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BВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное пособие предназначается, главным образом, для студен-


тов третьего курса факультетов иностранных языков, изучающих
предмет «Речевое воздействие на аудиторию» на занятиях по спец-
курсу «Ораторское мастерство». Для успешного обучения по данному
пособию необходимо владение навыками произнесения и восприятия
англоязычной речи на слух на уровне Intermediate и выше. Материа-
лы пособия могут быть использованы студентами других языковых
государственных и негосударственных учреждений для овладения
навыками успешных публичных выступлений, а также учителями ан-
глийского языка в качестве справочного пособия по дисциплинам
«Риторика», «Искусство речи», «Красноречие» и т. д. Все эти пред-
меты, несмотря на разные названия, объединены единой задачей –
обучить эффективному речевому воздействию на аудиторию.
Основная цель данной работы – дать студентам основополагаю-
щие знания по базовым понятиям устной публичной коммуникации,
развить и закрепить навыки сбора, оценки, организации и произнесе-
ния информации в интересной и содержательной форме. В результате
занятий по данному курсу студенты должны успешно овладеть ма-
стерством воздействия на аудиторию посредством публичных вы-
ступлений.
Автор данного курса ставил перед собой задачу обобщить опыт
работы по спецкурсу «Ораторское мастерство» на факультете ино-
странных языков НГПУ и собрать воедино теоретический и практи-
ческий материалы для удобства изучения, освоения и закрепления как
во время аудиторных занятий, так и для самостоятельной работы сту-
дентов. Материалы данного пособия успешно используются автором
на занятиях по спецкурсу «Ораторское мастерство» в течение по-
следних лет.
Автор считает необходимым отметить, что идея создания спец-
курса «Ораторское мастерство» и написания данного пособия роди-
лась во время стажировки в США в школах и университетах штата
6
Вирджиния, где предмету публичных выступлений уделяется огром-
ное внимание.
В пособии автор предполагает изучение ораторского мастерства
на трех уровнях:
1) на уровне замысла и подготовки выступления,
2) на уровне исполнения,
3) на уровне осуществления контроля и оценки результатов.
Первый уровень охватывает следующие темы: этика устных вы-
ступлений, воспитание ответственности и уверенности в себе, эффек-
тивные приемы восприятия речи на слух, подготовка речи, приемы
творческого мышления, построение выступления (его композиция,
структура и логика), написание речи, использование эффективных
языковых средств.
Второй уровень представлен последующими 4 главами: эффек-
тивное выступление (просодический компонент), эффективное вы-
ступление (кинестетический компонент), устные выступления ин-
формационного стиля, устные выступления с целью убедить.
Третий уровень представлен десятой главой, в которой раскры-
вается вопрос оценки устных публичных выступлений в целом,
а также отдельно его содержательной и исполнительной сторон, за-
трагивается аспект самостоятельной оценки своего выступления ора-
тором. Материал данной главы представлен в удобной для осуществ-
ления контроля форме.
В приложении читатель найдет анкету для выявления своего ис-
ходного уровня ораторского мастерства, которую автор предлагает
заполнить в начале работы по данному курсу. Анкета поможет Вам
идентифицировать особенности своего стиля общения с аудиторией,
помогающие или мешающие донести свои идеи до слушателей. Кро-
ме того, для проведения анализа и оценки эффективности публичных
выступлений в приложении размещены примеры текстов устных вы-
ступлений студентов ФИЯ, а также признанные образцы ораторского
мастерства.

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Автор данного пособия надеется, что подготовленные материалы
будут интересны и полезны при овладении искусством речевого воз-
действия на аудиторию и не только помогут справиться с возможными
трудностями, но и привьют любовь к этому аспекту коммуникации.
Автор будет благодарен за отзывы, критические замечания
и предложения, которые помогут ему в дальнейшей работе.

8
1. ETHICS OF COMMUNICATION:
BUILDING RESPONSIBILITY AND CONFIDENCE

The Outline
1.1. Speech communication is the everyday matter.
1.2. Responsibility lays the right foundation in becoming a successful
public speaker.
1.3. Overcoming stage fright means building one’s confidence.
1.4. Orators are not born, but made.

1.1. SPEECH СOMMUNICATION


IS THE EVERYDAY MATTER
Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages,
and it occurs whenever we express ourselves in a manner that is clearly
understood.
Communication process consists of the sender, who transmits mes-
sage; the receiver, who intercepts and interprets message, and then trans-
mits feedback; the message (words, body language, and symbols that con-
vey an idea) and feedback (words, body language, and symbols that re-
spond to the sender’s message).
You should realize that communication is the everyday matter, it can
be of oral and written variety. In this book, you will be learning specifical-
ly how to become a more effective oral communicator, a more persuasive
speaker.
Task 1. The classroom of beginning speech students is often a col-
lection of nervous young people waiting somewhat apprehensively for in-
dications of their fate. If one doesn’t establish a comfortable atmosphere
for these students immediately, then several will opt out – either out of the
class, or frequent absences on their presentation dates.
Beginning with a speech that does not require the student to talk
about him/herself is often preferable. For the first several speaking as-
signments, you might consider non-graded activities, those that grant cred-

9
it for participation. You could also offer a choice of speeches; for example,
a student may choose for one assignment from the personality box, the ar-
tifact or the childhood memory or experience speech. Always try when
presenting the requirements of a new assignment to demonstrate the same
speech from your experience.
The following activities are short, easily prepared, lightly-researched,
personal speaking activities for students new to the speech classroom.
Study them carefully, with your partner choose one or two, and comment
on its advantages and disadvantages when used with a group of speech
class beginners.
1. Brush with Greatness. Ask students to tell stories about meetings
with celebrities. The stories may be actual or fabricated for the speaking
experience. There will be students who have met rock stars and politicians.
There will be fantastic stories of encounters with sports stars. You might
also discover, that you have George Burns' great grandson in your class.
Your own experiences will also fascinate students. These are the experi-
ences that make excellent material for the Brush with Greatness speech.
2. Personality Box. In the early stages of your class, students will
worry about what to do with their hands. This speech eliminates that prob-
lem. Students should collect into a box or container of special significance
several items that reflect their personality. It could be called a “Who Am
I?” box for it contains those things that will allow the students to talk easi-
ly about themselves. The container may be the cookie box Grandma sent
to the student when she was six years old and very sick. It might be a spe-
cially decorated box covered with pictures, birthday cards, or paper dolls
and fabric squares. The items should reflect students’ current hobbies and
interests. Encourage students to talk about each item in their personality
box or the items will come out of and go back into the box faster than the
eye can capture the image.
3. Two Birds with One Stone. Students are given five minutes to se-
lect something they have with them and to develop an impromptu speech us-
ing the object as a visual aid. The students might be given an option even to
sell the object to the class. It makes a good impromptu fill-in activity.
10
4. Speech of Personal Experience. Since this speech is essentially
about the speaker him/herself, it requires some definite preparation on the
part of the speaker and on the part of the audience. With several other non-
pressure speeches completed, students should feel more poise and confi-
dence in this presentation. Establish definite time limits and notecard rules.
Discuss the various types of speeches this assignment might encompass.
It may be informative; it may be entertaining. Review a possible list of topics
so students may pick a similar exciting experience. They may include per-
sonal feelings and reactions as well as the details of the experience itself. The
audience needs to be prepared to listen respectfully and carefully for they
may hear some heart-wrenching stories and some funny experiences. This
speech can include everything from the experiences of a summer job to the
details of a month's stay with a British family, and from being sucked under-
water beneath a log on a rafting trip to winning a swimming meet only to
discover the student was swimming the wrong stroke.
5. Artifact Speech. Each student picks an item considered to be an arti-
fact. The object is brought as a visual aid for the speech and the story behind
the artifact is told to the class in a brief speaking assignment. Students will
have foreign coins and Grandpa's medals; they will bring in a photo signed
by their favourite singer. Each of these has a story worth hearing.
6. Communication Companions. Students are to choose five to 10
companions to take with them on a trip. The companions may be living or
dead, but are people the speaker would like to invite. The student plans a
trip for the group as well as the grocery lists, food choices, recipes, and en-
tertainment. For the oral presentation, the student tells whom s/he has se-
lected to go with him/her on the trip and why. The real place selected as a
destination is described by the speaker. Any special entertainment is also
explained. Finally, the listening audience should be told what subjects the
group talks about and the conclusions drawn from the experience. This
speech provides enjoyable listening as the class travels to faraway loca-
tions with Benjamin Franklin, Elvis Presley, Jesus Christ, a best friend,
and Martin Luther King. The choices students put together and the reasons
for doing so are entertaining.
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7. Personality Quilt. Each student picks a quilt design and assem-
bles pictures from magazines, photos of self and family and/or friends,
maps of places where s/he has been, lyrics from favourite songs, drawings,
material scraps from a favourite outfit, quotations to live by, and any other
personal items that can be placed in the collage pattern. Each square will
become part of a class quilt, and each square is worthy of a Personality
Quilt speech to describe the items on the quilt square and how they reveal
the personality of the speaker.
8. Incomplete Sentences. Give students a chance to speak, even on
the first date. It doesn't have to be more than completing oral sentences,
but each person speaks. The following will serve as samples, but in class
you should have prepared enough for everyone to have a different sentence
to complete. Read the fragment aloud to a randomly chosen student, who
then completes the thought orally. Here are examples:
My favourite subject in school is................
I sometimes am afraid of..........................
I never want to ………………..
I hope that I can ………………
My favourite person is ......................
I hope that my future is……………….
Most of all, I would like to get………………
There is sometimes a sigh of relief from worried students when you
tell them at the end of the first class that they have completed their first
speaking assignment.
9. Interview Speech. Choose a random method to pair students
without allowing them to choose their partners. Consider long pieces of
yarn (one-half the number of students in the class) folded in half and held
in the center of your hand. Have each student take an end of yarn. One-by-
one students pull their string to discover who holds the other end; this per-
son will be his/her partner. The teacher pairs with the person holding the
final end of string when the class has uneven numbers. Students then re-
turn to their desks with their new partners. Each interviews the other for
five minutes, seeking basic information, but looking for one particularly
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unique fact about the partner. After the interviews are completed, students
work individually preparing a short introductory speech. Limit the notes to
5–10 key words.

1.2. RESPONSIBILITY LAYS THE RIGHT FOUNDATION


IN BECOMING A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC SPEAKER
People building a house don’t begin by putting up the walls. They
begin by establishing a solid foundation that will anchor the rest of the
structure. Similarly, you build the ethics of communication and responsi-
bility when you anchor your oral communication to a solid value structure.
It consists of three essential elements: 1) working to be a good person,
2) using communication constructively, 3) caring about your audience.
Being a polished speaker is not enough. Daniel Webster, the nine-
teenth-century statesman and orator, would promote the idea that those
who speak should work to make the world a better place.
Sometimes the most important speaking you do is the speaking to your-
self. This is known as intrapersonal communication. You must be honest and
positive in your self-communication. For instance, when you have done
something right, compliment yourself, when there is room for improvement,
note to yourself what you could do better next time. Because intrapersonal
communication affects the kind of person you are, what you communicate to
yourself should exhibit a solid work ethic, a sense of integrity, compassion
for others, and personal honesty. Most would agree that these are some of
the qualities that make up a good person.
Besides being able to talk to yourself you need to be able to talk ef-
fectively to others. This is called interpersonal communication. Your job in
communicating in this way is to realize that the spoken word should build,
inspire, and motivate the others, never belittle or deceive them.
How do you use your words? You must be willing to build up others
if you wish to become the effective communicator. This idea carries
through to the third and final element that makes up the foundation of your
value structure, a genuine concern for your audience.

13
The noted actor and director Sir Laurence Olivier once said that per-
formers can bring creative life to a play only if they respect the audience
enough to think that the audience will understand it. This lesson can also
be applied to speaking. The speaker must respect the members of the audi-
ence and show a genuine concern for their thoughts and feelings.
When preparing a speech, a speaker must consider various aspects of
the audience, including age, gender, level of education, and socioeconomic
background. Ask yourself questions: “Is this material appropriate for this
group? How would I feel if I were asked that question? Am I giving my
audience new information? Is my material too difficult or too easy for my
audience?”.
Also, pay attention to audience feedback and then adapt.

1.3. OVERCOMING STAGE FRIGHT MEANS


BUILDING ONE’S CONFIDENCE
Confidence is the attitude of assurance that causes an audience to
take a speaker seriously. But the problem is that confidence in speaking is
easy to write about in a book but much more difficult to actually feel in
preparing for and giving a speech. Why? Because of stage fright.
Stage fright is also known as topophobia, it is irrational fear of
speaking in public. Studies show that many people fear the thought of giv-
ing a speech more than they do the thought of dying. Think about that for a
moment and you will understand that the stage fright is a serious problem.
To overcome this problem you must realize that stage fright is natu-
ral, a lot of people suffer from it. Have you ever had any of these feelings:
headache, upset stomach, dry mouth, cold hands, sweaty palms, squeaky
voice, dizziness, fast heartbeat, shortness of breath, hot face, or wobbly
legs? If you have, you have experienced some of the symptoms of stage
fright. The causes of stage fright are psychological. Most people do not
like to be evaluated or judged. They also do not like the thought of open-
ing up to an audience or of having others to examine them too closely.
Mainly, many speakers lack the confidence to believe that they have some-

14
thing worthwhile to say, that they can say it well, and that people will like
them while they are saying it.
The Greek philosopher Socrates said that before we can move the
world, we first have to move ourselves. But where do we get the confi-
dence to start moving? The answer lies in establishing an accurate percep-
tion of the audience, of the purpose of the speech, and of ourselves.
Speakers often assume that the audience “sees their legs shaking” or
“everyone in the room is staring at the bead of sweat that is on the end of
their nose.” Unfortunately, since fears are cumulative, they may mount and
multiply as the speech progresses. A speaker may end up with the percep-
tion that the audience is much smarter than he, sees everything that he does
wrong, and notes each minor flub or stutter.
However, Michael T. Mottley in his research proved that many
speaking fears are simply unwarranted. He shows the audiences are often
unaware of a speaker’s nervousness. And remember, your audience will
ignore or forgive any type of mistake or awkwardness if they feel that you
are genuinely trying to share with them.
Next, you should see speaking as an opportunity to share something
you consider valuable, an opportunity to communicate verbally with peo-
ple you care about (your audience). Your speech is not a Hollywood show,
it’s an extension of you, your personality, your feelings, likes and dislikes.
Your speech is not some alien creature to be feared of or an enemy to run
away from. This understanding makes the right perception.
And finally, if you lack confidence in yourself, doesn’t it stand to
reason that you will also lack confidence in your spoken words?
To avoid this you should, first of all, recognize your own worth and
like who you are. Second, don’t be afraid to be human – everyone makes
mistakes. Third, you ought to learn from your mistakes.
Task 2. Step 1. If you have a strong fear of public speaking, you
probably have some strong musts, like:
“I must not make a fool of myself”
“I must not humiliate myself”
“I must always be approved of by anyone I talk to”
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So here are some examples of how to change your strong musts:
1. Initiate a one-on-one conversation with your teacher/superior
about something inconsequential.
2. Speak up in a small meeting at work/ University (2 or 3 people).
3. Ring a wrong number on purpose and say “I’m sorry, I seem to
have dialled the wrong number.”
4. Ask for change in a shop.
5. Initiate a one-on-one conversation with your teacher/superior ask-
ing for feedback on your performance.
6. Ask for change in a shop which has a sign “No change given.”
7. Initiate a one-on-one conversation that you’ve been putting off.
8. Speak up in a slightly larger meeting at work/ University.
9. Go on a holiday alone.
10. Initiate a one-on-one conversation with your teacher to explain an
idea that you have about how processes could be improved at the lesson.
11. Go to a social event with a friend and initiate a conversation with
one person you don’t know.
12. Go to a social event without a friend and initiate a conversation
with one person you don’t know.
Step 2. These are just examples to inspire you. Make yourself your
own list because we’re all different in terms of what we find most frighten-
ing. Once you’ve made yourself the list, rate each behaviour according to
how hard you think it will be for you. Then put the list in order, starting
with the easiest behaviours through to the hardest.
Step 3. Commit yourself to a schedule to complete these behaviours,
it could be one a day, or one a week. Expect to feel fear as you approach
these tasks. Part of the learning is that you can handle feeling the symp-
toms of fear. It’s helpful to share what you’re planning with a friend, so
that they can both support you and keep you accountable.
It is possible to overcome the fear of public speaking (note: it won’t
go away altogether!). Overcoming this barrier and being able to speak up
when you want to will make a difference to your career and to your per-
sonal life. Go well.
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1.4. ORATORS ARE NOT BORN, BUT MADE
The psychologist John Rosemond says that no one is born with con-
fidence. On the contrary, confidence is built. When you can face your
fears, your frustrations, and even your failures – and still come out stand-
ing on your own feet – then confidence is being nurtured. Remember, you
gain confidence every time that you face adversity and come out on top.
Look at the major ingredients of confidence and make use of them in
your process of learning to become a public speaker: content, organization,
notes, friendliness, impression, dedication, empathy, newness, conviction,
enthusiasm.
Task 3. The Bag Speech 1. If one has ever asked the question
“What's your bag?,” this speech will literally provide the answer. Like the
introduction speech, the purpose of this speech is to break the ice and to
allow students to learn about each other in an unusual way. For the speak-
er, the purpose is to have practice in delivering a basic informative speech.
Like a more formalized speech, the speaker must do several things. S/he
must identify the most important ideas the speech will address. The speak-
er must also select a pattern of organization that is flexible and provides a
logical flow of ideas for support. The advantage of the bag speech as an in-
troduction to informative speaking is that the student speaks about a sub-
ject s/he knows intimately, without lengthy research, indeed, only a bit of
introspection. The speech is also flexible on time limits. The bag speech
can be developed into a 10 minute speech, like almost any other topic such
as a war's battles or a particular famous person's life. The bag speech,
however, can also be done in as little as two minutes, which is difficult to
do with the other topics mentioned. It provides a stepping stone to deliver-
ing longer, more complicated informative speeches.
Process: Students are assigned to bring a typical plastic bag to class.
In this bag, the student has three to six objects, but the number of objects
should be the same for everyone. The objects in the bag should be symbol-
ic of important aspects of the speaker's life. For example, typical items
might be photographs, awards, souvenirs of important events, etc. The

17
method of presentation is also somewhat symbolic. The student may not
peer into the bag or draw the items out with deliberation. Instead, s/he ran-
domly withdraws an item from the bag for comment. The symbolism is
that what happens in each person's life is somewhat dependent on the “luck
of the draw” and flexibility. The speech may be humorous or serious, but it
must be truthful and sincere, providing insights into the student's life. In
other words, diverse objects will provide a more interesting speech than
five packages of favourite foods or five different beauty products. A prede-
termined time limit should be established, and students should understand
that speaking the maximum amount of time will be evaluated more highly.
(People who can cover the highlights of their lives in 40 seconds when
given two minutes need to get out more often!)
Evaluation: On a standardized scale, rate the speaker according to
the following criteria:
1. Did the speaker use the maximum amount of time?
2. Did the speaker select diverse and interesting objects for com-
ment?
3. Did the explanation of each object reflect individuality, insight,
and sincerity?
4. Was the voice used effectively in term of pitch, volume, enuncia-
tion, etc.?
5. Were nonverbal factors such as facial expression, eye contact, ges-
tures, etc. used effectively?
The Bag Speech 2. The purpose of this speech is to let members of
the class get to know each other in an unusual way. The goal in this activi-
ty is to escape the mundane, and learn something interesting about people
without talking to them.
Process: Students are split into groups of two, and are told to ex-
change their bags. The partnered students should not know each other very
well. For reasons of security and privacy, the students should be allowed to
remove cash or potentially embarrassing items before the exchange. Stu-
dents are given a short period of time, perhaps four or five minutes to look
at the contents and to make notes. Students are then directed to introduce
18
their partners to the rest of the class by commenting on three things about
the person that would be interesting to others and not well known. The
name does not count as one of the three comments. Stating the name is an
extra requirement to be given at the beginning of the introduction. Stating
the obvious does not count as one of the three interesting comments. (To
introduce Cindy as a second year student to a class comprised of second
year students would not count as one of the five interesting things about
Cindy.) Each person is given a time limit to make the introduction, perhaps
two minutes. At the end of all the introductions, students should be able to
identify each other and remember something interesting about each other.
Since students may not talk to each other during the preparation, infer-
ences will be drawn that may not be accurate. These are not usually seri-
ous, and good-natured corrections at the conclusion of the introductions
are part of the ice breaking process.
Evaluation: On a standardized scale, rate the speaker according to
the following criteria:
1. Did the speaker state the name of her/his partner and use the name
often enough so that the rest of the class could remember it easily?
2. Did the speaker mention three things about her/his partner, that are
interesting and not commonly known?
3. Did the speaker make the introduction in a manner that was clear,
smooth, and understandable?
4. At the end of the introductions, can other students identify the in-
dividual and something interesting about her/him?
Sample Speech
I would like to introduce the class to an interesting individual named
Anthony. Anthony is a good-looking guy, which comes as no surprise
since he has an annual pass to the health club. He has good reason to be a
fitness fanatic because Anthony is also carrying pictures of three attractive
women. I would guess Anthony makes friends easily, and that friendship is
important to him in the long term. Anthony is very sociable, not only be-
cause of the pictures, but also because of a receipt here for six frozen piz-
zas, a case of soda, and a bunch of other junk food. Either Anthony has
19
lots of friends over, or he eats like a pig. He is not just a wild party guy,
though. He is fairly intellectual because he has a library card that has obvi-
ously been used a lot. Since he wears glasses, I think he really is sort of a
bookworm, and doesn't just go there to meet girls. Anthony has a very
busy schedule, and not much time to lie around like a couch potato. He has
a hard time fitting the health club, the girls and the library into one day. So
please meet Anthony, a very sociable guy.

20
2. EFFECTIVE LISTENING STRATEGIES

The Outline
2.1. Good listening matters.
2.2. Listening is more than hearing.
2.3. Listening takes most of our time.
2.4. Choosing the right listening style contributes to the success.
2.5. Roadblocks to good listening must be taken into account.
2.6. Seven deadly habits of bad listening.
2.7. Effective listening strategies.

2.1. GOOD LISTENING MATTERS


A good listener is popular everywhere. You will make more friends
by listening than by speaking. Undoubtedly good listening is a valuable
skill. Fortune magazine rates listening as the top management skill needed
for success in business.
The benefits of good listening are plentiful. They go beyond just ac-
quiring information. Good listeners encourage speakers to do their best.
Good listeners also enhance their own ability to speak by improving their
concentration. Best of all they learn to think better as listening, in final
analysis, is a thinking skill. Last but not least is the fact that good listeners
receive the key to be successful with the family, their friends, on the job or
at school.

2.2. LISTENING IS MORE THAN HEARING


As listeners we tend to think that the responsibility for successful
communication lies with the person doing the talking. This attitude causes
us to become passive listeners. We tolerate distractions and generally we
fail to respond to the speaker’s message by asking questions or to remem-
ber anything that was said.
Effective listeners, on the other hand, play an active role by guiding
the speaker toward common interests.

21
Basically, listening is the process of understanding what was meant,
not simply sensing what was said. When you listen, according to Web-
ster’s New World Dictionary, you “make a conscious effort to hear.”
Clearly, listening takes effort. By contrast, hearing is simply an automatic
reaction of the senses and nervous system. I can hear you talking (I can’t
help it if you speak loud enough), but if I don’t like or trust you, I may not
listen to what you say. Listening is a voluntary act in which we use our
higher mental processes. Hearing is easy for most of us; listening is hard
for all of us. You have to want to listen.

2.3. LISTENING TAKES MOST OF OUR TIME


Listening is one of the first things we learn to do and one of the
things we do most. The average person spends 9 percent of his daily com-
munication time writing, 16 percent reading, 30 percent speaking, and an
overwhelming 45 percent listening. According to some studies, students
spend most of their school time listening – up to 60 percent. Yet despite its
importance, we usually take our ability to listen for granted.

2.4. CHOOSING THE RIGHT LISTENING STYLE


CONTRIBUTES TO THE SUCCESS
How successful we are as listeners may depend in part on choosing
the right listening style for the situation. There are five listening styles.
Perhaps the most basic listening style is appreciative listening. We
listen appreciatively when we enjoy music, a bird’s song, or the murmur of
a brook. We need a different style, one called discriminative listening,
when we want to single out one particular sound from a noisy environ-
ment. You discriminate, for example, when you listen for a friend’s voice
in a crowded room. We use the third listening style, comprehensive listen-
ing, when we want to understand. When we listen to directions or instruc-
tions, we are using this style.
The fourth listening style is more complex. Therapeutic listening, the
style practiced by counselors, psychiatrists, and good friends, encourages
people to talk freely without fear of embarrassment. The therapeutic lis-

22
tener in conversation with a troubled person accepts what is said, tries hard
to understand, and, above all, makes no judgments
The fifth style is critical thinking. Critical listeners evaluate what
they hear and decide if another person’s message is logical, worthwhile, or
has value.

2.5. ROADBLOCKS TO GOOD LISTENING


MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT
Why is listening difficult? These are the roadblocks we run into in a
listening assignment:
1) a small price to pay;
2) the limits of human concentration;
3) a human desire to speak;
4) trying to guess ahead.
One reason we may not be good listeners is that it costs us some-
thing. To really listen we must pay attention. In listening, we pay out our
most personal assets – our awareness, interest, and effort – to receive
something in return: information, understanding, and entertainment. Lis-
tening is hard work which is why we do not give our attention easily.
Another reason is, of course, the limits of human concentration. Most
of us remember the first few minutes and the last few minutes of a speech
or talk. This is called the law of primacy and the law of recency. A con-
centration curve of an audience listening for about 40 minutes will dip
sharply after the first 10 minutes and rise sharply about 3 minutes before
the end. Little of the middle section is remembered at all without special
listening strategies mastered.
Among the biggest hurdles to good listening is the very human desire
to speak. Most of the time when someone is speaking to us, we are think-
ing of what we want to say next, not listening at all. We prefer speaking to
listening.
Unfortunately, our short attention spans and impatience can lead us
to try to guess ahead, which, quite often, appears to be a distraction. First,
it can distract you from what the person really says, and second, because
23
you’re likely to shape what you do hear to fit your expectations, you might
only hear what you want to say.

2.6. SEVEN DEADLY HABITS


OF BAD LISTENING
During the Middle Ages, people worried a lot about committing the
seven deadly sins – gluttony, anger, greed, lechery, envy, avarice and
sloth. Today we should worry about falling into the seven deadly habits
of bad listening. They are: 1) tuning out dull topics, 2) faking attention,
3) yielding to distractions, 4) criticizing delivery or physical appearance,
5) jumping to conclusions, 6) overreacting to emotional words, 7) inter-
rupting.

2.7. EFFECTIVE LISTENING STRATEGIES


You can learn to be a good listener. Studies have shown that a little
bit of knowledge and a lot of practice can lead to improved listening. To
do well, however, takes the right attitude. You should be prepared to make
the effort to become a better listener. First of all, adopt the right posture for
listening: face the speaker and establish eye contact, lean forward and nod
occasionally. And that’s just the beginning as good listeners must know
when it’s the right time to listen most intently and be able to use their lis-
tening “spare time” to advantage.
We can take advantage of our listening spare time in a variety of
ways, the four mental activities, however, – explore, analyze, review and
search for hidden meanings – are probably the most promising.
Here is a handy acronym that might help you remember these sug-
gestions. Think EARS:
“E” for explore. Think ahead of the speaker.
“A” for analyze. Consider carefully what’s being said; look at it from
several angles.
“R” for review. Take advantage of your spare listening time to re-
trace the speaker’s steps.
“S” for search. Be alert for hidden meanings.

24
3. PREPARING YOUR SPEECH.
CREATIVE THINKING TECHNIQUES

The Outline
3.1. Clarifying your purpose.
3.2. Setting out clear, measurable objectives.
3.3. Creative thinking – generate ideas.
3.4. Researching your topic.

3.1. CLARIFYING YOUR PURPOSE


The key to successful presentation is preparation. Almost every book
which has been written on the subject rightly dwells on the importance of
preparation, research and structure. But how do you start?
First of all you should sit down and think about the purpose of your
presentation and write clear objectives.
Lord Reith, founder of the BBC, always said that there were three
main purposes of broadcast radio. They are to educate, to inform and to
entertain. To this trio we should add to persuade.
Too often, unfortunately, speakers ramble on with no clear idea of
what they are trying to say and why the audience has assembled to listen to
them. You may feel passionate about something but your audience won’t
care less if they don’t feel it’s relevant to them and you haven’t clarified
your message for them.
Stop for a moment and start to clarify the purpose of your communi-
cation. Ask yourself the following questions:
– Why should I want to talk about this?
– Why should anybody want to listen to me?
– What single message would I want to put across?
– What need in the audience do I want to have satisfied when I have
finished speaking?
– When they all walk away what state would I like them to leave in?

25
This may seem very basic stuff, but it’s amazing how often speakers
launch into their pet subject with great enthusiasm without considering
their purpose and whether the audience share their enthusiasm. They ig-
nore the needs of the audience.
Let’s consider the example. Suppose you have been asked to give a
talk to 16-year-olds about career choice. There can be a variety of messag-
es you might like to dwell upon. But of all these messages, there must be
one which is paramount. Let’s assume that it is: To tell them about the lo-
cal Careers Office. But don’t you think that it sounds a little too vague?
Definitely, it needs to be sharpened up. How about: To tell them how the
local Careers Office can help them decide about future career and choose
the best subjects to study. Better. Remember you should sell benefits not
features.

3.2. SETTING OUT CLEAR,


MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES
The main point about setting clear objectives is that they should be
quantifiable, otherwise you won’t know if the objectives have been met
and your message has got across.
A goal or purpose may be fairly general, take the previous example
into account, but an objective needs to be specific. In other words it needs
to be measurable and (preferably) quantifiable as well, you need to focus.
For example, at the end of your speech on the local Careers Office,
your audience should know exactly: where the Careers Office is situated,
what kind of information and resources are available, what happens at a
career interview, how they would individually benefit from a visit.
You might want them to buy a product (a brochure), change their
lifestyle, etc. And you would also like to inspire each of them a little.
Task 1. Do the following task for practice. Here are two different
subjects on which you have been asked to prepare a lecture, presentation,
talk or speech, together with the audience. In one sentence, write down the
main point or core statement that you would like to get across in fewer
than 10 words.
26
1. Subject: Your first week at the University.
Audience: New students (freshers).
Core statement:
2. Subject: English classes
Audience: Parents
Core statement:

3.3. CREATIVE THINKING – GENERATE IDEAS


Having clarified your purpose and set out measurable objectives, by
no means should you continue with writing an outline. It will do your
speech only harm. You may be a very organized person but, at this stage,
this is the last thing that you need to be.
Original ideas and unusual approaches come from random connec-
tion of thoughts. The brain does not work in a “logical” pattern: if you start
by writing an outline then you are imposing order before you have had a
chance to generate ideas. If you try creative thinking methods first then
you will learn to think in a more creative way and the ideas will flow.
Then you can start to impose a structure later.
If you are a left brain thinker – logical, scientific, strategic – then you
may find the following methods a little strange because you have not been
used to using the right side of your brain – the creative, artistic, spatial and
random side. Ideally, you should learn to use both sides.
Here we will touch upon 3 creative thinking methods and later intro-
duce some creativity and relaxation exercises to avoid mental blocks.
The first method, we would like to tell you about, was invented by
Edward de Bono, famous for his books and lectures on “lateral thinking”.
So, his lateral thinking method consists of the following. You should take
a subject on which you are preparing a speech, pick a word at random
from the dictionary and then try and make a connection between the two,
even if it sounds stupid. Edward de Bono suggests this method for getting
the brain to work in a creative, lateral way.
The next is a brainstorming method. It is a method of generating ide-
as using free associations. It can be done in a team or as a solo activity. Es-
27
sentially, the principle is to start with the word, say the theme of a talk, and
to write down the next idea or word that comes into your head. Form a
chain – all your words won’t necessarily relate to the original word. Even
if you seem to be heading in a totally unfamiliar direction and going off
the point, follow your thoughts down the channel. In group sessions, no
comment must be made on the suitability of the word or idea – it is simply
noted and the next person carries on.
Mind-mapping was developed in the 1970s by the academic Tony
Buzan. It uses the technique to generate ideas which are then mapped on
paper. It utilises both words and pictures. Pictures are easier to remember.
For this method you will need a plain piece of paper and several coloured
pens. Step one. You write your topic in the center of the page. Step two.
Now you start writing down words which come into your head (or you can
draw pictures if you wish) around the page. Step three. You go back to
each word and write down secondary words which come to mind for each
of the key words. Don’t worry if they don’t seem logical at this point. Step
four. Now start joining up the key words or pictures using lines. Start with
lines radially from the central theme. Step five. Take your different col-
oured pens and underline words which are related in the same colour. Al-
ternatively, you can put a number or letter by each word or phrase that
falls into the same category. What you have been doing is using the right
side of your brain initially to generate ideas using free association, and
then the left side to organise those ideas.
But if you find these methods alien, there’s no need to force yourself
to do them. Instead, try some relaxation exercises, and try to develop your
own way of generating and recording ideas.
Sometimes people get mental blocks. It’s the blank piece of paper
syndrome. What goes wrong? You may be in an environment not condu-
cive for generating ideas – hard chairs, uninspiring decoration, sterile at-
mosphere. The right side of the brain responds better to certain rhythms,
for example, the slow beat of Baroque music like J. S. Bach and Vivaldi,
or the chuggerty-chug of a train. Sit yourself in a comfortable position, put
on some Baroque music, fix your eyes on something and start to dream.
28
You may find that you fall into a semi-trance state where the highly sug-
gestible subconscious starts to become active. Try it. Another good time to
jot down ideas is just before you go to sleep. Put a note pad and pen beside
your bed and write down any good ideas that come into your head. The
thing is that some of the most original ideas come to people in the “day-
dream” state between sleeping and waking.

3.4. RESEARCHING YOUR TOPIC


To be interesting, entertaining, informative and convincing your speech
needs good support. Find quotations, anecdotes, statistics, topical news sto-
ries, illustrations, etc. For this you need to do a research. Basically, research
sources are divided into primary and secondary sources. Look through the
following sources and decide on the ones which are right for you, your
speech and your audience. Primary sources are personal contacts and friends,
your own experiences, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, any-
thing not written down or printed. Secondary sources include books, refer-
ence materials, encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspapers, magazines, journals,
reports, surveys, any printed information, museums, galleries, buildings,
shops, films, TV, photographs, radio, tapes, companies and organizations
(who can provide information in any of the forms mentioned).
Task 2. Look at the examples of plagiarism below. Express your atti-
tude to this. Would you call it an act of political dishonesty?
Senator Joseph Biden
1. “Why am I the first Kinnock in a thousand generations to be able
to get to university? . . . Was it because our predecessors were thick? . . .
Was it because they were weak, those people who could work eight hours
underground and then come and play football, weak? It was because there
was no platform upon which they could stand.” (Kinnock)
“Why is it that Joe Biden is the first in his family ever to go to a uni-
versity? . . . Is it because our fathers and mothers were not bright? ... Is it
because they didn't work hard, my ancestors who worked in the coal mines
of Northeast Pennsylvania and would come up after twelve hours and play

29
football for four hours? ... It's because they didn't have a platform on
which to stand.” (Biden)
Task 3. Study the research plan of the student who wrote the speech
on the importance of imagination.
Ideas for your speeches can come from almost anywhere, but your
research should follow a plan. This student speech was inspired by a con-
versation among some high school friends driving to a restaurant for din-
ner. The students were complaining that imagination was seldom rewarded
in life. One of the students decided to research the importance of imagina-
tion for an upcoming speech. His research plan followed the ten steps
listed below:
1. Discussed the idea with his most “imaginative” friend. The friend
contributed the story that eventually became the conclusion – the four-
year-old child, who, after seeing a production of Peter Pan, screamed at the
top of her lungs as the curtain was descending, “Don't bring the curtain
down yet. We're not ready.”
2. Visited the library. Checked card catalog for books on imagina-
tion. Looked up both imagination and creativity in the Reader's Guide.
Read several articles and scanned two books for supporting materials.
Took careful notes.
3. Found definition of imagination in the dictionary.
4. Talked to mother about the subject and was reminded that at three,
he had often sung the opening lines from the musical Peter Pan. Chose the
structure of the Peter Pan story as an organizational approach for the
speech.
5. Asked speech teacher for additional materials and was given three
more books. Took more notes.
6. Went to a local mall. Spent two hours observing and recording ex-
amples that illustrated a lack of imagination.
7. Interviewed an astronomy teacher about Albert Einstein.
8. Called the University of Nebraska psychology department. Inter-
viewed three professors about their views on imagination.

30
9. Studied the newspaper each day for relevant information. Found
the quotation from former hostage Terry Anderson.
10. Attended the movie Hook to get more ideas for the Peter Pan ap-
proach.
With the information gathered from these ten steps, the student put pen
to paper. Several revisions later, he delivered the finished speech to his
classmates. Because the student had carefully researched and thoroughly
prepared his speech, his performance was well received by the other students.
Task 4. Choose a topic for a speech that you would like to present.
After coming up with at least five steps you would take in researching this
topic, share your ideas with the rest of the class.
Task 5. Match the first half of each quotation (1–10) with the second
half (a–j). Pick up a couple of quotations from the list and think how you
can use it in the introduction to your speech.
1. It is better to have loved and lost.
2. Never explain – your friends do not need it.
3. Well done is better.
4. I’m President of the United States and.
5. To get back my youth I would do anything in the world.
6. Words are, of course, the most.
7. We must learn to live together as brothers.
8. My one regret in life is that.
9. I never think of the future.
10. I hear and I forget. I see and I remember.

a) I’m not going to eat any more broccoli! – George H W Bush


(1924–)
b) I’m not someone else. – Woody Allen (1935–)
c) than never to have loved at all. – Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809–
1892)
d) or perish together as fools. – Martin Luther King, Jr (1929–1968)
e) than well said. – Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790)
f) It comes soon enough. – Albert Einstein (1879–1955)
31
g) I do and I understand. – Confucius (551–479 BC)
h) except take exercise, get up early or be respectable. – Oscar Wilde
(1854–1900)
i) and your enemies will not believe you anyway. – Elbert Hubbard
(1856–1915)
j) powerful drug known to mankind. – Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936)

Task 6. Circle the incorrect homophones in each quotation. Write the


correct word. Choose one and demonstrate how you can use it in the body
of your speech.
1. All truth passes threw three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it
is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. Arthur
Schopenhauer (1788–1860)
2. He who has a “why” to live, can bare with almost any “how”.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)
3. Whether you think that you can, or that you can’t, you are usually
write. Henry Ford (1863–1947)
4. Sometimes it is not enough that we do our best; we must due what
is required. Sir Winston Churchill (1874–1965)
5. In science one tries to tell people, in such a way as to be under-
stood by everyone, something that no one ever new before. But in poetry,
it’s the exact opposite. Paul Dirac (1902–1984)
6. I don’t know why we are hear, but I’m pretty sure that it is not in
order to enjoy ourselves. Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951)
7. Be nice to people on your way up, because you meat them on your
way down. Jimmy Durante (1893–1980)
8. The man who goes alone can start today; but he who travels with
another must weight till that other is ready. Henry David Thoreau
(1817–1862)

32
4. ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH

The Outline
4.1. The introduction can “make or break” you as a speaker.
4.2. The body of the speech is the heart of the entire presentation.
4.3. The conclusion is the final part in which you wrap up what you
have to say in a neat communication package.

4.1. THE INTRODUCTION CAN “MAKE OR BREAK”


YOU AS A SPEAKER

Many speakers say that, psychologically, the toughest part of a


speech is the introduction. An introduction can “make or break” you as a
speaker because it sets the tone – at least in your head – for the remainder
of the speech.
What is an introduction, and what is it supposed to do? See if you
can determine the function of introduction by reading this example.
Have you ever heard the saying “Let a smile be your umbrella”?
What about the observation “Laugh and the world laughs with you”? Both
of these statements deal with how a positive attitude and a sense of hu-
mour can make a bad situation a little better for both you and the people
around you. However, did you know that your ability to laugh can mean a
great deal more than a pleasant smile or momentary delight? As a matter
of fact, laughter can be very beneficial in many ways. Consequently, I
would like to discuss the various areas in your lives where laughter can
play a significantly positive role. Let’s take a look at how laughter can
help you on the job, with your friends and family, and with your health.
Basically, the introduction does four things:
1. It gets the attention of the audience.
2. It provides a clear link from your attention-getter to your speech
topic, or thesis statement.

33
3. It gives your specific thesis statement.
4. It presents a preview of the major areas that will be discussed.
So, as we found out the first element of an introduction should be an
attention-getter. Let’s look at five types of attention-getters that can help
you to get your speech off to a smooth start.
1. Asking questions.
Asking questions gets your audience immediately involved in what
you are saying. Immediately asking your audience a question or a series of
questions not only fires up their curiosity about your topic, it also makes
them active participants in your speech.
If you were doing a speech called “The Power of Word Building”,
you might begin by asking your audience this:
How many of you know the meaning of the word verisimilitude? Do
you know what veracity means? What about the word verity? Well, all
three of these words have something to do with the word truth, and I
wouldn’t be telling you the truth if I didn’t confess that I had to look these
words up in a dictionary. However, building vocabulary is a challenge that
each of us should accept if…
Do you see how questions can provide the attention-getting spark
you want to begin your speech? Sometimes you might ask your audience
to respond to your questions by actually raising their hands or speaking out
loud. But beware! While this technique can sometimes promote spirited
audience involvement, it can also lead to chaos and loss of concentration if
the responses to your questions don’t turn out as you expected. Are you
prepared to handle such a situation? Is it worth the risk?
Often it is best to use rhetorical questions. Rhetorical questions, like
the ones given in the examples, don’t really demand a verbal response. In-
stead, they ask the members of your audience to answer silently in their
heads. Rhetorical questions are also “safe” questions because they often
answer themselves: “Do any of us in this room want our family to join the
thousands who die each year because of people who drink and drive?”
Such questions don’t demand a response, but they do challenge your audi-

34
ence to think This type of mental stimulation offers you the potential for
immediate attention-getting success.
2. Making references.
Like asking questions, making references can allow you to work well
with your audience. You might refer to people in your audience, your
physical surroundings, other speakers who are on the programme, or the
significance of the occasion. This approach allows you to be comfortable,
congenial, and conversational with your audience by including them in
your opening remarks. Audiences like to be included, and including them
provides a type of speaker-audience unity that says, “ You and I are in this
speech together!” For instance, you might say this: “I see that John is in
the audience. When we first started this class project two months ago, he
was the one who provided the leadership and enthusiasm that the rest of us
needed at that time. The word leadership is exactly what I wish to talk
about tonight because…”
As usual, of course, you must use good taste and common sense. For
example, it might be risky to make a casual reference to someone in the
audience whom you barely know. Making references should get you off to
a positive start with your listeners, not put your speech in jeopardy. In
general, though, audiences appreciate a speaker who shows that he or she
is aware of and in tune with what is happening.
3. Making a startling statement
Sometimes your best attention-getter is one that jolts your audience
into paying attention. You might be familiar with the story about the
speaker who, before her speech, noticed that certain members of her audi-
ence are half-asleep, daydreaming, or involved in idle conversations. One
thing was certain: they were definitely not to listen. The speaker calmly
walked to the front of the room and suddenly shouted, “SEX!” An imme-
diate hush fell over the audience, and every head turned in her direction.
When she saw that the audience was focused on her, she smiled politely
and said, “Thank you. Now that I have your attention…” Luckily, every-
one laughed, and she was able to deliver a speech to attentive listeners.
She had figuratively reached out and grabbed them.
35
For example, avoid beginning a speech on cancer by saying “I am
going to talk to you today about cancer, a terrible disease.” Instead, say
“One hundred new metal coffins will be lowered into our city’s cemetery
this month. Of those, at least twenty will contain cancer victims.”
As impressive as this technique might appear, it has its drawbacks.
Too many speakers have tried to startle their audiences, only to find that
their attention-getters offended people instead. Don’t be foolish. An audi-
ence will forgive an honest mistake, but it will rarely forgive bad taste!
Yes, the startling statement can work for you, but you must use sound
judgement and take time to know your audience.
4. Giving a quotation.
You deliver a quotation each time you repeat the exact words that
someone else has said. Giving a quotation is a popular attention-getter. For
one thing, quotations can add a degree of style and sophistication to speech
presentations. For another, quotations are abundant and fairly easy to find,
so you can surely find one that fits your needs.
Choose quotations that are clear and appropriate for your speech
topic and authors who are reliable and can be trusted. Although some fa-
mous people need no introduction, it is a good practice while delivering
your attention-getter to give your audience some idea of who your author
is and what he or she has done that is noteworthy. Why is this the case?
Generally speaking, audiences like are likely to be impressed if the sources
that you are quoting are impressive.
“Genius,” said Tom Edison, “is one percent inspiration and 99 percent
perspiration.” (This quote can begin a speech on the secret of success.)
Don’t think that your quotation must be serious or must have been
delivered by someone who lived centuries ago. On the contrary, some of
the most effective quotations are lighter and have been given by people
who are alive right now. Take the time to search through your resources so
that you can find the quotation that will be the perfect attention-getter for
your speech.

36
5. Telling a story.
One of the most popular attention-getters is telling a story. Everyone
loves a story, especially the one that is told well. Illustrations and personal
accounts can quickly give you an “in” with your audience because your
stories give your personality a chance to work and are so much in demand.
Keep in mind that your stories should be short and to the point. Don’t
lose sight of the purpose of your speech.
Have you heard an experience that you would call special? Have you
gone through some heart-stopping ordeal that you would like to share?
Such experiences can make good stories. Here is an example: “A few
weeks ago, my mom and dad went out for the evening, and I was alone at
home. About 2 a.m. I heard a noise downstairs. I was petrified, but some-
how I managed to go downstairs. Slowly, I moved the curtain to see what
was inside. You can imagine my fear when I saw two eyes looking right
back at me! It was a hedgehog! The good thing is that, in this instance,
I was able to deal with my fear. The bad news is that I almost collapsed in
the process. What does fear mean and how can we…”
Stories don’t have to be personal. They can be interesting accounts
about other people, places, events, and so on. The story should set the
mood you are after and create an effective picture in the minds of your lis-
teners that relates to your speech thesis.
Task 1. Try to determine the type of attention-getter in the following
extracts.
1. “You can fool all of the people some of the time and you can fool
some of the people all of the time, but you can’t fool all of the people all of
the time”. Abraham Lincoln, the author of this quotation, might have add-
ed the words “except in America,” because Americans are often easy prey
for those wishing to make a fast buck. Let’s examine why Americans are
so gullible and take a look…
2. I love music. I love dancing. I love how men and women, young
and old, rich and poor, can move and smile and laugh and keep the rhythm
to their favourite songs. However, today I’m not here to talk about music –
because, ironically, every time that my hand comes down to “keep the
37
beat”, a young child is physically or sexually abused in this country. And
the violence is real…
3. The great scientists Louis Pasteur was terrified by one thing –
dogs. The sight of a dog immobilized him. Even when he heard a dog bark
from blocks away, his agonized boyhood memories of friends driven crazy
through the bite of a mad hound would haunt him. So at the height of his
career, when doctors were pleading that he focus his attention on a dozen
diseases, Pasteur limited himself to finding a vaccine for rabies. His persis-
tent research and final triumph were possible because he had great person-
al feeling that aided his creativity. (So you might begin a speech that dis-
cusses how a person’s strong emotions can produce inventive ideas.)
4. Have you ever heard someone say, “The devil made me do it”?
Have you ever heard the expression, “Don’t blame me. It’s not my fault”?
If you answered yes to one or both of these questions, Then you would
probably agree with me that many people in today’s society find it easy to
make excuses and blame someone or something else for their problems. I
would like to talk about…
5. For some reason, every time that we are in this auditorium, the air-
conditioning is out. Maybe we should all bring our own fans next time.
However, The temperature might not be the only thing that is “sticky” to-
night. My topic, “Why AIDS Needs to Be Talked about in Schools,” could
also make some people warm and uncomfortable. I have confidence, nev-
ertheless, that if we work together…
6. “First in war – first in peace – and first in the hearts of his coun-
trymen.” These are the words that begun Revolutionary War General Hen-
ry Lee’s famous funeral oration for George Washington. The quotation
shows us a man of conscience and a man who cared for his fellow men.
However, do we care for our fellow men today the same as Washington
did in his day? I would like to take a look at…
Now, let’s move on to the next point of the introduction, the link.
Probably the section of the introduction that students most often overlook
when preparing their speeches is the link. The link is the statement that
comes between the attention-getter and the thesis statement and logically
38
connects the two. Study the following introduction and pay special atten-
tion to the role of the link element.
“I’m going to let you in on a secret that will change your lives. Girls,
for just $10 , you can learn what makes a guy fall in love and how to make
him want you! The right way to flirt! If you act now, we will rush you our
best seller, Secrets of Kissing. You see, it’s all part of the “Get Him Sys-
tem,” G.H. – a no-fail love guide that tells you the truth. No more old-
fashioned advice that you already know.”
Believe it or not, this is more than a mere attention-getter for my
speech. This is taken from an actual ad found in the February edition of
Young Miss magazine. My speech for today will deal with one of the
words in the last sentence of the ad, old-fashioned; for it is my opinion
that, contrary to what is stated in the Get Him ad, maybe a sense of old-
fashioned tradition is exactly what we need in today’s society. Therefore,
I would specifically like to examine some traditional American values.
Do you see how your link took you where you wanted to be – ready
to state your speech thesis? Even though the link can be more than one
sentence long, usually one sentence can do the job.
The third part of your introduction is the thesis statement. It tells your
audience exactly what your speech is about. If you have a catchy attention-
getter and a smooth link to a thesis statement that is vague, your speech may
be unclear. A brief, to-the-point thesis statement can help you avoid such a
problem. To make sure that your audience knows you are introducing your
thesis is to tell them. Saying something like “This leads me to my thesis,
which is …” can be a smart way to make sure that you and your audience are
both following the same communication roadmap. You must also keep your
thesis focused. Here is an example of a thesis statement:
I would like to talk with you about the advantages of community ser-
vice and why we should all plan to get involved.
The preview statement is usually one sentence at the end of the intro-
duction that gives the audience an overview of the major areas that will be
discussed in the body of the speech. The major areas mentioned in your

39
preview statement will be repeated later in the body of your speech with
specific examples added for support.
Although not all speeches have a preview statement, it is often wise
to provide one for your audience. A preview statement tells your audience
where your speech will be heading and, as a result, makes the body of your
speech easier for your listeners to follow.

4.2. THE BODY OF THE SPEECH IS THE HEART


OF THE ENTIRE PRESENTATION
The body of the speech is the heart, the brain, the nerve centre of the
entire presentation. Some of the psychologists consider it the toughest
point because of the so called concentration curve. Therefore, it really
needs to be well-organized.
Let’s take a look at two important ways to make the body of your
speech clear and convincing : outlining and using organizational patterns.
How do you actually make an outline? Even though you outline your
entire speech, most of your outlining will deal with the body. Therefore,
let’s use the body of the speech to examine outlining. First, look below at
the components of a speaking outline and how they look on the page.
Purpose statement
1. Main heading.
A. Supporting material:
a) detail.
The purpose statement is closely associated with the thesis statement.
It is placed near the top of your page and states both your selected speech
topic and your specific purpose in speaking.
In your actual speech, you most likely reword your purpose state-
ment, but it needs to be clearly written out to serve as a primary reminder
of what your speech is going to be about.
Main headings are the major divisions, areas, or arguments of your
purpose statement. They represent the main ideas that you wish to analyze.
Supporting materials provide intensification and reinforcement for
the main headings. Each main heading has its own supporting statements.
40
It’s important to remember that your supporting material must be logically
narrower and more specific than your main headings. While the main
headings logically divide and prove the purpose statement, the supporting
material extends what has been suggested by the main headings.
Many speakers go one step deeper into the outline and give details.
When you get to the detail part of your outline, you will almost always be
able to include exact names, dates, events, numbers, or personal accounts
that will impress your listeners and solidify your point.
It is important to remember that each part of the outline should con-
tain at least two items. Though the magical number with the audiences is
three, of course.
Task 2. Now let’s examine the sample outline to prove the points
discussed above.
Sample Outline
Purpose Statement: The purpose of this speech is to inform the audience of
the positive role that laughter can play in their lives.
Introduction
1. Have you ever heard the sayings “Let a smile be your umbrella”
and “Laugh and the world laughs with you?”
A. Both of these sayings show how a positive attitude and laugh-
ter can work to your advantage.
B. Laughter can do more than provide a pleasant smile.
2. I would like to discuss the various areas in your lives where
laughter can play a significantly positive role.
C. Laughter can help you on the job.
D. Laughter can help you with family and friends.
E. Laughter can help your health.
Body
1. Laughter can help you on the job.
A. Laughter can make you a more productive worker.
a) mention pamphlet on employees and bosses.
b) giving in to your “funny bone” relieves stress and lets you
see the occupational “big picture.”
41
B. Laughter helps you cut down on absenteeism.
a) Walker University study gives the 20 percent fewer days
missed statistic.
b) worker who laughs wants to come to work.
2. Laughter can help you with family and friends.
A. Family problems can be handled better.
a) Northwestern University reports that most family disputes
can be “defused” by a well-timed joke or a laugh that the
family is involved in together.
b) trust often results from taking the time to laugh with one
another.
B. People are often drawn to laughter and a sense of humour.
a) friends believe that your ability to laugh with them is a
sign that you accept them.
b) Psychological study: people are attracted to those who
laugh heartily because they see those as potential leaders.
3. Laughter can also benefit your health.
A. Laughter can help people with serious illnesses.
a) my aunt who had cancer found that watching cartoons and
laughing gave her a positive attitude about her condition.
b) terminally ill patients in Chicago lived two to four years
longer.
B. Laughter can help with common ailments.
a) doctors state that the energy that it takes to laugh is actual-
ly a form of exercise that helps the body fight aches and
pains.
b) they add that laughing keeps the throat and vocal cords
loose and active and helps ward off serious sore throats
and colds.
Conclusion
1. Thus, laughter can make you a better worker, a more sensitive
family member and friend, and a healthier person.
A. It takes no special talent.
B. It costs nothing.
42
2. So “Let a smile be your umbrella” is certainly good advice.
Let’s now look at some of the ways that you can organize the body of
your speech. Keep in mind that these organizational patterns can some-
times be combined for greater effect.
The chronological pattern of organization puts things in time se-
quence. It is an excellent choice if you have to give a history speech or a
how-to-do-it speech.
Topic “Development of TV”
1. The 40s.
2. The 50s.
3. The 60s.
When you use the spatial pattern of organization, you are dividing up
your topic on the basis of space relationships. You create a layout picture.
It’s ideal to talk about a town, building, parts of the country, etc.
Topic “The Relief of Russia”
1. The European part.
2. Siberia.
3. The Far East.
In the problem – solution pattern of organization the speaker first
states the problem and then describes the solution.
Topic “A Need to Recycle”
1. Problems. A. Lack of knowledge. B. Economics. C. Lack of en-
couragement.
2. Solutions. A. Education in schools and the media. B. Government
support. C. Personal commitment.
Topical pattern of organization is for logical topics.
Topic “The Structure of British Parliament”
1. The House of Lords.
2. The House of Representatives.
Climactic pattern of organization is when the speaker presents the
material in order of importance for dramatic solution. In other words, you
save your most important for last.
Topic “The Price of Crime in Russia”
1. Crime and the economy.
43
2. Crime and the schools.
3. Crime and you and your family.
The idea of the cause-effect pattern of organization is “ because of
that this happened .”
Topic “Skin Hunger”
1. Causes. A. Age barriers. B. Stereotype barriers.
2. Effects. A. Physical problems. B. Psychological problems.
C. Emotional problems.
And one more point before we move on to conclusion is the use tran-
sitions or signposts. These expressions signal out where the discussion is
going. They will appear throughout your speech, but they are especially
helpful in the body of the speech. They allow both you and your audience
to know exactly where you are in your speech and how all the parts in your
speech fit together.
See the table below for some transitions that you might use (tab. 1).

Table 1
Relationship intended
Possible transitional words and phrases
between parts of your speech
to add ideas beyond that, in addition, besides, likewise, moreover,
also, furthermore, next, finally
to illustrate or demonstrate beyond that, in addition, besides, likewise, for in-
stance, that is, to illustrate, specifically, a case in point
to yield a point granted, of course, since this is so, although true
to show contrast however, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other
hand, while this may be true
to emphasize a point above all, indeed, more important, in fact, surely,
without a doubt
to compare at the same time, in the same way, likewise, similarly
to show order first, second, in the second place, finally, next, in con-
clusion, last
to repeat or restate in other words, that is to say, in short, in any case
to summarize in conclusion, all in all, overall, for these reasons
to show relationships in time before, afterward, formerly, later, meanwhile, next,
presently, previously, subsequently, soon, after, ulti-
mately

44
4.3. THE CONCLUSION IS THE FINAL PART
IN WHICH YOU WRAP UP WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY
IN A NEAT COMMUNICATION PACKAGE
Let’s take a look at what a good conclusion must be like.
First, a good conclusion should effectively summarize the major
points of the speech. Remember this rather amusing statement to realize
the importance of summary: “Tell them what you are going to tell, then tell
them, and, finally, tell them what you told them.”
The next section of your conclusion is the solution or action step.
The examples of this would be “do some reading, try this out, buy, write,
join, use, remember, etc.”
Just as it is important to make a good first impression, it is important
to make a solid final impression. Your final appeal ends your speech and
challenges, inspires, or motivates your audience to consider the signifi-
cance of your topic. The tone and the nature of your speech should deter-
mine your final appeal or final impression.
The two requirements for you to remember when you write a conclu-
sion:
1. Keep it short “stand up, speak up, shut up.”
2. Link action step to capture step to give your speech a sense of unity.

45
5. WRITING A SPEECH.
EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE

The Outline
5.1. Drafting a speech.
5.2. Learning the golden rules of speech writing

5.1. DRAFTING A SPEECH


Now you are ready to put pen to paper. The recommended steps are:
– first, write a rough draft;
– second, refine your draft, adding illustrations and changing words;
– third, rewrite it into spoken English, shortening sentences and
changing words;
– fourth, rehearse the speech aloud, timing it;
– fifth, make alterations to fit the time slot.
We are going to look now at how to use language to communicate ef-
fectively in speech and learn how to “write like a good talker” and “think
like a listener” (David Bernstein, Put it together, put it across).

5.2. LEARNING THE GOLDEN RULES


OF SPEECH WRITING
1. Use spoken rather than written English.
When writing a speech your should translate it into spoken English.
Here are some useful tips when writing English to be spoken aloud.
a) use contracted forms;
b) use positive speech. Don’t say: “I am not here today to persuade
you not to choose…”;
c) use active not passive sentences;
d) use direct speech. Avoid the use of pronoun “One”. Use the word
you – it makes direct contact with your audience. Try and avoid too much
reference to yourself and limit the use of the word “I”;
e) avoid being too long-winded and using complicated language.

46
2. Use short sentences.
Forget about sub-clauses and long sentences. Where you would nor-
mally write one long sentence, speak it in three short ones. For example,
instead of the sentence: “The cat, which had just licked its saucer of milk
clean of every final scrap, curled up into a fluffy ball of ginger fur, licked
its lips and fell asleep on the mat.” You should say: “The cat licked its
saucer clean of milk. It curled up into a ginger fluffy ball. And finally, it
licked its lips and fell asleep on the mat.”
3. Sentences should vary in length.
Try and keep the sentences to between 5 and 15 words as a general
rule. Longer sentences can work but only if they run before or after short
sentences.
4. Put the key words at the end of a sentence.
This will make the audience anticipate your key word or point. For
example: “The most interesting and bizarre time of the year to visit Cam-
bridge is during May Week.”
5. Use repetition and rhythm.
People like to hear words that have a rhythmic feel, particularly if
they come in threes. They also like repetition because it gives them a struc-
ture. Many people have used “the rule of threes” – making three short
statements that have a rhythm. Try and think of well-known phrases or
quotations that come in threes (the magic figure) like “Liberty, equality,
fraternity”. It doesn’t sound quite so effective in fours and twos, but fives
and sevens are almost as effective. If there is anything that is almost guar-
anteed to make the audience break out into applause it is a string of three
emotive words, preferably with some repetition. However, use the wrong
words and it will fall flat.
6. Use frequent signposts.
Give the audience frequent signposts to tell them where you are head-
ing and what is coming next. The following words and phrases all act as
signposts: firstly, secondly, thirdly, and finally, to begin with, however,
nevertheless, on the other hand, in a minute, later on I will be talking about
this in more depth, as I mentioned before…
47
Audiences feel happy when they have a structure to hold on. Tell
them your structure. First you are going to introduce them to a new con-
cept in language teaching, second you will explain how it works, and third
you will show them how they can apply it to students in their university.
7. Use rhetorical questions and word “you”.
Asking the audience a question will significantly raise their attention
level. It works extremely well as it involves the audience immediately.
A rhetorical question is simply one that is floated to the audience without
any need for a reply. The idea is simply to get them thinking. Bear in mind
that the use of the rhetorical question to precede the main statement has the
effect of making that statement much stronger.
8. Avoid using dry facts and statistics without making meaningful
comparisons.
General facts when using figures are:
– use round figures where possible and avoid decimal points or frac-
tions. “Just over ten per cent” is better than “ten point one per cent”;
– words like “one third” are better than “thirty-three and a third per
cent”;
– compare height, length and area to people and other things. “About
the size of a football pitch” and “Smaller than your thumbnail” helps peo-
ple to visualize.
9. Remember that audience memory is limited.
Your audience will probably only remember a tenth of what you
have said and most of that will be at the beginning and at the end. Their at-
tention will start to flag after about 20 minutes unless you change your ap-
proach or break the pattern. Use words which cover all three modes of
processing information (visual, auditory and sensory).
Task 1. Read the text below “The Weather of New England” by
Mark Twain and comment on the effective use of expressive stylistic
means concentrating on the syntactical component. Pay attention to the
words in bold.

48
“The Weather of New England” Mark Twain (1887)
I reverently believe that the Maker who made us all makes every-
thing in New England but the weather. I don't know who makes that, but
I think it must be raw apprentices in the weather – clerk's factory who ex-
periment and learn how, in New England, for board and clothes, and then
are promoted to make weather for countries that require a good article, and
will take their custom elsewhere if they don't get it. There is a sumptuous
variety about the New England weather that compels the stranger's admira-
tion and regret. The weather is always doing something there; always
attending strictly to business; always getting up new designs and try-
ing them on the people to see how they will go. But it gets through more
business in spring than in any other season. In the spring I have counted
one hundred and thirty-six different kinds of weather inside of four- and-
twenty hours. It was I that made the fame and fortune of that man that had
that marvellous collection of weather on exhibition at the Centennial, that
so astounded the foreigners. He was going to travel all over the world and
get specimens from all the climes. I said, “Don't you do it; you come to
New England on a favorable spring day.” I told him what we could do in
the way of style, variety, and quantity. Well, he came and he made his col-
lection in four days. As to variety, why, he confessed that he got hundreds
of kinds of weather that he had never heard of before. And as to quantity
well, after he had picked out and discarded all that was blemished in any
way, he not only had weather enough, but weather to spare; weather to
hire out; weather to sell; to deposit; weather to invest; weather to give
to the poor. The people of New England are by nature patient and forbear-
ing, but there are some things which they will not stand. Every year they
kill a lot of poets for writing about “Beautiful Spring.” These are generally
casual visitors, who bring their notions of spring from somewhere else,
and cannot, of course, know how the natives feel about spring. And so the
first thing they know the opportunity to inquire how they feel has per-
manently gone by. Old Probabilities has a mighty reputation for accurate
prophecy, and thoroughly well deserves it. You take up the paper and ob-
serve how crisply and confidently he checks off what today's weather is
49
going to be on the Pacific, down South, in the Middle States, in the Wis-
consin region. See him sail along in the joy and pride of his power till he
gets to New England and then see his tail drop. He doesn't know what the
weather is going to be in New England. Well, he mulls over it, and by and
by he gets out something about like this: Probably northeast to southwest
winds, varying to the southward and westward and eastward, and points
between, high and low barometer swapping around from place to place;
probable areas of rain, snow, hail, drought, succeeded or preceded by
earthquakes, with thunder and lightning. Then he jots down his post-
script from his wandering mind, to cover accidents “But it is possible that
the programme may be wholly changed in the mean time.” Yes, one of the
brightest gems in the England weather is the dazzling uncertainty of it.
There is only one thing certain about it you are certain there is going to be
plenty of it – a perfect grand review; but you never can tell which end of
the procession is going to move first. You fix up for the drought; you leave
your umbrella in the house and sally out, and two to one you get drowned.
You make up your mind that the earthquake is due; you stand from under,
and take hold of something to steady yourself, and the first thing you know
you get struck by lightning. These are great disappointments; but they cant
be helped. The lightning there is peculiar; it is so convincing, that when it
strikes a thing it doesn't leave enough of that thing behind for you to tell
whether. Well, you'd think it was something valuable, and a Congressman
had been there. And the thunder. When the thunder begins to merely tune
up and scrape and saw, and key up the instruments for the performance,
strangers say, “Why, what awful thunder you have here?” But when the
baton is raised and the real concert begins, you'll find that stranger down in
the cellar with his head in the ash-barrel. Now as to the size of the weather
in New England-lengthways, I mean. It is utterly disproportioned to the
size of that little country. Half the time, when it is packed as full as it can
stick, you will see that New England weather sticking out beyond the edg-
es and projecting around hundreds and hundreds of miles over the neigh-
boring States. She can't hold a tenth part of her weather. You can see
cracks all about where she has strained herself trying to do it. I could speak
50
volumes about the inhuman perversity of the New England weather, but I
will give but a single specimen. I like to hear rain on a tin roof. So I cov-
ered part of my roof with tin, with an eye to that luxury. Well, you are cer-
tain there is going to be plenty of it-a perfect grand review; but you never
can tell which end of the procession is going to move first. You fix up for
the drought; you leave your umbrella in the house and sally out, and two to
one you get drowned. You make up your mind that the earthquake is due;
you stand from under, and take hold of something to steady yourself, and
the first thing you know you get struck by lightning. These are great disap-
pointments; but they can’t be helped. The lightning there is peculiar; it is
so convincing, that when it strikes a thing it doesn't leave enough of that
thing behind for you to tell whether – well, you'd think it was something
valuable, and a Congressman had been there. And the thunder. When the
thunder begins to merely tune up and scrape and saw, and key up the in-
struments for the performance, strangers say, “Why, what awful thunder
you have here?” But when the baton is raised and the real concert begins,
you'll find that stranger down in the cellar with his head in the ash-barrel.
Now as to the size of the weather in New England-lengthways, I mean. It
is utterly disproportioned to the size of that little country. Half the time,
when it is packed as full as it can stick, you will see that New England
weather sticking out beyond the edges and projecting around hundreds and
hundreds of miles over the neighboring States. She can't hold a tenth part
of her weather. You can see cracks all about where she has strained herself
trying to do it. I could speak volumes about the inhuman perversity of the
New England weather, but I will give but a single specimen. I like to hear
rain on a tin roof. So I covered part of my roof with tin, with an eye to that
luxury. Well, sir, do you think it ever rains on that tin? No, sir; skips it
every time. Mind, in this speech I have been trying merely to do honor to
the New England weather; no language could do it justice. But, after all,
there is at least one or two things about that weather (or, if you please, ef-
fects produced by it) which we residents would not like to part with. If we
hadn't our bewitching autumn foliage, we should still have to credit the
weather with one feature which compensates for all its bullying vagaries –
51
the ice-storm: when a leafless tree is clothed with ice from the bottom to
the top – ice that is as bright and clear as crystal; when every bough and
twig is strung with ice-beads, frozen dew-drops, and the whole tree spar-
kles cold and white, like the Shah of Persia's diamond plume. Then the
wind waves the branches and the sun comes out and turns all those myri-
ads of beads and drops to prisms that glow and burn and flash with all
manner of colored fires, which change and change again with inconceiva-
ble rapidity from blue to red, from red to green, and green to gold; the tree
becomes a spraying fountain, a very explosion of dazzling jewels; and it
stands there the acme, the climax, the supremest possibility in an or nature,
of bewildering, intoxicating, intolerable magnificence. One cannot make
the words too strong.

Task 2. Study the excerpts from Barack Obama’s speeches and


comment on the impact of cognitive metaphors skillfully used by the pres-
ident of the USA.

1. This is a difficult responsibility to embrace. For human history has


often been a record of nations and tribes subjugating one another to serve
their own interests. Yet in this new age, such attitudes are self-defeating.
Given our interdependence, any world order that elevates one nation or
group of people over another will inevitably fail. So whatever we think of
the past, we must not be prisoners of it. Our problems must be dealt with
through partnership; progress must be shared. Barack Obama “The Mus-
lim World in Cairo”, 2009

2. “Above all, I will never forget who this victory truly belongs to: it
belongs to you.”
“I was never the likeliest candidate for this office; we didn't start with
much money or many endorsements; our campaign was not hatched in the
halls of Washington.”

52
“It grew strength from the young people who rejected the myth of
their generations’ apathy, who left their homes and their families for jobs
that offered little pay and less sleep.”
“It grew strength from the not-so-young people who braved the bitter
cold and scorching heat to knock on doors of perfect strangers.” Barack
Obama “Change Has Come”, 2009

3. But we have to pass a serious bill, and it has to go a long way to-
wards correcting some of the most egregious offenses of the last few years
and preventing future offenses as well. This is not a time for window-
dressing or putting a band-aid on a problem just to score political points.
This is a time for real reform. I think the Honest Leadership and Open
Government Act, which has 41 cosponsors, established the right marker
for reform, and I commend Senator Harry Reid and his staff for their hard
work in putting it together.
Real reform means making sure that Members of Congress and senior
Administration officials wait until they leave office before pursuing jobs
with industries they're responsible for regulating. Barack Obama “Open-
ing Statement – Floor Debate on Ethnics Reform”, 2006

4. We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by these principles once


more, we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort -
even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. We will
begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and forge a hard-earned peace
in Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we’ll work tirelessly to
lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the specter of a warming planet. We
will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defense, and
for those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughter-
ing innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is stronger and cannot be
broken; you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you.
As we consider the road that unfolds before us, we remember with
humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-
off deserts and distant mountains. They have something to tell us, just as
53
the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages. We honor
them not only because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they
embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning in something
greater than themselves. And yet, at this moment - a moment that will de-
fine a generation – it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all. Barack
Obama “Inaugural Address”, 2009

5. The fact is, our economy did not fall into decline overnight. Nor
did all of our problems begin when the housing market collapsed or the
stock market sank. We have known for decades that our survival depends
on finding new sources of energy. Yet we import more oil today than ever
before. The cost of health care eats up more and more of our savings each
year, yet we keep delaying reform. Our children will compete for jobs in a
global economy that too many of our schools do not prepare them for. And
though all these challenges went unsolved, we still managed to spend more
money and pile up more debt, both as individuals and through our gov-
ernment, than ever before. Barack Obama “Address to Joint Session of
Congress”, 2009

6. A belief that we are connected as one people. If there's a child on


the south side of Chicago who can't read, that matters to me, even if it's not
my child. If there's a senior citizen somewhere who can't pay for her pre-
scription and has to choose between medicine and the rent, that makes my
life poorer, even if it's not my grandmother. If there's an Arab American
family being rounded up without benefit of an attorney or due process, that
threatens my civil liberties. It's that fundamental belief – I am my brother's
keeper, I am my sisters' keeper – that makes this country work. It's what
allows us to pursue our individual dreams, yet still come together because
we are a single American family. Barack Obama “The Democratic Na-
tional Convention”, 2004

54
7. Another area where we can make significant progress in preven-
tion is by removing the stigma that goes along with getting tested for
HIV/AIDS. The idea that in some places, nine in ten people with HIV have
no idea they're infected is more than frightening - it's a ticking time bomb
waiting to go off.
We should never forget that God granted us the power to reason so
that we would do His work here on Earth – so that we would use science to
cure disease, and heal the sick, and save lives. And one of the miracles to
come out of the AIDS pandemic is that scientists have discovered medi-
cine that can give people with HIV a new chance at life. Barack Obama
“World AIDS Day Speech – Global Summit on AIDS”, 2006

55
6. EFFECTIVE SPEECH DELIVERY.
PROSODIC COMPONENT

The Outline
6.1. Sounding your speech.
6.2. Controlling your breathing.
6.3. Getting rid of the dread articulation disease.
6.4. Projection and volume.
6.5. Pleasant quality. Resonance.
6.6. Using a greater pitch range.
6.7. Varying your tempo.
6.8. Avoiding monotone.

6.1. SOUNDING YOUR SPEECH


You have written your speech and it reads well. Your subject matter
is right for the audience. Your words are carefully chosen. Your speech is
well structured with lots supporting details and lively examples.
You are ready to try reading it out loud in private. You open your
mouth and somehow it just doesn't sound right. You're just not happy with
your voice – it sounds dull, stilted and monotonous. It's rarely what is said
that's at fault, rather it's how it comes across.
It is so easy to murder the most poetic prose and vibrant verse by
making it sound excruciatingly dull – it really doesn't take much effort.
The problem is that we don't necessarily sound to others the way we
sound to ourselves. Only when we hear ourselves recorded on tape or vid-
eo can we really appreciate that we are mumbling, swallowing the endings,
or using too many “ums” and “ers”.
The way you sound can be changed if you are prepared to work at it.
To improve vocal quality you need to work on everything – breathing, ar-
ticulation, projection and volume, resonance, pitch, tempo, intonation.

56
6.2. CONTROLLING YOUR BREATHING
In order to be easily heard, you need a forceful, controlled breath
stream which comes from the first phase of voice production: proper
breathing. While you can sustain life by breathing in any number of ways,
for controlled speaking you need to breathe from the diaphragm.
Task 1. Check your diaphragmatic breathing with the following ex-
ercises:
a) on the floor, lie on your back and place a book over diaphragm ar-
ea just above the waist. As you slowly inhale and exhale, the book should
rise and fall. Work for this same action when you are standing up. Put your
hand where the book was, and rapidly pant like a dog. Notice that you
hand should move out as you inhale and in as you exhale;
b) standing up, place your hands just above your waistline, with the
tips of the middle fingers touching each other. Slowly take a deep breath
through the nose, and feel your hands being pushed outward and your fin-
gertips gradually drawing away from each other;
c) inhale deeply. Hold your breath for five seconds, and then see how
slowly you can exhale it trough rounded lips, keeping the breath stream
smooth and under control;
d) repeat the above exercise, but exhale with a clear “ooooh” sound,
being careful not to become “breathy”. Repeat with other vowels;
e) place a lighted candle a few inches from your mouth, and repeat
the above exercise. The flame should barely flicker.

6.3. GETTING RID OF THE DREAD


ARTICULATION DISEASE
If your family and friends frequently ask you to repeat what you have
said, you may be suffering from the dread articulation disease of lazy jaw,
tongue, and lips. Symptoms are many. “Jeet” for “Did you eat”, “Whatja-
do” for “What did you do”, “Harya” for “How are you”, “Gunna” for “go-
ing to”, and “Zwati thought” for “That is what I thought,” show inexcusa-
ble sloppiness.

57
Task 2. Read the following so that a person standing fifty feet away
can distinguish the two pairs of similar words.
Formally – formerlyAffect – effect
Conscious – conscienceWin – when
Statue – statureLadder – latter
Accept – exceptMadder – matter
Ate – hateWandered – wondered
Adapt – adoptPrecede – proceed

Task 3. Do the following exercises for additional practice:


a) try the jaw waggling exercises;
b) practise saying tongue twisters.

6.4. PROJECTION AND VOLUME


Being able to project your voice to the back of a room comes with
mastery of orrect breathing and self-confidence. Normally, people need to
project their voice much more than they think, and exaggerate. The prob-
lem is that most people have never been in situations where they have to
talk to large groups of people before and they are afraid of raising their
voice. Practising alone in a room is the best way to start.
Task 4. Try the exercise using this passage from Shakespeare's Julius
Caesar.
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
Say it softly in a whisper, to begin with. Then speak as if addressing
an audience of about 20 people. Finally, imagine a hall full of hundreds –
try and fill the imaginary hall with your voice. (Wait until you have an
empty house and try shouting).

6.5. PLEASANT QUALITY. RESONANCE


The quality and tone of your voice speaks louder than words. Try this
experiment. Using endearing words such as “sweet, cute, lovable,” talk to
your dog in a harsh, scolding manner and see him retreat in shame. Now

58
reverse the procedure by using cold, hard words in a friendly, kind tone of
voice and watch him happily wag his tail.
If you can create a pleasant, warm quality when talking to humans,
like your dog, they'll “eat from your hand”. You can improve your tone
and achieve greater flexibility when you have a relaxed, open throat and
when you use the resonators to full extent.
Task 5. For an open throat, practice the following:
a) yawn: put the tip of your tongue behind the lower front teeth.
Yawn and inhale deeply. Then stop and notice the open, relaxed throat as
the air rushes in. Repeat until you have memorized this open throat feeling.
Now say “Ah” as you exhale, keeping the throat open and relaxed. Repeat
with other vowels;
b) with an open throat from the above exercise count slowly from
one to twenty;
c) with open, relaxed throat, repeat the following:
Alone, alone, all, all alone,
Alone on a wide, wide sea!
And never a saint took pity on
My soul in agony.
Coleridge
Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean,–
roll!
Byron
For resonance, work on the exercises below:
d) do the above yawn exercise, and then slowly closing your mouth,
add “mmmmmmm”. Push with your diaphragm for a strong flow of air.
Work until you can feel your lips vibrate;
e) with the lips closed, hum. Place your hand on your head, then
your nose, chin, chest. If you are resonating properly you should feel these
areas vibrate.
While your normal vocal quality should be free of harshness, breathi-
ness, or a nasal twang, it, of course, will vary according to thought and mood.
Read the following words, changing your quality to suit their meaning.
59
Grunt, roar, coo, crackle, bang, swish, tinkle, wheeze, buzz, splash,
gurgle, clang, bubble

6.6. USING A GREATER PITCH RANGE


Pitch is the highness and lowness of the voice as determined by the
length and tenseness of the vocal cords. Although humans have a two or
three octave speaking range, too often people talk only within a four or
five note variance. Such one-tone-Toms make listening a bore. Only
through use of a greater pitch range can you effectively get across the full
meaning and feeling of words. For example, high pitch suggests excite-
ment, timidity, weakness, or extreme youth; low pitch reveals assurance,
strength, disgust, despair, and sadness.
For general speaking, you should use the lower half of your range, as
a medium low tone is most pleasing to a listener. But from that level you
should work toward flexibilitv up and down the speaking scale by using
inflection and step changes.
Task 6. For greater pitch range, practice the following:
a) take a deep breath and count slowly from one to eight, saying each
number on a pitch higher than the one before. Be sure you take rather than
sing the numbers. Then talk down the note scale from eight to one;
b) try saying these sentences concentrating on bringing authority into
your voice. Avoid sounding apologetic and consciously try to lower the pitch:

I want you to listen very carefully to what I am saying.


Under no circumstances are you to go into that room.
You will do exactly what I tell you to.

Now try saying this passage, varying the pitch of your voice. Don't
force your voice: the change should be subtle.
Higher and higher until it reached the very top.
Down, down, down into the depths.
Lower and lower until it reached the very bottom.
And then up.
60
c) read aloud the sentences below in a pitch pattern that conveys the
suggested emotional meaning:
1. I am terribly tired and discouraged.
2. What a beautiful view.
3. Watch out! He's got a gun.
4. Get out of here. I hate you.
5. Well! What do you think you're doing?
6. I know. It's the tenth time you've told me.
7. I am so lonely I can't stand it.
8. My brother is the best pitcher in the league.
9. I am so excited. We're going to Bermuda.
10. I am absolutely positive that I sent the letter.

d) using the sentence: “Oh, yes, you don't say”, vary the pitch accord-
ing to the following notations which indicate steps – ‾ _ , and rising /, fall-
ing \, and circumflex Ù Ú inflections:

(1) (3)

- _` - _ ` \ _ Ù _

(2) (4)

Ù ` _ -` / Ù – – \

6.7. VARYING YOUR TEMPO


Tempo means the speed of your speaking. Slow rate suggests sor-
row, deliberation, reverence, doubt. A fast rate suggests excitement, anger,
nervousness, happiness. Your rate will be affected by your pauses between
words and the length you attach to vowel sounds.

61
Task 7. Do the following exercises for rate flexibility:
a) count from 1 to 20 beginning very slowly and increasing your rate
until you are speaking as rapidly as you can. Then reverse: begin at a rapid
rate working down to a very slow pace;
b) while counting from 1 to 20 stretch out the vowel sounds at a slow
rate but allow no pause between numbers. Repeat with short, clipped vow-
el sounds and long pauses between numbers. Shift between these two
methods every six numbers;
c) say the following sentence according to the instructions below:
“The snow is falling down”:
1) use short quantity as if excited;
2) use long quantity as if you are sad;
3) use moderate rate to state a fact simply.

6.8. AVOIDING MONOTONE


Monotonous voices have very little variety of pitch, speed and vol-
ume and use very few pauses. To give your voice variety you need to mas-
ter the art of inflexion – making your voice go up or down to convey
meaning. For instance, when we ask a question, the voice goes up at the
end of a sentence.
Task 8. Say the following sentence a) as a statement, and b) as a
question.
You're going to France this year!
You're going to France this year?
Task 9. a) exercise: no!?
Try saying the word NO in different ways to convey each meaning
simply by changing the intonation.
NO (meaning definitely not)
NO (meaning maybe YES)
NO (meaning I'm afraid)
NO (meaning you naughty person)
NO (meaning I don't believe it)
NO (meaning I am angry)
62
NO (meaning I am really surprised)
NO (meaning YES!)
b) exercise: extracting the meat
Now say the following words trying to get as much “meat” out of them
as possible. Draw out the vowels and over – articulate the consonants. Make
as much as you can of each word. (Some you may recognize from Rowan
Atkinson's schoolmaster character in The Secret Policeman's Ball).
Blob
Blaire
Higginbottom
Pringle
Plectrum
Dollop
Mole
Mollusc
Undermanager
Splot
c) exercise: varying volume, pitch, speed and intonation
Here is another exercise designed to encourage you to vary volume,
pitch, speed and intonation. And don't forget to make maximum use of pauses.
“He crept into the room cautiously, looked around and took in every
detail. The furniture was thick with dust. An eerie silence pervaded the at-
mosphere. On the far wall was an image of a woman with black hair and a
ghostly white pallor. His heart began to beat faster, faster and still faster.
He felt his legs begin to move towards the stairs. Suddenly he found him-
self running down the oak staircase and then he felt his legs beginning to
give way. He tumbled down and down and down to the hall below. Where
was he? In a state of semi – consciousness, his head spinning, he heard the
distinct sound of a loud gong – clang clang clang, echoing throughout the
house – until the silence returned once more.”
Reading children's stories is an excellent way of developing your vo-
cal range and injecting vitality into your speech.

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7. EFFECTIVE SPEECH DELIVERY.
KINESIC COMPONENT

The Outline
7.1. First an audience sees you.
7.2. Approaching the speaker’s platform.
7.3. Maintaining eye contact.
7.4. To be a successful communicator you need a good posture.
7.5. Movement should accentuate and reinforce your speaking.
7.6. Keep your arms and hands free to gesture.
7.7. Keep your face expressive.

7.1. FIRST AN AUDIENCE SEES YOU


First an audience sees you. The way you approach the platform, the
way you are dressed, the way you stand, move, and gesture give your au-
dience its first impression. Even before you have opened your mouth, the
audience has formulated an opinion of you. If your listeners like what they
first see, they'll listen. If they are annoyed with what they see, they'll often
“tune out”.
You can control this visual factor by learning how to manage your
body in front of audience.

7.2. APPROACHING THE SPEAKER’S PLATFORM


As soon as you appear at your speaking destination, give the impres-
sion of being poised, confident, and friendly. Even if you feel nervous, try
not to show it. Loud laughing, coughing, moving back and forth in your
seat, and shuffling papers will betray you. Sit calmly and attentively.
When the chairperson introduces you, react pleasantly and with poise to all
of the remarks. Avoid the extremes of being aloof or making faces.
Quietly walk to the front of the group in a businesslike, confident
way. There is no need to swagger or to shuffle reluctantly. Face the audi-
ence, smile (unless it is a solemn occasion when a smile would be out of

64
place), and make pause, allowing time for the audience to give you their
attention. When you have their attention, begin your speech.

7.3. MAINTAINING EYE CONTACT


Probably the worst thing you can do apart from mumbling inaudibly
is not to look at the audience. The first point of contact you have with the
audience is through the eyes. Mentally divide your audience into 4 boxes
and pick up a person from one of the boxes and talk a little bit to that per-
son, pick up another person from the same box and talk a little bit, thus
sustaining an eye contact with that person, move on to another box and
pick up a person there and talk to him/her, etc.
If you avoid eye contact it looks as it you are unsure of yourself or
that you don't believe in what you are saying.
Task 1. Do the following exercise: Try walking into a room. Turn
and face the audience and take a slow look at all the faces; if you find this
difficult, make yourself fix you gaze at a person for 1 – 3 seconds, but not
more then pick up another person and do the same smile! This will help
you to relax and make a positive communication. Your audience are facing
you in a horseshoe make sure that you turn and look at the two people on
the extremities of the horseshoe before you start speaking and then re-
member to look at them several times during the session. If you are read-
ing your script, make sure you pause and look at the audience from time to
time. If their attention is starting to wander they will soon wake up and lis-
ten if they sense you are looking at them.

7.4. TO BE A SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATOR


YOU NEED A GOOD POSTURE
To be successful communicator you need a good posture, one that
makes your body responsive but does not call attention to itself. Start by
placing your feet several inches apart to give you firm control of body
weight. One foot slightly in advance of the other is a comfortable position
for most speakers.

65
With your knees unlocked and loose, keep most of you weight equal-
ly distributed on the balls of your feet. This allows you to move your body
quickly in any direction, should the audience throw tomatoes, or should
you need to walk for transitions. Stand tell by reaching up with the crown
or your head and with your spinal column. With this action your stomach
should go in and your seat tuck under. Put your shoulders back and then
drop and relax them with arms and hands hanging relaxed at your sides.
Keep your chin parallel to the floor. Practice this posture until it becomes
natural for you.
Task 2. Do the following. Let's look at the following body language
types. Can you recognize anybody like that?
Peter the prowler
He paces up and down like a lion in a cage. Just as he reaches the
edge of the platform he does a swift about turn and paces back again. Peo-
ple at the front of the audience follow his movements like a tennis match.
Nobody listens to what he is saying because they are waiting for him to do
his little spin and prowl back again.
Olivia the ostrich
She buries her head in her speech which is written out word for word
on sheets of paper. Her eyes are locked in a downward are; she never actu-
ally looks at the audience who are all start ag to fidget. A pity, because
what she has to say is quite interesting.
Johnnie the juggler
He is a wizard with coins, pens, chalk, in fact anything he can throw
up in the air. He doesn't know what to do with this hands and so he starts
his juggling sequence. Everyone is transfixed waiting for him to drop
something. He thinks they are all absorbed in what he is saying, but their
minds are elsewhere.
Brenda the bird
She can't keep her hands (wings) still, either. Unfortunately, she
doesn't do anything really definite with her hands – they just flap around
like a bird. One particular gesture is the semi – circular motion with a bent

66
wrist, characteristic of birds with broken wings trying to take off. Most ir-
ritating.
Karen the kangaroo
She is perpetually hopping from one foot to the other, springing up and
down on her heels, which are too high. Everyone is looking at her legs, see-
ing exactly what she does, and paying no attention to what she says.
Norman the nudist
Norman doesn't know what to do with his hands, so he clasps them in
front just over his private parts and bends his knees slightly. He looks like
a man who been caught with his trousers down. The general impression he
gives is rather wimpish and lacking any authority. He doesn't look very re-
laxed, and nor does his audience.
Larry the leaning tower
Larry feels naked without a lectern because he has to lean on it – usu-
ally on one foot. The upper half of his body is draped over the top part of
the lectern, possibly because he is unable to stand up without support.
Stella the stork
She loves standing on one leg or twisting her legs around each other
until they resemble a plaited loaf. For some unknown reason, standing on
two legs is a problem. The audience is soon transfixed by the contortions
of her legs.

7.5. MOVEMENT SHOULD ACCENTUATE


AND REINFORCE YOUR SPEAKING
Movement should accentuate and reinforce your speaking. It should
be logical and make sense to your audience. Platform movement not only
shows your audience that you are literally moving from one part of your
speech to another but it also gives the audience a break from starting at
you in one spot the entire time. It provides a type of “eye relief”. This
makes you a little more dynamic and exciting if you do it correctly.
“But how do I move, and when are the right times to move?” you
may ask. There are three situations that allow for effective platform
movement.
67
First of all, it is logical to move when you are going from one section
of your speech to another. For instance, after you have delivered your in-
troduction, you might want to move in order to set up and draw attention
to your thesis or topic sentence. In addition, many speakers like to use
movements between their main points and again before their conclusion.
These movements add variety and give special importance to specific sec-
tions of their speeches. Always begin your speech by “squaring up”, or
centering yourself with your audience (not with the room). You should al-
so end your speech near the middle of your audience. This adds a touch of
cohesion, courtesy, and completeness to your speech.
Second, movement is often effective when you are changing your
emotional appeal.
Finally, platform movement is often appropriate when it “just feels
right” to you. You might have an urge to move while delivering an exam-
ple or while giving your conclusion go ahead and give it a try. There are a
few specific points to remember about how to move.
1. Always move in a comfortable, relaxed manner by leading with
the leg in the direction you are moving. If you are walking to the right, for
example, move the right leg first. If you are moving to the left, move the
left leg first. There are two good reasons to do this. The first is that it keeps
your body “open” to the audience. If you are crossing your legs over as
you move, you might turn almost sideways and present a profile to your
audience. When this happens, your audience members lose part of your
face and potentially part of your words. They can't hear what you might be
delivering to the walls. The second reason is that it keeps you, believe it or
not, from tripping over your own feet. You would be amazed to hear the
number of stories about men catching their shoes in the cuffs of their pants
or women hitting a heel of the other shoe or foot. How embarrassing!
2. Move toward your audience. When you are moving in your
speech, your walking should be directed toward some portion of the audi-
ence or even a specific audience member. You should be moving as if to
say, “Here is a point that I particularly want you to hear”. In other words,
you are moving because you are sharing your words with your listeners.
68
Vary the direction of your movement. This is good way to make sure that
no portion of your audience feels neglected or ignored.
3. Of course, you shouldn't make the angle of your movement too ex-
treme, and you shouldn't move so close to an audience member that he or
she might feel uncomfortable. Be aware of proxemics, or how much phys-
ical space you leave between you and your audience. Use your common
sense in determining your distance from the audience. Know the speaking
area, and always made sure that you can comfortably move back to the
center of the room, leaving an appropriate amount of space between you
and your audience.

7.6. KEEP YOUR ARMS


AND HANDS FREE TO GESTURE
Keep your arms and hands free to gesture. A gesture is movement of
any part of your body to convey thought and emotion. Pointing your fin-
ger, nodding your head, raising your eyebrow, shrugging your shoulders –
all are gestures. The secret of using gestures is to allow them to come natu-
rally from your enthusiasm about the subject. They should start inside,
gather force, and be activated at the right moment when you are describing
something (the length of a fish, how to grip a tennis racket) or emphasizing
an idea (“go away”, “three strikes”, “over there”). Notice that all gestures
must help your speech. Unconsciously tearing your notes into bits, twisting
your ring, squeezing your arms, or holding your hands waist high in front
like a singer, are distractions to be avoided. Keep your hands and arms free
from such nervous display by letting them hang relaxed at your side will
fingers opened and slightly curved until you feel the urge to move with
purpose.
While you should never plan to use a specific gesture on a certain
word in your speech, you can rehearse gestures to give you a “feel” for
them.
Task 3. Do the following task. Try these conventional gestures and
accompanying remarks as a group in class, and then practice at home with
appropriate sentences.
69
(a) Nodding and shaking the head.
(“Yes, I will”. “No, I don't believe so”.)
(b) Giving and receiving: extend hands with palms up and fingers
usually separated, elbow away from your side.
(“Take this book”. “Thank you for the gift”.)
(c) Rejecting: sweeping motion with palms down.
(“Get it away from me”. “It can't be done”. “Don't do that”.)
(d) Pointing: arm extended with index finger pointing.
(“Look!” “See that door”. “Point one is …”).
(e) Clinching fist: (to show anger or determination) keep first about
shoulder height.
(“We'll never give up”. “We'll fight if necessary”.)
(f) Cautioning: hand extended about shoulder height with palm facing
down.
(“Now take it easy”. “Don't rush to a conclusion”.)
(g) Dividing: (to indicate separation of ideas) move hand from side to
side with palm vertical and fingers together.
(“The home boosters sit to the right; the visitors to the left”.)
As you practice gestures, keep them strong and vigorous, use your
whole body to carry them through (which means you must not cement
your elbows to your sides) and time them to come on or slightly before the
emphatic words. And, remember, the farther away your audience is, the
larger your gestures must be for them to see.
Task 4. Do the following task. Look at some common bad habits
found in speakers. Do some of them look familiar?
· juggling and throwing objects
· picking nails and cuticles
· fiddling with rings and watches
· coiling bits of hair or running hand through hair
· shuffling cue cards
· rustling paper
· playing with coins in the pocket

70
· scratching
· clutching backs of chairs or lecterns
· waving hands around in the air (this can be effective)
· wringing hands.
So what should you do with your hands? Here are eight tips.
1. Hold them lightly (not tightly) in front of you or at your sides, but
don't look like Norman the Nudist, as if you are trying to protect your pri-
vate parts.
2. Putting your hands in your pockets can look sloppy but you might
want to look relaxed in which case this may be OK. Ask others for feed-
back if you are unsure.
3. Holding them behind your back (a habit of many men) will make
you look like Prince Philip or a retired Colonel. Try and keep your hands
loosely by your sides if possible.
4. Holding an object such as a pencil or felt tip marker may help you
to stop playing with your hand so long as you don't start fidgeting with the
pencil or pen.
5. If there is a lectern you could try putting your hands firmly on it.
6. Arm gestures emanating from the elbow, and hand gestures ema-
nating from the wrist, can look wimpish. Arm gestures should come from
the shoulder and be definite, not halfhearted.
7. Avoid folding your arms in front of you: this creates a barrier.
8. If you have papers or cue cards then you can hold these – but don't
fiddle with them.

7.7. KEEP YOUR FACE EXPRESSIVE


Keep your face expressive. If your ideas are happy ones, smile. If the
situation you describe disgusts you, let that show on your face. Of course,
you must not mechanically put on an expressive face. Like gestures, facial
expression must come from the strong feeling you have inside. But if you
consistently have a “deadpan” face, practice showing emotion in front of a
mirror until your face naturally responds when you are in front of a group.

71
A word of caution. Avoid your desire to grimace when you make a
mistake. Don't advertise your errors. Carry on as though nothing had hap-
pened, and the audience will probably not notice anything wrong.
If you are saying, “But I simply can't deliver a speech and I can't get
any better”, remember this story: it has been said that you can't make a silk
purse out of a sow's ear. In other words, you can't make something beauti-
ful from something supposedly ugly. Do you know that a scientist did! He
purchased a sow'sear the stock yards and ground it down to a gelatinous
state. He then devised a method to produce a form of thread from this mat-
ter. With the thread, he created two beautiful, elegant purses. One of them
is currently on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C. He
did it to prove that nothing is impossible if people put their minds to the
task. Apply this lesson to your speech delivery and never give up. The
great ones never do!

72
8. SPEECHES TO INFORM

The Outline
8.1. Informative speeches instruct, inform, and clarify.
8.2. The six C’s of informative speaking.

8.1. INFORMATIVE SPEECHES INSTRUCT,


INFORM, AND CLARIFY
Providing information, a task we perform hundreds of times each
day, is one of the most common and important forms of communication.
Yet, the techniques for providing information efficiently, gracefully, and in
a way that will interest the listener are not well known.
Whenever you give an informative speech your emphasis should be
on statements of fact. Your goal is to make the listener understand.
Deep down, we are all curious. It’s this curiosity that makes informa-
tive speeches such favourites with the audiences. Further, you will learn
that telling people something new is great fun. You will also learn that be-
ing knowledgeable about a subject gives you confidence when you speak.
Many students find that giving informative speeches is closer to real life
than any other assignment.

8.2. THE SIX C’S OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING


As an informative speaker, your goal is to shed light on a subject by
sharing facts that you have learned through experience, observation, listen-
ing, and reading. In your speech you introduce facts that are new, show old
facts in a new way, and clear up misunderstandings. The response you
want from your listeners is basically, “I understand what you said.”
More specifically, we can break down the goals of informative
speaking into six Cs, the better to remember them.
1. Be clear. Many speakers make a special effort at the beginning of
a speech to help listeners by defining a few important words and phrases.
The purpose of a definition is to create some common ground between
speaker and listener. In particular, plan to explain any technical terms that
73
may be new to your audience. But try to keep these terms to a minimum
not to baffle your listeners.
Another part of being clear is making distinctions. One sure way to
make distinctions is through the technique of compare and contrast.
A comparison explains how two things are similar. A contrast explains the
differences. Be sure, however, that what you use for a comparison or con-
trast is familiar to your listeners.
And you should learn to balance your speech. If you spend too much
time and effort on striving for clarity, you may lose your listener’s interest.
Audiences often find long explanations boring. On the other hand, if you
are too obvious, you lose the element of surprise.
2. Be concise. Notice whether you say things like “She arrived at 8
a.m. this morning” or “These pens are identically the same” We are all
guilty of being too wordy sometimes, but this habit can be broken. The se-
cret of being concise is to make each word count, and the best way to do
that is to use precise and specific language. Don’t say tree if you mean
oak, and don’t say temporarily reassigned if you mean fired. To become
more precise, you may need to enlarge your vocabulary.
3. Be complete. No speech can be complete in the sense of covering all
the possible material. You can, however, create a sense of completion in the
minds of the audience by raising certain expectations and then satisfying
them. Tell the audience you have three major points. When you say “first”
they know you are beginning, and when you say “third,” they know you’ve
reached the end. They won’t expect a fourth or a fifth point even though they
realise you haven’t covered the subject as thoroughly as possible.
Statements that forecast what the audience can expect are called ad-
vance organisers. If you say to your audience, for example, “I’m now go-
ing to present the three reasons local authorities have tried to censor rap
music,” the audience is set to listen for three different chunks of infor-
mation. If you introduce each reason with a reinforcing statement, such as
“Now let’s take a look at the first cause,” the audience is reminded of the
structure of the speech. When an audience perceives that your speech has a
plan and can begin to recognise pieces of that plan as a recurring pattern,
74
they will feel more satisfied when you finish speaking. Clearly, some in-
formation is more important than other information. Therefore it’s of great
importance to be able to distinguish major points from minor ones.
4. Be correct. There is no substitute for being accurate. Checking
and double-checking the accuracy of the information you present goes
right to the heart of your credibility. One of the best ways to convince an
audience that your information deserves their attention is to tell where you
found it. Normally, you include the identity of your sources in your speech
briefly at the end or at the beginning of the information itself. For exam-
ple, you might say, “In an article in the February 27 issue of U.S. News,
we read…” or “…according to an editorial writer in this morning’s news-
paper”. You don’t need to use all the information that would appear in the
bibliographical citation. An inquisitive listener can catch you after the
speech to gain a complete rundown of your sources.
5. Be concrete. Another valuable technique for making an informa-
tive speech effective is to be concrete. Focus on the immediate and the ac-
tual. Instead of talking in abstractions, talk in terms of people, places, and
things. Never let a general statement stand alone without a supporting ex-
ample. You might need a short illustration or a long story, it depends on
the situation and the needs of a particular audience. But an effective
speaker should avoid generalizations.
6. Connect. It requires you, simply put, sensitivity to your audience.
You should analyze the needs of your audience. While you can’t choose
your audience, you can choose a speech to fit a particular audience.
Knowledge of the audience, for example their demographics, can
help you fine-tune your speech as you make changes, both large and small
to suit a specific group of listeners.

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9. SPEECHES TO PERSUADE

The Outline
9.1. Speaking persuasively is not easy.
9.2. Analyzing your audience.
9.3. Appealing to your audience.

9.1. SPEAKING PERSUASIVELY IS NOT EASY


Just as there are different designs for houses, there are also different
types of speeches. You learnt about one type, the informative speech, in
the previous chapter. Now let’s take a look at the persuasive speech.
A persuasive speech asks your audience to “buy” something that you
are selling. It can be a product, but it also can be a belief, an attitude, or an
idea. While the informative speech primarily supplies important infor-
mation in order to increase understanding, the persuasive speech goes one
step further and asks the audience to do something based on the infor-
mation presented.
Persuasive speaking demands that you effectively 1) induce your au-
dience to believe as you do and 2) influence your audience in order to
cause some sort of directed action to take place.
First of all, you have to awaken a belief on the part of your listeners
that what you are proposing is a good idea. Next, you have to show them
that you have a well-thought-out plan of action available. Finally, you
should be able to convince your audience that your plan of action is realis-
tic and the right thing to do. People act and react on the basis of what they
want, how they think, and how they feel. Consequently, it is your job to
“push the right buttons,” whether logical or emotional, so that your audi-
ence agrees with what you are promoting.
As a skilled persuasive speaker, your first task is to evaluate accurate-
ly and perceptively how your audience feels about you and your message.
This evaluation, called audience analysis, is an invaluable element in the
persuasive speaking process. Each audience is unique. You must be ready

76
to make adjustments so that your spoken words are appropriate and get the
audience on your side.

9.2. ANALYZING YOUR AUDIENCE


Authorities generally agree that most audiences can be classified into
one of four categories: supportive, uncommitted, indifferent, and opposed.
Often you audience will be a mixture of these four types. Keep in mind
that regardless of the type of audience you are addressing, your main pur-
pose is to gain the most number of supporters possible. Use all of the tools
at your disposal. An effective introduction and conclusion, a sharp appear-
ance, convincing arguments, congeniality, and a sense of humour can help
you persuade your audience.
Every speaker would like to have a supportive audience. The supportive
audience is friendly. The members of the audience like you and what you
have to say. Your main objective with listeners of this type is to reinforce
what they already accept. You want to strengthen your ties with them.
Generally, the supportive audience doesn’t need a great deal of in-
formation. Sometimes, though, the supportive audience has “bought” you
as a person but doesn’t know much about what you are “selling.” In such a
case you need to present your material thoroughly.
You have a good chance of persuading the uncommitted audience be-
cause the uncommitted audience is neutral. This type of audience isn’t for
you or against you; its members simply need information in order to make
up their minds. The prevailing attitude there is usually, “OK, let’s hear
what you have to say. Convince me!” It is then your job to be convincing.
With the indifferent audience, your job as a persuasive speaker gets a
little tougher. This type of audience is difficult to deal with because its
members are apathetic toward you. You don’t really excite them. They
aren’t opposed to you, but they can appear openly bored. The indifferent
audience often needs a dose of shock therapy to cure its ills. The particular
approach won’t work in every situation. You must put forth the effort to
find an approach that will get the attention of the apathetic audience. Be
dynamic in your approach, and show your listeners that what you are sell-
77
ing is important to them and has a direct bearing on their personal well-
being.
Be ready to handle a potential confrontation with the opposed audi-
ence. The members are opposed to you, to what you are promoting, or to
both. Try your best to determine specifically what your audience is hostile
about you? Your cause? A specific statement that you made previously?
When you have reached a conclusion, work with the audience to put out
the flame of that specific fire. It is often a wise approach when addressing
a hostile audience to show that you are willing to compromise, or make
some concessions of your own. Let these listeners see that you see merit in
some of their arguments and that you aren’t perfect.
Another way to gain favour with the hostile audience is to use a dis-
claimer. A disclaimer tells listeners what you are not saying or let’s them
know that you don’t consider yourself the all-knowing expert on every-
thing.
You stand your best chance of getting a fair hearing from the mem-
bers of an opposed audience if you can do the following things:
1. Convince them that you know how they feel and believe that their
position has worth.
2. Avoid needless confrontation.
3. Create a situation where there aren’t winners and losers.

9.3. APPEALING TO YOUR AUDIENCE


If your job is to convince others, it makes sense that you must present
an appealing image and message. Let’s take a quick look at how to be an
appealing speaker.
Aristotle, in his work Rhetoric, stated that the persuasive powers of a
speaker depend on his reasoning, the emotions that he is able to stir in his
listeners, and his character. In other words, a speaker’s success is the result
of his logical appeal, his emotional appeal, and his personal appeal.
Logical appeal. The speaker offers an organized, clearly defined
speech containing solid reasoning and valid evidence.

78
Emotional appeal. Emotional appeal is a major consideration in per-
suasive speaking. Indeed, it often has a stronger impact on an audience
than logic or reason. Emotional appeal, or pathos, involves striking a chord
in people’s insides and exciting their feelings of love, admiration, anger,
disgust, fear, compassion, patriotism, etc. If you want your audience to feel
a certain feeling, always supply yourself an emotional example for them.
Feel it yourself!
Personal appeal. Having personal appeal, or ethos, means that your
listeners will buy what you are selling because they trust in you and your
credibility – your believability. The speaker wins the audience trust
through honesty, competency, and credibility.
Task 1. Look at the list of different kinds of appeal, compiled by
high school students in the USA to persuade their parents to allow them to
drive the family’s brand new car. Sort them out according to type of ap-
peal – logical, emotional or personal.
“Wouldn’t my driving be more convenient than your having to drive
me everywhere?”
“I could help you with the errands!”
“Have I ever let you down? (I mean when it really counts!)”
“When you were a kid, didn’t you want to be given some responsi-
bility, too?”
“I would feel so proud for others to see me in our new car!”
“Please don’t judge me before I have had a chance to prove to you
that I can handle this.”
“I could learn how to follow directions.”
“I’ll pay for my own gas and insurance, plus I’ll keep the car clean.”
“I promise to tell you the truth about where I am going.”
“I would love you guys so much.”

79
10. EVALUATING ORAL PRESENTATIONS

The Outline
10.1. Evaluating a speech.
10.2. Public speaking evaluation chart.
10.3. Evaluating speech content component.
10.4. Evaluating speech delivery component. A self-evaluation chart.
10.5. Memory Work Evaluation Chart.
10.6. Speech Peer Review Form.
10.7. A process of self-evaluation. Know thyself.

10.1. EVALUATING A SPEECH


The first question inevitably asked by a student after a speech presen-
tation is “How did I do?” The answer to this question is crucially im-
portant but is rarely really satisfactory. Limitations of time and the burdens
of class size may severely hinder the evaluation process and make thor-
ough critiquing impossible. However, proper organization, well-thought-
out evaluation criteria and a standardized scale in an easy-to- deal- with
chart can sufficiently improve evaluation process.
Speech students can expect reaction to a performance as coming from
a variety of sources. First, fellow-classmates may offer feedback that pro-
vides some satisfaction to an inquisitive speaker. Second, the teacher is
supposed to give a short oral critique, directed not just to the individual
speaker, but for the entire speech class. Third, the speaker gets a written
evaluation chart, which is detailed, critical and constructive, usually cover-
ing the various speech elements such as content and delivery. And finally,
utilizing the video camera in a speech class allows the speaker the ability
to self-critique. Simply watching yourself give a speech, however, is not
necessarily constructive unless the student knows how to evaluate the
speech. Therefore, after each videotaped speech, the speaker must com-
plete a self-evaluation chart “Know Thyself.” This process must be com-
pleted before the next performance.

80
10.2. PUBLIC SPEAKING EVALUATION CHART
For the sake of convenience evaluation procedure is presented in the
form a chart.
I. Speech Content (45 points)
Organization (comment on effectiveness of introduction; Max 20 pts
clarity of body, including both major divisions and sup-
port points; and efficacy of conclusion) _________
Support (comment on speaker’s use of facts, stories, illus- Max 15 pts
trations, examples and/or logic to expand, explain, de-
fend, inform the audience) _________
Cohesion (comment on the speaker’s ability to unify the Max 10 pts
speech and keep clear focus through use of transitions,
summaries, and other unifying elements) _________

II. Speech Delivery (40 points)


Vocal presentation: 1) volume
Max 20 pts
2) tempo
3) pitch
4) emphasis
_________
5) clear articulation
Physical presentation: 1) eye contact
2) gesturing
3) posture
Max 20 pts
4) facial expression
5) movement
_________
6) dress
III. General Effectiveness (15 points) Amount of time Max 5 pts
used: _______ _________
Adherence to time requirements (comment on whether or
not the speaker made good use of time, including whether Max 10 pts
the speech was too short or too long)

81
Creativity (comment on art/uniqueness/individualized na- _________
ture of the speech)

Total points:

10.3. EVALUATING SPEECH CONTENT COMPONENT


1. Introduction:(10 points )
· What technique(s) was used in the introduction?
(attention-getter?)______________________________________
· Any link element?______________________________________
· Was the thesis statement given?___________________________
· How effective was the introduction?________________________
Very effective Average Not effective Max 10 pts
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 _________

2. Body:(10 points )
· How well structured was the information presented?
Highly organized Some organization None
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
· What organizational structure was used in the body of the speech?
· How understandable was the information (was it clearly ex-
plained)?
Very good Had some problems Had major problems
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
· Quality of point – support (appropriateness, completeness, variety)
Lots of Some Almost no
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
· Use of facts, illustrations, examples, stories.
Lots of Some None
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

82
· Was it coherent?
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Max 10 pts
__________
3. Conclusion:(10 points)
· What technique(s) was used in the conclusion?
· Were all the steps followed (summary, action, emotional appeal?)
· How effective was the conclusion?
Very effective Some conclusion None
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Max 10 pts

Strength: what was the strongest part of the speech?


Weakness: what was the weakest point of the speech?

10.4. EVALUATING SPEECH DELIVERY COMPONENT.


A SELF-EVALUATION CHART
Evaluate your speaking style below in the light of the seven external
behaviours.

Never Seldom Sometimes Usually Always


1 2 3 4 5
____________________________________________________________
1. My voice varies in pitch, volume, tempo, and intensity when I
speak either naturally or through deliberate effort.
Max. 5 points ( )
2. I speak for extended periods of time in direct eye contact with my
listeners, even when lecturing.
Max. 5 points ( )

83
3. I am conscious of deliberately changing the expressions on my
face a number of times during my performance.
Max. 5 points ( )
4. My hands and arms are comfortable pointers, illustrators, and at-
tention-keepers when I speak.
Max.5 points ( )
5. I bend, sit, stretch, twist, and use any other body language availa-
ble and appropriate when I speak.
Max. 5 points ( )
6. Appearance is a consistent consideration when I plan my speaking
sessions, and I vary it accordingly.
Max. 5 points ( )
7. Over the course of oral presentation I move in and out of “all
corners” of the speaking area.
Max. 5 points ( )

Total points: _____

10.5. MEMORY WORK EVALUATION CHART


Student’s Name ____________________________________________
Max. My
points points
Knowledge of the text 5
Correct and clear pronunciation 5
Adequate speech units division 5
Appropriate intonation patterns 5
Variety of voice ( pitch, tempo and loudness) 5
Proper extralinguistic behaviour (eye-contact, pos- 5
ture, gestures, movement, facial expression)
Total sum

84
10.6. SPEECH PEER REVIEW FORM
Carefully read a partner’s speech at least twice, then answer the fol-
lowing questions.
1. What is the main idea of this speech?
2. Who is the intended audience? Is the tone appropriate for that au-
dience?
3. Does the speech begin with any attention-getter?
4. Is there a clearly formulated thesis? How could the thesis be im-
proved?
5. Does the introduction contain an easy-to-follow preview?
6. Does the whole introduction in this speech support the thesis? If
not, what information needs to be removed?
7. What kinds of information are given in support of the thesis (ex-
amples, facts, description, reasons)?
8. Is enough detailed information given to adequately support the the-
sis? What additional information is needed?
9. Are there any linking elements that make the speech coherent and
clear?
10. Is there any part of the paragraph that is unclear or that you do not
understand? If so, what needs more or clearer explanation?
11. Do you see any errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling or word
choice? If so, note them down here?
12. What part of this speech do you like the most?

10.7. A PROCESS OF SELF-EVALUATION.


KNOW THYSELF
Look through the list of questions below for self evaluation and an-
swer the relevant ones with “yes” or “no”:
1. Did you make an effort to gain the mental attention of your audi-
ence in the introduction to your speech?
2. Did you clearly state your topic or question?
3. Did you map the direction your speech was taking?

85
4. Did you support the major ideas with examples, instances, facts,
quotations, or proof?
5. Did your speech have a conclusion (summary, action, appeal)?
6. List three areas of your last speech that you believe were the most
effective. These may include organization, content, or delivery of the
speech.
7. List three weaknesses of your speech. If you believe there were no
weaknesses, then list areas where you could have done better.
8. Pick one area of organization or content that you desire to im-
prove in your next speech.
9. Pick one area of delivery you desire to improve in the next speech.

Task 1. Read the following introductions to the speech about Lon-


don. Evaluate the structure and the content. Were all the steps followed?
Rewrite one of the introductions if you can improve it.
1. Have you ever been to London? If you have, you must have seen
the eye of it, just like in the Tolkien's book. To tell you the truth I'm talk-
ing about the British Airways London Eye. The London Eye is the world's
tallest observation wheel at 135 meters high. Located on the banks of the
River Thames it offers unrivalled views over London.
2. I wish I were in London now. If I were there, I would organize an
excursion and would give you a good idea about this wonderful city. As
we know, London is the capital of Great Britain and one of the largest cul-
tural centers in Europe. I don't know if you have had an opportunity to vis-
it this exciting city but I insist that you should do it. And I will give you a
piece of advice how to plan your tour of the city. First, we will discuss
how to begin a tour, what to do in the middle and finally, I'll tell you how
to end your day in London.
3. The main Britain's tourist attraction is London. It is the city of ca-
thedrals and churches. But what about art? Do you know that three of the
top ten museums and galleries in the world are in London? They are: The
British Museum, Tate Modern and The National Gallery. And now I
would like to tell you some interesting facts about these places.
86
Task 2. Read the speech below and comment on it using Speech Peer
Review Form.
Royal Ceremonies in Great Britain
“Every country has its customs”, say the British. Englishmen are very
proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are many tradi-
tions associated with historical facts, parliamentary, court and state cere-
monies, university life. Among these are the Royal Ceremonies. Royal
Ceremonies are kept alive because of the traditional English conservatism.
I’d like to tell you about three Royal Ceremonies: Changing the Guard,
Trooping the Colour and the Ceremony of the Keys.
One of the most impressive and popular displays of royal pageantry
is Changing the Guard. It takes place at Buckingham Palace every day, in-
cluding Sunday, at 11.30. The troops who take part are selected from the
five regiments of Foot Guards. What is the procedure of the Ceremony?
Two horse guards wearing scarlet uniforms with tall black fur caps, called
the busby, on black horses are guarding the entrance to the Palace. By tra-
dition the duty of mounting the Queen’s Guard is undertaken by a Regi-
ment band.
Another ceremony of great importance is Trooping the Colour which
is set aside as the Queen’s official birthday. This is usually the second Sat-
urday in June. On this day the magnificent spectacle of Trooping the Col-
our takes place on Horse Guards’ Parade in Whitehall. The Queen is riding
side-saddle on a highly trained horse. The colours of one of the five regi-
ments of Foot Guards are trooped before the Sovereign. As she rides on to
Horse Guards’ parade, the massed array of the Brigade of Guards, dressed
in ceremonial uniforms, wait for her inspection. For twenty minutes the
whole parade stands rigidly while being inspected by the Queen. Next
comes the Trooping ceremony itself, to be followed by the famous March
Past of the Guards to the music of mass bands, at which the Queen takes
the Salute. The ceremony ends with the Queen returning to Buckingham
Palace at the head of her Guards.
The third Royal Ceremony I’d like to draw you attention to is the
Ceremony of the Keys. Every night at 9.53 p.m. the Chief Warder of the
87
Tower of London lights a candle lantern and makes his way towards the
Bloody Tower. In the Archway his Escort joins him and they move off to
lock the West Gate and the Towers. Then they all return to the Bloody
Tower and there they are halted by the challenge of the sentry. “Halt! Who
goes there?” The Chief Warder answers, “The keys.” “Whose keys?”
“Queen Elizabeth’s Keys!” “Advance, Queen Elizabeth’s Keys. All is
well”, commands the sentry. The party then faces the main Guard of the
Tower who orders to “Present Arms”. Afterward the Chief Warder doffs
his Tudor-style bonnet and cries, “God preserve Queen Elizabeth.”
“Amen”, answers the Guard and Escort. Then the Chief Warder proceeds
to the Queen’s House, where the keys are given into the custody of the
Resident Governor and Major.
All in all, we spoke about three Royal Ceremonies: Changing the
Guard, Trooping the Colour and the Ceremony of the Keys. In fact, Eng-
lish life is full of traditions and many of them have long outlived them-
selves. Though they make no sense in the present day life, they are pre-
served because of the traditional English conservatism.

Task 3. Evaluate speeches presented in Appendix 2 according to the


evaluation criteria described in this chapter. For the sake of convenience
use one of public speaking evaluation charts and/or Speech Peer Review
Form.

88
REVIEW AND ENRICHMENT.
QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION

Topic № 1
1. What are the four parts of the communication process?
2. What lays foundation for effective oral communication? What are the
three components of responsibility?
3. Prove that stage fright is a natural human feeling.
4. What are the symptoms of stage fright?
5. How can you overcome stage fright?

Topic № 2
1. Will you explain the difference between hearing and listening?
2. Describe five different listening styles.
3. What are the roadblocks to good listening?
4. Describe effective listening strategies.
5. Demonstrate how a listener can encourage a speaker to be clear and precise.

Topic № 3
1. What is the first step in preparing your speech?
2. What is the main point about setting objectives?
3. What does the creative thinking method, invented by Edward de Bono,
imply?
4. Describe the brainstorming method.
5. What does mind mapping consist of?
6. What are the relaxation techniques and exercises to be used to gel rid of
mental blocks?

Topic № 4
l. The introduction is the beginning of your speech. What parts does it usu-
ally consist of?
2. What types of attention - getters can you remember?

89
3. Describe different patterns that can be used to organize the body of a
speech. What does the choice of the pattern depend on?
4. What are transitions and why are they so important?
5. What is the purpose of the conclusion and what are its steps?

Topic № 5
1. What are the five steps in drafting your speech?
2. What are the golden rules of effective speech writing? Comment on
each of them, bring examples.

Topic № 6
1. What do you have to work on if you want to improve prosodic compo-
nent of your speech presentation?
2. What kind of breathing do you need to master to sound right?
3. What exercises and techniques to improve your prosodic quality can you
remember?
4. What part of your speaking pitch range is known to be the most pleasing
to your interlocutor in an everyday situation?

Topic № 7
1. What is kinesic component? Why is it of so much importance for gen-
eral effectiveness of your speech?
2. What is the right way to approach your speaking destination?
3. How to maintain a sustained eye contact?
4. Could you demonstrate the right posture?
5. When is it natural and logical to move in your speech?
6. What are the rules on how to use gestures?

Topic № 8
1. What are the six Cs of informative speaking?
2. How can you create a sense of completion in the minds of your audi-
ence? Why is it important?

90
Topic № 9
1. What are your goals in persuasive speaking?
2. What types of audience do you remember? What are the difficulties in
dealing with them?
3. If your job is to persuade the others, you need to have an appeal. Com-
ment on different types of appeal.

Topic № 10
1. What are the ways to carry out critiquing of speech students? What
causes problems?
2. Against what criteria are speech presentations to be evaluated?

91
FURTHER READING

1. Апресян, Г. З. Ораторское искусство. – 2-е изд., перераб.


и доп. – Москва : Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1972. – 256 с.
2. Иванова, С. Ф. Говори! : урок развивающей риторики. –
Москва : Шк.-пресс, 1997. – 399 с.
3. Иванова, С. Ф. Искусство диалога, или Беседы о риторике. –
Пермь : Зап.-Урал. учеб.-науч. центр, 1992. – 201 с.
4. Кохтев, Н. Н. Основы ораторской речи. – Москва : Изд-во
МГУ, 1992. – 238 с.
5. Льюис, Д. Язык эффективного общения : самоучитель по ис-
кусству виртуоз. коммуникации / Пер. с англ. Ю. Гольдберга. –
Москва : Эксмо, 2004. - 316 с.
6. Ножин, Е. А. Мастерство устного выступления. – 3-е изд., пе-
рераб. – Москва : Политиздат, 1989. - 254 с.
7. Bell, Gordon. The Secrets of Successful Speaking and Business
Presentations. – Heinemann,1996. – 160 p.
8. Bernstein, David. Put It Together, Put it Across. – Cassell,
1988. – 225 p.
9. Busan, Tony. Use Your Head. – ВВС/Open University, 1974. –
116 p.
10. Campbell, John. Speak for Yourself. – Pan, 1978. – 176 p.
11. Gelb, Michael. Present yourself. – Aurium, 1988. – 128 p.
12. Lawrence, Robert. A Guide to Speaking in Public. – Macmillan,
1979. – 169 p.
13. Mc. Cutcheon, Randall. Communication Matters / Randall Mc.
Cutcheon, James Schaffer, Joseph Wycoff. – West Publishing Company,
1994. – 664 p.
14. Nicholls, Anne. Mastering public speaking. – How to Books
Ltd., 1998. – 166 p.
15. Richards, Jan. How to Give a Successful Presentation. – Pan,
1976. – 154 p.

93
16. Stuart, Christina. Effective Speaking. – Nichols Pub Co,
1989. – 242 p.
17. Steward, Chris. Bluff Your Way in Public Speaking / Chris
Steward, Mike Wilkinson. – Ravetto, 1979. – 132 p.
18. Summers, Vivian. Public Speaking (A Penguin Self-Starter). –
Penguin Books Ltd., 1988. – 184 p.
19. Williams, Gordon. Sample Social Speeches. – Paper Front,
1976. – 124 p.

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APPENDIX 1

АНКЕТА
«ВАШ УРОВЕНЬ ОРАТОРСКОГО МАСТЕРСТВА»
Следующая анкета поможет Вам идентифицировать особенно-
сти Вашего стиля общения с аудиторией, помогающие или мешаю-
щие Вам донести свои идеи до слушателей.
Задание. Вспомните те случаи из вашей жизни, когда вы
успешно выступили перед собравшейся аудиторией. Представьте эти
ситуации и прокомментируйте каждое из приведенных ниже утвер-
ждений как «да», «нет», «иногда».
1. Во время выступления я обычно стараюсь «публично мыс-
лить», чтобы слушатели следили за ходом моих рассуждений.
2. В своих выступлениях я, как правило, сопоставляю противо-
положные точки зрения, факты, концепции.
3. В процессе аргументации я обычно ввожу заведомо абсурдное
утверждение, приписав его реальному или возможному оппоненту.
4. Я часто применяю проблемную подачу тезиса, например,
в форме вопроса.
5. Для выступления я выбираю наиболее убедительные и крас-
норечивые аргументы, отбрасывая все менее значительное (опти-
мальное количество аргументов равно 3).
6. Когда я хочу донести свои идеи до слушателей, я свято верю
в них сам.
7. С самого начала я завоевываю доверие аудитории.
8. Во время выступления я чувствую легкое волнение и энтузи-
азм.
9. Для того чтобы вызвать эмоциональное сопереживание ауди-
тории, я провожу анализ материальных и духовных интересов слуша-
телей.
10. Я четко ориентируюсь в системе ценностей конкретной ауди-
тории и апеллирую только к весомым для нее ценностям.

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11. Начиная свое выступление, я использую зачин («крючок»)
для активизации внимания аудитории.
12. Уже во вступлении я четко формулирую основную мысль
(тезис) моего выступления.
13. В течение всего выступления я несколько раз повторяю тезис
(основную мысль).
14. Во вступлении я отвечаю на немой вопрос слушателей «А
какое это отношение имеет ко мне?».
15. В выступлениях на историческую или биографическую тема-
тику я последовательно перехожу от одной микротемы к другой.
16. С целью активизации мыслительной деятельности слушате-
лей я использую проблемную постановку вопроса.
17. В положительно настроенной аудитории я приберегаю самый
сильный и веский аргумент напоследок.
18. В заключении я четко обобщаю все вышесказанное.
19. В заключительных словах моего выступления я эмоциональ-
но обращаюсь к аудитории.
20. Я связываю конец моего выступления с началом.
21. При перечислении фактов я использую слова-организаторы:
во-первых, во-вторых и т. д.
22. В начале своей речи я использую клише типа «для начала…».
23. В конце выступления я использую выражения типа «подводя
итоги…», «суммируя вышесказанное…» и т. д.
24. В начале моего выступления я называю основные положе-
ния, которые я собираюсь развивать в основной части моего доклада.
25. В заключительной части моего выступления я еще раз пере-
числяю основные положения моего доклада.
26. Если мое выступление является частью серии выступлений
по одной теме, то я делаю ссылки на свои предыдущие выступления.
27. Если я собираюсь выступить по этой же теме еще раз, то я
непременно упомяну об этом в своем выступлении.
28. В своей речи я прибегаю к различным повторам (тожде-
ственным, синонимическим, перифрастическим).
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29. Во время выступления я пользуюсь выражениями типа «как
мы знаем», «как мы помним», «что мы знаем» и т. д.
30. Во время выступления я пользуюсь выражениями типа «забе-
гая вперед, скажу», «как будет указано далее» и т. д.
31. Когда я выступаю перед аудиторией, я поддерживаю зри-
тельный контакт со слушателями.
32. Во время выступления выражение моего лица меняется в за-
висимости от эмоциональной насыщенности доклада.
33. Я использую жесты для иллюстрации моих мыслей.
34. Во время выступления я меняю положение моего тела в со-
ответствии с тем, что говорю (я могу потянуться, сесть, нагнуться,
повернуться к залу спиной и т. д.).
35. Во время выступления я двигаюсь по сцене.
36. Если я перехожу от одной подтемы моего выступления к
другой, я меняю положение моего тела или свое месторасположение
по отношению к аудитории.
37. Если я хочу привлечь внимание аудитории к какому-либо
предмету, находящемуся в зале, я использую указательный жест.
38. Если я хочу активизировать внимание аудитории, я «иду в
массы».
39. Перед началом выступления я делаю паузу и, улыбаясь, оки-
дываю взглядом слушателей, если это не противоречит теме моего
доклада.
40. Общаясь с аудиторией, я сохраняю «открытую» позу.
41. Я моделирую громкость голоса в зависимости от количества
слушателей.
42. Я принимаю во внимание темп моей речи. Он не должен пре-
вышать 120 слов в минуту.
43. Я замедляю темп речи на важных моментах своего выступления.
44. Ключевые положения выступления я выделяю голосом.
45. Для активизации внимания зала я варьирую свои голосовые
параметры.

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46. Я могу говорить в разных голосовых регистрах с одинаковой
легкостью.
47. Если я хочу привлечь внимание аудитории, я делаю паузу.
48. Перед тем как сформулировать тезис, я обязательно сделаю
паузу.
49. Я четко артикулирую слова своего выступления, не позволяю
себе проглатывать части слов.
50. Если я замечаю, что слушатели начинают отвлекаться, я могу
понизить громкость моего голоса с целью восстановления их внимания.
51. Для подтверждения высказанных теоретических положений
я привожу фактический материал.
52. В целях экономии времени в течение выступления я подби-
раю яркие факты, которые могут заменить часть рассуждений.
53. Я подбираю фактический материал таким образом, чтобы он
был близок и понятен слушателям, соотносился с их образователь-
ным уровнем и интересами.
54. Я использую примеры из личной жизни, чтобы вызвать эмо-
циональное сопереживание аудитории.
55. В своих выступлениях я избегаю таких общих фраз, как «не-
которое количество», «очень многие ученые», «большая сумма».
56. Я всегда использую цифровой материал в сравнении, в сопо-
ставлении с прошлым или планируемым.
57. В ходе выступления я не использую более трех цифр подряд
без применения наглядных пособий.
58. Если я хочу раскрыть динамику анализируемого явления, то
я использую график или диаграмму.
59. Для того чтобы цифры лучше воспринимались на слух, я их
округляю.
60. В выступлении я «рисую» словесные картины, чтобы ауди-
тория не только слышала, но и «видела», как разворачиваются перед
их мысленными взорами положения моей речи. Для этого я исполь-
зую такие фразы, как «представьте себе, что у вас…», «предположим,
что вы…» и т. д.
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Добавьте 2 балла за каждый ответ «да», 1 балл за каждый ответ
«иногда», 0 баллов за каждый ответ «нет».
Подсчитайте общую сумму баллов для всей анкеты.
Общая сумма –

О чем говорит общая сумма


59 баллов или меньше. У вас обнаружилось несколько барье-
ров, препятствующих эффективному общению. Их следует устра-
нить, прежде чем вы научитесь эффективному общению. Тем не ме-
нее, овладев описанными в книге навыками, вы обнаружите, что вам
стало легче четко и убедительно излагать свои мысли – вне за-
висимости от ситуации, в которой вы оказались.
79–60 баллов. Вы встречаетесь с определенными трудностями
при попытке донести свои идеи до собеседника. Работая над изло-
женными в книге приемами, Вы устраните эти препятствия и усилите
позитивные стороны Вашего стиля общения.
99–80 баллов. Несмотря на определенные барьеры на пути
к эффективному общению, эта сумма баллов свидетельствует о проч-
ном фундаменте знаний и навыков, на который Вы сможете смело
опираться.
120–100 баллов. В Вашем стиле общения больше позитивных,
чем негативных моментов, и в любых ситуациях у Вас возникает не-
много проблем при изложении своих мыслей. Используйте рассмот-
ренные в книге приемы для совершенствования своих и так превы-
шающих средний уровень навыков.

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APPENDIX 2

SPEECHES TO PERSUADE. SPEECH 1


Can you imagine you found out you’re going to die in the next 30
minutes? Just imagine – only 30 minutes left to be spent. What would you
do? Where would you go? Time’s running out. Who would you like to
spend it with? What would you like to say to the people you love? It’s hard
to imagine, isn’t it? Hard, because you’re young. Hard, because you know
you’ve got long life plans. And in spite of knowing that all of us will die in
the end, to himself everyone is immortal. But if today were the last day of
your life and you knew it, would you like to do what you’re about to do
today? If your answer is “yes” something needs to be done immediately to
make your life right. But what is it, to live right? To answer this question
let’s have a look at the three things that have become unacceptably usual
and routine for us, three Ps of our life: Plans for the future, People around
us, and our Personal development.
Let’s start with Plans. If I ask you now, how do you see yourself in
the next ten years? The answers would be like “a successful career-
maker”, “a happy family man”, “a well-balanced personality”. These are
fine, good choices, but at the same time, they sound a little vague, don’t
they? In order to make them come true you have to have targets, definite
and clear, asking yourself everyday if you really did your best to achieve
them. Remember that the happiest people are those with a really long
bucket list.
Now let’s look at the second important thing. Think about passing
away in 30 minutes again. Not everyone would know what exactly to do in
this case. But what is for sure, the majority of us would certainly go to the
people they love. Why is that? Simply because to love and being loved is
the greatest value in life, the only thing worth dying for. Let’s remember
the event we’ve celebrated yesterday – the Victory in the 2nd world War,
and take our grandfathers and great grandfathers as an example. For them
this question “if today were the last day of your life and you knew it,
would you like to do what you’re about to do today?” was a real condi-
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tional sentence. When they fought – and died – they died for their People.
And that’s what they teach us – always appreciate those around you.
And finally, Personal development. The majority of those who want
to reach success understand the importance of building a harmonic person-
ality. And all of them look forward to an opportunity to improve them-
selves, for a motivation. But when we realize that our life is short, death
becomes our motivator. And as soon as we realize that, we stop waiting for
opportunities, we see them. And if we don’t see them, we create them.
That’s what life is all about.
To sum it up, I’d like to quote the American actress Mae West, who
said “You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough”. And what
I have to add to this thought is in order to live right, we should certainly
start caring of our Plans for life, People we love and our Personal devel-
opment right now. At the end of the day we should ask ourselves, did we
live it as our last? Because if we did, we lived it right.

SPEECHES TO PERSUADE. SPEECH 2


“If today were the last day of my life would I want to do what I
am about to do today”.
Once the Eastern King who, desiring to know the history of man, was
brought five hundred books by a sage; busy with affairs of state, he asked
him to go and condense it. In twenty years the sage returned and his histo-
ry now was in no more than fifty books, but the King, too old then to read
so many ponderous volumes, again asked him to go and shorten it once
more; twenty years passed and the sage, old and gray, brought a single
book in which was the knowledge the King had sought; but the King lying
on his death-bed, could barely turn the first page and had no time to read
even that; and he asked to tell him the gist of the book then the sage
opened the last page and wrote down a single line of the history of man; it
was this: he was born, he suffered, and he died. These words were written
by Somerset Maugham in his novel “Of Human Bondage”.
This parable leads me to my thesis.

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Should one change the last day of his life, suffering, as Somerset
Maugham wrote? My answer is YES. And I want to prove it examining
three things: suffering, train and love.
So lets begin with suffering. Analyzing our day we always think
about our good and bad actions. And often the latter ones prevail. Why
was I too irritated when speaking to Mum, why did I yell at my friend,
why couldn’t I prepare better for the test to get an “excellent” mark instead
of “satisfactory”? And a lot of that sort of different “why” comes up every
evening. Why can’t we do this and achieve that? And this excessive self-
criticism poisons our mood and greatly affects our self-evaluation and self-
esteem. The results can be devastating. From personality crisis to nervous
breakdown. So we suffer. The last day of your life you should be different.
Forget about bad and wrong deeds, do not remind yourself about your
faults and mistakes. Live, don’t suffer.
The second thing to talk about is … train. “If today were the last day
of my life would I want to do what I am about to do today”, to do today, to
do today. Can you hear it?
The sound of train’s wheels. Sound symbolism. When I am turning it
over again, again and again in my head it fills me with the sounds of music
of a wild journey or may be some exotic experience. On your last day do
what you’ve never allowed yourself to do before. It’s going to be your last
day- make the most of it! “Life is like a coin. You can spend it anyway
you wish but you can spend it only once”,- wrote Lillian Dickson.
The third word in the preview was love. What’s love for you? Is it a
feeling? Or may be it’s something deeper. I believe it is. Love is some sen-
sation of the world. What is it like? How does it taste? How does it smell?
How does it sound? For me:
it tastes like peach jam;
it smells like air after thunder;
it sounds like silver bell;
it feels like wonder;
love is all we need.

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“In three words I can sum up everything I've learned about life”. –
said Robert Frost – “It goes on”. So let’s try to spend our life in such a way
that would not make us have regrets about anything undone, unfulfilled
and unhappened. Let’s stop suffering, let’s set out to a random place on the
Earth and let’s fill ourselves with love.
“If today were the last day of my life would I want to do what I am
about to do today”. You know my answer and what’s yours?

SPEECHES TO PERSUADE. SPEECH 3


“If today were the last day of my life, would I want do what I am
about to do today?” This rhetorical question was asked by Steve Jobs in
the speech to the graduates of Stanford University. Let’s imagine that this
is really the end. Would you like to change anything? We live today as if
we had 9 lives. Other people’s rules of the game, other people’s thoughts,
desires, values… What do you really have of your own in your life? Can
you answer these questions: “Who am I? What for do I do what I am to
do? Do I like it?” I think it’s not that easy. Today I want to tell you three
stories of my life. Only three stories. Not a big deal, just three stories. The
first story is about my childhood. The second is about my school years.
And the third is about my present. And then you will know my opinion.
I want to begin my first story with the quotation from Anna Gaval-
gada’s book. “When I was 5 years old, my mother always told me that
happiness was the key to life. When I went to school, they
asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up. I wrote down ‘happy’.
They told me, I didn’t understand the assignment, and I told them, they
didn’t understand life.” When I was a little girl my mother wanted me to
be an artist or something like that because my father painted when he was
alive. And I wanted the same. I was sent to the art school. But nobody had
expected that I would be interested in another, no less fascinating subject,
which was taught at this school. I was taught to draw, to paint, to sculpture
with the clay, to weave with beads. But I liked one of the subjects much
more than the other ones. I’m talking about English. Have you ever been
so much impressed by something that you couldn’t say a word? So was I.
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When I came home after the first English lesson and began to tell feverish-
ly about the sound [w] which I had learnt, my mom understood that Eng-
lish would firmly stay in my life and she didn’t oppose to it. She also
wanted me to be happy.
That’s how I started to learn English. Then it was the time for the
secondary school. I continued my education at the art school and English
lessons there were like a holiday for me. But English lessons at my regular
school were really a hard nut to crack. My teacher was so “nice” and
“kind” that there were no volunteers to be in her group. But I was the ka-
mikadze. It seemed unreal to get a good mark. But I always did my best.
Despite that fact, she always treated me like a stupid one. She kept saying
that I shouldn’t think that I have any ability in English, even though I al-
ways won all the English competitions. And when I once mentioned that
my dream was to enter the faculty of foreign languages, she told me that I
would never do it. She explained it by my scant knowledge. These words
were the hardest words in my life. I will never forget about this unpleasant
moment. But as Turgenev said: “Do you want to be happy? Firstly you
should learn to suffer!” I believe that the darkest hour in your life is always
before the most beautiful dawn. And it’s really so!
I’m very thankful to my school teacher. She let me know that I could
do much better and that I should work hard to make my dream come true.
And it worked! Now I’m the happiest student of the faculty of my dream.
Every morning, though I have to wake up at 5, I know that I don’t want to
live another life. Watching some people who constantly change their ma-
jors and Universities, who can’t find themselves, I’m very glad that I can
turn my hobby into a matter of my life. It’s believed, that the happiest men
is the one who goes to work with pleasure every morning, and every even-
ing returns home again with pleasure, That’s my story! So, I don’t want to
change anything.
If it were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about
to do today? I think the answer is obvious now. And what would you do on
the last day of your life?

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SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 1. THE LONDON EYE
Have you ever been to London? If you have, you must have seen the
eye of it, just like in the Tolkien's book. To tell the truth I'm talking about
the British Airways London Eye. The London Eye is the world's tallest ob-
servation wheel at 135 meters high. Located on the banks of the River
Thames it offers unrivalled views over London.
Since opening at the turn of the century, the London Eye has become
an iconic landmark, with a status that can be compared to Tower Bridge,
Big Ben, Eros and the Tower of London. It has been used as a backdrop in
countless films and for innumerable TV programs. A source of pride for
the whole country as well as the capital, the London Eye is the most dis-
tinctive addition this century to the world's greatest city, loved by Britons
and tourists alike.
In fact, in its short life, it has become the most popular paid for UK
tourist attraction, visited by over 3.5 million people a year (an average of
10,000 a day). A breathtaking feat of design and engineering, passengers
in the London Eye's capsules can see up to 40 kilometers in all directions,
in complete comfort and safety.
But there's much, much more to the London Eye than its views and
its engineering. It plays an integral role in the community, has become
something of a gateway or a symbol for London and offers a unique venue
for corporate events and entertainment.
To sum up, there is a big variety of different sights and places of in-
terest in London but while admiring the outstanding beauty of this city one
should definitely take a ride at the London Eye – the world's tallest obser-
vation wheel.

SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 2. GUY FAWKES NIGHT
Good morning, my fellow-students. We as the students of the faculty of
foreign languages should know more about English traditions and history.
Let's expand our knowledge with one more tradition of London city. As
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we know British nation is considered to be the most conservative in Eu-
rope. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.
One of the most interesting traditional holidays, which is celebrated espe-
cially in London is Guy Fawkes Night. Guy Fawkes Night is kept alive be-
cause people remember and revere their history. I'd like to tell you about
this unusual holiday.
So, Guy Fawkes Night is annually held on the fifth of November. It is
also known as Bonfire Night and it marks the anniversary of the discovery
of a plot against the Houses of Parliament in London in 1605. The attack
of the Houses of Parliament was planned by a group of Catholic conspira-
tors, which included Guy Fawkes. The explosives would have been set off
when King James I of England and many parliamentary members were in
the building. The conspirators were later arrested, tortured and executed.
Hence many Catholics are more restrained in their celebration of this day.
Let's return to the present. What do people do nowadays during this
day? Many people light bonfires and set off fireworks. As it is the end of
autumn, it is the ideal opportunity to burn garden rubbish. Some light
small bonfires in their own gardens, while others light larger ones in a
communal space. Due to its proximity to Halloween, many people organ-
ize a combined party for Guy Fawkes Night and Halloween. These parties
often include elements from both festivals, such as a bonfire and dressing
up in spooky outfits. Popular foods include toffee apples and potatoes
baked in the ashes of the fire.
Guy Fawkes' Day is not a public holiday. Businesses, organizations and
schools are opened as usual. Public transport services run to their normal
timetables. Some organizations, communities and municipalities may or-
ganize public bonfires or displays of fireworks on or around the fifth of
November. These tend to be very popular.
All in all, we spoke about a Guy Fawkes Day, one of the most bizarre
holidays celebrated in London. In fact, there are a lot of holidays celebrat-
ed by Londoners. But if one day you visit London, don't miss Guy Fawkes
festival to fell the spirit of English traditions and history.

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SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 3. THE LONDON UNDERGROUND
We all have used metro on many occasions. That's for sure. But have
you ever thought about what history and secrets the underground may
have? And what about one and a half centuries old underground? The
London Underground, or simply The Tube, is the smelly, dirty but incredi-
bly curious heart of London with its own mysteries. Let's take a quick look
at its history, the myths associated with the underground and its influence
on British culture.
The Tube has its rich and colourful history. Opened in January 1863,
it celebrated its 150 jubilee last year. Harry Beefy who designed the Un-
derground map, received only 10 guineas for the design (that's about 10
pounds). The Tube is also famous for its passengers. In 1901 Mark Twain
was one of the first passengers on the Central Line and Queen Elizabeth II
was the first monarch to take the train.
Along with history come a lot of myths and myth like facts. For ex-
ample, the mosquitoes in the underground have been said to have evolved
into a completely different species than those that live above the ground.
And just as the New York City Subway the London Underground is fa-
mous for its rodents. The best places to spot the legendary underground
mice running around the tracks are Waterloo Station and Oxford Circus.
Almost every underground has a ghost station; the Tube has 3 of them –
British Museum, Downing Street, and North End. Nowadays they're used
mostly for filming.
The London Underground has served as inspiration to a lot of British
painters, filmmakers and writers. For instance, Paul Middlewick started an
art project “The Animals of the Underground” after he spotted an elephant
shape while staring at the tube map during his daily journey home from
work. The animal collection grows all the time and includes whales, birds
and bats. J.K. Rowling gave a tube related distinctive mark to one of her
characters. In “Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone”, Hogwarts

107
Headmaster Albus Dumbledore has a scar in the exact shape of the Under-
ground map on his knee.
To sum up, the London Underground is not just a public transporta-
tion system; it's developed its own history, bred a lot of myths and affected
London life. And its folklore legacy will only grow with time. We took a
look at some of the aspects of the London underground, so now we proba-
bly won't get lost in the net of its 270 stations.

SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 4. LONDON ACCENTS
Have you ever talked to Londoners? Or have you ever imagined this
conversation? I guess you want British people to pronounce words very
clearly and slowly! Of course this does not happen in real life. Londoners
are famous for their peculiar accents which are quite different from each
other. Nowadays we can distinguish three main accents I'd like to tell you
about: Received Pronunciation, Cockney Accent and Estuary English.
The first accent is the easiest accent for you to understand, and the
accent that many people try to learn. It is Received Pronunciation, or RP,
also sometimes called Queen's English. It is the Standard British accent.
But it is actually not a local accent at all. It is the accent you will find if
you look up the pronunciation of a word in a dictionary. Not many people
speak with a pure RP accent these days – not even Prince William! Pure
RP can sound rather formal and exclusive.
The next accent, which is native to London, is the Cockney Accent.
It is originated in east London and is often used to refer to working class
Londoners in the East End. Visitors to Britain find this accent very hard to
understand, because some letters are not pronounced, especially Т and H,
and some vowel sounds are different. It is also famous for its rhyming
slang: Auntie Ella = umbrella; Chew the fat = chat and so on. Don't be
shocked if a cockney speaker says “free” instead of “three”. It is normal.
The third main accent in London I'd like to draw your attention to
was only given a name in 1984. It is called Estuary English, because it is
mainly spoken in the areas near the River Thames and its estuary. An Es-
108
tuary English accent has some features of Standard English, or RP, and
some features of a cockney accent. This accent is very widely used, espe-
cially among people under 60 years old, as people of all social classes mix
together much more than they used to.
To sum up we spoke about three main accents which take place in
Londoners' speech: Received Pronunciation, Cockney Accent and Estuary
English. In fact, the speech of Londoners is full of many accents and dia-
lects which are constantly changing. Knowing as much of them as possible
will definitely help you get on well with every person you'll meet on Lon-
don streets!

SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 5. ANOTHER LONDON
Do you think you really know what London is? If you say “yes”,
I should tell you, that you know nothing about this city. Have you ever
heard about East London, something about its fascinating culture? I be-
lieve, not. And now, I would like to tell you about it. I would like to tell
you street art in this place, about some representatives and, of course,
about the possibilities for you to see street art in London.
But first of all, I want to remind you, that there are four parts in Lon-
don: West End, East End, the City and Westminster. And Englishmen say:
East End is “the hands of London”. “Why the hands?” – you can ask me.
Because of the beautiful street art. But what is this? Some pictures? You
are not quite right. Street art is the style of life and if you are in it, you
change a bit the reality around you. And instead of words you use paints,
stone, houses, cars... Everything you have. And you create something new.
Another thing, which is really amazing, is that London is the home to
fantastic street art. There are a lot of representatives there. For example
Banksy, a famous artist. He used the streets of London like a canvas for
more than 10 years. Another famous person is Stik, whose stick men can
be found across East London. By the way, not all the productions of Lon-
don's artists are signed. Some of them are unknown.

109
I hope you understand that you cannot find them yourself. You need
a guide. And we are really lucky, because there are some special tours in
London about this culture. And they are free! For example, Alternative
London Walking Tour, Street Art Bike Tour and so on. The value of these
tours is not just showing the places to you, but showing the meaning of
these works.
Now I hope you want to see this part of London. I saw it, and it is ab-
solutely different from that London, which we are accustomed to think
about. After that trip, I realized again that everything is not so simple. And
it is not just about cities. It's also about people and life. So, try to find out
something new, and in this case you will always find it, I mean new.

SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 6. LONDON
I wish I were in London now. If I were there, I would organize an
excursion and would give you a good idea about this wonderful city. As
we know, London is the capital of Great Britain and one of the largest cul-
tural centers in Europe. I don't know if you have had an opportunity to vis-
it this exciting city but I insist that you should do it. And I will give you a
piece of advice how to plan your tour of the city. First, we will discuss
how to begin a tour, what to do in the middle and finally, I'll tell you how
to end your day in London.
So, the best starting point for all the excursions is well known Tra-
falgar square with Nelson's Column in the center. The square was named
to commemorate the victory of British vice-admiral Nelson at the battle of
Trafalgar in 1805 and the Column is surmounted with his statue.
Then I recommend you to see the Houses of Parliament on the north
bank of the river Thames. It also has another name – the Palace of West-
minster – as in the past here lived kings and queens. And here you will
find the famous Clock Tower, called “Big Ben”. The next stop is West-
minster Abbey. It is a big church and a national shrine, a place, where
English kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. It's

110
well known for its Poets' Corner with memorials to English poets and
writers who were buried here.
And at the end of your day, you should see the majestic and dreary
Tower of London, which has an abundant history. It was one of the first
and most impressive castles. It has been used as a royal palace, an observa-
tory, and arsenal and, finally, as a state prison. And now it's a museum
where you can see the Crown Jewels.
No doubt that in London there are many other sights – Tate Gallery,
City, Hyde Park and others, and everyone will find a preference according
to his taste.
I think it necessary that every person should visit London!

SPEECHES TO INFORM.
SPEECH 7. THE MUSEUMS OF LONDON
The main Britain's tourist attraction is London. It is the city of cathe-
drals and churches. But what about art? Do you know that three of the top
ten museums and galleries in the world are in London? They are: The Brit-
ish Museum, Tate Modern and The National Gallery. And now I would
like to tell you some interesting facts about these places.
The first place is The British Museum. It is dedicated to human histo-
ry and culture. It was founded in 1753. Its collection spans over two mil-
lion years of human history. The world famous objects such as the Rosetta
Stone, Parthenon sculptures, and Egyptian mummies are visited by up to 6
million people per year.
The second place is a modern art gallery located in London. Tate
Modern is Britain's national gallery of international modern art. It is the
most visited modern art gallery in the world. Tate holds the national col-
lection of British art from the middle ages to the present day.
And the last place is The National Gallery. It is an art museum locat-
ed on Trafalgar Square in London. Its collection belongs to the public of
the United Kingdom. It is the fifth most visited art museum in the world,
after the Musee du Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the British

111
Museum and Tate Modern. In 2012 it lost its position as top art museum in
the UK. However the competition with Tate Modern continues.
Art is the creation or expression of what is beautiful, especially in
visual form. So, cultural life of London would be impossible without art
and The British Museum, Tate Modern and The National Gallery prove it.

LECTURE 1. THE CLASSIFICATION


OF ENGLISH VOWELS
Well, today, listeners, we are going to talk about the principles of
classification of English vowels. It is well to remember that there are five
principles: the stability of articulation, the tongue position, the lip position,
the character of the vowel end and the vowel length and the degree of
tenseness.
So let me concentrate on the vowel length and the degree of tense-
ness. I hope you understand that all English Vowels are historically divid-
ed into long and short. Long vowels are always tense, short vowels are al-
ways lax. I expect some of the listeners are asking themselves what hap-
pens with the TRAP vowel. I think I should explain that this vowel is nei-
ther short nor long. Is it quite clear, listeners?
Another thing I would like to draw your attention to is that it is not
enough to distinguish two degrees of length. I hope you understand that in
the similarly accented position all English vowels are fully long when they
are final. They are almost as long as that when a weak voiced consonant
follows them in the closed syllable. However, we should remember that,
they are much shorter before strong voiceless consonants in closed sylla-
bles.
If we are to examine diphthongs, it is true to say that they vary in
length in the same way as long vowels, besides that, this variation affect
mainly the nucleus.
Therefore, listeners, it should be remembered that all English vowels
are longer when they are strongly stressed. All of them are longer in the
nuclear syllable. In addition to this, it should be noted, that in similar pho-

112
netic contexts traditionally long vowels are always longer than traditional-
ly short vowels.
All in all, we spoke about one of the principles of classification of vow-
els in English – the vowel length and the degree of tenseness. Now, we must
leave because our time is up. In my next lecture, I hope to demonstrate in de-
tail the other principles of classification of English vowels.

LECTURE 2. THE CLASSIFICATION


OF ENGLISH VOWELS
Well, now, today we are going to recall the main principles of classi-
fication of vowels. There are five of them: the stability of articulation, the
tongue position, the lip position, the character of the vowel end and the
vowel length and degree of tenseness. Our primary concern today will be
the first one. But first of all, I want to start with the definition of a vowel.
Vowel is a sound which you pronounce with your mouth open, allowing
the air to flow through it. It's true to say, that vowels are always voiced. Is
that clear, listeners? Now I want to dwell on the first principle, the stability
of articulation.
All English vowels are divided into 3 groups: monophthongs, diph-
thongs and diphthongoids. Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of
which is almost unchanging. A monophthong consists of only one vowel
sound that does not change during its articulation, while diphthong is a
complex vowel sound that consists of two components. In the pronuncia-
tion of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to
another within one syllable. The starting point, the nucleus, is strong and
distinct. And the last but not the least group is diphthongoids. In the pro-
nunciation of diphthongoids the articulation is slightly changing but the
difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct as it is
in the case of diphthongs.
And now our time is up. In our next talk we shall consider the last
four principles of classification of vowels, which are no less important.

113
APPENDIX 3

FAMOUS INSPIRATIONAL QUOTATIONS


1. Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspira-
tion. Thomas Edison
2. Victory belongs to the most persevering. Napoleon Bonaparte
3. It's not the size of the dog in the fight, but the size of the fight in
the dog. Mark Twain
4. It's never too late to be what you might have been. George Eliot
5. Noone can make you feel inferior without your consent. Eleanor
Roosevelt
6. I'm a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I
have of it. Thomas Jefferson
7. If you can imagine it, you can achieve it; if you can dream it, you
can become it. William Arthur Ward
8. There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing
is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle. Albert Einstein
9. A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. Lao Tzu
10. You can never cross the ocean unless you have the courage to
lose sight of the shore. Christopher Columbus
11. Don't let what you can't do stop you from doing what you can do.
John Wooden
12. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their
dreams. Eleanor Roosevelt

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APPENDIX 4

EXPECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS


TO STRESS OR FEAR OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Regardless of its cause, your stage fright symptoms are part of the
body’s Primary Threat Response, which you might know as the “fight or
flight syndrome.” This is a set of healthy physiological responses that allow a
human being to take effective action – running away or fighting – when at-
tacked. Most speaking engagements don’t require you to do anything physi-
cal, but your body doesn’t know that. It perceives the adrenaline signals, as-
sumes that some sort of attack is possible, and simply prepares you for the
worst. So, thank your body for doing a few very sensible things.
· Muscles contract throughout your body. Your body is now pre-

pared to spring into action with a burst of energy. In particular, the neck
muscles contract, pulling the head down and the shoulders up, while the
back muscles draw the spine into a concave curve. This, in turn, pushes the
pelvis forward and up, slumping the body into a classic embrionic posi-
tion. Your body has done all the right things to protect your vital organs
from saber-toothed tigers, but there’s not a wild animal in sight. Instead,
you stand still and straight in front of the audience. Your muscles, still
contracted, begin to tremble. And the harder you try to hold contracted
muscles still, the more they tremble! Your neck, shoulder and back mus-
cles, in particular, begin to fatigue, while your lungs and diaphragm are
constricted in the body’s attempt to maintain a embrionic position. As you
continue to hold your head up in an effort to make eye contact, your vocal
cords are stretched and your voice tightens, and a moderate to severe
headache can set in.
· Blood vessels in the extremities constrict. Your body knows it has

only so much oxygen and blood, so it chooses carefully. The tiny blood
vessels serving your toes, fingers, ears and nose constrict, forcing addi-
tional oxygen to your major organs and reducing the risk of blood loss. Of
course, this leaves you with a sensation of cold hands and feet (and per-
haps a cold nose and ears as well), along with numbness and tingling.
115
· Blood pressure is elevated. In order to insure that nutrients and ox-
ygen are distributed quickly and any poisons are flushed from the system,
the healthy body reacts to stress with an elevated blood pressure. Heat
builds up in those areas where major organs are being primed for action –
the head, chest and stomach. Frequently, the body must begin sweating in
order not to overheat, and you can often feel the heart pumping more
quickly than normal as it maintains the higher blood pressure. Of course,
the sweat will appear in all the normal places, like armpits, groin and fore-
head, as well as on the palms of your cold hands, leaving them with that
nasty clammy feeling.
· Breaths become rapid. The body’s need for a steady supply of ox-

ygen requires rapid, shallow breathing, which cycles the largest volume of
air in and out of the lungs.
· The digestive system shuts down. Food processing is deemed a

low priority by the body under stress, and the digestive system shuts down
for the duration of the emergency. Any foods already in the system just sit
there, waiting for stomach acid and saliva secretions to resume. The result-
ing sensations are the familiar “lump” or “butterflies” in the stomach,
along with a dry mouth and nausea.
· The pupils dilate. In a dangerous situation the body needs accurate,

complete information about the environment, which it obtains through a


heightened sense of hearing along with broad, long distance visual acuity. In
other words, your eyes automatically shift to “long distance” view, sacrific-
ing short distance focus for a clear view of the horizon. Many people also no-
tice an increased sensitivity to motion and better peripheral vision. Of course,
none of this helps a speaker read his or her notes. The speaker is painfully
aware of every little frown from every member of the audience, and easily
spooked by things happening off to the side. Meanwhile, your ability to fo-
cus – or even see – at a short distance can be lost completely.
· Brain wave frequency increases. Finally, the human brain itself

changes in response to stress and potential attack. The frequency of brain


activity literally speeds up, allowing you to think more quickly, process
more information, and make accurate decisions. This is not a “natural”
116
state, however, and it can feel as though time is distorted. Your natural
pace of thinking and reacting is disrupted, making you react “too quickly”
to stimuli. You think of new things to say in the middle of your speech,
causing you to ramble about ideas you hadn’t prepared. You speak quick-
ly, not even realizing that your pace is considerably faster than normal.

117
APPENDIX 5

USEFUL TIPS TO OVERCOME STAGE FRIGHT


By and large, the symptoms of stage fright are normal, expected
physiological reactions to stress, excitement or fear, but they prepare you
for a physical response, rather than a speaking engagement. The symptoms
won’t keep you from giving an excellent presentation, but the stress re-
sponse also isn’t doing much to help you until you learn to channel those
physical reactions into a dynamic, energized, vigorous delivery.
Recognize the stress as excitement. The physiological symptoms as-
sociated with public speaking are virtually the same as those you’d experi-
ence if you rode a roller coaster, went on your first rafting trip, or got mar-
ried. The real difference is that you have learned to associate “fright” with
being on stage and “fun” with being on a roller coaster. The goal of stage
fright control is not to make the symptoms go away; the goal is to learn ways
to make the adrenaline rush work for you, rather than against you.
Use your large muscles. Those contracted muscles are waiting for
you to throw a spear at a mastodon, and until you do, they can’t relax.
Walk briskly around the building a couple of times (watching out for wild
animals, of course.) Throw your arms around, or punch at a nearby
wall. Clench your fists, scowl, make ugly faces, and then relax those
smaller muscles too. Focus on your back and neck muscles, stretching and
rolling your head until they relax.
Take deep breaths, from the diaphragm. Regulating the breath
cycle is the most accessible technique for changing the body’s kinesthetic
state. Other techniques include meditation, trance inducement, alternate
nostril breathing and other yoga exercises. As you force yourself to take a
deep breath, the oxygen/carbon dioxide balance is restored, and the body
interprets the big sigh as an “all clear” signal. As the stress levels begin to
decline, so will the rest of the symptoms.
Exaggerate your symptoms. The body will not automatically pro-
duce a symptom that you are doing consciously. Start breathing rapidly on
purpose, for example. You can then stop on purpose, but your body won’t
118
start up the automatic system again. This doesn’t work for everything, of
course. Most people can’t sweat on purpose, or increase their pulse rates.
But you can shake your legs, blink rapidly, scowl, or do whatever other lit-
tle quirky things your body seems to want to do by itself.
Watch what you eat. For many people the most terrible symptoms
of stage fright are the consequences of the digestive system shutting down.
Figure out what your own digestive system does (or doesn’t do) under
stress, and see that you time your food intake to accommodate it. Advice
varies from person to person, but here’s a list of the most common solu-
tions to various problems.
1. Avoid milk. It creates phlegm, which is unpleasant and can be an-
noying while you speak.
2. Maintain sugar levels. Because you are under stress, the body is
using up its high-energy sugar reserves, but you will not feel the normal
hunger pangs. You have no desire to eat – the thought of food might even
make you “feel sick” – but you nevertheless can begin to feel the effects of
low blood sugar: depression, anxiety, irritability, lack of concentration,
forgetfulness, confusion, headache, body tremors, cold hands and feet.
3. Eat sensibly. Protein increases energy and alertness, but takes a
very long time to digest (about twelve hours). Fats will slow digestion
even further. Eating a big piece of meat before you speak is not going to
help the situation a bit. You’ll just wind up with that lump of meat in your
stomach, creating cramps or nausea. Carbohydrates, on the other hand, are
“comfort” foods because they trigger the release of serotonin and are best
without protein. Your best bet is to eat a low-fat meal of complex carbo-
hydrates a couple of hours before the presentation. Pasta, pizza, or rice
dishes are all good choices. Sugary cereal for breakfast is not.
4. Avoid a sugar high. Often when you are rushing around before a
presentation, sitting down for a decent meal is the last thing on your mind.
Be careful, though, that you don’t substitute a quick chocolate bar. That
sugar fix will make you feel better for a few moments, but the body uses
that form of energy almost immediately, leaving nothing for the presenta-
tion. What’s more, overall blood sugar levels drop even farther after the ar-
119
tificial peak. If you do need to snack, grab popcorn, a banana, or an apple,
or sugar-free yogurt.
5. Avoid alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. All stimulate the adrenal
glands and increase stress symptoms. On the other hand, if you are a
smoker this is probably not a good day to quit.
Exercise. Most stage fright victims swear this is the best solution of
all. Not only does exercise reduce stress and help deal with those large
muscle contractions, it also produces endorphins. Regular excercise is best,
of course, but even a workout the night before or morning of a big speech
will help you stay relaxed.
Take your vitamins. If stage fright is a long term thing, consider the
impact of some key vitamins.
Vitamin C: reduces the effects of over-exertion, increases energy,
stamina and general resistance to stress. If you catch colds frequently are
feel run-down, you night not have the energy left for giving a speech.
Vitamin B: used in large amounts when the body is under stress. De-
ficiencies can show up as tremors, loss of dexterity, lack of coordination,
depression, insomnia, forgetfulness, confusion, a quick temper and nerv-
ousness. If you are already under stress, the demands of a speech might
push you over the edge.
Calcium and Magnesium: in balance, these minerals act as a tranquil-
izer to the system. A calcium deficiency can create cramps and “nerves.”
Get your rest. For many business people, the presentation is just the
most stressful event in an already stressed life. If you are already functioning
at the borderline, you might lack the energy reserves you need to face a
presentation. Speeches are not something you only need to give once in a
while. Your life in business will probably require you to make presentations
of one kind or another on a regular basis. If you are going to be successful,
you simply must make sure that your body is ready for the challenge.
Make yourself laugh. Making yourself laugh, whether you meant to
or not, will nearly always help you relax. The more enjoyment you are
feeling, the easier it is to think with your cortex instead of reacting with
your adrenal glands.
120
Associate speaking with fun. Practice your speeches in pleasant sur-
roundings. At least during the rehearsal, get relaxed and have fun. Teach
your brain to associate “talking with people” to having a party with
friends.
Eat happy foods. For the same reason, you can trigger a dose of
pleasure with the endorphins that are triggered by certain foods. Women
respond well to fat/sugar combinations (chocolate, ice cream, cake), while
men tend toward fat/protein or fat/salt snacks (crisps, pizza). Be careful
with the timing to avoid a sugar high or a protein lump in the digestive
system.
Dress up. Make it a point to dress in something you know you look
good in. Get a haircut or treat yourself to a manicure. Act like you're get-
ting ready for a date or a big party when you want to be the center of atten-
tion.

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APPENDIX 6

“I HAVE A DREAM” M. KING (1963)


(...) Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shad-
ow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momen-
tous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro
slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as
a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred
years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of
segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the
Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of
material prosperity One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished
in the corners American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.
And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When
the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitu-
tion and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory
note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise
that all men. Yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed
the “unalienable Rights” of “Life Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” It
is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, inso-
far as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred
obligation America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check
which has come back marked “insufficient funds.”
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We re-
fuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of oppor-
tunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that
will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce
urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or
to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism Now is the time to make real
the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and des-
122
olate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the
time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid
rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of
God's children
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the mo-
ment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not
pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nine-
teen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that
the Negro needed ю blow off steam and w ill now be content will have a
rude awakening if the nation returns lo business as usual And there will be
neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citi-
zenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the founda-
tions of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.
But there is something that I must say lo my people, who stand on
the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of
gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds Let us
not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bit-
terness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane
of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degen-
erate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic
heights of meeting physical force with soul force (...) We cannot walk
alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always
march ahead. We cannot turn back.
There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When
will you be satisfied?”. We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is
the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be
satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot
gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We
cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller
ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are
stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating:
“For Whites Only.” We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Missis-
sippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for
123
which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied un-
til “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream”.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials
and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And
some of you have come from areas where your quest – quest for freedom left
you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of po-
lice brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to
work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Missis-
sippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go
back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities,
knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not
wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even
though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It
is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the
true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day on the red hills of
Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners
will be able to sit down together at the tabic of brotherhood. I have a
dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with
the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be trans-
formed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four
little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged
by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a
dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vi-
cious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of
“interposition” and “nullification” – one day right there in Alabama little
black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys
and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every
hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain,
and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord
shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.” This is our hope, and
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this is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be
able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith,
we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a
beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to
work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together,
to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
(...) From every mountainside, let freedom ring. (...)

“Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat”


Winston Churchill (18th of June 1940)

(...) On Friday evening last I received His Majesty's commission to


form a new Administration. It as the evident wish and wilt of Parliament
and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis
and that it should include all parties, both those who supported the late
Government and also the parties of the Opposition (...). A number of other
positions, key positions, were filled yesterday, and I am submitting a fur-
ther list to His Majesty tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of the
principal Ministers during tomorrow, the appointment of the other Minis-
ters usually lakes a little longer, but I trust that, when Parliament meets
again, this part of my task will be completed, and that the administration
will be complete in all respects.
To form an Administration of this scale and complexity is a serious
undertaking in itself, but it must be remembered that we are in the prelimi-
nary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we are in action at
many other points in Norway and in Holland, that we have to be prepared
in the Mediterranean, that the air battle is continuous and I hat many prep-
arations, such as have been indicated by my hon. Friend below the Gang-
way, have to be made here at home. In this crisis I hope 1 may be par-
doned if I do not address the House at any length today. I hope that any of
my friends and colleagues, or former colleagues, who are affected by the
political reconstruction, will make allowance, all allowance, for any lack
of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act. I would say to the
125
House, as I said to those who have joined this government: “I have nothing
to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.”
We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have be-
fore us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask,
what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with
all our might and with all the strength that God can give us to wage war
against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable cata-
logue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim?
I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in
spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be: for
without victory, there is no survival. Let that be realized; no survival for
the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Umpire has stood
for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will
move forward towards its goal. But I take up my task with buoyancy and
hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At
this time I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and I say, “Come then, let us
go forward together with our united strength.”

“Old soldiers never die they just fade away”


General MacArthur (April 20, 2009)

I stand on this rostrum with a sense of deep humility and great pride –
humility in the wake of those great architects of our history who have stood
here before me, pride in the reflection that this home of legislative debate
represents human liberty in the purest form yet devised. Here are centered the
hopes and aspirations and faith of the entire human race (...).
I trust, therefore, that you will do me the justice of receiving that
which I have to say as solely expressing the considered viewpoint of a fel-
low American. I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fad-
ing twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country. The
issues are global, and so interlocked that to consider the problems of one
sector oblivious to those of another is to court disaster for the whole.
While Asia is commonly referred to as the gateway to Europe, it is no less
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true that Europe is the gateway to Asia, and the broad influence of the one
cannot fail to have its impact upon the other.
There are those who claim our strength is inadequate to protect on
both fronts, that we cannot divide our effort. I can think of no greater ex-
pression of defeatism. (...) Beyond pointing out these general truisms, I
shall confine my discussion to the general areas of Asia... While I was not
consulted prior to the President's decision to intervene in support of the
Republic of Korea, that decision, from a military standpoint, proved a
sound one (...).
While no man in his right mind would advocate sending our ground
forces into continental China, and such was never given a thought, the new
situation did urgently demand a drastic revision of strategic planning if our
political aim was to defeat this new enemy as we had defeated the old. (...)
For entertaining these views, all professionally designed to support
our forces committed to Korea and to bring hostilities to an end with the
least possible delay and at a saving of countless American and Allied lives,
I have been severely criticized in lay circles, principally abroad, despite
my understanding that from a military standpoint the above views have
been fully shared in the past by practically every military leader concerned
with the Korean campaign, including our own Joint Chiefs of Staff. I
called for reinforcements, but was informed that reinforcements were not
available. I made clear that if not permitted to destroy the enemy built-up
bases north of the Yalu, if not permitted to utilize the friendly Chinese
force of some six hundred thousand men on Formosa, if not permitted to
blockade the China coast to prevent the Chinese Reds from getting succor
from without, and if there were to be no hope of major reinforcements, the
position of the command from the military standpoint forbade victory.
We could hold in Korea by constant maneuver and at an approximate
area where our supply-line advantages were in balance with the supply-
line disadvantages of the enemy, but we could hope at best for only an in-
decisive campaign with its terrible and constant attrition upon our forces if
the enemy utilized his full military potential. I have constantly called for
the new political decisions essential to a solution. Efforts have been made
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to distort my position. It has been said in effect that I was a warmonger.
Nothing could be further from the truth. I know war as few other men now
living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting.
I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructive-
ness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling
international disputes. Indeed, on the second day of September, 1945, just
following the surrender of the Japanese nation on the battleship Missouri, I
formally cautioned as follows: “Men since the beginning of time have
sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to
devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between na-
tions”. Prom the very start workable methods were found in so far as indi-
vidual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of
larger international scope have never been successful. “Military alliances,
balances of power, leagues of nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only
path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war
now blocks out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will
not devise some greater and more equitable system, our Armageddon will
be at our door. The problem basically is theological and involves a spiritu-
al recrudescence, an improvement of human character that will synchro-
nize with our almost matchless advances in science, art, literature, and all
material and cultural developments of the past two thousand years. It must
be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh.” But once war is forced upon us,
there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it
to a swift end. War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision. In
war there is no substitute for victory (...).
Like blackmail, it lays the basis for new and successively greater
demands until, as in blackmail, violence become the only alternative. Why,
my soldiers asked of me, surrender military advantages to an enemy in the
field? I could not answer.
Some may say to avoid spread of the conflict into an all-out war with
China Others, to avoid Soviet intervention. Neither explanation seems valid,
for China is already engaging with the maximum power it can commit, and
the Soviet will not necessarily mesh its actions with our moves. Like a cobra,
128
any new enemy will more likely strike whenever it feels that the relativity in
military or other potential is in its favor on a worldwide basis (...).
It was my constant effort to preserve them and end this savage con-
flict honorably and with the least loss of time and a minimum sacrifice of
life. Its growing bloodshed has caused me the deepest anguish and anxiety.
Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers al-
ways (...)
And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career
and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave
him the light to see that duty. Good-by.

Stanford commencement speech


“You've got to find what you love” Steve Jobs (2005)

I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one


of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college.
Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation.
Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal.
Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then
stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit.
So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, un-
wed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption.
She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so
everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his
wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that
they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a
call in the middle of the night asking: “We have an unexpected baby boy;
do you want him?” They said: “Of course.” My biological mother later
found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my
father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final
129
adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents
promised that I would someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that
was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents'
savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't
see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea
how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all
of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out
and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but
looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I
dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me,
and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the
floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy
food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to
get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And
much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition
turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy in-
struction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label
on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had
dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a
calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif
typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter
combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful,
historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found
it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life.
But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer,
it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first
computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that sin-
gle course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or
proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it's
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likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped
out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal
computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of
course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was
in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only con-
nect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will some-
how connect in your future. You have to trust in something – your gut,
destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it
has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky – I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I
started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and
in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2
billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our fin-
est creation – the Macintosh – a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And
then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well,
as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run
the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But
then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a
falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I
was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire
adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let
the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the ba-
ton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce
and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure,
and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something
slowly began to dawn on me – I still loved what I did. The turn of events at
Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in
love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was
the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being
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successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less
sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods
of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, anoth-
er company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who
would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer
animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful anima-
tion studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought
NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is
at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a won-
derful family together.
I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been
fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient
needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose
faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved
what I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your
work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your
life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great
work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you
haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the
heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just
gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it.
Don't settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live
each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right.” It
made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have
looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: “If today were the
last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?” And
whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I
need to change something.
Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've
ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost
132
everything – all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment
or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only
what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best
way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You
are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in
the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even
know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a
type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer
than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my af-
fairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to
tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell
them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up
so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your
goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy,
where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach, into
my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas, got a few cells from the tu-
mor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they
viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it
turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with
surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.
This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope it's the
closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now
say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but
purely intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't
want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No
one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very
likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears
out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but some-
day not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be
cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.
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Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life.
Don't be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other peo-
ple's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own
inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart
and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to be-
come. Everything else is secondary.
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The
Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was
created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park,
and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's,
before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with
typewriters, scissors, polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in pa-
perback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and
overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Cata-
log, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was
the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue
was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might
find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were
the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as
they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that
for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.

The President’s Plan to Create Jobs and Cut the Deficit,


Barack Obama (April, 2013)

Hi, everybody. Our top priority as a nation, and my top priority as


President, must be doing everything we can to reignite the engine of
America’s growth: a rising, thriving middle class. That’s our North Star.
That must drive every decision we make.

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Now, yesterday, we learned that our businesses created 95,000 new
jobs last month. That’s about 500,000 new jobs this year, and nearly
6.5 million new jobs over the past three years.
But we’ve got more work to do to get the economy growing faster, so
that everybody who wants a job can find one. And that means we need fewer
self-inflicted wounds from Washington, like the across-the-board spending
cuts that are already hurting many communities – cuts that economists pre-
dict will cost our economy hundreds of thousands of jobs this year.
If we want to keep rebuilding this economy on a stronger, sturdier
foundation for growth – growth that creates good, middle-class jobs – we
need to make smarter choices.
This week, I’ll send a budget to Congress that will help do just that –
a fiscally-responsible blueprint for middle-class jobs and growth.
For years, an argument in Washington has raged between reducing
our deficits at all costs, and making the investments we need to grow the
economy. My budget puts that argument to rest. Because we don’t have to
choose between these goals – we can do both. After all, as we saw in the
1990s, nothing reduces deficits faster than a growing economy.
My budget will reduce our deficits not with aimless, reckless spend-
ing cuts that hurt and students and seniors and middle-class families – but
through the balanced approach that the American people prefer, and the
investments that a growing economy demands.
Now, the truth is, our deficits are already shrinking. That’s a fact.
I’ve already signed more than $2.5 trillion in deficit reduction into law,
and my budget will reduce our deficits by nearly $2 trillion more, without
harming the recovery. That surpasses the goal of $4 trillion in deficit re-
duction that many economists believe will stabilize our finances.
We’ll make the tough reforms required to strengthen Medicare for
the future, without undermining the rock-solid guarantee at its core. And
we’ll enact commonsense tax reform that includes closing wasteful tax
loopholes for the wealthy and well-connected – loopholes like the ones
that can allow a billionaire to pay a lower tax rate than his or her secretary.

135
This is the compromise I offered the Speaker of the House at the end
of last year. While it’s not my ideal plan to further reduce the deficit, it’s a
compromise I’m willing to accept in order to move beyond a cycle of
short-term, crisis-driven decision-making, and focus on growing our econ-
omy and our middle class for the long run. It includes ideas many Republi-
cans have said they could accept as well. It’s a way we can make progress
together.
But deficit reduction cannot come at the cost of economic growth or
middle-class security. And it doesn’t have to. My budget will make critical in-
vestments to grow the economy, create jobs, and strengthen the middle class.
As I said in my State of the Union Address, every day, we should ask
ourselves three questions: how do we make America a magnet for good
jobs? How do we give our workers the skills they need to do those jobs?
And how do we make sure that hard work leads to a decent living?
To make America a magnet for good jobs, we’ll invest in high-tech
manufacturing and homegrown American energy, put people to work
building new roads, bridges, and schools, and cut red tape to help busi-
nesses grow.
To give workers the skills they need to do those jobs, we’ll invest in
education that begins in the earliest years, and job training that better
equips workers to compete in a 21st century economy.
To make sure hard work is rewarded, we’ll build new ladders of op-
portunity into the middle class, and focus on revitalizing some of our
communities hardest-hit by recession and job loss.
All of these investments will help grow the economy and create jobs.
None of them will add to the deficit. And I will lay out these priorities in
greater detail in the days ahead.
It’s a budget that doesn’t spend beyond our means. And it’s a budget
that doesn’t make harsh and unnecessary cuts that only serve to slow our
economy. We’ll keep our promise to an aging generation by shoring up
Medicare. And we’ll keep our promise to the next generation by investing
in the fundamentals that have always made America strong – manufactur-
ing and innovation, energy and education.
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Because that’s what it’ll take to make sure America remains strong in
the years ahead – and to leave behind something better for our kids.
Thank you.

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