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Федеральное государственное образовательное бюджетное учреждение

высшего образования

«ФИНАНСОВЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ПРИ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВЕ


РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ»

ИНСТИТУТ ЗАОЧНОГО И ОТКРЫТОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

Департамент языковой подготовки

Л.С. Чикилева, Л.С. Есина, Е.Л. Авдеева

Учебное пособие
English for Students of Business Information Technologies
ДИСЦИПЛИНА

«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»

(Английский язык)

Направление подготовки - 38.03.05 «Бизнес-информатика»

Заочная форма обучения

Одобрено Советом Департамента языковой подготовки


Протокол № 10/10.12-12 от 31.05.17

Москва

2017
2

УДК 81(075) =111


ББК 81.2 Англ.

Ч60

Рецензенты

доцент, кандидат филологических наук Н.В. Банина

(Финансовый университет)

доцент, кандидат педагогических наук Т.А. Карпова

(Финансовый университет)

Чикилева Л.С., Есина Л.С., Авдеева Е.Л., Английский язык для студентов,
изучающих бизнес-информатику: учебное пособие для студентов бакалавриата
второго курса заочного отделения, обучающихся по направлению подготовки
38.03.05 «Бизнес-информатика». М: Финансовый университет, 2017. – 164 с.

© Чикилева Л.С., Есина Л.С., Авдеева Е.Л., 2017


©Финансовый университет, 2017
3

Federal State –Funded Educational


Institution of Higher Education

«FINANCIAL UNIVERSITY UNDER THE GOVERNMANT OF THE RUSSIAN


FEDERATION»

Foreign Languages Department

L. Chikileva, L. Esina, E. Avdeeva

English for Students of Business Information Technologies

Manual

For students of Business Information Technologies

Moscow 2017
4

Reviewers:
Associate professor N. Banina (Financial University)
Associate professor T. Karpova (Financial University)

L. Chikileva, L. Esina, E. Avdeeva

English for Students of Business Information Technologies: manual for students of


Business Information Technologies – M.: Financial University, 2017 – 164 p.

The manual is designed for undergraduate students of the second year of


correspondence department of Business Information Technologies in the direction of
training 38.03.05 "Business Information Technologies ". M: Financial University,
2017. - 164 p.

©Chikileva L., 2017


©Esina L., 2017
©Avdeeva E., 2017
©Financial University, 2017
5

Предисловие
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов бакалавриата
второго курса заочного отделения, обучающихся по направлению подготовки
38.03.05 «Бизнес-информатика». Пособие может быть использовано как на
практических занятиях по иностранному языку, так и для самостоятельной
работы студентов.
Цель пособия - формирование общекультурных, общепрофессиональных и
профессиональных компетенций в сфере делового английского языка, развитие
критического мышления, а также развитие у студентов коммуникативных
способностей в ситуациях профессионального общения на иностранном языке.
Пособие состоит из двух частей. Первая часть пособия включает 11
разделов (Units), каждый из которых начинается с дискуссии, связанной с темой
урока. В каждом разделе имеются профессионально-ориентированные тексты для
чтения и дискуссиии, предтекстовые и послетекстовые проверочные упражнения.
Для развития навыков аудирования и говорения в каждом разделе размещены
соответствующие упражнения и задания. Вторая часть содержит тесты для
контроля знаний профессиональной лексики, которые могут быть использованы
на занятиях как в аудиторное время, так и в процессе самостоятельной работы.
В пособии также имеется список использованной литературы (Refrences),
список интернет источников (Web Sources), и ключи к обоим разделам (Keys).
Разделы (юниты) пособия имеет следующую структуру: Warm-up activities,
Vocabulary, Listening, Reading, Comprehension, Speaking. Раздел урока Listening
включает задания на развитие и совершенствование навыков аудирования. Ядром
данного раздела является аутентичный звучащий текст. Прослушивание
происходит с предварительной коммуникативной установкой на полное детальное
понимание (listening for detailed comprehension). Уровень сформированности
данного умения проверяется с помощью заданий тестового типа, где учащиеся
должны выбрать правильный вариант ответа из четырех предложенных. После
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выполнения заданий проводится их автоматическая проверка, предоставляется


возможность узнать результаты теста и посмотреть правильные ответы.
В каждом разделе перед каждым текстом вводятся новые слова. После
текста даны упражнения на проверку понимания прочитанного и задания по
обсуждению вопросов, затронутых в тексте. В глоссарий включена лексика из
всех разделов пособия. Наличие глоссария и ключей значительно облегчает
самостоятельную работу студентов-заочников и студентов дистанционной формы
обучения.
7

Part 1
Reading, Listening and Speaking

СONTENT Pages
UNIT I. Economics and Information Systems …………………................... 9
UNIT II. Economic Systems …………………………………….................. 19
UNIT III. Corporate Information System ……………………....................... 31
UNIT IV. Making Information Security Strategic to Business …................... 43
UNIT V. System Integration ……………………………………................... 54
UNIT VI. Customer Relationship Management ………………….................. 64
UNIT VII. E-Business (Electronic Business) …………………….................. 77
UNIT VIII. IT Project Management …………………. .................................. 86
UNIT IX. Intellectual Property: Software Protection ……............................... 96
UNIT X. Laptops and Tablets Improve Business Communication................... 107
UNIT XI. Collaboration in Cyberspace Will Enhance the Global Economy..... 121
8

Part 2
Tests

СONTENT Pages
Test 1 ……………………………………………………………... 133
Test 2 ...………………………………………………………….... 135
Test 3 .…………………….............................................................. 137
Test 4 ………………………………………………………...….... 139
Test 5 …………………….……………………………………….. 141
Test 6 ……………………………………………………………... 143
Test 7 ……………………………………………………………... 145
Test 8 ……………………………………………………………... 148
Test 9 ………………………………………………………..…… 149
Test 10 ……………………………………………………..……... 150
Test 11 ……………………………………………………..……... 151
Part I. Keys ...................................................................................... 152
Part II. Keys .................................................................................... 160
References.......................................................................................... 164
9

Part 1
Reading, Listening and Speaking
Unit I
Economics and Information Systems

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What can information systems provide for organisations?

✔ storing documents, revision histories, communication records and

operational data

✔ offering information for more efficient work


✔ making better decisions by delivering all the information to employees

✔ gaining a cost advantage over competitors offering better customer service

✔other

VOCABULARY

technological advances – технические достижения


alter market frictions – менять рыночные функции
intangible - нематериальный
rely on – полагаться на
deploy – применять; приводить в действие
exert – вызывать; влиять; оказывать давление
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intranet – интранет (корпоративная сеть)


extranet – экстранет (распределенная информационная среда, объединяющая
все филиалы компании, ее партнеров и клиентов)

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1.processing A. something that you try to achieve


2. deploy B. putting information into a computer in order to organize it
3. intangible C. use something for a particular purpose, especially ideas,
arguments etc.
4. target D. not able to be touched or measured, and difficult to describe or explain
E. the way in which two or more people or things are connected with or
5. unprecedented involve each other
F. a new idea, method, piece of equipment etc
6. relationship G. never having happened or existed before
7. innovation H. to put information into code (a system of words, numbers, or symbols
8. artificial that hides its real meaning)
intelligence I. a chance to do something, or a situation in which it is easy for you to
9. opportunity do something
J. the use of computer technology to make computers and other
10. encrypt machines think and do things in the way that people can

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Four Young People Who Make the World Better
using http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/making-world-better-
tech/3247753.html and answer the following questions:
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1. Who was the youngest person in Poland to receive money from investors to
expand his/her company?
A. Ida Tin
B. Mateust Mach
C. George Mtemahanji
D. William Zhou

2. Why does Mach think that creation of things will be his passion to the
end of his life?
A. Because he loves creation
B. Because he is very clever
C. Because he hates doing nothing
D. Because he isn’t lazy

3. What did Ida Tin make for women from different countries?
A. She created birth control pills
B. She made an easy-to-use app called Clue
C. She made fashion clothes
D. She created a new operating system

4. What is Chalk that William Zhou created?


A. Chalk is a magazine
B. Chalk is a supermarket
C. Chalk is a group of programs that supports individual teaching and
learning
D. Chalk is a business

5. What country does George Mtemahanji want to open a factory to make


solar technology?
A. In Tanzania
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B. In Nigeria
C. In Mali
D. In Angola

READING

Economics and Information Systems

1. Economic theory deals with rational decisions within and outside of


markets and provides a methodology in many fields of business economics, from
finance to strategic organizations. Technological advances in processing and
communicating information facilitate enormous economic transformations.
Information technology has a great impact on markets, organization of firms, and
methods of innovation. It is altering market frictions, firms’ competition, firms'
knowledge of their customers, and improvements in the mechanisms by which
prices are adjusted and information is collected.

2. An information system is an integrated set of components for collecting,


storing, processing data and for delivering information, knowledge, and digital
products. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry
out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and
compete in the marketplace. For instance, corporations use information systems to
reach their potential customers with targeted messages over the Web, to process
financial accounts, and to manage their human resources. Governments deploy
information systems to provide services cost-effectively to citizens. Digital goods,
such as electronic books and software, and online services, such as auctions and social
networking, are delivered with information systems. Individuals rely on information
systems, generally Internet-based, for socializing, study, shopping, banking, and
entertainment.

3. The global penetration of the Internet and the Web has enabled access to
information and other resources and facilitated the forming of relationships among
13

people and organizations on an unprecedented scale. The progress of electronic


commerce over the Internet has resulted in a dramatic growth in digital interpersonal
communications (via e-mail and social networks), distribution of products (software,
music, e-books, and movies), and business transactions (buying, selling, and
advertising on the Web). With the emergence of smartphones, tablets, and other
computer-based mobile devices, information systems have been extended to support
mobility as the natural human condition.
4. Information systems have a great influence over society. These systems have
quickened the pace of daily activities, affected the structure of organizations, changed
the type of products bought, and influenced the nature of work. Information and
knowledge have become vital economic resources. Intensive industry innovation and
academic research continually develop new opportunities. Today even the smallest
firms, as well as many households throughout the world, own or lease computers.
These are usually microcomputers, also called personal computers. Individuals may
own multiple computers in the form of smartphones and other portable devices. Large
organizations typically employ distributed computer systems, from powerful parallel-
processing servers located in data centers to personal computers and mobile devices,
integrated into the organizational information systems.
5. The Internet is a network of networks, connecting billions of computers
located on every continent. Through networking, users gain access to information
resources, such as large databases, and to other individuals, such as coworkers,
clients, or people who share their professional or private interests. Internet-type
services can be provided within an organization and for its exclusive use by various
intranets that are accessible through a browser. For example, an intranet may be
deployed as an access portal to a shared corporate document base. To connect with
business partners over the Internet in a private and secure manner, extranets are
established as so-called virtual private networks (VPNs) by encrypting the messages.
6. The recent emergence of computerized networks created exciting new
opportunities for the design and commercial exploitation of novel digital
technologies and business processes. Reflecting this new reality, many
14

researches are devoted to information sciences, and in particular to the


foundations of decision theory and game theory, information theory, and agent-
based artificial intelligence, the design of electronic markets, the estimation of
consumer preferences, quantum information, social choice, and mathematical
finance. Many of the results carry implications for various business fields,
including market design, strategy, business intelligence, negotiation, finance,
economic networks, regulation, and corporate governance.

4. Answer these questions:

1. What does economic theory provide ?


2. What facilitate enormous economic transformations?
3. Why do business firms and other organizations rely on information systems?
4. How do corporations use information systems?
5. What has the progress of electronic commerce over the Internet resulted in?
6. How did information systems influence the nature of work?
7. What has recent emergence of computerized networks created?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….
15

A. Electronic business transactions

B. Business firms and other organizations widely use information systems

C. Information technology has brought a lot of innovations to economy

D. New opportunities for business processes

E. Intranets & extranets

F. Integration of computers into the organizational systems

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. Extranets are established as so-called virtual private networks.


2. Information technology is not altering market frictions, firm competition and firms'
knowledge of their customers.
3. Large organizations typically employ personal computers.
4. Economic models carry a lot of information for various business fields.
5. Today even the smallest firms, as well as many households throughout the world, own
or lease computers.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. Electronic books

b. Information technology

c. software
d. Web
e. innovation
f. financial account
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g. firms’ competition
h. digital goods
i. prices
j. decisions

1. Intangible goods that exist in digital form are …………….. . Examples


include webinars, video tutorials, digital media, such as e-books, downloadable
music, internet radio, internet television etc.
2. .……………………….. is the application of computers and
telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data,
often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
3. ……………………… are publications in digital form, consisting of text,
images, or both, readable on computers or other electronic devices.
4. Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began
with the introduction of the Mosaic ……….......... browser in 1993.
5. In modern economies, ……………….. are generally expressed in units of
some form of currency.
6. Our everyday lives are full of various microeconomic ……………………… .
7. Technological advances are altering ………………………………………… .
8. The term …………………….. can be defined as something original, more
effective and new.
9. The …………………………………….. records an economy’s transaction in
external financial assets and liabilities.
10. Computer ……………………. is any set of machine-readable instructions
that directs a computer's processor to perform specific operations.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. Соmputers and microchips have a. in nanometres.


17

become

2. Why is a computer called b. tiny microprocessors with


nanotransistors.

3. Computers speed up c. very popular?

4. Nano devices are measured d. over a home area network.

5. All home devices will be e. a personal communicator?

connected

6. Apart from computers, what other f. use microchips?

devices

7. Chip makers will make g. computer systems to operate?

8. Which two components allow h. financial calculations.

9. Why are video games i. produce photo-realistic images.

10. Gesture recognition systems j. part of our everyday lives.

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


✔ Suppose you are applying for a job in a software company.
What questions will be asked during a job interview?
✔ What qualifications and skills do you need for different positions within
a software company?
✔ Imagine you have a start-up capital. Would you open your own business?
What kind of business would you like to have?
18

Use the following phrases:


I presume …
As far as I know …
The way I see things is that …
Nevertheless …
By and large …
19

Unit II
Economic Systems

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Can you actually imagine a rather new economic system?


✔ Will there be an economy as we understand it?
✔ Will there be any money?
✔ Who will run societies?
✔ How many hours a day will people work?

✔ other

VOCABULARY

hierarchically – иерархически
decision-making structures – директивные структуры
industrial councils – промышленные советы
sub-economies – суб-экономики
nomadic peoples – кочевые народы
state-conceived economic demand – прогнозируемый государством спрос в
в экономике
oppress – угнетать; подчинять; притеснять
lavishly – щедро; расточительно; чрезмерно; пышно

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):


20

1. decision-making A. a government policy of becoming involved in the economy,


or of trying to influence economic and other social issues in
2. determine another country
B. someone who uses money to start businesses and make
3. entrepreneur business deals
C. to control what something will be
4. council D. the process of deciding what to do about something,
especially in an organization
5. hierarchy E. the elected officials who govern a local area such as a city or
county, etc
6. centralization F. a system for organizing people according to their status in a
society, organization, or other group
7. attempt G. the process by which the activities of an organization,
particularly those regarding planning and decision-making,
8. scarcity become concentrated within a particular location or group,
keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the
9. accumulation head office or the centre of the organisation
H. an effort to do something
10. interventionism I. a situation in which the supply of something is not enough
for the people who want it or need it
J. the process by which something increases in amount or is
collected together over time

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Social Entrepreneurship on the Rise


using http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/social-entrepreneurship-
on-the-rise/3203818.html and answer the following questions:
21

1. What are social entrepreneurs?


A. Social entrepreneurs are people who create software companies.
B. Social entrepreneurs are people who create start-up companies that would help
the environment, health care or agriculture.
C. Social entrepreneurs are people who create fast food companies.
D. Social entrepreneurs are people who create charity companies.

2. What do social entrepreneurs use to tackle important economic and social


problems?
A. Social entrepreneurs use innovation.
B. Social entrepreneurs use their savings.
C. Social entrepreneurs use capital.
D. Social entrepreneurs use help of various agencies.

3. Can they be for-profit or non-profit entities?


A. They can be for-profit entities.
B. They can be non-profit entities.
C. They can be for-profit or non-profit entities.
D. They can’t be for-profit or non-profit entities.

4. Where is the funding coming from?


A. Funding is coming only from foundations.
B. Funding is coming from foundations, institutional investors and individuals.
C. Funding is coming from individuals.
D. Funding is coming from institutional investors.

5. What does the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship in Geneva


search each year?
A. Each year the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship searches for more
capital.
22

B. Each year the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship searches for
outstanding social innovators, with business models that are proven to drive
social and environmental change.
C. Each year the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship searches
for financial returns.
D. Each year the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship searches for
reinvesting the profits.

READING

Economic Systems

1. An economic system is a system of production and exchange of goods and

services as well as allocation of resources in a society. It includes the combination of the


various institutions, agencies, entities and consumers that comprise the economic
structure of a given community. An economic system can be considered as a part of the
social system and hierarchically equal to the law system, political system, cultural, etc.
There are multiple components in economic systems. Decision-making structures of an
economy determine the use of economic inputs (the factors of production), distribution
of output, the level of centralization in decision-making, and who makes these
decisions. Decisions might be carried out by industrial councils, by a government
agency, or by private owners. In one view, every economic system represents an attempt
to solve three fundamental and interdependent problems:
 What goods and services shall be produced, and in what quantities?
 How shall goods and services be produced? That is, by whom and with what
resources and technologies?
 Who will goods and services be produced for? That is, who is to enjoy the
benefits of the goods and services and how is the total product to be distributed among
individuals and groups in the society?
23

2. Thus every economy is a system that allocates resources for exchange,


production, distribution and consumption. There are several basic questions that must
be answered in order for an economy to run satisfactorily. The scarcity problem, for
example, requires answers to basic questions, such as: what to produce, how to produce
it, and who gets what is produced. An economic system is a way of answering these
basic questions, and different economic systems answer them differently. Many
different objectives may be seen as desirable for an economy, like efficiency, growth,
liberty, and equality. There are four primary types of economic systems in the world:
traditional, planned, market and mixed. Each economy has its strengths and weaknesses,
its sub-economies and tendencies.
3. A traditional economic system is the most ancient type of economy in the
world. Traditional economies still produce products and services that are a direct result
of their beliefs, customs, traditions, religions, etc. Vast portions of the world still
function under a traditional economic system. These areas tend to be rural, second- or
third-world, and closely tied to the land, usually through farming. However, there is an
increasingly small population of nomadic peoples, and while their economies are
certainly traditional, they often interact with other economies in order to sell, trade,
barter, etc. Traditional economies would never, ever, in a million years see the type of
profit or surplus that results from a market or mixed economy. In general, surplus is a
rare thing. A third-world country does not have the necessary resources (or if they do,
they are controlled by wealthier economies, often by force), and in many cases any
surplus is either distributed, wasted, or paid to some authority that has been given
power. Certainly one of the most obvious advantages is that tradition and custom is
preserved while it is virtually non-existant in market or mixed economies. There is also
the fact that each member of a traditional economy has a more specific and pronounced
role, and these societies are often very close-knit and socially satisfied. The main
disadvantage is that traditional economies do not enjoy the things other economies take
for granted: western medicine, centralized utilities, technology, etc. But as anyone in
America can attest, these things do not guarantee happiness, peace, social or, most
ironically of all, economic stability.
24

4. In terms of economic advancement, the planned economic system is the next


step up from a traditional economy. This by no means indicates that it is fairer or an
exact improvement. There are many things fundamentally wrong with a planned
economy. The most notable feature of a planned economy is that a large part of the
economic system is controlled by a centralized power, often, a federal government. This
kind of economy tends to develop when a country finds itself in possession of a very
large amount of valuable resources. The government then steps in and regulates the
resources. Often the government will own everything involved in the industrial process,
from the equipment to the facilities. But there are actually several potential advantages,
as long as the government uses intelligent regulations. First of all, a planned economy is
capable of creating a healthy supply of its own resources and it generally rewards its
own people with affordable prices. But as it is ultimately regulated by the government,
it is ultimately priced by the government. Still, there is often no shortage of jobs as the
government functions similarly to a market economy in that it wants to grow and grow
upon its populace. In socialist economic system, production is carried out to fulfill
planned-economy objectives. Decisions regarding the use of the means of production
are adjusted to satisfy state-conceived economic demand, investment is carried out
through state-guided mechanisms. The means of production are either publicly owned,
or are owned by the workers cooperatively. A socialist economic system that is based
on the process of capital accumulation, but seeks to control or direct that process
through state ownership or cooperative control to ensure stability, equality or expand
decision-making power, is a market socialist system. Socialist economic systems (all of
which feature social ownership of the means of production) can be subdivided by their
coordinating mechanism (planning and markets) into planned socialist and market
socialist systems. Additionally, socialism can be divided between those that are based
on public ownership, worker or consumer cooperatives and common ownership.
5. In a market economic system production is carried out for private profit.
Decisions regarding investment and the use of the means of production are determined
by individuals, corporations and business owners in the marketplace. The means of
production are owned primarily by private enterprises and decisions regarding
25

production and investment determined by private owners in capital markets. The


market economy is very similar to a free market. The government does not control vital
resources, valuable goods or any other major segment of the economy. In this way,
organizations run by the people determine how the economy runs, how supply is
generated, what demands are necessary, etc. No truly free market economy exists in the
world. For example, while America is a capitalist nation, our government still regulates
fair trade, government programs, moral business, monopolies, etc. The advantage of
capitalism is that you can have an explosive economy that is very well controlled and
relatively safe. This would be contrasted to socialism, in which the government controls
and owns the most profitable and vital industries but allows the rest of the market to
operate freely. Price is allowed to fluctuate freely based on supply and demand. The
biggest advantage to a market economy is the separation of the market and the
government. This prevents the government from becoming too powerful, too controlling
and too similar to the governments of the world that oppress their people while living
lavishly on controlled resources.
6. There is no precise definition of a ‘mixed economy’. Theoretically, it may refer
to an economic system that combines one of three characteristics: public and private
ownership of industry, market-based allocation with economic planning, or free-markets
with state interventionism. In practice, ‘mixed economy’ generally refers to market
economies with substantial state interventionism and a dominant private sector.
A mixed economic system is a combination of economic systems, but it primarily
refers to a mixture of a market and planned economy. As you can imagine, many
variations exist, with some mixed economies being primarily free markets and others
being strongly controlled by the government. In the most common types of mixed
economies, the market is more or less free of government ownership except for a few
key areas. These areas are usually not the resources that a command economy controls.
Instead, as in America, they are the government programs such as education,
transportation, etc. While all of these industries also exist in the private sector in
America, this is not always the case for a mixed economy. While a mixed economy can
26

lead to incredible results, it can also suffer from similar downfalls found in other
economies.
7. There is often a strong correlation between certain ideologies, political systems
and certain economic systems. Many economic systems overlap each other in various
areas. The study of economic systems includes how these various agencies and
institutions are linked to one another, how information flows between them, and the
social relations within the system (including property rights and the structure of
management). Today the dominant form of economic organization at the global level is
based on market-oriented mixed economies.

4. Answer these questions:

1. What is an economic system?


2. What do decision-making structures of an economy determine?
3. What problems does economic system attempt to solve ?
4. How can an economy be run satisfactorily?
5. Why do third-world countries not have necessary resources?
6. Why is a planned economy capable of creating a healthy supply of its own
resources?
7. What purpose is production carried out in a market economic system?
8. Why can a mixed economy lead to incredible results?
9. Why do many economic systems overlap each other in various areas?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….
27

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 7 …………………………………………………………………….

A. A combination of economic system.

B. A free market.

C. Primary types of economic systems

D. Economies that don’t enjoy the things other economies take for granted

E. Economic system as a part of the social system

F. The most notable feature of a planned economy

G. The dominant form of economic organization at the global level

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. An economic system can be considered as a part of the social system.


2. There are no any multiple components in economic systems.
3. Traditional economies produce a lot of products and services.
4. Soon a market socialist economic system will be in every country.
5. The market economy is very similar to a free market.
28

6. A mixed economic system doesn’t refer to a mixture of a market and planned


economy.
7. Globalization will lead to a single economic system.

EXERCISES

7. Put the words in (1-7) in the correct order to make up sentences.

1. worry, about, much, viruses, Don’t, too.


…………………………………………………………………..
2. are, two, of antivirus, There, programs, actually, kinds.
…………………………………………………………………..
3. more, equipment, getting, Computing, sophisticated, is.
……………………………………………………………………..
4. use, People, tablets, for, mainly, published, viewing, content, such, video, and,
news, as.
…………………………………………………………………….
5. economic, advances, in, and, Technological, information, facilitate,
processing, enormous, transformations, communicating.
………………………………………………………………………

6. is, ‘cloud’, commonly, in, to, a, large, agglomeration, of objects, The

expression, used, science, describe.

…………………………………………………………………………….

7. is, a, currently, operating, developed, system, by, Android, mobile, Google.

……………………………………………………………………………..
29

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up questions.

1. Do mainframe computers a. focus on?

2. Why is Android b. for?

3. Is сloud computing a kind of c. designed for office use reach market?

internet-based computing,

4. What does a Management d. being used in computers?

Information System

5. Is a virtual keyboard a software e. designed primarily for touchscreen

component mobile devices?

6. Why do business firms and other f. that allows a user to enter characters?
organizations

7. When did the first laser printer g. rely on information systems?


8. Why are nano tools and processes h. where shared resources and
information are provided to computers
and other devices on-demand?

9. What are chief technology i. produce high-quality text and

officers responsible graphics?

10. How does laser printing j. usually process several application


programs concurrently?

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


30

✔ We can’t always buy just what we want. How do you deal with limited
income, time, etc.?
✔ How do you try not to waste your time?
✔ Have you ever tried to find another job in order to get more money or
a more important position?

Use the following phrases:

It goes without saying …


Strange it may seem …
By the way …
Moreover …
Frankly speaking …
31

Unit III
Corporate Information System (CIS)

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What are the main features of the corporate information system?

✔ compliance with the company's needs


✔ conformity with the company's business
✔consistency of financial structure of the company

✔openness and scalability

✔other

VOCABULARY

backbone – основа

procurement – поставка; закупка

transparency and traceability – прозрачность и прослеживаемость

receipt of requisitions – получение заявок

customer invoicing – выставление счетов клиентов

cost accounting – учет затрат; ведение отчетности

shrinking budget – сокращение бюджета

liaison – взаимодействие; связь


32

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. infrastructure architecture A. work that is done to keep something such as a


building, machine, or piece of equipment repaired and
2. maintenance in good condition
B. the senior manager responsible for overseeing the
3. warehousing financial activities of an entire company
C. the process of storing large amounts of goods in a
4. environment warehouse
D. the conditions and influences in which people carry
5. cater on a particular activity
E. to provide food and drinks at an event
6. disseminate F. to make something such as information or
knowledge available to a lot of people
7. Chief Financial Officer G. a job title commonly given to the most senior
executive in an enterprise responsible for the
8. Chief Information Officer information technology and computer systems that
support enterprise goals
9. procurement H. the process of obtaining something, especially with
effort or difficulty
10. integration I. the process of becoming a full member of a group or
society, and becoming involved completely in its
activities
J. introduction to a new branch of architecture that is
urgently needed to support modern organizations, and
needed to help architecture to mature as a whole
33

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text US Tech Industry Blamed for High Cost of Housing

using http: sur.ly/o/m.learningenglish.voanews.com/AA000014 and answer


the following questions:

1. Why are housing costs rising in northern California?


A. Because of a small supply of rental apartments.
B. Because of growing demand for rental apartments by technology workers.
C. Because of a small supply of rental apartments and growing demand for them
by technology workers.
D. Because of inflation.

2. Why are the workers in many high-tech companies in San Francisco Bay Area
willing to pay more for housing?
A. Because there is a very good climate in the area.
B. Because the workers don’t want to move to another area.
C. Because the workers don’t want to lose their jobs.
D. Because the area is home to many high-tech companies.

3. Where are some investors buying up buildings and then turning them into
high-priced apartments ?
A. In New York.
B. In San Jose.
C. In San Francisco.
D. Across the bay in Oakland.

4. What puts a high demand for hotels, apartments, single-family homes and office
space in San Francisco?
A. San Francisco’s fame as a popular stop for both U.S. and overseas travelers.
34

B. San Francisco’s popularity as a good city.


C. Technology industries in San Francisco.
D. Friendly atmosphere in San Francisco.

5. What are the top of most expensive U.S. cities for renters after San Francisco
and New York?
A. Houston and Austin.
B. Mesa and Buffalo.
C. Boston and Washington, D.C.
D. Kent and Richmond.

READING

Corporate Information System (CIS)

1. NSPA’s (NSPA - NATO Support and Procurement Agency) corporate


information system is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system based on SAP
ECC 6.0. SAP ECC 6.0 is the most recent version of SAP’s (SAP - System Applications
and Products) enterprise resource planning software, which in general terms provides
end-to-end software support for a business. The ERP system is the backbone of the IS
application architecture and integrates the financial, logistics, procurement and human
resources (HR) components on a uniform platform. NSPA’s computing and
infrastructure architecture is composed of local and wide area networks,
communications, security and office automation components. The costs of the IS
developments and services are distributed between their users via Service Level
Agreements (SLAs) providing transparency and traceability. Twenty-two core business
processes cover NSPA’s complete range of supply, maintenance, warehousing and
transportation activities as well as those of procurement, finance and HR management.
35

The processes are fully integrated and support NSPA’s activities from the beginning
(receipt of requisitions) to the end (customer invoicing).
2.NSPA’s business and operations depend heavily on its IS capabilities,
performance and availability. The NSPA Information Systems Master Plan (NISMP)
establishes and constantly updates the Agency’s IS strategies, policies and architecture
as well as long term IS developments and investments. Continuous improvements allow
NSPA’s information systems and support structure to adapt to constantly evolving
environmental and business requirements.
3.The Agency’s information system covers a large range of applications
extending more and more to its business partners and uses the Internet infrastructure in
addition to dedicated and secure communications links. These applications cater in
particular for the NSPA Business Application Portal (ePortal), the NATO Logistics
Stock Exchange (NLSE) incorporating Electronic Bidding (eBid). NSPA is in the
process of optimising and extending its IS resources and capabilities through the
implementation of an Enterprise Architecture. The development of an Enterprise
Application Integration platform includes eBusiness integration and implementation of
a Business Intelligence environment. IT departments are continually pressured to do
more with less - more service with less money and fewer people. This is achieved
through increased productivity, it’s about results. In the traditional workforce, the
worker serves the system. In a knowledge workforce where the individual worker’s
productivity makes the system productive, the system must serve the worker.
4.At CIS employees work with their clients to develop results based resource
solutions that maximize the value in what they do.
They service a range of organisations including hospitals, government departments,
manufacturing & retail companies which need high-performing IT departments on a
shrinking budget. Today’s reality is that their IT Services are more critical than ever
before for the functioning of their business.
CIS’s Insourcing / Outsourcing Solutions provide them with access to the resources
they need, when they need them, and help lower costs and increase productivity.
5. The mission of the Office of Corporate Information Systems (CF-40) is to plan
36

and manage the design, development, operation and maintenance of the Department's
Integrated Management Navigation (iManage) program and projects; identify and
implement business process automation initiatives; provide technical support for legacy
systems operations and maintenance; provide technical support for web design,
development and maintenance; manage cyber security and enterprise architecture
activities; and serve as the liaison to Chief Information Officer for Information
Technology services.
The functions of the Office of Corporate Information Systems are:
✔ plan and manage the design, integration, and implementation of the
Department's corporate business systems through the iManage program, ensuring the
approved solution addresses the integration of financial management, cost accounting,
budget, procurement, human resources and performance measurements;
✔ operate and maintain corporate financial systems utilizing efficient, cost-
effective, and appropriate technology to allow for delivery and dissemination of relevant
information;
✔ maintain compatibility among the corporate business systems to facilitate
electronic exchange of data with internal and external stakeholders and maintain
interfaces with Headquarters Programs, Field Offices and Management and Operating
Contractors;
✔ provide qualified Information Technology project management support;
✔ manage the Office of Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Cyber Security Program;
✔ plan and manage iManage projects and CFO information technology services
and systems;
✔ develop and maintain systems documentation and training materials;
✔ define website standards for the CFO organizations and manage the CFO web
technical infrastructure to ensure compliance with laws, regulations, and recommended
practices;
37

✔ serve as the CFO liaison with the Chief Information Officer (CIO) for all
CFO Information Technology services and represent the CFO on the DOE IT Executive
Council;
✔ direct the CFO Enterprise Architecture program;
✔ serve as co-chair of the Department's Corporate Business Systems
Configuration Control Boar;
✔ oversee the completion of all internal and external CFO Information
Technology reporting;
✔ participate on various internal and external Information Technology.

4. Answer these questions:


1. What is SAP ECC 6.0?
2. What does the ERP system integrate?
3. What is NSPA’s computing and infrastructure architecture composed of?
4. What allows NSPA’s information systems and support structure to adapt to
constantly evolving environmental and business requirements?
5. How is NSPA optimising and extending its IS resources?
6. What is the mission of the Office of Corporate Information Systems?
7. What are the functions of the Office of Corporate Information Systems?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….
38

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Adaptation to evolving environmental and business requirements


B. The development of an Enterprise Application Integration platform
C. NATO Support and Procurement Agency
D. High-performing IT departments
E. Functions
F. The mission of the Office of Corporate Information Systems

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. The ERP system is the backbone of the IS application architecture.


2. Twenty-five core business processes cover NSPA’s complete range of supply,
maintenance, warehousing and transportation activities.
3. Continuous improvements allow NSPA’s information systems and support structure
to adapt to constantly evolving environmental and business requirements.
4. Cloud resources are usually shared by multiple users
5. Outsourcing Solutions provide employees with access to the resources they need.
6. Today’s reality is that their IT Services are less critical than ever before for the
functioning of their business.
7. One of the functions of the OCIS is to direct the CFO Enterprise Architecture
program.
39

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. management
b. interactions
c. modules
d. applications
e. concern
f. programmed
g. accounting function
h. an acronym
i. purchase
j. enterprise

1. SAP is an ……………. for Systems, Applications and Products.


2. SAP is a German software company whose products allow businesses to track
customer and business ……………….. .
3. SAP is especially well-known for its Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
……………… programs.
4. SAP dominates the large business ................... markets.
5. A company can simply ………… modules and customize the processes to match
the company’s business model.
6. There are three main …………… resource planning (ERP) systems used in
today’s larger businesses: SAP, Oracle, and PeopleSoft.
7. ERP's are specifically designed to help with the …………… and control over
other aspects of the company’s business such as sales, delivery, production, human
resources, and inventory management.
8. Security is the first and foremost …………… in any SAP audit.
40

9. One of the major advantages of SAP is that it can be ………….. to perform


various audit functions for you.
10. Because each company will have different …………. each company’s security
structure will be distinctly different.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) a. to corporate apps and resources from

is almost any network.

2. SLAs do not define b. trend for technology to replace the


functions performed by humans.
3. The use of SLAs is also common in c. the reduced costs justify the capital
outsourcing, cloud computing, and other investment.
areas

4. The Company Portal provides access d. apps made available to you by your
company.

5. Company apps – browse, search and e. how the service itself is provided or

install delivered.

6. Examples of robotic automation f. in automating clerical processes in


include the use of software robots services industries.

7. Robotic automation corresponds to g. to either improve quality, cut costs of

an emerging production or to achieve both of these


things.

8. The motive for deploying robots is h. where the responsibility of an


organization is transferred out to another
supplier.

9. Where robots replace human labor in i. across many industries.


41

high volume repetitive tasks at a lower


price point,

10. The advent of the Internet has j. a contract between a service provider

enabled a new trend towards self- and the end user that defines the level

service of service expected from the service


provider.

SPEAKING
9. In pairs, discuss and choose the best poster ( I, II or III ) for a campaign
against rising company’s costs.
I.

II.

III.
42

Use the following phrases:


It seems very obvious …
Employers say they can hire more people …
Spending is increasing several times faster than …
The way I see things is that …
By and large …
43

Unit IV

Making Information Security Strategic to Business

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Why does information security play a critical role in the drive toward innovations?

✔ because we are an information-centric economy

✔ because there is a secure and fluid exchange of information in many critical

innovations

✔ because of digital warfare where information is put at risk everyday

✔ because of safeguarding trademarks, copyrights, and patents

✔other

VOCABULARY

undergo – подвергаться; испытывать; переносить

hindrance - помеха; препятствие

align – нацеливать; выравнивать; ставить в ряд

fluid exchange – быстрый обмен

warfare – военное дело

prerequisite – предпосылка; обязательное условие

strive – прилагать усилия; бороться; стараться

per se – по сути; как таковой; само по себе


44

leak – утечка информации

vulnerabilities – уязвимости

malicious code – вредоносный код

grasp – понять; осознать

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. critical A. a failure to do something that you have promised


to do or that people expect you to do
2. advancement B. very important
C. combination of internal and external factors that
3. intellectual property influence a company's operating situation
D. tell private or secret information to journalists or to
4. information security the public
E. progress in society, science, human knowledge etc
5. leak F. something that someone has created or invented and
that no one else is legally allowed to make, copy, or
6. breach sell
G. defending information from unauthorized access,
7. business environment use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal,
inspection, recording or destruction
8. digital warfare H. involving people or groups working together to
produce something
9. collaborative I. risks, threats and dangers
J. militarization of Cyber Operations by governments
10. vulnerabilities and corporations, often through monetary relationships
between computer programmers in private companies
and the military to combat the threat of cyber
45

terrorism and warfare

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Russian Sentenced in US for Cybercrime


using http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/us-court-sentences-
russian-for-cybercrime/3316916.html and answer the following questions:

1. What did a Russian man create ten years ago?


A. A malicious code
B. A malicious software program.
C. A new IT security system
D. A new lab

2. How was the program called?


A. Mosi
B. Gozi
C. Frozei
D. Cosy

3. How did the program come to a user’s computer?


A. Through e-mail
B. Through a file
C. Through a cloud
D. Through a cyberspace

4. What can the software do?


A. The software can collect all information.
B. The software can collect information, such as a bank username and password,
46

and send the data back to hackers.


C. The software can gain access to someone’s credit card numbers.
D. The software can gain access to someone’s bank account.

5. How many computers did the program infect?


A. The program infected more than 3 million computers.
B. The program didn’t infect any computers.
C. The program infected more than 2 million computers.
D. The program infected more than 1 million computers.

READING

Making Information Security Strategic to Business

1. Information security is undergoing a critical transformation. Traditionally


viewed as a necessary evil or worse, a hindrance to business advancement, now more
than ever, it is critical that security strategy aligns to business priorities and enables
innovation. And while the recent economic downturn will certainly drive security teams
to focus on finding operational efficiencies, it is important to note that efficiencies alone
will not be sufficient to get us out of the economic crisis the world is facing. Political
and business experts agree that business innovation is the key to the return of global
economic stability and growth. And information security has a critical role to play in the
drive toward innovation. Why? Because at the heart of many critical innovations is the
secure and fluid exchange of information. We are an information-centric economy,
heavily dependent on the information we create and share. We find ourselves in an age
of digital warfare where that information is put at risk every day. The goal of the
security organisation must be to enable the business to safely manage risk to gain
maximum business advantage.
47

2. What does this mean for today's businesses? It is important to note that how
organisations innovate has changed over time from internal groups working side-by-side
creating new products in a lab to geographically dispersed teams collaborating across
organisational and physical boundaries. Innovation now requires open collaboration,
direct interaction with customers, tighter integration with partners, and the incorporation
of external talent and resources. It demands sharing intellectual property, infrastructure
and ideas, while at the same time safeguarding trademarks, copyrights, and patents.
Forward-thinking security leaders have made tremendous progress in driving tighter
linkages between business innovation goals and security actions. A critical element has
been taking a more structured and strategic approach to organisational risk assessment.
Without the right security strategy, business innovation could be stifled or put the
organisation at great risk. But because the business and security teams operate in
separate silos, security is often applied as an afterthought. This lack of security planning
creates unnecessarily high costs and project delays. Generally, it costs far less to "build
security in" than it does to "bolt it on" at the end. It is imperative that security teams
understand key business priorities and ensure that they are brought into the planning
process early. To do this they will need to speak the language of business, not security.
3. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the need to take a risk-based
approach to security. Different organisations are at different stages along this
progression, based not only on how they view information security and its importance
to the business but also on the maturity of their enterprise risk management program.
There are some preconditions that are essential to the success of any security team's
efforts. First, the organisation must already be using the construct of "risk" in how they
make investment and operational decisions. Some organisations may not have the
culture for a risk-based approach as their strategy is still too tactical or "targeted
opportunity" focused. The other key prerequisite is that there has to be sustained
attention from the top. If there is no attention for enterprise risk management or at least
some notion of assessing risk at the board or senior leadership level, then trying to be
effective in information risk management is likely beyond the organisation's current
capability.
48

4. A key component of building a security program that enables innovation is


moving from "information security" to "information risk management (IRM)." IRM
must incorporate the idea that information security is striving for an acceptable level of
risk. The goal is to match risk exposure to risk appetite, not wipe out all risk. Having
specific expertise in information security per se is still a crucial part of the program as it
is essential for determining the optimum security control. Managing information risks
must be conducted in a way that is meaningful to the business and is based on how other
categories of risk are discussed and calculated.
5. So IRM must be integrated into the enterprise risk management framework. As
an example, let's look at risk management and innovation in the context of data loss
prevention. Many organisations are increasingly using Web-based collaborative tools to
facilitate information and knowledge sharing among various user groups in order to
improve productivity and eliminate the duplication of efforts. If there is a weakness in
your IT security system, wouldn't you prefer to find it before someone else does?
Imagine waking up to discover that your IT systems have been hacked. Your company's
financial results have been leaked to the media; your confidential business plans have
been compromised; your employees' personal files have been posted on the Internet.
The market loses confidence in your organisation, your share price takes a dive, and
your directors are found to be personally responsible for inadequate risk management
practices. Sound scary? It is. But even a small scale security breach could leave your
business without access to its critical IT systems for hours or days.
6. Every organisation uses information. Information is an asset that, like other
important business assets, is essential to your business and consequently needs to be
suitably protected. This is especially important in the increasingly interconnected
business environment, where information is now exposed to a growing number and a
wider variety of threats and vulnerabilities. Causes of damage such as malicious code,
computer hacking and denial of service attacks have become more common, more
ambitious, and increasingly sophisticated. Information security is not an 'IT problem', it
is a business issue. Obviously compliance with legal and regulatory requirements is
important. It provides a very good reason for reviewing your information security
49

practices, but it should not in itself be the sole or even the main driver. If a business
wishes to survive, let alone prosper, it must grasp the importance of information
security and put in place appropriate measures and processes.

4. Answer these questions:


1. Why is it critical that security strategy aligns to business priorities?
2. Why does information security have a key role to play in the drive toward
innovation?
3. What is the goal of the security organisation?
4. What does innovation require now?
5. What does the lack of security planning create?
6. What are key prerequisites that are essential to the success of any security team's
efforts?
7. How must managing information risks be conducted?
8. Why is information security important?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 ……………………………………………………………………..
50

A. Data loss prevention


B. Determining the optimum security control
C. Balancing act
D. Critical role of information security
E. Taking a risk-based approach to security
F. Information security as a business issue

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. Business innovation is the key to the return of global economic stability and
growth.
2. The goal of the security organisation is to enable the business to safely manage risk
to gain maximum business advantage.
3. Innovation now doesn’t require open collaboration and direct interaction with
customers.
4. A key component of building a security program is moving from "information risk
management" to "information security".
5. Information security is not an 'IT problem', it is a business issue.
6. IT security experts are almost always found in any major enterprise due to the
nature and value of the data within larger businesses.
7. If a business wishes to survive, it must grasp the importance of information
security.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).


51

a. protection
b. experienced
c. a few
d. IT field
e. profession
f. different forms
g. maintaining and assuring
h. vulnerable point
i. common
j. grown and evolved

1. Most people have ………. software attacks of some sort.


2. Viruses, worms, phishing attacks, and trojan horses are ………. common
examples of software attacks.
3. The theft of intellectual property has also been an extensive issue for many
businesses in the ……….. .
4. Intellectual property is the ownership of property usually consisting of some
form of ………. .
5. Theft of software is probably the most ………. in IT businesses today.
6. The field of information security has ………….. significantly in recent
years.
7. In information security, data integrity means ……….. the accuracy
and completeness of data over its entire life-cycle.
8. Information security is a stable and growing ……………. .
9. Computer system threats come in many ………. .
10. The research has shown that the most ……….. in most information
systems is the human user, operator, designer, or other human.
52

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. The Internet is an increasingly a. to treating security as a project.

attractive hunting ground

2. Today's cybercriminals are highly b. that an organization must govern.

skilled and equipped

3. Most governments have already c. for criminals, activists and terrorists


created regulations that impose conditions motivated to make money.

4. The patchwork nature of regulation d. to become an increasing burden on

around the world is likely organizations.

5. Organizations of all sizes need to e. with very modern tools.

think about the consequences of a


supplier providing accidental,

6. Infosec programs are important f. but harmful, access to their


intellectual property, customer or
employee information, commercial
plans or negotiations.

7. Many large enterprises employ a g. their information security

dedicated security group management program.

8. Many organizations do not follow a h. on the safeguard and use of Personally

life cycle approach in developing, Identifiable Information.

implementing and maintaining

9. Without applying a life cycle i. to implement and maintain the

approach to a information security organization's infosec program.

program and the security management


that maintains the program, an
53

organization is doomed

10. A information security program is j. for maintaining the confidentiality,

the set of controls integrity and availability of IT systems


and business data.

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


✔ Executives perceive that security seems to worsen even as spending increases. The
root cause usually is the same: the lack of a well designed, enterprise-wide security
strategy. What other reasons can you give?
✔ How should companies work to improve enterprise productivity? Give your
reasons.
✔ How are mobile devices changing the customer experience? Are they forcing
organizations to rethink how they engage with their customers and
employees?

Use the following phrases:

As far as I know …
Strictly speaking …
To my way of thinking …
Moreover …
I suppose …
54

Unit V
System Integration (SI)
WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What SI methods are used in different fields in software and hardware


engineering?

✔ horizontal integration

✔ vertical integration

✔ star integration

✔ сommon data format

✔other

VOCABULARY

align – объединять; совмещать

off-the-shelf software – готовое программное обеспечение

incompatibility – несовместимость; несоответствие

compel – заставлять; принуждать; добиться

value-added solutions – обоснованные решения

hodge-podge of disconnected functional systems – мешанина отключенных


функциональных систем

bottleneck – узкий проход

transcend – превосходить; превышать


55

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. integrator A. the set of systems within a place or organization that affect how well
2. vendor it operates, for example the telephone and transport systems in a country
3. infrastructure B. a component whose output signal is the time integral of its input signal
4. compatibility C. the fact that different pieces of computer equipment and software can
5. support be used together
6. fulfillment D. help and approval that you give to a particular idea, politician,
7. extraction organization etc
8. success E. a company or person that sells a particular product or service
9. consolidation F. accomplishment
10. performance G. the process or action of extracting something
H. the achievement of something that you planned to do or attempted to
do
I. combining or merging of elements to perform a common or related
function
J. manner or quality of functioning

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Study Finds Most Americans Get News from Social Media
using http://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/most-americans-get-news-from-
social-media/3352165.html and answer the following questions:

1. What does the Pew Research Center research?


A. It researches issues and trends affecting Canada and the world.
B. It researches issues and trends affecting America and the world.
C. It researches trends affecting the world.
56

D. It researches issues and trends affecting only America.

2. How many people did the Pew Research Center survey in January and
February?
A. 5,650 people.
B. 4,654 people.
C. 6,654 people.
D. 4,754 people.

3. What is the most popular social media website for news as recent study shows?
A. Facebook.
B. Twitter.
C. Reddit.
D. Youtube.

4. How many percent of all U.S. adults get news from Facebook?
A. 54 percent.
B. 43 percent.
C. 44 percent.
D. 34 percent.

5. How many percent of all U.S. adults get news from Reddit?
A. 5 percent.
B. 2 percent.
C. 7 percent.
D. 4 percent.
57

READING

System Integration

1. A system integrator (SI) is an individual or business that builds computing


systems for clients by combining hardware and software products from multiple
vendors. Using a system integrator, a company can align cheaper, pre-configured
components and off-the-shelf software to meet key business goals, as opposed to more
expensive, customized implementations that may require original programming or
manufacture of unique components. Creation of these information systems may include
designing or building a customized architecture or application, integrating it with new
or existing hardware, packaged and custom software, and communications
infrastructure.
2. Organizations often have information systems belonging to different computer
generations. These systems contain much valuable data to the organizations concerned.
However, these systems are often unable to communicate with each other, due to
incompatibilities. Moreover, replacing these systems with new systems is also very
costly. Therefore the latest trend is integrating the existing systems with each other with
the help of different system integration technologies. When the systems are integrated
with new technology they bring about various effects to the organizations.
3. In today’s highly competitive and constantly changing world organizations are
compelled to find ways of functioning effectively and cost efficiently for their survival
and success. Moreover, the competitive arena has also changed dramatically, thus
organizations can no longer depend on traditional methods of competing. As a result
companies seek out latest technologies. Many organizations use several generations of
systems that rely on a broad range of technologies developed over many years. These
technologies both new and old provide enormous support to organizations.
Unfortunately, many of these business-critical systems are difficult to adapt to allow
them to communicate and share information with each other and more advanced
58

systems. There is always the option of replacing these old systems with new ones but it
is very costly and time consuming. In addition they contain lots of data and information,
which are of great value to organizations. System integration is seen as a way of solving
most of these problems. In earlier days system integration was confined to technical
aspects such as for connecting computer hardware components. As knowledge on
information technology evolved integration came into use in software, data and
communication as well.
4. To keep your business growing at the dramatic rates you plan for, it is essential to
have your business software applications integrated around a single codebase, database
and business process. The advantages of designing your systems in this manner yield
tremendous cost savings and improved business productivity. There are several key
processes that you may encounter in your daily operations, such as order management,
fulfillment, invoicing, cash collection, expense approvals, and financial consolidation,
to name a few. Automating such processes enables you to avoid new hires that would
otherwise be required to manage these processes, and redeploy staff to higher-value
activities to help your business innovate and grow. When information can be accessed
instantly from almost anywhere, without wasting resources on data extraction and tying
data from different sources together, employees are better informed and can make more
accurate, faster decisions.
5. Everyday business users are able to apply their functional expertise to tailor
processes and applications in a way that improves performance. Meanwhile, IT is
liberated to focus on strategic initiatives that can add value to the bottom line by
building innovative value-added solutions. Today, companies in virtually every industry
are using sophisticated business software to fuel their growth but many are still
struggling to keep up with their growth and manage costs effectively because of a
hodge-podge of disconnected functional systems causing process bottlenecks and
employee productivity issues. Integrated business software suites are transforming how
companies run, and enabling them to transcend growing pains that previously were
holding them back from taking their business to the next level of profitable growth.
59

4. Answer these questions:


1. What is a system integrator?
2. What can a company do using a system integrator?
3. What may creation of information systems include?
4. What do the systems that are integrated with new technology bring to the
organizations?
5. Why do companies seek out latest technologies?
6. When do employees can make more accurate and faster decisions?
7. Why are companies using sophisticated business software in virtually every industry?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Seeking out latest technologies


B. Integrating the existing systems
C. A system integrator
D. Advantages of integrated software applications
E. Applying functional expertise
60

COMPREHENSION

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.
1. Organizations don’t have information systems belonging to different computer
generations.
2. Replacing old systems with new systems is not very costly.
3. The latest trend is integrating the existing systems with each other with the help of
different system integration technologies.
4. It is essential to have your business software applications integrated around a single
codebase, database and business process.
5. Business-critical systems were created in1990.
6. Everyday business users are not able to apply their functional expertise to tailor
processes and applications in a way that improves performance.
7. Integrated business software suites are transforming how companies run.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a.aggregation
b.interface
c.process
d.range
e.integrated
f.subsystem
g.Integration
h.functionalities
61

i.transformation
j.equipment

1. The SI ………. has always been at the near-end of the development cycle.
2. The ………. of different component systems or subsystems that cooperate to deliver
a whole functionality has been the focus of industries that use technology.
3. A SI engineer must have a broad ………. of skills and breadth of knowledge.
4. Horizontal Integration involves the creation of a unique subsystem that is meant to be
the single ………. between all other subsystems.
5. In Vertical Integration subsystems are ……….. according to functionality by creating
"silos" of functional entities.
6. Vertical ……….. is a very quick method and involves a few vendors and developers
but becomes more expensive over time.
7. In a Star Integration each ...…….. is connected to multiple subsystems, so that the
diagrams of the interconnections look like a star.
8. Systems using Common Data Format set a common or application-independent
format, or they provide a service that does the ………. to or from one application into
the common application.
9. The system unit includes the electronic ……….. that interacts simultaneously in
order to perform calculations and transfer the results to the corresponding input and
output devices.
10. Enhanced software capability requirements force developers to enhance developed
systems with new ……….. .

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. The competitiveness of most a. to track, store, manipulate and

companies is based distribute the information from


gathered data to appropriate persons
62

when necessary.
2. Information systems are used b. on the effective use of information
technologies and information systems.

3. The efficient usage of information c. to be open anytime anywhere all

systems will give a lot of over the globe.

opportunities

4. By implementing information d. to the companies and advantages to


systems sharing the information, their business.
knowledge, communication and
relationships between different
countries becomes much easier.

5. Information systems has made it e. between different countries becomes

possible for businesses much easier.

6. One of the best advantages of f. the creation of new and interesting

information systems is jobs.

7. Computer programmers, Systems g. as since technology keeps on


analyzers, Hardware and Software changing with each day.
developers and Web designers are

8. Implementing the information h. just some of the many new

systems can save employment opportunities created with


the help of IT.

9. Industry experts believe that the i. a great deal of time during the

Internet has made job security a big completion of tasks and some labor

issue mechanic works.

10. The hackers distribute the j. to damage the company’s image.

information over the Internet, sell it


to rival companies or use it
63

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

✔ What does the system integrator bring together in information technology?

✔ Is there any international standard, that would submit unambiguous

recommendations about ensuring the management system integration?


Should every organization cope with this assignment on its own?

✔ What are methods of system integration?

Use the following phrases:

I guess …
Basically …
Of course … , but …
In reality …
On the other hand …
64

Unit VI
Customer Relationship Management

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What can customer relations management provide for organisations?

✔ managing and analyzing customer interactions

✔ compiling information on customers

✔ assisting in customer retention and driving sales growth

✔ handling customer requests in order to cut down the time of calls and simplify
customer service processes

✔ other

VOCABULARY

customer interactions – взаимодействие с клиентами

customer retention – удержание клиента

consolidate information – консолидировать информацию

track - отслеживать

contact center – контактный центр

provide feedback – обеспечивать обратную связь

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):


65

1.customer a. A computerized system for


identifying, targeting, acquiring, and
retaining the best mix of customers.
2.cloud computing b. A party that receives or consumes
products (goods or services) and has the
ability to choose between different
products and suppliers. See also buyer.
3. customer relationship management c. A group of interconnected (via cable
and/or wireless) computers and
peripherals that is capable of sharing
software and hardware resources
between many users
4. flowchart d. Process where a task is solved by
using a wide variety of technologies,
including computers, networks, servers,
and the Internet.
5.network e. Powerful, multi-user, multitasking,
and extremely stable 32-bit computer
operating system and the platform on
which internet was built and continues
to work.
6.cyberlaw f. The degree of satisfaction provided
by the goods or services of a company
as measured by the number of repeat
customers.
7. system administrator g. Symbols or signals that are input,
stored, and processed by a computer,
for output as usable information.
66

8.customer satisfaction h. Person responsible for running and


maintaining the networked computers,
peripherals, and the network itself.
9.data i. Rapidly evolving area of civil and
criminal law as applicable to the use of
computers, and activities performed and
transactions conducted over internet and
other networks.

10.unix j. Pictorial summary (graphical


algorithm) of the decisions (such as
production, storage, transportation) and
flows (movement of information and
materials) that make up a procedure or
process from beginning to end

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Online trouble using http://www.esl-


lounge.com/student/listening/3L4-online-trouble.php and answer the questions
choosing either "True", "False" or “ Not available " if the information isn't
included in the recording:

1. Jackie was surprised that David had problems placing his order.

true

false
67

not available

2. David needs to order the software for his office.

true

false

not available

3. Jackie gives him the 25% discount even though he's not ordering online.

true

false

not available

4. The Mac version is more expensive than the Windows version.

true

false

not available

5. Jackie tells David that the free microphones are usually not very good quality.

true

false

not available

6. The company offers free shipping.


68

true

false

not available

7. David buys both versions of the software.

true

false

not available

READING

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

1. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a term that refers to practices,


strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer
interactions and data throughout the customer lifecycle, with the goal of improving
business relationships with customers, assisting in customer retention and driving sales
growth. CRM systems are designed to compile information on customers across
different channels - or points of contact between the customer and the company - which
could include the company's website, telephone, live chat, direct mail, marketing
materials and social media. CRM systems can also give customer-facing staff detailed
information on customers' personal information, purchase history, buying preferences
and concerns.
2. CRM software consolidates customer information and documents into a single
CRM database so business users can more easily access and manage it. The other main
functions of this software include recording various customer interactions (over email,
phone calls, social media or other channels, depending on system
69

capabilities),automating various workflow processes such as tasks, calendars and alerts,


and giving managers the ability to track performance and productivity based on
information logged within the system.
3. Common features of CRM software include:
 Marketing automation: CRM tools with marketing automation capabilities can
automate repetitive tasks to enhance marketing efforts to customers at different points in
the lifecycle. For example, as sales prospects come into the system, the system might
automatically send them marketing materials, typically via email or social media, with
the goal of turning a sales lead into a full-fledged customer.
 Sales force automation: Also known as sales force management, sales force
automation is meant to prevent duplicate efforts between a salesperson and a customer.
A CRM system can help achieve this by automatically tracking all contact and follow-
ups between both sides.
 Contact center automation: Designed to reduce tedious aspects of a contact
center agent's job, contact center automation might include pre-recorded audio that
assists in customer problem-solving and information dissemination. Various software
tools that integrate with the agent's desktop tools can handle customer requests in order
to cut down the time of calls and simplify customer service processes.
 Geolocation technology, or location-based services: Some CRM systems
include technology that can create geographic marketing campaigns based on
customers' physical locations, sometimes integrating with popular location-based GPS
apps. Geolocation technology can also be used as a networking or contact management
tool in order to find sales prospects based on location.
4. Traditionally, data intake practices for CRM systems have been the
responsibility of sales and marketing departments as well as contact center agents. Sales
and marketing teams procure leads and update the system with information throughout
the customer lifecycle and contact centers gather data and revise customer history
records through service call and technical support interactions. The advent of social
media and the proliferation of mobile devices has caused CRM providers to upgrade
70

their offerings to include new features that cater to customers who use these
technologies.
5. Social CRM refers to businesses engaging customers directly through social
media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. Social media presents an
open forum for customers to share experiences with a brand, whether they're airing
grievances or promoting products. To add value to customer interactions on social
media, businesses use various tools that monitor social conversations, from specific
mentions of a brand to the frequency of keywords used, to determine their target
audience and which platforms they use. Other tools are designed to analyze social media
feedback and address customer queries and issues. Companies are interested in
capturing sentiments such as a customer's likelihood of recommending their products
and the customer's overall satisfaction in order to develop marketing and service
strategies. Companies try to integrate social CRM data with other customer data
obtained from sales or marketing departments in order to get a single view of the
customer.
6. Another way in which social CRM is adding value for companies and
customers is customer communities, where customers post reviews of products and can
engage with other customers to troubleshoot issues or research products in real time.
Customer communities can provide low-level customer service for certain kinds of
problems and reduce the number of contact center calls. Customer communities can also
benefit companies by providing new product ideas or feedback without requiring
companies to enlist feedback groups. Mobile CRM - or the CRM applications built for
smartphones and tablets - is becoming a must-have for sales representatives and
marketing professionals who want to access customer information and perform tasks
when they are not physically in their offices. Mobile CRM apps take advantage of
features that are unique to mobile devices, such as GPS and voice-recognition
capabilities, in order to better serve customers by giving employees access to this
information on the go.
71

4. Answer these questions:

1. What does CRM refer to?

2. What channels can be used to compile information on customers?

3. What do common features of CRM software include?

4. What is social CRM?

5. How can businesses use various tools to interact with customers?

6. What can customer communities provide?

7. How can companies use mobile CRM?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….

A. CRM software

B. Common features of CRM

C. Social CRM

D. Mobile CRM

E. Customer communities
72

F. CRM trends

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. Customer relationship management refers to the practices, strategies and


technologies that companies use to manage, record and evaluate customer interactions
in order to drive sales growth.
2. CRM systems can not give any detailed information on customers' personal
information and purchase history.
3. Sales force automation is meant to prevent duplicate efforts between a
salesperson and a customer.
4. Companies can use geolocation technology as a networking or contact
management tool.
5. Contact centers gather data and revise customer history records through service
call and technical support interactions.
6. Social CRM tools increase the number of potential customers. Not available.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j):

a. database

b. customer relationship management

c. strive
73

d. customers

e. face

f. needs and wants

g. relationships

h. effect

i. attention

j. manage

1. … to your existing customers, no matter how small they are, is essential to


keeping your business thriving.

2. The secret to repeat business is following up in a way that has a positive … on


the customer.

3. Customer relationship management helps in profiling prospects, understanding


their needs, and in building … with them by providing the most suitable
products and enhanced customer service.

4. CRM integrates back and front office systems to create a … of customer


contacts, purchases, and technical support.

5. It is imperative that your business always is great at … … … so you keep them


coming back for more.

6. You should … to have the best possible customer relationship management that
you can so they will be happy with you.

7. I was really good at customer relationship management and a lot of our … really
enjoyed talking with us throughout the day.

8. This database helps the company in presenting a unified … to its customers.


74

9. A company's goals can be best achieved through identification and satisfaction


of the customers' stated and unstated … … … .

10. CRM enables customers to … some information on their own.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences:

1. Data security is a primary


a. an external, remote network.
concern for

2. If the cloud provider goes


b. Salesforce.com, Microsoft, SAPand Oracle.
out of business or is acquired
by another company, a
company's data

3. With cloud-based CRM -- c. companies using a cloud-based system


also known
as SaaS (software-as-a-
service) or on-demand CRM -
- data is stored on

4 The four main vendors of


d. by mid-to-large organizations
CRM systems are

5. The software is designed


e. can be compromised or lost.
for use

6. Customer behavior , needs


f. as possible.
and expectations are

7. The sales process must be


g. to figure out how to use marketing
as efficient and effective
75

information.

8. Customer service is the


h. your organization’s relationships with
most important piece of
individual people.

9. CRM enables you to


i. CRM puzzle.
focus on

10. Sales and marketing must


j. changing fast.
work together

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

✔ Suppose you deal with CRM in your company.

Can you describe IT systems and software designed to help you manage this

relationship?

✔ What qualifications and skills do you need for a job of a CRM manager?

✔ Perhaps the most significant recent development in CRM systems has been the

move into the cloud. Discuss the advantages:

- Work from anywhere;


- Reduce costs;
- Faster deployment
- Automatic software updates
76

- Cost-effectiveness and scalability


- The ability to work from anywhere, on any device
- Increased collaboration

Use the following phrases:

I presume …

As far as I know …

The way I see things is that …

Nevertheless …
77

Unit VII
E-Business (Electronic Business)

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:


What can information systems provide for organisations?

✔ storing documents, revision histories, communication records and


operational data
✔ offering information for more efficient work
✔ making better decisions by delivering all the information to employees
✔ gaining a cost advantage over competitors offering better customer service
✔other

VOCABULARY

business partners – деловые партнеры


brick and mortar - традиционный
ISP - Internet service providers – провайдеры услуг интернета
conduct joint research – проводить совместное исследование

2. Match the words (1-10) with their abbreviations (A-J):


78

1.EC A. Hewlett Packard


2. IT B. World Wide Web
3. HP C. E-commerce
4. WWW D. Disc Operating System
5. ISPs E Information Technologies
6. EDI F. Enterprise Resource Planning
7. ERP G. Electronic Point of Sale
8. DOS H. Automatic Teller Machine
9. ATM I. Electronic Data Interchange
10. EPOS J. Internet service providers

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Far from the Office using


http://www.esl-lounge.com/student/listening/3L19-far-from-the-office.mp3
Then read the following statements and decide which person says each one,
speaker one, speaker two or speaker three:

1. I've sold products for animals.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

2. Sometimes I look at people on a computer.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

3. Modern technology has made my job even more unusual.


79

speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

4. I've never met anyone famous while doing my job.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

5. One of my past jobs involved me just standing somewhere.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

6. I think this job will always be required.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

7. Bad weather can cause problems in my job.


speaker one
speaker two
speaker three

READING
E-Business (Electronic Business)
80

1. E-business (electronic business) is the conduct of business processes on the


Internet. These electronic business processes include buying and selling products,
supplies and services; servicing customers; processing payments; managing production
control; collaborating with business partners; sharing information; running automated
employee services; recruiting; and more.
2. E-business can comprise a range of functions and services, ranging from the
development of intranets and extranets to e-service, the provision of services and tasks
over the Internet by application service providers. Today, as major corporations
continuously rethink their businesses in terms of the Internet, specifically its
availability, wide reach and ever-changing capabilities, they are conducting e-business
to buy parts and supplies from other companies, collaborate on sales promotions, and
conduct joint research. With the security built into today's browsers, and with digital
certificates now available for individuals and companies from Verisign, a certificate
issuer, much of the early concern about the security of business transaction on the Web
has abated, and e-business by whatever name is accelerating.
3. E-services, a business concept developed by Hewlett Packard (HP), is the idea
that the World Wide Web is moving beyond e-business and e-commerce (that is,
completing sales on the Web) into a new phase where many business services can be
provided for a business or consumer using the Web. Some e-services, such as remote
bulk printing, may be done at a Web site; other e-services, such as news updates to
subscribers, may be sent to your computer. Other e-services will be done in the
background without the customer's immediate knowledge. HP defines e-services as
"modular, nimble, electronic services that perform work, achieve tasks, or complete
transactions." Using HP's e-services concept, any application program or information
resource is a potential e-service and Internet service providers (ISPs) and other
companies are logical distributors or access points for such services. The e-services
concept also sees services being built into "cars, networked devices, and virtually
anything that has a microchip in it." HP's vision is that IT departments will increasingly
address their needs in a modular way so that individual modules can potentially be
addressed by some e-service.
81

4. E-businesses have distinct advantages over brick and mortar stores. First, they
can be found with search engines without the use of pricey advertising campaigns.
Beyond this, e-business allows vendors to track purchases and preferences of customers,
leading to marketing catered to each individual. Advantages for e-commerce, which
also extend to e-business, are great monetary savings (because of fewer employees and
low overhead) and the ability to reach consumers across the globe.
5. Consumers can access e-commerce and e-businesses at any time of the day or
night, from their workplace or in their pajamas. Consumers can search through
countless products and services using online databases. Prices are quickly compared
online to find the business that offers the best products at the best prices. Consumers are
quickly exposed to e-business because it uses more targeted marketing and offers more
in-depth education compared to traditional businesses.

4. Answer these questions:


1. What is e-commerce?
2. How can e-commerce be conducted?
3. What are the benefits f e-commerce for consumers?
4.What business concept was developed by Hewlett Packard?
5. What are the advantages of e-commerce to vendors?
6. What are the advantages of e-commerce?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-5) with the correct heading (A-E).


Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….
Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….
Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….
Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….
Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….
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A. Advantages to Consumers
B. Advantages to Vendors
C. E-commerce
D. E-business Functions and Services
E. E-services

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services.


2. The terms e-commerce and e-business are often used interchangeably.
3. The term e-tail is also sometimes used in reference to transactional processes
around online retail.
4. E-businesses have no distinct advantages over brick and mortar stores.
5. Today major corporations cannot conduct e-business to collaborate on sales
promotions, and conduct joint research.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. selection
b. shipping
c. retail
d. Internet
e. applications
f. authenticate
g. consumer-to-consumer
h. host
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i. code
j. substitute

1. These business transactions occur either business-to-business, business-to-


consumer, …-… or consumer-to-business.
2. E-commerce is conducted using a variety of applications.
3. The benefits of e-commerce include its around-the-clock availability, the speed of
access, a wider … of goods and services.
4. Its perceived downsides include sometimes-limited customer service, not being
able to see or touch a product prior to purchase, and the necessitated wait time for
product … .
5. To ensure the security, privacy and effectiveness of e-commerce, businesses
should … business transactions and control access to resources as webpages for
registered or selected users.
6. Electronic retail is an electronic commerce used specifically for retail purchases,
including grocery and supermarket items.
7. I was a fan of electronic commerce and decided to buy all of my items via the
Internet, instead of the store.
8. Credit cards are a convenient … for cash or check, and an essential component of
electronic commerce and internet commerce.
9. In the modern peer to peer networking (such as networking over the Internet)
every computer is a peer and also a … to every other computer connected to the
network.
10. Software consists of carefully organized instructions and … written by
programmers in any of various special computer languages.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. Firms using EDI are interconnected a. be on it to.


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through
2. The internet has revolutionized the b. to advertise my new adventure.
21st century and helped people all
over the world.
3. Today more people are on the c. a global computer network,
internet than anywhere else so if you independent of internet.
want to reach as many customers as
you can you must
4. When I started my company I d. because it was faster and had better
decided to use several types of media and more intuitive controls.
5. The advertisement was right in my e. do things they could have never
face and I realized that this was the imagined.
purest form of
6. The company had a successful f. its own unique web address.
website running, but their experience
in a traditional
7. Computers that I work on often g. bricks and mortar setting was not so
require the most up to date good.
8. We didn't think we could install the h. application software to fully utilize the
program because powerful machines.
9. He preferred one browser to another i. we did not have the application
to search the web, software we needed to do it.
10. Each website has j. direct marketing by a company.

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


✔ Have you ever bought things on the Internet?
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✔ What are the benefits and drawbacks of e-commerce?


✔ Talk about security of e-commerce.

Use the following phrases:


I presume …
As far as I know …
The way I see things is that …
Nevertheless …
86

Unit VIII
IT Project Management

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What is IT project management?

✔ a routine operation
✔a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal

✔development of software

✔other

VOCABULARY

project plan – план проекта


software development – разработка программного обеспечения
project management – управление проектом
data management – управление данными
project's execution – выполнение проекта
business needs – бизнес потребности

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):


87

1. project A. Period that follows recovery phase


in a standard economic cycle.
2. project planning B. Distinct part of a process, program,
or project, complete in itself.

3. project manager C. Systematic sequencing and


scheduling of the tasks comprising a
project.
4. project team D. Planned set of interrelated tasks to be
executed over a fixed period and within
certain cost and other limitations.

5. scope E. A group of individuals assembled to


perform activities that contribute toward
achieving a common task related goal.
6. motivation F. Administrative process by which the
required data is acquired, validated,
stored, protected, and processed, and by
which its accessibility, reliability, and
timeliness is ensured to satisfy the needs
of the data users.
7. total risk G. An employee who plans and
organizes the resources necessary to
complete a project.
8. data management H. Sum of all individual jobs
comprising a contract, employment,
program, or project.
9. phase I. The overall potential for financial loss
or harm presented by a particular course
88

of action.

10. boom J. Internal and external factors that


stimulate desire and energy in people to
be continually interested and committed
to a job, role or subject, or to make an
effort to attain a goal.

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text “5 Easy Steps for Web Site Success” using
http://www.businessenglishsite.com/business-english-video4.html
and mark the sentences either “True” or “False”:

1. The first thing that Joe asks is whether or not your website has a clear call to action.

2. People want to improve their business websites when these websites achieve business
goals.

3. Joe's first recommendation is that your website should have clear direction and clear
goals.

4. According to Joe, people come to a website because it's pretty.

5. Joe's fourth tip is to know/understand your customers.


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READING

IT Project Management

1. What is a project? It's a temporary attempt undertaken to create a unique


product, service or result. A project is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and
end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources. And a project is unique in that it
is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a
singular goal. So a project team often includes people who don’t usually work together
– sometimes from different organizations and across multiple geographies. The
development of software for an improved business process, the construction of a
building or bridge, the relief effort after a natural disaster, the expansion of sales into a
new geographic market — all are projects. And all must be expertly managed to deliver
the on-time, on-budget results, learning and integration that organizations need. IT
project management is the process of planning, organizing and delineating
responsibility for the completion of an organizations' specific information technology
goals. IT project management includes overseeing projects for software development,
hardware installations, network upgrades, cloud computing and virtualization rollouts,
business analytics and data management projects and implementing IT services.

2. In addition to the normal problems that can cause a project to fail, factors that
can negatively affect the success of an IT project include advances in technology during
the project's execution, infrastructure changes that impact security and data management
and unknown dependent relationships among hardware, software, network infrastructure
and data. IT projects may also submit to the first-time, first-use penalty which
represents the total risk an organization assumes when implementing a new technology
for the first time. Because the technology hasn’t been implemented or used before in the
organization, there are likely to be complications that will affect the project’s likelihood
of success.
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3. Traditional project management, as it is used in construction or


manufacturing, deals with solid, tangible elements. Managing an IT project is neither
easy nor pretty. Information technology is especially slippery because it is always
moving, changing, adapting and challenging business. IT project management is further
complicated by shifting business needs and demanding stakeholders. An IT project is
any information technology project that has an assigned start and end date, often with
specific milestones and goals to be met during the development cycle. These are
temporary, short-term efforts to create a unique product, service or environment such as
removing old servers, developing a custom ecommerce site, creating new desktop
images or merging databases. All IT projects are constrained by three factors: time, cost
and scope. For a project to be successful, these three constraints (often called the Triple
Constraints of Project Management) must be in equilibrium. If any constraint is out of
balance, the project is headed for disaster.

4. The five process groups comprise the project management life cycle and are
universal to all projects. The specific phases within a project, however, are unique to
each project and represent the project life cycle.

 Initiation – the project goal, need or problem is identified. The project manager is
assigned to the project and the project charter is created.
 Planning – the project manager and the project team work together to plan all of
the needed steps to reach a successful project conclusion. The project planning
processes are recurrent in nature and it is expected that planning will happen
often throughout the project.
 Execution – once the project plan has been created, the project team goes about
executing the project plan to create the deliverables of the project. The project
can shift to project planning as needed throughout project execution.
 Monitoring and controlling – as the project is being executed by the project team,
the project manager monitors and controls the work for time, cost, scope, quality,
risk, and other factors of the project. Monitoring and controlling is also an
91

ongoing process to ensure that the project addresses its targets for each project
objective.
 Closing – at the end of each phase and at the end of the entire project, project
closure happens to ensure that all of the work has been completed, is approved,
and ultimately transferred ownership from the project team to operations.

5. To be successful, organizations should create or adapt a standard approach to


managing projects. A standard approach provides the following benefits:

1) It establishes ground rules and expectations for the project team.


2) It provides project managers, functional managers and the operational staff
with a common language that eases communication and helps ensure that
everyone is on the same page.
Managers can quickly determine which ones are preceding smoothly and which are not
when all projects follow the same processes and approaches, and use the same metrics
for measuring project performance. Not using a standard approach is the biggest IT
project mistake a business can make. It makes it possible for an organization to measure
the success of its projects to determine which processes and methodologies are working
and which ones need to be improved.

Answer these questions:


1. What do you understand by project management?
2. Why is Information technology complicated?
3. What are the three constrained factors of all It projects?
4. What are the phases of any project?
5. What does a standard approach to managing projects provide?
6. What is the biggest IT project mistake?
92

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-5) with the correct heading (A-E).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Standard approach
B. Negative factors
C. What is a project?
D. IT project complications
E. Phases within a project

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.
1. You should have a good data management team in place so that you can quickly
get any info that you need.
2. Not using a standard approach is the biggest IT project mistake a business can
make.
3. IT projects have no constrained factors.
4. IT project management is the process of planning, organizing and delineating
responsibility for the completion of an organizations' specific information
technology goals.
5. Information technology is not always moving and changing.
6. A project can have no defined end.
EXERCISES
93

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. deadline
b. financial
c. interaction
d. programmers
e. motivation
f. project planning
g. delegate
h. project manager
i. project management
j. committee

1. The team did not complete the project on time because one of the … left the
company and they could not find an immediate replacement.
2. Creating the … report was an enormous project, but with each department
handling an individual and specific task, CEO Ellen Smith believed it would be
done in time.
3. One may think of a project as a task needing to be done at a …, but in reality it is
a series of small tasks that need to be done, leading to a milestone.
4. In the meeting we discussed the scope of our … with company b, and decided
that it would be beneficial to continue working with them.
5. When working on a large project we had a short deadline but they offered such a
large bonus to finish early we found the … to get it done.
6. The applicant's casual attitude at the interview made it obvious to the selection …
that he lacked the proper motivation of a serious candidate.
7. The … … was excellent, we were able to see the near term future events, and
anticipate and prepare for the future.
8. If someone wants to control all aspects of a build they need to be very highly
94

involved in the … … .
9. During my time as a … … in the factory, I had many jobs such as directing
employees on what they should do, and when certain projects will take place.
10.When starting a new build it is important to pick a good project manager, that can
… all of the responsibilities.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. I asked my manager about the a. at a higher level for resolution of the


process because problem.
2. When I needed to ask for b. fraction of the time, making for a
unexpected time off I immediately much more productive system.
went to my manager
3. If you are dissatisfied with c. he knows a lot about our company
customer service or product quality at and this project in particular.
a business, it may be necessary to ask
to speak to a manager
4. The new computer software could d. when completing a task on the
accomplish the same task as the computer, otherwise you just end up
previous version in a wasting time.
5. It is important to make sure you e. had the right kind of access to the
have the correct software information.
6. Coupled with the above optional f. to explain the situation and find out if
disk drive, you could then purchase ' it was possible.
expansion packs '
7. This interconnection of computers, g. which are special archives containing
phones, and so on provides a base on software add-ons.
which a user can
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8. The protocols of various network h. request data from another user.


devices all must conform to one such
standard, so that communication
9. If you want to always be able to i. between them is possible.
find the correct information you need
then you need to have a
10. We had really good data j. strong data management team on hand.
management systems in place to make
sure that everyone

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

✔ Suppose you are a member of a project team. Can you describe the phases of your
project?
✔ What qualifications and skills do you need for a job of a project manager?
✔ Should you really have good data management systems in place to make sure that
everyone has the right kind of access to the information?

Use the following phrases:


I presume …
In order to …
To my mind …
As a result of …
An important thing is that …
Moreover…
96

Unit IX
Intellectual Property: Software Protection

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

People talk a lot in the information technology business about "intellectual


property rights." But what are they?

✔ How do they apply to software technology?

✔ Why should you protect them?

✔ How do you protect them?

VOCABULARY

patent – патент
copyright – авторское право
trademark – торговая марка
intellectual property – интелектуальная собственность
infringement – нарушение права
trade secret – торговый секрет; коммерческая тайна; секрет фирмы
inventions - изобретения
ownership – собственность, владение, право собственности
asset - актив, ресурс, статья дохода
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2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. patent a. Legal monopoly that protects


published or unpublished original work
(for the duration of its author's life plus
50 years) from unauthorized duplication
without due credit and compensation.
2. copyright b. The process of creating, developing,
and communicating ideas, which are
abstract, concrete, or visual.
3. digital rights c. Limited legal monopoly granted to an
individual or firm to make, use, and sell
its invention, and to exclude others from
doing so.
4. infringement d. Technology through which the owner
of a copyright can determine how,
when, and how-often a buyer can use
the copyrighted digitized content.
5. plagiarism e. The ultimate and exclusive right
conferred by a lawful claim or title, and
subject to certain restrictions to enjoy,
occupy, possess, rent, sell, use, give
away, or even destroy an item of
property.
6. software license f. violation or disregard of others' rights,
such as invasion of an exclusive right of
intellectual property.
7. asset g. Permission to use a software on non-
exclusive basis, and subject to the listed
98

conditions
8. idea generation h. The process of translating an idea or
invention into a good or service that
creates value or for which customers
will pay.
9. innovation i. Something valuable that an entity
owns, benefits from, or has use of, in
generating income.
10. ownership j. Stealing of words and/or ideas of
another person and presenting them as
one's own.

LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Famous scientist says Artificial Intellegence (AI) could destroy
us using http://breakingnewsenglish.com/1412/141209-stephen-hawking-l.html
and mark the statements either "True" or "False":

1. Stephen Hawking is a renewed scientist.

2. Stephen Hawking spoke about artificial intelligence to the BBC.

3. Professor Hawking's job is a cosmologist.

4. A special app will predict the words Stephen Hawking might need.

5. Hawking said AI could be a threat if it becomes more sophisticated.

6. Hawking said AI would evolve at a slower rate than human evolution.

7. This is the first time Hawking has warned of the threat from AI.

8. Hawking said AI would not be better than humans at inventing things.


99

READING

Intellectual Property: Software Protection

1. Ideas and knowledge are an increasingly important part of trade. Most of the
value of new medicines and other high technology products lies in the amount of
invention, innovation, research, design and testing involved. Films, music recordings,
books, computer software and on-line services are bought and sold because of the
information and creativity they contain, not usually because of the plastic, metal or
paper used to make them. Many products that used to be traded as low-technology
goods or commodities now contain a higher proportion of invention and design in their
value — for example brand named clothing or new varieties of plants. Creators can be
given the right to prevent others from using their inventions, designs or other creations
— and to use that right to negotiate payment in return for others using them. These are
“intellectual property rights”. They take a number of forms. For example books,
paintings and films come under copyright; inventions can be patented; brand names and
product logos can be registered as trademarks; and so on. Governments and parliaments
have given creators these rights as an incentive to produce ideas that will benefit society
as a whole.
2. People talk a lot in the information technology business about "intellectual
property rights." But what are they? How do they apply to software technology? Why
should you protect them? How do you protect them? Intellectual property rights are at
the foundation of the software industry. The term refers to a range of intangible rights of
ownership in an asset such as a software program. Each intellectual property "right" is
itself an asset, a slice of the overall ownership pie. The law provides different methods
for protecting these rights of ownership based on their type. There are essentially four
types of intellectual property rights relevant to software: patents, copyrights, trade
secrets and trademarks. Each affords a different type of legal protection. Patents,
copyrights and trade secrets can be used to protect the technology itself. Trademarks do
100

not protect technology, but the names or symbols used to distinguish a product in the
marketplace.
3. A patent is a twenty years exclusive monopoly on the right to make, use and
sell a qualifying invention. This legal monopoly is considered a reward for the time and
effort expended in creating the invention. In return, the invention must be described in
detail to the Patent Office, which publishes the information, thus increasing the amount
of technological knowledge available to the public. To obtain a U.S. patent, an inventor
must apply to the Patent Office and demonstrate that the invention is new (as compared
to prior technology), useful, and "nonobvious." An invention is nonobvious if it is more
than a trivial, obvious next step in the advance of the technology.
4. Software patents can be extremely powerful economic tools. They can
protect features of a program that cannot be protected under copyright or trade secret
law. For example, patents can be obtained for ideas, systems, methods, algorithms, and
functions embodied in a software product: editing functions, user-interface features,
compiling techniques, operating system techniques, program algorithms, menu
arrangements, display presentations or arrangements, and program language translation
methods. Since patent rights are exclusive, anyone making, using or selling the patented
invention without the patent owner's authorization is guilty of infringement. Penalties
are stiff and include triple damages. Once a patent for an invention is granted,
subsequent "independent" (i.e., without access to the patented technology) development
of the invention by another inventor is still considered infringement.
5. While a patent can protect the novel ideas embodied in a software program, a
copyright cannot. Copyright protection extends to the particular form in which an idea is
expressed. In the case of software, copyright law would protect the source and object
code, as well as certain unique original elements of the user interface. The owner of a
copyrighted software program has certain exclusive rights (with some exceptions): the
right to copy the software, create derivative or modified versions of it, and distribute
copies to the public by license, sale or otherwise. Anyone exercising any of these
exclusive rights without permission of the copyright owner is an infringer and subject to
liability for damages or statutory fines. As with patents, the exclusive rights afforded
101

under copyright law are intended to reward the creative and inventive efforts of the
"author" of the copyrighted work. The exclusive right to control duplication protects the
owner of copyrighted software against the competition that would result from exact
copying of the program's code. Copyright law also protects against indirect copying,
such as unauthorized translation of the code into a different programming language.
6. Copyright protection arises automatically upon the creation of an original work
of authorship. There is no need to "apply" for a copyright or register the copyrighted
work in order for protection to exist. Generally, the duration of a copyright is the
author's life plus fifty years. In the case of software created by an employee in the
course of his or her employment, the resulting "work made for hire" would be protected
by copyright law for seventy-five years from publication. Unlike patents, copyright law
affords no protection to the ideas underlying the program. Ideas and concepts are fair
game for competitors to the extent they are not protected by patents or trade secrets.
7. A trade secret is any formula, pattern, compound, device, process, tool, or
mechanism that is not generally known or discoverable by others, is maintained in
secrecy by its owner, and gives its owner a competitive advantage because it is kept
secret. The classic example of a trade secret is the formula to Coca-Cola. A trade secret
can theoretically last forever - for as long as its owner uses reasonable efforts to keep it
secret and someone else doesn't independently create or "discover" it. Many features of
software, such as code and the ideas and concepts reflected in it, can be protected as
trade secrets. This protection lasts as long as the protected element retains its trade
secret status. Unlike patents, trade secret protection will not extend to elements of
software that are readily ascertainable by lawful means, such as reverse engineering or
independent development. Trade secrets are not subject to being "infringed," as with
patents and copyrights, but are subject to theft. Their legal status as a protectable
intellectual property right will be upheld if the owner can prove the trade secret was not
generally known and reasonable steps were taken to preserve its secrecy. Maximizing
the economic value of a software asset critically depends on understanding the nature of
the intellectual property rights involved and how best to use the available forms of legal
protection to protect those rights.
102

Answer these questions:

1. What are Intellectual property (IP) rights?


2. What forms of IP do you know?
3. How do IP rights apply in software technology?
4. What can a patent protect?
5. What can copyrights protect?
6. Why do companies have trade secrets?
7. What features of software can be protected as trade secrets?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-G).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 7 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Trade secrets
B. Intellectual property rights
103

C. Software patents
D. Exclusive rights of a copyright owner
E. Patent
F. Copyrights protection
G. Ideas and knowledge

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. To be called an invention, an idea only needs to be proven as workable.


2. The owner of a copyrighted software program has certain exclusive rights: the
right to copy the software, create derivative or modified versions of it, and
distribute copies to the public by license, sale or otherwise.
3. Each intellectual property "right" is not itself an asset.
4. Books, paintings and films come under patent.
5. The exclusive right to control duplication protects the owner of copyrighted
software against the competition.
6. Trade secrets are subject to theft.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. steal
b. copyright
c. patent
d. name
e. brand
f. infringement
104

g. software license
h. official
i. creativity
j. legal

1. To protect an invention from being copied or stolen, it is beneficial to obtain a …


that will prove original ownership and legal rights to the inventor.
2. I have a patent on this invention I made in my basement, I would tell you about it
but I'm afraid you will try and … my idea to make money off it.
3. To keep other people from taking his ideas and copying his … new invention,
James got a patent on it.
4. John wanted to upload his vacation videos to YouTube, but every time he tried,
they kept getting taken down because of … violations, due to the music that was
playing in the background.
5. Steve received a notice from YouTube that his video had been removed because
of a copyright infringement.
6. The spin-off movie called Harry Plotter could not say the actual name Harry
Potter at all because that … has copyrights with Warner Brothers.
7. To acquire a valid copyright, a work must have originality and some modicum of
….
8. Sometimes another company will pull some form of infringement on you and you
will decide if you should take … action.
9. You need to make sure that you always have a … … before you are using the
other companies product.
10.You need to always buy the … software that comes with the software license so
that you are doing it the legal way.
105

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. The ownership of the company a. with all the changes.


changed hands once.
2. Content that makes a website b. solving long-term issues in the
'sticky' makes visitors return, and operations department.
keeps them from
3. There have been so many advances c. the gentleman acquired 51% of the
in technology over the last ten years, company and new policies were
it's almost hard to keep up implemented.

4. I create marketing campaigns for d. leaving.


cell phone companies, so it is crucial
that I am knowledgeable
5. With Jeff's new position as a e. from overseas companies.
business analyst, he worked to come
up with novel approaches for
6. I had to install a new multimedia f. about all of the latest technology.
player in order
7. Ever since I got into my father's g. todays competitive business world.
business, I wanted to know

8. Make sure that your companies h. to watch the movie I had downloaded
computers have a good and easy to use on the net.

9. It is important to be good at i. his trade secret and also how he


networking if you really want to move flourished for so many years.
ahead in

10. The company was under serious j. operating system so that things run
106

competition smoothly.

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service


that creates value or for which customers will pay. In business, innovation often
results when ideas are applied by the company in order to further satisfy the needs
and expectations of the customers.

To be called an innovation:

 Should a new idea satisfy a specific need?


 Should it be replicable at an economical cost?
 Should it involve initiative in deriving greater values from resources?

Use the following phrases:


As far as I'm concerned ...
I think ...
In my opinion ...
As far as I know ...
In my view ...
I don't think ...
I must admit that ...
I totally/fully/partly agree.
I agree/don't agree with you.
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Unit X
Laptops and Tablets Improve Business Communication

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

How do laptops and tablets change the way business companies work,
communicate and expand?

✔ business owners work wherever they may be to remain productive

✔ employees take the online world with them everywhere they can go

✔ business people collaborate on presentations and reports

✔ top managers create live training sessions in any time zone

✔other

VOCABULARY

"clamshell" form factor – формфактор «раскладушка»

folded shut – плотно закрытый

collaborate – сотрудничать

brick and mortar businesses – компании, обслуживающие своих клиентов в


офисах, в отличие от компаний, оказывающих услуги через Интернет
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viable – эффективный, конкурентный, жизнеспособный, перспективный

finger-driven capacitive screen – емкостной сенсорный дисплей

shift concierge stations – сменные консьерж станции

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. convenience A. to become larger in size and fill more space

2. transportation B. the ability to bend or move easily

3. portable C. a condition that makes it easier to do something and helps you to avoid
wasting time or effort

D. an exact measurement or detailed plan about how something is to be


4. capability
made

E. the ability to do something


5. experience
F. knowledge and skill that is gained through time spent doing a job or
6. specification activity

7. flexibility G. to stay in a particular place or position and not leave it

8. remain H. the activity of moving people or things from one place to another, or
the system used for doing this
9. expand
I. used about things that you can keep or still use when you move from
one job or situation to another

10. circuitry J. a system of circuits that an electric current flows around


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LISTENING

3. Listen to the text Apple CEO Tim Cook Upset about EU Tax Bill

using http://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/apple-eu-tax-bill/3491369.html
and answer the following questions:

1. How much money must the American company Apple pay in back taxes to
Ireland?
A. The American company Apple must pay over $15 billion in back taxes to Ireland.

B. The American company Apple must pay over $18 billion in back taxes to Ireland.

C. The American company Apple must pay over $14 billion in back taxes to Ireland.

D. The American company Apple must pay over $23 billion in back taxes to Ireland.

2. What did the European Commission say?

A. The European Commission said the company reported earnings for all of the
computers, computer tablets and mobile phones it sold in Europe through its office in
Ireland.

B. The European Commission said the company reported earnings for all of the
computers, computer tablets and mobile phones it sold in Europe through its office in
China.

C. The European Commission said the company reported losses for all of the
computers, computer tablets and mobile phones it sold in Europe through its office in
Ireland.
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D. The European Commission said the company reported earnings for all of the
computers, computer tablets and mobile phones it sold in Europe through its office in
Russia.

3. Why did Apple Chief Executive Officer Tim Cook deny the EU allegations?
A. He said Apple paid $500 million in taxes in 2017, and his company paid more in
taxes than any other business in Ireland.
B. He said Apple paid $400 million in taxes in 2014, and his company paid more in
taxes than any other business in Ireland.
C. He said Apple paid $700 million in taxes in 2016, and his company paid more in
taxes than any other business in Ireland.
D. He said Apple paid $800 million in taxes in 2015, and his company paid more in
taxes than any other business in Ireland.

4. What did Tim Cook tell an Irish newspaper?


A. Tim Cook told a Chinese newspaper that the tax ruling was politically motivated and
Apple would work with Chinese officials to overturn Europe’s decision.
B. Tim Cook told an Irish newspaper that the tax ruling was politically motivated and
Apple would work with Irish officials to overturn Europe’s decision.
C. Tim Cook told an Irish newspaper that the tax ruling wasn’t politically motivated and
Apple would work with Irish officials to overturn Europe’s decision.
D. Tim Cook told a Russian newspaper that the tax ruling was politically motivated and
Apple would work with Russian officials to overturn Europe’s decision.

5. Why did the European Commission offer Apple the low tax rates?

A. The European Commission said Ireland offered Apple the low tax rates in order to
save thousands of Apple jobs outside the country.

B. The European Commission said Russia offered Apple the low tax rates in order to
save thousands of Apple jobs within Russia.
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C. The European Commission said Ireland offered Apple the high tax rates in order to
save thousands of Apple jobs within the country.

D. The European Commission said Ireland offered Apple the low tax rates in order to
save thousands of Apple jobs within the country.

READING

Laptops and Tablets Improve Business Communication

1. Today we can’t imagine our life without portable computers. They are
lightweight, compact and affordable. Laptops and tablets are wildly popular within
different groups of people because they deliver specialized experiences to their users.
For many users, a laptop has become their preferred computing device because it allows
them to complete all the tasks they would need on a desktop but with the convenience of
mobility and flexibility. A laptop, often called a notebook or notebook computer, is a
portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, a keyboard on the lower part
of the "clamshell" and a thin LCD or LED computer screen on the upper portion, which
is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus
are suitable for mobile use. A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs, and
capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard,
pointing devices (such as a touchpad), a processor, and memory into a single unit. Most
laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. The device can be
powered either from a rechargeable battery or by power supply from an AC adapter.
Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity,
significantly vary between different types, makes, and models.
2. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in
education, and for personal multimedia and home computer use. Laptops, like
smartphones and tablets, enable employees to take the online world with them. For
business owners, laptops allow their organization to work wherever they may be to
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remain productive. Laptops have changed the way companies work, communicate and
expand. As businesses seek to find new customers beyond their locale, employees find
themselves travelling, training or servicing customers further away from home. While
checking email is the number one smartphone activity, laptops are still necessary to
perform work intensive tasks. Collaborating on presentations and reports are just two of
the many ways laptops continue to assist travelling or virtual employees in remaining
productive in different locations.
3. Customer service has changed. Customers expect transparency and a high level
of attention and accountability from the companies they do business with. Laptops
allow employees to virtually connect with customers at any time of the day. Besides
traditional email, employees can follow up with leads in creative ways using tools like
Skype, social media outlets like YouTube, Facebook and Twitter and customer service
chat platforms. Business owners can hold private web conferences or create live training
sessions in any time zone. Laptops have a definite advantage over desktop PCs when it
comes to scalability. In some cases, businesses rely on their employees to work virtually
or telecommute, saving money on a physical office space. For small brick and mortar
businesses, the reduced cost and increased performance of local area networks have
made wireless networks a viable alternative. As the business grows, they can scale their
office network to meet their connectivity demands. Perhaps one of the most effective
ways to improve business or industry communication is through increased relevance in
the eyes of customers and prospects. Laptops provide additional vehicles to generate
and create relevant up-to-date online content. Businesses that allow employees to help
them increase their content marketing and social media presence stand to gain customer
trust and brand recognition.

4. Tablet computers are much smaller and much lighter than laptops. Portability
allows users to use them anywhere and anytime. A tablet computer is a thin, flat mobile
computer with a touchscreen display, which is usually in colour, processing circuitry,
and a rechargeable battery in a single device. Tablets often come equipped with sensors,
including digital cameras, a microphone, and an accelerometer, so that images on
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screens are always displayed upright. The touchscreen display uses the recognition of
finger or stylus gestures to replace the mouse, trackpad and keyboard used in laptops.
They usually feature on-screen, pop-up virtual keyboards for typing and inputting
commands. Tablets may have physical buttons for basic features such as speaker
volume and power, and ports for plugging in network communications, headphones and
battery charging. A key component among tablet computers is touch input on a
touchscreen. This allows the user to navigate easily and type with a virtual keyboard on
the screen or press other icons on the screen to open apps or files. The system must
respond to touches rather than clicks of a keyboard or mouse, which allows integrated
hand-eye operation, a natural use of the somatosensory system. Touchscreens usually
come in two forms: resistive and capacitive. Resistive touchscreens are passive and
respond to pressure on the screen. They allow a high level of precision, useful in
emulating a pointer but may require calibration. Because of the high resolution, a stylus
or fingernail is often used. Stylus-oriented systems are less suited to multi-touch.
Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive
devices that’s why they require a conductive material, such as a finger tip, for input.
They are not common among stylus-oriented devices, but are prominent on consumer
devices.

5. Tablets can provide a customized user experience that businesses can use to
create better ways to interact with customers. You've probably heard about businesses
using mobile devices to gather analytics on the shopping or buying behaviors of their
customers. Tablets also allow hotels to use them as make shift concierge stations.
Instead of going down to the front desk to chat with the receptionist, guests can log into
the hotel services on the tablet and book reservations, download and print boarding
passes, and add notes for hotel employees. People can use tablets to order food and
beverages, shop the company store, or purchase tickets for future events. Tablets as
point of sale systems have been around for quite some time, but some companies are
taking it one step farther. Starbucks, whose handy app allows customers to pay for their
orders and use loyalty rewards programs through mobile devices, now offers customers
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the option to create a custom order on their smartphones and tablets before they even
reach the register. Grocery stores and clothing retailers are among some of the most
common types of businesses that have used digital signage for several years. However,
using tablets for digital signage allows for a smaller and more personal, private
experience for a variety of companies and their customers. Armodilo creates sleek tablet
stands for digital signage for clients such as Macy's, TED, and Philips. The company
makes freestanding iPad kiosks that come in many different shapes, sizes and colors.
Many of their clients use the stands at research conferences and exhibitions as an
addition to a booth or a stand-alone kiosk, but they are also useful inside stores to create
an interactive experience.
6. The hottest device in the enterprise remains the tablet. Executives have pushed
for them, IT departments have accommodated them, and users continue to clamor for
them. In manufacturing and installation businesses, there is a definite need for secure
but flexible testing and payment systems. Employees may need to test products, run
inspections, or install new systems. Tablets can make that process much faster, simpler,
and more efficient. Take Maine-based Revision Energy for example, a company that
installs solar-powered systems. The company equipped its employees with Google
Nexus tablets so they can use them to create proposals and deploy the services. The
company is also looking at cloud storage to sync information between them and their
customers.
7. Tablets and laptops are connecting people around the world, whether through
social-media websites, emails or visual chat applications. Business owners often use
tablets and laptops to get tasks done on the run, create presentations for meetings and
update websites and blogs. Business people may need to travel extensively as part of a
job to meet with clients, perform projects or travel between offices. Tablets and laptops
allow people to get work done on the road, so travel time is well spent. In addition,
workers will not be behind on their work once a trip is done. People can use tablets and
laptops to transfer money online. This means that business people can meet with
customer or clients and handle the transaction while both parties are present. This gives
the buyer more control and confidence, as he is present when the money is drawn from
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his account. Business people can use tablets and laptops to keep in touch with clients
and perform other work on the go. Tablets and laptops allow someone to update the
company blog, update social media with links and promotions and answer emails no
matter where he is. Another benefit of using tablets and laptops in a business is the
view of the company from the general public. A business that stays up-to-date with
technology is compatible with other operating systems and can accept emails and
documents from clients and collaborative companies using older systems. In addition,
using tablets and laptops also shows an understanding of customers’ needs and
interests, especially companies operating in the technological industry.

4. Answer these questions:


1. Why can’t we imagine our life without portable computers today?
2. Why are laptops and tablets wildly popular within different groups of people?
3. Why are laptops suitable for mobile use?
4. What components of a desktop computer does a laptop combine?
5. How have laptops changed the way companies work, communicate and expand?
6. What facilities do tablets often come equipped with?
7. What are benefits of using tablets and laptops in a business?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-7) with the correct heading (A-G).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….
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Paragraph 6 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 7 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Features of tablets

B. Advantages of laptops over desktop PCs

C. Portable personal computers

D. Usage of laptops

E. Usefulness of tablets

F. Processes tablets can make much faster, simpler, and more efficient

G. Using tablets and laptops to get tasks done on the run

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.

1. Laptops allow users to complete all the tasks they would need on a desktop but
with the convenience of mobility and flexibility.
2. A laptop doesn’t combine the components, inputs, outputs, and capabilities of a
desktop computer.
3. Laptops are folded shut for transportation.
4. Customers don’t expect transparency and a high level of attention and
accountability from the companies they do business with.
5. Employees use tools like Skype, social media outlets like YouTube, Facebook
and Twitter and customer service chat platforms.
6. Business people can use tablets and laptops to keep in touch with their
competitors.
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7. Laptops and tablets provide students with a constant escape from whatever is
hard, challenging or uncomfortable about learning.

EXERCISES

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. applications
b. Internet
c. alliances
d.software
e. inconvenient
f. businesses
g. documents
h. efficiently
i. store
g. prepare

1. There is a rise in the number of universities forming ............. with foreign


universities to deliver online education.
2. Tablet computers are devices that run cut-down versions of 'standard' office
software packages and similar ………. to automate task or access/share information.
3. Laptop computers and netbooks give you the full functionality of a desktop PC
and can handle the full range of office ……………. .
4. Most modern laptops and tablets can be connected to the ………… or your
business' computer network via wireless technology.
5. The small size of laptops and tablets can make extended use …………… , but
they're ideal for remote access to email, schedules and documents.
6. Computers allow the application of different types of software that can help
businesses keep track of their files, .............. , schedules and deadlines.
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7. Computers also allow ………… to organize all of their information in a very


accessible manner.
8. The ability to ………. large amounts of data on a computer is convenient and
inexpensive, and saves space.
9. A computer's ability to allow a company to organize its files ………. leads to
better time management and productivity.
10. Online tax and accounting programs allow companies to ………. their own
taxes.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. Windows 8 tablets can run the a. as they do with laptops, but they

Windows software think and record those thoughts.

2. Students process information better b. that many institutions probably

when they take notes — they don’t just already uses, most importantly

transcribe, Microsoft Office.

3. Laptops or tablets can c. the e-learning IT infrastructure


market in the European region.

4. Writing by hand helps memory d. undermine exam performance by 18

retention percent.

5. The global e-learning IT e. while screens block us from

infrastructure market is expected to connecting, whether at dinner or in a

grow steadily classroom.

6. The availability of gadgets like e- f. due to the rise in online courses


readers, tablets, laptops, coupled with being provided by educational
uninterrupted internet connectivity institutions.
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7. Some countries are continuously g. has led to greater penetration of e-

upgrading their hardware infrastructure learning education in many countries.

8. Western Europe is the largest h. to offer advanced applications and

contributor to educational technologies to their


students.

9. Western Europe has access to better i. from venture investors in the form

technological facilities, and a of education technology start-ups such

significant number as DigiSchool and Labster.

10. Western Europe and the UK are j. of schools and universities have

witnessing increased capital already switched to digital classes.

investment

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


✔ Computers have tremendously improved the way businesses operate in their
respective industries. Could you name several important advantages that
computers can provide to small and large businesses?
✔ How should companies work to be more self-sufficient? Give your
reasons.
✔ How can laptops and tablets provide a customized user experience that
businesses use to create better ways to interact with customers?

Use the following phrases:


I suppose …
The way I see things is that …
As far as I know …
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Nevertheless …
Moreover
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Unit XI
Collaboration in Cyberspace Will Enhance
the Global Economy

WARM-UP ACTIVITIES

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Сybersecurity is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges
we face as a nation. What can be done to prevent cyber attacks?

✔ the federal government and the private sector should join forces in improving the
security of the Internet
✔ it is necessary to stay updated on the latest scams that are going around and keep
your employees aware of the scams
✔ businesses should save both money and time by using cloud services for handling
their application needs and data storage
✔ companies should train their employees on cybersecurity
✔ other

VOCABULARY

emerge – появляться, возникать, выходить;


fiction – вымысел, выдумка;
loose – свободный, неточный, широкий;
immersion – погружение;
conjunction – соединение, сочетание, связь;
disrupt – разрушать, разрывать;
derive – извлекать, получать, выводить, происходить;
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launder – стирать

2. Match the words (1-10) with the definitions (A-J):

1. notional A. one of the parts that a substance or combination is made of


2. virtual B. existing only as an idea, not as something real
3. domain C. someone who carries messages between people who are
4. constituent unwilling or unable to meet
5. intermediary D. to make something such as an idea, plan, system, or law start to
6. responsibility work and be used
7. implement E. the quality of having the attributes of something without sharing
8. medium its (real or imagined) physical form
9. spatially F. the state or job of being in charge of someone or something and
10. tangible of making sure that what they do or what happens to them is right or
satisfactory
G. a method or way of expressing something
H. important and noticeable
I. relating to the position, area, and size of things
J. a set of websites on the Internet that end with the same letters,
for example .com

LISTENING

2. Listen to the text Google Announces New Services and Products k using
http://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/google-io-2016/3344946.html and answer the
following questions:

7. Where did Google’s conference for software developers take place?


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A. In Oregon.
B. In California.
C. In Iowa.
D. In Maine.

2. What did the company talk about?


A. About combining mobile and search products with new services other products
and application programs.
B. About selling new mobile products.
C. About selling new application programs.
D. About combining search products with new services.

3. What is Google Assistant?


A. Google Assistant is a service designed to help users get things done, as if you
were talking to a person who knows you.
B. Google Assistant is a new wireless device.
C. Google Assistant is a new smartphone.
D. Google Assistant is a new computer.

4. What can users do within Allo Google?


A. Within Allo, users can send only text messages.
B. Within Allo, users can send stickers and photos.
C. Within Allo, users can send text messages, photos, stickers and emoji images.
D. Within Allo, users can send emoji images.

5. How is Google's new video chat app. called?


A. Duo.
B. Allo.
C. Smart Replies.
D. Echo.
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READING

Cyberspace

1. Cyberspace is the notional environment in which communication over


computer networks occurs. The word became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the
Internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the
term ‘cyberspace’ was able to represent the new ideas and phenomena that were
emerging. The parent term of cyberspace is ‘cybernetics’, derived from the Ancient
Greek κυβερνήτης (steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder), a word introduced by Norbert
Wiener for his pioneering work in electronic communication and control science. The
term ‘cyberspace’ first appeared in the work of cyberpunk science fiction author
William Gibson in his short story ‘Burning Chrome’ in 1982. In the next few years, the
word became prominently identified with online computer networks. Although the
present-day, loose use of the term ‘cyberspace’ no longer implies or suggests immersion
in a virtual reality, current technology allows the integration of a number of capabilities:
sensors, signals, connections, transmissions, processors, and controllers sufficient to
generate a virtual interactive experience that is accessible regardless of a geographic
location.
2. Cyberspace is a domain characterized by the use of electronics and the
electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data via networked systems
and associated with physical infrastructures. In effect, cyberspace can be thought of as
the interconnection of human beings through computers and telecommunication,
without regard to physical geography. The space in which computer transactions occur,
particularly transactions between different computers. We say that images and text on
the Internet exist in cyberspace, for example. The term is also often used in conjunction
with virtual reality, designating the imaginary place where virtual objects exist. For
example, if a computer produces a picture of a building that allows the architect to
‘walk’ through and see what a design would look like, the building is said to exist in
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cyberspace. Cyberspace is a global and dynamic domain characterized by the combined


use of electrons and electromagnetic spectrum, whose purpose is to create, store,
modify, exchange, share and extract, use, eliminate information and disrupt physical
resources. Cyberspace includes:

✔ physical infrastructures and telecommunications devices that allow for the

connection of technological and communication system networks, understood in the


broadest sense (smartphones, tablets, computers, servers, etc.);

✔ computer systems and the related software that guarantee the domain's basic

operational functioning and connectivity;

✔ networks between computer systems;

✔ networks of networks that connect computer systems;


✔ the access nodes of users and intermediaries routing nodes;

✔ constituent data.

3. A distinctive and constitutive feature of cyberspace is that no central entity


exercises control over all the networks that make up this new domain. As a social
experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social
support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in
political discussion, and so on, using this global network. They are sometimes referred
to as ‘cybernauts’. The term ‘cyberspace’ has become a conventional means to describe
anything associated with the Internet and the diverse Internet culture. Amongst
individuals on cyberspace, there is believed to be a code of shared rules and ethics
mutually beneficial for all to follow, referred to as cyberethics. Many view the right to
privacy as most important to a functional code of cyberethics. Such moral
responsibilities go hand in hand when working online with global networks,
specifically, when opinions are involved with online social experiences.
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4. Сyberspace is defined more by the social interactions involved rather than its
technical implementation. In their view, the computational medium in cyberspace is an
augmentation of the communication channel between real people. The core
characteristic of cyberspace is that it offers an environment that consists of many
participants with the ability to affect and influence each other. This concept was
derived from the observation that people seek richness, complexity, and depth within a
virtual world. While cyberspace should not be confused with the Internet, the term is
often used to refer to objects and identities that exist largely within the communication
network itself, so that a website, for example, might be metaphorically said to ‘exist in
cyberspace’. According to this interpretation, events taking place on the Internet are not
happening in the locations where participants or servers are physically located, but ‘in
cyberspace’. Firstly, cyberspace describes the flow of digital data through the network
of interconnected computers: it is at once not ‘real’, since one could not spatially locate
it as a tangible object, and clearly ‘real’ in its effects. Secondly, cyberspace is the site of
computer-mediated communication (CMC), in which online relationships and
alternative forms of online identity were enacted, raising important questions about the
social psychology of Internet use, the relationship between ‘online’ and ‘offline’ forms
of life and interaction, and the relationship between the real and the virtual. Cyberspace
draws attention to remediation of culture through new media technologies: it is not just
a communication tool but a social destination, and is culturally significant in its own
right. Finally, cyberspace can be seen as providing new opportunities to reshape society
and culture through ‘hidden’ identities, or it can be seen as borderless communication
and culture.
5. Cyberspace brings together every service and facility imaginable to expedite
money laundering. One can purchase anonymous credit cards, bank accounts, encrypted
global mobile telephones, and false passports. From there one can pay professional
advisors to set up IBCs (International Business Corporations, or corporations with
anonymous ownership) or similar structures in OFCs (Offshore Financial Centers).
Such advisors are loath to ask any penetrating questions about the wealth and activities
of their clients. Innovative digital services and technologies connect people, companies
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and societies improving the ability to collaborate, work more effectively and improve
the global economy. Cyber power is a global game changer. It brings along new
asymmetries to power politics. All aspects of our lives and functions of our societies
will be transformed by all-pervasive and hyper connected digitalization. The all-
pervasive and hyper connected nature of the cyberspace demands that any solutions
targeted to increase its security must be comprehensive, taking into account a wide array
of sectors and players. Winners in this new age are those who can combine
comprehensive security solutions with a market economy approach, have an ability to
amass and mobilize the best talent, and can operate effortlessly in a multi-stakeholder
and multinational environment. The Internet will remain an engine for economic
growth and a platform for the free exchange of ideas. Cyberspace is a global and
interconnected domain that spans geographic borders and national jurisdictions.
Cyberspace’s stakeholders - consumers, businesses, governments, and infrastructure
owners and operators - seek a consistent, secure experience in cyberspace. To support
the growth, operation, maintenance, and security of this domain, IT companies
continually innovate and invest in the development of globally deployable products and
services.
Cyberspace has been safe enough, secure enough, and resilient enough for the
past decades to reinvent nearly every industry, create a ’hyperconnected world,’ and
transform the global economy. The phenomenal expansion of cyberspace has brought
unprecedented economic growth, opportunity, and prosperity.

4. Answer these questions:


1. What is cyberspace?
2. Where did the term ‘cyberspace’ first appear?
3. How can you characterize cyberspace?
4. What does cyberspace include?
5. What can ‘cybernauts’ do using the global network?
6. What is the core characteristic of cyberspace?
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7. Why can cyberspace be seen as borderless communication and culture?


8. What do innovative digital services and technologies do to make people
work more effectively and improve the global economy?
9. Why is cyber power is a global game changer?
10. What do cyberspace’s stakeholders seek in cyberspace?
11. What do IT companies do to support the growth, operation, maintenance, and
security of cyberspace?

COMPREHENSION

5. Match paragraph (1-6) with the correct heading (A-F).

Paragraph 1 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 2 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 3 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 4 …………………………………………………………………….

Paragraph 5 …………………………………………………………………….

A. Сharacteristics of a global and dynamic domain.

B. Diverse Internet culture.

C. Providing new opportunities to reshape society.

E. Cyberspace is an engine for economic growth.

F. The origin of the word ‘cyberspace’.

6. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true, false, or
information is not available.
129

1. Cyberspace is the notional environment in which communication over computer


networks occurs.
2. In cyberspace people can’t store, modify and exchange data via networked systems.
3. The term ‘cyberspace’ has become a conventional means to describe anything
associated with the Internet and the diverse Internet culture.
4. In a few decades people can do nothing without cyberspace.
5. Winners in this new age are those who can combine comprehensive security
solutions with a market economy approach.

7. Complete each sentence (1-10) with a word or phrase from (a-j).

a. economies
b. individuals
c. transactions
d. resilient
e. economic
f. emerging
g. asymmetries
h. competition
i. governments
j. experience

1. Global ................. changes domestic sector dynamics and productivity growth.

2. Today global economic benefits require a range of actions from states, companies,
non-state groups, and ………………… .

3. For all …………. , the inversion of costs and benefits is expected to occur within
the next five years.
130

4. A strong and ………. Internet will be driven by a healthy non-state sector,


supported when needed by governments.

5. The interests of industry and .............. in securing and facilitating cyber-based


transactions and activities are fundamentally aligned.

6. All companies want a secure digital infrastructure for commercial ............

7. Governments need a secure global digital infrastructure for ............ growth,


prosperity, efficiency, and protection.

8. To be effective cybersecurity must be able to adapt rapidly to ............ threats,


technologies, and business models.

9. Cyber power brings along new ............. to power politics.

10. Cyberspace’s consumers, businesses, governments, and infrastructure owners


seek a consistent, secure ............. in cyberspace.

8. Match (1-10) with (a-j) to make up sentences.

1. Technologies, such as wireless a. the software that runs on computing

networks, devices, the stored information on


these devices or information that are
generated by these devices.

2. The cyber environment includes b. tangible elements.

users, the Internet, the computing


devices
131

3. Even isolated devices can also be c. at the same time, it is also virtual.

part of cyber environment

4. The cyber environment include d. does not exist in any physical form.

5. The complex environment e. that are connected to it and all


resulting from the interaction of applications, services and systems that
people, software and services on the can be connected directly or indirectly
Internet by means of technology to the Internet, and to the next
devices and networks connected to it generation network (NGN)
environment.
6. Installations and buildings that f. also part of the cyber environment.
house the devices are

7. Cyberspace cannot exist without g. stored data, signaling between


processes and/or devices or as a content
that is being transmitted.
8. Information can be h. if they can share information with
connected computing devices through
removable media.
9. Cyberspace includes tangibles but, i. the Internet, but also the other
information systems that support our
businesses, infrastructure and services.

10. Cyberspace includes j. extend the reach and scale of the


Internet.

SPEAKING

9. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


132

✔ What is an international crime? Ten years ago it was smuggling, drug trade and

money laundering. But over the last ten years, we've seen an explosion of
international online crime. What is it nowadays?

✔ Many experts see a future cyber war to be inevitable. How

can we try to prevent it before it happens?

✔ On the web, personal information can be as valuable a currency and cash.

What can you do to protect it?

Use the following phrases:


To begin with …
It goes without saying …
The way I see things is that …
To say the least …
To sum it up ...
133

Part 2
Tests

Test 1

Put the words in (1-10) in the correct order to make up sentences:

1. ICT, a, key, in, business, role, today, plays.


.............................................................................................................................................
2. Rapid, computers, in, sector, include, products, as, personal, smartphones, services,
the, ICT, such, e-mail, intranet, and, the, Internet, developments, such.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
3. of, all, and, types, better, use, computer-based, because, systems, they, offer,
a, way, to, work, Businesses, sizes.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
4. way, ICT, a, faster, and, more, is, efficient, to, communicate, and.
.............................................................................................................................................
5. use, new, Manufactures, technology, to, and, build, products, design.
.............................................................................................................................................
6. improves, decision-making, communication, ICT, between, speeding, up, business,
people, transactions, and.
.............................................................................................................................................
134

.............................................................................................................................................
7. ICT, solutions, people, can, often, replace, Inexpensive, expensive.
.............................................................................................................................................

8. ICT, size, Companies, use, to, reduce, the, of, their, workforce, and, their, wage, bills,
workforce.
.............................................................................................................................................
9. systems, expensive, can, ICT, be, very.
.............................................................................................................................................
10. needs, have, to, Companies, which, suit, their, and, are, cost-effective, before,
systems, investing, in, ICT, choose.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
135

Test 2

Put the words in (1-10) in the correct order to make up sentences:

1. used, ICT, is, to, in, formation, input, store, and, manage.
.............................................................................................................................................
2. computers, One, common, of, office, is, to, with, record, find, and, work,
information, use.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
3. Businesses, word-processing, use, or, desktop, publishing, packages, to,
company, produce, documents, and, databases, to, store, customer, details, and,
produce, mailing, lists, details.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
4. is, also, industry, important, ICT, in, the, retail.
.............................................................................................................................................
5. ICT, goods, increase, quantity, and, the, improve, can, the, quality, of, produced.
.............................................................................................................................................
6. point-of-sale (EPOS), Many, combine, shops, bar-coding, with, electronic, systems.
.............................................................................................................................................
7. find, The, customer, takes, read, an, cashier, item, to, the, who, uses, a, scanning,
to, device, the, bar code, and, out, the, price, of, the, item.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
136

8. The, logs, EPOS, each, sale, and, the, shop, manager, helps, to, decide, which,
recorder, products, to, from, the, supplier.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................

9. systems, EPOS, Some, are, even, do, programmed, to, the, ordering.
.............................................................................................................................................
10. workers, is, no, point, There, installing, an, ICT, use, system, if, cannot, it.
.............................................................................................................................................
137

Test 3

Put the words in (1-10) in the correct order to make up sentences:

1. Speech, is, the, field, of, linguistics, computational, that, develops, and, technologies,
methodologies, that, enables, the, recognition, and, translation, of, language, into, text,
by, spoken, computers, recognition.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
2. recognition, incorporates, Speech, knowledge, and, research, linguistics, in, the,
computer, electrical, science, and, engineering, fields.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
3. speech, The, system, specific, analyzes, the, increased, person's, voice, and, uses, it,
to, fine-tune, the, recognition, of, that, person's, resulting, in, accuracy.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
4. Speech, applications, recognition, voice, user, include, interfaces.
.............................................................................................................................................
5. refers, The, term, ‘voice recognition’, to, identifying, the, rather, speaker, than,
what, are, they, saying.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
6. can, Recognizing, the, speaker, the, task, of, simplify, translating, speech, in, systems,
that, been, have, person's, trained, on, a, specific, voice.
138

.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................

7. technology, From, the, recognition, perspective, speech, has, history, a, long, with,
waves, several, of, major, innovations.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
8. recently, Most, the, field, has, from, benefited, advances, in, learning, and, big, deep,
data.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
9. The, evidenced, speech, advances, in, recognition, systems, are, not, only, by, the,
surge, of, academic, but, more, papers, importantly, by, the, industry, worldwide,
adoption, of, a, of, deep, learning, variety, methods.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
10. The, industry, include, players, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Apple, Amazon, Nuance,
speech, etc.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
139

Test 4

Use the words (a-k) to complete the sentences (1-10) in the text.

There is one extra word that you don’t have to use:

a. silicon

b. scientific

c. semiconducting

d. developed

e. channel

f. application

g. nanometers

h. strongest

i. hollow

j. equipment

k. flexible

Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the (1) ............ , theoretical, and engineering discipline


associated with technological constructs whose dimensions are measured in nanometers,
or billionths of a meter. An example would be the study and (2) ............ of carbon
nanotubes. Tiny tubes of carbon are a few (3) ................ long. Carbon nanotubes are
140

the (4) ............ and stiffest material yet discovered on Earth, 500 times stronger and ten
times lighter than steel.

The (5) ............ transistors in your computer may be replaced in ten years by
transistors based on carbon nanotubes. By exchanging the silicon in the (6) ............ for
a carbon nanotube, the transistors can be made both smaller and faster than today's
transistors. A carbon nanotube is a molecule form of a (7) ........... cylinder with a
diameter of around a nanometer which consists of pure carbon. Some carbon nanotubes
are (8) ............ , and this means that they can be used in transistors, although there are
several problems that must be solved before they can be connected together to form
large circuits.

Nanotechnologies are increasingly used in mobile phones, computers and other


high technology (9) ............ . Nano tools and processes are being used to allow the
dimensions of the chips to continue shrinking and allow the processing speeds of
computers to progress. The nano bit will not fundamentally change how your computer,
your mobile phone, gaming console or your MP3 player operate, but it will make them
faster, cheaper and with more memory. Even the screens used on computers and other
electronics are being developed with carbon nanotubes that will improve upon the
colour, the contrast and definition of other display technologies. They may also allow
much thinner or even (10) ............ screens.
141

Test 5

Use the words (a-k) to complete the sentences (1-10) in the text.

There is one extra word that you don’t have to use:

a. approaches

b. behavior

c. intelligence

d. researchers

e. solution

f. tools

g. statistical

h. specialized

i. cultural

j. perceives

k. issues

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the (1) ............ exhibited by machines or software.


It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers
and computer software that are capable of intelligent (2) ………… . Major AI
researchers and textbooks define this field as ‘the study and design of intelligent
agents’, in which an intelligent agent is a system that (3) ………… its environment
142

and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the
term in 1955, defines it as ‘the science and engineering of making intelligent machines’.
AI research is highly technical and (4) ………… , and is deeply divided into
subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to
social and (5) ………… factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions
and the work of individual (6) ………… . AI research is also divided by several
technical (7) ………… . Some subfields focus on the (8) ……….. of specific
problems. Others focus on one of several possible (9) ............. or on the use of a
particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.
The central problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning,
learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to
move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term
goals. Currently popular approaches include (10) ………… methods, computational
intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are a large number of tools used in AI,
including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on
probability and economics, and many others.
143

Test 6

Use the words (a-k) to complete the sentences (1-10) in the text.

There is one extra word that you don’t have to use:

a. sophistication

b. workload

c. installation

d. virtual

e. mainframes

f. features

g. serviceability

h. established

i. commercial

j. computers

k. housed

Mainframe Сomputers

Mainframe (1) ............ are computers used primarily by large organizations for
critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer
statistics, enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing. The term originally
referred to the large cabinets called ‘main frames’ that (2) ............ the central
processing unit and main memory of early computers. Later, the term was used to
144

distinguish high-end (3) ............. machines from less powerful units. Most large-scale
computer system architectures were (4) ............. in the 1960s, but continue to evolve.
The terms reliability, availability and (5) ................ (RAS) are defining
characteristics of mainframe computers. Proper planning and implementation is required
to exploit these (6) ............ , and if improperly implemented, may serve to inhibit the
benefits provided. In addition, mainframes are more secure than other computer types.
Modern (7) ............ can run multiple different instances of operating systems at the
same time. This technique of (8) ................ machines allows applications to run as if
they were on physically distinct computers. In this role, a single mainframe can replace
higher-functioning hardware services available to conventional servers. While
mainframes pioneered this capability, virtualization is now available on most families of
computer systems, though not always to the same degree or level of (9) .................. .
Mainframes can add or hot swap system capacity without disrupting system
function, with specificity and granularity to a level of sophistication not usually
available with most server solutions. Many mainframe customers run two machines:
one in their primary data center, and one in their backup data center. Test,
development, training, and production (10) .............. for applications and databases can
run on a single machine, except for extremely large demands where the capacity of one
machine might be limiting. Such a two-mainframe installation can support continuous
business service, avoiding both planned and unplanned outages.
145

Test 7

Use the words (a-k) to complete the sentences (1-10) in the text.
There is one extra word that you don’t have to use:

a. mixtures

b. infrastructure

c. evolution

d. body

e. android

f. enhanced

g. mammals

h. humans

i. weapons

j. enhancements

k. perform

Cyborgs

A cyborg is a being with both organic and biomechatronic (1)............ parts. This
term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline. The term cyborg is
146

not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or (2) .............. . It applies to an organism that
has restored function or (3) ………… abilities due to the integration of some artificial
component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback. The term is also used to
address human-technology (4) ………….. in the abstract. This includes not only
commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but
also artifacts such as pen and paper, speech and language. Cybernetic technologies
include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and
other (5) ………… that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics
that we work within.

While cyborgs are commonly thought of as (6) ............ , including humans, they
might also conceivably be any kinds of organisms. It is hypothesized that cyborg
technology will form a part of postbiological (7) .............. , in the form of
transhumanism - where people are artificially enhanced beyond their original biological
characteristics. Some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical or almost
indistinguishable from (8) ………… . Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical
or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart. Military forms of cyborgs may
have inbuilt (9) ……….. , among other things.

In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or


implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices
measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver
electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive.
Implants that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are
also cyborg (10) ……………. .
147

Test 8

Use the words (a-k) to complete the sentences (1-10) in the text.

There is one extra word that you don’t have to use:

a. workers

b. jobs

c. automanufacturing

d. expand

e. designs

f. chip

g. shine

h. assembly

i. faster

j. workstations

k. welding

The Robotics Revolution

Many of the robots in use today do jobs that are especially difficult for human (1)
................ . These are the types of (2) ............. that require great strength or pose danger.
For example, robots are particularly useful in the (3) .............. industry where parts of
automobiles must be welded together. A (4) ............... tool used by a human worker
weighs about 100 pounds or more and is difficult to handle. As mechanical supermen,
robots may be called upon to do anything from moving heavy components between (5)
................ on a factory floor to carrying bags of cement.
148

Spray painting is another task suited to robots because robots do not need to
breathe. Unlike human painters, they are unaffected by the poisonous fumes. Robots are
better at this task, not because they are (6) ............. or cheaper than humans, but because
they work in a place where humans cannot.
Third in the list of useful jobs for robots is the (7) .............. of electronic parts.
Robots (8) ............ at installing chips in printed circuit boards because of a capability
that robots have that people don’t. A robot once properly programmed, will not put a
(9) ............. in the wrong place. This automatic accuracy is particularly valuable in this
kind of industry because locating and fixing mistakes is costly.
Earlier robots were usually blind and deaf but newer types of robots are fitted
with video cameras and other sensing devices that can detect heat, texture, size, and
sound. These robots are used in space projects, nuclear reactor stations, and underwater
exploration research. In their efforts to (10) ............ the range of robotic applications,
researchers are looking beyond traditional designs to examine a variety of potential
models from biological world. The industrial arm is a classical example.
149

Test 9

Сomplete the sentences (1-10) with the correct form of the words in capitals:

1. Alan Kay ….. and described the concept of a personal computer for children of all
ages. DEVELOP
2. The tablet computer and its ….. operating system began with the development of pen
computing. ASSOCIATE
3. Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat ….. display existed as early as
1888. INFORM
4. Microsoft attempted to ….. the Microsoft Tablet PC as a mobile computer for field
work in business. DEFINE
5. The top-selling line of devices was Apple's iPad with 100 million ….. between its
release in 2010. SELL
6. Android was the first of today's …... platforms for tablet computers to reach the
market. DOMINATE
7. The first Android tablet ….. late 2009. APPEAR
8. Tablets come ….. with sensors, including cameras, a microphone, an accelerometer
and a touchscreen, with finger or stylus gestures substituting for the use of computer
mouse and keyboard. EQUIP
9. Tablets may include physical buttons and ports for network ….. and to charge the
battery. COMMUNICATE
10. Tablets are typically larger than smart phones or personal digital assistants …..
diagonally. MEASURE
150

Test 10

Сomplete the sentences (1-10) with the correct form of the words in capitals:

1. Cheaper and more powerful personal computers are ..... it possible to perform
processor-intensive tasks on the desktop. MAKE
2. Break-throughs in technology, such as speech recognition, are ..... new ways of
interacting with computers. ENABLE
3. The ..... of personal computers and consumer electronics devices is broadening the
base of computer users and placing a new emphasis on ease of use. CONVERGE
4. Companies are developing products that organize ..... graphically in more intuitive
ways. INFORM
5. XML-based formats enable users to view content, ..... local and network files, within
a single browser interface. INCLUDE
6. It is the more dramatic ..... such as speech recognition that are poised to shake up
interface design. INNOVATE
7. Speech will become a major component of user interfaces, and applications will be
completely ..... to incorporate speech input. REDESIGN
8. Palm-size and handheld PCs, with their cramped keyboards and basic handwriting
..... , will benefit from speech technology. RECOGNISE
9. It’s no secret that the amount of information – both on the Internet and within
intranets – at the fingertips of computer ..... been expanding rapidly. USE
10. ..... with the ability to look and listen, intelligent agents will bring personal
computers one step closer to behaving more like humans. COMBINE
151

Test 11

Сomplete the sentences (1-10) with the correct form of the words in capitals:

1. Technological revolution is a relatively short period in history when one technology


is ….. by another technology or by the set of technologies. REPLACE
2. Nick Bostrom, a Swedish philosopher at the University of Oxford, wrote: “We might
define a technological revolution as a dramatic change ….. about relatively quickly by
the introduction of some new technology.” BRING
3. It is an era of an ….. technological progress characterized not only by new
innovations but also their application and diffusion. ACCELERATE
4. A difference between technological revolution and technological change is not clearly
….. . DEFINE
5. The technological change we could see as an introduction of an individual new
technology, while the technological revolution as a period in which more new
technologies are ….. at the almost same time. ADOPT
6. These new technologies or technological ….. are usually interconnected. CHANGE
7. A new technological revolution should increase a ..... of work, efficiency, etc.
PRODUCE
8. Technological revolution rewrites the material conditions of human ….. and also
reshape culture, society and even human nature. EXIST
9. The consequences of a technological revolution are not exclusively positive-for
example, it can have negative environmental impact and cause a temporal ….. .
EMPLOY
10. The concept of technological revolution is ….. on the idea that technological
progress is not linear but undulatory. BASE
152

Keys
Part I
Unit 1
Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-B; 2-C; 3-D; 4-A; 5-G; 6-E; 7-F; 8-J; 9-I; 10-H.
Listening
Ex.3: 1-B; 2-A; 3-B; 4-C; 5-A.
Reading
Ex.4 – questions.
Comprehension
Ex.5: 1C; 2B; 3A; 4F; 5E; 6D
Ex.6: 1-true; 2-false; 3- false; 4- inf. isn’t avail.; 5-true.
Exercises
Ex.7: 1- h; 2- b; 3- a; 4- d; 5- i; 6- j; 7- g; 8- e; 9- f; 10- c.
Ex.8: 1- j; 2- e; 3- h; 4- a; 5- d; 6- f; 7- b; 8- g; 9- c; 10- i.

Unit 2

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-D; 2-C; 3-B; 4-E; 5-F; 6-G; 7-H; 8-I; 9-J; 10-А.
Listening
Ex.3: 1-B; 2-A; 3-C; 4B-; 5-B.
Reading
Ex.4 – questions.
153

Comprehension
Ex.5: 1E; 2С; 3D; 4F; 5B; 6A; 7G.
Ex.6: 1-true; 2-false; 3- false; 4- inf. isn’t avail.; 5-true; 6- false;
7- inf. isn’t avail.
Exercises
Ex.7:
8. Don’t worry too much about viruses.
9. There are actually two kinds of antivirus programs.
10.Computing equipment is getting more sophisticated.
11.People use tablets mainly for viewing published content such as video and
news.
12.Technological advances in processing and communicating information
facilitate enormous economic transformations.
13.The expression ‘cloud’ is commonly used in science to describe a large
agglomeration of objects.
14.Android is a mobile operating system currently developed by Google.

Ex.8: 1-j; 2- e; 3- h; 4- a; 5- f; 6- g; 7- с; 8- d; 9- b; 10- i.

Unit 3

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-J; 2-A; 3-C; 4-D; 5-Е; 6-F; 7-B; 8-G; 9-H; 10-I.
Listening
Ex.3: 1-C; 2-D; 3-D; 4-A; 5-C.
Reading
Ex.4 – questions.
Comprehension
154

Ex.5: 1C; 2A; 3B; 4D; 5F; 6E


Ex.6: 1-true; 2-false; 3- true; 4- inf. isn’t avail.; 5-true; 6- false;
7- true.
Exercises
Ex.7: 1- h; 2- b; 3- a; 4- d; 5- i; 6- j; 7- g; 8- e; 9- f; 10- c.
Ex.8: 1- j; 2- e; 3- h; 4- a; 5- d; 6- f; 7- b; 8- g; 9- c; 10- i.

Unit 4

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-B; 2-E; 3-F; 4-G; 5-D; 6-A; 7-C; 8-J; 9-H; 10-I
Listening
Ex.3: 1-B; 2-B; 3-B; 4-B; 5-D
Reading
Ex.4 – questions
Comprehension
Ex.5: 1D; 2C; 3E; 4B; 5A; 6F
Ex.6: 1-true; 2-true; 3- false; 4- false; 5- true; 6- inf. isn’t avail.; 7-true;
Exercises
Ex.7: 1- b; 2-c; 3- d; 4- a; 5- i; 6- j; 7- g; 8- e; 9- f; 10- h.
Ex.8: 1- c; 2- e; 3- h; 4- d; 5- f; 6- j; 7- i; 8- g; 9- a; 10- b.
155

Unit 5

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-B; 2-E; 3-A; 4-C; 5-D; 6-F; 7-G; 8-H; 9-I; 10-J
Listening
Ex.3: 1-B; 2-B; 3-A; 4-С; 5-B
Reading
Ex.4 – questions
Comprehension
Ex.5:1C; 2B; 3A; 4D; 5E
Ex.6:1- false; 2-false; 3- true; 4 - true; 5- inf. isn’t avail.; 6- false;
7- true.
Exercises
Ex.7: 1- c; 2-a; 3- d; 4- b; 5- e; 6- g; 7- f; 8- i; 9- j; 10- h.
Ex.8: 1- b; 2- a; 3- d; 4- e; 5- c; 6- f; 7- h; 8- i; 9- g; 10- j.

Unit 6
Vocabulary

Ex2: 1b, 2d, 3a, 4j,5c, 6i,7h, 8f, 9g, 10e

Listening

Ex3: 1F, 2T, 3T, 4 N/A, 5T, 6 N/A, 7F


156

Comprehension

Ex 5: paragraph 1 – A, paragraph2 -B, paragraph 3 – F, paragraph4 –C,


paragraph5 – E, paragraph6 – D

Ex.6: 1T, 2F, 3T, 4T, 5T, 6N/A

Exercises

Ex 7: 1i, 2h,3g, 4a, 5b,6c,7d,8e, 9f, 10j

Ex 8: 1c, 2e, 3a, 4b, 5d, 6j,7f, 8i,9 h, 10g

Unit 7

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1c, 2e, 3a, 4b, 5j, 6i,7f, 8d, 9h, 10g
Listening
Ex.3: 1-speaker three, 2- speaker two, 3-speaker one, 4 – speaker three,
5 – speaker three, 6 – speaker two, 7 – speaker one

Reading
Ex.4 – questions.
Comprehension
Ex.5: 1C, 2D, 3E, 4B, 5A
Ex.6: 1T, 2N/A, 3N/A, 4F, 5F
Exercises
Ex.7: 1g, 2e, 3a, 4b, 5f, 6c, 7d, 8j, 9h, 10i
157

Ex.8: 1c, 2e, 3a, 4b, 5j, 6g, 7h, 8i, 9d, 10f

Unit 8

Vocabulary

Ex2: 1d, 2c, 3g, 4e,5h, 6j,7i, 8f ,9b, 10a


Listening
Ex3: 1T,2F, 3T, 4F, 5T
Comprehension

Ex 5: 1C, 2B, 3D, 4E, 5A

Ex.6: 1N/A, 2T, 3F, 4T, 5F, 6F

Exercises

Ex 7: 1d, 2b, 3a, 4d, 5e, 6j, 7f, 8i, 9h, 10g

Ex 8: 1c, 2f, 3a, 4b, 5d, 6g, 7h, 8i, 9j, 10e

Unit 9

Vocabulary

Ex2: 1c, 2a, 3d, 4f, 5j, 6g, 7i, 8b, 9h, 10e
Listening
Ex3: 1c, 2a, 3d, 4f, 5j, 6g, 7i, 8b, 9h,10e
Comprehension

Ex 5: 1G, 2B, 3E, 4C, 5D, 6F,7A

Ex.6: 1N/A, 2T, 3F, 4F, 5T, 6T,


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Exercises

Ex 7: 1c, 2a, 3e, 4b, 5f, 6d, 7i, 8j, 9g, 10h

Ex 8: 1c, 2d, 3a, 4f, 5b, 6h, 7i, 8j, 9g, 10e

Unit 11

Vocabulary

Ex.2: 1-С; 2-H; 3-I; 4-E; 5-F; 6-D; 7-B; 8-G; 9-A; 10-J.

Listening

Ex.3: 1-C; 2-A; 3-B; 4-B; 5-D.

Reading

Ex.4 – questions.

Comprehension

Ex.5: 1C; 2D; 3B; 4E; 5A; 6F; 7G.

Ex.6: 1-true; 2-false; 3- true; 4- false; 5-true; 6- false; 7- inf. isn’t avail.

Exercises

Ex.7: 1- c; 2-a; 3- d; 4- b; 5- e; 6- g; 7- f; 8- i; 9- h; 10- j.

Ex.8: 1-b; 2- a; 3- d; 4- e; 5- f; 6- g; 7- h; 8- c; 9- j; 10- i.


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Unit 12

Vocabulary
Ex.2: 1-B; 2-E; 3-J; 4-A; 5-С; 6-F; 7-D; 8-G; 9-I; 10-H.
Listening
Ex.3: 1-B; 2-A; 3-A; 4-C; 5-A.
Reading
Ex.4 – questions.
Comprehension
Ex.5: 1E; 2A; 3B; 4C; 5D.
Ex.6:1-true; 2-false; 3-true; 4- inf. isn’t avail.; 5-true.
Exercises
Ex.7: 1- h; 2- b; 3- a; 4- d; 5- i; 6- c; 7- e; 8- f; 9- g; 10- j.
Ex.8: 1- j; 2- e; 3- h; 4- a; 5- d; 6- f; 7- b; 8- g; 9- c; 10- i.
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Part II

Test 1

1. ICT plays a key role in business today.


2. Rapid developments in the ICT sector include products such as personal computers,
smartphones, services such as e-mail, intranet and the Internet.
3. Businesses of all sizes and types use computer-based systems because they offer
a better way to work.
4. ICT is a faster and more efficient way to communicate.
5. Manufactures use new technology to design and build products.
6. ICT improves communication between people, speeding up business transactions and
decision-making.
7. Inexpensive ICT solutions can often replace expensive people.
8. Companies use ICT to reduce the size of their workforce and their wage bills.
9. ICT systems can be very expensive.
10. Companies have to choose systems which suit their needs and are cost-effective
before investing in ICT.

Test 2

1. ICT is used to input, store and manage information.


2. One common use of office computers is to record, find and work with information.
3. Businesses use word-processing or desktop publishing packages to produce company
documents, and databases to store customer details and produce mailing lists.
4. ICT is also important in the retail industry.
5. ICT can increase the quantity and improve the quality of goods produced.
6. Many shops combine bar-coding with electronic point-of-sale (EPOS) systems.
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7. The customer takes an item to the cashier, who uses a scanning device to read the bar
code and find out the price of the item.
8. The EPOS logs each sale and helps the shop manager to decide which products to
recorder from the supplier.
9. Some EPOS systems are even programmed to do the ordering.
10. There is no point installing an ICT system if workers cannot use it.

Test 3

1. Speech recognition is the field of computational linguistics that develops


methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken
language into text by computers.
2. Speech recognition incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer
science, and electrical engineering fields.
3. The system analyzes the person's specific voice and uses it to fine-tune the
recognition of that person's speech, resulting in increased accuracy.
4. Speech recognition applications include voice user interfaces.
5. The term ‘voice recognition’ refers to identifying the speaker, rather than what they
are saying.
6. Recognizing the speaker can simplify the task of translating speech in systems that
have been trained on a specific person's voice.
7. From the technology perspective, speech recognition has a long history with several
waves of major innovations.
8. Most recently, the field has benefited from advances in deep learning and big data.
9. The advances in speech recognition systems are evidenced not only by the surge of
academic papers, but more importantly by the worldwide industry adoption of a variety
of deep learning methods.
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10. The speech industry players include Google, Microsoft, IBM, Apple, Amazon,
Nuance, etc.

Test 4

1b; 2f; 3g; 4h; 5a; 6e; 7i; 8c; 9j; 10k;
(d. developed – an extra word)

Test 5

1с; 2b; 3j; 4h; 5i; 6d; 7k; 8e; 9a; 10g;
(f. tools – an extra word)

Test 6

1j; 2k; 3i; 4h; 5g; 6f; 7e; 8d; 9a; 10b
(c. installation – an extra word)

Test 7

1d; 2e; 3f; 4a; 5b; 6g; 7c; 8h; 9i; 10j
(k. perform – an extra word)

Test 8

1a; 2b; 3c; 4k; 5j; 6i; 7h; 8g; 9f; 10e
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(e. designs – an extra word)

Test 9

1. developed; 2. associated; 3. information; 4. define; 5. sold; 6. dominating;


7. appeared; 8. equipped; 9. communications; 10. measured

Test 10

1. making; 2. enabling; 3. convergence; 4. information; 5. including; 6. innovations;


7. redesigned; 8. recognition; 9. users; 10. Combined

Test 11

1. replaced; 2. brought; 3. accelerated ; 4. defined; 5. adopted; 6. changes;


7. productivity; 8. existence; 9. unemployment ; 10. based
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References

Electronic resources

1. http://breakingnewsenglish.com

2. http://blogs.gartner.com/it-glossary

3. https://en.wikipedia.org
4. http://www.businessdictionary.com

5. http://www.esl-lounge.com

6. http://searchcrm.techtarget.com

8. http://www.businessenglishsite.com

9. https://www.wto.org
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