h e semantic structure o f phraseological units is form ed by semantic


ultimate constituents called m acrocom ponenls o f m eaning1. Th ere are
the follow ing principal macrocom ponents in the semantic structure o f
phraseological units:
1. Denotational (descriptive) macrocomponent that contains the
information about the objective reality, it is the procedure connected with
categorization, i.e. the classification o f phenomena o f the reality, based
on the typical idea about what is denoted b y a phraseological unit i e
about the denotatum.
2. Evaluations! macrocomponent that contains inform ation about
the value o f what is denoted by a phraseological unit, i.e . what value
the speaker sees in this o r that object/phenom enon o f reality — the
denotatum . T h e rational evaluation m ay be p o sitive, negative and
neutral, e.g . a h o m e fr o m h om e — ‘ a place o r situation where on e feels
com pletely happy and at ease* (positive), th e lio n 's den — *a place o f
great danger* (n ega tive), in th e fle s h — ‘ in b o d ily form * (neu tral).
Evaluation m ay depend on empathy (i.e . a view point) o f the speaker/
hearer.
3. Motivational macrocomponent that correlates with the notion
o f the inner form - o f a phraseological unit, which may be viewed as the
m o tif o f transference, the im age-form ing base, the associative-imaginary
com plex, etc. T h e notion ‘ motivation o f a phraseological unit’ can be
defined as the aptness o f ‘ the literal reading’ o f a unit to be associated
with the denotational and evaluational aspects o f meaning. F o r example,
the literal reading o f the phraseological unit to have b ro a d shoulders

' The macfocomponemal model o f phraseological meaning was worked out bv


V.N.Tcliya 11988, 1990. I996|.
• The inner form o f a phraseological unit is ihe meaning o f its prototype on the
basis o f which phraseological meaning is formed ( К унин А . В Курс фразеологии
современного английского языка. — 19%. — С. 173).
evokes associations connected with physical strength o f a person. The
idea that broad shoulders are indicative o f a person's strength and
endurance actualizes, becom es the base for transference and forms the
fo llo w in g m ea n in g : 't o be a b le t o b e a r th e fu ll w eigh t o f o n e ’ s
responsibilities'.
4. Emotive macrocomponent that is the contents o f subjective
m odality expressing feeling-relation to what is denoted by a phraseo­
logical unit within the range o f approval/disapproval, e.g . a lea d in g
lig h t in som eth in g — ’ a person w h o is important in a particular group'
(spoken with approval), to lea d a c a t a n d d o g life — ‘ used to describe
a husband and w ife w ho quarrel furiously with each other most o f the
tim e* (sp oken with d isap p roval). Em otiveness is also the result o f
interpretation o f the imaginary base (обр азн ое основани е) in a cultural
aspect.
5. Stylistic macrocomponent that points to the comm unicative
register in w hich a phraseological unit is used and to the social-role
relationships between the participants o f communication, e.g . s ic k a t
h e a rt — ‘ very' sad’ (form a l), b e s ic k to d eath — ‘ to be angry- and bored
because so m eth in g unpleasant has b een h app en in g fo r to o lo n g '
(in form al), pass by o n the o th e r sid e — ‘ to ignore a person w ho needs
help’ (neutral).
6. Grammatical macrocomponent that contains the information
about all possible m orphological and syntactic changes o f a phraseo­
logical unit. e.g . to b e in deep w a ter = to b e in deep w aters:; to take
aw ay s m b 's breath = to ta k e s m b 's breath aw ay. A c h ille s ' h e e l = the
h e e l o f A ch illes.
7. Gender macrocomponent1that m ay be expressed explicitly, i.e.
determined by the structure and/or semantics o f a phraseological unit,
and in that case it points out to the class o f objects denoted b y the phra­
seological unit: m en. w om en , people (b o th m en and w o m en ). For
example, compare the phraseological units every Tom . D ic k a n d H arry'
meaning ‘ every or any m an' and every Tom . D ic k an d S h e ila which
denotes ‘ every o r any man and wom an’. G ender macrocomponent may­
be expressed im plicitly and then it denotes the initial (o r historical)
reference o f a phraseological unit t o the class o f objects denoted by it
which is as a rule stipulated b y the historical developm ent, traditions,
stereotypes, cultural realia o f the given society, e.g . to wash o n e 's d irty
lin en in p u b lic — ‘ discuss o r argue about on e's personal affairs in public*.
T h e im plicit presence o f the gender m acrocom ponent in this phraseo­
logical unit is conditioned by the idea about traditional w om en’ s work
(cf. with Russian: вы н оси т ь cop и з и зб ы ). G ender, im plicitly as well
as explicitly expressed, reveals knowledge about such cultural concepts
as masculinity and fem ininity that arc peculiar t o this or that society.
T h e im plicit gender m acrocom poncnt is defin ed within the range o f

The gender macrocomponcnt was singled out by I.V.Zykova |2002, 20031.


three conceptual spheres: masculine, fem inine, intergender. Com pare,
fo r instance, the im plicitly expressed intergendcr m acrocom ponent in
to f e e l lik e ro y a lty meaning 'to feel like a m em ber o f the Royal Fam i­
ly. to feel majestic' and its counterpans. i.e. phraseological units with
explicitly expressed gender macrocomponent, to f e e l lik e a qu een and
to f e e l lik e a king.

3. TYPES OF TR ANSFERENCE
OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UN ITS

Phraseological transference is a com plete o r panial change o f


meaning o f an initial (source) word-com bination (o r a sentence) as a
result o f w hich the word-com bination (o r the sentence) acquires a new
meaning and turns into a phraseological unit. Phraseological transfer­
ence m ay be based on sim ile, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, etc.
o r on their combination.
L Transference based on simile is the intensification o f som e feature
o f an object (phenom enon, thing) denoted by a phraseological unit by
means o f bringing it in to contact with another object (phenom enon,
thing) belonging to an entirely different class. C om pare the following
English and Russian phraseological units: (a s ) p re tty a s a p ic tu re —
хор ош а ка к карт инка, (a s ) f a t as a p ig — ж и р н ы й ка к сви н ья . to
f ig h t lik e a lio n — с р а ж а т ь ся к а к л е в . to sw im lik e a f is h —
т а в о т ь ка к ры ба.
2. Transference based on metaphor is a likening (у п о д о б лен и е) o f
o n e o b ject (p h e n o m e n o n , a c tio n ) o f rea lity t o a n oth er, which is
associated with it on the basis o f real o r imaginable resemblance. For
exam ple, in the phraseological unit to ben d som ebody to o n e 's bow
meaning to submit som eone' transference is based on metaphor, i.e.
on the likening o f a subordinated, submitted person to a thing (b o w ) a
good comm and o f which allows its ow ner to do with it everything he
wants to.
Metaphors can bear a hyperbolic character: f lo g a d ea d h orse —
•waste energy on a lost cause o r unalterable situation' (б у к в , стегать
д о х лу ю ло ш а д ь). M etaphors m ay also have a euphemistic character
which serves to soften unpleasant facts: g o to o n e 's lo n g rest, jo in the
m a jo rity — 'to die'.
3. Transference based on metonymy is a transfer o f name (перенос
наим енования) from one object (phenom enon, thing, action, process,
etc.) to another based on the contiguity o f their properties, relations, etc.
T h e transfer o f name is co n d ition ed by close ties between the tw o
objects, the idea about on e object is inseparably linked with the idea
about the oth er object. For exam ple, the metonymical transference in
the phraseological unit a s ilk s to ck in g meaning ‘ a rich, well-dressed
man' is based on the replacement o f the genuine object (a m an) by the
article o f clothing which was very fashionable and popular among men
in the past.
4. Synecdoche is a variety o f metonymy. Transference based on
synecdoche is nam ing the w h ole b y its part, the replacement o f the
com m on b y the private, o f the plural by the singular and vice versa. For
example, the components fle s h and b lo o d in the phraseological unit in
the fle s h a n d b lo o d meaning ‘ in a material form ' as the integral parts
o f the real existence replace a person him self o r any living being, see
the follow ing sentences: W e've been w ritin g to ea ch o th e r f o r ten years,
b u t n ow h e 's a c tu a lly g o in g to b e h e re in th e fle s h a n d b lo o d .
Thousands o ffa n s flo c k e d to D u b lin to see th e ir heroes in the fle s h
a n d b lood . Synecdoche is usually found in combination with other types
o f transference, e.g . metaphor: to h o ld o n e 's ton gu e — ‘ to say nothing,
to be discreet’ .

4. CLASSIFICATION O F PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

According to the degree o f idiomaticity phraseological units can be


classified into three big groups: phraseological fusions (ср а щ ен и я ),
phraseological unities (единства) and phraseological collocations (соче­
та н и я )1.
Phraseological fusions arc com pletely non-motivated word-groups,
e .g . as m a d a s a h a tte r — ‘ utterly m ad’ ; w h ite e le p h a n t — ‘ an
expensive but useless thing'.
Phraseological unities are partially non-motivated as their meaning
can usually be perceived through the m etaphoric meaning o f the whole
phraseological unit, e.g . to b e n d the k n ee — *to submit to a stronger
force, to obey submissively’ ; to wash o n e 's d irty lin e n in p u b lic — 'to
discuss o r make public on e's quarrels’ .
Phraseological collocations are not only motivated but contain one
c o m p o n e n t used in its d ire c t m e a n in g , w h ile th e o th e r is used
metaphorically, e.g. to m eet th e requirem en ts, to a tta in success. In this
group o f phraseological units some substitutions are possible which do
not destroy the m eaning o f the m etaphoric elem ent, e.g. to m eet the
needs, to m eet th e d em a nd , to m eet th e necessity: to h a ve success, to
lose success. These substitutions are not synonymical and the meaning
o f the whole changes, w hile the meaning o f the verb m eet and the noun
success are kept intact.
T h e consideration o f the origin o f phraseological units contributes
to a better understanding o f phraseological meaning. According to their

This approach to English phraseology is based on the research work carried out
in the field o f Russian phraseology by Academician V. V. Vinogradov.
origin all phraseological uniis m ay be divided into tw o big groups: native
and borrowed.
T h e main sources o f native phraseological units are:
1) term inological and professional Icxics. e.g . physics: c e n te r o f
g ra v ity (центр тяж ести), s p e cific w eight (удельны й в ес): navigation:
c u t th e p a in te r (обр уби ть канат) — to becom e independent', low er
o n e 's colo u rs (сп усти ть свой ф ла г) — Чо yield, to give in '; military
sphere: f a l l in to lin e (стать в с тр ой ) — ‘ conform with others':
2 ) British literature, e .g . th e g re e n -e y e d m o n s te r — ‘jealousy*
(W .S h a k es p e a re); lik e H a m le t w ith o u t th e p r in c e — ‘ the m ost
im portant person at event is absent’ (W .Shakespeare); f a l l o n e v il
days — ‘ live in poverty after having enjoyed better times’ (J .M ilton );
a sig h t f o r so re eyes — a person o r thing that one is extremely pleased
or relieved to sec' (J.S w ift): how goes th e e n e m y ? (C h . D ickens) —
‘ what is the tim e?': n e v e r say d ie — ‘ do not give up hope in a difficult
situation' (C h.D icken s):
3) British traditions and customs, e.g . b a k e r's dozen — ‘ a group o f
thirteen*. In the past British merchants o f bread received from bakers
thirteen loaves instead o f twelve and the thirteenth lo a f was merchants'
profit.
4 ) superstitions and legends, e.g. a b la ck sheep — a less successful
o r more immoral person in a fam ily o r a group*. People believed that a
black sheep was marked by the devil: the halcyon days — ‘a very happy
o r successful period in the past’ . According to an ancient legend a halcyon
(зи м ор од ок ) hatches/grows its fledglings in a nest that sails in the sea
and during this period (about tw o weeks) the sea is com pletely calm:
5 ) historical facts and events, personalities, e.g . as w e ll b e hanged
( o r h u n g ) f o r a sheep a s a la m b — ‘ something that you say when you
are going to be punished for something so you decide to d o something
worse because your punishment will not be any m ore severe'. According
to an old law a person w h o stole a sheep was sentenced to death by
hanging, so it was worth stealing something more because there was no
worse punishment: to d o a T h a tch e r — ‘ to stay in p o w e r as prime
m inister for three consecutive terms (fro m the form er Conservative
prim e minister Margaret Thatcher)*;
6 ) p h en om en a and fa cts o f ev ery d a y life , e .g . c a r r y c o a ls to
N ew castle — ‘ to take something to a place where there is plenty o f it
available *. Newcastle is a town in Northern England where a lot o f coal
w as prod u ced ; to g e t o u t o f w o o d — ‘ to be saved fro m dan ger or
difficulty*.
T h e main sources o f borrowed phraseological units are:
1) the H o ly Script, e.g . th e le ft h a n d does n o t k n ow w h a t the rig h t
h a n d is d o in g — ‘ communication in an organization is bad so that one
part does not know what is happening in another pan*: th e kiss o f
Ju d a s — ‘ any display o f affection whose purpose is to conceal any act
o f treachery’ (M atthew X X V I: 49);
2 ) ancient legends and myths belonging to different religious o r
cultural traditions, e.g . to c u r th e G o rd ia n k n o t — *to deal with a
difficult problem in a strong, simple and effective w av' (from the legend
saying that G o rd iu s , king o f G ord iu m , tied an intricate knot and
prophesied that w hoever untied it w ould becom e the ruler o f Asia. It
was cut through with a sword by Alexander the G rea t); a Procru stea n
bed — *a harsh, inhumane system into which the individual is fitted by
force, regardless o f his ow n needs and wishes' (fro m G reek Mythology.
P rocru stes — a robber who forced travelers to lie on a bed and made
them fit by stretching their limbs or cutting o f f the appropriate length
o f leg);
3 ) facts and events o f the world history, e.g. to cross th e R u b icon —
*lo d o something which will have very important results which cannot
be changed after*. Julius Caesar started a war which resulted in victory
for him by crossing the river Rubicon in Italy; to m eet o n e 's W a terloo —
*be faced with. esp. after previous success, a final defeat, a difficu lty or
obstacle one cannot overcom e (from the defeat o f N apoleon at W aterloo
1815)’ ;
4 ) variants o f the English language, e.g . a heavy h itte r — 'som eone
who is powerful and has achieved a lo t' {A m e ric a n ): a h o le c a rd — ‘ a
secret advantage that is ready to use when you need it' {A m e ric a n ): be
h o m e a n d h o s e d — *to have c o m p le te d som eth in g su ccessfu lly'
( A u s tra lia n );
5 ) oth er languages (classical and m od em ), e.g. secon d to n o n e —
eq u a l w ith any o th e r and b e tte r than m o s t' (fr o m L a tin : n u / li
secundus); f o r s m b 's f a ir eyes — 'because o f personal sympathy, not
be worth on e's deserts, services, for nothing* (from French: p o u r les
beau x y eu x d e q n .); the f a ir sex — 'w om en’ (from French: le beau sex):
le t the c a t o u r o f th e bag — 'reveal a secret carelessly o r by mistake*
(from Germ an: d ie K a tze aus dem S a ck la ssen ): tilt a t w in d m ills —
'to waste tim e try ing to deal with enem ies or problems that do no exist'
(fro m Spanish: a co m e te r m o lin o s d e v ie n to ): every d og is a lio n a t
hom e — *to feel significant in the fam iliar surrounding* (fro m Italian:
o g n i са п е e leo n e a casa su a ).

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

I. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is a phraseological unit?


2. W hat does the structural sim ilarity between w ord-groups and
phraseological units consist in? W hy are they opposed to words on the
structural level?
3. W hat is the m ain difference between phraseological units and
word-groups according to the structural criterion? What does the term
•structural invariability* imply?
4. W hat is th e sem an tic d iffe re n c e betw een w o rd -g ro u p s and
phraseological units based on?
5. What role docs a cultural component play in the semantic structure
o f phraseological units?
6. What d o phraseological units and words have in com m on from the
point o f view o f their semantics?
7. What makes phraseological units sim ilar to words on the syntactic
level?
8. What makes phraseological units similar to word-groups on the
syntactic level?
9. What are the characteristic features o f phraseological units?
10. What is the semantic structure o f phraseological units composed
o f?
11. What is the dcnotational m acrocom ponen t o f m eaning o f a
phraseological unit?
12. W hat inform ation does the evaluational m acrocom ponent o f
meaning contain? What types o f evaluation d o you know?
13. W hat is the m otivational m acrocom ponen t o f m eaning o f a
phraseological unit? In what way can motivation be viewed?
14. What does the em otive m acrocom ponent express?
15. What does the stylistic macrocomponent point to?
16. What is the gram m atical m acrocom ponent o f phraseological
meaning indicative of?
17. How can the gender m acrocom ponent be expressed? What does
it denote?
18. What is meant by phraseological transference?
19. What does the transference based on sim ile mean?
20. What is the metaphoric transference?
21. What does the metonymical transference imply?
22. What is the transference based on synecdoche?
23. What types o f phraseological units can be distinguished according
to the degree o f idiomaticity? Characterize each type.
24. What types o f phraseological units can be singled ou t from the
point o f view’ o f their origin?
25. W hat are the main sources o f origin o f native phraseological
units?
26. What are the main sources o f origin o f borrowed phraseological
units?

II. T A S K S

1.* State w hich o f the italicized units are phraseologistm and which arc free
word-combination?.. Give proof o f your answer.

I. H e asked to warm a glass o f ju ice but they le ft it rather c o ld on


the table. 2. Instrumental m usic, od d ly enough, le ft me rather cold .
3. W here d o you think you los t y o u r purse. 4. I couldn't stand that noise
any longer. 1 lo s t m y tem per. 5. Have a look a t the reverse sid e o f the
c o a t. 6. T h e re v e rs e s id e o f th e m e d a l is that w e 'll have to d o it
ourselves. 7. K eep th e b u tte r in the refrigerator. 8. K eep th e eye on the
child. 9. H e threw some c o ld w a te r on his face t o wake up. 10. I didn't
expect that he would th row c o ld w a ter upon our project. 11. T h e tourists
le ft th e beaten tra ck and saw a lot o f interesting places. 12. T h e author
leaves th e beaten tra ck and offers a new treatment o f the subject.
2. * Analyze the structural invariability o f the given phraseological units.
State cases when various changes (such as componcntal extension, substi­
tutions. o r grammatical changes) are possible (group a) and impossible
(group b).

M o d e l : So you say. but anybody w ho experiments with drugs is riding a


u m / m m h sr.
E In the phraseological unit to ride a tiger the component tiger cannot be
replaced by the word panther without destroying the semantic integrity and
meaning o f this idiom. This phraseologism belongs to group b).

1. ‘ I can take it o r leave it.’ *So you say. but anybody w ho experiments
with drugs is rid in g a rizer/ p a n th er. 2. It was unbearable. Her behaviour
made m e f ly o f f th e handle/handles. 3. M y father hated the idea o f me
joining the army. H e always said it wasn't a suitable occupation for the
fw / fe ir e r sex. 4. When I saw the nurse’s face, m y h e a rt sank in to m y
boots/into m y brow n boots. 5. Jackson is a hot-tempered man: I wouldn't
cross svQrds/a_sws>rd w ith him, i f I were you. 6. H is enemy was close
behind him. and the bridge over the ravine was rotten and swaying. Caught
betw een th e d e v il a n d th e deep sea/the deep b lu e sea, he hesitated.
7 . W e can make ou r o w t i decisions without you puttine/stickin g v o u r o a r
in . 8. O u r builder is ta k in g his tim e/his fre e tim e , isn’ t he? H e's been
three days on that jo b already. 9. Politics is meant to be boring, and boring
people carry it out more competently thanfla s h H arries/a fla s h H a rry .
10. W e must make it a h a rd a n d fast/firm rule not to allow any parent to
enter a classroom without first speaking to the headmaster. 11.1 could do
that w ith o n e arm /hand b e h in d m y hack. 12. But when he leams that
officialdom has again re tire d its head/its u e lv h ea d and is planning the
destruction o f his last home, his fighting spirit returns.
3. ' Replace the italicized words by the corresponding phraseological units
from the box.

the stronger sex. to get smb's drift, as co ol as a cucumber, blood”


and thunder, in tw o ticks, as green as grass, by leaps and bounds, to
get out o f hand, the apple o f discord, all at sea. to jo in hands, to hold
o n e ’s horses, hot under the collar, the upper crust, out o f a blue sky

1. She was n a iv e when she was sixteen but other girls in the typing
p ool taught her the ways o f the world. 2. T h e girls had got on well to­
gether until th e riv a lry in the person o f a handsome young apprentice
appeared in their midst. 3. I understand you now, 1 think. I f you mean
b y ‘ integrity' what I w ould call ‘ consistency* then w e’ ve been arguing
at cross-purposes. 4. W e must u n ite with ou r friends in Europe. 5. She
dropped upon m e unexpectedly and began asking questions which I had
to answer. 6. I thought there would have been protestations and tears
when I told her I wanted to move out o f the flat, but no. she stayed calm .
7. W hen his son was in Paris, the boy ill-b e h a v e d and caused many
difficulties. 8. H e got very a n g ry when I suggested that he might be
mistaken. 9. A fter listening a few minutes to their conversation. I was
bew ildered. Botany is not my subject. 10. Th ere were at least six mur­
ders in that v io le n t story. 11. Joan belongs to th e aristocracy:; you can
tell b y the way she walks and talks. 12. Publishers are well aware that
rumours o f possible prosecution o f a b o o k are likely to send the scales
up ra p id ly . 13. A ll the people involved in the Com m onwealth A rchi­
tects’ com petition w ere told to u>ait — because tim e w ould b e needed
t o organize an exhibition in which the entries could b e put on show.
14. You should not exaggerate her attraction for m en. 15.1 don’ t like to
hear people sneering at positions and titles they’ d have accepted im m e­
d ia tely i f they'd got the offer.

4. * Classify the phraseological units given in task 3 according to the function


they perform in the sentence.
M o d e l : as green as grass

0 The phraseological unit as green as grass is an adjectival idiom. It performs


the function o f the predicative in the sentence.
5. * What associations does the literal reading o f the given phraseological
units evoke? Analyze the link between these associations and the figurative
meaning o f the phraseological units.
M o d e l : to get wind o f — ‘to receive early warning o f imminent events,
often from a confidential source": We got wind o f his resignation a week before
it was announced in the newspapers.

0 Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit to get


w ind o f are connected with the idea o f an animal whose acute sense o f smell
allows it to scent danger in the wind.
1. to ra in cats a n d dogs — ‘to pour with rain, to rain very hard": We
went to Ireland but we can hardly say we saw it. It rained cals and dogs
every single day. 2. to cast a c lo u d o v e r — ‘ to sadden, to fill with gloom ,
to mar on e’ s pleasure’ : T h e news o f her father’s illness cast a cloud over
M a ry ’ s hon eym oon. 3. to show o n e 's teeth — ‘ use on e s power o r
a u th ority in an aggressive o r in tim id atin g w ay’ : M a tro n lo o k e d a
comfortable, motherly soul but she soon showed her teeth i f any o f the
inm ates gave signs o f having m inds o f their ow n. 4. to m en d o n e 's
m anners — ‘ becom e more civil or refined in speech and behaviour’ : I
will implement my promise to send you twenty-five ponds, but not until
you write to m e in a proper and civil strain. S o mend vour manners and
send m e something remotely publishable. 5. a sittin g d uck — ‘ someone
w ho is vulnerable to attack from his o r her enemies': These tourists in the
shopping center are sitlingducks for the town's professional pickpockets.
6. to c a tch som eon e re d -h a n d e d — ‘ to catch som eone in the act o f
committing a crim e, usually a theft*: Caught vou red-handed! I saw you
take the money out o f the box. 7. to ru n to seed — *to deteriorate in one's
habits and appearance, to becom e shabby*: W hen I called on him this
morning, he was unshaven and wearing an old. strained dressing-gown.
1am afraid he 1да?_шп to seed. 8. diam ond cu t diam ond — ‘a contest between
two equally sharp or cunning people*: The two experts argued fiercely with
each other the w hole afternoon. It was diam ond cut diam ond
6. * Identify the evaluationa! and emotive macrocomponenb o f meaning in
the given phraseological units. The contexts in which phraseological units are
used w ill be o f help to you.
M o d e l : hats o f f to som ebody — ‘ something that is said to express
admiration for someone*: Hals дДщ.Ьег - it takesn lot o f courage logo travelling
on your own at that age.
0 Evaluation is positive: spoken with approval.
I. a c u c k o o in th e n est — ‘ somebody w ho shares in o r takes over
privileges, tasks that belong to others': Y ou 've gained a lot from this deal,
but that is not fair. Y ou are a cuckoo in the nest. 2. to g iv e som ebody
c a n e b la n ch e — ‘ to allow or authorize smb. to d o , o r say as he likes,
make his own arrangements, use his ow n initiative’ : T h ey em ployed an
interior decorator and gave him carle blanclie to d o up the place as i f it
were his own. 3. to h it th e r o o f — ‘ to lose on e's tem per suddenly and
violently': I f I*m late again he’ ll hiLthe roof. 4. to show o n e 's m ettle -
to prove to be g o o d at doin g som ething b y succeeding in a difficult
situation’ : A relative newcom er to the gam e, he's certainly show ed his
m ettle in the last tw o gam es. 5. a f in e k e ttle o f fis h — ‘ a difficu lt
situation': That's a fine kettjg.Qf fish — the car w on 't start and I have
to leave in five minutes. 6. to keep u p w ith the Joneses — ‘ to try to
ow n all the same things as people you know in order to seem as g o o d as
them ’ : Her only concern in life was keeping up with the Joneses 7. to
lea d th e f ie ld — ‘ to be m ore successful than anyone else in business or
in an activity*: There are some areas o f medical research w here Russian
scientists still lead .Ihc field- 8. a fa ir-w e a th e r fr ie n d — ‘ someone who
is only you r friend when you are happy and successful*: I had a lot o f
m oney and I knew a lot o f people, but most o f them turned out to be
lair-w eathcr friends.

7. ’ State the communicative register o f the given phraseological units: formal,


neutral, informal.

I. to g e t th e message — ‘ to understand what someone is trying to


tell you even i f they are not expressing themselves directly*: Okay. 1 get
the message — you want to be alone. 2. to m a k e a v irtu e o f necessity —
‘ to change something you must d o into a positive or useful experience':
It’ s a long way to drive so I thought I'd make a virtue o f necessity and
slop o f f at some interesting places along the way. 3. a w et b la n k e t —
‘ som eone w ho does o r says something that stops oth er p eople from
enjoying themselves’ : I don’ t want to be a wet blanket, but you really
must play more quietly o r you'll disturb the people next door. 4. the
ca lm b e fore the storm — 'a peaceful and quiet period before a period
o f activity or trouble': T h e fam ily are arriving this afternoon so I’ m just
sitting down with a cup o f coffee, enjoying the calm b efore the storm.
5. le t bygones b e bygones — something that you say in order to tell
someone to forget about unpleasant things that have happened in the
past’ : W hy can't you put all that bad feeling behind you and lcLhygOUgS
be bygones. 6. to be a ll sm iles — ‘ to look happy and friendly, especially
when people are not expecting you to’ : She spent the w hole o f yesterday
shouting at people and yet this m orning she's ail sm ik $- 7- lo о
buzz — 'to telephone someone*: G ive m e a b w z when you get home.
8. to ta k e um b rage — ‘ to becom e upset and angry about something
som eone has said o r d on e': T h e m inister took umbrage when colleagues
queried her budget plans.

8. * Identify the gender macrocomponent o f meaning o f the given


phraseological units.

M o d e l : to throw down the gauntlet {glove): masculine

A lounge lizard, to lead a cat-and-dog life, to make eyes at someone,


a gentle giant, a big w ig. to tell tales, to have a roving eye. to pour out
on e's heart.
9. * Analyze the meaning and the examples o f the use o f the given
phraseological units and state the form o f expression o f gender (implicit or
explicit). In case o f the implicitly expressed gender macrocomponent identify
factors determining its status as masculine, feminine or intergender.
M o d e I: to throw down the gauntlet {glove) — ‘ to challenge someone to
a contest’ : He threw down the gauntlet, and I think I will participate in this deal
to prove him we are equals.
0 The gender macrocomponent is expressed implicitly. The factor determining
the gender macrocomponent as masculine is a historic fact: in medieval
times, one knight would challenge another by throwing down his gauntlet
(glove).
1. a lou n ge liz a rd — *a man w h o spends a lot o f lim e trying t o meet
rich people, especially wom en, in bars and at social occasions’ : T h e bar
was empty except for the lounge lizard in the comer, w h o was obviously
w aiting for someone. 2. to le a d a c a t-a n d -d o g life — ‘ to lead a life o f
frequent o r constant quarrelling': You miss a wom an when she's been
living with you in the same house for six years, no matter what sort o f
cal -andrdog life you led together. 3. to m a k e eyes a t som eone — *to
look at som eone in a way that clearly indicates on e's interest in them ':
Th is party was a great disappointment. A nn made eves at almost every
man. except him . 4. a g e n tle g ia n t — *a man w ho is very tall and strong,
but has a very quiet, gentle character that does not match his appear­
ance': A s placid and amiable as he was tall, he becam e known as the
gcnilc sianl- 5. a b ig w ig — ‘ an important or influential person*: H e
became a_bifijvig in the world o f politics. 6. to te ll ta les — ‘ make known
or gossip about another person's secret, wrongdoings, o r faults’ : Jenny,
it’ s unfair. A ll we got was what we pinched out (o f ) the larder (клаловая)
and then you used to g o and tell talcs to mother. 7. to h a ve a rovin g
ey e — ‘ to be always look in g fo r a pretty fa ce ': It's a pity. A n n e's
husband has_a.roving eye and always seem to be with a pretty girl. I f his
w ife wasn't around, he had..a_K>ving_gyg. 8. to p o u r o u r o n e ’s h e a rt —
‘ to confide all on e's sorrows, fears, anxieties. hopes and joys to another
person’ : W hen we were alone, she poured out her heart to me about her
broken marriage.

10. * State the type o f transference on which the meaning o f the given
phraseological units is based.

M o d e I: in the flow er o f one's age — “the period o f a person’s greatest


success, popularity, activity or vigour, usually in his youth'

0 Phraseological transference is based on metaphor, i.e. on the likening o f


one o f the periods o f a person's life to one o f the periods o f plants' life in
which their flowers develop and open. Transference is also based on
synecdoche: the period in which a person is young and vigorous is regarded
as an integral part o f his w hole life.

to g o th rou g h f ir e a n d w a ter — ‘ to experience many difficulties


o r dangers in order to achieve something’ ; 2 ) to f i t lik e a g lo v e — ‘ to
fit perfectly'; 3 ) to b u ry th e h a tch e t — ‘ to com e to friendly o r peaceful
terms with som ebody else, usually in arguments, disagreements'; 4 ) to
tic k o n e ’s w ounds — ‘ brood, console oneself, o r to try to restore oneself,
after any form o f defeat, injury o r loss’ ; 5 ) a b ig w ig — ‘ an influential
and im portant p erson '; 6 ) to p u t sm b. o u t to p a s tu re — ‘ to force
someone to retire*; 7) to lie o n sm b ’s sh ou ld ers — ‘ to be responsible
for, to have to answer for*; 8 ) (a s ) g e n tle as a la m b — ‘ very calm and
kind'; 9 ) to ta lk B illin gsga te — ‘ to use harsh, rude language, to swear
(Billingsgate is a Lon d on fish market)’ ; 10) a d og in th e m a n g er — ‘ a
person w ho selfishly prevents others from using o r enjoying something
which he keeps fo r himself, though he cannot use o r en joy i f .

11. * Classify the italicized phraseological units into: 1) phraseological


fusions: 2) phraseological unities; 3) phraseological collocations. Contexts will
help you to understand the meaning o f phraseological units. In case o f difficulty
consult a dictionary.
0 The phraseological uniw o sp ill the beans means 'to give away information.
deliberately or unintentionally'. It is a phraseological fusion (group I).

I. You can't keep a secret — you see no reason why you shouldn't
s p ill th e beans. 2. ‘ It’ s hard on Robert, o f course,’ N e d went on ; he
was try ing to ignore the re d h e rrin g and get on with the story. 3. Well,
let’ s admit there were mistakes on both sides; w e’ ll b u ry the p a s t and
tryr to make a fresh start. 4. H e produced a huge silver case containing
what look ed a t f ir s t s ig h t like small cheap cigars. 5. But oth er than
dining out. which 1 like. I'm <7 h om e b ird . I ’ m not on e fo r a big social
whirl. 6. T h e boy is quite impossible. From now on I wash m y hands
o f him. 7. ‘ C an I g o with you to this party.’ ‘ W e s h a ll only be ta lk in g
business. You wouldn’ t be interested.’ 8. Billy's been such a good boy.
M rs Smith — never once got out o f bed and took his m edicine lik e a
lam b. 9 . 1 ran to my father, waving the m agazine and shouting. ‘ This is
m y hom e, look.’ Dad fairly blew his top. H e told m e not to be silly;
that it was a building called a tem ple, in a country called Egypt and that
1 had never been there. 10. T o say you lea d a busy life is not an answer
to whether you take enough exercise. 11. In the face o f stiff competition
from rival firm s we had to f ig h t f i r e w ith f ir e and slash o u r prices.
12. T h e grey colou r is in fa s h io n in this season. 13. Г r e been w ork in g
m y fin g e rs to th e b on e to get the dress ready in tim e for the wedding.
14. 1 don’ t believe he is a man to c o m m it m u rd er. 15. 17/ b e hanging
u p m y boots next year. I think I deserve a rest after running the business
for thirty years.

12.* Analyze the meaning o f the given phraseological units. Group them
into: I >native; 2) borrowed phraseological units. State the sources o f their origin.
I f in doubt consult dictionaries.
M o d e l : the b e -a ll and en d -a ll o f — ‘ the main purpose of. all that matters
in the life'
0 The phraseological unit the b e -a ll and en d -a ll o f s o f native English origin.
as it is from W.Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
1) to h a n g up o n e 's b o o t — ‘ retire’ ; 2 ) to b u ry th e h a tch e t — *to
com e to friendly o r peaceful term s w ith som ebod y else, usually in
arguments, disagreements'; 3) a sa cred cow — ‘ somebody/something
that is greatly respected and revered, esp. by a particular nation or group,
so that attack o r criticism is not tolerated*; 4 ) a w h ip p in g b oy — ‘ a
person w ho is blam ed o r punished for the faults o r incom petence o f
others’ : 5) a n u gly d u ck lin g — ‘ a plain, unprepossessing child b o m less
attractive than his brothers and sisters w h o later surpasses them , grows
into a beautiful person*; 6 ) o f th e sam e leaven/batch — ‘ about persons
w ho have very much in com m on , w ho are very similar in their way o f
life, behaviour, views, etc.’ : 7 ) the law o f th e ju n g le — ‘ self-preservation.
the survival o f the strongest, o r m ore unscrupulous*; 8 ) a n a p p le o f
d iscord — ‘ (som ebody o r something that is) a cause o f dispute, argument
o r rivalry*: 9 ) to h id e o n e 's h ea d in th e sa n d — ‘ willfully to close one's
eyes to danger, to refuse to face reality'; 10) a b lu e s to ck in g — *an
intellectual o r literary wom an*; 11 ) th e h o t seat — ‘ the position o f a
person w ho carries full responsibility fo r something, including facing
criticism o r being answerable fo r decisions o r actions'; 12) a d rop in
the bucket/ocean — ‘ something o f inconsiderable value, importance,
esp. as com pared with something larger in total o r in kind'; 13) p ig in
the m id d le — ‘ a person, or a group in a helpless position between, or
made use o f by. others’ ; 14) b lu e b lo o d — ‘ a person o f noble birth’ ;
15) a b lu e c o a t — a student at a charity school’ ; 16) to d ie w ith o n e 's
boots o n — ‘ to d ie while still at work’ ; 17) to fid d le w hile R om e b u m s —
'behave frivolously in a situation that calls fo r concern o r corrective
action'; 18) p e n n y w ise a n d p o u n d fo o lis h — ‘ careful and economical
in small matters w h ile being wasteful o r extravagant in large on es’ ;
19) the iro n c u rta in — ‘ the notional barrier between people, nations,
countries, etc. leading to the p o litical, econ om ical, etc. isolation ’ ;
20) th e R u ssia n s o u l — ‘ a vague, u nfulfilled yearning fo r a better,
spiritual life which w ould bring consolation and relief to the suffering
masses'; 21) to ru n th e g a u n tle t — ‘ to submit to a punishing ordeal'.
13.* Choose the correct phraseological unit from the box to fill in the gaps
in the sentences below.

dark horse, to work like a dog, sour grapes, to lord it over. Achilles
heel, to put o n e 's cards on the table, red tape, to see somebody in
the flesh, fat cats, around the clock

I. Workers are losing their jobs while the ... w ho run the company
are getting richer. 2. Stuart's getting married? H e’ s a ... — 1 never even
knew he had a girlfriend. 3. H e was a gifted businessman, but greed was
h is .... 4. I f I criticize her book, people w ill think it's ju s t .. . . 5. Th ere’ s
so much ... involved in getting a visa. 6. Doctors and nurses worked ...
to help the people injured in the train crash. 7. She thought it was time
... and tell him that she had n o intention o f marrying him. 8. H e likes
... the m ore ju nior staff in the office. 9 . 1 knew his face so well from the
photographs that it felt a bit strange when 1 fin a lly .. . . 10. H e ... all day
to finish the wallpapering.
VARIANTS AND DIALECTS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

1. T h e M ain Variants o f the English Language


1. 1. Variants o f English in the United Kingdom
1. 2 . Variants o f English outside the British Isles
2. Som e Peculiarities o f British English and Am erican English
3. Local Dialects in Great Britain
4. Local Dialects in the U S A
5. Social Variation o f the English Language
5.1. G ender Issues
5.2. Occupational Varieties

| 1. TH E MAIN VARIANTS OF TH E ENGLISH LANGUAGE

я In M o d e m linguistics the distinction is m ade between Standard


English and territorial variants and local dialects o f the English language.
Standard English may be defined as that form o f English which is
current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable
w herever English is spoken o r understood. Standard English is the
variety most w idely accepted and understood either within an English-
speaking country o r throughout the entire English-speaking world.
Variants o f English arc regional varieties possessing a literary norm.
There arc distinguished variants existing on the territory o f the United
K in gd om (British English. Scottish English and Irish E n glish ), and
variants existing outside the British Isles (Am erican English. Canadian
English, A ustralian English, N e w Z ea lan d English, South A frican
English and Indian English). British English is often referred to the
written Standard English and the pronunciation known as Received
Pronunciation (R P ).
Local dialects arc varieties o f English peculiar to some districts,
used as means o f oral comm unication in small localities; they possess
no norm alized literary form.

1.1. Variants of English in the United Kingdom

Besides British English which is often regarded as a collective term for


the forms o f English spoken on the British Isles, tw o other variants o f the
English language existing on the territory o f the United Kingdom , Scottish
English and Irish English, can be singled out (M a p 2).
Map 2

Scottish English and Irish English have a special linguistic status as


compared with dialects because o f the literature com posed in them 1.
S c o ttish English is considered the variant o f the English language
spoken in Scotland. Scottish English has a long tradition as a separate
w ritten and spoken variety. Pronunciation, gram m ar and lexis differ,
sometimes substantially, from other varieties o f English existing on the
territory o f the British Isles2.

1The name o f Robert Burns, the great national poet o f Scotland, is known all over
the world. There is a whole group o f poets including Hugh MacDiarmid writing in this
variant o f the English language (see Арн<иы ) //. Н. Лексикология современного
английского языка. М . 1973. - С. 238).
Much of the literary effect o f Anglo-Irish literature depends on the author's use o f Irish
English vocabulary, idioms and sentence-structure: from the earliest usages in the
fourteenth-century "Kildan: Poems" to the great nineteenth and twentieth century writers
such as George Bernard Shaw. Scan O ’Casey . John Millington Synge. James Joyce and
Samuel Beckett, and on to the most recent. Edna O'Brien. Roddy Dolyc. Seamus Heaney.
Jamie O'Neill. Macvc Bmchcy. Tom Paulin and Gerard Stcmbndgc. and so forth.
■ For example, one o f the grammatical differences between Scottish and British
English concerns the use o f the past participle in place o f the ing-form in phrases like
the children need fe d (cf. the children need feeding, in British English).
T h e uniqueness o f Scottish English can be explained by its historical
development. F o r almost three centuries, Scottish English has shaded
into, and com prom ised with, both Scots on on e side and the usage o f
England and Ireland on the other. M o st people range from kinds o f
urban and rural Scots through mixed usage to kinds o f Scottish Standard
English. In addition, three sources o f tension a ffe cted grea tly the
development o f Scottish English: I ) the tension between Scotland and
England; 2) the tension between Highlands and Lowlands. Scotland and
Ireland; 3) the tension between Protestants and Catholics'.
The identity o f Scottish English reflects an institutionalized social
structure, as it is most noticeable in the realms o f law. local government,
religion, and education, and raises problems o f intelligibility that have
n o parallel elsewhere in Britain.
A m o n g lex ica l p ecu lia rities o f S cottish E nglish the fo llo w in g
linguistic facts are o f importance: 1) some semantic fields are structured
differently in Scottish English and in British English. F o r exam ple, the
term m in o r in British English is used t o denote a person below the age
o f 18 years, while Scottish law distinguishes between p u p ils (to age 12
for girls and 14 fo r boys) and m in o rs (o ld e r children up to 18); 2 ) some
words used in Scottish English have equivalents in British English, e.g.
(S c E ) e x to rtion — (B rE ) b la ck m a il; 3 ) a great deal o f the distinctiveness
o f Scottish English derives from the influ ence o f o th er languages,
especially G a e lic . N o rw e ig e a n . and French. F o r exam ple. G a elic
borrowings include: ca irn — *a pile o f stones that marks the top o f a
mountain o r some other special place*, sporran — ‘ a small furry bag
that hangs in front o f a man's kilt as pan o f traditional Scottish dress*;
4 ) there are also many words which have the same form , but different
meanings in Scottish English and British English. For example, the word
g a te in Scottish English means ‘ road*; 5 ) som e Scottish w ords and
expressions are used and understood across vinually the w hole country,
e.g. d in n a e ( ‘d o n ’t ’ ), w ee ( ‘small ), k irk ( ‘ church ), lassie ( ‘ g irl’ ).
Irish English is considered the variant o f the English language used
in Ireland. It is also w idely referred to as H ib e rn o -E n g lis h o r A n g lo -
Iris h . A n g lo -Iris h is the oldest, long associated with p eople o f mainly
E n glish o r ig in . A s a result th e term is s o c ia lly and h is to ric a lly
ambiguous, and Irish people are often uncomfortable with it. It does
not therefore w ork w ell as a cover term fo r all usage in Ireland. T h e
term H ib e rn o -E n g lis h avoids this difficu lty, but runs the oth er way:
it tends to exclude the A n glo-Irish and the descendants o f Protestant
settlers. A n d Ir is h E n g lis h is transparent and is u n lik e ly t o be
misinterpreted.
Therefore Iris h E nglish subsumes all the Englishes o f the island, and
o th er terms stand fo r subvarieties. T h e tw o main politico-linguistic
divisions are S ou th ern and N o rth e rn , within and across which further

1 For more information see the Oxford Guide ю W orld ИпцИхИ. — US. 2002.
varieties are A n g lo -Iris h , H ib e rn o -E n g lis h , U ls te r S co ts , and the usage
o f the tw o capitals, D u b lin and Belfast.
T h e Irish English vocabulary is ch aracterized b y th e fo llo w in g
distinctive features: I ) the presence o f words with the same form as in
British English but different meanings in Irish English, e.g. backw ard —
•shy'; to d ou b t — *to believe strongly'; b o ld — ‘ naughty’ ; 2) the use o f
m ost re g io n a lly m arked w ords b y o ld e r , o fte n rural p e o p le , e .g .
b id d a b le — ‘ obedient'; fe a s a n t — ‘ affable’ ; 3 ) the presence o f nouns
taken from Irish which often relate either to food o r the supernatural,
e.g. banshee — ‘ fairy w om an' from bean s id h e; 4 ) the G aelic influence
on meanings o f some words, e.g . in to d estroy and d ren ch ed . These
words have the sem antic ranges o f their G a e lic equivalents m ill ‘ to
injure, spoil* and b d ite ‘ drenched, drowned, very w et’ ; 5 ) the presence
o f words typical o n ly o f Irish English (th e so-called Irishism s), e.g.
begorrah —‘ by G o d ’ ; 6 ) the layer o f words shared with Scottish English,
e.g. ava — ‘ at a ll’ ; g re e t — ‘ cry. weep’ ; b ra e — ‘ hill, steep slope'.
Besides distinctive features in lexis Irish English has grammatical,
phonetical and spelling peculiarities o f its ow n, e.g. the use o f ‘ docs be/
do b e’ construction in the follow in g phrase: “ Th ey d o b e ta lk in g on
th e ir m o b ile s a lo t ” . In Irish E nglish th e plu ral fo rm o f y o u is
distinguished from the singular, norm ally b y using the otherwise archaic
English w ord y e to denote plurality, e.g.: “ D id y e all g o to see it?” .

1.2. Variants of English outside the British Isles

Outside the British Isles there are distinguished the follow ing variants
o f th e E n glish language: A m e r ic a n E n glish . C a n a d ia n English.
Australian English. N e w Z ea lan d English. South A frican English.
Indian English and some others. Each o f these has developed a literature
o f its ow n. and is characterized b y peculiarities in phonetics, spelling,
grammar and vocabulary.
American English is the variety o f the English language spoken in
the U S A (M a p 3).
T h e first w ave o f English-speaking immigrants was settled in North
Am erica in the 17th century. In this century, there w ere also speakers in
N o r th A m e ric a o f the D u tch , French, G erm a n , native A m erican .
Spanish. Swedish and Finnish languages.
T h e vocabulary used b y Am erican speakers, has distinctive features
o f its ow n. There are w hole groups o f words which belong t o American
vocabulary exclusively and constitute its specific features. These words
are called Americanisms.
T h e firs t grou p o f such w o rd s m ay b e d escrib ed as historical
Americanisms, e .g . f a ll ‘ autumn’ , to guess ‘ to think', s ic k ‘ ill, unwell*.
In Am erican usage these words still retain their old meanings whereas
in British English their meanings have changed o r fell out o f use.
The second group o f Americanisms includes words w hich are noi
likely io be discovered in Brilish vocabulary'. These words may be called
proper Americanisms. Th ey were coined by the early Am ericans which
had io find names for the new environment (flora and fauna) and new
conditions o f life. e.g. red bud — ‘ an Am erican tree having small budlike
pink flowers, the state tree o f O klahom a’ : b/ue-grass — ‘ a sort o f grass
peculiar to N orth A m erica’.
A nother group o f Am ericanism s consists o f w ords w h ich may be
described as specifically American borrowings. These borrowings reflect
the historical contacts o f the A m ericans with oth er nations on the
A m erica n continent, e.g . ra n c h , s o m b re ro (Spanish borrow ings).
toboggan, ca rib o u (Indian borrowings).
O n e m ore grou p o f A m erican ism s is represented by A m erica n
shortenings. These are shortenings which were produced on Am erican
soil, but m ay be used in other variants o f English as w ell. e.g. d orm
(dorm itory), m o (m om ent), ce rt (certainty).
C a n a d ia n E nglish is the variety o f the English language used in
Canada (M a p 4).
In many respects, the spelling o f Canadian English is intermediate
between British English and Am erican English. However, the spoken
language is much closer to Am erican English than to British English. It
is also influenced by Canadian French, as Canada has both English and
French as official languages.
Map 4

Where Canadian English shares vocabulary with other variants o f


English, it tends to be closer to A m erica n than to British English.
However, some terms in standard Canadian English are shared with
British, but not with Am erican English, e.g. Tory' for a Conservative
Party Canadian politician, busker for a street performer.
Canadian English also has its ow n words not found in other variants
o f English'. Specifically Canadian words are called Canadianisms, e.g.
parka d e ('parking garage*), chesterfield ('a sofa, co u c h '), to fa th o m
o u t ( 't o explain ).
There may be also meaning dilTerences in words and expressions used
in Canadian English and in oth er variants o f the English language. For
example, to table a d o cu m e n t in Canada is to present it. whereas in
the United States it means to withdraw it from consideration
A u stralian E nglish is the variety o f the English language used in
Australia. Australian English is similar in many respects to British English1

1 In 1998 Oxford University Press produced a Canadian English dictionary, after


five years o f lexicographical research, called 7Ъе Canadian Oxford Dictionary, a 2nd
edition was published in 2004. It listed uniquely Canadian words, words borrowed from
other Languages and surveyed spellings, such as whether colo ur or color was the most
popular choice in common use.
bui ii also borrows from American English, e.g . ii uses tru ck instead o f
lo rry . I i is most similar to N e w Zealand English. There are also influences
from Hiberno-English, as many Australians are o f Irish descent.
D u e t o the predom inance o f foreign mass m edia products in the
country. Australians are fam iliar with at least some o f the variants o f
m o d e m English, and m any have a d op ted som e o f the distin ctive
vocabulary and idioms o f those variants o f the English language. The
exposure to the different spellings o f British and Am erican English leads
to a certain amount o f spelling confusion, e.g . b e h a v io u r as opposed
to beha vior. Generally, either variant is accepted (though British spelling
is more prevalent)*1.
Australian English also incorporates several uniquely Australian
terms, such as. for example, ou tb a ck to refer t o rem ote regional areas.
w a lk a b ou t to refer to a long jou rney o f uncertain length and bush to
refer to native forested areas, but also to regional areas.
Australian English has a unique set o f diminutives form ed by adding
- o o r - ie to the ends o f (often abbreviated) words, e.g. a rvo (afternoon),
servo (service station, though the term is dying ou t), rego (annual motor
vehicle registration); b a rb ie (barbecue), b ik k ie (biscuit). Occasionally,
а - г а diminutive is used, usually for personal names when: the first o f
multiple syllables ends in an T \ e.g . S h a ron becomes S ha zza.
A very common feature o f traditional Australian English is rhym ing
slang2, based on Cockney rhyming slang and imported by migrants from
London in the 19hcentury. For example, Captain C ook rhymes with look ,
so to have a captain coo k , or to have a captain, means to have a look .
N e w Z e a la n d E nglish is the variety o f the English language spoken
in N e w Zealand. N e w Zealand English is close to Australian English
in pronunciation. Possibly the only difference between N e w Zealand and
British spelling is in the ending - is e o r -iz e . N ew Zealanders use the
- is e ending exclusively, whereas Britons use cither ending, and some
British dictionaries and style manuals prefer the - iz e ending.
Many local words in N e w Zealand English, largely borrowed from the
M aori population, have arisen to describe the local flora, fauna, and the
natural environment, e.g. the names o f birds {k iw i, tu i); the names o f fish
( shellfish. h o k i): the names o f native trees {k a u ri. rim u )yand many others.

1In 1981 the M acquarie D ictionary o f Australian English was published after 10
years o f research and planning. Editions have been published ever since. There is also
an Oxford dictionary o f Australian English.
1 Rhyming slang was often used ю create euphemistic terms usually for obscene
words. In recent years this feature o f Australian English has declined under the impact
o f mass popular culture.
' In 1998. Oxford University Press produced a D ictionary o f Neu- Z e a la n d English
that was based on over 40 years research. This research started with Harry Orsman's
1951 thesis and continued with his publishing this dictionary as the editor. To assist
with and maintain this work, the N e w Z e a la n d Dictionaryt Center was founded in
1997.
Map 5

There arc also a lot o f n on -M a ori words that are unique to N ew


Zealand English, o r shared with Australian English, e.g. b a ch ‘ a small
h olid ay h o m e , o lten w ith o n ly on e o r tw o room s and o f sim ple
construction , fo o tp a th pavem ent', togs 'swim m ing costume*.
It is m idiom s, in different m etaphoric phrases that N e w Zealand
English has m ade most progress o r divergence. O ften th ey reflect
significant differences in culture. For exam ple, the expression up the
P u h oi w ithout a pa d d le means to be in difficulties without an obv ious
solution and the phrase sticky beak is used to describe someone undulv
cunous about people's affairs. T h e latter idiom has the same meaning
m both N e w Zealand and Australia, but is used with a slightly different
emphasis. In Australia sticky beak is quite pejorative, lo be called sticky
beak is definitely a criticism whereas in New Zealand it is used with
more affection and usually as a tease.
S ou th A fric a n English is the variety o f the English language used
in South A fr ic a and surrounding countries, notably N am ib ia and
Zimbabwe (M a p 5).
South A frican English* is not unified in its pronunciation: this can
be attributed to the fact that English is the m other tongue for only 40 f?

The P u h o i IS a river just north o f Auckland


- The fourth edition o f the D ictionary o f South African English was released in
m i . Another important source for distinctive vocabulary is A Dictionary o f South
Afncan English on Historical Principles ( 1096».
o f ihe w hile inhabitants (th e remainder mostly having Afrikaans as their
m other lon gu e) and o n ly a tiny m inority o f black inhabitants o f the
region. South African English spoken by whites bears some resemblance
Pronunciation to a m ix o f Australian English and British English
Afrikaans has heavily influenced only those living in Afrikaans areas.
In South A lncan English there arc words that d o not exist in British
or A m e ric a n E n glish , usually d erived from A frik a a n s o r A frica n
languages, e.g. bra. b ru - male friend (prob. from Afrikaans word for
brother) . d orp - -a small rural town o r village’ , s a l - 'dead, passed
aw ay.
Th ere are also a few unique words (o r expressions) in South African
English, in which com m on English words take on new meanings, e.g.
b o y — a black m an' (d e r o g ). tow n sh ip — ‘ urban area fo r black
C olou red or Indian South Africans under apartheid*, b o o k o f lif e -
national identity document'.
Several South A fric a n w ords, usually from A frica an s o r native
languages o l the region, have entered world English, e.g. a p a rth e id -
a p olicy o r system o f segregation o r discrimination on grounds o f race'.
trek — a long arduous journey, especially on e made on foot'.
Indian English is the variety o f the English language spoken w idely
in India (M a p 6).
T h e language that Indians arc laught in schools is essentially British
English and in particular, spellings follow British conventions. However,
the British left India in 1947. and therefore many phrases that the British
m ay consider antique are still popular in India. O fficial letters continue
to include phrases like plea se d o th e n eed fu l, y o u w ill b e in tim a te d
s h ortly , and y o u r o b ed ien t serva nt. In addition, Indian English mixes
in various words from Indian languages, e.g . band h o r h a rta l for strikes.
ch a lla n fo r a m onetary receipt o r a traffic ticket. Such words have been
regularly entering the O xford English Dictionary, indeed, some {ju n g le .
bungalow , p y ja m a ) became mainstream generations ago.
D espite th e fact that British English is an o ffic ia l language o f
G overnm ent in India (as a result spoken and written English in India
has not explicitly “ forked" away from the British variant o f the English
language), there are words and expressions that can be regarded as those
used only in Indian English, e .g . c r o r e — ‘ ten m illions', sch edu led
trib e — *a socially/econom ically backward Indian tribe, given special
privileges b y the governm ent', m oh a lla — ‘ an area o f a town o r village:
a com m unity’.

2. SO M E PECULIARITIES OF BRITISH ENGLISH


AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

G e o rg e Bernard Shaw said that the U n ited States and U nited


Kingdom are “ tw o countries divided b y a com m on language". A similar
comm ent is ascribed to W inston Churchill.
T h e Am erican variant o f the English language differs from British
English in pronunciation, some m inor features o f grammar, spelling
standards and vocabulary.
T h e Am erican spelling is in some respects sim pler than its British
counterpart, in o th er respects just d ifferen t. S om e o f the spelling
differences are shown in Table 7.
Speaking about lexical differences between the tw o variants o f the
English language, the follow ing cases are o f importance:
1. Cases where there are n o equivalent words in one o f the variants.
F o r example. British English has n o equivalent to the Am erican word
d riv e -in ( ‘ a cinem a o r restaurant that one can visit without leaving one's
car’ ).
2. Cases where different w'ords are used for the same denotatum,
e.g . sweets (B rE ) — candy’ (A m E ); recep tion c le rk (B rE ) — desk cle rk
(A m E ).
3. Cases where some words are used in both variants but are much
com m oner in one o f them. For example, shop and store are used in both
variants, but the form er is frequent in British English and the latter —
in Am erican English.
T a b le 7

Words written with British English American English

-ОШ-/-ОГ colour color


honour honor

-O U -/ -0 - favourite favorite

-re / -e r centre center


theatre theater

-g u e / -g catalogue catalog
dialogue dialog

-is e / -ire realise realize


ha rm on ise harmonize
-yse/ -yze analyse analyze

-x io n / -c tio n co n n e x io n c o n n e c tio n
гсПe x io n re fle c tio n

counse//or co u n s e lo r
modc/Ang modeling

-a e -/ -e - encyclopaedia encyclopedia
anaemia anemia

4. Cases where on e (o r m o re) lexico-sem an lic varian t(s) is (are)


specific 10 either British English o r A m erican English. F o r exam ple,
both British and Am erican English have the word fa c u lty , but denoting
‘ all the teachers and other professional workers o f a university o r college'
this w ord is used only in Am erican English. As a rule, such words may
have analogous oppositions to one o f these lexico-semantic variants in
another variant o f English o r in Standard English, e.g. A m E fa c u lty —
BrE/SE tea ch in g staff.
5. Cases where on e and the same w ord in on e o f its lexico-semantic
variants is used oftener in British English than in Am erican English. For
example, the most com m on British m eaning o f the w ord brew is ‘a cup
o f tea ' w h ile in A m erican English this w ord is m ostly used in the
meaning 'a beer o r coffee drink*.
6. Cases where the same words have different semantic structure in
British English and Am erican English. For example, the word hom ely
used to describe a person in British English m eans ‘ h o m e -lo vin g ,
dom esticated, house-proud’ , w h ile in A m erica n English this word
denotes ‘ unattractive in appearance'.
In some cases the connotational aspect o f meaning o f such words
comes to the fore. For example, the w ord p o litic ia n in British English
possesses the m eaning ‘ a person w h o is professionally in volved in
politics*, thus it is rather neutral, whereas in Am erican English this word
is derogatory- as it m eans ‘ a person w h o acts in a m anipulative and
devious way, typically to gain advancement within an organisation*.
Besides, British English and Am erican English have their ow n deri­
vational peculiarities that are usually con fin ed to the frequency with
which a certain pattern o r a m eans o f w ord-form ation is used. For
exam ple, some o f the affixes m ore frequently used in Am erican English
are: - е е ( d ra fte e — *a you n g m an a b ou t t o b e e n lis te d *), - s t e r
(r o a d s te r — ’ m o to r -c a r fo r lo n g jo u r n e y s b y r o a d * ), s u p e r -
(s u p e r-m a rk e t — *a very large shop that sells fo o d and other products
for the hom e*). Am erican English sometim es favours words that are
m orphologically m ore com plex, whereas British English uses clipped
forms, cf.: A m E tra n sp o rta tio n — BrE tra n sp ort. In some cases the
formation o f w ords by means o f affixes is more preferable in American
English w hile in British English the form is a back-formation, cf.: A m E
b u rg la riz e — BrE burgle (from b u rg la r).

3. LOCAL DIALECTS IN GR EA T BRITAIN

T h ere arc fiv e m ain grou p s o f lo c a l d ia lects in G rea t B ritain:


Northern, M idland, Eastern. Western and Southern. T h e close links
existing between some o f the dialects make it possible to unite them into
tw o m ajor groups: I ) Southern dialects and 2 ) Northern and Midlands
dialects. See M ap 7 o f traditional dialects.
One o f the best known S ou th ern d ia le c ts is C o ck n ey , the regional
dialect o f London. T h is dialect exists on tw o levels1. As spoken b y the
educated lower m iddle classes it is a regional dialect marked by some
deviations in pronunciation but few in vocabulary and syntax. A s spoken
by the uneducated. C ockney differs from Standard English not only in
pronunciation but also in vocabulary, m orphology and syntax.
C ockney is lively and w itty and its vocabulary is imaginative and
colourful. Its specific feature is the so-called rhyming slang, in which
some w ords arc substituted by other words rhyming with them. B oots.
fo r instance, are called d aisy ro o ts , h a t is t it f o r ta t and w ife — tro u b le
a n d strife.
Som e specifically C ock n ey words and phrases are: balm y, barm y.
noun o r adjective m eaning ‘ m entally unbalanced*, t o f f 'г person o f the
upper class’ , u p th e p o le ‘ drunk’.
In recent decades a new dialect called E s tu a ry E nglish has been
gaining prom in en ce. Estuary English is the variety o f the English
language com m on in the South-East o f England, especially along the
river Tham es and its estuary. It is a hybrid o f Received Pronunciation

1 According lo E Partridge and H.C.Wytde.


Map 7

( R P ) and a number o f South-Eastern dialects, particularly from the


London and Essex areas. A m ong the most notable lexical features o f the
Estuary English dialect is the use o f Cockney words and phrases as well
as words from Am erican and Australian English.
Estuary English is very popular among the young probably because
it is said to obscure social origins — very often it is adopted as a neutral
d ia lec t. It increases “ street c r e d ” am on g the you n g fro m an R P
background and young people with local dialects and accents adopt it
because it sounds more “ sophisticated". Estuary English speakers are
to be found "grouped in the m iddle groun d", but it can be heard in the
House o f C om m ons as well as being used b y some o f the members o f
the Lords. It can be heard on the B B C and it is well established among
the businessmen in the City.
Map 8

One o f ihc representatives o f the group o f N o rth e rn and M id la n d s


d ia le c ts is the Y o r k s h ir e d ia le c t. A s Yorkshire is on the linguistic
border o f N o n h e m and N orth -M id la n d varieties o f English, it shares
some o f their characteristics.
Yorkshire is the dialect spoken b y the m ajority o f people in the
English county o f York. A s there is much variation within the dialect it
is usually discussed in terms o f the three Ridings that correspospond to
the historical administration areas o f North. East and South Yorkshire.
T h e prodigious variation in vocabulary arises from both the historical
settlem ent patterns o f the various European invaders and the later
linguistic changes fo llo w in g the settlem ent, c f.: a r m p it (Standard
English) — o x te r (N o rth Riding) — a rm p it (East Riding) — a rm h ole
(West Riding) (M a p 8).
It w as in Y o rk s h ire that A n g lo -S a x o n sp eakers m ixed w ith
Scandinavian settlers in the market places, etc., during the period from
the 8lh to the 1l ,h centuries, and engaged in a sim plified speech to make
themselves understood to each other, dropping gender, w ord endings,
com p lex conjugations, etc. T h e result was the birth o f a sim p lified
M iddle English that spread throughout England: a revolution speeded
up after the N orm an Conquest. These facts explain the remarkable
resem blance that som e Yorkshire w ords have in relation to their
Scandinavian counterparts, a testimony to their historical origins, cf.:
c h ild (Standard English) — b a irn (Yorshire dialect) — barn (M o d e m
N orw egian). 1

1as well as Pennine pans o f l.ancashire. Staffordshire, and Derbyshire


Som e words in Yorkshire dialect at first sight seem to be Standard
English but they have different meanings. F o r exam ple, the w ord re a l
is used in the Yorkshire dialect to describe som ething g o o d o r outstand­
ing. it has nothing to d o with genuineness as com pared with the mean­
ing o f this w ord in Standard English. It is however not o n ly purely words
which contribute to the distinctiveness o f the Yorkshire dialect but also
the variety o f idiomatic expressions, e.g . a liu s a t /’ la st push u p — ‘ al­
ways at the last m om ent’ ; n ob b u t a m en tion — ‘just a small am ount’.
D ialects are now ch iefly preserved in rural com m unities, in the
speech o f elderly people. T h ey are said to undergo rapid changes under
the pressure o f Standard English taught at schools and the speech habits
cultivated by radio, television and other m eaas o f the mass media.

4. LOCAL DIALECTS IN TH E USA

The English language in the United States is characterized bv relative


uniformity throughout the country. Written Am erican English is fairly
standardized across the country. However, there is some variation in the
spoken language. T h re e m ajor belts o f dialects, each w ith its own
characteristic features, are identified: Northern, M idland and Southern.
T h e N o r th e r n division includes the N e w England settlement. N ew
York, and T h e Hudson Valiev-, northern Pennsylvania and O h io , and
beyond. T h e C onnecticut R iver is usually regarded as the southern/
western extent o f N ew England speech. C h ie f among the local variations
existing on the border between the Northern and M idland dialects are
those prevailing in and around N e w York C ity and northern N e w Jersey.
T h e N e w York dialect is famous worldwide due to countless m ovies and
television programs. It is spoken b y a significant portion o f native-born
residents o f N e w York C ity and its im m ediate vicinity in southeastern
N e w York State. T h e N ew Jersey dialect spoken in northern N e w Jersey
is simply a softer version o f the English language spoken by residents o f
N e w Y ork and is very frequ ently m istaken fo r it. M o st co llo q u ia l
greetings and expressions used in New- Y o rk are also said b y New
Jerseyans and with the same frequency.
A distinctive speech pattern was also generated by the separation o f
Canada from the United States, centered on the G reat Lakes region.
This is the Inland N orth dialect — the “ standard M idw estern" speech
that is generally considered free from regional marking in the United
States o f A m erica 1. Standard M idwestern is the dialect used by many
A m e ric a n netw ork te le v is io n broadcasters. In d ivid u a ls fro m the
M idw estern U S som etim es have d iffic u lty in understanding o th er

1Most traditional sources cite Standard Midwestern American English (alternately


referred to as G eneral A m e ric a n ) as the unofficial standard accent and dialect o f
American English.
dialects o f English, because most oth er dialects, both in the U S and
abroad, place less stress on consonants and o n syllables in the middle
o f words. Since Slavic languages stress consonants even m ore heavily
than does Standard Midwestern, a Russian w ho learns English extremely
well often sounds almost M idwestern'. Th is is especially noticeable in
the speech o f interpreters for important Russian officials.
M id la n d sp ee ch is divided into tw o discrete subdivisions, the North
Midland and South M idland speech. T h e N orth Midland dialect extends
from southern N e w Jersey and Pennsylvania, west in to O h io and
beyond. T h e N orth M idland speech continues to expand westward until
it becom es the closely related speech o f California. T h e South Midland
speech starts from northern Delaware along the Blue Ridge Mountains
o f Virginia, follows the O h io River in a generally southwesterly direction,
moves across Arkansas and Oklahom a west o f the Mississippi, and peters
out in western Texas. T h is is the dialect associated with truck drivers
on the Citizens' band and country music.
T h e S o u t h e r n d iv is io n com p rises the southern tw o -th ird s o f
Delaware, the eastern parts o f M aryland. V irginia, N o rth Carolina.
South C a ro lin a , G e o rg ia and the G u lf States (F lo r id a , Alabam a,
Mississipi, Louisiana, and the south-east parts o f Texas).
T h ere is also on e eth n ic variety in the U n ited States. A fr ic a n -
A m e ric a n V ern a cu la r E nglish (also called E b on ics), that has gained
national prom inence and influenced usage from coast to coast. This
dialect is used in many A frican-A m erican com m unities in the U S A .
especially in urban areas. African-Am erican Vernacular English has been
w id ely used in popu lar entertainm ent and has spread in inform al
settings, especially am ong the young and with emphasis on trendy slang,
verbal games, and such music-related activities as ja zz and rap. It has
its origin in the culture o f enslaved Am ericans and also has roots in
England. African-Am erican Vernacular English is largely based on the
Southern Am erican English variety. There is much controversy over the
linguistic status o f African-Am erican Vernacular English in the United
States. Opinions range from it deserving official language status in the
U S to it being dismissed2.*3

1 E.g. Vladimir Posner


3 There has often in recent years been intense debate about whether African-
American English should be an accepted classroom medium leading to and co-existing
with American Standard English, or something separated o ff as at best casual usage
and at worst slang and street talk. Older African-Americans have been among the
strongest opponents o f any suggestion o f the со-equal use o f the two varieties in schools,
usually because it is regarded as a brake on people's socio-economic progress (which
includes the Лисп! use o f mainstream English). The nature, origin, and development
o f African-.Amcncan English have long been controversial matters among scholars, and
indeed the existence o f such a discrete variety has been fiercely questioned by a number
o f American academics, regardless o f their own ethnic background ( M c A rth u r T , The
O xfo rd G uide to W orld English . p . 190\.
T h e sounds o f American speech can be also identified with a number
o f public figures. F o r exam ple, Presidcni John F.Kennedy’ s speech is
associated with the Boston Irish dialect, while Presidcni Jimmy Carter spoke
with a Southern coastal dialect. T h e North Midlands speech is familiar to
those who have heard N eil Armstrong and John G lenn, while the South
Midland speech was the speech o f President Lyndon Baines Johnson.

5. SOCIAL VARIATION O F TH E ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Regional language variation provides a geographical answer to the


question 'W here are you from , in the English-speaking society to which
you belong?’ S o c ia l la n gu a ge va ria tio n deals with different identities
a person acquires participating in social structure. Hence social language
variation provides an answer to the questions 'W h o are you?’ and ‘ What
are you?’ People belong to different social groups and perform different
social roles. A person might be identified as *a w om an’ , 'a parent’ , 'a
doctor’ , 'an apprentice’ , 'a political activist’ , o r in many other ways. Any
o f these identities can have consequences for the kind o f language people
use. In d e e d , it is usually language — m uch m o re than c lo th in g ,
furnishing, o r o th er externals — w hich is the c h ie f signal o f both
permanent and transparent aspects o f a person's social identity.
Certain aspects o f social variation seem to be o f particular linguistic
| consequence. A ge. sex. and socioeconom ic class have been repeatedly
shown to be o f im portance when it com es to explaining the way sounds,
grammatical constructions, and vocabulary vary. A dopting a social role
invariably involves a ch oice o f appropriate linguistic forms.

5.1. Gender Issues

Som e o f the most important linguistic changes affecting English since


the 1960s have arisen from the way society has com e to look differently
at the practices and consequences o f se xism 1. There is now a widespread
awareness o f the w ay in which language displays (directly o r indirectly)
social attitudes towards men and w om en. T h e criticism s have been
mainly directed at the biases built into English vocabulary and gram­
m ar which reflect a traditionally m ale-oriented view o f the world that
reinforces the low status o f women in society. Thus, gender issues have
becom e part and parcel o f the problem o f p o litic a l co rrectn ess (P C 2).

Sexism — discrimination against one sex. typicalIv men against women.


1 Political correctness means that one should avoid using language which might
be interpreted as offensive especially to groups o f people w ho arc considered to be
disadvantaged or oppressed. Besides sex. the most sensitive domains where linguistic
discrimination can be observed are to do with race. age. ecology, and physical or menial
personal development.
In vocabulary, attention has been focused on the replacement o f
’ m ale' words with a generic m eaning by neutral items, fo r exam ple,
ch a irm a n becom es c h a ir o r ch a irp erson , salesm an — sales assistant.
In certain cases, such as jo b descriptions, the use o f sexually neutral
language has becom e a legal requirement. T h e vocabulary o f marital
status has also been affected — notably in the introduction o f M s as a
neutral alternative to M iss o r M rs.
During the last decades gender issues have gained a serious scientific
ground and developm ent not only in Britain and the U S A but also in
oth er European countries. O n e o f the m ost im portant present-day
p rob lem s co n n ected w ith the in teraction o f language and gender
(defined as a sociocultural category1) is concerned with answers to the
fo llow in g questions: *W hy d o gender id eologies appear?', ‘ W h y are
particular gender notions practiced through language?’ . ‘ H ow arc gender
ideologies constituted/constructed in language?’ , and ‘ In what way do
they shape discourse communities?'
T h ere exist m any approach es to the in vestigation o f g en d er in
m odem linguistics. A m o n g the most notable and authoritative ones there
can be mentioned Critical discourse analysis and Cultural practice the­
ory. C r itic a l d iscou rse a n alysis examines the interaction between lan­
guage and social structures, how social structures are constituted by lin­
guistic interaction. It aims to provide accounts o f the production, in­
ternal structure, and overall organization o f texts, to investigate the s o ­
ciopolitical and cultural presuppositions and implications o f discourse.
T h e second approach — C u ltu ra l p ra c tic e th e o ry — centers its atten­
tion not only on the constitution o f cultural meanings, but also on the
significance o f individual experience as a force in this process. T h e g iv­
en approach examines members’ everyday lived experiences as a whole
to demonstrate how they constitute gender ideologies. It reveals the cat­
egories ‘ m en' and ‘ w om en’ by examining what people d o to shape these
cultural categories, how individuals form cultural meanings and use
them on the basis o f their ow n gender practices and everyday activities.
A grow ing interest in linguistic aspects o f gender issues let them form
an independent branch in linguistic science known as Linguagenderology.
and has given rise to a number o f scientifically well-grounded works in such
fields o f the English language as phonetics, grammar, lexis, phraseology.
In Russia am ong the most significant investigations based on the
material o f different languages, works carried out by the members o f the
Laboratory o f G en der Studies o f M oscow State Linguistic University
deserve close attention and consideration.-’
1Gender - social or sociocultural sex — can be defined as the agttrcgate o f behavioral
norms which are usually associated with men or women in a particular society.
-’ See: k'upu-iuiia A . B . Гендер Лингвистические аспекты. — M.. 1999;
Зыкова И . В. Способы конструирования ictucpa н английской фразеологии. —
М.. 2003: а также сборники научных трудов Лаборатории гендерных исследо­
ваний МГЛУ.
5.2. Occupational Varieties

T h e lerm o c c u p a t io n a l d i a l e c t ’ has lo n g been used fo r the


distinctive language associated with a particular way o f earning a living.
However, such varieties arc not like regional or class dialects. Features
o f language which identify a person s geographical or social origin, once
established, tend n ot to vary, unless a ffe cted by m ajor currents o f
language change. Occupational varieties o f language are not like that.
T h e linguistic features m ay be just as distinctive as regional o r class
features, but they are only in temporary use. T h ey are ‘ part o f the jo b ' -
taken up as a person begins work, and put dow n as he ends it.
A ll occupations are linguistically distinctive to some degree, even if
all that is involved is a few items o f specialized vocabulary. T h e more
specialized the occupation, and the more senior o r professional the post,
the m ore technical the language is likely t o be. A ls o , the m ore an
occupation is part o f a long-established tradition, the more it is likely
to have accreted linguistic rituals which its members accept as a criterion
o f perform ance. A m ong various occupational varieties o f the English
language the h igh ly d istin ctive on es are R e lig io u s English. Legal
English. N ew s M edia English and Advertising English. Th ey provide the
clearest cases o f differences and peculiarities in phonology, grammar,
vocabulary, and patterns o f discourse.
R e lig io u s E nglish is a variety in which all aspects o f structure are
implicated. There is a unique phonological identity in such genres as
spoken prayers, sermons, chants, and litanies, including the unusual case
o f unison speech. Graphological identity is found in liturgical leaflets,
biblical texts, and many other religious publicatioas. There is a strong
grammatical identity in invocations, prayers, blessings, and other ritual
form s, both public and private. A n obvious lexical identity pervades
form al articles o f faith and scriptural texts, with the lexicon o f doctrine
in form in g the w h ole o f religious expression. A n d there is a highly
distinctive discourse identity in such dom ains as liturgical services,
preaching, and riles o f passage (e .g . weddings, funerals).
L e g a l E nglish has a great deal in com m on with Religious English
as it shares with religion a respect for ritual and tradition. This variety
o f language is so specific that it can hardly be applicable to individual
circum stances. A great d eal o f L e g a l E nglish lexical and stylistic
peculiarities, its distance from everyday usage, can be explained by its
origins. T h e use o f legal varieties o f Latin and French, after the Norman
Conquest, introduced a m ajor barrier between the professional lawver
and the ordinary person. When English eventually became the official
language o f the law in Britain, in the 17,h century, a vast am ount o f
earlier vocabulary had already becom e fixed in legal usage. T h e reliance
on Latin phrasing (e .g . m ens re a — ‘ the intention o r knowledge o f
wrongdoing that constitutes par o f a crim e, as opposed to the action or
conduct o f the accused ) and French borrowings (e.g . lie n — *a right
lo keep possession o f property belonging t o another person until a debt
ow ed b y that person is discharged') was supplemented by ceremonial
phrasing ( s ig n ed . sea led , a n d d e liv e re d ), conventional term inology
(a lib i, n e g o tia b le in s tru m e n t) . and oth er features w hich have been
handed dow n to form present-day legal language.
Legal English has several subvarieties, reflecting its different roles.
F o r example, there is the language o f legal documents, such as contracts,
deeds, insurance policies, wills: there is the language o f works o f legal
reference, with their com plex apparatus o f footnotes and indexing: there
is the language o f case law. made up o f the spoken o r written decisions
which judges make about individual cases.
News Media English is a variety that includes newspaper language,
radio language, and television language. W hen the notion o f a language
variety is applied to the media, it suggests the necessity to look within
each product (a newspaper, a radio o r T V channel) for uses o f language
which have been shaped by the nature o f the medium, o r whose purpose
is to make use o f the capabilities provided by the medium. A n d here,
the comm unication and presentation o f news is dominant.
N ew s reports are characterized by the use o f the so-called 'preferred'
form s o f expressions, lack o f stylistic idiosyncrasy, and their consistency
o f style over long periods o f time. Once a publication o r channel has
op ted a certain style in reporting news, it tends to stay with it. and
imposes it vigorously on its material. T h is has particularly been the case
with the press. Th ere arc several distinctive linguistic features o f news
rep ortin g ch aracteristic o f jou rn alese: 1 ) th e h ead lin e is critica l,
summarizing and drawing attention to the story. Its telegraphic style is
probably the best-known feature o f news reporting: 2) the first ( lea d ')
paragraph both summarizes and begins to tell the story: it is also the
usual source o f the headline: 3) the original source o f the story is given,
either in byline (R e u te rs ) o r built into the text (A s e n io r W h ite H ouse
o ffic ia l s a id ...): 4 ) the participants are categorized, their names usually
being preceded by a general term (c h a m p , p ris o n e r, o f f ic ia l) and
adjectives (handsom e French sin ger Jean B ru n i...): 5 ) explicit lim e and
place locators are given ( In P a ris yesterday...) as well as facts and figures
( 6 7 p e o p le w ere k ille d in a b o m b b la s t...), and direct o r indirect
quotations ( P M 'b u n gles', says e x p ert: E xp e rt says P M b u n gled ).
T h e most striking features o f Advertising English can b e observed
in com m ercial advertising. It uses deviant graphology ( B eanz M e a n t
H e in z ), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm , alliteration, and
rhym e. C o m m ercia l a dvertisin g p rovid es fe r tile s o il fo r a d jective
inflections, e .g . T he resu lt, s m o o th e r, f ir m e r s k in : T h e ta stiestfis h :
T h e la test in ga s co o k in g . Advertisem ents also rely a great deal on
im perative sentences (L e a r n a la n g u a g e o n lo c a tio n , s ta y w ith a
w e lc o m in g lo c a l fa m ily , m a k e fr ie n d s w ith o th e r v is ito rs fr o m
a rou n d th e w orld ). Lexically, this variety o f English tends to use words
which are vivid (new . b rig h t), concrete (s o ft, w ashable), positive (safe.
e x t r a ), and u n reserved (b e s t, p e r f e c t ). A d v e r tis in g E n glis h is
characterized by the use o f highly figurative expressions, e.g . taste the
su n sh in e in K -Y p e a c h e s . C om m ercial advertising can make effective
use o f w ord-play and is also characterized by a w ide use o f slogans',
e.g . E le c tro lu x b rin gs lu x u ry to life ; H e in e k en refreshes th e parts
o th e r beers c a n n o t re a ch .

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. Q U E S T IO N S

1- What does the term ‘ Standard English' mean?


2. W hat is the difference between the terms ‘ variants* and ‘ local
dialects’ o f the English language?
3. What variant o f English is considered to be Standard English?
4. W hat variants o f English exist on the territory o f the United
Kingdom ?
5. W hy d o Scottish English and Irish English have a special linguistic
status and cannot be referred to as dialects?
6. What arc the main distinctive features o f Scottish English?
7. What are the main peculiarities o f Irish English?
8. What variants o f the English language outside the British Isles can
be singled out?
9. What distinctive features does the vocabulary o f Am erican English
have? W hat is m eant by: a ) h is to ric a l A m e rica n ism s: b ) prop er
A m erican ism s; c ) sp e c ific a lly A m e rica n borrow ings: d ) A m erica n
shortenings?
10. What does Canadian English have in com m on with: a ) Am erican
English; b ) British English? What docs the term ‘Canadianisms* denote?
И - W t e l varieties o f the English language does Australian English
have close tics w ith? W hat are the main peculiarities o f Australian
English?
12. What are the main distinctive features o f N e w Zealand English?
13. W here is South A frican English spoken? W hat variants o f English
and other languages does South A frican English have close links with
and why? What are the peculiarities o f the vocabulary o f South African
English?
14. What is meant b y the term ‘ Indian English’? What peculiarities
are characteristic o f this variant o f the English language?
15. In what way does the Am erican variant o f English d iffer from
British English?
16. What are the spelling differences between Am erican English and
British English words?

' Slogan — a short and sinking or memorable phrase used in advertising.


17. W hal are the main lexical differences between British English and
Am erican English?
18. W hat can y o u sa y a b ou t d e riv a tio n a l a n d m o rp h o lo g ic a l
peculiarities o f British and Am erican English?
19. What groups o f local dialects in Great Britain can be singled out?
20. W hat are the main features o f Cockney?
21. What do you know about Estuary English?
22. What are the distinctive features o f the Yorkshire dialect?
23. W hat groups o f lo c a l dialects in th e U n ite d States can be
identified?
24. W hat dialect d o inhabitants o f N e w York C ity and southeastern
o f N e w York State speak?
25. W hat d o you know about the N e w Jersey dialect?
26. W hat are the m ain peculiarities o f the Standard M idwestern
dialect? What can you say about the linguistic status o f this dialect?
27. In what parts o f the U nited States d o people speak the North
M idland and the South M idland dialects?
28. W hat d o you know about African-Am erican Vernacular English?
29. What does social language variation deal with?
30. W hat is the most important linguistic change affecting English
since 1960s?
31. What d o tw o approaches in gender researches (C ritical discourse
analysis and Cultural practice theory) investigate?
32. What arc the main peculiarities o f such occupational varieties o f
the English language as Religious English. Legal English. New s M edia
English and Advertising English?

II. TASKS

1.* Match the italicized Scottish English words from the sentences with the
corresponding Standard English words given in the box.

M o d e l : She devoted her ( a n a m ) to helping others.


0 Th e corresponding Standard English word to the Scottish English word anam
is life -. She devoted her life to helping others.1
*4

knot. conversation, packet, hole, journey, life ,


window, stone, knowledge, dignity, coffee

1. I’ ve heard you visited several European countries last summer. Did


you like you r ( tu rn s)? 2. W hy did you throw a (a n a r i) at the dog? It
could bite you. 3. A nn faced the news o f the catastrophe with ( o n o ir).
4. C an you tic a (sn a im ) in the end o f m y thread? 5. D o n ’ t open the
(;uinneag). Y ou can catch a cold. 6. D o you take sugar in your (ш / т )?
7. A (p a s g a n ) o f brochu res a rriv ed in the post. 8. T h e teacher's
com m ents are designed to help im prove your IJ io s ) and understanding.
9. Later in the evening, the (c a ig ) turned to politics. 10. Workers dug a
30-foot (t o lt ) in the ground. II. She devoted her ia n a m ) to helping
others.

2. Read and analyze the extract taken from R. Burns' poem The Vision (1786)
using the glossary- given below the extract. Speak on the uniqueness and bright
expressiveness o f Scottish English. Translate this extract.
T h e sun had clos'd the winter day.
T h e curless quat their roarin play.
A n d hunger’d maukin taen her way.
T o kail-yards green.
W hile faithless snaws ilk step betray
Whare she has been
The thresher's weary flingin-tree.
T h e lee-lang day had tired me;
And when the day had clos'd his e’e,
Fari* the west,
Ben i' the Spence, right pensivelie.
I gaed to rest.
There, lanely b y the ingle-cheek,
1 sat and ey'd the spewing reek.
That fill'd wi' hoast-provoking smeek.
T h e auld clay biggin:
A n' ncard the restless rations squeak
About the riggin.
A ll in this mottie, misty clim e,
1 backward mus'd on wasted time.
H ow 1 had spent m y youthfu' prime.
A n 'd done пае thing.
But stringing blethers up in rhyme.
F o r fools to sing.
Had 1 to guid advice but harkit,
I m ight, b y this, hae led a market.
O r strutted in a bank and clarkit
M y cash-account;
W hile here, half-mad. half-fed. half-sarkit.
Is a’ th* amount.
Glossary:
1) qua/ - (quit) quitted, m aukin — a hare, taen - taken, kail-yard -
a kitchen garden, snaws — snow. ilk . ilk a — each, every, u'har, whare — where;
2) flin g in -tre e — a piece o f timber hung by way o f partition, lee-la ng —
live-long, Г - in. ben - a parlor (ic: the inner apartment): into the parlor.
spence — the parlor, gaed — went;
3) lane — lone, ingle-cheek — fireside (properly the jamb o f the fireplace).
reek — smoke. u>i' - with, hoast — cough, smeek - smoke, au ld — old.
biggin — building, an' — and. rattan, rattoon — a rat. riggin — the roof-tree: the
roof;
4) ntottie — dusty, blethers — nonsense;
5) guid — good, harkit — hearkened, hae — have, cla rkit — wrote, a' — all.
3-* Replace the italicized Irish words with Standard English words from the box.
M о d e I: Will you sit on the tolg. please, and wait for Peter coming.
0 The Irish word tolg can be replaced by the Standard English word sofa: Will
you sit on the sofa, please, and wait for Peter coming.

noise, basket, choice, thorn, distress (hardship).


sofa . rag. w hile, friend, wall, steam

I. I'll have to stop for a minute — 1 must have a d ea lg in my foot.


2. Wait till you see the g a l o f f the kettle and then wet (p o u r boiling water
o n ) the tea. 3. There is always some cru a ta n o r other in that fam ily —
what is it with them? 4. There was a rrup outside the door. 5. I haven't
seen him for a ta m a ll. 6. H e drove straight through the fa lla with the
new car last night. 7. W here did you find that o ld b a lca is? 8. G et me a
scib o f turf for the fire. 9. Helga is a close ca ra o f mine. 10. These people-
have the togh a o f whether to buy a house o r rent one. II. W ill you sit
on the to lg , please, and wait for Peter coming.
4. Read the poem written by one o f the most famous and distinguished Irish
poets — Seamus Heaney. Discuss the following questions; I. What stereotype
o f Irishmen does this poem contain? 2. How does the poem explore ideas of
heritage and family tradition? 3. In what way is the central extended metaphor
o f digging and roots revealed? 4. What does the poem suggest about physical
labour? 5. What is the connection between the work done by the poet's ancestors
and his own work? Speak about the lexical peculiarities o f the poem.

D igg in g
Between m y fin ger and my thumb
T h e squat pen rests; snug as a gun.
Under m y window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground.
5 M y father, digging. I look down
T ill his straining rump among the flowerbeds
Bends low, com es up twenty years away
Stooping in rhythm through potato drills
W here he was digging.
,0T h e coarse boot nestled on the lug, the shaft
Against the inside knee was levered firmly.
H e rooted out tall tops, buried the bright edge deep
T o scatter new potatoes that w e picked.
Loving their c o o l hardness in our hands.
i 5 By G o d . the old man could handle a spade. Just like his old man.
M y grandfather cut m ore turf in a day
Than any other man on Toner’ s bog.
Once I carried him milk in a bottle
Corked sloppily with paper. H e straightened up
20T o drink it, then fell to right away
N icking and slicing neatly, heaving sods
O ver his shoulder, goin g dow n and down
For the g o o d turf. Digging.
T h e cold smell o f potato m ould, the squelch and slap
asO f soggy peat, the curt cuts o f an edge
Through living roots awaken in m y head.
But I’ ve no spade to follow m en like them.
Between m y finger and m y thumb
T h e squat pen rests.
30 I'll dig with it.
Glossary: squat — short and fat. snug — comfortably, rasping — scraping.
rump — backside, potato d rills — holes where the potatoes will be planted.
lug — the projecting part o f the spade, his old man — his father. JW/ to right
UHty — began working immediately after, sods — pieces o f peat, m ould — fungus
that grows on potatoes, squelch — sucking sound, cu rt — abrupt, sharp.
5. * In the given sentences find words which are characteristic o f American
English. State w hether they belon g to the group o f: a) historical
Am ericanism s; b ) proper Am ericanism s; c ) sp e c ific a lly A m erican
borrowings.
M o d e I: The truck pulled up near where two men were already standing
by the edge o f a deep canyon.
0 The word truck belongs to the group o f proper Americanisms (b). while the
word canyon is a specifically American borrowing (c).
1. D o you want to take the elevator o r use the stairs? 2 . W e haven't
heard from him since last fall. 3. John has made his ow n pirogue and
now wants to show it to his friends. 4. I f I am late I'll call you from a
telep h on e b o oth . 5. I guess I 'l l n ever be able t o explain what has
happened between us. 6. 1 am very tired. I'd like to sleep in the hammock
in the garden. 7. H e stayed at hom e caring fo r his sick w ife. 8. H e left
the faucets running and the bath overflow ed. 9. Have you ever seen a
tomahawk used b y N orth Am erican Indians in war and hunting? 10. W e
went to the museum b y subway.
6. * Distribute the words from the given series into three groups: a) word
used in American English; b) words used in British English; c ) words used in
Australian English.

1) lollies — candy — sweets; 2 ) form — grade — year; 3 ) subway/


m etro — railway station — underground; 4 ) the cinema — the m ovies —
th e p ictu res; 5 ) letterb o x — p o stb o x — m a ilb o x ; 6) sneakers —
trainers — runners; 7) sidewalk — footpath — pavement.
7. * Study the meanings o f the given words. State which o f these words are
used in Canadian English ( I). Australian English (2). New Zealand English (3),
South African English (4). Indian English (5 ) — five words in each group. In
case o f difficulty consult the N ew Оя/ord D ictionary o f English.
M o d e l : bobsy-die — 'a great deal o f fuss and trouble’
0 The word bobsy-die is used in New Zealand English (group 3).
I) s c h o o lie — *a school pupil*; 2) draegerm an — ‘ a m em ber o f a
crew trained for underground rescue work*; 3 ) b a h a d u r — ‘ a brave man:
an honorable title, originally given to officers’ : 4 ) w aka — ‘ a traditional
M aori ca n oe': 5 ) b a ck veld — ‘ rem ote country districts, especially when
considered to be unsophisticated o r conservative': 6 ) d ron go — 'a stupid
o r in com peten t person*; 7 ) y a tra — ‘ a procession o r pilgrim age,
especially one with a religious purpose'; 8 ) b o b s y -d ie — *a great deal
o f fuss and trouble*; 9) uoorskot — ‘ advance payment’ ; 10) bobskate —
‘ an adjustable skate fo r a ch ild, consisting o f tw o sections o f double
runners'; I I ) a roh a — ‘ love, affection*; 12) a ch ch a — ‘ okay, all right';
13) b o d g ie — ‘ a you th , especially o f the 1950s. an alogou s t o the
British T e d d y boy*; 14) iz z a t — ‘ honour, reputation, o r prestige';
15) p a rk a d e — ‘ a m ulti-storey c a r p a rk '; 16) a m b o — ‘ am bulance
o ffic e r ’ ; 17) in d a b a — ‘ a co n feren ce betw een m em bers o f native
p e o p le s ’ ; 18) h a k a — ‘ a M a o r i c e re m o n ia l wrar da n ce involving
chanting, an imitation o f w hich is perform ed by rugby teams before a
match’ ; 19) rid in g — ‘ a political constituency/an electoral district';
20) k ara nga — *a M aori ritual chant o f w elcom e'; 21) ch a p ra si — a
person carrying ou t ju n io r o ffic e duties, especially o n e w h o carries
messages'; 22)fu n d i — ‘ an expert in a particular area'; 23) J ir ie — ‘ a
firefighter*: 24) reeve — ‘ the president o f a village o r town council*:
25) tvors — ‘ sausage’.

8. Read the following passage. Discuss the influence over linguistic norms
o f Standard English exerted by cultures o f different English-speaking countries.

MARRIAGE LINES
In the culture o f India, religion, caste, colour, region, and economic
status traditionally play a m ajor role in m arriage arrangements. As a
consequence, newspaper matrimonial advertisements are very differ­
ent in style com pared w ith the equivalent ‘lonely hearts’ items in the
W estern press, and use very different vocabulary. M ore importantly,
many items which seem fam iliar need to b e reinterpreted, if their
correct sense in the Indian context is to be appreciated.
A cultural reading o f die vocabulary brings to light several points
o f sem antic difference.
• bride w ith a mate M id is a w id o w o r divorcee w ith a son,
m entioned in view o f the priority given in Indian society to a male
heir, w hether natural o r adopted.
• d ivorcee is a strongly negative term, com pared w ith its modern
W estern use.
• J u llp a rticu la rs w ou ld be an astrological reference - a request
for a horoscope.
• good-look in g has to b e seen in contrast w ith other phrases used
in this context, such as exceptionally beautiful: it suggests ‘average’
rather than (a s in the W est) 'above-average’.
• respectable, u vllp la ced , and w ell-established cam - implica­
tions o f econom ic standing: a highly respectable fa m ily is a rich
one.
• stable charactered and sin cere suggest loyalty and devotion
to a m arriage partner, d esp ite a readiness to socialize w ith the
opposite sex.
• w orking g ir l and em ployed g ir l have m ixed connotations, as
som e fam ilies w ill accept a b rid e w h o is working, w h ereas others
w ill not
(from th e C a m b rid g e E n cy clop ed ia
o f th e E n g lish la n g u a g e b y D avid C rystal)

9 .* Analyze the meanings o f the given words. Define: a) words/word-


combinations that have no equivalents in American English (Briticisms);
b ) words/word-combinations that have no equivalents in British English
(Americanisms). In case o f difficulty consult the New O xford D ictiona ry o f
English.

M o d e I: congressman — ‘ a male member o f the Congress'


0 The word congressman has no equivalents in British English (group b).
1) p a ris h c o u n c il — ‘ the adm inistrative b o d y in a c iv il parish’ ;
2 ) con gressm a n — *a male m em ber o f the Congress'; 3 ) p riv y p u rse —
‘ an a llow an ce fro m the p u b lic revenue fo r the m on a rch 's private
expenses'; 4 ) h o lid a y season — ‘ the period o f tim e from Thanksgiving
u n til N e w Y ea r, in clu d in g such re lig io u s and secu lar festivals as
Christmas, Hanukkah, and Kwanzaa’ ; 5) S e cre t S ervice — ‘a branch
o f the Treasury Department dealing with counterfeiting and providing
protection for the President’ ; 6 ) th e w oolsack — ‘ the position o f Lord
Chancellor’ ; 7 ) Iv y L ea gu e — ‘ a group o f long-established universities
having high academic and social prestige’ ; 8 ) ju n io r co lle g e — ‘ a college
offering courses fo r tw o years beyond high school, either as a complete
training o r in preparation fo r com pletion at a senior college’ ; 9 ) cou n ty
c o u n c il — ‘ the elected governing b o d y o f an administrative county’ ;
10) b a r r io — ‘ the S p an ish -sp ea k in g q u a rte r o f a to w n o r c it y ’ ;
11) g ra m m a r s ch o o l — ‘ a state secondary school to w hich pupils are
adm itted on the basis o f ability (S in ce 1965 most have been absorbed
into the comprehensive school system )’ ; 12) fo re ig n s ecreta ry — ‘ the
govern m en t m in ister w h o heads the F oreign and C om m on w ea lth
O ffic e ’ ; 13) e le c to ra l co lle g e — ‘ a b o d y o f people w h o form ally cast
voles Гог the election o f the President and Vice-President’ ; 14) s ch o o l
in s p e cto r — ‘ an official w h o reports on teaching standards in schools
on b e h a lf o f O fstcd (O ffic e fo r Standards in E d u ca tion )'; 15) green
c a r d — ‘ a p e rm it a llo w in g a fo re ig n n a tio n a l t o liv e a n d w ork
permanently in the given country’ ; 16) p u b — *a building where alcohol
may be bought and drunk during fixed hours’ ; 17) G rou n d h og D ay —
‘ 2 February, when the groundhog is said to com e out o f his hole at the
end o f hibernation. I f the animal sees its shadow — i.e . i f the weather
is sunny — it is said to portend six weeks m ore o f w inter weather’ ;
18) b a ck b ench — ‘ any o f the benches behind the front benches on
eith er sid e o f the H ou se o f C o m m o n s, o c cu p ied b y M em b ers o f
Parliament w ho d o not hold o ffic e in the government o r opposition’.
10. Read the following passage. Write out the terms denoting the university
teaching staff in the U K and in the USA. What are the corresponding Russian
terms?

W ith hierarchies in organizations, it is often im possible to give a


precise answ er to the question ‘What’s the equivalent o f a - in BrE/
AmE?’ because there is n o one-for-one correspondence betw een the
different ranks, o r at best on ly a partial correspondence. A good
exam ple is the hierarchy o f university teaching, show n below.
A British p ro fe s s o r is not exactly equivalent to a US p ro fes s o r,
because the latter category divides into three levels:f u l l p rofessor (the
most senior), associate p rofessor, and assista nt p ro fe s s o r (th e most
junior). In the U K the ranks belo w professor are read er, then s e n io r
le c tu re r (though some universities treat these grades as equivalent in
salary, but different in function), then lectu re r.
An associate p rofessor is roughly equivalent to a reader, and low e r
gra d es o f le c tu re r can b e equated with a n a ssista nt p rofessor. But it
is not possible to identify the AmE equivalent o f a s e n io r lectu re r, and
in the days w hen tenured positions w e re serious academ ic options,
there w as even less equivalence, as a BrE lecturing post w as usually
tenured, whereas an Am E assistant professorial position w as usually
not (b u t rather, ‘tenure-track’).

PROFESSOR

u k — ~ US
Professor --------------------------------------------------- -- Full Professor

Reader/ * ---------------------------------------- — Associate Professor

Senior Lecturer
Lecturer ----------------------------------------------- ---- Assistant Professor
(from th e C a m b rid g e E n cy clo p e d ia
o f th e E n g lish L a n gu a ge b y David C rystal)
11. " Distribute ihc given words into two groups: a) words thai arc used in
American English: b) words thai arc used in British English. Pay special attcniion
to their meanings.

.M o d e I: b ill (for meal payment) — *a list o f things eaten showing the total
amount that must be paid'
0 The word b ill is used in British English.

I) tu xed o — ’ a man’ s dinner jacket’ ; 2 ) b ill (fo r meal payment) —


a list o f things eaten showing the total am ount that must be paid':
3 ) p ra m — *a four-wheeled carriage for a baby, pushed by a person on
fo o t'; 4 ) z ip cod e — ‘ a postal code consisting o f five o r nine digits';
5) ch em ist — *a person w ho is authorized to dispense m edicine drugs';
6) va ca tion — ‘an extended period o f recreation, especially one spent
away from hom e o r in traveling'; 7 ) p e rio d — ‘ a punctuation mark (.)
used at the end o f a sentence o r an abbreviation’ ; 8 ) tra m — *a passenger
vehicle powered by electricity conveyed by overhead cables, and running
on rails laid in a public road’ ; 9 ) a p a rtm en t b u ild in g — 'a large building
containing many apartments'; 10) d u s t-b in — ‘ a container for houshold
refuse, especially one kept outside’ ; 11 ) m otorw ay — ‘ a dual-carriageway
road designed for fast traffic, with relatively few places for join in g or
leaving"; 12 ) g a s o lin e — ‘ a liquid obtained especially from petroleum,
used mainly for producing power in the engines o f cars, aircraft, etc.';
13) tro lle y (fo r shopping) — *a lo w tw o-w heeled or four-wheeled cart
o r vehicle, especially one pushed b y hand’ : 14) fla s h lig h t — ‘ a small
electric light carried in the hand to give light’ ; 15) c a rp a rk — ‘an area
o r building where cars or other vehicles m ay be left temporarily'.
12. * Give analogous oppositions in the other variant o f English to the words
from task 1 1.
M o d e l : b ill

0 The analogous opposition to the British English word b ill is the American
English word check.
13. " Translate the following words and word-combinations giving both the
British and American variant.

M o d e I: подземный переход
0 BrE subway — AmE underpass ( tunnel)

Words and w ord- British American


combinations English English
1. первый этаж
2. железная
дорога
3. лифт
4. переезд
5. автом обиль
6. б о й (сраж ени е)
7. газетный
киоскер
8. очередь
9. продавец
10. государственная
ш кола

14.* Analyze the semantic structure o f the following words. State what lexico-
scmantic variants o f these words arc specific to British English or American
English. Give analogous oppositions to these lexico-semantic variants in the
other variant o f English or in Standard English.
M o d e I: lead er — 1 someone who is responsible for or in control o f a
group, organization, country, etc. 2 a person, animal, or vehicle that is winning
at a particular time during a race or competition. 3 a person, company, or product
that is more successful, popular, or advanced than others in a particular area of
activity. 4 a piece o f writing in a newspaper giving the paper's opinion on a
subject. 5 someone who conducts. 5a the main violin player in an orchestra.
6 someone who directs the playing o f a musical group.
0 Two lexico-semantic variants o f the word leader specific to British English
arc 4 and 5a. The analogous opposition to *a piece o f writing in a newspaper
giving the paper's opinion on a subject’ in AmE/SE is e d ito ria l. The
analogous opposition to 'the main violin player in an orchestra' in AmE is
concertmaster. The lexico-semantic variant specific to American English is
'someone who directs the playing o f a musical group' (6 ). Its analogous
opposition in BrE is the word conductor.

1) caravan — I a vehicle that people can live and travel in on holiday,


l a a ve h icle that R om an ies live in. som etim es pu lled by a horse.
2 a group o f p eople and vehicles travelling together, especially in a
desert;
2 ) interval — 1 a period o f tim e between tw o events. 2 a short break
between the parts o f something such as a play o r co n c e rt 3 a space or
distance between tw o things. 4 ( te ch n ica l) a difference in pitch between
tw o musical notes;
3 ) cupboard — 1 a tall piece o f furniture, usually attached to a wall
and used for storing things, with shelves inside and one o r tw o doors at
the front. 2 a very' small room with no windows used for storing things;
4 ) tin — 1 a soft light silver metal, often used fo r covering iron or
steel. 2 a closed metal container fo r a food o r drink product that you
open with a tin opener. 2 a a metal container with a lid. used fo r storing
things. 2b a metal container used for cooking fo o d in an oven;
5 ) flat — 1 a set o f room s for living in, usually on on e flo o r o f a
large building. 2 a flat surface or part o f som ething. 3 a musical note
that is on e semitone low er than a particular note. 3a a written symbol
fo r sh ow in g that you m ust play or sing a n o te a sem iton e lower.
4 |plural| a lo w flat area o f land, usually wet land near a large area o f
w aier,
6 ) co a c h — 1 a long comfortable vehicle for carrying a large number
o f passengers, especially on long journeys, l a on e o f the sections o f a
train, l b an old-fashioned vehicle lhat is pulled by horses. 2 someone
w h o trains a sports player o r team. 2a som eone w h o leaches a special
skill, especially one connected with perform ing such as singing or acting.
3 a less expensive type o f seat on a plane o r train;
7 ) gu ard — 1 som eone whose jo b is to look after a place o r person
so that n o one causes damage, steals anything, o r escapes. 2 a unit o f
soldiers o r p o lic e o ffice rs, especially o n e that has a particular job .
3 so m eth in g that h elps to stop s o m e th in g b ad fr o m happening.
4 som eon e on a train w hose jo b is t o check tickets, announce the
stations, and look after the passengers. 5 an apparatus which covers and
protects. 6 in basketball, one o f tw o players w ho are responsible for
m oving the ball around the court in order to create opportunities for
their team to score.
15.* Here arc the examples o f Cockney rhyming slang. Match the words
given in the left column with the phrases given in the right column.
M o d e I: cousin (2 ) — bakers dozen (6)
1. believe 1. d o g and bone
2. cousin 2. round the houses
3. phone 3. Tom and Dick
4. thief 4. Tom foolery
5. sick 5. elephant’ s trunk
6. sister 6. baker s dozen
7. trousers 7. plates o f meat
8. talk 8. skin and blister
9. feet 9. north and south
10. nose 10. ones and tw os
11. drunk 11. Adam and Eve
12. mouth 12. I suppose
13. shoes 13. two-and-eight
14. jewelry' 14. tea leaf
15. state 15. rabbit and pork
16. Read more information about the appearance o f Estuary English.
Discuss the reasons for its fast spreading.

The estuary' in question is that o f the R. Thames. The term was


coined in the 1980s to identify' the way features o f London regional
speech seem ed to b e rapidly spreading throughout the counties
adjoining the river (especially Essex and K ent) and beyond. It is
something o f a misnomer, for the influence o f London speech has for
some time been evident well beyond the Thames estuary, notably in
the O xford — Cam bridge — London triangle and in the area to the
south and cast o f London as far as the coast. Nonetheless, the phrase
‘estuary En glish ' caught th e p u b lic im agination, and received
considerable publicity, including a front page headline in The Sunday
Tim e s (14 March 1993):

YER WOT? ‘ESTUARY ENGLISH’ SWEEPS BRITAIN


„ T h e factors g o ve rn in g th e spread o f this variety are only partly
e x p la in ed b y social m o b ility and n e w patterns o f settlem ent. For
exam ple, there is th e influ ence o f radio and television, and o f English
m e d ia p e rs o n a litie s w h o use a m o d ifie d fo rm o f C ock n ey. But
certainly, a fter W orld W ar II. thousands o f London speakers d id m ove
to ou tside th e city, and t o the n e w tow n s w h ich w e r e b e in g built
around the capital. T h e ir m ove wiD have caused many to m o d ify their
accents, and th e ir nu m erical p resen ce (as w e ll as th e ir ec on om ic
s ta n d in g ) m ay e v e n h a ve in flu e n c e d th e o r ig in a l r e s id e n ts t o
accom m odate in th e ir direction.
Estuary English may therefore be the result o f a confluence o f two
social trends; an up-market movement o f originally Cockney speakers,
and a down-market trend towards ordinary' (as opposed to p osh '1)
speech by the m iddle class. There is certainly plenty o f anecdotal
evidence that many people these days wish to avoid the ‘establishment'
connotations o f Received Pronunciation, and try to speak in a way
which they perceive to b e more dow n to earth. In the 1993 debate
which accompanied the Sunday Times report one leading businessman
w as explicit about this point. Referring to a public school accent' (R P )
h e commented: ‘I f you w ere unluck)' enough to have such an accent
you w ould low er it You w ould try to become more consumer friendly.

(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia


o f the English Language by David Crystal)
17, Read the poem written by Ruth Harrison Den in the Yorkshire dialect
(North Riding) in 1988. Speak on the parental thoughts and feelings as a young
daughter sets ofT to her first day at school. Discuss the lexical peculiarities of
the Yorkshire dialect. Translate the poem.

SKEUL
W i’ satchel on her back, she gans
Aw ay doon ’t lane te t’ gate.
T is fost da y ofTti skcul. tha knaas,
I hooape she wean*t bi late.

T is lonely A h ’H bi when she's gone.


Ah's nut afeard ti say.
A n Ah'll bi watchin' tahm cum roond
T i fow er o'clock teday.

1talk posh — to talk in a way that is typical of people from a high social class
H o o w ill she git on w i her sums?
A h wunncr i f t' milks pure?
These thowts cum tummlin' (i mi mahnd
A ye. ihese and many more.

18. Read the poem written by FJ.Ncwboull' in the Yorkshire dialect. Speak
on the idea ot the poem and on the images the author reveals in describing
nature and seasons o f the year. Discuss the lexical peculiarities o f the Yorkshire
dialect.

S P R I N G (1914)
O w d W inter gat notice to quit.
'Cause he'd made sich a pigsty o ' t‘ place.
An’ Summer leuked raand when he'd Hit.
An* she says. It's a daanreyt disgrace!
Sich-like ways!
I niver did see sich a haase to com e intul
i' all m y born days!
But Spring says. “ It's m y jo b . is this.
I'll sooin put things streyt. niver fear.
Y e g o o f f to t' Spaw-s a bit. Miss.
A n ' leave m e to fettle up here!"
An' sitha!
Shoo's donned a owd appron. an' tucked up her sleaves.
an' set to. with a witha!
Tha can tell, when t' hail pelts tha like mad.
A t them floors bides a bit o f a scrub;
Tha knaws t' flegstuns mun ha' been bad.
W hen she teems ( I ) aat all t' wotter i’ t’ tub.
M in d thy eyes!
W hen shoo gets hod o ' t' long brush an' sweeps aat them chamers.
I'll tell tha. t' dust flies!
W h ol shoo's threng ( 2 ) tha'll be best aat o ’ t' gate (3 ):
Shoo’ll care nowt fo r soft tawk an' kisses.
T o tell her thy m ind, tha mun wait
W hol shoo s getten things ready for t' missis.
W hen shoo's done.
Shoo’ll d o ff her owd appron. an* slip aat i* t' garden,
an' call tha to come.
A ye. Summer is t' roses' awn queen.
An' shoo sits i' her state, grandly dressed:
But Spring’ s tw ice as bonny agean.

' F. J. Newfcouh deservedly won fame as a prose writer in dialect: his dialect sketches
which appeared for some years in llte Yorkshire O b se n er arc full o f broad humour
and dramatic power, and his dainty little lyric "Spnng" is a suffic.cni indication tha.
he had also the dower o f ihc poet
When shoo's donned hersen up i‘ her best
G aan o ' green.
An' stands all i‘ a glow. — w i‘ a smile on her lips
an' a leel i1her een.
T o t’ tips o f her fingers shoo's wick (4 )
Tha can see t’ pulses beat i' her braa.
Tha can feel her soft breath cornin' quick.
An' it thrills tha-tha duzn't knaw haa.
W hen ye pan.
Them daflydaandillics sh oos kissed an’ then gi'en
tha — they'll bloom i' thy hean!

I. Pours. 2. Busy. 3. Way. 4. Alive.

19.* Study the dialectal map o f the United States ( Map 9). Speak on the
geographical borders o f US regional dialects and dialect areas.

M o d e l : Northern
0 Northern, an area not to be confused with the political ’ north' o f the
Civil War period (1861 — 5). Historically it is the area o f New England,
but it now extends west in a narrow northern strip from western Vermont
through New York and across all the northern states to the Pacific coast
Dialect studies show that there is an important boundary (roughly along
the Connecticut River) separating western and eastern New England.
20; Кс*‘^ ,hc information about Southerners and their speech and then read
w • l X: rar\l fr° m ,hC S‘ 0ry П е M an W ho •S4w the n o o d written by Richard
right. I ms story is a sample o f the Southern dialect o f the US as well as the
speech ol AIro-Americans. Speak on the lexical and grammatical peculiarities
ot the main characters’ speech.

SO U TH ERNERS
T h ere are tw o main g ro u p * o f Southerners: th ose descen d ed from
* m e English, Irish and Scottish colonists and immigrants, and those
descended from the vast numbers o f black Africans w h o w e r e brought
in as slaves to w ork on the plantations.
Southern speech spread from V irginia and the Carofinas to Georgia
and the cotton lands o f the Ciulf States d u rin g the nineteenth century,
and is n o w on e o f the major regional variations in A m erican English
that lin g u is ts h a ve c o r r e la te d w ith g e o g r a p h ic a l lo c a tio n and
settlem ent history. Southern speech is generally considered -softer”
and lo w e r than N o r th e r n s p ee ch , and it co n ta in s a n u m b e r o f
distinctive w ords as w e ll as certain forms o f usage that are found only
in the South.

(from Am erican Patchwork: A Collection


o f Am erican Short Stories by Betty Keene Taska)

T H E M A N W H O SA W T H E F LO O D
RICHARD W R IG H T

At last the flo o d waters had re­ h igh h ere. E very tree, blade o f
ceded. A black father, a black moth­
grass, a n d s tra y s t ic k had its
er. and a black c h ild tram ped flo o d mark: caky. y e llo w mud It
through m uddy fields, leading a c lu n g t o th e g ro u n d , cra ck in g
tired c o w b y a thin b it o f rope.
th in ly h e re and th ere in sp id er
They stopped on a hilltop and shift­
w e b fa s h io n . O v e r th e stark
ed the bundles on their shoulders. field s cam e a gusty sp rin g w ind
As far as they could see the ground T h e sk y w as high. blu e, fu ll o f
w as covered w ith flo o d s ilt The w h ite clou d s and sunshine. O ve r
little girl lifted a skinny fin ger and
all h u n g a first-day strangeness.
pointed to a mudeaked cabin.
" T h e h e n h o u s e is g o n e .”
’ Look. Pa! Ain tha ou r hom e?' sighed the woman.
T h e man. round-shouldered, ” N th e p ig p e n .” s ig h e d the
c la d in b lu e, r a g g e d o v e ra lls , man.
lo o k e d w it h b e w ild e r e d eyes. T h e y s p o k e w ith o u t b it t e r ­
W ithou t m o v in g a m uscle, scar­ ness.
c e ly m o v in g h is lip s , h e said
"A h reckon them ch icken s is
“Yeah."
all d o n e drowned."
For five minutes they did not “Yeah.”
speak o r move. Hie flo o d waters \ 4 iz F lora ’s h ou se is g o n e ,
had b een m ore than e ig h t feet too," said the little girl.
T h e y lo o k e d at a c lu m p o f The steps w ere gone. Tom lifted
tr e e s w h e r e t h e ir n e ig h b o r ’ s May and Sally to the porch. They
house had stood. sto o d a m o m en t lo o k in g at the
“ Lawd!" half-opened door. H e had shut it
■Yuh reckon anybody know s w h e n h e le ft, bu t s o m e h o w it
w h ere they is?" seem ed natural that he should find
-Hard t tell." it open. T h e planks in the porch
T h e m an w a lk e d d o w n th e flo o r w e r e sw ollen and w arped
slope and stood uncertainly. T h e cabin had tw o colors; near the
"Th ere w u z a road erlon g here bottom it was a solid yellow; at the
som ewheres," he said. to p it w as th e fa m ilia r gray. It
But th e re w as n o road now. looked w eird, as though its ghost
Just a w id e s w e e p o f y e llo w , w ere standing beside it
scalloped s i Il T h e cow’ lowed.
“ L o o k . T o m !” c a lle d th e w o ­ •Tie Pat t the pos on th e en o f
man. "H ere's a p ie ce o f o u r gate!" the porch. May."
T h e gatepost w as h a lf buried May tied the rope slowly, list­
in th e g r o u n d . A ru s ty h in g e lessly. W h en th ey attem p ted to
sto o d s tiff. lik e a lo n e ly fin ger. open th e front door, it w ou ld not
Tom pried it loose and caught it b u d g e . I t w’ as n o t u n til Tom
fir m ly in his hand. T h e r e w as placed his shoulder against it and
nothing particular h e w anted to g a v e it a s to u t s h o v e that it
d o w ith it; he just stood holding scrap ed back jerkily. T h e fron t
it firm ly. Finally h e d r o p p e d it, ro o m w as dark and silent. T h e
looked up. and said; d am p sm ell o f flo o d silt ca m e
"C m on . Les g o d o w n n see fresh and sharp to their nostrils.
w hu t w e kin do." O nly one-half o f th e u p p er w in ­
B e c a u s e it sat in a slig h t d o w w as clear, and through it fell
depression, the ground about the a r e c ta n g le o f d in g y light. T h e
cabin w as soft and slimy. floors swam in ooze. Like a m ute
"G im m e tha bag о lim e. May." w arning, a w averin g flo o d mark
he said. w e n t h igh around th e w a lls o f
W ith his shoes sucking in mud. the room . A dresser sat eater-cor­
he w ent slowly around the cabin, nered. its draw ers and sides bulg­
s p re a d in g th e w h ite lim e w ith in g lik e a b lo a te d c o rp s e . T h e
th ick fin gers. W h en h e reached bed. w ith the mattress still on it.
the front again he had a litde left; w^as like a giant casket forged o f
he s h o o k th e b a g o u t o n the mud. T w o smashed chairs lay in
porch. T h e fin e grains o f floating a corn er, as thou gh hu dd led t o ­
lim e flickered in the sunlight geth er fo r protection.
“ T h a o u g h ta h e p s o m e ." he “ L e t s e e t h e k itc h e n ." sa id
said. Tom.
“ N ow . yuh b e careful, Sal!" said T h e sto v ep ip e w as gone. But
May. "D on yuh g o n fall d o w n in the stove stood in the same place.
all this mud. yuh hear?’ "T h e stove's still good. W e kin
“Yessum." clean it."
“Yeah." H e stood lo o k in g at the mud-
'B u t w h ere’s the table?" fille d fields.
“Lawd knows." "Yuh g o in back t Burgess?"
"It must've w ashed erw a y w id 'A h reckon Ah have to."
th e rest o f the stuff. A h reckon." 'W h u t else kin yuh do?"
Th ey opened the back door and "N oth in ," h e said. “ Lawd. but
looked out. Th ey missed the barn, Ah sh o hate t start all o v e r w id
the henhouse, and the pigpen. tha w h ite man. Ah’d leave h e re e f
"T om , vuh bettah tr y tha o l Ah could. Ah o w es im nigh eight
pum p n sec e f c m watah’s there." hu ndred dollahs. N w e needs a
T h e p u m p w a s s t iff. Tom hoss, grub, seed, n a lo t m o oth er
th rew his w eig h t on the handle things. E f w e keeps on like this
and carried it u p and dow n. N o tha w h ite man’ll o w n us body n
w a t e r c a m e . H e p u m p e d on. soul."
T h ere w as a d ry h o llo w cough. "But, Tom . th e re ain n oth in
T h e n y e llo w w a ter trickled. He else t d o ," she said.
caught his breath and kept pum p­ "E f w e try t run erw a y th e )'ll
ing. T h e w ater flo w e d white. put us in jail."
"Thank Ciawd! W e s g o t som e "It cou ld a b een wfo rs c ," sh e
watah." said.
~Yuh bettah boil it fo yuh use Sally cam e ru n n in g from the
it,’ he said. kitchen. "Pa!"
‘ Yeah. Ah know." “Hunh?"
“ book. Pa! H ere’s v o ax." called "There* a sh elf in the kitchen
Sally. the flo o d didn git!"
Tom t o o k th e a x fr o m her. "W here?’
“Yeah. Ah’ll n eed this." "Right up o v e r the stove."
“ N h e r e ’ s s o m e th in e ls e ." "B u t. c h ile , ain n o t h in up
called Sally, d ig g in g spoons ou t o f there," said May.
th e mud. "But th ere's som eth in on it,"
'W a a l, A hm a g it a bu ck et n said Sally.
start cieanin," said May. "Ain no "C mon. Lcs sec."
use in w aitin , cau se w c 's gotta H igh and dry. untouched by the
sleep on them flo o rs tonight." flood-water, was a b ox o f matches.
W h e n s h e w as f i llin g th e And beside it a half-full sack o f Bull
bucket from the pump. Tom called Durham tobacco. H e took a match
fr o m a ro u n d th e c a b in . “ May, from the b ox and scratched it on
look ! Ah d o n e foun mah plow !" his overalls. It burned to his fingers
P ro u d ly h e d ra g g e d th e silt- before he dropped it.
caked p lo w t o th e pu m p. -A h ’ ll "May!"
w ash it n it'll b e aw righ t." "Hunh?"
“ Ahm hongry." said Sally. ‘ Look ! H ere’s m a bacco n some
"N ow . yuh jus wait! Yuh ct this matches!"
mawmin," said May. She turned to She s ta re d u n b e lie v in g ly .
Tom . "N o w . w hu tch a gon n a do, "Law d!" she breathed.
Tom?"
Tom rolled a cigarette clumsily.
M ay w ash ed th e s to v e , room . It w as g e ttin g dark. From
g a th e re d som e sticks, and a fter th e bundles they to o k a kerosene
som e d ifficu lty, m ade a fire . T h e la m p a n d l i t it . O u t s id e P a t
k itch en sto v e sm oked, and th eir lo w e d lo n g i n g l y in t o th e
eyes sm arted. M ay pu t w a te r on th ic k e n in g g lo a m and tin k le d
to heat and w en t in to th e front h e r c o w b e ll.

21. Read the following jokes. Speak on the gender stereotypes they are based
on.

An English teacher w as ex p la in in g to his students the con cept o f


g en d er association in the English language. H e noted h o w hurricanes
at on e tim e w e re given o n ly fem ale names, and h o w ships and planes
w e r e usually referred to as she'. O n e o f th e students raised her hand
and asked W hat g en d er is a computer?’ T h e teacher wasn't certain.
So he divided the class in to t w o groups: males in one, fem ales in the
other, and asked them to d e c id e i f a com puter should b e masculine
o r fem in in e. Both groups w e r e asked to g iv e four reasons fo r their
recom m endations.
T h e g ro u p o f w om en concluded that com puters should b e referred
t o as masculine because:
1. In o rd e r t o g et their attention, you have to turn them on.
2. T h ey have a lot o f data but are still clueless.
3. T h ey are supposed t o h elp you solve you r problem s, but h a lf the
time, th ey are the problem .
4. A s soon as you com m it to one, you realize that i f you had w aited
a little longer, you could have had a better m odel.
T h e m en . on th e o th e r hand, d e c id e d that co m p u ters should
d efin itely b e referred to as fem in in e because:
1. N o on e but th eir creator understands th eir internal logic.
2. T h e n a tiv e la n gu a ge th e y use t o co m m u n ica te w it h o t h e r
com puters is incom prehensible t o ev ery o n e else.
3. Even you r smallest mistakes are stored in lo n g term m em ory for
later retrieval.
4. A s soon as you m ake a com m itm ent to one. you fin d you rself
sp en d in g half you r paycheck on accessories fo r it.

Th ree m en catch a m erm aid w h o begs to b e set fr e e in return for


gran tin g each o f them a wish.
O n e o f th e m en just doesn 't b e lie v e and says. ‘ Okay, i f you can
really grant wishes, then d o u b le m y l.Q .1'
T h e m erm aid says. "Done."

1 l.Q. — intelligence quotient: a number that represents a person's intelligence,


based on the results o f a particular type o f test.
Suddenly, th e m an starts re c itin g Shakespeare fla w le ss ly, and
analyzing w hat he's recited w ith great insight
T h e second man is so amazed he says to the mermaid. T r ip le m v I Q ’
T h e m erm aid says. "Done."
T h e man starts t o g iv e s o lu tio n s t o p ro b le m s that h a ve b een
stum ping all the grea t scientists o f the w orld : th e mathematicians
physics, chemists, and so on.
T h e last man is so enthralled w ith th e changes in his friends that
h e says to the merm aid. “Q uintuple m y L Q ."
T h e m erm aid look s at him and says. “You know, I norm ally don't
try t o change (people's minds w h en they make a w ish, but I really think
you should reconsider."
T h e man says, “ N o, 1 w ant you to m ultiply m v I.Q. tim es five and
i f y o u d o n ’t d o it, 1 w on 't set you free.’
Please, the m erm aid says, "you d o n 't k n o w w hat vo u 're asking1
I t ’ll ch a n g e y o u r e n tir e v ie w on th e u niverse. W o n ’t you ask fo r
som ething else, a m illion dollars, anything?" But n o m atter w hat the
m erm aid says, the man insists on having his I.Q. increased to fiv e times
its usual power.
Finally, the m erm aid sighs and says. "D on e .’
And he turns in to a woman.

22. Read the following passage. Speak on a general efTcci that language
planning policy decisions can have on language awareness.

GUIDELINES FOR NONSEXIST USAGE


Many organizations now issue gukteknes to their staff on how to avoid
sexist language. The following points are adapted from the set of
recommendations issued m 1992 to its members by one organization
which ought to be among the best-informed on these matters: the
Linguistic Society of America. Of particular interest is the way sexist
considerations can enter into the use of linguistic examples.
• Avoid adding modifiers or suffixes to nouns to mark sex referents
unnecessarily. Such usage promotes continued sexual stereotyping in one
oftwo ways: by highlighting referent sex, modificationcan signal a general
presupposition that referent wffl be of the other sex (la d y professor, m a le
s e c r e t a r y ) , and thus that these referents are aberrant; and
conventionalized gender-marking ‘naturalizes’ the presumptive or
unmarked sex of the noun's referents (s te w a rd e s s . c le a n in g la d y ).
• Use parallel forms of reference for women and men. e.g. do not
erte a male scholar by surname only and a female scholar by first name
plus surname.
• Avoid gender stereotyped or demeaning characterizations, e.g.
presenting men as actors and women as passive recipients of others’
actions. Men are frequently the agents, women the recipients, of violent
acts.
• Avoid peopling your examples exclusively with one sex.
• Avoid consistently putting reference to males before reference to
females. Not only does this order convey mate precedence, in English it
will put males in subject position and women in object position.
• Avoid so-called masculine generics such as the pronoun he with
sex-indefinite antecedents or m an and its compounds (except in
unambiguous reference to males).
• Avoid sexist (or otherwise derogatory) content in examples (e.g.
Th e m an w ho beats h is m istress win regret a so o n e r than the m an who
beats his wife).
(from th e C a m b rid g e E n c y c lo p e d ia
o f th e E n g lis h L a n g u a g e by David Crystal)
23. Read the extract taken from the US Constitution. What are the distinctive
lexical and grammatical peculiarities o f Legal English?

Constitution of the United States (1787)


W e the P e o p le o f the U nited States, in O rd er to form a m ore
p e rfec t Union, establish Justice, insure dom estic Tranquility,
p ro vid e fo r the com m on defense, prom ote th e general Welfare,
and s e c u re th e B lessin gs o f L ib e r ty t o o u r s e lv e s and ou r
Posterity, d o ord a in and establish th is C on stitu tion fo r the
U nited States o f America.

[o n e o f th e am endm ents p rop osed by Congress in / 789/

A r t ic le [V J
N o person shall b e held t o answ er for a capital, o r oth erw ise
infam ous crim e, unless on a presentm ent o r in d ictm en t o f a
Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land o r naval forces,
o r in the Militia, w h en in actual service in tim e o f W ar or public
danger, n or shall any person b e subject for the sam e o ffe n c e to
be tw ic e pu t in jeopard)’ o f life o r lim b; n or shall b e com pelled
in any crim in a l case to b e a w itn e ss against him self, n o r be
d eprived o f life, liberty, o r property, w ith o u t du e process o f law,
n or shall private property b e taken fo r pu blic use w ith o u t just
compensation.

2 4 ." Compare the following tw o versions o f reporting on one and the


same event. In the first column the text is a sports story transmitted by
A ustralian A ssociation Press — R euter fro m Sydney: in the right column
the text is the version edited by the New Zea la nd Press Association. Material
is deleted, altered, and added. Make up a list o f grammatical and lexical
differences between the two texts. Speak on the distinctive features o f News
Media English.

M o d e l : In the second version the adverbial modifier o f place a t Bourda


is deleted.

Th e w aterlogged conditions that W aterlogged conditions ruled out


ruled out play yesterday still play this morning, but the match
prevailed at Bourda this morning, resumed with less than three
and it was not until mid-afternoon hours’ play remaining for the final
that the match restarted. day.
Less than three hours’ play Th e W est Indies are making a first
remained, and with the W est Indies innings reply to England's total
still making their first innings reply o f 448.
to England’s total o f 148. there
was no chance o f n result.
A t lea the W est Indies were At tea the W est Indies w ere
tw o for 139. 139 fo r two. but there’s no chance
o f a result.

25. Read the follow ing commercial advertising texts devoted to three different
themes: W A TC H E S . P E R F U M E and C L O T H E S . Make up a list of:
a) grammatical peculiarities o f Advertising English; b) lexical peculiarities o f
Advertising English. Speak on the gender stereotypes w hich these advertisements
are based on. What traditional notioas and associations concerning men and
women do these advertisements reveal?

W ATCHES

Advertisements addressed to women Advcnisements addressed to men

1- Be late. Tim e is luxury (Concord 1- 100% sport. 100 % elegance.


watches). What are you made of?
2. Maurice Lacroix Switzerland — (Tag Heuer — Swiss made since
1 omorrow's classic. Discriminating 1860).
women will wish to have these 2. Jacques Leman o f Switzerland —
watches with their perfectly shaped Classics. Style. Reliability.
designs, valuable crafted dials, and
3. Whai is more important:
flattering bracelets. These are
not only practical companions the)’ substance o r appearance? Anyone
who avoids the garish and prefers
are also extremely elegant pieces
o f jewelry. the excitement generated... Maurice
Lacroix.
3. W.G.Abus - 1868. “ H elen" -
a model to reflea feminine elegance
and refinement.
Adveruscmenis addressed со women Advertisemems addressed to men

1. New flowers. New emotions. !. Are you seeking adventure? (Avon


Exciting New fragrance from Estee Fragrance).
Lauder.
2. Whatever she remembers depends
2. Freedom... Peace... Purity... Hope is on you (Paco Rabannc).
in the air. L ’air du temps (Nina Ricci).
3. Your fragrance, your rules. Cool.
3. Sensual. Provocative. Passionate. For Modern. Irreverent. Men who wear
the woman who revels in the night. Hugo enjoy playing with the rules.
Hugo creates Deep Red. She doesn’t They are spontaneous and original in
care what the crowd does or thinks. everything they do. That's why they
She's witty, outspoken and feels free to choose Hugo. It’s the scent that says it
express her passion and sexuality. And all. Perfect for whatever 1iugo men
She’s up for everything. Like Deep decide to get up to (Hugo Boss).
Red. (Hugo Deep Red).

Advertisementsaddressed to women Advertisements addressed to men

1. Here's where the power woman lets 1. Be a gentleman.- Be in stories now...


her style shine (Jinuny Choo shoes). Be offensive... Be legendary’... Sean
John it's not just a label... It's a lifestyle
2. Your clothes may be the first thing
(Scan John clothes).
people admire about you. But not the
last (Talbots). 2. It took eight years to land on the
moon. In just twelve more yean we
3. Take a sleek, sexy, tailored suit and
made these shoes (Kenneth Cole.
soften any sharp edges with a pretty,
Men's footwear).
feminine shirt. Perfect to go from day
to night... and wow him on a dinner 3. Flair Time. Quietly flamboyant, this
date (Mango clothes). ensemble proves you can bring a bit of
sheen to the office and still look like
the boss (Dolce & Gabbana).
ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY

1. Classification and Types o f Dictionaries


2. Som e o f the M ain Problem s in Lexicography
3. Types and C om m on Characteristics o f Learner's Dictionaries
4. M o d em Trends in English Lexicography
4.1. Corpus-Based Lexicography
4.2. Computational Lexicography. Electronic Dictionaries

1. CLASSIFICATION AND TY P E S O F DICTION AR IES

Lexicography, that is th e th e o r y and p ra ctice o f c o m p ilin g


dictionaries, is an im portant branch o f applied linguistics. It has a
com m on object o f study with lexicology as both describe the vocabulary
o f a language.
T h e term ‘dictionary' is used to denote a book that lists the words
o f a language in a certain order (usually alphabetical) and gives their
meanings, o r that gives the equivalent words in a different language.
Dictionaries may be classified under different heads.
According to the choice o f items included and the son o f information
g iv e n about these item s dictio n aries m ay be d iv id ed in to tw o big
groups — encyclopedic and linguistic.
Encyclopedic dictionaries arc scientific reference books dealing
with every branch o f knowledge, o r with one particular branch, usually
in alphabetical ord er, e .g . the O x fo rd P a p e rb a ck E n c y c lo p e d ia .
R a n d om H o u s e W eb ster's B io g ra p h ic a l D ic tio n a ry . Encyclopedic
dictionaries are thing-books. that g ive inform ation about the extra-
linguistic world, they deal with facts and concepts. T h e best-known
encyclopedias o f the English-speaking w orld are the E n cy clop a ed ia
B rita n n ica and the E n cy clop a ed ia A m erica n a .
Linguistic dictionaries are w o rd -b o o k s the su bject-m atter o f
w h ic h is le x ic a l u n its and th e ir lin g u is tic p r o p e r tie s such as
p ro n u n cia tio n , m ea n in g , o r ig in , p e c u lia ritie s o f use. and o th er
linguistic inform ation.
Linguistic dictionaries can be further divided into different categories
by different criteria.
1. According t o the scope o f their w ord-list linguistic dictionaries are
divided into general and restricted.
General dictionaries represent the vocabulary as a w h ole with a
degree o f completeness depending upon the scope and the bulk o f the
book in question. Som e general dictionaries m ay have very specific aims
and still be considered general due t o their coverage. T h e y include
frequency dictionary, a rhyming dictionary, a Thesaurus, etc., e.g . the
C o llin s C O B U IL D Thesaurus.
Restricted dictionaries cover o n ly a certain specific pan o f the
vocabulary. Restricted dictionaries can be subdivided depending on
whether the words are chosen according to the sphere o f human activity
in which they are used ( 1 ). the type o f the units themselves ( 2 ) o r the
relations existing between them (3).
T h e first subgroup registers and explains technical terms for various
branches o f knowledge (m edical, linguistic, econom ical terms, etc.),
e.g. the M e n ia m -W e h s te rs D ic tio n a ry o f L a w . T h e second subgroup
deals w ith sp ec ific language units, i.c . w ith p h raseological units,
abbreviations, n eologism s, borrow ings, toponym s. dialectal words,
proverbs and sayings, e.g. the O x fo rd C on cise D ic tio n a ry o f Proverbs.
T h e th ird su bgrou p co n ta in s a fo rm id a b le array o f s y n o n y m ic
dictionaries, e.g . the M e r r ia m - W eb ster's P o c k e t G u id e to S y n o ­
nyms.
2. According to the information they provide all linguistic dictionaries
fall into tw o groups: explanatory and specialized.
Explanatory dictionaries present a wide range o f data, especially
with regard to the semantic aspect o f the vocabulary items entered, e.g.
the N ew O x fo rd D ictio n a ry • o f E nglish.
Specialized dictionaries deal with lexical units o n ly in relation to
some o f their characteristics, i.e. only in relation to their etym ology,
frequency, pronunciation, usage, e.g . the L on g m a n P ro n u n c ia tio n
D ictio n a ry .
3. A cco rd in g to the language o f explanations, i.e . w hether the
information about the items entered given in the same language o r in
another language, all dictionaries are divided into: m onolingual and
bilingual.
In monolingual dictionaries the words and the information about
them are given in the same language, e.g . the N e w S h o rte r O x fo rd
E nglish D iction a ry .
Bilingual dictionaries are those that explain words by giving their
equivalents in another language, e.g. the E n glish -R u ssia n P h ra s eo lo ­
g ic a l D iction a ry (by A.V.Kunin). They may have tw o principal purposes:
reference for translation and guidance for expression. Bilingual dictio­
naries must prov ide an adequate translation o f every item in the target
language and expression in the source language.
4. Dictionaries also fall in to diachronic and synchronic with regard
to time.
Piachronic (historical) dictionaries reflect the developm ent o f the
tn glish vocabulary by recording the history o f form and meaning for
every w ord registered, e.g . the O x fo rd E nglish D ic tio n a ry .
Synchronic (descriptive) dictionaries are concern ed with the
present-day meaning and usage o f words, e.g. the A d va n ced L e a rn e r's
D ic tio n a ry o f C u rre n t E n glish .
T h e boundary betw een the m en tion ed types o f dictio n aires is.
however, not very rigid and the tw o principles m ay be blended as. for
e x a m p le , in the C o n c is e O x fo r d D ic tio n a r y . S o m e svn ch ron ic
dictionaries are at the same tim e historical when they represent the state
o f vocabulary at some past stage o f its development.

2 . SOM E OF TH E MAIN PROBLEM S IN LEXICOGRAPHY

H ie most important problems o f lexicography are connected with:


1) the selection o f lexical units fo r inclusion: 2 ) the arrangement o f the
selected lexical units; 3 ) the setting o f the entry': 4 ) the selection and
arrangement o f word-meanings; 5) the definition o f meanings; 6 ) the
illustrative material.
The selection of lexical units for inclusion. T h e ch oice o f lexical
units fo r inclusion is the first problem the lexicographer faces. It is ne­
cessary to decide: a ) what types o f lexical units w ill be chosen for the
inclusion; b ) the number o f these items; c ) what to select and what to
leave out in the dictionary : d ) which form o f the language, spoken or
written o r both, the dictionary is to reflect; e ) whether the dictionary
should contain obsolete units, technical terms, dialectisms, colloquial­
isms. and some others.
The choice among diflerent possible answers depends upon the tvpe
to which the dictionary will belong, the aim the compilers pursue, 'the
prospective user o f the dictionary , the size o f the dictionary, the linguistic
concepts o f the dictionary-makers and some other considerations The
Longm an D ictio n a ry o f Contem porary' English (1992). for example, aims
to provide advanced students and teachers o f English with appropriate
inform ation on the c o re vocabulary o f contem porary international
English. Therefore this dictionary' contains around 56.000 words and
phrases, including scien tific and tech n ical language, business and
computer terms, literary words, and informal and idiomatic usage. It
covers both the major varieties. American and British English, in particular.
The units for inclusion m ay be drawn either from other dictionaries
or/and from some reading matter or/and from the spoken discourse. For
example, in the N e w O x fo rd D ic tio n a ry o f E nglish the extensive use
has been made o f the British National Corpus'.

Corpus — a collection o f language data brought together for linguistic analvsis.


See also: M o d ern Trends in Lexicography.
The arrangement of the selected lexical units. Th ere are tw o
modes o f presentation o f entries, the alphabetical order and the cluster-
type. i.e . when the units entered are arranged in nests, based on this or
that principle. F o r exam ple, in synonym -books words are arranged in
synonymic sets and its dom inant m em ber serves as the head-word o f
the entry.
Entries m ay be grouped in families o f words o f the same root as in
case o f . fo r ex a m p le, s o m e gen eral ex p la n a to ry and translation
dictionaries. T h e basic units are given as main entries that appear in
alphabetical order w hile the derivatives and the phrases which the word
enters are given either as subentries o r in the same entry as run-ons that
are also alphabetized. T h e difference between subentries and run-ons
is that the form er d o include definitions and usage labels, whereas run-
on words are not defined as their meanings are clear from the main
entry.
The setting of the entry. T h e most complicated type o f entry is that
found in general explanatory' dictionaries o f the synchronic type. In such
dictionaries the entry usually presents the fo llo w in g data: accepted
spelling and pronunciation: grammatical characteristics including the
indication o f the part o f speech o f each entry word, whether nouns a c ­
countable o r uncountable, the transilivity/intransitivity o f verbs and
irregular grammatical forms: definitions o f meaning: m odem currency:
illustrative examples: derivatives; phraseology: etym ology: sometimes
synonyms and antonyms.
T h e compilers o f a dictionary o f the same type may choose a different
setting o f a typical entry': they m ay om it some o f the items o r add some
others, choose a different order o f their arrangement o r a different mode
o f presenting the same information. Com pare the setting o f the entries
in the M a cm illa n English D ic tio n a ry f o r A d va n ced Lea rn ers ( I ) and
the Lon gm a n D ictio n a ry o f C on tem p ora ry English (2):

(1)
excel /ik'sel/ |l| to do something extremely well: We aim to give
every student the opportunity to excel. ♦ + excel in/at: Robbie had
always excelled a t sport.
excel yourself I to do something much better than you usually do
2 humorous used when someone has in fact done even worse than they
usually do
(2)
excel /ik'sel/ v excelled, excelling I |l. not in progressivel to do
something very well, or much better than most people: I’-at/inj Rick
has always excelled a t foreign languages. 2 excel yourself BrE to do
something better than you usually do: Graham has excelled him selfw ith
the new exhibition.

The selection and arrangement of word-meanings. There are at


least three different ways in which the word meanings are arranged: a) in
the historical order, i.e. in the sequence o f their historical development;
b ) in the em p irica l o r actual ord er, i.e . in c o n fo r m ity w ith their
frequency o f use. i.e. with the most com m on meaning first: c ) in the
logical order, i.e. according to their logical connection.
In d ifferen t dictio n aries the p rob lem o f arrangem ent is solved
differently. For example, the general principle on which meanings in the
N ew O x fo rd D ic tio n a ry o f E nglish are organized is that each word has
at least one core meaning, to which a number o f submeanings can be
attached. C o re meanings, as the authors o f the dictionary point out.
represent typ ica l, central uses o f the w ord in question in m odern
Standard English. It is the meaning accepted by native speakers as the
one that is most established as literal and central.
In many dictionaries meanings are generally organized by frequency
o l use. but som etim es the p rim ary m ea n in g co m e s firs t i f this is
considered essential to a correct understanding o f derived meanings.
The definition of meanings. M eanings o f words may be defined
in different ways: a ) by means o f linguistic definitions that are only
concerned with words as speech material. Th ey arc used in the majority
o l entries; b ) by means o f encyclopedic definitions that are concerned
with things for which the words are names; c ) by means o f svnonvmous
words and expressions: d ) by means o f cross-references.
T h e choice o f this o r that type o f definition depends, as a rule, on
the nature o f the word. i.e. usually the part o f speech the w ord belongs
to . and on the aim o f the d ic tio n a ry a n d its size. E n cy clo p ed ic
definitions, for example, are typical o f nouns, especially proper nouns
and terms. Th ey play a very important role in unabridged dictionaries.
Synonyms are used most often to define verbs and adjectives. T h ey arc
used in shorter dictionaries usually for ec o n o m izin g space. Cross-
references are resorted to define some derivatives, abbreviations and
variant forms.
The illustrative material. T h e presentation o f illustrative material
depends on the type o f the dictionary and on the aim the com pilers set
themselves. T h ey can illustrate the first and the last known occurrences
o f the entry w ord, the successive changes in its m eaning, as well as
graphic and phonetic forms, the typical patterns and collocations: they
place words in a context to clarify their meanings and usage.
Illustrative exam ples can be drawn fro m d ifferen t sources, e.g.
literature classical o r contem porary, o r can be constructed by the
com pilers themselves. For exam ple, in the L on g m a n D ic tio n a ry o f
Contem porary* English (1992) illustrative examples arc based on analysis
o f the authentic language in the Longman Citation Corpus, especially
the recent citations from Am erican and British newspapers.
Som e dictionaries indicate the author, the work, the page, verse, or
line, and the precise date o f the publication, som e indicate o n ly the
author to give at least basic orientation about the tim e when the word
occurs.
3 . TY P E S AND CO M M O N CH AR ACTER ISTICS
O F LEARNER’ S DICTION AR IES

Traditionally the term ‘lea rn er s dictionaries' is confined to dictionaries


specifically compiled to meet the demands o f the learners for whom English
is not their m other tongue. Learner's dictionaries may be classified in
accordance with different principles, the main o f which arc: I ) the scope o f
the word-list, and 2) the nature o f the information afforded. Depending
on what the scope o f the word-list and the nature o f the information
afforded are all learner's dictionaries arc usually divided into: a) elementary/
basic/pre-intermediate learner's dictionaries: b ) intermediate learner’ s
dictionaries; c ) upper-intermediate — advanced learner’s dictionaries.
L T h e s c o p e o f th e w o rd -lis t. T h e difference in the scope o f the
w o rd -lis t between the three types o f lea rn er's d ictio n aries is that
elem entary/basic/pre-interm cdiate learner's diction aries as w ell as
intermediate learner's dictionaries contain only the most essential and
im portan t, the so-ca lled key w ords o f English (sec the L o n g m a n
E le m e n ta ry D ic tio n a ry ). whereas upper-interm ediate — advanced
learner's dictionaries contain all lexical units that the prospective user may
need (sec A .S . H ornby's O x fo rd A d van ced L e a rn e r's D iction a ry’ ).
T h e com m on purpose o f learner’ s dictionaries is to give information
on what is currently accepted in m odem English. Therefore not only
obsolete, archaic and dialectal words are excluded, but also technical
and scientific terms, substandard words and phrases. C olloqu ial and
slang words as well as foreign words o f com m on occurrence in English
are included only i f they arc o f sort likely to be m et by students either
in reading o r in conversation.
For the selection o f entry words into learner’s dictionaries frequency
criterion is widely used. Frequency- value, an important characteristic
o f lexical units, enables the com piler t o choose the most important, the
m ost freq u en tly used w ords. T h e selection o f item s fo r learner's
d ic tio n a rie s m ay also be based on o th e r p rin c ip le s: th e w o rd 's
collocability. stylistic reference, derivational ability, semantic structure
and some others.
2. T h e nature o f the inform ation afford ed . A s to the information they
provide all learner’s dictionaries m ay be divided into tw o groups: I ) those
giving equal attention to the word's semantic characteristics and the way it
is used in speech (learner’s dictionaries proper); 2) those presenting different
aspects o f the vocabulary: presenting the syntagmatic relations between
words and the w ord’ s lexical and grammatical valency (dictionaries o f
collocations), providing information about the word's structure (derivational
dictionaries), supplying synonymous and antonymous words (dictionaries
o f synonyms and antonyms) and many others.
T h e structure and content o f the entry in learner's dictionaries also
have som e peculiar features that usually differ depending on a learner's
level in ih e study o f English. E lem cntary/basic/pre-interm ediatc
learner's dictionaries together with intermediate learner’ s dictionaries
differ, sometimes greatly, from advanced learner’s dictionaries in the
number o f meanings given and the language used fo r the description o f
these meanings. The form er present the semantic structure o f the words
in a sim plified form and give usually the most frequently used meaning
or meanings. Great importance is also attached to the language in which
the definition is couched. T h e simplest terms are used in elementary/
basic/pre-intermediate learner’s dictionaries and intermediate learner's
dictionaries as the language must be com m on er and more fam iliar to
the learner, especially to a beginner, than the words defined.
In most learner's dictionaries pictorial material is w idely used as a
means o f sem antization o f the words listed. Pictures can define the
meanings o f different nouns as well as adjectives, verbs, and adverbs.
F o r exam ple, the m eaning o f the w ord e s tu a ry in the Lon gm an
Dictionary' o f C ontem porary English is defined with the help o f the
map:

estuary /cstfuan. yon/ n the wide lower


part or mouth o f a river, into which the sea
enters at high tide: the Thames estuary.

T h e order o f arrangement o f meanings in


learner's dictionaries is usually em piric, i.e.
beginning with the main meaning to m inor
ones. Besides, the fo llo w in g principles o f
arrangement are considered proper fo r language learners: literal uses
before figurative, general uses before special, com m on uses before rare
and easily understandable uses before difficult.
In some learner's dictionaries alternative spellings and pronunciation
are avoided, certain derivatives and compounds are omitted.
The supplementary material in learner's dictionaries may include lists
o f irregular verbs, com m on abbreviations, geographical names, com m on
forenames, numerical expressions giving help in the reading, speaking
and writing o f numbers and expressions which contain them , lists o f
military' ranks, lists o f w ord-form ation prefixes and suffixes, tables o f
weights and measures, a list o f colleges and universities, special signs
and symbols used in various branches o f science.

4 . M ODERN TR EN D S IN ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY

M odern trends in English lex icograp h y are co n n ected w ith the


appearance and rapid developm ent o f such branches o f linguistics as
corpus (o r corpus-based) linguistics and computational linguistics.
C o rp u s (o r co rp u s -b a se d ) lin gu istics deals mainly with com piling
various electronic corpora for conducting investigations in different
linguistic field s such as phonetics, p h on ology, gram m ar, stylistics,
graphology, discourse, lexicon and many others. Corpora arc large and
systematic enterprises: w hole texts or whole sections o f text are included,
such as conversations, m agazin e articles, brochures, newspapers,
lectures, sermons, broadcasts, chapters o f novels, etc. A well-constructed
general corp u s enables in vestigators t o m ake m ore o b je c tiv e and
con fid en t descriptions o f usage o f w ords, t o make statements about
frequency o f usage in the language as a w hole, as well as comparative
statements about usage in different varieties, permits them to arrive at a
total account o f the linguistic features in any o f the texts contained in
the corpus; provides investigators with a source o f hypotheses about the
way the language works.
Computational linguistics is the branch o f linguistics in which the
techniques o f computer science are applied to the analysis and synthesis
o f language and speech.
T h e use o f language c o rp o ra and th e a p p lic a tio n o f m od ern
computational techniques in various lexicographical researches and in
dictionary-m ak ing in particular, have stipulated the appearance o f
corpus (o r corpus-based) lexicography and computational lexicography.

4.1. Corpus-Based Lexicography

C o r p o r a occu p y a sp ecial place in the study o f language. T h e


importance o f corpora for language researches is aligned to the importance
o f empirical data. Empirical data enable the linguist to make objective
statements, rather than those which are subjective, or based upon the
individual's own internalized cognitive perception o f language. A large and
well-constructed corpus gives excellent inform ation about frequency,
distribution, and typ icality o f linguistic features — such as words,
collocations, spellings, pronunciations, and grammatical constructions.
T h e recent developm ent o f corpus linguistics has given birth to
co rp u s-b a sed lex ico g ra p h y and a n ew corp u s-b a sed g e n e ra tio n o f
d ic tio n a rie s. F o r example, the C O B U IL D E n glish D ic tio n a ry used
the Bank o f English — the corpus o f 20 million words in contemporary
E nglish d e velop ed at the B irm ingham U niversity. T h e L o n g m a n
D ic tio n a ry o f C o n te m p o ra ry E n g lis h and the O x fo rd A d v a n ce d
L e a rn e r s D ic tio n a ry o f C u rre n t E nglish used the British National
Corpus.
T he B ritish N a tio n a l C orpus is a very large (over 100 million words)
corpus o f m odern English, both spoken and written. T h e Corpus is
designed to represent as w id e range o f m odern British English as
possible. T h e written part (9 0 % ) includes, for example, extracts from
regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals for
all ages and interests, academ ic books and popular fiction , published
and unpublished letters and memoranda, school and university essays.
am ong many other kinds o f text. Texts are selected for inclusion in the
corpus according to three independent selection criteria: dom ain <75 %
o f texts from informative writings, e.g . from the fields o f applied sciences
o r art, etc.; 25 % from im aginative w ritings — literary and creative
works), time (m ostly texts since 1975) and medium (60 % o f written texts
are books, 25 % — periodicals).
T h e spoken part (1 0 % ) o f the British N ational Corpus includes a
la rge am ou n t o f u n scrip ted in fo rm a l c o n v e rs a tio n , record ed by
volunteers selected from different age, region and social classes in a
demographically balanced way, together with spoken language collected
in all kinds o f d ifferen t contexts, ranging from form al business or
government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins.
The use o f corpora in dictionary-m aking practices gives a compiler
a lo t o f o p p o r tu n itie s ; a m o n g the m ost im p o rta n t o n e s is the
opportunity:
1 ) to produce and revise dictionaries much more quickly than before,
thus providing up-to-date information about language;
2 ) to give m ore com p lete and precise d efin ition s since a larger
number o f natural examples arc examined;
3 ) to keep on top o f new words entering the language, o r existing
words changing th eir m eanings due t o the op en -en d ed (constantly
grow in g) m onitor corpus;
4 ) to describe usages o f particu lar w ords o r phrases typical o f
particular varieties and genres as corpus data contains a rich amount o f
textual information — regional variety, author, date, part-of-spccch lags,
genre, etc.;
5 ) to organize easily exam ples extracted from corp ora into more
meaningful groups for analysis and describe/present them laying special
stress on their co lloca tio n . F o r exam ple, by sorting the right-hand
context o f the w ord alphabetically so that it is possible to see all instances
o f a particular collocate together. See a concordance o f som e o f the
instances o f the w ord f ir s t from a selection o f text (Illustration I ):
6 ) to treat phrases and collocations m ore systematically than was
previously possible due to the ability to call up word-combinations rather
than words and due to the existence o f mutual information tools w hich
establish relationships between co-occurring words;
7 ) to register cultural connotations and underlying ideologies wilich
a language has.
Som e o f lexicographical giants have their ow n electronic text archives
w hich they use depending on the type o f dictionary com piled. For
example, the Lon gm a n Corpus N etw ork is a diverse, far-reaching group
o f databases co n sis tin g o f m an y m illio n s o f w ord s. F iv e h igh ly
sophisticated language databases form the nucleus o f the N etwork: the
Lon gm a n L e a rn e rs ' C orpus (com prised o f 10 million words o f writing
in English by learners o f the language from over 125 different countries):
the L on gm a n W ritte n A m e rica n C orp u s (com prised o f 140 m illion
• r ir .a y a r jJ s c ie v - c h e d to л l u l l . 7h« fir » t a ir p o r t tru c k w as th e r e in «a c r o s s .
ik *»C о П Ы Ч и у . I м и * to c o n c u r C a n t an arp ect o f P IT S w a ic n 1 r a il 'o n e s
of 3 »« 1 . «to n 't know whvr 1 : m s fir s t a p p r e c ia te d th a t th e u r .it fr a c tio n ,
O o e p o r . my s o r r o w . I w o r s h ip yow as my fir s t b o g in n in g ; 1 1 c r.g fo r you as ry la s t
a g a lle y p u ttin g tilin g s aw ay w h en t t r fir s t t v u a n sou n ded. One o f th e h o s ta s s s
3. to O e n o t* }/ 5 . A p ap yru s fr e e i f » fir s t c e n tu ry AO h a s th e fr a c t io n In oa r в
v a r ia b le lo t ca r. F o r с х ж т р '.в . Y a rro .fir s t c e n tu r y SCI B s n tlo n s o n ly l i such tr
aJso or M r -C w ».;;, - fio h iiis - i: m s л fir s t C la s s d e g r e e in S c o n o B its . B o th In
c r io n Го» trw d o lla r - th e c r * iffic ;a ; fir s t cu rren cy h e re . But sha h ija c k Is sea
G ill, b ecau se e-*>6 e r s d l e o F ren ca as i fir s t d id n 't She? iH X l Its . she
hr E SP b e fo r e ^ 'P C ' M o. that, -a s ay fir s t o f te a c h in g Z S T -. F o r*u n a t
d so cn. r ig h t jp to 10 1. W- show th e fir s t tr ie s in lie r a d io n o te s in th
-ve ic t m . A s H o e : s e » « C < w ro te In th e fir s t G e rm a n H ade S d n lfe S t.. o f r .in e te e n - e i
nd l t '. l c e r ta in ly be a a r .y in v e s to r s * fir s t g o s t a sh are w ith a p erk . S to c fc b r n *
e, o r t u r n s '. , a n d o u t t h e o th e r s id e , fir s t, b e th o u g h t, h e m ust le a r n t o c o r .tro
s e lls s r r is c le d t o .e a r s , and «e r e a t f i r s t h e l d a t t h e А л н а : p r i s o n c& n p , w h i c h
s t H appens i t t h e y a r e a o n t h e c k ? The fir s t h u r d le la 'b s road Г to * th e a ir p o r t:
n e g o t i a t o r . M r . M - .C * M u r p h y , я I d th e fir s t in d ic a tio n s -e re th a t a C le a t a a io r i
liv e a t te e , in r e p ly to A u s t r a l . a ': fir s t in n in g s * t o t » ! o ! o r .e h u n d red and se
ed end f i ! t y —s l t j r . t Гог th re e ir . th e ir fir s t in n in g s , — re fO o r te e : w ith o u t lo s s
i b i t i o a o t n i r . e 'e e n - t w e n t y c e i l e d th e f i r s t In te r n a tio n a l le o a F a it, h e r 1in -a s
e p h o to g ra p h in a p a r t i a . v ie w o f th e f ir s t In te r n a tio n a l Hud* F a ll. I f a th e he
ow e th e cover o t th e c a ta lo g - .* * o ' th e F ir s t In te r n a tio n a l F »> r. The c r e d its
ic a n d r e a l i t y i s u n u s u a l!, w id e . & jt fir s t, i t ' s -o r t h s tte ia in g h o - the constr
yCd h a d a s t r u g g le y c o r * o !f fin d in g a fir s t jc i> . y o u s a y t o r t r s o r e a i w . c - ’is
e ta ttic ile d o o w ti h i s c h e a ts - ith h is fir s t s s io r v ic to r y . T h ere - « t - no such no
.iu a tlis . G o in g l o th e M io r * 0 Л th e fir s t a o r a in g O f 1h e n o ; io » y , ih - young Sr.
h o td la r e . A n d i t i s now e e v e l o p i n q tb - fir s t n a tio n a l n a ta b a a * o f »J 1 rh # lo c a l i
g h t. S et you ru st p r c o js o t-C th in g s , r ir s t o f a l. you n u 8 tn *t ea: an yone: i t 's
le v s c and a q u a rte r per cant ( r <m t h e fir s t o f O eceeb er, and th e s e p c s lr a n c in c
nt agam at th e a ls ig h ty d o lla r e « th e fir s t o f Ч ц а г с * . The o t r ic la i ;a iiir
a. .т а b y M r J o h n P o ilo c * . n s-d tn e ir fir s t o n a -o u y s t r i k e o : - h e p r e s e n t r a s p * ;
n ers In E n g la n d : a n a n d P a 11 g o a l, 'h e fir s t o n e i n t h e ■»*»■*• ; n g w i t h E n g l a n d . B u t

Illustration I

words o f Am erican newspaper and book text): the L on gm a n S poken


A m erica n C orp u s (a unique resource o f 5 m illion words o f everyday
A m e ric a n s p e e c h ); th e S p o k e n B r itis h C o rp u s (g iv e s o b je c tiv e
information fo r the first tim e on what spoken English is really like and
how it d iffe rs fro m w ritten B ritish E n g lis h ); and the L o n g m a n /
L a n ca s te r C orpus (w ith over 30 m illion words it covers an extensive
range o f written texts from literature to bus timetables).

4.2. Computational Lexicography. Electronic Dictionaries

Computational lexicography deals with the design, compilation,


use and evalu ation o f e le c tro n ic (e le c tro n ic a lly readable/m achine
readable) dictionaries. Electronic dictionaries fundamentally differ in
form , content, and function from conventional word-books. A m ong the
most significant differences are: 1) the use o f multimedia means; 2 ) the
navigable help indices in windows oriented software; 3 ) the use o f sound,
anim ation, a u d io and visual (pictu res, vid eo s ) elem ents as w ell as
interactive exercises and games; 4 ) the varied possibilities o f search and
access methods that allow the user to specify the output in a number o f
ways; 5 ) th e access to and retrieval o f in form a tion are n o longer
determined b y the internal, traditionally alphabetical, organization o f
the dictionary, but a n on -lin ea r structure o f the text; 6 ) the use o f
hyperlinks which allow easily and quickly to cross-refer to words within
an entry or to other words connected with this entry.
In case o f electronic dictionaries the demands on the user becom e
greater as the emphasis is less on following a predetermined path through
the dictionary structure and more on navigating relationships across and
w ith in entries via a c h o ic e o f links. S o before using an electron ic
dictionary it is necessary to acquire certain navigational and searching
skills apart from the 'conventional diction ary skills'. T h e difference
between the m inim al skills acquired fo r the use o f conventional and
electronic dictionaries is given in Table 8.

T a b le 8

Lhctionanes in book form Electronic dictionaries

1. Understanding the structure o f 1. Understanding the presentation


paper-based dictionary in windows on a computer screen
2. Knowing how to use the Guide 2. Knowing how to use the Help
to the book dictionary facility
3. Understanding o f typographical 3. Knowing how to use hyperlinks
conventions and the use o f symbols (c.g. to display the frill term shown
and punctuation in pop-up windows)
4. Deciding what to look up 4. Deciding on the type o f search:

search; and understanding how


advanced searches work
5. Knowing how to interpret the 5. Knowing how to use the Audio
international phonetic alphabet facility
(IP A ) and pronunciation o f words
6. Distinguishing relevant from 6. Knowing how to confine searches
irrelevant information to the information required
7. Scanning dictionary entries 7. Restricting search to particular
sections, c j l to idioms and rhrasal
verbs
8. Knowing how to cany out cross- 8. Knowing how to use hypertext
references links
9. Referring to additional 9. Referring to additional
information in front matter or information in various sections
appendices presented on the screen
10. Recording the dictionary 10. Recording the dictionary
information information in electronic form using
tire link to M icrosoft W ord and the
Copy-function
Th ere are distinguished two main types o f electronic dictionaries: on ­
line dictionaries and C D - R O M dictionaries. T o use on-line dictionaries
it is necessary to have access to the Internet. T o install C D - R O M
dictionaries on a com puter it is necessary t o ensure that a computer
meets the minim um system requirements that are usually enumerated
in the User Guide.
Am ong the on -lin e diction aries there are the following: the O xford
English D ie lio n a ry O n lin e. the M e rria m -W e b s te r O n lin e Dictionary.
the Cam bridge D iction a ries O n lin e (including Cam bridge A dvanced
Lea rner's Dictionary'. Cambridge International Dictionary' o f Idiom s.
C a m b rid ge D ic tio n a r y o f A m e ric a n E n glish , e tc .), the A m erica n
H eritage D ictio n a ry o f the English language and many others. Each
dictionary has its own benefits and differs, sometim es greatly, in the
interface, material available, contents area, number o f options, organization
o f entries, search capabilities, etc. from other dictionaries o f such kind.
The O x fo rd English D ictio n a ry O n lin e , for instance, contains the
material o f the 20-volume O x fo rd English D ic tio n a ry and 3-volume
A d d ition s Series. Besides more revised and new entries are added to
the online dictionary every quarter. T h e layout o f a typical entry w indow
is given below (Screenshot 1).
T h e O x fo r d E n g lis h D ic tio n a r y O n lin e is characterized by the
follow ing main features: 1 ) the display o f entries according to a user's

Screenshot 1
needs, i. e . en tries can be d isp la yed b y tu rn in g p ron u n cia tion s,
etymologies, variant spellings, and quotations on and off; 2 ) the search
for pronunciations as well as accented and other special characters; 3 ) the
search for words which have com e into English via a particular language;
4 ) the search for quotations from a specified year, o r from a particular
author and/or work; 5) the search for a term when a user knows only
meaning; 6 ) the use o f wildcards' i f a user is unsure o f a spelling; 7 ) the
restrictions o f a search to a previous results set; 8 ) the search for first cited
date, authors, and works; 9 ) the case-sensitive searches; and some others.
A m o n g the C D - R O M d ic tio n a r ie s there are the follow ing; the
L o n g m a n D ic tio n a ry ' o f C on tem porary• E n g lis h o n C D -R O M , the
C a m b rid ge In te rn a tio n a l D iction a ry - o f E n glish o n C D -R O M , the
C o llin s C O B U IL D on C D -R O M . the C on cise O x fo rd D ic tio n a ry on
C D -R O M , and many others.
In most cases C D - R O M dictionaries are electronic versions o f the
printed reference books supplem ented by m ore visual inform ation,
pronunciation, interactive exercises and games and allow ing the user to
carry out searches impossible with the book dictionaries.
T h e Lon gm a n D ictio n a ry o f Contem porary- English on C D -R O M ,
fo r exam ple, differs from the paper diction ary in the follow in g way:
1) every word is pronounced in British and American English. A user can
also record his/her own pronunciation and compare it with the accepted
fo rm ; 2 ) it gives 15.000 w ord origin s o r etym ologies and contains
7000 encyclopedic entries for people, places, and things, taken from the
L on gm a n D ictio n a ry o f E nglish L a n gu a ge a n d C u ltu re; 3 ) there are
80,000 additional examples given in the Longman Examples Bank; 4 ) over
a m illion corpus sentences are included for very advanced learners and
teachers o f English; 5) it contains 150,000 extra words (collocates) that
are used with the headword; 6 ) it has the Activator section which is very
helpful in choosing the right word in this o r that context and provides essay
writing technique; 7) there are a lot o f interactive activities in grammar,
vocabulary, culture, as well as exam practice exercises.
T h e Lon gm a n D ic tio n a ry o f C on tem p ora ry E nglish on C D -R O M
has its ow n distinctive features that m ake it prom inent a m o n g the
dictionaries o f this kind. Th ere are three main functions in the C D -
R O M dictionary, each opening in the main w indow but with a slightly
different look. These three functions are the D ic tio n a ry . A c tiv a to r, and
E xercises. Users can choose the full sized display, o r “ P o p -U p M o d e” .
T h e diction ary interface includes a search bar. an area fo r view in g
entries, and windows fo r the P hra se B a nk, E xa m ples B a nk , and the
A ctiv a te Y our L a n gu a ge tool. See the dictionary interface screenshot
(Screenshot 2).

1wildcards air used lo search for words when not all tellers in them arc known
The wildcard symbol “ ? " represents any single character and the wildcard symbol
represents any string of characters.
Screenshot 2

In the entry display (left side o f the screen), the word is presented
along with links to pronunciation, usage note, word origin, verb form,
and word set. but not all links are active for all entries. T h e Phrase Bank
includes phrases that use the search w ord, as well as words that are
com m on ly used with the search word. The E xa m ples Bank presents
samples o f the w ord's usage from “ Extra dictionary exam ples" and
"Sentences from books, newspapers, etc." The A ctiva te Your Language
section, which does not have entries fo r all words, allow s a user to
continue the search in the A ctiva tor.
In lexicography the developments in electronic instrumentation and
computer science have revolutionized the dictionary-m aking process,
shown new perspectives in this field, supported lexicographical studies
in different directions.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is lexicography?
2. What is the term ’ dictionary ' used to denote?
3. What are the main principles o f classification o f dictionaries? What
types o f dictionaries can be singled out according t o these principles?
4. What d o you know about encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries?
5. What is the difference between general and restricted dictionaries?
6. W hat inform ation d o explanatory and specialized dictionaries
provide?
7. A c c o r d in g to w h at p r in c ip le a rc d ic tio n a rie s d iv id e d in to
m onolingual and bilingual?
8. W hat dictionaries are called (a ) diachronic and (b ) synchronic?
9. What are the most important problems o f lexicography?
10. What questions are necessary to consider w hile choosing lexical
units for inclusion?
11. What are the two modes o f presentation o f entries?
12. What is the most com plicated type o f entry?
13. What are the three different ways in which the w ord meanings
can b e arranged?
14. In what ways m ay meanings o f words be defined?
15. W hat can illustrative material clarify? What are the sources o f
illustrative examples?
16. W hat are the tw o m ain p rin c ip le s o f cla ssify in g lea rn er’ s
dictionaries?
17. In w hat way d o diction aries co m p iled to m eet the needs o f
learners o f different levels o f the study o f English d iffer in the scope o f
their w ord -list? W hat w ords are usually exclu ded and included in
learner's dictionaries? What criteria are used fo r the selection o f words
in learner’s dictionaries?
18. What types o f learners dictionaries can be singled out according
to the information afforded in them ? What are the peculiar features o f
the structure and content o f the entry in learner's dictionaries?
19. What can you say about the order o f arrangement o f meanings
in learner’ s dictionaries?
20. W hat d o es the supplem entary m aterial include in learner’ s
dictionaries?
21. What are m odem trends in lexicography connected with?
22. What is corpus (o r corpus-based) linguistics?
23. What is computational linguistics?
24. What is the im portance o f corpora aligned to? Why?
^25. What has the recent developm ent o f corpus linguistics given birth

26. What d o you know about the British N ational Corpus?


27. What opportunities does a com piler get due to corpora?
28. What does computational lexicography deal with?
29. W hat are the most significant differences between electronic and
conventional dictionaries?
30. What is the difference between the m inim al skills acquired for
the use o f conventional and electronic dictionaries?
31. W hai types o f electronic dictionaries can be singled out?
32. W h a t are th e d is tin ctive featu res o f th e O x fo r d E n g lis h
D ic tio n a ry O n lin e ?
33. In what way does the L on gm a n D ic tio n a ry o f C ontem porary'
E n glish on C D -R O M d iffer from the printed-paper dictionary?
34. What are the distinctive features o f the L on gm a n D ic tio n a ry o f
C on tem p ora ry E nglish on C D - R O M ?

II. T A S K S

! . • Classify the given dictionaries into two groups: a) encyclopedic


dictionaries: b) linguistic dictionaries.
M o d e l : The Concise O xford Dictionary
0 The Concise O xford D ictionary is a linguistic dictionary (group b).
N T C ’ s Dictionary o f Am erican Spelling. T h e Chambers B ook o f
Facts. T h e Collins Dictionary o f Allusioas. T h e Longman Dictionary o f
the English Language. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. T h e
Dictionary o f Literary Terms. The C on cise O x fo rd D ictio n a ry , Brewer's
Dictionary o f 20,h-century Phrase and Fable. T h e Collins C O B U IL D
Roget’ s International Thesaurus. T h e Merriam-Webster's Geographical
D ic tio n a r y , T h e C a m b rid g e G u id e t o F ic t io n in E n g lis h , T h e
Cam bridge International Dictionary o f Idioms. T h e Penguin Dictionary
o f English Gram m ar. T h e Cassell Com panion to 20 *-century Music.
Random H ouse Webster's Dictionary o f Am erican Slang.
2 * State which type the given linguistic dictionaries refer to: general — restricted,
explanatory — specialized, monolingual — bilingual, diachronic — synchronic.
M o d e l : The Longman D ictionary o f Phrasal Verbs
0 The Longman D ictionary o f Phrasal Verbs is a restricted, explanatory.
monolingual, synchronic word-book.
1) the C oncise O xford D ictionary o f English E tym ology; 2 ) the
Penguin Dictionary o f English Idiom s; 3) the N e w O xford Dictionary
o f English; 4 ) the M od em English-Russian Dictionary; 5) the Longm an
D ic tio n a ry o f P h ra s a l Verbs,; 6 ) the Longm an Language Activator:
7 ) the English-Russian Dictionary o f Linguistics and Semiotics: 8) the
English Pronouncing D ictionary; 9 ) the Longm an Business English
Dictionary; 10) the N e w O xford Thesaurus o f English; 11) a Dictionary
o f N eologism s; 12) the BB1 C om binatory Dictionary o f English.
3. Choose any three dictionaries and describe the principles o f the selection
o f lexical units for inclusion in these dictionaries.
M o d e l : The Longman Idioms D ictionary
0 The Longman Idioms D ictionary aims at reflecting the wide range o f idioms
that are being used in British and American English today. Using the
Longman Corpus Network, ihe Internet, ihc media, the editorial team has
gathered information about the newest idioms being used, as well as giving
complete coverage o f idioms at the core o f the language. In addition to many
new idioms the dictionary includes a range o f the most frequently used idioms
in the language. It covers idioms with metaphoric meanings that are fairly
easy to understand, such asput your heads together ( ‘ work together in order
to solve a problem'), to those that are less obvious, like fa ce the music <‘to
accept responsibility for your actions and give people the chance to criticize
you'). Many two-word phrases. like w ild card. arc included, as arc phrases
with pragmatic uses, such as ju s t lik e that. The dictionary also includes
many frequently used similes, such as like two peas in a pod.

4 . Slate the mode o f presentation o f entries in the following dictionaries:


The Longman Language Activator (1993) (Illustration 2); The New Oxford
Dictionary o f English (1998) (Illustration 3): The Cambridge Advanced
Learner's Dictionary (2003) (Illustration 4). What information is given in the
subentries and run-ons o f these dictionaries?

5. State in which way the setting o f the entry for the word sm art differs
in the given dictionaries (Illustrations 5.6). Wliat data does the entry present
in these dictionaries?

6. Analyze the entries o f the word smart given in Task 5. Describe: a) the way in
which the meanings o f the word smart are arranged: b) the way in which the
meanings o f the word smart are defined; c) the presentation o f the illustrative
material.

7-* -Analyze the nature o f the information presented in the given entries.
Classify the learner's dictionaries from which these entries were taken into:
I ) those giving equal attention to the word’s semantic characteristics and
the way it is used in speech; 2) those presenting different aspects o f the
vocabulary’.

M o d e l : Freelance /TriJurns S Titians/ adjective, adverb someone who


is freelance works for several different organizations: Гт a freelan ce writer. |
Г m thinking o f going freelance.

0 According to the nature o f the information presented in this entry the


learner's dictionary from which it was taken can be referred to those giving
equal attention to the word's semantic characteristics and the way it is used
in speech (group I).

1)
d e s p a ir л. I. to overcome - 2. deep, sheer, total, utter ~ 3. the depths o f -
4. in - (in utter - ) 5. out o f - (to do smth. out o f ~ )
2)
a rm a m en ts /tr.ma.mants/ US /'air-/ p lu ra l noun weapons o r military-
equipment: the country's armaments programme
a rm a m en t /'а-.тэ.тэш/ US /tar-/ noun |U |the process o f increasing the
number and strength o f a country's weapons: As the country preparesf o r war.
m ore and m ore money* is being spent on armament.
D O C TO R SB

• DOCTOR 3 a d o c to r w h o M a t s doco* » w h o a m r -e n ta »*
a
4 a d o c t o r w * «o t r e a s p e o p l e * i
• a d o c to r w o o l

H M M H Hi l w * . 'u i » t g | o < ; « C i
1 « о т » m e o p e ig a o x * * H e*p sy ch ia trist told her th e n o lo n g * ' needed to ял е own
q u iU O trs C h ild p y sch u a n a D r G oldm an has штат t
Ы и а и п М In y vu n g g irls a r e a p s y c h ia t r is t i ?cb
Ю b e D a i la d b y a p a y e h ia t n M i Я г я Ш j o e t o хЛг » щ р ав;

( ' Л е к s o m e o n e « h o w |ob u l c c i m
p r o p le w h o e r a И с к « m iu r e d a n d « h o h a » p aaaa d prrtfe*-
Ш
ЯеЬшЦпqkj.
tr r a a p e o p le w it h m e n t a l liln e s a i a C l
The shrinks a t t o h osp d a l said t o y th in k G ary an
o ta d k a i « Ь о О (a C l to r a p i T h a t guy 4 e n r r - h r ou g h t ю т а shrink
D c c to r / k rrp g ra in s о p a i n i n m y th ro a t Tracy a
U n y y u m a la m h u t S a ra h u a n it to O eo d o c to r — h f ll-H P it g i
i il l -m u d Ы Ш с c a ll a d o cto r i r r a t o l n w h o i m u p e o p le « it n m e n ia l a n d e m o a c m a ] р г о Ы м » Ц
Г - v e i l i d o c t o r s o th a t th e y c a n e u m i n e r o u ) / i r w v ю see m e i n * t h e n r c g n la r iv a n d t a lk m g t o th e m ab o u t H e
t o d o cto r a b o u t m y chest b u t t o said t o r e m as n a th b ig p r v b H iQ la C l
a xo n g u -ith m e t h e d o c t o r 's ( = i b e p la c e w h e r e t h e d o c to r M y апаЫ и to ld m e th a tI mas obsessed я * Л my m other A
w o r k s i 'H A r r c s A a r r n * ' "S h e's a t t o d o cto r s “ D o c t o r tra m o f analysts studied t o c h ild 1 beh a ch w for a period 1
S a d l h / J a a c * r d I'd b k r to m ake an a ppointm ent to to r tw o m on th !
O x t o r P n » / to n e a m th is m orn in g
f l , n p W an A m m a n ! iMTKitam 4 a оосда • * « т о л к m o p e * te w r-

» (r p A 7 s « r ia n to ld m e m stop tn n fa r t * H a fa r m s i r r both
physicians in a busy h o s p ita l d a i i t t e l i 'd e t a in , l a C l
M y d entist to U m e I s lw u ld n i ta t
O R ' р ь • B n u s h w o n l m e a n in g а Л о с и * w h o И
tr a in e d i n g e n e r a l m arttr i n e a n d w h o * j o b Ы l o t r a r . th e * e e ' t t o l t t h e d a n d m l - p t o th e d e n t is t a n d b e exam inee
o r tr e a te d ) You should v o i l t o d entist m o o r th re e o n e s я
p r o p !* w h o l i v e I n • p a r tic u la r lo c a l a r e a l a C l
U y o tr C P r a n l h e lp you h i Ш Ч re fe r m i to o sp ecia list year t h e d e n t l M 's i - U w p la c e w h e r e th e d e n n s i wort*.'
Л lo t o f G P ta r r to o q u irk to p rescrib e d ru gs. instead o f I h a te g o a l* Ю t o d en tist's
letO ng t o bod y g e t b e tte r an a s ow n
« M k / k w tr tj a n in f c m n i l w o r d f a r a d o c t o r w h o n n o t 3 a d o c t o r w h o D e a l* a r e n a »
• w h o c l a i m t o t * a d o c to r but h m
i la C l
*1 t o o * a th in g a b ou tm e U tto ' S b c
U o n , q t Л о т quacks w ho ch a rge t o e a rth fo r и oa k ; « e (a C l
J a n e t ta k in g h e r k iB tri to t o i « o n H id a y (o u ld y o o ia ii
t o n rt a n d ask h im to com e m t o fa rm ? T d Uke h im m h a a
!b > ' m w l i l r i p c i,h i m l doc
a g r o u p l a p h ro s e : a look a t on e o f t o horses
s to keep t o m ed ica lprxges- v e t e H n a r t n a \ ,m tx \ 'a u n M a n A m e r ic a n w o r t ta r i
d o c t o r w h o t r e a t s a n im a l* I n C l
H ave y o u r d o g s teeth cleaned by y o u r c e ttrin a ria n a t ком
once o year

«а с — m o fc o p o t
2a o o d o r w h o has s p e c ® s ta b
EAST»
A»O<04 •
*k *400 5
0 S K 0 «S *4
j ' « p c / e i i * « i a d o c t o r w h o h a * s p e c ia l !'С01ЕИ»
K n o w le d g e r tf a p a m c u U r i D n « » . p a rt erfth e b o d y , o r ty p e the dog a a ^n it
m ile Cl C O tT O TlO i'S TA ’ E O F STH В
П I f C O M P S tE A ' - H l t t » Ш В У a
KISfMWED*
«оякчмюс
1the dole X 6 « c * > 9
t f t o w o rld 4 lea d in g spen a h sts in radiotherapy
п т я Ш т Л /К авЧл1ви» a B ritis h w a d m e a n in g a d o n o r ■ H iM M te M ie » J - O r C lO T - E S 2
w h o Ь а * s p e c i a i k n > * M g r ctf a p a r tic u la r a r e * r tf m e d ic in e p *c f a
a n d w h o b i n c h a r g e o f a b c a p ita l d e p a r tm e n t th a t d e a l* •K A O f •**>Л'_£СС£ tXJTiiS. S~UC"£TC1
w it h t b i * a r e a rtf m e d ic in e l a C l cooN’ m * » » r » i t o FAMt.y a « > « s a
Th e, P fiV A T W iS O N A l. a
Ш>s a te h e r Ufa MM*1 (НЖ* l
H e 0 » Ja m ieson Is th e con su lta n t p s y ch o lo g is t a t Sr соятлха 4 -ади5
cotmtx •
GIVE 0
QmtbO
make a t a a t f OvE ■
lane R4GH DOMiStHa
r etc surgeon f-a doctcr who doe* c*wr ( I w O ta lb w d o n a n i t i C C -w i
i o n A e te w x n . h e art e t c ) A fam ous b ra in surgeon cam e ST^a
am A s s a m a n d op era n d o n h im fO r th re e hours

Hlustraiion 2 Illustration 3
ТЪе New Oxford Dictionary of The Macmillan English Dictionary
English for Advanced Learners
»m *rt ► a d je c tiv e I ( O f a p e r s o n ) clea n , t i d y , a n d
w e il-d r c s s c d : y o u lo o k v e ry m a n
smart1/smtrvadj **
• ( o f c l o t h e s ) a tt r a c tiv e ly n e t a n d s iy fc h : a sm a rt Ы ие 1 c le a n a n d n e a t i n a p p e a ra n c e B i d < i n n ic e
s k in . • ( o f a t h in g ) b r ig h t a n d fre s h ia a p p e a ra n c e a fa s h io n a b le c t o d ie s , e s p e c ia lly m a s _____ __________

игсагт g re e n ra n . ■ ( o f a p e r s o n o r p l a c e ) fa s h io n a b le ч у г S a n d y , lo o k in g v e r y иш ж , tod a y l a u s e d ab o u t
and i g * n « r t e a m a n resta u ra n t. s o m e o n e 's c lo t h e s : a s u u n b lu e n U

2 t fflg — S o p h * U a sm art hard -w ceksng Itu d en t.


• I f y o * w ere sm art ya rn 'd b in now h eftw r p n e e s g o
2 гЛ дт п h a v in g or s h o w in g a q u ic k - w in e d шр. • T h e y 're m a n en ou gh t o ask a ll th e rig h t
n d e iU g e a c e : i f h e was th a t sm a rt h e w ou ld n e v e r h a m q u e s tio n , 2 a. done w ith m te lb g c o c e or c a r e fu l
b een trick ed . t h o u g h t S ta rtin g a p e n s io n ich e m e n cn . m id be a
• ( o f a d e v i c e ) c a p a b le o f in d e p e n d e n t a n d s e e m in g ly m a n m ove • a sm art qu estion
m t e llig e m a c tio n : h .-te c h m a n w eapons. ■ с м а , ч
3 s p e a k in g o r b e h a v in g л a c l e v e r o r fu n n y w ay that
лат s h o w in g im p e r tm e n c e by такте c le v e r or
sbosvs a la c k o f r e s p e c t boys m ho a re p u n ish ed fe e
* а г с « я к r em a rk s, d o n 't g e t sm a rt o r I ’l l w h a c k y o u
b e in g m a n in cla s s • а я m an answ er / a ttitu d e • g e t
* ■ " * » * h <b D o n 't g e t m a n mtih m e '

4 c o n n e c te d w * b r i c h fa s h io n a b le p e o p l e w c f th e
m aner suburbs of R om e • th e sm a rt set
3 q u ic k ; b ris k . I g a v e him a sm a rt sa lu te ( “ J h i o n a b l e p e o p l e ) a resta u ra n t p cp sd m w ah the
■ p a m fijlly s e v e r e a d u g th a t snaps a g iv e n a
b low
5 a s n a . 1 m o v e m e n t is q m c k a n d ftxU o f f o r c e o e
e n e r g y . a sm art ra p o n th e knucU es

6 s m a rt m a c h in e s , e s p e c ia lly w e a p o n s , use co m p o s e r
► * e r b |s o < e,| ( o f a w o o n d o r p a r t e d th e b o d y > c a u s e K th n o fc g y to m a k e th e m e ffe c tiv e . sm art m ines /
a s h a r p . s tin g in g p a in th e w m m l was sm a rtin g | a act
bom bs - s m a r t ly - v a m a rd y dressed y o u n g m a n •
— W l Susan ru b b e d h e r s m a rtin g eyes. H e m oved pretty^ sm a rtly t o Ы оск th e g o a l. -
• ( o f a p e r s o n ) f e e l u p s e t a n d a n n o y e d ' d efen ce chiefs

D iffe r e n c e s b e tw e e n B r h iy i und A m e r ic a n
E n g lis h s m a rt

► ахав I (s m a r ts ) Ч л л-г in t e llig e n c e , In th e t 'K . s m a rt u sually m ea n s d r e s s e d m

a c u m e n : t dun 7 th in k / have th e m a n s fe e tt. « p e n w * o r fa s h io n a b le c lo t h e s u sm art su itf o r


tn terriew s. T h e u su al A m e r ic a n w o r d f o r t h is is
2 | a a u » — I sh a rp S t in g in g P “ > th e sm a rt o f th e re ce n t
s tylish I n th e U S . s m a rt u s u a lly m ea n s c l e v e r
b lo o d -ra w cuts
H e s th e xm a n est g u y in o u r d epartm ent
■ a r t * , tn e m a l p ir n o r s u f f e r in g s o rro w is th e e ffe c t i /
ш о п . a n d m a n is th e e ffe c t e ffo a h .

> ad verb uvhms in a q u ic k o r b ris k m a n n e r u a


b e tte r f a r ten a n ts t o b e co m p e lle d to p a y u p sm art

s n a rl* s m a t v x rb ( I ) 1 t o b u n w it h a s u d d en sharp

- О ■ t О I N O l d E n g lis h sm eon a n . v e r b ) , o f W e s t "* * '


G e r m a n ic o r ig in , r e la te d t o G e r m a n t c A m r n m r the
a d je c t iv e a r e la t e d t o the v e r b th e o r ig in a l s e m e (la te
O ld E n g lis h ) b e in g 'c a u s in g sh a rp p a in ', f r o m this
arose keen , b ris k ’ , w h en ce th e c u rre n t sem es o f
'm e n t a lly s h a r p ' a n d n e a t i n a b o s k s h a rp s ty le ’. ) .
smart 's m t r V n o u n I a s h o rt sh a rp p a in 2

a f e e lin g of b e in g u p set by s o m e th in g th a t has


, h a p p e n e d o r that s o m e o n e has s a id o r d o a e Sm a r t s

Illustration 4 Illustration 5
The Longman Dictionary of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of

Contemporary English English Etymology

s m a rt' / в та Ц в то Л ' od > l a p W no* and sm art be acutely painful (Ж , fee! sharp pern,
suffer severely for X». OE • s m e o r u m (in
styleh in п р м и п к : Гот l o o t - a y s m a rt o r Лаг
• г » A r t. |a smart new car - lee abo SMAKTO. 2 f y r s m e o n m d e fk ity . painful, x m e o m a tg itching)

а р Л я Е good or qakk in (tankm*. clever. I f h e l “ MDu. s m e r te n , (also m od.) s m a r te n . OHO.


a s m a rt ai h t to y s , w ty didth e c o p s c a tc h h m ? - tm e r z a n (G . * c h m e r z e n \ based от WGmc
K c CLEVHt (USAGE! 3 quick »ed forceful: a s m a rt • s m e r t - • s m a r t- • s m a r t -. So saaart adj. tbiling.
b to w an/ h e h e a d |а а ш п n s e f a ll I n p r te r s 4 beat? slmgmg xr. causing acute pam ха; bn»*- vigorous
or ired by very fashionable people la n d m 's XU. bale OE. s m e a r t. sm art sb. xn.
m o r t a l re s s a w a m | th e m a n i n --- *> a d r . S h e
n a t r e r y m ^ d y d r r a r d .- ~ w e m n lU )

sm art2 V [l| 1 lo cause or feel ■ painful ranging


sensation, me. m one p el o f the body end not
Utfrng keg: T h e p t o c e m h e r t h e H a d c m fca kn ee
war m o n u r % I T h e m a k e m a d e m y e y a m a t . 2 k>
be bun in ooc’t feelings, seffa in mind. S h e m a t
s t ill s m a rtin g fro m / o v e r h is o n k m d w o rd s .

sm art3 n i l manms pain 2 som eth»* that hum


the feeing* or pride: H e f e lt th e s m a rt o f th e ir m sm li
fo e m a rry d a ps. ________________________________________________ 1
Illustration 6

initial a d j. T h e in it ia l m o v e m u s t he to g e t th e b o a rd 's a p p ro v a l: first,


starling, beginning, opening, commencing, primary, introductory, incipient,
initiatory, inaugural, maiden: original germinal, primal. — Ant. last, ultimate,
ending, final, closing, concluding, terminal

4)
-dora
I A state or condition
P R O D U C T IV E USE: -dom combines with nouns and adjectives to form
new nouns. Nouns formed in this way refer to the experience o f whatever is
indicated by the original nouns and adjectives. For example, ’ freedom ' is the
state o f being free: ’stardom ' is the state o r experience o f being a star or
celebrity.
Spelling: Th e noun form ed from wise' is wisdom'.
I n th e w o r ld o f to d a y p o litic a l fre e d o m is s till rare.
... th e a c c u m u la te d w is d o m a n d k n ow le dge o f society.
H e h a d h a d lo n g e xp erie n ce o f o u tw ittin g o ffic ia ld o m .

Here arc some examples o f words w ith this meaning:


boredom earldom hippiedom princedom
chiefdom freedom martyrdom stardom
dukedom gangsterdom officialdom wisdom
N ote that ’ dukedom', ’earldom' and ’ princedom' all have tw o meanings and
are included in both sections o f this entry.
-d om also combines with titles or names to refer to the land that someone
controls. For example, a 'kingdom* is the land or country that a king rules over;
Christendom* is an old-fashioned word that refers to the countries and peoples
that are Christian and follow Christ s teachings.

T h e k in g d o m h a d s h r u n k . it h a d b e e n re d u c e d to a h a n d f u l o f villages.
... a p rin c e d o m b y th e sea.

Here is a list o f words with this meaning:


Christendom kingdom
dukedom princedom
earldom

5)
dictation /diklci/an/ n I (U| when you say words for someone to write
down: T h e re w e re n o secretaries a v a ila b le to ta k e d ic ta tio n (=write down
what someone is saying). 2 |C| a piece o f writing that a teacher reads out to test
your ability to hear and write the words correctly: / h a te d o in g F r e n c h
d ic ta tio n s .

6)
deed /dtd/ noun |C| * *
1 lite ra ry something that someone does 2 |usually plurall le g a l an official
document that gives details o f a legal agreement, especially about w ho owns a
building or piece ofland
sb's good deed for the day h u m o ro u s something good and helpful that
someone does

8. Analyze the structure and content o f the given entries taken from the
dictionaries which were compiled to meet the needs o f English learners o f
different levels. Choose the correct letter indicating a certain dictionary and
write it down in the space provided. Speak on the difference in: a) the setting o f
the given entries: b ) the semantic structure o f the words; c ) the order o f
arrangement o f meanings; d )th c language in which the definitions are couched:
e ) the illustrative material.

I. T h e O x f o r d E le m e n ta r y L e a rn e r's D ic t io n a r y (a ) — T h e C a m b rid g e
A d v a n c e d L e a rn e r's D ic tio n a ry • (b )

h a n d s o m e > л т т в А £ т т у д гъ т п м г » 1 dm cnba handsom e r r * .n a e n v а ре сте g o o d -t o o k m ^ T T


a ir a n - b o is p h ysica lly - t r a c t i v e in a traditional Ъ п й т m a n -*• N o * at Ь п > Ш
m atcuJm e w a y : S h e 's f r a m in g s h e l l b e w h is k e d c t f
h e r fe e s Ь у а ш Л . d a r t handsom e s tra n g e r 2 d e i c n f c o
a wom an w ho a a n r a c m c b u t in ■ stro n g w a y : a
h a n d s e m e w o m a n m h e r fiftie s

handsome t t f g wixwil Уж п.*вт аф |before


■ I in a targe « m o u n t T h e y m a d e a h a n d s o m e p r o f it a n

t h e ir h o u s e h a n d v u n e h W a d * . H e s a id q

ha re su lts w e re good he w o u ld re w a rd him


h a n d s o m e ly .
2. T h e M a c m illa n E n g lis h D ic tio n a r y f o r A d v a n c e d L e a rn e rs (a ) -
T h e L o n g m a n W o r d W is e D ic t io n a r y : P r e - in t e r m e d ia t e — I n t e r m e ­
d ia te (b )

g u i d e 2 verb g u id e 2 'f l e d v erb Г П « »

Ш АМКАЯ
g u id e и в п м to r t h r o u g la 'B c r o s e « с a p i e c e 1 t o s h o w s o m e o n e w h ic h d ir e c t io n th e y s h o u ld w a lk
1 t o h e lp to ta c o o c to g o s o m e w h e r e . f o r e x a m p le b y o r t r a v e l in b y g n m g w it h t h a n : g u i d e * b
s h o w in g th e m t h e r ig h t d ir e c t io n : H r lo o k ik e cJd t h r o u g h W a k i n g e t c O h H e g u id e d them th ro u g h th e
la d y 's a rm a n d guided h e r a c r o s s ik e ro o d fo r e s t • C a ro l w ill g u id e y o u ro u n d th t m useum • -
2 t o h e lp s o m e o n e m a n a g e a d i f f i c u l t s itu a t io n Y ou r g u i d e d t o u r ' w a l k to u ris ts o n a g u id e d w alk a ro u n d
tra c k e r ca n g u id e you th e n y o u m ake y o u r co lle g e c e n tra l Ix m d o n 1 * . t o p h y s ic a lly h e lp s o m e o n e to
a p p lica tio n m o v e in a p a r tic u la r d i r e c t * * g u i d e s b u v a t o o g e tc
t l h L u cy to o k th e o ld m an s a rm a n d g e n tly g u id e d him

t o h a c h a ir, l b . i f a lig h t , s ig n a l e t c g u id e s s o m e o n e
o r s o m e th in g , i t s h o w s th e m w h e r e t o g o . W e h o d o n h
th e s ta rs to g u id e us • The p la n e s a re g u id e d in bv
ra d io b e a x ifB . l c . t o c a r e f u lly m o v e a v e h ic le o r
o t h e r m o v i n g o b je c t s o th a t ■ g o e s w h e r e y o u w a r n it
t o s o g u i d e * t h t o w a n h l n t o e t c s th M ' * * *■ **•*
th e b o a t tow ards th e d ock.
2 t o h e l p s o m e o n e t o m a k e d e c m e n s o r ju d g m e n t s
a b o u t s o m e th in g . T h e r e w a s n o m a rt** , r e s e a r c h to
g u id e th e m • H is en u re life w as g in d e d by h is
r e lig io u s b e lie fs • g u id in g p r .a c .p ie (- a v e ry
im p o r t a n t b e l i e f th a t in flu e n c e s y o u r d e c is io n s ) Гоа
m ust h a ve som e g u id in g p rm e tp ie s fa r th e w ay y o u n w
y o u r business. 2l. t o h e lp s o m e o n e Ю d o e x n e t h in g
by g i v i n g th e m a d v ic e at d i f i e r r o t s ta g e s g u i d e sb
t h r o u g h s th W e ca n g u id e y o u th ro u g h th e m aze o f
fin a n c ia l p la n n in g . • g l i d e t b h i s t h S tu d en ts sh ou ld
b e c a re fu lly g u id e d a t th e ir rea d in g
3 t o t r y t o m a k e a e t u a t io n o r a n o r g a n iz a tio n d e v e lo p
in a p a r tic u la r w a y . a co d e th a t attem /es t o g u id e th e
b e h a v io u r o f o ffic ia ls • g u i d e s t h I n w a r d s s t h H a rry
tr ie d to g u id e th e d iscu ssion tow a rd s som e fo rm o f
com p rom ise

3 . T h e M a c m illa n E s s e n tia l D ic t io n a r y (a ) — T h e L o n g m a n
D i c t i o n a r y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y E n g lis h ( f o r a d v a n c e d l e v e l s tu d e n ts o f
E n g lis h ) (b )

tre a t2 n ! ic | s o m e th in g s p e c ia l th a t y o u g iv e t r e a t 2 b r in o ie

s o m e o n e o r d o f o r th e m b e c a u s e y o u t o o » th e y w i l l
e n jo y i t a » a t r e t A c e " to o k к в ta n № a e n d * 1 (co— l a v e r y e n jo y a b le e v e n c r o c c a s io n I t 's a m at
tre a t t o s e e y tm a g a in • The h a n d is g r e a t-y o u r e
m a tch a t а b irth d a y tre a t 2 [s in g u la r ) an m e t that
Ж f o r a tre a t (= > o u w i l l e n jo y й ).
j i v e s y o u a lo t o f p le a s u re a n d 0 u s u a lly u n e x p e c te d
W h e n w e w e r r tu b . a tr ip t o A e b ra c k w as a r e d 2 ftaupdM] a n o c c a s io n w h e n y o u p a y fo e s o m e th in g

i r e * 3 |C | a s p e c ia l f o o d th a t ta s tts g o o d , e s p e c u lly
s p e c ia l f o r s o m e o n e e ls e: I 'd lik e th a lu n c h t o b e my

o n e th a t y o u d o n o t e a t v e r y o fte n . The c a fe s e rv o an
tre a t. -> писк'
a ssortm en t o f g o u rm e t tre a ts 4 m y t r e t ■ * * * » used
t o te ll s o m e o n e d u i y o u w i l l p a y f o r s o m e t h in g s u c h as

a m e a l f o r t h e m : L e t's g o o u t t o h a tch - my t r ta i 5 g o
d o w n a t r e t B r f пЛжяЫ i f s o m e th in g g o e s d o w n a
t r e a t p e o p l e l i k e it v e r y m u c h : T h a t new vegetarusn
resta u ra n t irons to b r goosg dow n a tre a t. 6
l o o t 'w o r k a t r e t B . I w lam u t o lo o k very good o r
w o r k v e r y w e l l : T h t s p o rt, g ro u n d lo o k e d a tre a t. - « A
d ! th e fla g s fly in g
• ••
9 .* Analyze the peculiarities o f the setting, arrangement and definitions
o f meanings o f the entry for the word advanced. State from which o f the
following learner’s dictionaries it was taken: the C am bridge Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary’ (2003); Random House Roger's College Thesaurus
(2000); the Longm an Language A ctiva tor { 1993); the M erriam -W ebster’s
Elem entary D iction a ry (2000); the C ollin s C O B U IL D English Usage,
interm ediate (1998); the Chambers D iction a ry o f Phrasal Verbs (1998);
the O xford L ea rn e rs W ordftnder D ictionary. Interm ediate to Advanced
(1998). Speak on the practical value o f this dictionary and the kind o f the
intended user.

ADVANCED

words for describing machines, systems, countries etc that use the
most modem equipment, ideas, and methods
1 words for describing advanced machines, systems etc.
2 words for describing advanced countries

I words for describing advanced machines, systems etc.


advanced b e ahead o f its time
sophisticated at th e leadin g ed g e of/
high-tech/hi-tech cu ttin g ed g e o f
sta te -o f-th e -a rt

a d v a n c e d /advanst I odVa?nst/ \adj\

The fa c to ry has installed advanced m achinery a t enorm ous expense. |


M odem arm ies now consist o f few er soldiers and m ore advanced weapons
systems. |In fa c t, S oviet technology was m uch m ore advanced than Western
analysts realized a t the tim e.
s o p h is tic a te d /sa'fistikcitid/ very advanced, and more cleverly designed or
skillfully made than other things o f the same type [adj\
The development o f computers and oth er sophisticated machines has made
industry much m ore efficient. | The missile has a sophisticated guidance
system. |highly sophisticated Operations o f this type often involve the use o f
highly sophisticated equipment.

h ig h -te c h / h i-te c h /,hai 'lek/ high-tech industry / com pany / equipm ent /
a ge , etc. (=using very advanced electronic equipment and machines, especially
computers) \adj\
The city has become a popular location f o r high-tech industries. \ The baby
was bom in the high-tech surroundings o f the loca l hospital. |O n display• at
the exhibition w ill be a range o f'h i-te c h homes o f the fu tu re'.

S t a t e - o f- t h e - a r t /stert av di 'at/ using the most advanced and recently-


developed methods, materials, or knowledge \adj\
The movie was made with sta le-of-ih e-a rr cam era equipment. \Increasingly,
advertising relies on inventive graphic design and state-of-the-a rt technology.
the state o f the art |n phrase| Opus I I I represents the state o f the a rt (=the
most advanced type) in word processing packages.

b e a h e a d o f Its tim e /bi: a,hed av its laim/ i f something is ahead o f its time, it
is so new and different that people do not understand or like it at first, but later
realize how good it is ( v phrase]
The Vortex graphic system was ahead o f its tim e. Few were sold but strongly
influenced later designs. | H er educational theories were way ahead o f their
tim e and were widely misunderstood.

at th e le a d in g e d g e o f/ c u ttin g e d g e o f /at дэ ,li:dnj ctfe dv , клчо 'ed$d v / in


a more advanced position than other organizations, companies etc, in developing
and using new methods, systems, equipment etc \prep\
The company is trying to regain its position a t the leading edge o f electronics
research. | These developm ents re a lly are a t th e cu ttin g edge o f the
technological rew lurion.
leading-edge/cutting-edge [a d j only before noun] an exciting new project,
using cutting-edge technology

2 words for describing advanced countries:

advanced
developed

a d va n ced /adWnst I adVamst/ using advanced industrial methods, equipment


etc. and having a modem economic and political system \adj]
There is n o reason why China should not become as advanced as Taiwan or
Korea in 5 to 10 years. |H igh levels o f unemployment are a feature o f many
advanced capitalist countries. |Slowly these nations have com e to rely on
th e ir m ore technologically advanced neighbours.
developed /diVelapt/ having modem industries, equipment, buildings etc \adf\
In developed countries, workers' pay is relatively high. | This disease has
mostly been elim inated, a t least in the developed nations. | W hile the war
continues there is little hope o f the area becoming developed.

10. Study the interface screenshots o f the M erria m -W eb ster O nline


D ictiona ry and the M erriam -W ebster O nline Thesaurus (Screenshots 3 and
4). Speak on the main peculiarities o f these electronic dictionaries o f the Internet
paying special attention to:
1) their structure and content;
2 ) access and search systems.
3) information given for each entry;
4) their reference systems.

11. Do the following tasks: a) Study the interface screenshots o f the Cambridge
Advanced Learner's D ictionary on C D -R O M (C A L D ) and the Macm illan
English D ictionary on C D -R O M (M E D ) (Screenshots 5 and 6).
Screenshot 3
ill

Screenshot 3
MACMILLAN English Dictionary
search'
search 1/ В « sa^j / a « noun (count] * * •
1 an attempt to find something:
D e s p it e a t h o r o u g h s e a r c h , th e y fo u n d n o d r u g s o n h im .
search for: T h e a u t h o r i t i e s e a r n e d o u t s e v e r a l a i r s e a r c h !
search of: T h e p o l i c e h a v e c o n d u c t e d a n e x t e n s n e s e a r c h
make a search: W e 'h h a v e t o m a k e a t h o r o u g h s e a r c h o f
in search of something (stooking for something): M a n y
in s e a r c h o f fo o d .
b) Fill in ihc table describing the distinctive features o f these electronic
dictionaries in accordance with the singled out parameters.
M o d e l : the parameter ‘Display modes'
0 The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary on C D -R O M (C A L D ) has
two display modes: F u ll D isplay mode and Q U IC K fin d mode. The
Macmillan English Dictionary on C D -RO M (M E D ) has also two display
modes: F u ll Display mode and QuickSearch mode. The Q U IC K fin d mode
and the QuickSearch mode use a smaller window and provide quick access
to the dictionaries and selected features. These modes are very useful while
browsing the Internet or writing/reading texts on the screen.

Parameters CALD MED

1. Functions o f the
dictionary opening in the
menu bar or in the main
window

2. Display modes F u ll Display mode F u ll Display mode


and Q U IC K find and QuickSearch
mode mode

3. Search capabilities . ..

4. The procedure o f ...


looking up a word and the
presentation o f entries

5. The information
afforded for each entry

6. Buttons and links within


entries giving additional
information about them
Test

1. Lexicology is the branch o f linguistics dealing with .. . .


a ) grammatical em ployment o f linguistic units
b ) various lexica] means and stylistic devices
c ) different properties o f words and the vocabulary o f a language
2. Lexicology has close ties with ....
a) phonetics and grammar
b ) p h o n etics , gram m ar, h istory o f a la n gu a ge, sty listics and
sociolinguistics
c ) literature, history and sociology

3 . T h e syn ch ron ic approach to the study o f language m aterial is


concerned with ....
a) the use o f various words and phrases in particular communicative
situations
b ) the evolution o f the vocabulary items
c ) the vocabulary o f a language as it exists at a given period o f time

4 . T h e diachronic approach to the study o f language material deals


with ....
a) the changes and the development o f vocabulary in the course o f
time
b) thc structural and semantic entity o f language units within the
language system
c ) the influence o f extra-linguistic factors over the developm ent o f a
language system as a whole

5 . T h e words happiness denoting ‘ the state o f being happy* and bliss


meaning *a feeling o f very deep happiness and extreme pleasure* differ
in the following com ponent(s) o f the connotational aspect o f their lexical
m ean in g:.. . .
a) em otive charge and imagery
b ) expressiveness
c ) em otive charge, evaluation and expressiveness

6 . T h e meaning o f the verb ю d rag in the sentence D o n 't try- to d rag


m e in to y o u r p la n s ' is based on the image o f . . . .
a) someone pulling something along with difficulty, often because it
is lo o heavy
b ) someone m oving something in a particular direction by pulling it
gently
c ) someone earn in g something from on e place to another
7. T h e association involved in the semantic change o f the w ord shark
in the sentence ‘ P e o p le w h o n e e d a p la c e to liv e ca n o fte n f in d
them selves a t the m ercy o f lo c a l p ro p e rty sh a rk s' is based on ....
a ) mciaphor
b ) metonymy

8 . T h e result o f semantic change in the w ord sp ort that meant 'pastim e,


e n te rta in m e n t' and n o w den otes an a c tiv ity in v o lv in g p h y s ica l
e x e rtio n a n d s k ill in w hich a n in d iv id u a l o r team com petes against
a n o th e r o r o th ers f o r e n te rta in m e n t' is ... .
a ) the deterioration o f meaning
b ) the specialization o f meaning
c ) the amelioration o f meaning
d ) the generalization o f meaning

9 . W hich meaning o f the polysemantic adjective b a rb a ric is its primary


meaning ....
a) very cruel and violent
b ) primitive; unsophisticated
c ) uncivilized and uncultured
d ) foreign

10. T h e words h e ir — a ir refer to ....


a ) homographs
b ) homonyms proper
c ) homophones

11. In the sentence 'M y a u n tie { uncle/cousin) has b ou gh t {purchased/


h ir e d ) a re d {g re e n / b la c k ) a u to m o b ile {c a r / F o r d )' the possible
substitutions o f the w ords that com p ose it are indicative o f the ...
relations between words.
a ) syntagmaiic
b ) paradigmatic
12. T h e synonyms teen ager ( ‘someone w h o is between 13 and 19 years
o ld ') and y o u th ( ‘ a young man between about 15 and 25 years o ld used
especially about groups o f young men who behave badly or do something
illegal’ ) refer to ....
a ) stylistic synonyms
b ) ideographic synonyms
c ) ideographic-stylistic synonyms
13. T h e antonyms happy — sad refer to ... .
a) contraries
b ) contradictories
c ) incompatibles
14. T h e word a n tip a th y consists o f . . . .
a ) the root, free m orphem e + the root, bound morpheme
b ) ihe affixational, bound morpheme + the com bining form which
is a bound root
c ) the affixational, bound morpheme + ih e root, free morpheme

15. T h e word u n co m fo rta b ility refers lo .. . .


a) polym orphic, m onoradical, prefixo-radical-suffixal words
b ) m onom orphic. prefixo-radical-suffixal words
c ) polym orphic, polyradical words

16. T h e segmentation o f the word exh a le ( ‘ breathe out in a deliberate


m anner') into morphemes is ... .
a) conditional
b) complete
c ) defective

17. T h e structural class to which the derivational base o f the adjective


fe e l-g o o d refers is the class consisting o f bases ... .
a) that coincide with word-form s
b ) that coincide with m orphological stems
c ) that coincide with word-groups

18. T h e structural pattern o f the word h ea vy -h ea rted is ....


a ) a + (n + -ed)
b ) (a + n) + -ed
c ) (a + n) + -s f

19. T h e result o f the historical change o f the m orphological structure


o f the noun husband that consisted o f h u s- ‘ house* + -b o n d i ‘ occupier
and tiller o f the soil' is that ....
a ) a compound word becam e a sim ple one
b ) a derived w ord became a simple one
c ) a com pound word becam e a derived one

20. T h e word glob esity is a ( n ) ... .


a ) shortening
b ) blend
c ) acronym

2 1. T h e suffix -it y found in the words cru e lty , o d d ity , p u rity , stu p id ity
is a ....
a ) denom inal suffix
b ) deverbal suffix
c ) noun-form ing suffix

22. T h e prefix f o r e - in the w ord fo r e к п ои 'led ge means ....


a ) ‘ before*
b ) ‘ placed at the front’
c ) ‘ inside, within'
2 3 . T h e semantic relation between the denominal verb b a n k meaning
•put o r keep m oney in a bank' and the noun b a n k from which it was
derived is that o f ___
a) location
b ) place o f the action
c ) action characteristic o f the object

24. T h e noun lo o k -s e e meaning “a brief look o r inspection' is a ... .


a ) com pound proper
b ) reduplicative compound
c ) derivational compound

25. T h e w ord re d -b rick is a ( n ) ....


a ) nominal compound
b ) adjectival-nominal compound
c ) verbal-nominal compound

26. T h e w ord th re e is ....


a ) o f the Indo-European origin
b ) the English w ord proper
c ) o f the C om m on G erm anic origin

27. T h e origin and source o f borrowing o f the w ord c a ra t a unit o f


weight fo r precious stones and pearls: a measure o f the purity o f gold'
(< French < Italian ca ra to < Arabic к tro t < G reek k e ra tio n ) are ... .
a ) French and Greek
b ) G reek and French
c ) Arabic and Greek

28. T h e word p iro s h k i was borrowed from ... .


a ) the French language
b) the Japanese language
c ) the Russian language

29. The w ord s o u ffle I'sicfleij is a ( n ) ... .


a ) unassimilated borrowing/ a barbarism
b ) partially assimilated borrowing
c ) com pletely assimilated borrowing

30. The verbs d ra g — draw ( < O E dragan) are ....


a) etym ological doublets
b ) international words
c ) semantic borrowings

3 1 . A ccording to its lexical valency, i.e. the aptness to com bine with
the words to g iv e , to lea ve. to send, to d e liv e r, to take, to pass on :
urgen t, c le a r, cod ed , garbled-, support, co n g ra tu la tio n , sym pathy, the
noun message has the meaning ....
a ) information about something that has happened recently'
h ) ‘ a p ie ce o f w ritten o r spoken in fo rm a tio n that y o u send to
someone, especially when you cannot speak to them directly'
c ) *the most important idea in a b ook , film o r play'

32. T h e syntactic pattern o f the w ord-com bination su rp ris ed a t the


news i s ....
a ) A + preposition + N
b ) V + preposition a t + N
c ) surprised + preposition + N

33. T h e word-combination je a lo u s o f sm b 's success is ....


a) endocentric. adjectival
b ) exocentric
c ) endocentric. nominal

3 4 . T h e w ord-com b in ation a b itte r p i l l m eaning 'som eth in g very


unpleasant that one must accept' is ....
a ) com pletely motivated
b ) completely non-motivated
c ) partially motivated

3 5 . T h e phraseological unit to g e t sm b 's b a ck up means ....


a ) to be popular with smb.
b ) to annoy smb.
c ) to sympathize with smb.

36. T h e phraseological transference in the idiom to be a ll ears meaning


‘ to be very eager to hear what som eone is going to say’ is based on ....
a ) synecdoche
b ) simile
c ) metaphor

3 7 . T h e phraseological unit to g e t o n e 's d aw s in to sm b. meaning ‘ to


fin d a way o f influencing o r controlling som eone' is a ....
a) phraseological fusion
b ) phraseological collocation
c ) phraseological unity

38.T h e source o f the borrowed phraseological unit the cu rs e o f C ain


meaning ‘ the lot or fate o f smb. w ho has to live a vagabond life, who
wanders o r is forced to m ove from place to place in a profitless w av’
is....
a ) facts and events o f the world historv
b ) the Bible
c ) classical languages
3 9 . T h e Scottish English noun le id used in the sentence *L in gu istics
is the study o f le id a n d h ow p e o p le use i t ' means ....
a ) speech
b ) language
c ) syntax

40. T h e Irish English verb to cog used in the sentence ’ / w o u ld n 't le t


ju s t anybody cog m y exercise' denotes ....
a) to do
b ) to translate
c ) to cheat, especially by copying

4 1. T h e word sm oko meaning 'a work break' is used in ... .


a) Australian English
b ) Canadian English
c ) Indian English

4 2 . T h e Am erican English w ord (a w om an's) p u rs e corresponds in


British English to the word ... .
a ) suitcase
b ) folder
c ) handbag

4 3 . T h e Lancashire dialectal w ord ju d y used in the sentence * T h ere are


1 2 boys a n d 15 ju d ie s in m y s o n 's cla ss' means ....
a ) woman
b ) girl
c ) pupil

4 4 . T h e analysis o f lexical meanings o f the gender op posed terms


g o v e rn o r ‘ a man with territorial and administrative pow er' — governess
ka wom an em ployee with limited authority over children' points to the
existence o f the ... in the language.
a) masculine implications
b ) inadequate naming techniques
c ) gender semantic asymmetry

45. The lexical and grammatico-syntactical peculiarities o f the text * The


w aiting is over. Y our tim e has com e. N IB . Nurses In B lu e ' are typical
o f....
a ) Advertising English
b ) N ew s M edia English
c ) Legal English

46. T h e O x fo rd C om pan ion to T w en tieth -C en tu ry P o e try is a ( n ) ....


a ) linguistic dictionary
b ) encyclopedic dictionary
4 7 . T h e E n glish -R u ssia n D ic tio n a ry o f Synonym s is ... .
a ) general, specialized, bilingual, diachronic
b ) restricted, explanatory, m onolingual, syncronic
c ) restricted, explanatory, bilingual, synchronic

4 8 . I f a learner s dictionary includes only key words o f English, presents


the semantic structure o f words in a sim plified form (i.e . o n ly the most
frequently used meanings are presented), and gives sim ple and clear
definitions, such a dictionary is most likely to refer to ....
a) advanced learner s dictionaries
b ) pre-intermediate learner's dictionaries
c ) upper-intermediate learner's dictionaries
1. c 9. d 17. c 25. b 33. a 41. a

2 b 10. c 18. b 26. a 34. c 42. c

3. c 11- b 19. a 27. b 35. b 43. b

4. a 12. c 20. b 28. c 36. a 44. c

5. b 13. a 21. c 29. b 37. c 45. a

6. a 14. b 22. a 30. a 38. b 46. b

7. a 15. a 23. a 31. b 39. b 47. c

8. b 16. c 24. c 32. c 40. c 48. b

1. 48 — 44 right answers: e x ce lle n t


2. 43 — 38 right answers: go o d
3. 37 — 30 right answers: satisfactory•
4. 29— I right answers: below passing
PART II. SEMASIOLOGY

Chapter 1

Words Meaning Sense


discreet careful and Closing the noiseless door with
circumspect a short sharp (loud) sound implies
a strong irritation, annoyance, anger
o r even fury o f a person performing
the action: creates the atmosphere
o f hostility and intensity.

pang a ver> strong, sudden, The word conveys the person's deep
and unpleasant pain disappointment, spiritual (inner)
disorder, dissatisfaction with the
present state o f affairs (situation)
that made her suffer as if from
a physical pain.

to lean to stand or be set at an The expression implies that the


against angle against person was feeling ill (or bad)
something for support probably because o f a high nerv ous
instead o f being upright tension he had suffered quite recently.

to leave to put something The word implies that the young


somewhere woman felt disgust for the poor girl's
clothes.

to insist to say firmly that The word implies that the person
something must could not stay because o f different
happen or be done probable reasons: she was in a hurry:
had a previous engagement: did not
want to communicate with the people
in question: had a lot to do.

to move to go at a slow speed The phrase may imply that:


slowly ) the person was suffering acute
nervous tension, was feeling deep
anxiety expecting something bad
might happen or 2) was very ill.
Words Meaning Sense

to close to shut without noise The phrase implies a perfect self-


quietly control. cool-mindedness, self-
possession. composure displayed
by the woman in the given situation,
which are indicative o f the fact that
she won the argument, she was the
mistress o f the situation.

to pull to move something The word implies that the girl tried
towards oneself using to attract her father’s attention
the hands to herself in order to say something
to him or wanted to take him away.

to begin ro start doing The word implies that the person


something hadn't been generous before perhaps
because o f two reasons: that was
not in his character or he could
not afford it as. for example, he did
not have money, opportunity, etc.

red o f the colour o f blood The word implies that the person was
or fire a manual labourer whose job involved
physical work connected mostly with
cleaning. Her hands were red because
o f the constant contact with water.

1) a lio n -h u n te r — hosts o r hostesses who seek out celebrities with


whom to impress their guests; to have a h ea rt lik e a lio n — to have great
courage; to f e e l lik e a lio n — to be in the best o f health; to ro a r lik e a
lio n — to shout very12loudly; to lio n ize som eone — to make a celebrity ol
someone b y lavishing praise and hospitality on him or her; to b eard the
Hon in h is den — to challenge a formidable enemy on his ow n ground;
to be throw n to the lio n s — to be in a situation where you are criticized
strongly o r treated badly and be unprotected; th e lio n 's sha re — much
more than on e's fair share, almost everything; to p u t o n e 's h e a d in
lio n 's m ou th — to put oneself needlessly at the mercy o f an enemy
characteristics: dangerous, very- strong, courageous (fearless),
dignified, leader (guider). im portant-looking, unyielding, audacious,
ferocious, roar loudly and threateningly.
2 ) g re a t oa k s fr o m little a co rn s g ro w — som ething o f sm all or
modest proportions may grow into something very large o r impressive;
a h e a rt o f oak — someone loyal and brave on w hom one can rely; oaks
m ay f a l l w hen reeds sta n d th e storm
characteristics: very strong, so lid (h a r d ), w illin g to support,
powerful, mighty, very big.

4.

Grammatical meaning Lexical meaning Part-of-spccch meaning


1. the case o f nouns: 1- think, thinking. 1. nouns'.
boys thought man
ship s
friend's
2. went, go table
boy
3. boy s. boy. boys lamp
2. the degree o f com -
parison o f adjectives: 4. nearest, near, nearer 2. adjectives'.
nearest 5. at. for. during beautiful
the most beautiful (with the meaning o f tremendous
3. the tense o f verbs'. “time ) near
wrote 6. beautiful, the most handsome
went beautiful 3. verbs:
thought think
drift
go
4. prepositions:
at
for
during

5.

Components o f the conno­


Words Denotational & connotational tational aspect of lexical
aspects meaning which specify the
difference between the words
I. to deal with to take action in order to find evaluation (positive)
an answer to a problem or
improve a difficult situation

2. to grapple to try hard to deal with a intensity + evaluation


with difficult problem or situation, (negative) + duration
especially for a long period of
time

1- sophisticated having a lot o f knowledge and evaluation (positive)


experience o f clever,
fashionable things, and
showing this by the way
someone talks and behaves
Components of the con-
Denotaiional & connoiaiional notaiional aspect of lexical
Words aspeels meaning which specify the
difference between the words

2. hardened very hard and strong menially emotive charge +


as a result o f regularly dealing + evaluation (negative) +
with difficult situations + intensity + duration
1. adventure an experience where interesting, emotive charge +
exciting, and sometimes dange­ ♦ evaluation (usually
rous things happen to someone positive)
2 . ordeal a time in which someone emotive charge +
experiences great suffering, * evaluation (negative) +
anxiety, and often danger + duration

К perfect having no faults or weaknesses evaluation (positive)

2 . Jlawless completely perfect, with no evaluation (positive) +


mistakes + intensity

1. to glance to look somewhere quickly and duration


then look away
2 . to glare to look at someone or emotive charge +
something in a very angry way + intensity

1. adulation great love and admiration for higher degree o f


someone, especially for intensity + evaluation
someone famous (positive)

2. respect the feeling that someone is lower degree


good because they have high o f intensity + evaluation
standards and good personal (positive)
qualities

1. ugly extremely unattractive, with a intensity + evaluation


face that is not at all nice to (negative)
look at
2 . repulsive very ugly and extremely unplea­ intensity + evaluation
sant to look at. especially so (negative) + emotive
that people do not like to look charge
at you
1. to m urm ur to say something in a soft low emotive charge +
voice, that is difficult to hear + evaluation (positive)
clearly
2 . to m utter to say something quietly, espe­ emotive charge +
cially when you are annoyed + evaluation (negative)
but do not want someone to
hear you complaining
I- T h e meaning o f the verb cra w ! is based on the image o f ‘ someone
m oving along on on e’ s hands and knees with on e’ s body close to the
ground . C ra w l ro means ‘ to behave very humbly towards (som eone
usu. in pow er) in order to win favour, etc.’ . 2. T h e meaning o f the verb
f ir e is based on the im age o f ‘ someone shooting bullets o r bombs’. F ire
{qu estion s) a t means to ask someone a lot o f questions quickly, often
in order to criticize them ’. 3. T h e meaning o f the verb fro w n is based
on the im age o f ‘ som eon e making an angry, unhappy, o r confused
expression, m oving o n e 's eyebrow s together*. Frow n on s o m e th in g
means ‘ to disapprove o f someone o r something, especially som eone's
b eh aviou r. 4. T h e meaning o f the verb ta k e is based on the image o f
's o m e o n e m o v in g so m eth in g fro m o n e p la c e to a n o th e r ’ T a k e
{som eth in g o n e s a id ) b a ck means ‘to adm it that vou were w rong to say
som ething . 5. T h e m eaning o f the verb f ly is based on the image o f
something m oving through the air using wings’. F ly a b o u t means ‘ to
spread actively’. 6. T h e meaning o f the verb seize is based on the image
ot someone taking hold o f something suddenly and violently’. S e ize on
means ‘ to be eager to take and use’ . 7. T h e meaning o f the 'verb d iv e is
based on the image o f 'som eon e ju m ping into deep water with o n e ’s
head and arms goin g in first’ . D iv e in to som e p la c e means to enter a
place suddenly and often secretively*. 8. T h e meaning o f the verb ca tch
is based on the image o f ‘ someone taking hold o f something, especially
som ething that is m ovin g through the air*. C a tch in means 't o find
someone by chance at hom e, in the o ffic e , etc.*. 9. T h e m eaning o f the
verb la y is based on the im age o f 'som eon e putting som ething down
carefully into a fiat position'. L a y dow n {o n e 's o ffic e ) means 'to stop
working, esp. after having had power*. 10. T h e meaning o f the verb pm
is based on the image o f someone fastening something somewhere using
a pin . P in on means 'to blame som eone fo r something, often unfairly’.

Register of Roles which


Words communi­ Participants tenors of
cation of the communicative situation discourse are
based on
certainly neutral husband — wife family roles
unquestion­ formal speaker — audience social roles
ably ( reportcr/joumalist — newspaper
reader/ radio listener)
dough informal close friends social roles
money neutral employer — employee (superior — social roles
inferior)
picture neutral friends social roles
Roles which
Register of Participants tenors of
Words communi­ discourse are
of the communicative situation
cation based on

photograph formal people working in the museum — social roles


visitors o f the museum

skin informal men who are dose friends social roles

girl neutral close people: friends or relatives social/family


roles

quality formal people interested in the subject of social roles


conversation (probably, lecturer -
student, specialists in the Held o f
literature, etc).

thing informal close people: friends or relatives social/family


roles

Chapter 2

1.
B uzz — a low, continuous humming o r murmuring sound, made by
or similar t o that m ade by an insect; c lic k — a short sharp sound as o f
a switch being operated o r o f tw o hard objects co m in g smartly into
contact; ba n g — a sharp knock o r blow, s iz zle — a hissing sound, as o f
food frying o r cooking, boom — a loud, deep, resonant sound; qu a ck —
the characteristic harsh sound m ade by a duck.

2.
Sp~ at the beginning o f the words has the association with water or
other liquids;
-a sh at the end o f the words suggests something fast and violent;
g l- at the beginning o f the words conveys brightness and light.

Morphologically motivated words; driver, careless, singlehood,


hand-made, blue-eyed, streamlet.
Semantically motivated words; leg, horse, wall, piggish, sound
bite, leaflet.

4. . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... .......... . ............


1) metaphor, 2) m etonym y; 3 ) m etonym y; 4 ) metaphor. 5 ) meta­
p h o r; 6 ) m e to n y m y ; 7 ) m e ta p h o r; 8 ) m eto n y m y ; 9 ) m eta p h or;
10) metonymy.
5.
ca m p — extension o f meaning, generalization;
g ir t — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
b ird — extension o f meaning, generalization;
a rriv e — extension o f meaning, generalization;
d eer — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
ru g — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
b a m — extension o f meaning, generalization;
g lid e — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
ro o m — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
f ly — extension o f meaning, generalization;
a rtis t — restriction o f meaning, specialization:
ch a m p ion — restriction o f meaning, specialization:
ca m p a ign — extension o f meaning, generalization.

6.
cu n n in g — deterioration o f meaning;
k n ig h t — amelioration o f meaning:
fo n d — amelioration o f meaning:
ga n g — deterioration o f meaning;
m a rsh a l — amelioration o f meaning:
coa rse — deterioration o f meaning;
m in is te r — amelioration o f meaning;
enthusiasm — amelioration o f meaning;
v io le n t — deterioration o f meaning;
gossip — deterioration o f meaning.

8.
sim p le: 1 ) easy to understand, solve, o r d o ; 2 ) plain and without
d e co ra tio n ; 3 ) n ot in v o lvin g anythin g els e o r n ot co m p lica te d by
anything else: 4 ) with only one or very few parts: 5 ) honest and ordinary:
6 ) easily tricked; foolish; 7 ) weak-minded.

9.
1) In m odem English the central m eaning is ‘ probable'. Thus, in the
present-day language the primary m eaning o f the w ord lik e ly remains
central.
2 ) In m odem English the central m eaning is ‘ a forcible overthrow
o f a government o r social order, in favour o f a new system’. Thus, in
the present-day language the prim ary meaning o f the w ord revolu tion
is n o longer central, it has becom e a marginal meaning.
3 ) In m odem English the central meaning is ‘suffer death, typically
in a violent, sudden, or untimely way*. Thus, in the present-day language
the primary meaning o f the word to p erish remains central.
4 ) In m odem English the central meaning is 'a call to someone to
participate in a com petitive situation, gam e, o r fight to decide w ho is
su perior in term s o f a b ility o r strength’ . Th us, in the present-day
language the prim ary m eaning o f the w ord c h a lle n g e is n o longer
central, it has becom e a marginal meaning.
5) In m odem English the central m eaning is ‘ only one: not one o f
several’. Thus, in the present-day language the prim ary m eaning o f the
word sin gle is n o longer central, it has becom e a marginal meaning.
6 ) In m od em English the central m eaning is *to be disloyal'. Thus,
in the present-day language the prim ary meaning o f the w ord 10 betray
remains central.

10.
1) Homonyms propen
seal (n,) seal <n2)
a large sea animal that eats fish and the official mark o f a government,
lives mainly in cold parts o f the company, etc., often made by
world pressing a pattern into red wax.
which is fixed to certain formal and
official writings

band (n,) band (n.)


a company o f musicians a trip or loop o f something
(свя jKa. лента, полоса)

fall (n) fall (v)


the act o f falling, dropping or to move to a lower position or level
coming down

base (n) base (v )


bottom to build or place upon

corn (n ,» c o m (n,)
a hard, homy thickening o f the skin, the seed o f w heat and similar plants
esp. on the foot

2) Homophones:
made (adj)|meid| maid (n ) |meid|
formed a female domestic servant

week |wiik| weak |wfck)


a period o f seven days lacking physical strength
and energy

bread (n ) |brcd| bred (adj) (bred)


a common food made o f baked reared in a specified environment
flour or way

sum (n) |s\m| some (pron)(sAtn|


a particular amount o f money an unspecified amount or number of
hare (n> |hra| hair (n ) |hea|
a fast-running. long-eared mammal any o f the fine thread-like strands
that resembles a large rabbit, having growing from the skin o f humans
very long hind legs and typically
found in grassland o r open woodland

3) Homographs:
row (n ) |rau] row (n) |rau|
a number o f persons or things a noisy acrimonious quarrel
in a line

tear (v ) |tc3| tear (n ) |tia|


to pull by force a drop o f clear salty liquid secreted
from glands in a person’s eye when
they cry or when the eye is irritated
wind (n) |wind| wind (v ) |waind|
air in motion move in or take a twisting or spiral
course

desert (v ) | d ita ] desert (n ) I’dezatJ


to leave empty or leave completely a large sandy piece o f land where
there is very little rain and not
much plant life
sewer (n ) |swa| sewer (n) |$иэ|
a person that sews an underground conduit for
earning o ff drainage water and
waste matter

11 .
1. sight 2. horse 3. pours 4. sweet 5. hare 6. fair 7. die 8. horse

Chapter 3
1.
1) w age/salary/pay/fee/incom e
com m on feature: *a sum o f money paid fo r something*.
di f ferentiating fea m ics: ‘ the ty p e o f w ork fo r w h ich it is paid*,
‘ regulanty/irregularily o f payment*. ‘the period o f tim e fo r w hich it is
paid . ‘ the qualification level and specialization o f the person doin g the
work*, ‘oth er sources o f receiving m oney (besides w ork)’ .
2 ) reputation/im age/nam e/prestige/stature
com m on feature : ‘ the idea o r opinion about somebody/something*.
di fferentiating features: ‘ the reasons fo r form ing an opinion o r idea*,
‘ ways o f form ing an idea o r opinion’ , ‘ deliberateness/undcliberateness
o f a person (group o f pcople/organization) to form a certain opinion
(id e a )', *the relation to the person (group o f pcople/organization) caused
by (o r resulted from ) the opinion/idea form ed (e.g . respect, admiration,
dislike, antipathy, m alice, etc.)'.

vehicle

bus lorry motorcycle


y S I '
estate car three-door hatchback

light lorry heavy lorry three-way

dump truck

2) animal

mammal reptile

squirrel feline seal fox w o lf bear turtle lizard iguana snake

tiger leopard panther

3.
1. H e gave her a rin g w ith fiv e p re c io u s s to n e s as a birthday
present. — H e gave her a ring with five em era ld s as a birthday present.
2. T h e man was m urdered. — T h e man was poisoned .
3. She lo o k e d at him. — She sta red at me.
4. H e heard a b ird singing. — H e heard a n igh tin ga le singing.
5. H e is an o ffice r. — H e is a colon el.
6. It's an old v e h icle . — It’ s an old ca r.
7. She was wearing a d a rk dress. — She was wearing a b la ck dress.
8. T h ey built a boat. — T h ey built a yacht.
9. Th ey boughtflo w e rs in the shop. — Th ey bought lila cs in the shop.
10. She has got a ch ild . — She has got a daughter.

4.

confidence — a firm belief in oneself without a display Evaluation is


o f arrogance or conceit different

assurance — more surcncss o f one's own abilities,


often to the point o f offensive boastfulness

to satisfy — to meet the expectations, needs, or desires Emotive charge &


o f someone expressiveness are
different
to delight — to please greatly
alone — having no one else present Emotive charge &
evaluation are
lonely — sad because one has no friends or company
different

to create — to cause something new to existence: Evaluation is


produce something new different
to manufacture — to produce in a mechanical way
without inspiration or originality

to blush — become red in face from modesty, shame Emotive charge &
or embarrassment evaluation are
different
to redden — to turn red from anger or indignation

to trem ble — to shake involuntarily, typically Emotive charge &


as a result o f excitement, or frailty expressiveness
(intensity)
to shudder — to shake convulsively, typically
arc different
as a result o f fear or repugnance

5.
C ar — autom obile (fm l); refreshment — bite (in fm l); sold ier —
warrior (fm l); to begin — to com m ence (fm l); face — puss (in fm l); to
leave — to abandon (fm l); hearty — cordial (fm l), hand — fin (in fm l);
cry — weep (fm l).

6.
Stylistic synonyms:
1) to m eet — to e n co u n te r (fm l): 'to see someone without planning
to ’;
2) m um (in fm l) — m oth er, ‘ a female parent*;
3 ) to fo r e te ll (fm l) — to p re d ict', ‘ to say what w ill happen in the
future';
4 ) heaven (fm l) — s k y 'the region o f the atmosphere and outer space
seen from the earth*;
5) a ffa ir — business (in fm l): ‘ a person's concern o r responsibiliiy’.
Ideographic synonyms:
1) in fo rm a tio n ( ‘ facts o r details that tell you som ething about a
situation, a person, an event, etc.’ ) — d ata ( ‘ facts and details that have
been collected and stored, especially on a com puter');
2 ) in fe c tio u s ( ‘ ( o f a disease) liable to be transm itted t o people,
organism s, etc. through the en viron m en t, esp. a b ou t th e agent o r
organism w hich carries the disease’ ) — c o n ta g io u s ( ‘ ( o f a disease)
spread from o n e person or organism to another b y direct o r indirect
contact, esp. about the person o r animal affected b y the disease’ );
3 ) fa c u lty ( ‘ a natural o r acquired ability fo r a particular kind o f
a ctio n ’ ) — ta le n t Can exceptional natural a b ility o r aptitu de in a
particular fie ld ');
4) b lem ish (*a surface defect that mars the appearance') — fla w ( a
structural defect o r weakness that mars the quality o r effectiveness').
Ideographic-stylistic synonyms:
1) a s s o cia te ( ‘ a person w h o is often in o n e 's com pany, usually
because o f some work o r pursuit (зан яти е) in com m on ’ ) — p a / (infml.
a close friend with whom som eone usually spends his leisure tim e');
2 ) to ask ( ‘ to request inform ation from som eon e') — to in terroga te
(fm l. ‘ to question form ally fo r a special purpose, esp. fo r a long time
and perhaps with the use o f threats o r violence*):
3 ) to re ck o n (in fm l. ‘ establish by counting o r ca lcu la tion ') — to
estim a te ( ‘ roughly calculate o r ju dge the value, number, quantity, o r
extent o f ) ;
4 ) to w alk ( ‘ to move along on foot in a natural way ) — to prom enade
(fm l. ‘ to move slowly up and dow n along a place, street, etc.’ );
5) in te llig e n t ( ‘ having or showing powers o f learning, reasoning, o r
understanding, esp. to a high degree ) — sm a rt (in fm l. ‘ g o o d o r quick
in thinking, clever').
7.
to cry; to think; to look; strange; fear, angry; to shine.
8.
Lexical sets:
terriers (brced oLdo&S): Wire-haired fo x terrier, bull terrier, Scottish
terrier, Bedlington terrier, Pekinese;
duelling: detached house, multi-storey block o f flats, terraced house,
high-rise block o f flats, weekend house, cottage, semi-detached house.
Terminological sets:
g y m n a s tic a p m a lir s : c lim b in g r o b e , h o rs e (v a u ltin g h o r s e ),
tram poline (ба ту т), floor, landing m at, asymmetric bars, springboard,
beam;
com puter disk, hardware, m onitor, mainfram e, interface, software,
server.
9.
Lexkro-semantic groups:
1 ) ‘ education’ : (a ) book, classmate, college, day-student, exercise,
reader, k n o w le d g e , tu itio n , co u rse ; (b ) in te llig e n t, p e d a g o g ic a l,
disciplined, m ethodological: ( c ) to teach, to coach, to repeat a year, to
write, to supervise, to develop habits, to smatter o f (in );
2) ‘ feeling’ : (a ) indifference, affection, hatred, passion, satisfaction,
jealousy, unrest, shock; (b ) displeased, frustrated, in a tem per, calm
(a d j), wrathful, happy, angry; ( c ) to bear m alice, to adore, to infuriate,
to hurt.
Semantic fields:
1) ‘ ed u cation ’ : b o o k , to teach, in telligen t, classm ate, to coach,
pedagogical, co lleg e, day-student, t o repeat a year, exercise, reader.
to write, knowledge, tuition, course, to supetvise. disciplined, to develop
habits, m ethodological, to sm aller o f (in );
2) ‘ feelin g : to b ear m alice, displeased, in d ifferen ce, to adore,
affection, frustrated, hatred, in a temper, passion, calm (a d j). satis­
faction. wrathful, jealousy, to infuriate, happy, unrest, shock, to hurt,
angry.
10.
a ) antonyms of the same root:
happy — unhappy, careful - careless, obedience - disobedience,
regular — irregular, polite — im polite, artistic — inartistic, appear —
disappear, prewar - postwar, logical - illogical, known - unknown;
b ) antonyms of different roots:
dw arf ^
— gigantic, criticism — pmise, above — below, asleep — awake,
back — forth, triumph — disaster, hope — despair, far — near love —
hate.

11.

Coniradicioncs Coni nines Incompatible*


poetry- — prose old — young inch — fo o t
man — woman (middle-aged) (not yard, not hand.
teacher — pupil beautiful — ugly not pace, etc.)
to accept — to reject (pretty/good-looking/plain) M onday — Sunday
cred itor — debtor to adore — to loathe (not Wednesday, not
clever — stupid (to love/to like/to dislike/ Thursday, not Friday.
inside — outside to haie/to abhor/to despise) etc.)
e v il — good tremendous —- tiny one — thousand
(big/small) (not two. not ten. not
im m aculate — filth y hundred, etc.)
(dcan/dirtv) iron — copper
boy — man (not silver, not steel.
•young man) not bronze, etc.)
a rid — awash round — square
(dry/wet) (not triangular, not
open — shut rectangular, not
rhombic, etc.)
(semi-open / semi-shut:
day — night
half-open / half-shut)
(not morning, not
evening, etc.)
red — brown
(not black, not green,
not yellow, etc.)
N m em ber — M arch
(not February, not
April, not June, etc.)

237
P A R T III. W O R D -S T R U C T U R E

C h a p ter 1

Beggarly: b e g (g )~ (r o o t , fre e ) + - a r - (a ffix a lio n a l. b o u n d ) + -ly


(affixational. bound);
postman: p o s t- (root, free) + -m a n (affixational. sem i-bound);
shorten: s h o rt- (root, free) + -e n (affixational. bound);
destabilize: d e - (affixational. bound) + -s ta b il- (ro o t, free) + -iz e
(affixational. bound);
sympathy: sy m - (affixational. bou n d ) + -p a th y (com bining form ,
bound root);
fruitfulness: f r u it - (ro o t, free) + -fu l- (affixational. bound) + -ness
(affixational. bound);
maltreatment: m a t- (com bining form , bound root) + -tre a t- (root,
free) + -m e n t (affixational. bound);
disaffected: d is - (affixational. bound) + -a ffe c t- (ro o t, free) + -e d
(affixational. bound);
overrule: o v e r- (affixalional. sem i-bound) + -ru le (root, free);
ph otograph ic: p h o to - (co m b in in g form , bound ro o t) + -g ra p h -
(com bining form , bound root) + - ic (affixational. bound);
half-eaten: h a lf- (affixational. sem i-bou nd) + -e a t- (ro o t, fre e ) +
-e n (affixational. bound);
theory: th e o r- (pseudo-root, bound) + -y (affixational. bound);
rent-free: ren t- (ro o t, free) + -fre e (ro o t. free).
3.
Eyelet, eye- ( ‘ body part for seeing’ ) + -let ( ‘ a small kind o f ) = глазик:
d ehouse: de- ( ‘ the rem oval o f ) + -hou se ( ‘ a building for human
habituation') = выгнать из дом а: ли ш и ть жилья:
neurosis: neuro- ( ‘ o f nerves’ ) + -osis ( ‘ illness o r disease’ ) = невроз:
hostess: host- (*a person w ho receives o r entertains other people as
guests') + -ess (*a fem ale’ ) = хозяйка;
betrayal: betray- ( ‘ be disloyal to’ ) + -al ( ‘ the action’ ) = предатель­
ство. измена:
a n tip a th y : a n ti- ( ‘ a gain st’ ) + -p a th y ( ‘ fe e lin g ’ ) = а н ти п а ти я
(отвращ ен ие);
b rie fly : b rief- ( ‘ o f short du ration’ ) + -ly ( ‘ in the stated w ay’ ) =
коротко;
horsem anship: horse- (*a large animal that people rid e ') + -m an-
( ‘ occupation o r interests’ ) + -ship ( ‘ the an o r skill o f ) = искусство
верховой езды;
p re w a r, p re - ( ‘ b e fo r e ’ ) + -w ar ( ‘ a state o f arm ed c o n flic t ’ ) =
предвоенный, довоенны й;
fa m o u s : fa m (e)- ( ‘ ihc condition o f being known o r talked about* ) +
-ous ('possessing smth.*) = знаменитый, известный.

1) note-, co p y-, exercise-, text-; 2 ) -roads. -legged, -w ind, -current;


3) city-, hospital-, ocea n -, foreign-; 4 ) -fo o t. -head. -part, -ground.
5) rasp-, elder-, straw-, cran-.

Nouns: suitability, com bi na tion, boy h o o d , b u rea u crat, breakage:


Veibs: Aefriend, hospitalize, enlarge, clarity, weaken;
Adjectives: hat/ess. congratulatory- spacious, quarrelsome, drinkable;
Adverbs: accord ingty. sidewYiys. north wards.

6.
Monomorphic: house, b la ck , c ry . g o o d . go.
Polymorphic. Moaoiadical:
1) radical-suffixai: e ffective, h is to ria n , m ana geability.
2 ) radical-prenxal: u n co v e r, m istrust, e x -w ife ;
3 ) p r e fix o -r a d ic a l-s u ffic a l: d is a p p o in tm e n t. u n a n s w e ra b le ,
u n fortu n a tely .
Polymorphic. Eolyradical:
d a rk -b ro w n ( I ) . b o o k -k e e p e r (2 ). h o m e -s ic k (1 ) . la u g h te r -
f ille d (2 ), a g e -lo n g ( I ) . sh ort-sighted ness (2 ).

7.
Complete segmentability: nameless, fem inist, overload, under­
estimate. amoral, unfriendly, carefulness.
Conditional segmentability: perceive, discuss, contain, proceed,
pretend, assist, obsess, attract.
Defective segmentability: hostage, fra ctio n , pocket, pioneer,
athlete, mirror, gooseberry, manic, budget.
7 .1 .
Words o f conditional segmentability:
p e rc e iv e — p e r -fe c l, c o n -c e iv e ; d iscuss — d is -c o rd , per-cuss;
c o n ta in — c o n - c e iv e , d e -ta in ; p r o c e e d — p r o - m o te , s u c-c ee d :
p re te n d — pre-text, a t-ten d ; a ssist — as-sent, рег-sist. co n -sist:
obsess — ob-struct. po-sess: a ttra ct — at-tain. ab-(s)tract.
7.2.
Words o f defective segm entability:
hostage: -age — 'the product/result o f an action’ ;
fra ctio n -, -tion — 'the result o f the action’ :
p o ck e t: -et — ’diminutiveness';
p io n e e r, -eer — ' a person, w ho has a specified attribute (the first in
sm th.)’ ;
a th le te : -ete — 'a person o f a certain occupation and o f a specified
attribute (proficient in sports)’ :
m irro r, -o r — 'an object used as an im plement, a to o l';
gooseb erry , -berry — 'a fruit*;
m a n ic: -ic — 'possessing/showing a certain state (feeling, em o tio n )’ ;
budger. -et — 'diminutiveness'.

in d ep en d en ce:
1) in- ( in a b ility . in ju s tice ) (IC / U C ) + -dependence ( I C );
2) depend- (IC / U C ) + -ence ( in sisten ce, e x is te n ce) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
beaudfulness:
1) beautiful- ( I C ) + -ness (sadness, u glin ess) (IC / U C ):
2 ) beauty- (IC / U C ) + -ful (jo y fu l, g ra ce fu l) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
u n forg etta b le:
1) un- ( u n cle a r. u n im p o rta n t) (IC / U C ) + -forgettable ( I C );
2 ) forget- (I C / U C ) + -able ( irrita b le . d e s ira b le ) (IC / U C ).
T h e word consists o f three UCs.
u ltra -cre a tiv e :
1) ultra- ( u ltr a -r ic h . u ltra m o d e rn ) (IC / U C ) + -creative ( I C ):
2) creat(e)- (IC / U C ) + -ive (e ffe ctiv e , d e cis iv e ) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
s p o il essness:
1) spotless- ( I C ) + -ness ( darkness. rud eness) (IC / U C );
2) spot- (IC / U C ) + -less ( tactless. a irle s s ) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.

1) disrespect- ( I C ) + -ful (p o w e rfu l. d e c e itfu l) (IC / U C );


2) dis- ( d isfa vou r. d is b e lie f) (IC / U C ) + -respect (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
u n la d y lik e:
1) un- (u n fa ir, u n tid y ) (IC / U C ) + -ladvlike (I C );
2 ) lady- (IC / U C ) + -like (b ird lik e , c lo u d lik e ) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
d m rm a m e n r.
1) dis- (d is s erv ice , d is co m fo rt) (IC / U C ) + -armament (IC );
2) arm - (IC / U C ) + -m ent ( m ovem en t, a g re e m e n t) (IC / U C ).
The w ord consists o f three UCs.
in ju s tice :
1) in- (in s e c u rity , in a d equ a cy ) (IC / U C ) + -justice ( I C ):
2) just- (I C / U C ) + -ice (a v a ric e ) (IC / U C ).
T h e w ord consists o f three UCs.
disobedience.:
1) dis- ( d iscourtesy. d ish a rm on y ) (I C / U C ) + obedience ( I C );
2 ) obedient- ( I C ) + -ence ( e m in e n ce . p a tie n c e ) (IC / U C ):
3 ) obey- (IC / U C ) + -ent ( existen t. re sp on d en t) (IC / U C ).
T h e word consists o f four UCs.

Chapter 2

I.
SulTixal derivatives: discourage-ment. impassion-ed. befriend-ed.
discover-у, im press-ion, disguise-m ent, account-able, outrage-ous,
renew-able, endanger-ment.
Prefixal derivatives: in-sensible, u n-w om anly, a-system ic, un­
imaginable. ir-responsible, dis-hearlen, in-defensibfe. un-friendly, im ­
personal, under-developed.
2.
a ) bases that coincide with morphological stems of different
degrees of complexity: illitcraten ess. frie n d lin e ss , im p ossib le,
landlordism, brainless, broaden, livelihood, acceptability, unimportance,
familiarity, weekender,
b ) bases that coincide with word-forms: unprotected, pains­
taking. understanding^, weather-beaten, heart-breaking, seemingly,
uninspiring, laughingly, unnamed, snow-covered. long-running;
c ) bases that coincide with word-groups: waterskier. brainstrustcr.
three-cornered, allrightnik. green-eyed, absent-minded, long-legged,
freestyler. back-bencher, d o -g o o d is m . d o -it-y ou rselfer, on e-sid ed ,
allatonceness. whitefeathery. idletalker.
3.
a ) 4л о Г / 'w ithout’ o r ‘орро§Ле_о£:
nameless, anti-war, disapprove, depopulated, nonsmoker, apolitical,
lifeless, mistrust, unhappiness, childless, disorder, am oral, inattention,
anticlimax, duty-free;
b ) -g3CgSding/a great extent’ o r ‘ a laree amni.m_Q^ a
hyperactive, oversleep, priceless, outgrow, m uch-worn, superrich,
m ulticolored, hypercreativc, ageless, ultramodern, overw ork, super-
clever. multitalented, extra-soft, outlive, countless, megabucks:
c ) ^im ilarity/r^em blaDce::
sneaky, c u b o id , p a rap rofessio n al, fie n d is h , feath ery, ladylike,
babyish, flowerlike, humanoid, sub-Victorian, paramilitary, clockwise;
d ) ‘ (ve ry ) sm all' or ‘ not enough’ :
microsurgery, booklet, whitish, spherule (=small sphere), duckling,
underdevelopment, mini-market, kitchenette, m icrofilm , undercooked,
m iniskirt, hypothermia, greyish, lambkin, starlet;
c ) liking fo r':
fr o lic s o m e , b ib lio p h ile , ta lk a tive , F ra n c o p h ilia , q u arrelsom e,
creative.
4.
To p a p e r: n -+ V (a conversion):
speechless: n + -s f -> A (a suffixal derivative);
p e n -h o ld e r, n + (v + -sf) - » N (a com pound w ord);
irrep la ce a b le : prf- + (n + -sO - » A (a prefixal derivative);
nothingness: pn + -sf -> N (a suffixal derivative);
to w in ter, n - * V (a conversion);
a g e -lo n g , n + a —» A (a com pound w ord);
fea rsom ely . (n + -sf) + - s f -> D (a suffixal derivative);
sha rpen : a + -s f —> V (a suffixal derivative):
w in d -d riv e n : n + vcn - » A (a com pound w ord);
independence: prf- + (v + -s f) - * N (a prefixal derivative);
ex-h ou sew ife: prf- + (n + n ) - * N (a prefixal derivative).
5.
Y ea rly , n + -ly - » D . T h e D P signals a set o f adverbs with the lexical
meaning o f ‘ frequency*;
e n g in e e r: n + -e e r - * N . T h e D P signals a set o f nouns with the
lexical m eaning o f ‘ occupation’ ;
diseased: n + -e d -> A . T h e D P signals a set o f adjectives with the
lexical meaning ‘ affected by’ :
com p letio n : v + -io n -> N . T h e D P signals a set o f nouns with the
lexical m eaning o f ‘ a process’ ;
in cu ra b le : in - + ( v + -a b le ) - > A . T h e D P signals a set o f adjectives
with the lexical m eaning o f ‘ impossibility’ ;
to ape: n - > V. T h e D P signals a set o f verbs with the lexical meaning
o f ‘ an action characteristic o f the object’ :
fa ir-h a ire d : (a + n) + -e d - * A . T h e D P signals a set o f adjectives
with the lexical meaning o f ‘ having/possessing’ ;
custom ary , n + -a ry -♦ A . T h e D P signals a set o f adjectives with
the lexical m eaning o f ‘ connected to, involves’ ;
o v ertim e : o v e r- + n - * D . T h e D P signals a set o f adverbs with the
lexical meaning ‘ additional’ ;
m isca lcu la tion : m is - + (v + -io n ) —» N . T h e D P signals a set o f nouns
with the lexical m eaning ‘ wrong/wrongly’ .
6.
1) L o n d o n e r, v illa g e r, N ew Yorker, tow ner. n + -e r - » N . In the
D P the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting places. T h e suffix
- e r c o m b in ed w ith these bases possesses the m ea n in g ‘ a person
belonging to a specified place’ ;
2 ) ta llis h , rh in n ish , b iggish , lon gish , low ish : a + -is h - » A . In the
D P the adjectival bases are con fin ed to adjectives denoting different
dimensions. T h e suffix -is h com bined with these bases possesses the
meaning ‘ fairy’ ;
3 ) lu n g fu l, a rm fu l, m ou th fu l, h a n d fu l: n + -/w/ - » N . In the D P
the nominal bases arc confined to nouns denoting organs or parts o f the
body. T h e suffix -f u l com bined with these bases possesses the meaning
‘ the amount needed to fill the specified container’ ;
4 ) savagery , fo o le r y , snobbery, rogu ery : n + -e r y - > N . In the D P
the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting a person o f a certain
character, disposition o r certain abilities. T h e suffix -e ry com bined with
these bases possesses the meaning ‘ behaviour*;
5 ) decency, com p la cen cy , ob stina cy. hesitancy, a + -c y - » N . In the
D P the adjectival bases are con fin ed to adjectives denoting a person’s
traits o f character o r state. T h e suffix -c y com bined with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘ behaviour’ ;
6 ) advocacy, a ccou n ta n cy , presid ency, consultancy: n + -c y —* N.
In the D P the nominal bases arc con fin ed to nouns denoting different
professions o r occupations. T h e suffix -c y combined with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘ a professional practice, position, rank’ ;
7 ) d em ist. d efrost, d e ice , dew ater, degas: d e - + n - * V. In the D P
the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting natural phenomena
and substances. T h e prefix d e - com bined with these bases possesses the
meaning ‘ the removal o f ;
8 ) ra p id ly , slow ly. g ra d u a lly , q u ic k ly a + -ly V. In the D P the
adjectival bases are confined to adjectives denoting speed or movement.
T h e suffix -ly com bined with these bases possesses the m eaning ‘ the
manner/way o f doing';
9 ) sch oolm a te, d u b m a te , fla tm a te , room m a te: n + -m a te —» N . In
the D P the nom inal bases are con fin ed to nouns denoting different
places. T h e sem i-affix -m a te combined with these bases has the meaning
‘ a person w ho shares a place with som eone’ ;
10) jo y fu l, d e lig h tfu l, h a te fu l, c h e e rfu l, sorrow fu l: n + -fu l -> A.
In the D P the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting various
em o tio n s and feelings. T h e su ffix -f u l com b in ed with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘ full o f o r experiencing smth\

1) island : c a - ( ‘ water’ , a river’ ) + -lo n d ( ‘ solid portion o f the earth’ s


surface; g r o u n d '). T h e com p ou n d w ord underwent the process o f
sim plification o f the m orph ological structure and becam e a simple
word;
2 ) w orld : w er- <*man, w arrior’ ) + -a id ( ‘ old age’ ). T h e compound
w ord underwent the process o f sim plification o f the m orphological
structure and shortening. It became a non-m otivated, sim ple word;
3) fr ie n d ly fie o n d - ( ‘ friend’ ) + -lie ( ‘ appearance, form , body’ ). The
root-m orphem e -lie lost its lexical meaning and became the suffix -ly .
T h e compound word becam e a derived word;
4 ) ca b in et, ca b in - ( ‘ hut. tent’ ) + -e t ( ‘small’ ). T h e suffix -e t lost its
lexical meaning. T h e derived word became a simple one;
5 ) alw ays: a ll-/ e a ll('all*) + -w eges ('ro a d , path; distance travelled').
T h e com pou nd w ord underwent the process o f sim plification o f the
m orphological structure and became a non-m otivated, simple word;
6 ) ca re fu i. c a ru - ( 'g r i e f ; 'burdened state o f m in d ') + -fu ll ('fu ll o f ) .
T h e le x ic a l m e a n in g o f th e r o o t-m o r p h e m e - f u l l w ea k en ed to
'characterized by'. T h e com pound w ord became a derived one;
7) fre e d o m : f r e o - ('n o t subject to con trol from outside*) + -d o m
('judgm ent, choice, honour*). T h e root-m orphem e -d o m lost its lexical
meaning and becam e the suffix -d o m . T h e com pound w ord became a
derived word;
8 ) ch ild h o o d : d id - ('c h ild ') + -h a d ('con d ition , title, quality’ ). The
root-m orphem e -h a d lost its lexical m eaning and becam e the suffix
-h o o d . T h e com pound w ord became a derived word;
9 ) reckless: re cc e - ('concern, care’ ) + -le a s ('d evoid o f ) . T h e lexical
m eaning o f the root-m orphem e -le a s was weakened. It becam e the
suffix -less. A s a result the com pound word becam e a derived one;
10) lin e n : f in - ('f la x ') + -e n ('m a d e o r consisting o f , 'o f the nature
o f ) . T h e suffix -e n lost its lexical meaning. T h e derived w ord underwent
the process o f sim plification o f the m orphological structure and became
a simple word:
11) hatred. h a te - ( ‘ suffering’ , 'anger, insult, trouble') + -n ed en ('advice,
rule, condition’ ). T h e root-m orphem e -r x d e n lost its lexical meaning
and turned into the suffix -re d which later became unproductive. A s a
result o f this process the compound word became a sim ple word;
12) fo re h e a d :f o r e - ('b efore*) + -h e a fo rd ( ‘ anterior part o f the body,
containing the mouth, sense organs, and brain*). T h e derived word
underwent the process o f sim plification o f the m orphological structure
and sh o rte n in g w h ich w ere a c c o m p a n ie d b y ce rta in p h o n etica l
changes — (fo n d ). A s a result the derived word became a simple one.

P A R T IV. W O R D -F O R M A TIO N

Chapter 1

1.
1 ) initial shortenings (aphesis): p la n e — aeroplane, bus — omnibus.
s p o rt — disport, ch u te — parachute, te n d — attend, g a to r — alligator;
2 ) medial shortenings (syncope): h o b — holidays, F risco — (San)
Francisco, m iss — mistress, c irc s — circumstances. A lin e — Adeline,
m a rt — market, p re p -s c h o o l — preparatory-school;
3 ) final shortenings (a p o c o p e ): v a c — vacuum cleaner, c u r io —
curiosity, fa n — fanatic, c e rt — certainty, cok e — coca-cola, cuss —
customer;
4 ) both initial and final shortenings: te c — d etective, q u iz —
inquisitive, s o cce r — Association Football, L iz — Elizabeth.
1 ) a d d it iv e ty p e : b ru n ch — breakfast and lunch; a b s o tiv e ly —
absolutely and positively: flu s h — flash and blush; tw irl — twist and
whirl: m in gy — mean and stingy; tra n sceiver — transmitter and receiver:
c ro c o g a to r — crocod ile and aligator; w in d o o r — w indow and door:
ф т р у — g loom y and grumpy; sm aze — sm og and haze: O x b rid g e —
O xford and Cambridge;
2) res trictive type: p os itro n — positive electron: m o te t — motorists'
hotel: spam — spiced ham: slanguage — slang language: b it — binary
digit: p a ra troop s — parachute troops: o iliric s — oil politics: d ipw ard —
diphtheria ward: new topia - new utopia: ca b legra m — cable telegram:
fle x tim e — flexible time.
3.
N e tiqu ette: Internet + etiquette ( ‘ the polite wav o f expressing yourself
with people on the Internet');
e m o tico n : em otion + icon (*a symbol such as or that you
type in an e-m ail o r text message to show how you are feeling’ );
netizen: Internet + citizen ( “som eone w h o spends a lot o f tim e using
the Internet'):
tech nophobe: technology + -phobe ( ‘som eone w ho does not like to
use new technology, especially computers').
4.
1) a cron ym s read as o rd in a ry E nglish w ords:
N A T O I'nettau) — N orth Atlantic Treaty Organization;
U N O I'juriiaul — United Nations Organization:
B U P A |Тхсрэ| — British United Provident Association:
U C A S [ju.*k*es| — Universities and C olleges Admissions Service:
N A S A f'naesal — National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
S A L T I'so.ltl — Strategic Arm s Limitation Talks:
U E F A [ju: 'i:fo| — U nion o f European Football Associations;
N A A F I ( mefil — Navy. Arm y, and A ir Force Institutes:
T E F L I'tefl| — teaching o f English as a foreign language;
U N R R A [an ra:| — U n ited N a tio n s R e lie f and Rehabilitation
Administration;
F IF A |fi:ftj - Federal International Football Association;
2) a cron ym s with th e alph a b etic rea d in g:
W H O I'dAbdlju: 'eitf ‘ou| - T h e W orld Health Organization:
A G M I'ci ’(fci: 'em ) — annual general meeting;
W l ['dvbalju: ’ai| — W om en’ s Institute:
IR A [ ai 'a: 'eij — Irish Republican Army:
C I D [ si: 'ai 'dirj — C rim inal Investigation Department;
IQ |'ai 'kju:| — intelligence quotient;
M R B M I'em 'а; Ы 'em| — medium-range ballistic missile;
F B I I 'c f b c 'ai| — Federal Bureau o f Investigation;
U F O ['jit ’e f 'эи| — unidentified flying object;
V I P ['vi: 'ai 'pi;| — very important person;
G I I 'd y 'ai| — government (o r general) issue.

5.
1) vowel-interchange (& su ffixation ): lo n g (a d j) — length (n ),
strike (v ) — stroke (n ). full (adj) — fill (v ), knot (n ) — knit (v ). sing (v ) —
song ( n ) , bite ( v ) — b it (n ). abide ( v ) — ab od e ( n ) . deep (a d j) —
depth (n ), ride ( v ) — road (n );
2) consonant-interchange: speak (v ) — speech (n ). wreathe (v ) —
wreath (n ), house (n ) — house (v ), believe ( v ) — b e lie f (n ), prove (v ) —
p ro o f (n ). shelve ( v ) — sh elf (n ), loathe ( v ) — loath (n ). use ( v ) —
use (n ), halve ( v ) — h a lf (n ). serve (v ) — serf (n );
3 ) vowel- & consonant-interchange: bake ( v ) — batch ( n ) ,
breathe ( v ) — breath (n ), lose ( v ) — loss ( n ), glaze ( v ) — glass (n ).
wake ( v ) — watch (n ). clothe ( v ) — cloth (n ). bathe ( v ) — bath (n ).

6.
П и ск — cheep; тук-тук. наносить тяжелый улар — thump-thump;
баю-бай, убаюкивать — hushaby/hush: леп ет — babble; ш ипение —
fizz; ворчать — grumble: хихикать — to giggle: кудахтать — to cackle;
куковать — t o cu ck oo; ж уж ж ать — t o bu zz, м ы чать — to m oo:
квакать — to croak; шамкать — to mumble; свист — w hiz; бах. баи;
с и л ь н ы й у д а р — bang; м я у к а ть — to m ew ; ш и к ать — t o b o o :

кряканье — quacking: ржание — neigh; хлоп, хлоп н уть — pop.

7.
I. enthuse ( v ) < enthusiasm (n ) 2. frivol ( v ) < friv o lo u s (a d j)
3. greed (n ) < greed y (a d j) 4. ed it ( v ) < e d ito r ( n ) 5. bu rgle ( v ) <
burglar (n ) 6. televise ( v ) < television (n ) 7. butle ( v ) < butler (n )
8. o b s o le s c e ( v ) < o b s o le s c e n t (a d j) 9. o ra te ( v ) < o ra tio n ( n )
10. peeve (v ) < peevish (a d j) II. intuit ( v ) < intuition (n ) 12. classify- (v )
< classification (n ).

8.
1) 'compound (n . a d j) — com 'pound (v ); 2 ) 'perfect (a d j) — perfect
( v ) ; 3 ) p erm it (n ) — pcr*mit ( v ) ; 4 ) 'progress ( n ) — p rogress ( v ) ;
5 ) 'frequent (a d j) — frequ en t ( v ) ; 6 ) 'a ffix (n ) — a ffix ( v ) ; 7 ) 'c o n ­
tact (n ) — con'tact (v ); 8 ) insult (n ) — in'sult (v ); 9 ) absract (a d j) —
abstract ( v ) ; 10) 'decrease (n ) — de'erease ( v ) ; 11 ) 'protest ( n ) —
protest (v ): 12) 'produce (n ) — produce (v ); 13) 'survey (n ) — suiVey (v);
14) conflict (n ) — con'flict (v ); 15) 'subject (n . adj) — subject (v).
Derivational base Suffix Derived nouns

arriv(c)- -al arrival

abundan(t)- -(an)cc abundance

constant t)- -cy constancy

king- -dom kingdom

independent tl- -ten Ice independence

mouth- -ful mouthful


boy- -hood boyhood

danc(c)- -ing dancing

invent- -ion invention

criticize -ism criticism

sensitiv(e)- -ity sensitivity

agree- -ment agreement


happy- -ness happiness

owner- -ship ownership

music- -ian musician

a) deverbal su ffixes: -a l. -io n , -in g , -is m . -m en r.


b ) den om in a l su ffixes: -d o m . -fid . -h o o d . -sh ip . -ia n .
c ) d e a jectiva l su ffix es : -(a n )c e . -c y , -(e n )c e . -ity , -ness.

10.
1) ‘ skills o r ability’ : workm anship, musicianship, showmanship,
sportsmanship, salesmanship:
2) ‘ position o r occupation': chairmanship, professorship. lectureship,
studentship, doctorship;
3 ) ‘ relationship o r co n n ec tio n betw een p e o p le ’ : com radeship,
friendship, kinship, acquaintanceship, partnership.

11 .
1) suffixes denoting people o f different professions o r o f different
kinds o f activity: -a n t (assistant), -е е (tra in e e), -ess (a ctress), -e r
(painter), -ia n (historian), -is t (scientist), - o r (supervisor);
2 ) suffixes denoting collectivity or collection of: -s h ip (membership,
readersh ip), -h o o d (s is te rh o o d ), -e r y (m a c h in e ry , fin e r y ), -d o m
(yuppiedom ), -cy ' (aristocracy):
3) suffixes denoting diminutiveness: -e tre (lecturette), -le t (piglet).
-y (aunty), • lin g (duckling), -k in s (babykins), - ie (nightie).
12.
I) exhausting w ork — exhaustive answer; 2 ) historic v ic to ry —
historical film ; 3 ) h on ora ry citizen — hon ou rable duty; 4 ) respectful
silence — respectable person; 5 ) sk illed w orker — skilful surgeon:
6 ) cu ltu ral life — cu ltu red person ; 7 ) to u c h in g w ords — tou ch y
person; 8 ) d e lig h te d audience — deligh tfu l holidays: 9 ) e c o n o m ic
crisis — e c o n o m ic a l sp en d in g; 10) c o n te m p tib le tra ito r — c o n ­
tem ptuous sm ile.
13.
d is -: disability, dishonour, disagreement, disobedience;
//-: illegal, illogical, illiterate;
n o n -: non-paym ent, non-smoker, non-verbal, non-academic:
//•-: irrelevant, irresponsible, irrational, irresistible:
u n -: unhappy, unlearn, unlock, untie, unclean.
im -: immature, impatient, impossible, impractical;
in -: informally, independently, inadequately;
d e -: deregulate, destabilize, declassify1, demystify:
a -: amoral, atypical, asensual. aseptic.
a ) d e v e r b ia l & v e r b - fo r m in g p r e fix e s : u n -, d e -;
b ) denom inal & n o u n -fo rm in g p refixes: d is -. n o n -;
c ) d e a je ctiva l & a d je c tiv e -fo rm in g p re fix e s: //-. n o n -, ir - . u n -,
im -, a -;
d ) d e a d v e rb ia l & a d v e r b - fo r m in g p r e fix e s : in -.
14.
1) ‘ e x c e s s ': overdevelop ( v ) , overam bitious (a d j). overprotective
(a d j). overdose (n ), overcareful (adj). overdress (v );
2 ) ‘ t im e ( a g e ) ': over-forty (n ), over-seventeen (n ). over-twenty (n ):
3 ) 'p o s it io n o r p la c e ': overhang (v ), overhead (a d v), overfly (v ),
overleaf (a d v). overside (adv). overground (adj):
4 ) a d d itio n ': overprint (v ). overtime (adv), overdub (v );
5 ) 'o u te r , c o v e r in g ’ : overlay (v. n ). overcoat (n ). overstitch (n ).
overcast (v ), overlap (v ), overboot (n ). overall (n ):
6 ) *a p e rs o n e n g a g e d in a c e r ta in a c tiv ity o r an a g e n t o f an
a c t io n ': over-k in g (n ), overreacher (n ). overm an (n ), overseer (n ).
ovem ighter (n ). overlooker (n ), overlander (n ).
15.
1 .X 3. Y 5. Y 7. Y 9. X
2. Y 4. X 6. X 8. X 10. X
16.
W o rd s w ith p rod u ctive a ffix e s : unpeople: pubbers. clubbers; ex­
provincial: alphabetism; snoopings; tabooish: singlely: cupboardfuls,
unwearable; revisit, refeel: wrongish.
Words w ith non-productive a ffix e s : firstships; iconists; peepful;
hataholic; Celebritocracy.

17.
I ) the su ffix - ( e )te r ia means 4a place where there is an element
o f self-service'; 2 ) the suffix -d o m denotes ‘dom ain, status' o r ‘ a class
o f p eople o r the attributes associated with th e m '; 3 ) the p refix u n -
denotes the absence o f a qu ality o r state' o r ‘ the reverse o f ; 4 ) the
suffix -f u l means ‘ full o f ; 5 ) the suffix -a b le m eans 'p ossib le'; 6 ) the
su ffix - e r den otes ’ a gen t' ( c h a n n e le r — ‘ m edium , som ebod y who
com m u n icates w ith sp irits’ ; b a g g e r — ‘ o n e w h o puts custom ers'
purchases in to paper bags at the checkout*); 7 ) the suffix -th means
‘ state o r qu ality’ ; 8 ) the su ffix -iz e m eans ‘ to m ake' (o r ‘ to cause*);
9 ) the prefix e x - den otes ‘ form er’ ; 10) the su ffix -a c h o lic denotes
‘ to be addicted to"; I I ) the p refix r e - means ‘ again’ ; 12) the suffix
-is m m eans ‘ d iscrim in ation against’ : g e n d e ris m — discrim ination
again st p e o p le o f e ith e r sex; a b le is m — d is c rim in a tio n against
d isab led ; h e ig h ty is m — d iscrim in a tion on the grou n ds o f height,
specifically unfair treatment o f tall women and short men; alphabeiism —
discrim ination on the grounds o f the alphabetical place o f the first
letter o f o n e 's surname.

18.
I ) -n ik — Russian and Yiddish: 2 ) p r o - — G reek; 3 ) -a b le — Latin;
4 ) -т е ш — F rench: 5 ) f o r e ---- O ld English; 6 ) -a g e — French;
7 ) n o n -----L a tin ; 8 ) -is m - G r e e k ; 9 ) o v e r ------- O ld E n glish ;
10) -a n ce — French; I I ) -a m — Latin; 12)p a ra ---- Greek.

19.
1) the adjective-form ing affixes added to the nominal bases- -fu l
( s h a m e - f u l ) . -o u s ( h u m o r - o u s ) . -a r y ( c o m p l i m e n t - a r v ) , -a t
(a c c id e n t a l). -у ( p r i c k l ( e ) - y ) . -is h (fo o l(is h );
2 ) the a d jec tiv e-fo rm in g a ffixes added to the verbal bases: -iv e
( p r o t e c t - i v e ) . - ib le ( c o l l a p s ( e ) - i b i e ) , -e d ( r e t i r ( e ) - e d ) . -ib le
(p e r m i(t )s s - ib le ), -iv e ( a l t e m a t (e ) - i v e ) ;
3 ) the adjective-form ing affixes added to the adjectival bases: -a l
(ir o n ic al, c o m ic -al).-/s/r (s m a ll -ish ), -ly (d e a d ly).

20 .
1) T h e verbal bases combined with the n oun -form ing suffixes: -m em
(e n c o u r a g e m e n t), - e r (a m a n a g er), - io n (th e in v e n tio n ), -e n c e
(insistence), - a l (dism issal), -е е (appointees).
2 ) T h e verbal bases com bined with the adjective-form ing suffixes:
- f u l(useful), -iv e (attractive), -a b le (avoidable), -som e (tiresom e), -in g
(annoying), -a ry (im aginary).
Chapter 2

I. adverb > verb 2. adjective > noun 3. noun > verb 4. verb > noun
5. adjective > noun 6. noun > verb 7. adjective > verb 8. adverbs >
nouns 9. noun > verb 10. verb > noun I I . adjective > noun 12. noun
> verb 13. adjective > noun 14. conjunctions > nouns 15. adjective >
verb

2.
1 ) deprivation o f the o b je c t; 2 ) instrumental use o f the ob ject;
3 ) action characteristic o f the ob ject; 4 ) location: 5 ) acquisition or
addition o f the object; 6 ) action characteristic o f the object; 7 ) instru­
mental use o f the object & deprivation o f the object; 8 ) addition o f the
ob ject; 9 ) deprivation o f the ob ject: 10) action characteristic o f the
object; 11) location: 12) instrumental use o f the object; 13) acquisition
o r addition o f the object; 14) deprivation o f the object.
3.
1) agent o f the action: 2 ) instance o f the action; 3 ) result o f the
action: 4 ) object o f the action; 5) agent o f the action; 6 ) place o f the
action; 7 ) instance o f the action: 8) object o f the action; 9 ) result o f the
action; 10) instance o f the action; 11) place o f the action; 12) agent o f
the action; 13) object o f the action: 14) result o f the action.
4.
Homonymous pairs:
sm oke (n ) — sm ok e (v ) (O E smoca n. — smocian v.);
w ork (n ) — w ork (v ) (O E w eotc n. — wyrean v.);
n o te (n ) — n ote ( v ) (O F note n.. noter v. > note n.. v.);
d rin k (v ) — d rin k (n ) (O E drincan v. — drinc n.);
rest ( v ) — rest (n ) (O E restan/rcestan v. — rest/nest n.);
chan ge (v ) — cha n ge (n ) (O F change n., changer v. > change n.):
answ er (n ) — answ er ( v ) (O E andswaru n. — andswarian v.);
h a te ( v ) — h a te (n ) (O E hatian v. — hete n.);
p o in t (n ) — p o in t (v ) (O F point, pointe n.. pointer v. > point n.. v.):
so rrow (n ) — sorrow ( v ) (O E sorh/sorg n. — sorgian v.).
Conversion pairs:
s m ile (v ) — sm ile (n ) (Scan, smirk v.);
dream (n ) — d ream (v ) (O E dream n.):
m ove ( v ) — m ove (n ) (O F m ovier v.);
nose (n ) — nose ( v ) (O E nosu n.);
laugh (v ) — laugh (n ) (O E hlshhan, hlichhan v.);
p la c e (n ) — p la c e (v ) ( L platea n.);
h a n d (n ) — h a n d (v ) (O E hand/hond n.);
p ity (n ) — p ity ( v ) ( O F pile n.);
p ra ise (v ) — p ra ise (n ) (O F preisier *lo prize, to praise');
ch a n ce (n ) — ch a n ce ( v ) (O F cheancc n.).
Nouns derived from verbs:
call (n , v ) — calling, called, caller;
break (n . v ) — breakable, breaker, breaking, breakage;
recover (n . v ) — recoverable, recovery, recoverer. recovering:
m ix (n . v ) — mixer, mixed, mixablc, mixture;
wash (n , v ) — washer, washed, washable, washing.
Verbs derived from nouns:
lim e (n . v ) — timeless, timely, timeous;
age (n , v ) — ageism, ageist, ageless;
effect (n . v ) — effective, effectual, effectless;
harm (n. v ) — harmful, harmless;
sleep (n , v ) — sleepless, sleepy.
6.
1) boathouse ( ‘a shed at the edge o f a river o r lake used fo r housing
boats') — hou seboa t (*a boat which is o r can be m oored fo r use as a
dwelling*);
2 ) p la y -b o y { ‘a man w ho is rich and spends his tim e enjoying himself
instead o f w orking') — b oy -p la y ( ‘ the activity o f playing that is done
by boys’ );
3 ) p o t-flo w e r (*a flower that grows in a pot’ ) — flo w e r-p o t (*a small
con ta in er, typ ica lly w ith slo p in g sid es and m ade fro m p la stic, o r
earthenware, used for growing flowers in’ );
4 ) life -b o a t ( ’specially constructed boat launched from land to rescue
people in distress at se a ') — b o a t-life ( ‘ life on board the ship’ );
5 ) b o a rd -s ch o o l f a n elementary school under the management o f
a S c h o o l B o a rd ’ ) — s c h o o l-b o a r d ( ‘ a lo c a l b o ard o r a u th ority
responsible fo r the provision and maintenance o f schools');
6 ) d o g -h ou s e (*a house (kennel) where dogs live’ ) — h o u se -d o g Га
d o g kept to guard a house’ );
7) p o t-p ie ( ‘ a savoury pie baked in a deep dish, typically with a top crust
on ly ') — p ie -p o t Га small container in w hich a pie is cooked o r kept );
8) b o y -to y V a toy for boys’ ) — to y -b o y ( 'an object for a child to play
with, designed as a miniature replica o f a real b o v ').
9 ) p la n t-h o u s e ( ’ a house fo r plants / where plans are grow n ’ ) —
h o u se -p la n t ( ‘ a plant wrhich is grown indoors’ ).

7.
1. T h e derivational pattern n + n - * N expresses the generalized
m eaning: 1 ) o f locative relations ( g a rd e n -p a rty . s e a -fr o n t) ; 2 ) o f
tem poral relations (su m m e r-h ou s e, d a y -tra in , s e a s o n -tick e t); 3 ) o f
purpose o r function ( ra in co a t, su itca se, textb ook , b a th -ro b e ).
2. T h e derivational pattern a + a —* A conveys the generalized
meaning: I ) o f locative relations ( s o u th -ea s t); 2) o f colou r o r shades o f
colour ( lig h t-g re e n . b lu e -b la ck , d a rk -p u rp le ). 3) o f the degree o f some
quality ( w h ite -h o t. re d -h o t).
3. T h e derivational paltem n + —» N expresses the generalized
meaning: I ) o f agentive relations (d o g -fig h tin g , p e a ce -lo v in g , b rea th ­
ta k in g. te a -te a ch in g , a w e-in sp irin g)-. 2 ) o f locative relations (p ic tu re ­
g o in g ): 3) o f temporal relations (su m m e r-flo w e rin g ).
8.
1. T o d a y 's p e a -s o u p e r forced drivers to slow dow n that caused an
en orm ous tra ffic congestion (p e a -s o u p e r — ‘ a very thick yellowish
fo g '). 2. A ll the data then has to be k ey b oa rd ed (k e y b o a rd — ‘ to put
inform ation in to a com puter using a keyboard’ ). 3. You are getting
on my nerves. I w o n ’ t discuss this m atter w ith such a s ca tte rb ra in
as you are (s c a tte rb ra in — ‘ a person w h o tends to be disorganized
and lacking in concentration’ ). 4. She m oved to L on d on after the
b rea k d ow n o f her m arriage (b re a k d o w n — *a situation in w hich
so m eth in g has fa ile d o r is b e g in n in g to fa il’ ) . 5. F red has been
w ork in g as a b o d y g u a rd fo r the last fe w years (b o d y g u a rd — *a
p e rs o n o r g r o u p o f p e o p le e m p lo y e d to e s c o rt and p r o te c t an
im portant o r fam ous person’ ). 6. H e has to leave the club as all its
m em bers b la c k b a lle d him ( b la c k b a ll — ‘ t o reject (a ca n d id a te
applying to becom e a m em ber o f a private club’ ) , typ ically by means
o f a secret b a llo t'). 7. H er aunt is a s h a re h o ld e r o f a big prosperous
com pany (s h a re h o ld e r — ‘ an ow n er o f shares in a com pan y’ ). 8. I
can’ t stand m any low b ro w program m es show ed on T V ev e ry day
(lo w b ro w — 'n o t c o m p lica te d , in tellectu a l o r d iffic u lt to u n der­
stand*). 9. She has a reputation as a real g o -g e tte r (g o -g e tte r —
‘ som eone w h o is determ in ed to succeed and works hard to achieve
th is’ ). 10. W e sat in a w e s tru ck silen ce h earin g th e truth at last
(a w estru ck — T ille d with o r revealing awe’ ). 11. W e d id n 't know how
t o pla n t th e s e bushes a n d asked a p la n ts w o m a n to c o n su lt us
(p la n rsw om a n — ‘ a fem ale expert in garden plants and gardening*).
12. W e becam e unintentional witnesses o f a bit a rg y -b a rg y between
actors and their director (a rg y -b a rg y — 'n o is y argum ents').
9.
C o o rd in a tfv e com pou nd w ords:
a) reduplicative compounds:
b la h -b la h ‘ used to refer to something which is boring or without
meaningful content’ ; c h i-c h i ‘ attempting stylish elegance but achieving
only an over-elaborate affected ness’ : h a -h a ‘ a ditch with a w all on its
inner side below’ ground level, form ing a boundary to park o r garden
without interrupting the view ’ ; w illy -w illy ‘a whirlwind or dust storm ';
hu sh -h u sh ‘ (especially o f an official plan or project) highly secret or
confidential’ ;
b ) phonically variated rhythmic twin forms:
tick y -ta ck y '(especially o f a building o r housing developm ent) made
o f inferior material: cheap o r in poor taste’ ; p in g -p o n g 'table tennis';
rifT -ra ff'd isrcp u xa ble or undesirable people*: ru g g e r-b u g g e r'г boorish.
aggressively masculine young man w ho is devoted to sport’ ; easy-peasy
(inO ‘ very straightforward and easy (used by o r as i f by children)’ ; h o b ­
n o b ‘ t o m ix socially, especially with those o f perceived higher social
status'; w illy -n illy ‘whether one likes it o r not’ ;
c ) additive compounds:
w o lf- d o g , secreta ry-sten ograp h er, d a rk -b ro w n . A n g lo -S a x o n ,
fighter-bomber, boy-friend, oak-tree.
S u b o rd in a tive com p ou n d w ords:
D u ty-free, road-building, wrist-watch, a baby-sitter, know ledge-
hungry (eyes), week-long, fact-filled (rep ort), war-weary (peop le), iron-
poor (b lo o d ), hom e-sick, hand-m ade, world-famous.

10.
C o m p o u n d n ou n s: sleeping-car. sunbeam, tim e-server, house­
keeping. maidservant, broadway.
C om p ou n d a d jectives: nation-wide, sweet-smelling, sick-making.
reddish-brown, dog-tired, knee-deep.
C o m p o u n d p ron ou n s: everyon e, anybody, som ething, nobody,
everything.
C om pou n d adverb s: elsewhere, upright, outside, downhill, indoors.
C om pou n d verbs: a ) to honeym oon, to finger-print, to nickname,
to whitewash, to week-end. to hunger-strike; b ) to vacuumclean (from
v a c u u m -c le a n e r), to care-take (fro m c a re -ta k e r). to sightsee (from
s ig h ts ee in g ), to type-w rite (fro m ty p e w rite r), t o fortune-hunt (from
fo rtu n e -h u n te r), to merry-make (from m erry m a k in g ).

11.
1) com p ou n ds co m p o sed w ith o u t c o n n e c tin g elem ents:
heart-beat, pale-blue, day-tim e, w ind-driven, oil-rich, play-acting,
blacklist, water-mark, sunflower, door-handle;
2 ) co m p ou n ds c o m p o s e d w ith the help o f vow els o r con son an ts
as lin k in g elem ents.
saleswoman, electrom otive, tragicom ic, handiwork, craftsmanship,
sp okesm an , A n g lo -S a x o n , b rid esm a id , p o litic o -m ilita ry , A n g lo -
C atholic;
3 ) c o m p o u n d s c o m p o s e d w ith th e h e lp o f p r e p o s itio n s o r
con ju n ction s as lin k in g elem ents:
m ake-and-break, up-to-date, dow n -an d -ou t, m atter-of-fact, up-
and-com ing, m other-in-law. sit-at-hom e, good -for-n oth in g, o n e -to -
one. step-by-step, out-of-town.

12.
C o m p o u n d s p r o p e r : lo w -b o rn , a peace-m aker, thorou ghgoing,
a businesswoman, a side-track, awestruck, a baby-sitter, bluish-black,
a looking-glass, a type-writer, a m ill-owner, hom e-m ade, a sportsman,
stone-deaf, a videodisc.
Derivational compounds:
a) hea vy-hearted ', (a + n) + -ed: a p ea -sou p er, (n + n) + -cr: a n o ld -
tim e r. (a + n ) + -er. ill-m a n n ered -, (a + n ) + -ed: a g o -g e tte r, (v + v ) +
-er, on e-ey ed : (num + n) + -ed; a teenager, (n + n ) + -er.
b ) a bu y ou t', ( v + a d v) + con version ; a s c a tte rb ra in : ( v + n ) +
conversion; to b la ck b a ll: (a + n ) + conversion; a low -b rou r. (a + n ) +
conversion; to keyboard: (n + n ) + conversion; a getaw ay, ( v + a d v) +
conversion: to b lu e -p e n cil, (a + n) + conversion: a castaway. <v + adv) +
conversion.

13.
sum m er-flow ering-.
1) n + v ^
2 ) ‘ flowering in summer*
3) V ^ + prp + N
4 ) temporal relations

notew orthy:
1) n + a
2 ) ‘ worthy o f note’
3 ) A + prp + N
4 ) objective relations

b la ck -h a ire d :
1) (a + n) + -ed
2 ) ‘ with/having black hair’
3 ) with/having + A + N
4 ) possessive relations

blood -red -.
1) n + a
2 ) ‘ as red as b lo od ’
3 ) as + A + as + N
4 ) relations o f resemblance

awestruck-.
1) n + vcn
2 ) ‘ struck b y awe'
3) V ^ + prp + N
4 ) instrumental relations

k in d -h ea rted :
1 ) (a + n) + -cd
2 ) ‘ with/having kind heart’
3) with/having + A + N
4 ) relations o f possession

seve n -y e a r (plan):
1 ) num + n
2) ‘ seven years’
3) N u m + N
4 ) quantitative relations

safety-tested :
1) n + v ra
2) ‘ tested fo r safety'
3 ) Vm + prp + N
4 ) relations o f purpose

p itc h -b la c k :
1) n + a
2) ‘ as black as pitch*
3) as + A + as + N
4 ) relations o f resemblance

th re e -co lo u re d :
1) (num + n ) + -ed
2) ‘with/having three colours'
3) with/having + N um + N
4 ) possessive and quantitative relations

sea -g oin g :
1 ) n + v k„

2) ‘going to the sea*


3) + prp + N
4 ) locative relations

m a n -m a d e:
1) n + v m
2 ) ‘ made by man*
3) Vra + prp + N
4 ) agentivc relations

14.
m a k e-u p :
1) a verbal-adverbial compound
2 ) ( v + adv) + conversion
3 ) to make up
4 ) V + A dv
5 ) semantic relations o f result

d o o r-h a n d le :
1) a nominal compound
2 ) n 2+ n ,
3 ) ‘ the handle o f the door’
4 ) I ^ + prp + N j
5 ) partitive relations
b o ttle -o p e n e r.
1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2 ) n + <v + -er)
3) ‘ t o open a bottle*
4) V + N
5) agentivc relations

getaw ay.
1) a verbal-adverbial compound
2 ) (v + adv) + conversion
3) ‘ to get awav*
4 ) V + Adv
5 ) semantic relations o f result

p e n c il-c a s e :
1) a nominal compound
2) n2 + n,
3) *a case fo r pencils’
4 ) N , + prp + N>
5 ) semantic relations o f purpose

shop -ow n er.


1) a verbal-nominal compound
2 ) n + (v + -er)
3 ) ‘ to own a shop'
4) V + N
5 ) agentivc relations

te a c h -in :
1) a verbal-adverbial compound
2 ) (v + adv) + conversion
3) ‘ to teach in’
4 ) V + Adv
5) semantic relations o f result

o ffice-m a n a g e m e n t:
1 ) a verbal-nominal compound
2 ) n + ( v + -m ent)
3 ) ‘ to manage an o ffice '
4) V + N
5 ) agentivc relations

c o u n try -c lu b :
1) a nominal compound
2 ) n2 + n,
3 ) *a club in the country*
4) N, + p r p + N 2
5) semantic relations o f place
setback:
1) a verbal-adverbial compound
2 ) (v + a d v) + conversion
3 ) ‘ to set back*
4 ) V + A dv
5 ) semantic relations o f result
m a tch -b re a k e r.
1) a verbal-nominal compound
2) n + ( v + -er)
3) *to break a match’
4) V + N
5) agentive relations

fo o tb a ll-p la y in g :
1 ) a verbal-nominal compound
2 ) n + (v + -ing)
3 ) ‘ to play football*
4) V + N
5 ) agentive relations
w in d m ill:
1) a nominal compound
2 ) n; + n,
3) *a m ill worked by the w ind’
4 ) N , + worked by + N ,
5 ) instrumental relations

go-b etw een :


1) a verbal-adverbial compound
2 ) (v + adv) + conversion
3 ) *to g o between’
4 ) V + Adv
5) semantic relations o f result
w om a n -d o cto r.
1) a nominal compound
2 ) n2 + n,
3 ) 'the doctor is a woman*
4 ) N , + is + N ,
5 ) appositional relations

P A R T V . E T Y M O L O G Y OF TH E E N G LISH W O R D -S T O C K

1.
1 ) w ords o f In d o -E u ro p e a n o r ig in : sister, tooth, slow. know. long,
seven, eat. widow, lip. swine, co m . ten. we. sun;
2) words of Common Germanic origin: blast, glove, green, sand,
grass, flood , high, answer, life, small, silver, day. ship, bench:
3 ) E n glish words proper: w om an, lady, always, daisy, boy. sheriff,
call. bird. lord. girl.

3.
L ord , to lord, lordless, lord-like, lordling, lordly, lordliness, lordship,
lordv:
ha t: to hat. hatful, hatless, hatted, hatband, hatbox. hat-block:
re d : reddish, reddy, redly, redness, red -b lo o d ed , red -h ot. red ­
headed. redwood:
grass: to grass, grassless, grass-like, grassy, grassing, grass-green,
grassland:
to fe e d . feed, feeder, feeding, fcedable. feed-pipe, feedlot. feedstuff;
q u ic k : quickly, quickness, quicken, quickening, quickie, qu ick­
witted. quick-tempered:
s to n e : t o ston e, ston eless, stony, sto n ed , ston er. s to n e -c o ld ,
stonework;
to fe e l: fe e l, fcclable, feeler, feelin g, feelin gly, feelingless, fe e l­
g ood :
heavy: heavily, heaviness, heavyish. heavyweight, heavy-hearted,
heavy-footed:
to lo o k : a look, looker, looky. lookable. look-see. lookalike. look-in.

4.
1) to g e t o n e 's head dow n — 'to work hard at something that involves
reading and writing’ ; e i
2) to sta n d a ch a n ce — 'to have the possibility o f achieving sm lh.’ :
3 ) a ga m e th a t twQ ca n p la y — ‘ unpleasant, o r hurtful behaviour or
action w hich can lead to retaliation o f the same kind';
4 ) s m a ll fry — ‘ people, organizations, o r activities that are not large
or important’ :
5) a house o f card s — an organization o r a plan that is very weak
and can easily be destroyed’ :
6 ) to k n o ck s m b .fo r s ix — ’ to surprise and upset som ebody a lot*;
7) to m a k e o n e 's m a rk — ’ to becom e successful and well-known
generally o r in certain circles; esp. contribute to o r influence an art.
science, sport, etc.’ ;
8 ) f o r g o o d m easure — ’ its an extra amount to something o r as an
additional item ’ :
9) a b lu e -e y e d b oy — ‘ a man w ho is liked and admired by someone
in authority’ :
10) to s ir o n th e fe n c e — *to delay making a decision when you have
to choose between tw o sides in an argument o r a com petition’ ;
| | )ii prey a rea — *a subject or problem that people do not know
how to deal with because there are n o clear rules’ ;
12) to be up a tre e — ‘ to be in a very difficult situation’.
1) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is Latin, whereas the origin o f
borrowing is Greek;
2 ) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is O ld French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Latin;
3 ) directly; the source & the origin o f borrowing is O ld French;
4 ) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is O ld French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Greek;
5 ) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is O ld French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Latin;
6 ) directly; the source & the origin o f borrowing is Latin;
7) indirectly; the source o f borrow in g is (O ld ) French o r Latin,
whereas the origin o f borrowing is Greek;
8) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is Latin, whereas the origin o f
borrowing is Greek;
9 ) directly; the source & the origin o f borrowing is Spanish:
10) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is French, whereas the origin
o f borrowing is Italian:
11) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is Italian, whereas the origin
o f borrowing is Latin;
12) indirectly: the source o f borrow ing is (O ld ) French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Latin;
13) directly: the source & the origin o f borrowing is Latin:
14) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is O ld French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Latin;
15) directly: the source & the origin o f borrowing is Greek:
16) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is O ld French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Italian.
6.
a ) C d lifi: A von, London. Exc, Kilbride, the Downs;
b) LaUn: cup. candle, plant, wall, interior:
c ) Scandinarian. to cast, fellow, anger, to take, law;
d ) French: governm ent, promenade, power, lieutenant, restaurant;
e ) G reek: anemia, criterion, horm one, eponym . anamnesis;
0 Russian: samovar, cosmonaut, verst, kvass, tundra;
g ) Spanish: banana, armada, mosquito, guerilla, tornado:
h) Italian: violin, umbrella, m otto, bandit, gondola;
i) G erm an: kindergarten, halt, waltz, nickel, poodle.
7.
F re n c h : g o v e rn m e n t — I6,h ccn .: p ro m e n a d e — m id I6,ft cen.;
p o w e r — 13,h cen .: lie u te n a n t — 14lh cen .; re s ta u ra n t — early I9,h
cen.;
Greek: a n e m ia — early 19,h cen .: c r ite r io n — ea rly 17lh cen.:
h o rm o n e — earlv 20"'cen.; eponvm — mid 19,hcen.: anam nesis — late
I6,h cen.;
Ru ssian: sa m ova r — 19lh cen.; cosm on a u t — mid 20lh ccn.: verst —
16'" cen.; k va ss — 16,h ccn.: tu n d ra — 19th cen.;
G e r m a n : k in d e rg a rte n — m id I9,h cen.; h a h — late I6,h cen.;
w altz — late 18,h ccn.: n ic k e l — mid 18,h cen.: p o o d le — early 19"1cen.
8.
I — d (S p a n is h ); 2 — g (R u s s ia n ); 3 — a (L a tin ); 4 — к (Ita lia n );
5 — i ( F re n ch ); 6 — c ( R ussian): 7 — b ( G erm a n ): 8 — e ( L a tin ); 9 —
j (F re n c h ); 10 — f (R u s s ia n ).
9.
1. address 2. film s 3. coffe e 4. tennis 5. a lp h a b e tica l 6. pseudonym
7. ra d io 8. interests, p o litic s 9. th ea tre 10. progress 11. reform s, system
12. m ed icin e . U niversity

10.
1 ) para graph ( ‘a section o f a piece o f writing that begins on a new”
line and contains one o r m ore sentences') — п а раграф ('clau se ( o f
law); section m ark'):
2 ) baton ( ‘ a stick that a conductor o f an orchestra o r choir uses') —
ба т он ( “white bread o f an oval fo rm ');
3 ) o rd e r ( “the way in which a set o f things is arranged o r done, so
that it is c le a r w hich th in g is firs t, secon d, third, e t c .') — о р д е р
( “warrant’ );
4 ) to re cla im ( ‘ to get something back that someone has taken from
y o u ') — рек-гам ироват ь ( “to advertise');
5 ) d e lic a te ( ‘ easily broken o r dam aged: w eak and often ill ) —
деликат ны й ( “tactful, polite );
6 ) in te llig e n t ( ' good at thinking clearly and quickly, at understanding
difficult ideas and subjects, and at gaining and using knowledge (syn.
cle ve r)') — ин т е.и игент ны й ( ‘ well-educated, characterized by refined
taste and m anners');
7) revision ( ‘the process o f changing, improving, or making additions to
something such as a plan. law. o r piece o f writing') — ревизия ( ‘ inspection*):
8 ) a rtis t ( ‘ so m e o n e w h o makes paintings, sculptures, e t c . ') —
арт ист ( ‘ an a ctor'):
9 ) sym pathetic ( ‘ kind to someone w ho has a problem and w illing to
understand how they fe e l') — сим пат ичны й ( “pretty, pleasant, good -
looking’ );
10) c a p ita ! ( “the city w h ere a country o r region has its govern ­
ment*) — капит а .1 ( “m oney, wealth );
11 ) fa b r ic ( “cloth, especially when it is used for making things such
as clothes o r curtains (syn. m aterial)’ ) — ф абрика ( “a factory'):
12) a m b itiou s ( ‘ determined to be successful, rich, famous, etc.’ ) —
ам бициозны й ( ‘ pretentious, pompous’ ):
13) con cou rse ( “a large area in an airport o r railway station, o r in front
o f a p u b lic b u ild in g , w h ere p e o p le can w a lk ’ ) — к о н к у р с ( ‘ a
com petition');
14) ro m a n c e C a n e x c ilin g and u su ally sh o rt ro m a n tic
rela tio n sh ip ') — р о м а н с ( ‘ a v o c a l-p o e tic co m p o sitio n w ith music
accompaniment’ );
15) to p re te n d ( ‘ to behave in a particular way because y o u want
s o m e o n e t o b e lie v e th a t s o m e th in g is tru e w h en it is n o t ') —
прет ендоват ь ('t o claim a right to possess something’ );
16) com m a n d (*an official ord er') — к ом ан да ( ‘ sports team. crew ').
11 .

Completely Partially
Unassimilated borrowings
assimilated assimilated
or barbarisms
borrowings borrowings

w all, gate, torchere, maharani. datum , p e­ a la m ode, tet-^-tet,


w ant, matter, restroika. chalet, sheikh, nucleus, ad h o c , parlando. h la
kettle, finish, parquet, bagel, chauffeur, for­ carte, pari-mutuel,
m oney, ill. mula. shaman, corps, alcazar, com m edia dell'arte,
od d . street souvenir, bacillus, spahi. stra­ pas dc deux, nota
tum . spaghetti, m em oir, paren­ bene, m enage a trios,
thesis. hihakusha. incognito, padrona. cou p de
thesis, tzatziki. sabotage, stim u­ maitre. ad libitum,
lus. Soyu z. boulevard, criterion, alameda. d6j& vu,
torero, yin . m acaroni, tzigane, Ubermcnsch, sensu
hypothesis, bagh. shiatsu. shapka lato. pousada

12.
Changes in the sem antic structure o f the com p letely assimilated
borrowings:
1) wall ‘ an upright side o f a room inside a building' < Latin va llu m
ram part';
2) gate 'a d o o r in a fence o r w all that you g o through to enter or
leave a place* < Dutch g a t ‘gat. hole, breach’ ;
3 ) want ‘to feel that you w ould like to have. keep, o r do something'
< O ld Norse va n ta ‘ be lacking';
4) matter ‘something that you are discussing, considering, o r dealing
w ith ' < via O ld French from Latin m a teria ‘ timber, substance';
5) kettle ‘a container that is used for boiling water’ < O ld N orse k e till
< Latin cati/lus. diminutive o f ca tin u s ‘deep food-vessel’ :
6 ) finish ‘ to d o the last part o f something so that it is com plete’ <
O ld French fe n is s < Latin f in ir e ‘ end’ ;
7 ) money ‘ what you earn, save, invest and use to pay fo r things’ <
O ld French m o n e i < Latin m on eta ‘ m int, m oney’ (originally a title o f
the goddess Juno, in whose tem ple in Rom e m oney was m inted);
8 ) ill ‘ not healthy, because o f a medical condition o r an injury’ <
O ld N o rse illr ‘evil, difficu lt’ ;
9 ) odd ‘ different to what is usual o r expected; strange’ < from O ld
N orse o d d a - in o d d a -m a rh r ‘ third man, odd man’ , from o d d i ‘ angle’ ;
10) street ‘a road in a town o r city with houses o r other buildings
along it’ < from Latin strata ( v ia ) ‘ paved (w a y ), fem inine past participle
o f s tem e re ‘ lay down'.

13.
1) torchere [ta^jeij; 2) chalet |'Jxlei|: 3 ) parquet |'pa:kci]; 4 ) chauffeur
I'/aufal; 5 ) corps |'ka;| (a main subdivision o f an arm y in the field ,
consisting o f tw o o r m ore divisions); 6 ) souvenir [^ -va 'n ia l: 7) spaghetti
|spa'geti|; 8) m em oir ('mem.wa:]; 9 ) incognito (.inkog'nitau. tn'kognitau];
10 ) sabotage J'saeba.tasl: I I ) bou levard I'b id a .v a d ]; 12) m acaroni
(.тгек э'гэи т].

14.
Datum — data; parenthesis — parentheses:
nucleus — nuclei; thesis — theses:
formula — formulae; stimulus — stimuli:
bacillus — bacilli; criterion — criteria:
stratum — strata; hypothesis — hypotheses.

15.
M a h a ra n i — ‘ an Indian prince's w ife o r w id o w ' (H in d i);
p e restroik a — ‘ (in the form er Soviet U n ion ) the policy o r practice
o f restru cturing o r refo rm in g the e c o n o m ic and p o litic a l system ’
(Russian);
sheikh — ‘ an Arab leader, in particular the c h ie f o r head o f an Arab
t r ib e , fa m ily , o r v illa g e ’ ; ‘ a le a d e r in a M u slim c o m m u n ity or
organization* (A ra b ic);
b a g el — *a dense bread roll in the shape o f a ring, characteristic o f
Jewish baking' (Yiddish);
sham an — *a person regarded as having access to, and influence in.
the w orld o f g o o d and ev il spirits, especially am ong som e peoples o f
northern Asia and N orth Am erica’ (German/Russian);
a lca z a r — ‘ a Spanish palace or fortress o f M oorish origin' (Spanish);
spah i — ‘ a m em ber o f the Turkish irregular cavalry' (Turkish);
hibakusha — ‘ (in Japan) a survivor o f either o f the atom ic explosions
at Hiroshim a o r Nagasaki in 1945’ (Japanese);
tza tz ik i — ‘ a G reek side dish o f yogurt with cucumber, garlic, and
often m int’ (G ree k );
S oy u z — ‘ a series o f m anned Soviet orbiting spacecraft, used to
investigate the operation o f oihiting space stations' (Russian);
to re ro — *a bullfighter, especially on e on fo o t' (Spanish);
y in — ‘ (in Chinese philosophy) the passive female principle o f the
universe, characterized as fem ale and sustaining and associated with
earth, dark, and co ld ’ (C h in ese);
tzigane — ‘ a Hungarian gypsy’ (Hungarian);
bagh — ‘ a large garden o r orchard' (H in d i):
shiatsu — 'a form o f therapy o f Japanese origin in which pressure is
applied to certain points on the body using the hands' (Japanese):
sha pka — ‘ a brimless Russian hat o f fur o r sheepskin' (Russian).

16.
1) a la m ode — in fashion, up to date; from French;
2 ) te t-a -te t — a private talk; from French:
3) a d h o c — formed, arranged, or done fo r a particular purpose only;
from Latin;
4 ) p a rla n d o — speaking: from Italian:
5 ) a ta ca rte — according to the menu: from French;
6 ) p a ri-m u iu e l — mutual stake; from French;
7) com m ed ia d e ira rte — an improvised kind o f popular com edy in
Italian theaters in the 16,h— 18,h centuries, based on stock characters;
from Italian;
8) pas d e d eux — a dance for tw o people, typically a man and a
wom an; from French;
9 ) n o ta bene — take special notice; from Latin;
10) m enage a trios — household o f three: from French;
11) p a d ron a — a fem ale boss o r proprietress; from Italian:
12) co u p d e m a itre — a master stroke; from French;
13) a d lib itu m — at pleasure: from Latin:
14) a la m ed a — a public walkway o r promenade, shaded with trees;
from Spanish:
15) dejd vu — a feeling o f having already experienced the present
situation; from French;
16) Uberm ensch — the ideal superior man o f the future w h o could
rise above conventional Christian morality to create and impose his own
values, originally described by N ietzche in Thus S pake Z a ra th u s tra
(1883-5): from Germ an (literally "superman'):
17) sensu la to — in the broad sense: from Latin;
18) pousada — an inn o r hotel, especially on e o f a chain o f hotels
administered by the state (literally 'resting p la ce'); from Portuguese.
17.
1) screech — s h riek < O ld N orse s k rx k ja :
2 ) h o te l — h osp ita l < O ld French h ostel < medieval Latin hospita/e:
3 ) c h a rt — c a rd < O ld French ch a rte / ca rte < O ld Latin ch a rta /
ca rta < G reek k h a rtes ‘ papyrus le a f;
4 ) a b rid g e — a b b revia te < late Latin a b b revia re ‘ cut short’ < Latin
b revis 'short';
5 ) tra v a il — tra v e l < via O ld French from m edieval Latin trep a liu m
'instrument o f torture’ ;
6 ) ca tch — chase < O ld French c h a c ie r (verb ), ch a ce (n o u n ) <
Latin ca p ta re 'tr y to take’ , from ca p ere 'take';
7 ) ch ie fta in — ca p ta in < O ld French ch eveta ign e/ ca p ita in < late
Latin cap ita neus 'c h ie f < Latin ca p u t. c a p it ‘ head’.
Latin Old French/ French Old Norsc/Scand. Spanish or Italian

junior partner loans firm


to investigate journey taken
intimated stout trusted
definitely manner their
conservative people seemed
solid safe
instinctive charge
c o n c e rn e d charitable
typical c o n c e rn e d
e p is c o p a l maintenance
Sundav forms
school fashionable
separated e p is c o p a l
change
coat

19.
endanger, en- (L a tin ), -danger (O ld French);
citize n s h ip : citizen- (A n g lo -N o rm a n French), -ship (O ld English:
o f G erm anic origin):
co m p u ta h o lic: comput- (French/Latin). -aholic (French);
p a n -A m e rica n : pan- (G r e e k ), -Am erican (L a tin );
lea th erette: leather- (O ld English: o f Germ anic origin ), -ette (O ld
French);
v ic e -c h a ir, vice- (L a tin ), -chair (French);
sla very , slave- (O ld French), -ery (French);
superm an: super- (L a tin ), -m an (O ld English: o f Germ anic origin);
disobey: dis- (L a tin ), -obey (O ld French);
payable: pay- (O ld French), -able (French/Latin);
fo re le g , fo re- (O ld English: o f G erm anic origin ), -leg (O ld N orse):
politeness-, polite- (L a tin ), -ness (O ld English: o f Germ anic origin);
b e frie n d : b e - (O ld E n glish ), -frien d (O ld English: o f G erm an ic
origin);
outclass: ou t- (O ld English: o f Germ anic origin ), -class (L a tin );
ch ild ish : ch ild- (O ld English: o f Germ anic origin ), -ish (O ld English:
o f G erm anic origin).
20.
L guts — courage (F ren ch ) 2. ask — question (F ren ch ) — interrogate
(L a tin ) 3. fire — flam e (F ren ch ) — conflagration (L a tin ) 4. house —
m an sion (F r e n c h ) 5. k in g ly — ro y a l (F r e n c h ) — rega l ( L a t i n )
6. weariness — lassitude (L a tin ) 7. rise — mount (F ren ch ) — ascend
(L a tin ) 8. happiness — felicity (L a tin ) 9. holy — sacred (F ren c h ) —
consecrated (L a tin ) 10. clothes — attire (French)
T o o ih — denial, sun — solar, cal — feline, youlh — juvenile, death —
mortal, son — filial, eye — optical, uncle — avuncular, d o g — canine,
star — astral, sea — marine, nose — nasal, town — urban, sight — visual.

1. — e. 5. - h. 9. - b . 13. - f .

о
2. -g - 6. - 1. 14. — a.

1
3. — c. 7. — j 11. - i . 16. — m.
4. — n. 8. — o. 12. - p. 17. — q-
23.
1) g le n (fro m G a elic) — ‘a narrow valley';
2 ) to fa s h (from French) — 't o feel upset o r worried';
3 ) in g le (fro m G a e lic ) — ‘ a domestic fire o r fireplace';
4 ) k irk (from O ld N orse) — “a church’ ;
5 ) d o m in ie (from Latin) — 'teacher';
6 ) p ib r o c h (fr o m G a e lic ) — *a fo rm o f m usic fo r the Scottish
bagpipes in vo lvin g ela b ora te variations on a th em e, typ ica lly o f a
material o r funerary character';
7 ) b ra e (from O ld N orse) — ‘ a steep bank or hillside';
8 ) d ram (from O ld French o r L a tin ) — ‘ a small drink o f whisky or
other spirits’ ;
9 ) d re ich (fro m O ld N orse) — ‘ dreary’ ;
10) bon n y (from O ld French) — 'attractive o r beautiful’ .
24.
1. b a r f — b ja rd : 'h ill, especially on e which is long and low";
2. y a u d — ja ld a : ‘ horse o f inferior breeding’ ;
3. g a te — g a m : ‘ way, street’ ;
4. s cu ffle — s k u rill: ‘ basket for holding grain; metal bucket fo r coal’ :
5. m ense — m ennska; ‘decency: neatness, tidiness’ ;
6. beck — bek k r. ‘ a stream, a brook';
7. c a rr — k ja rr. ‘ marshy w oodland or shrubland’ ;
8. na ng — angr. ‘ troublesome, painful, irritating’ ;
9. ta rn — tja m : ‘ lake or pond (especially in an upland location )’ ;
10. k is t — к is fa: ‘ large box, chest o r trunk’ .

P A R T V I. W O R D -G R O U P S A N D P H R A S E O L O G IC A L U N IT S

C h a p ter 1

a)
1. mended 2. to repair 3. repairing 4. mending 5. repaired 6. mended
7. to repair 8. mend 9. repaired 10. to mend
to m en d — ‘ to repair something that is broken o r damaged, especially
something that has a hole (o r tear) in it’
to re p a ir — ‘ to d o w ork on something that is broken, damaged, or
not working property, in order to make it work again or look the way it
looked before’

b)
I. mistake 2. error 3. error 4. mistake 5. error 6. mistakes 7. error
8. error 9. mistake 10. mistake 11. error
m istake — ‘ something that is wrong o r incorreet. which you d o by
accident’
e rro r — 'a mistake, especially one that you d o not realize that you
are making, that can cause usually serious problems for someone’

2.
Meanings:
f u l l — I ) filled com pletely; 2 ) com plete, w hole; 3 ) the highest or
greatest possible;
d ry — 1) having n o w ater o r liq u id in side o r on the surface;
2 ) without rain o r wetness; 3) not sweet; not fruity in taste; 4 ) dull and
uninteresting; 5 ) subtle, expressed in a m atter-of-fact way:
b roa d — I ) large o r larger than usual: w ide: 2) stretching out far and
w ide, large in area; 3 ) not lim ited; 4 ) general; without detail: 5 ) clear,
open; not subtle; 6 ) rather rude, not acceptable in polite society;
u gly — 1) extremely unattractive: 2 ) threatening and frightening or
violent; 3 ) very unpleasant:
w id e — 1 ) measuring a large amount from side to side o r edge to
edge; 2 ) covering o r including a large range o f things.

3.
to run
1. Эта лош ать участвует в скачках. 2. П родолж ительность ф и ль­
ма два ч а с а 3. Вода течет. 4. Э тот кран течет. 5. У него насморк.
6. М отор работает. 7. В ино растеклось п о полу. 8. Этот вопрос яв­
ляется центральным в споре. 9. О на н а ш л а в ш у в ванну. 10. О н ус­
пеш но управлял своим бизнесом. II. М орож еное начинает таять.
to charge
1. О н в зял с муж чины десять центов за карандаш. 2. О н заря­
д и л батарейку. 3. О н требовал от них вы полнения своих обя зан ­
ностей. 4. О н записал эти покупки на счет мужчины. 5. Войска
атаковали неприятеля. 6. Я не хочу забивать св ою голову пустя­
ками. 7. Судья обви ни л его в соверш ении этого преступления.
4 .1 .
1. С об а к а задохн улась о т ды м а. Я вы бил окна, ч тобы мы не
зад охн ули сь от паров бензин а. Она задыхалась о т рыданий. О н
залы хался о т злости.
Russian: задыхаться от ч его-л. — English: ю suffocate by smth.:
to choke w ith smth.
2. М о я маленькая дочка умеет ездить на велосипеде. О н пре­
восходно ездит верхом на лош ади . Я н е хочу ехать на поезде. Если
м ы поедем на автобусе, мы будем там вовремя.
Russian: ездитъ/ехать на чем -л. — English: to ride smth.; to g o by
smth.
3. Э то лекарство вы лечит тебя от каш ля. Н ичто, кажется, не
вы лечит его от нервозности. В этой бо льн и ц е А н н у леч а т от го­
лов н о й б о л и соверш енно новым препаратом. М альчиков д о в о л ь ­
н о д о л г о л е ч и л и от порезов и синяков.
Russian: вы лечивать/лечи ть от ч е г о -л . — English: to cure of
smth.; to treat for smth.
4. С ледователь о б в и н и л водителя в аварии. О н обв и н и л сестру
в смерти своего ребенка. Я не хочу обвинять е г о в том . что о н го­
ворит неправду. О н а сказала, что работодатели обви няю т ее в кра­
же (воровстве).
Russian: о б в и н я т ь в ч е м -л . — English: to blam e for sm th.; to
accuse of smth.
5. П о зв о л ь м не взглян уть н а э т о пи сьм о. С ь ю н е разреш ала
детям есть сладости. М ы н е разрешаем никому курить в здании.
Н е позволяй проблем ам управлять твоей жизнью.
Russian: разрешать/позволятъ к ом у-л. делать ч то -л . — English:
to let smb. d o smth.; to allow smb. to d o smth.

4.2.
1. suffoca te (in the passive) + preposition ‘ by* + noun
ch o k e (in the passive) + preposition 'with* + noun
2. rid e + noun
g o + preposition ‘ by* + noun
3. cu re + noun/pronoun + preposition ‘ o f + noun
tre a t (in the passive) + preposition ‘ for* + noun
4. b lam e + noun/pronoun + preposition ‘ for* + gerund; to b la m e +
noun/pronoun + preposition ‘ for* + noun
accuse + noun/pronoun + preposition * o f + gerund; to accuse +
noun/pronoun + preposition ‘ o f + noun
5. le t + pronoun/noun + infinitive without the particle ‘ to*
a llow + noun/pronoun + infinitive with the particle ‘ to*

5.
1. Russian: бы ть невиновным в ч ем -л. — English: to be innocent
of smth.
2. Russian: объяснять что-л. к ом у-л. — English: to explain smth.
to smb.
3. Russian: говори ть н а к а к о м -л. язы ке — English: t o speak a
language.
4. Russian: влиять на что-л. — English: to affect smth.
5. Russian: возражать против чего-л. — English: to object to smth.
6. Russian: встретиться с ксм -л. — English: to encounter smb.
7. Russian: бы ть виновным в чсм-л. — English: to be guilty of
smth.
8. Russian: не одобрять ч то -л . — English: t o disapprove of smth.
9. Russian: беспокоить/тревож ить к о го -л. ч ем -л. — English: to
bother smb. with smth.
10. Russian: ждать кого-л. — English: to wait for smb.
6.
Predicative: she was silent, you are studying, you read, you can
make, a w ord/а sentence gives, a suspicion flashes, she gained, it was
like a landscape, she shuddered, she saw.
Non-predicative, coordinative: t o study and read, a w ord o r a
sentence, dark and ominous, seen and hidden.
*7
/.
Endocentric word-groups:
v e rb a l: to study a language, to read a page, to make nothing o f. to
g ive a clue, to (lash across smth.. to gain an inkling, to gain vaguely, to
shudder at smth.;
n o m in a l: a foreign language, a suspicion o f the sense, troubled wits,
an inkling into the working, the working o f smb's m ind, a dark/ominous
landscape, a flash o f lightning.
Exocentric word-groups: on a sudden, in a moment, at first.
8.
I) beautiful bird, black bird (д розд ), gay bird (весельчак): 2 ) cold
wind, cold hands, cold war. cold feet (трусость); 3 ) light burden, light
artillery, light supper, light hand (ловкость: деликатность); 4 ) blue skirt,
blue fox, blue funk (паника), blue stocking: 5) delicious cheese. Swiss
cheese, w'hite cheese (тв ор ог), big cheese (важная персона): 6 ) coated
tongue, smoked tongue (кончены й язык (к у л .)), wicked tongue: 7) big
house, big boy (взрослы й ), big money, big talk (хвастовство); 8) high
tone, angry tone, mental tone (душ евное равновесие).

Chapter 2

1.
I. a w ord-com bination 2. a phraseological unit 3. a w ord-com bi­
nation 4. a phraseological unit 5. a word-combination 6. a phraseological
unit 7. a w o r d -c o m b in a tio n 8. a p h ra se o lo g ica l unit 9. a w o rd -
c o m b in a tio n 10 . a p h ra s e o lo g ic a l u n it 11. a w o r d -c o m b in a tio n
12. a phraseological unit
2.
(a ) 3, 6. 7 ,9 , II. 12
(b ) 1 ,2 . 4 . 5. 8, 10
I. She was as gre e n a s grass when she was sixteen but other girls
in the typing pool taught her the ways o f their world. 2. T h e girls had
got on w ell together until th e a p p le o f d is c o rd in the person o f a
handsome young apprentice appeared in their midst. 3. 1 g e t y o u r d rift
now. I think. I f you mean by ‘ integrity* what I would call ‘ consistency*
then w e've been arguing at cross-purposes. 4. W e must jo in hands with
ou r friends in Europe. 5. She dropped upon m e o u t o f a b lu e sky and
began asking questions which I had to answer. 6 . 1 thought there would
have been protestations and tears when i told her I wanted to m ove out
o f the flat, but n o. she stayed as c o o l as a cu cu m b er. 7. W hen his son
was in Paris, the boy g o t o u t o f h a n d and caused many difficulties. 8. He
g o t very h o t u n d e r th e c o lla r w hen I suggested that he m ight be
mistaken. 9. A fter listening a few minutes to their conversation, I was
a ll a t sea. Botany is not my subject. 10. There were at least six murders
in that b lo o d a n d th u n d e r story*. II. Joan belongs to th e u p p e r cru s t:
you can tell by the way she walks and talks. 12. Publishers are well aware
that rumours o f possible prosecution o f a book are likely to send the
scales up by lea p s a n d b ou n d s. 13. A ll the people involved in the
C o m m o n w e a lth A rc h ite c ts ' c o m p e titio n w ere to ld t o h o ld th e ir
horses — because tim e would be needed to organize an exhibition in
which the entries could be put on show. 14. You should not exaggerate
her attraction fo r th e s tro n g e r sex. 15. 1 d o n 't like to hear p eople
sneering at positions and titles they'd have accepted in tu>o tick s i f they'd
got the offer.

4.
1) substantive phraseological units: the stronger sex. the apple o f
discord, the upper crust;
2 ) verbal phraseological units: to get smb's drift, to get out o f hand,
to jo in hands, to hold on e's horses;
3) adjectival phraseological units: as co ol as a cucumber, blood
and thunder, as green as grass, all at sea. hot under the collar;
4 ) adverbial phraseological units: in tw o ticks, b y leaps and
bounds, out o f a blue sky.

э.
1. Associations evoked b y the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to ra in ca ts a n d dogs are connected with the idea o f the raindrops as
cats and dogs righting fiercely on e another.
2. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to ca st a c lo u d o v e r arc connected with the idea o f some changes o f
nature m an ifestin g the w orsen ing o f w ea th er a cco m p an ied b y an
im pending darkness and g lo o m that can be regarded as sym bols o f
misgivings and apprehension, o f som ething unpleasant that spoils, e.g.
m ood , inner state o f a person, sm b's activity, situation, etc.
3. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to show o n e 's teeth are connected with the idea o f a certain anim al’ s
behaviour. Show ing its teeth an anim al tries to frighten its victim , it
shows its strength (as teeth are on e o f an anim al’ s strongest ‘ w eapons'),
as well as its readiness to attack its victim.
4. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to m en d o n e 's m anners are connected with the idea o f repairing a tear or
hole in a piece o f clothing. The correction o f the defect improves the thing.
5. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
a s ittin g d u ck are connected with the idea that it is easy to shoot a duck
which is sitting still.
6. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to ca tch som eon e red -h a n d ed are connected with the idea o f the blood
still on the hands o f the crim inal after stabbing his victim to death.
7. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to ru n to seed are connected with the idea o f a plant which, instead o f
developing new shoots (п о беги , р остк и ), only produces seeds and loses
its beauty.
8. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
d ia m o n d c u t d ia m o n d are connected with the idea o f the diam ond as
on e o f the hardest substance in the w orld, so it can o n ly be cut by
another diam ond.
6.
I. Evaluation is negative, spoken with disapproval. 2. Evaluation
is positive, spoken with approval. 3. Evaluation is negative, spoken
w ith disapproval. 4. Evaluation is positive, spoken with approval.
5. Evaluation is negative, spoken with disapproval. 6. Evaluation is
neutral/ncgative, spoken with disapproval. 7. Evaluation is positive,
sp o k e n w ith a p p ro v a l. 8. E v a lu a tio n is n e g a tiv e , sp oken w ith
disapproval,
7.
I. in form al 2. form al 3. in form al 4. neutral 5. form al 6. neutral
7. informal 8. formal
8.
a lo u n g e liz a rd (m ascu lin e), to le a d a c a t-a n d -d o g life (inter-
g e n d e r ). t o m a k e e y es a t s o m e o n e (fe m in in e ), a g e n tle g ia n t
(m asculine), a b ig w ig (m asculine), to te ll ta les (fem in in e), to have
a ro v in g eye (m asculine), to p o u r o u t o n e 's h e a rt (fem inine)
9.
1. T h e gender macrocomponent is expressed explicitly (in semantics).
2. T h e gen d er m acrocom ponent is expressed im plicitly. T h e factor
determining the gender macrocomponent as in tergen d er is a traditional
understanding o f the negative side o f a married o r jo in t life. 3. T h e
gender macrocomponcnt is expressed implicitly. T h e factor determining
the gender macrocomponent as fe m in in e is a stereotyped perception o f
a w om an’ s behaviour in case she wants to show a man that she likes him.
4. T h e gender m acrocom ponent is expressed explicitly (in semantics).
5. T h e gender m acrocom poncn t is expressed im plicitly. T h e factor
determining the gender m acrocom ponent as m a scu lin e is an activity in
which historically men w ere involved, i.e. t o decide cases in law courts.
6. T h e gender m acrocom ponent is expressed im plicitly. T h e factors
determining the gender m acrocom ponent as fe m in in e are: 1) a tradi­
tional w om en's activity, i.e . to tell fairy talcs to sm all children, and
2) a stereotyped perception about a typically female feature, i.e . a liking
for casual and unconstrained conversations about other people's private
life, typically involving details which are not confirm ed to be true. 7. The
gender m acrocom ponenl is expressed implicitly. T h e factor determining
the gender m acrocom ponenl as m a scu lin e is a traditional idea about
behaviour o f a man o f a certain character, i.e . wom en-lover. 8. The
gender macrocomponent is expressed implicitly. T h e factor determining
the gender m acrocom ponent as fe m in in e is a stereotyped perception
about a typically w om en's behaviour.

10.
To g o th rou g h f ir e a n d w ater, metaphor + antithesis (fire and water
are tw o opposite nature elements (сти хи и );
to f i t lik e a g lo v e : simile;
to b u ry th e ha tch er, metaphor + metonymy;
to Иск o n e 's wounds', metaphor:
a b ig wig:, m etonymy + metaphor.
to p u t sm b. o u r to pasture: metaphor,
to He on sm b 's shoulders: metaphor + synecdoche:
( as) g e n tle as a lam b: simile;
to ta lk B illingsga te: metonymy:
a d og in th e m anger, m etaphor + oxym oron, i.e. com bination o f
apparently contradictory notions — a d og and m a n g er ( ‘ a long open
box for horses and cows to eat from ').

II.
1) p h r a s e o lo g ic a l fu s io n s : t o s p ill th e b ea n s ( ‘ to g iv e away
in fo rm a tio n , d elib e ra tely o r u n in te n tio n a lly ’ ), a re d h e r r in g ( ‘ a
diversionary topic, incident, etc.'), to w ash o n e 's hands o f ( ‘ t o absolve
on eself from responsibility’ ), to b low o n e 's top ( ‘ to express o n e 's anger,
one’ s dislike o f. on e’ s alarm about, smb. smth. in a forceful, unrestrained
w ay'), to h a n g u p o n e 's boots ( ‘ t o retire*);
2 ) p h ra s e o lo g ic a l u nities: to b u ry th e p a st ( ‘ deliberately forget
about, cover o r break on e’ s connections with smth. o r everything that
has happened in the past*), a h o m e b ird ( ‘ someone w h o chooses to
spend most o f his lim e at hom e because he is happiest there ) , lik e a
la m b ( ‘ obediently; submissively; without protest o r c o m p la in ), to fig h t
f ir e w ith f ir e ( ‘ to attack someone with a lot o f force because they arc
attacking you with fo r c e ), to w ork o n e 's fin g e rs to the h on e ( ‘ to work
very hard fo r a lot o f tim e’ ):
3 ) phraseological collocations: a t f ir s t sig h t ('w h e n first seen or
c o n sid ered '), to ta lk business ('discuss, have a conversation about
business a ffa ir s ’ ) , t o le a d a b u s y lif e ( ‘ t o be co n tin u o u sly , or
characteristically, o r for a particular period, a busy person’ ), in fa s h io n
('p o p u la r and consid ered t o be smart at the tim e in question’ ), to
c o m m it m u rd e r ( ‘ to kill som ebody’ ).

12 .
1. Native phraseological units:
1) to h a n g u p o n e 's b o o t: (fro m professional sports lex ics) the
football player hangs up his boots after the match:
2) to b u ry th e ha tch er, (custom ) in the past to bury a hatchet was a
gesture to signify the end o f hostility between tw o tribes, groups, people:
4 ) a w hippin g boy. (tradition) form erly a boy educated with a young
prince o r another royal person and punished — whipped instead o f him
for his misbehaviour.
7) the law o f the ju n g le , (literature) from R. Kipling's ( British novelist
and short-story w riter) talc T he Ju n gle B ook (1894):
10 ) a b lu e s to c k in g : fo rm e rly the term d en oted a person w ho
attended the literary assemblies held in 1750 by three London society
ladies, where some o f the men favoured less formal dress;
13) p ig in th e m id d le: from a children's gam e where the pig' tries
to catch a ball tossed from one to another o f a pair o r ring o f people; i f
succeeds, the thrower becomes 'p ig ';
15) a b lu e coa r. in Britain students at charit* schools wear a blue
uniform;
16) to d ie w ith o n e 's boots o n : from a m ilitary term meaning 'to die
in battle’ ;
18) pen n y wise a n d p o u n d fo o lis h : penny is a British bronze coin
and m onetary unit equal to one hundredth o f a pound, pound is the
basic monetary unit o f the U K . equal to 100 pence;
19) the iro n c u rta in : the phraseological unit has been widely used
in the m eaning ‘ the Westernmost boundary o f the group o f Eastern
European states politically and econom ically dom inated by the Soviet
U n ion ’ . T h e phrase was popularized by Sir W inston Churchill in his
Fulton Speech in 1946: “ From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across Europe” ;
21) to ru n th e gaunt/er. from the custom in the army and public
schools o f making an o ffen d er run between tw o lines o f soldiers or
schoolboys w h o w ould beat him with straps, sticks, etc., in order to
demonstrate their disapproval o f his misconduct.
2. Borrowed phraseological units:
3 ) a s a cre d cow : from the H indu b e lie f that the co w is a sacred
animal that must not be killed for food:
5) an u gly d u ck lin g : from Hans Andersen's (D anish author) fairy
talc T h e U gly D u c k lin g in which an ugly duckling, after much ridicule,
grows into a beautiful swan;
6 ) o f th e sam e leauen/batch: (from the B ible) “ Your glorying is not
good . K n ow ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the w hole lump? Purge
out therefore the o ld leaven, that ye m ay be a new lum p, as ye are
unleavened. F o r even Christ ou r passover is sacrificed for us; therefore
let us keep the feast, not with o ld leaven, neither with the leaven o f
malice and wickedness; but w ith the unleavened bread o f sincerity and
truth” (T h e H oly Bible: K ing James Version. 2000):
8 ) an a p p le o f discord: from the G reek myth o f a golden apple which
was to be given to the most beautiful o f three goddesses;
9 ) to h id e o n e 's h ea d in th e sand: (a b e lief that cam e from Australia
o r A frica ) according to this b e lie f ostriches hide their heads in the sand
in order to escape the danger;
11) the h o t seat. (A m erican) the electric chair as a means o f executing
criminals:
12) a d ro p in th e b u ck e t/ o ce a n : (fr o m the B ible) “ B ehold, the
nations are as a drop o f a bucket, and are counted as the small dust o f
the balance” (Isaiah X L : 15);
14) b lu e b loo d : from Spanish sangre azul:
17) to fid d le w h ile R o m e b u m s: the Rom an emperor. N ero, played
a violin w hile his capital was being devastated b y fire;
20 ) th e R u ssia n s o u l: (fr o m Russian literatu re) described and
dramatized in the works o f Dostoyevsky and other Russian novelists o f
the 19lh century.

13.
L fat cats 2. dark horse 3. Achilles heel 4. sour grapes 5. red tape
6. around the clock 7. to put her cards on the table 8. to lord it over 9. to
see somebody in the flesh 10. to w ork like a dog

P A R T VII. V A R IA N TS A N D D IA L E C TS O F T H E ENGLISH
LA N G U A G E

1.
1. tu rn s — jou rney 2. arta n — a stone 3. o n o ir — dignity 4. sna im —
a knot 5. u in n e a g — window ' 6. u ilm — c o ffe e l.p a s g a n — packet
H .fios — knowledge 9. c a ig — conversation 10. to ll — hole 11. an am —
life
3.
1. a dea/g — thorn 2. the g a l — steam 3. cru a ta n — distress, hardship
4. a tru p — noise 5. a ta m a ll — w hile 6. the fa lla — wall 7. b a lca is —
rag 8. a scib — basket 9. a c a m — friend 10. the rogha — choice 11. the
to lg — sofa
a) historical Americanisms: fall, guess, sick:
b) proper Americanisms: eleva tor, telep h on e b o o th , faucets,
subway:
c ) specifically American borrowings: p iro g u e , h a m m o ck .
tomahawk.
6.
American English British English Australian English

1) candy sweets lollies


2) grade form year
3 ) subway/metro underground railway station
4) the movies the cinema the pictures
5) mailbox postbox letterbox
6 ) sneakers trainers runners
7) sidewalk pavement footpath

(1 ) Canadian English: draegerm an. bobskate, parkade. riding,


reeve:
(2 ) Australian English: schoolie. drongo. bodgie, am bo. fine:
(3 ) New Zealand English: waka. bobsy-die. aroha, haka. karanga;
(4 ) Sooth African English: backveld. voorskot, indaba. fundi, wors;
(5 ) Indian English: bahadur, yatra. achcha. izzat. chaprasi.
9.
a ) words/word-comhinations that have no equivalents in
American English (B ritic is m s ): parish c o u n c il, p riv y purse, the
woolsack, county council, gram m ar school, foreign secretary, school
inspector, pub, back bench:
b) words/word-combinations that have no equivalents in British
English (Am ericanism s): congressman, holiday season. Secret Service.
Iv y L ea gu e, ju n io r c o lle g e , ba rrio, electoral c o lle g e , green card.
G roundhog Day.
11.
(a ) words that are used in American English: tuxedo, zip code,
vacation, period, apartment building, gasoline, flashlight;
(b ) words that are used in British English: bill, pram, chemist,
tram , dust-bin, motorway, trolley', car park.
12.
American English British English American English British English

1. tuxedo dinner jacket 5. apanment block o f flats


2. zip code postcode building
3. vacation holiday 6. gasoline petrol
4. period full stop 7. flashlight torch
8. check bill
American English British English American English British English

9. baby carriage pram 12. trash can dust-bin


10. druggist chemist 13. freeway motorway
11. street car. tram 14. shopping cart trolley
trolley car 15. parking lot car park

13.

British American
Words and word-combinations
English English

1. первый этаж ground floor first floor


2. ж слоная дорога railway railroad
3. лифт lift elevator
4. персе да level crossing grade crossing
5. автомобиль motor-car automobile
6 . бой (сражение) fight (action) combat
7. газетный киоскер newsagent newsdealer
8. очередь queue line
9. продавец shop assistant salesclerk
10. государственная школа state school public school

14.
1) caravan: the Icxico-semaniic variant *a vehicle that people can
live and travel in on h o lid a y ' ( 1 ) is sp ec ific t o British English. Its
analogous opposition in Am erican English is trailer,
2 ) interval: the lexico-semantic variant “a short break between the
parts o f something such as a play o r concert’ ( 2 ) is specific to British
English. Its analogous opposition in Am erican English and in Standard
English is in term ission :
3 ) cupboard: the lexico-sem antic variant ‘a very small room with no
windows used fo r storing things’ ( 2 ) is specific to British English. Its
analogous opposition in Am erican English is closer,
4 ) tin: the lexico-sem antic variants 'a closed metal container for a
fo o d o r drink product that you open with a tin opener’ ( 2 ) and *a metal
container used fo r cooking food in an oven ’ (2 b ) are specific to British
English. Th eir analogous oppositions in Am erican English are ca n and
p a n correspondingly;
5 ) flat: the lexico-sem antic variant ‘ a set o f room s fo r living in.
usually on one flo o r o f a large building’ ( 1 ) is specific to British English.
Its analogous opposition in Am erican English is apartm ent.
6) coach: the lexico-sem antic variants ‘ a long com fortable vehicle
for carrying a large number o f passengers, especially on long journeys’
( I ) and ‘ o n e o f the sections o f a train’ ( l a ) are sp ecific to British
English. T h e ir analogous oppositions in Am erican English are bus and
c a r correspondingly. T h e lexico-sem antic variant *a less expensive type
o f seat on a plane o r train’ ( 3 ) is sp ecific t o A m erica n English. Its
analogous opposition in British English is econom y/tourist class:
7) guard: the lexico-semantic variant ‘ someone on a train whose jo b
is to check tickets, announce the stations, and look after the passengers'
(4) is specific to British English. Its analogous opposition in American
English is con d uctor.

15.
1. believe — Adam and Eve
2. cousin — baker’ s dozen
3. phone — d o g and bone
4. th ief — tea lea f
5. sick — Tom and Dick
6. sister — skin and blister
7. trousers — round the houses
8. talk — rabbit and pork
9. feet — plates o f meat
10. nose — I s