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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011



Research Paper On 5G | Imthiyaz Ali

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

Telecommunications is the growth About the Author:
Engine of the modern science & technology.
Mobile network infrastructures are being Imthiyaz Ali is a senior
deployed at a rapid place around the globe, software engineer of Wipro Technologies.
He received his B.E degree in Electronics
with the capabilities and bandwidth to
and communication from Anna University.
finally deliver human needs as per the
His prior technical experience also includes
requirement. Radio Network Optimization of Live
network.He has authored papers on
This white paper will show a NanoRobot, Nanotechnology, and Wireless
personal view on 5G networks, especiacially communications.

for Operators & services providers. The

document has been separated in to 4 parts.
Which deals with Evolution of Wireless Synopsis:
technology, Latest 4G trends, Need for 5G?
5G-The NanoCore depiction.
 Moore’s Law.
It will also illustrate the
need for incorporation of Nanotechnology,  Moore’s Law is dead.
Cloud computing, as well as All IP network Evolution of Wireless technologies
to form a global NanoCore as a 5G network.  Latest LTE Trends (SAE)
Mentioned Design, Technologies, Dates, Need for 5G?
values, in this paper are just predication.
Flat IP Network
5G-The NanoCore
 Application
 5G Architecture
 Incorporated Technologies
“One cannot Manage change  NanoEquipment(NE)
One can only be Ahead of it”  NanoCore Network
Cloud Computing
All IP Network
NanoCore-As Managed Services
Future Enhancement(Artificial intelligent)
Risk & Challenges
Case Study

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Introduction: Cloud Computing, All IP, and LTE in to

a single core network “The Nanocore”
We are living in a world Which could be a possible 5G Wireless
of science .Science makes our life more network.
beautiful than the most. Modern world
is shrinking due to the development of Moore‟s Law: Future wireless mobile
science and its technology. Technology communications will be shifted from
has detached the word “impossible” today's traditional transmission-specific
form real world. Over the years, radio technology to an interface-based
wireless telecommunications market has technology in order to be more
long been recognized as one of the most compatible with computer system
dynamic and fastest growing segments architecture. The future mobile device
of the global telecommunications will therefore be first and foremost a
industry. The global telecom market is computer till today wireless
expected to grow at CAGR close to 4.2% Telecommunication is bounded by
to reach EUR 3.1 trillion by the end of Moore‟s law. Moore's law describes a
2011 long-term trend in the history of
computing hardware. The number of
We are existing in an transistors that can be placed
innovative world of science where inexpensively on an integrated circuit
technologies are matured enough to has doubled approximately every two
fulfill human desires. But requirements years.[1] The trend has continued for
of human being augment day by day. more than half a century and is not
Individual is ready to set up all sort of expected to stop until 2015 or later. This
possible technologies to fulfill his law sounds well up to LTE Advance
necessities. Outcome is what we have which is considered as a latest wireless
today as Nanotechnology, All IP.Cloud trend. But next generation wireless
computing, LTE.These are some of the communication will certainly break
technologies used by human to balance Moore‟s law. Hence Moore‟s law is no
his needs. But “Nothing is sufficient for more its dead.
the person who finds sufficiency too little”.
However further modernization will be Moore‟s Law is dead:
on convergence of this existing
“Moore's Law is dead”, according to
technology in to a single platform. This
Gordon Moore, its inventor.
paper too deals the same, here we have
tried to converge some of the existing Moore‟s Law is commonly reported as a
technologies (i.e) Nanotechnology, doubling of transistor density every 18
months. But this is not something the

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co-founder of Intel, Gordon Moore, has computation by scaling into the third
ever said. It is a nice blending of his two dimension – overcoming the planar
predictions; in 1965, he predicted an deposition limitations of CMOS.
annual doubling of transistor counts in Nantero employs carbon nanotubes
the most cost effective chip and revised suspended above metal electrodes on
it in 1975 to every 24 months. With a silicon to create high-density nonvolatile
little hand waving, most reports memory chips. Carbon nanotubes are
attribute 18 months to Moore‟s Law, but small (~10 atoms wide), 30x stronger
there is quite a bit of variability. The than steel at 1/6 the weight, and
popular perception of Moore‟s Law is perform the functions of wires,
that computer chips are compounding capacitors and transistors with better
in their complexity at near constant per speed, power, density and cost.
unit cost. This is one of the many
abstractions of Moore‟s Law, and it
relates to the compounding of transistor
density in two dimensions. Others relate
to speed (the signals have less distance
to travel) and computational power
(speed x density).

The usable limit for

semiconductor process technology will
be reached when chip process
geometries shrink to be smaller than 20
nanometers (nm), to 18nm nodes. At Evolution of Wireless
those nodes (levels), the industry will Technologies:
start getting to the point where
semiconductor manufacturing tools are In 1895, Guglielmo
too expensive to depreciate with volume Marconi opened the way for modern
production, i.e., their costs will be so wireless communications by
high, that the value of their lifetime transmitting the three-dot Morse code
productivity can never justify it." for the letter „S‟ over a distance of three
kilometers using electromagnetic waves.
At this point nanotechnology From this beginning, wireless
comes in to picture. Nanotech is often communications has developed into a
defined as the manipulation and control key element of modern society. From
of matter at the nanometer scale (critical satellite transmission, radio and
dimensions of 1-100nm).The primary television broadcasting to the now
contender for the post-silicon ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless
computation paradigm is molecular communications has revolutionized the
electronics, a nano-scale alternative to way societies function. The evolution of
the CMOS transistor. Eventually, wireless begins here.
molecular switches will revolutionize

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lower-powered radio signals. Since it

transmitted data through digital signals,
2G also offered additional services such
as SMS and e-mail. Major prominent
technologies were GSM, CDMA, and

2.5G: In term "2.5G" usually describes a

2G cellular system combined with
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS),
or other services not generally found in
2G or 1G networks. A 2.5G system may
1G: The 1st generation was pioneered in
make use of 2G system infrastructure,
early 1980‟s. First generation cellular
but it implements a packet-switched
mobile telephones developed around
network domain in addition to a circuit-
the world using different, incompatible
switched domain..It can support data
analogue technologies. It support speed
rate up to 144kbps.GPRS, EDGE, &
up to 2.4kbps. Major contributors were
CDMA 2000 were the focal 2.5G
AMPS, NMT, and TACS. In terms of
technologies. This does not necessarily
overall connection quality, 1G compares
give 2.5G an advantage over 2G in terms
unfavorably to its successors. It has low
of network speed, because bundling of
capacity, unreliable handoff, poor voice
timeslots is also used for circuit-
links, and no security at all since voice
switched data services (HSCSD).
calls were played back in radio towers,
making these calls susceptible to 3G: An attempt to establish an
unwanted eavesdropping by third international standard for 3G mobile is
parties. being moderated through the ITU,
under the auspices of its IMT-2000
2G: The 2nd generation was program. It was inveterate in late 2000.It
accomplished in later 1990‟s. 2G mobile provides transmission speed up to
telephones used digital technology. 2Mbps. Third generation (3G) services
combine high speed mobile access with
Group Special Mobile (GSM) was first
Internet Protocol (IP)-based services.
developed in the 1980s and was the first Apart from transmission speed
2G system. Mainly used for Voice innovative enhancement was made in
communication and supports speed up Quality of services. Add on services
to 64kbps. Another advantage of 2G such as global roaming, better voice
over 1G is that the battery life of a 2G quality, always on made 3G as a
significant generation. In addition to
handset lasts longer, again due to the
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being more expensive, 3G handsets also communication networks and is

require more power than most 2G expected to provide a comprehensive
models. The major disadvantage for 3G and secure IP based solution where
network plans centers around pricing. facilities such as voice, data and
Generally, 3G network price points are streamed multimedia will be provided
much higher than 2G networks with to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere"
comparable features. basis and at much higher data rates
compared to previous generations. One
4G: Mobile operators face a decision: common characteristic of the new
Their 3G networks will soon be services to be provided by 4G, is their
overwhelmed by the amount of data demanding requirements in terms of
traffic they‟re handling. And demand is QoS. Applications such as wireless
growing faster and faster as customers broadband access, Multimedia
become accustomed to “anywhere, Messaging Service (MMS), video chat,
anytime” access to the Internet. How mobile TV, HDTV content and Digital
can operators expand capacity while Video Broadcasting (DVB) are being
continuing to lower operating costs to developed to use a 4G network.
maintain their margins and keep
customers happy?
4G Architecture:
We believe that the
future of mobile data services lies with In parallel with the LTE
Long-Term Evolution technology, or radio access, packet Core networks are
LTE. Offering vastly improved network also evolving to the flat SAE
performance at just a fraction of the cost architecture. This new architecture is
of 3G technology, LTE has the designed to optimize network
capabilities to greatly expand network performance, improve cost efficiency
capacity and offer a large number of and facilitate the uptake of mass market
customers the ability to access a wide IP-based services.
range of high-speed services such as
video-on-demand, peer-to-peer file The Evolved Packet
sharing, and complex Web services. At Switched System (EPS) provides IP
the same time, additional spectrum is connectivity between a UE and an
becoming available that will enable external packet data network using the
operators to manage their networks Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio
more flexibly, offering greater coverage Access Network (E-UTRAN).Consists of
and better performance for less money. an Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). E-
4G usually refers to the UTRAN consists of eNBs, providing the
successor of the 3G and 2G standards. In E-UTRA user plane and control plane
fact, the 3GPP is currently standardizing protocol terminations towards the UE.
LTE Advanced as future 4G standard. A
4G system may upgrade existing

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 Peak spectrum efficiency DL: 30

bps/Hz, UL: 15 bps/Hz
 Spectrum flexibility: Support of
scalable bandwidth and spectrum
 Mobility: Same as that in LTE
 Coverage should be optimized or
deployment in local areas/micro
cell environments with ISD up to
1 km
 Backward compatibility and
The goals for LTE include interworking with LTE with
improving spectral efficiency, lowering 3GPP legacy systems
costs, improving services, making use of
new spectrum and reformed spectrum LTE is not a revolutionary
opportunities, and better integration technology, nor is it meant to be. The
with other open standards. goal of the technology is to be able to
meet the future demand of wireless
LTE Advanced Requirements: broadband access, and thus satisfy
The requirement customer expectations of improved data
specification TR 36.913 has already been transmission performance, as well as
approved in TSG-RAN#40. Detailed voice transmission, without having to
Technical proposals will be investigated pay more money. Ultimately, every
within the working groups. operator has a choice: Move now to
Current agreements on the begin the transition to LTE and capture
requirements for LTE Advanced: the early cost advantage, or wait until
 Peak data rate DL: 1 Gbps, UL: demand rises to the point where LTE
500 Mbps investments become necessary.
 Transmission bandwidth: Wider
than approximately 70 MHz in
Need for 5G?
DL and 40 MHz in UL
 Latency: C-plane from Idle (with
Mobile broadband is
IP address allocated) to
becoming a reality, as the internet
Connected in <50 ms and U plane
generation grows accustomed to having
latency shorter than 5 ms one
broadband access wherever they go and
way in RAN taking into account
not just at home or in the office. Of the
30% retransmissions (FFS)
estimated 3.4 billion people who will
 Cell edge user throughput 2
have broadband by 2014, about 80
times higher than that in LTE
percent will be mobile broadband
 Average user throughput 3 times
subscribers – and the majority will be
higher than that in LTE
served by High Speed Packet Access
 Capacity (spectrum efficiency) 3
(HSPA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE)
times higher than that in LTE
networks. There is strong evidence
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supporting predictions of increased

mobile broadband usage.

This clearly shows

that within 2020 LTE will become the
But you might have a uncertainty at latest trend for wireless communication
this movement (i.e) all the above all over the world. But yet our question
requirements are expected to be remains unanswered. Why there is a
satisfied by LTE advance itself. Then need for 5G?.Even though LTE provides
why there is a need for 5G? Yes of wide range of growth for present
course LTE might support peak data wireless telecommunication. People are
rate of DL: 1Gbps, UL: 500Mbps within not in a circumstance to make use of
a scalable bandwidth where the user can those benefits in an effective
gratify his requirement.Inturn LTE manner.LTE might be rigorously used
advance provides beyond the demand. in Commercial/Industrial areas. But
The actual dilemma starts here… think of a common man who utmost
utilize LTE for downloading a movie or
As per the present status all over make a video call. Fact is that there is no
the world WCDMA is commercially such ground-breaking application exists
launched .Some nations has planned to in real world to be utilized by a
launch LTE within next quarter. common man. You might doubt how
Operator is looking ahead for wide-scale this verdict is applicable for current
deployment of LTE in 2012. Operators innovative world, where we have
will also find that the timing is right to enormous splendid real time
make the switch because much of the applications. Concern is that our present
first generation of 3G equipment will wireless telecommunications is
need to be upgraded soon. LTE bottlenecked to use those applications in
networking equipment and handsets, an effective manner. This paper mainly
already under development, will focuses on how a 5G network can
become available in 2010, and should be provide more approach to a common
rolled out in large quantities in Europe man to utilize his available possessions
by 2012. in an immense way to make him to feel
the real progress.

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While considering a 5G network "normal" IP addresses. This is of more

now it is very obvious that the access interest to mobile broadband network
network is almost freezed and there will operators.
not be any further modification. Current
OFDMA is appropriate for at least next With the shift to flat IP architectures,
half a century. Then what could be the mobile operators can:
amendment for 5G? Furthermore their
won‟t be any alter in the wireless Reduce the number of network
infrastructure as it happened from 1G to elements in the data path to lower
4G instead there could be add-on operations costs and capital
application or up gradation done at the expenditure
core network to satisfy customer needs. Partially decouple the cost of
This will make the operators/Service delivering service from the volume
providers to sense preeminent to of data transmitted to align
migrate for a 5G as soon as possible infrastructure capabilities with
once 4G is commercially deployed. emerging application requirements
Minimize system latency and
While considering a smooth enable applications with a lower
migration for 5G it is apparent that it tolerance for delay; upcoming
should be valid for all sorts of radio latency enhancements on the radio
access technologies. So that it could link can also be fully realized
make better revenue for current global Evolve radio access and packet core
operators as well as interoperability will networks independently of each
become more feasible. To make 5G other to a greater extent than in the
practical for all sorts of radio access past, creating greater flexibility in
technologies there should be a common network planning and deployment
platform unique for all the technologies. Develop a flexible core network that
One of those unique platforms is Flat IP can serve as the basis for service
network. innovation across both mobile and
generic IP access networks
Flat IP network: Create a platform that will enable
mobile broadband operators to be
Certainly Flat IP network is competitive, from a
the key concept to make 5G acceptable price/performance perspective,
for all kind of technologies. To meet with wired networks
customer demand for real-time data
applications delivered over mobile Flat network
broadband networks, wireless operators architecture removes that voice-centric
are turning to flat IP network hierarchy from the network. Instead of
architectures. Flat IP architecture overlaying a packet data core on the
provides a way to identify devices using voice network, separate and much-
symbolic names, unlike the hierarchical simplified data architecture can be
architecture such as that used in

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implemented that removes the multiple for prevailing 5G networks. And what
elements from the network chain. all the technologies incorporated in it to
craft it as a global server.

5G –The NanoCore:


How could be it..

If you can able to feel yours kid

stroke when she/he is in her
mother‟s wombs.
But with the advantages
If you can able to charge your
of IP come some dangers - The Internet
mobile using your own heart
is open not just to well-meaning
developers but also to all manner of
criminals and vandals, and our always-
If you can able to perceive your
on DSL connections bring us not only
grandmother sugar level with
voice and video, but also viruses, along
your mobile.
with phishing attacks and Trojan horses.
That's why the developers of the next
If you can able to know the exact
generation of mobile networks are
time of your child birth that too
trying to build security in from the start.
In Nano seconds.

If your mobile rings according to

your mood.

If you can Vote from your


If you can get an alert from your

mobile when some once opens
5G networks make use of this your intelligent car.
flat IP concept to make it easier for
different RAN to upgrade in to a single If you can able to view your
NanoCore network. Our 5G network residence in your mobile when
uses Nanotechnology as defensive tool someone enters.
for security concern that arises due to
flat IP. If you can able to locate your
The fore coming sessions will deal child when she/he is
how a NanoCore acts as a global server unfortunately missed.
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If your mobile phone get cleaned

by its own.
If you can able to pay all your If you can able to fold your
bills in a single payment with mobile as per your desire.
your mobile.

If you can able to sense If you can able to expand your

Tsunami/earthquake before it coverage using your mobile
occurs. phones.

If you can able to visualize lively If you can able identify your
all planets and Universe. stolen mobile with nanoseconds.

If you can able to navigate a If you can able to access your

Train for which you are waiting. office desktop by being at your

If you can get the share value

lively. If you‟re mobile can able to
suggest you possible medicine as
per your healthiness.
If you can lock your Laptop, car,
Bike using your mobile when you If you‟re mobile can able to
forgot to do so. calculate approximate Hike. 

If you‟re mobile can share your If you‟re mobile can estimate the
work load. quality of your new build house.

If you‟re mobile can identify the If you‟re mobile can able to

best server. provide recent worth on products
using its barcode.

If you‟re mobile can perform Yes Of course, “Everything

Radio resource management. is possible for him who believes.”Our
5G network will make everyone‟s belief
come true.
If your mobile can intimate you
before the call drops.

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RAN • Radio Access Network Global •Content Providers

GSM 5G Architecture – The NanoCore Search Engine

€ Billing€


Flatter Communicatio

NE The Medical/Health
WIFI Network NanoCore

CDMA 2000

Morph EV-DO
AIPN Nanotechnology Cloud Computing

Graphene Private Portal

MultiCore Technology Quantum Computing Application
NanoDots Platform
• NE - Nano Equipment (UE) Public Portal
Satellite GPS IS 95 • AIPN –All IP Network
Optoelectronics Infrastructure
• NanoCore - Server
Quantum Quantum
Business Cloud
cryptography ISP cryptography

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Incorporated Technologies: deals with control of the structure of

matter based on atom-by-atom and
Sophisticated technology molecule by molecule engineering. The
has enabled an age of globalization. term nanotechnology was introduced by
Technological convergence is the Nori Taniguchi in 1974 at the Tokyo
tendency for different technological international conference on production
systems to evolve towards performing engineering.
similar tasks. What Nicholas Nanotechnology is the next
Negroponte labeled the transformation industrial revolution, and the
of "atoms to bits," the digitization of all telecommunications industry will be
media content. When words, images radically transformed by it in a few
and sounds are transformed into digital years. Nanotechnology has shown its
information, we expand the potential impact on both mobile as well as the
relationships between them and enable core network. Apart from this it has its
them to flow across platforms. own impact on sensor as well as
security. This is considered as a most
Nano significant in telecommunication. We
will be discussing the same in our
Cloud further slides.

NanoEquipment (NE):
NanoCore Mobile phone has become
more than a communication device in
The 5G Nancore is a modern world it has turned into an
convergence of below mention identity of an individual. In 5G
technologies. These technologies have Nanocore these mobile are referred as
their own impact on exiting wireless NanoEquipment as they are geared up
network which makes them in to 5G. with nanotechnology. One of the central
visions of the wireless industry aims at
Nanotechnology. ambient intelligence: computation and
communication always available and
Cloud Computing. ready to serve the user in an intelligent
All IP Platform. This requires
that the devices are mobile. Mobile
Nanotechnology: devices together with the intelligence
that will be embedded in human
Nanotechnology is the application environments – home, office, public
of nanoscience to control process on places – will create a new platform that
nanometer scale. i.e between 0.1 and enables ubiquitous sensing, computing,
100nm.The field is also known as and communication
molecular nanotechnology(MNT).MNT
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Specs of NanoEquipments: Graphene's Transistor: The IBM

scientists, sponsored by DARPA (the
Self Cleaning – the phone cleans U.S. Defense Advanced Research
by itself Projects Agency), have built prototype
Self powered – the phone derives transistors with the new material, called
its energy/power from the sun, graphene. It is a form of graphite that
water, or air. consists of a single layer of carbon
Sense the environment – the atoms arranged in a honeycomb pattern.
phone will tell you the weather, Graphene's structure allows electrons to
the amount of air pollution travel through it very quickly and gives
present, etc. it greater efficiency than existing
Flexible – bend but not break transceiver chip materials. IBM
Transparent – “see through” announced Thursday the researchers
phones have achieved a frequency of 26GHz on
prototype graphene transistors. Those
Concept of Morph: frequencies are far above what cellular
networks use today. There may be
Nokia together with the military and medical uses for
University of Cambridge (UK), has frequencies above 1THz, such as seeing
developed this concept called Morph. concealed weapons or doing medical
Morph is from the Greek morphe imaging without using harmful x-rays.
meaning shape or form Morph is a
concept that demonstrates how future But at conventional frequencies,
mobile devices might be stretchable and graphene-based transceivers could
flexible, allowing the user to transform make both cell phones and base stations
their mobile device into radically more sensitive and better able to pick up
different shapes. It demonstrates the weak signals. The key is signal-to-noise
ultimate functionality that ratio, or being able to distinguish the
nanotechnology might be capable of radio signal from the other waves
delivering: flexible materials, around it. At a given distance, a phone
transparent electronics and self-cleaning with a better signal-to-noise ratio can
surfaces. take better advantage of the signal
available from the nearest cell tower. A
more sensitive phone might even work
in areas where today's phones can't.

GPS: Nanotechnology soon could

enhance cell phones with carbon-
nanotube vacuum tubes, microscopic
microphones, liquid lenses, compasses
linked with global positioning system
satellites and even electronic noses.

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Micro-Micro Phones: "We have two ears building and facilities, medicine, safety,
to help locate sounds in space. This and national security, including both
helps us focus in on a single homeland defense and military
conversation in a noisy room. Having operations.
multiple microphones would allow us
to be maximally sensitive to the sounds Few sensors today are
we want and minimally sensitive to the based on pure nanoscience, and the
sounds we don't. This would help cut development of nano-enabled sensors is
down the noise you hear over the in the early stages; yet we can already
phone. foresee some of the possible devices and
Liquid lens: In the fixed lenses you have
in cell phones, what happens is there is Physical Sensors- This approach
a lot of jitter, the image is a mess, but may allow the mass of individual
your eyes stay focused on what they're biomolecules to be measured.
looking at -- do jitter reduction. So we Electrometers - This device has
want to make our optics as functional as demonstrated charge sensitivity
what our own eyes have below a single electron charge
per unit bandwidth (~0.1
Intelligent Batteries: Batteries consist of electrons/ Hz at 2.61 MHz),
metal electrodes bathed in chemicals better than that of state-of-the-art
known as electrolytes. Plugging in a semiconductor devices.
battery leads to electrolytes reacting, Chemical Sensors - Various
with electrons streaming through the nanotube-based gas sensors have
electrodes. Over time, the electrolytes been described in the past few
react on their own, which is why battery years.
power drains even when they are not in Biosensors - DNA detection with
use. The company is developing a these nano-scale coded particles
battery crafted via semiconductor has been demonstrated.
industry processes that contain millions
of silicon nanotubes, atop each sits a At present further more researches are
droplet of electrolyte. If made to fall going on to realize nanotechnology for
within the space between the tubes by future mobile communication in
applying a voltage change, the droplets different aspects. We can expect more
react to create a current. This means the enhancements in potential existence.
electrolytes activate only when in use.
Nanotechnology over Core
Nanosensor: Impact of nanotechnology Network
over mobile phones has made them to
act as intelligent sensors. Nanosensors The requirement of Nanocore
and nano-enabled sensors have evidently shows that it requires high
applications in many industries, among speed and a reliable capacity to
them transportation, communications, manipulate such a mammoth task as a
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single entity and to maintain a poise in In modern digital computers,

security aspects as perceptive data‟s will information is transmitted by flowing
be transferred over air. Our most recent electricity in the form of electrons,
core (Wimax, LTE) can‟t be able to which are negatively charged subatomic
accomplish these requirements. But particles. Transistors in computers are
ingress of NanoCore with electrical switches that store data as
Nanotechnology will fulfill the above "bits," in which "off" (no electrical
requirements. charge) and "on" (charge is present)
represent one bit of information: either 0
Creating platforms to support the or1.
necessary NanoCore elements requires
performance, flexibility and extensibility
in the underlying hardware/software
infrastructure. DSP farms are required
for media conversion and transcoding
while the latest high performance
computing processors take care of all
the control and signaling functions. The
need to combine these functions within
a highly available and “network ready”
chassis makes AdvancedTCA the ideal
architecture. AdvancedTCA enables the For example, with three bits, there are
eight possible combinations of 1 or 0: 1-
appropriate connectivity as well as the
1-1, 0-1-1, 1-0-1, 1-1-0, 0-0-0, 1-0-0, 0-1-0
infrastructure to support high density
and 0-0-1. But three bits in a digital
DSP cards. computer can store only one of those
eight combinations at a time.
Now a day‟s nanotechnologies are
used in DSP Fabrication. Much more Quantum computers, which
new perceptions are introduced in DSP have not been built yet, would be based
designing which increases the overall on the strange principles of quantum
system speed & capacity. mechanics, in which the smallest
particles of light and matter can be in
Quantum Computing: different places at the same time.

Quantum computing is In a quantum computer,

the area of study focused on developing one "qubit" – quantum bit – could be
computer technology based on the both 0 and 1 at the same time. So with
principles of quantum theory, which three qubits of data, a quantum
explains the nature and behavior of computer could store all eight
energy and matter on the quantum combinations of 0 and 1 simultaneously.
(atomic and subatomic) level. That means a three-qubit quantum
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computer could calculate eight times hold a single bit of information - a '1' or
faster than a three-bit digital computer. a '0' - as is the computing convention. In
current hard drives, bits (of information)
Typical personal computers must be placed far enough apart so as
today calculate 64 bits of data at a time. not to interfere with each other.
A quantum computer with 64 qubits
would be 2 to the 64th power faster, or
about 18 billion billion times faster.
(Note: billion billion is correct.).

Quantum computers have the

potential to perform certain calculations
significantly faster than any silicon-
based computer.

Improved Storage capability:

One of the major

requirements of Nanocore is that ability
to store large amount of data. More and
more modern electronic devices need Nanodots operate as complete units
larger memories. Current technology which are not structurally linked,
makes these demands very difficult to therefore allowing them to be packed
meet, but nanotechnology offers the closer together. They arrange
solution. themselves at such a density that should
allow anything up to 5 terabytes
Nanodots: (5000GB) of data to be stored in a space
the size of a postage stamp. Work still
One such new data-storage has to be carried out to allow these
device in R&D is the use of nanosized nanodots to operate and interact with
„dots‟ of nickel which it is hoped could other computing devices, such as silicon
be used to store terabytes of data, even chips, but the technology is definitely
for home and personal users. showing promise.
Considering the relatively large
(physically) storage devices we have The Nanodot is appropriate for
now, and the fact we tend to currently both NE as well as Nanocore.It will be
refer to size in terms of gigabytes, the implemented in both the part.
amazing potential is plain to see.
Improved speed:
Each "nanodot" consists
of a discrete ball of several hundred To please its customer
nickel atoms and can have one of two 5G needs to comprise a fast access to its
magnetic states. This allows them to services, Nanocore requires a far-

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

fetched speed to process those multiple security. Security of data which being
requirements. transmitted should be protected all the
Optoelectronics: Faster transfer of data
within and between devices can be Quantum cryptography: Critical
achieved using nanotechnology. A component of quantum communication
major limitation in transfer speeds is the device may enable cryptography.
use of electrical wiring and contacts. The Quantum cryptography is an emerging
use of optical fibres revolutionized the technology currently used by both
telecommunications industry by military and financial organizations to
increasing the rate of data transfer send information as entangled particles
between components. Optoelectronics of light. In theory, anyone who tries to
can dramatically increase data transfer tap into this information changes it in a
rates within devices such as pc's by way that reveals their presence. This
replacing copper wiring. In the future type of technology can be used in
for example, it could be possible to use particular cases like when the military
quantum dot based lasers to transfer needs to send the key to encrypted data
information between components across the world, it can't necessarily rely
within devices at the speed of light, with on today's communication lines.
each piece of information 'coded' by
being a unique wavelength of light.

Externally, by increasing the number of

nodes in information networks, data can
be transferred more rapidly between
two points. This will become possible
through the development of cheap
ambient sensor networks based on

Nanotechnology is certain to improve However in 5G networks were user will

Nanocore network and be a strong force be accessing all kinds of significant
in developing new ones. The field is messages from different platforms, can
progressing, but considerable work make use of this quantum cryptography
must be done before we see its full to avoid harmful hazards.
Cloud Computing:
Improved security:
Cloud computing is a
While considering Nanocore technology that uses the internet and
as a global server where user can access central remote server to maintain data
his real time applications, there should and applications. In 5G network this
be a special anxiety given to the central remote server will be our content

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

provide. Cloud computing allows Segments of Cloud Computing:

consumers and business to use
applications without installation and Cloud computing has three main segments
access their personal files at any which are as follows:
computer with internet access. The same
concept is going to be used in Nanocore 1. Applications
where the user tries to access his private 2.Platform
account form a global content provider 3.Infrastructure
through Nanocore in form of cloud.
Each segment serves
The development of cloud different products for businesses and
computing provides operators with individuals with different purpos
tremendous opportunities. Since cloud
computing relies on the networks, it
shows the significance of networks and
promotes network development. It also
requires secure and reliable service
providers, capabilities that operators
have deep expertise in. Operators can
enter the cloud computing market and
create new value-added services and
experiences by integrating industry
content and applications in the digital
supermarket model. Applications – It is based on, on
demand software services. On demand
This could make our user to obtain software services come in different
much more real-time application to varieties. They vary in their pricing
utilize his 5G network efficiently. Secure scheme and how the software is
and reliable service can be provided delivered to the end users. In the past,
with the help of quantum cryptography. the end-user would purchase a server
that can be accessed by the end user
Cloud computing customer avoids over the internet.
capital expenditure for the Nanocre
thereby also reducing the cost of Platform - The platform segment of
purchasing physical infrastructure by cloud computing refers to products that
renting the usage from a third party are used to deploy internet. Net Suite,
Provider(Content Provider). The Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have
Nanocore devours the resources and also developed platforms that allow
pay for what it uses. users to access applications from
centralized servers. Google, Net Suite,
Rack space cloud, and
sales force are some of the active

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

Infrastructure – The third segment in competitive edge in terms of both

cloud computing, known as the performance and cost.
infrastructure, is the backbone of the
entire concept. Infrastructure vendors‟ The key benefits of flat IP architectures
environments such as Google gears are
allow users to build applications. Cloud
storage, such as Amazon‟s S3, is also lower costs
considered to be part of the universal seamless access
infrastructure segment. improved user experience
reduced system latency
The 5G Nanocore will decoupled radio access and core
efficiently utilizes all the above 3 network evolution
segments to satisfy his customer
demands. The concept of cloud The drive to all IP-based services is
computing will reduce the CAPEX of 5G placing stringent performance demands
network deployment.Inturn this will on IP-based equipment and devices,
create a less billing to the end user for which in turn is growing demand for
all kinds of services that he utilizes multicore technology. There is strong
through Nanocore. growing demand for advanced
telecommunications services on wired
All IP Network: and wireless Next Generation Network
(NGN) infrastructures, and fast growing
Last but not the least. As demand for the same in the enterprise
already discussed for converging too.
different technologies to form a single
5G Nanocore. We require a common Within a few years, more than
platform to interact. Flat IP architecture 10 billion fixed and mobile devices will
act as an essential part of 5G network. be connected via the Internet to add to
the more than one billion already
The All-IP Network connected. All these services are going
(AIPN) is an evolution of the 3GPP to be deployed over full IP-based
system to meet the increasing demands architectures.
of the mobile telecommunications
market. To meets customer demand for
real-time data applications delivered
over mobile broadband networks,
wireless operators are turning to flat IP
network architectures. Primarily
focused upon enhancements of packet
switched technology, AIPN provides a
continued evolution and optimization of
the system concept in order to provide a

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

Data will flow more freely as mobile Appropriate identification of

communications networks move toward terminals, subscriptions and
a "flat IP" model, but developers and users
operators will face new security Federation of identities across
challenges. This kind of security different service providers
challenges can be trounced by
nanotechnology. MultiCore Technology:

The key aspects of the All IP: To support IP based

architecture Nanocore should
Support for a variety of different incorporate multi core technology in it.
access systems The shift to multi core technology to run
Common capabilities provided advanced IP-based applications and
independent to the type of services is well underway. Multi core
service provided with technology has certainly introduced the
convergence to IP technology hardware required for powerful
considered from the perspective processing demanded by converged
of the system as a whole telecommunications and enterprise
High performance mobility applications running on IP-based
management that provides end- architectures.
user, terminal and session
mobility NanoCore –As Managed Services:
Ability to adapt and move
sessions from one terminal to Sharing of infrastructure
another is becoming more general among
Ability to select the appropriate telecom operators now days as they can
access system based on a range of give fine revenue.Noramally there are
criteria two types of infra sharing
Provision of advanced
application services as well as Active Infra sharing
seamless and ubiquitous services Passive Infra sharing.
Ability to efficiently handle and
optimally route a variety of Commercial deployment
different types of IP traffic of Nanocore approach‟s a passive infra
including user-to-user, user-to- sharing where several operators can
group and ubiquitous service have a single shared Nanocore for their
traffic models network enhancement. This could
High level of security and reduce their initial CAPEX
support for user privacy e.g. requirements.Nanocore can be governed
location privacy, identity privacy by a solitary global vendor or it can be
Methods for ensuring QoS within shared among small vendors as
and across AIPNs managed services. This could make
better sense in terms of Quality aspects.

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

In rare cases Nanocore can be oversee network is security concern. There

by the government itself. Everything should be stability between technologies
depends on its enthusiastic. If this which is incorporated in NanoCore to
happens all our existing operators will
form as 5G. Even though 5G core is a
become Mobile Virtual Network
miniaturized version. Cost of NanoCore
Operator (MVNO).
will be more as it incorporates Nano
Future Enhancement: The future devices in it, which are of high cost.
enhancement of Nanocore will be Operator should realize the massive
incredible as it combines with Artificial applications of 5G when he thinks for
intelligent (AI).One can able to control CAPEX.HW/SW specification of
his intelligent Robot using his mobile NanoCore could be one of the major
phone. Human life will be surrounded challenges of 5G.Special care should be
by artificial sensors which could be taken such that usage of novel
communicating with your mobile technologies should not harm human
phones. Your Mobile can automatically health.
type the message what your brain
thinks. We might get a circumstance
where we don‟t require any spectrum While the future is becoming
for communication. We might be more difficult to predict with each
communicating with people on other passing year, we should expect an
planets using mobile phone December 1, accelerating pace of technological
change. We conclude that
2010es. We might have a single
nanotechnology, Cloud computing, All
NanoCore common for all the nations. IP are the next great technology wave
This might improve mobility of user as and the next phase of Moore‟s Law.
well as a smaller amount of billing to NanoCore innovations enable Myriad
end user. Who knows some times we disruptive businesses those were not
may communicate with the possible before, driven by
supernatural things with our mobile entrepreneurship. We hope that this
Paper helps to promote stronger links
phones. Everything depends on how
between people working in different
human being is going to utilize these fields creating future concepts of mobile
technologies in an innovative manner. communication, Internet services, Cloud
computing, All IP network, and
Risk & Challenges: Each technology Nanotechnologies. We conclude that it
has its own risks & challenges. One of is a great time to invest in startups. As
the major risks is that when things get in evolution and the explosion, many
globalized chance of fraudulent will be will become extinct. But some will
change the world. So we pursue the
uncomplicated. Main challenge for 5G
strategy of a diversified portfolio.

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

References: linked with global positioning system

satellites and even electronic noses-
NEW YORK, May 31 (UPI).
1. IBM Research News.  For the communications networks
underlying the phones, Bell Labs
2. Nanowerk - Nanotechnology research researchers are creating soccer-ball-
sized devices that can handle a petabit --
or a million billion bits -- of data.
 Securing aeronautical communications
3. Nanotechnology Applications to using quantum cryptography- Le Quoc
Telecommunications and Networking, Cuong,Nguyen Toan Linh Tam,Nguyen
Thanh Mai,Patrick Bellot
by Daniel Minoli.  Two of Russia's mobile networks are
planning trials of train ticket payments
4. Nanotechnologies for Future Mobile by mobile phones. In Moscow, MTS will
Devices by TAPANI RYHA¨ NEN run a trial with the Moscow Metro
Nokia Research Center, Cambridge started from next January, while in St
Petersburg a separate trial will take
place with rival mobile network,
Case studies: MegaFon

Now our major anxiety is

that when this 5G core evolve?
Research‟s expects it by 2033; we can
perceive a change in wireless
technologies with the impact of
convergence of different technologies.
Still researches are going on all over the
world for convergence of technologies.

 Nokia - Adventures in Nanotechnology

- Nokia together with the University of
Cambridge (UK), has developed this
concept called Morph.
 Human heartbeats could one day power
cell phones! - Prof. Keon Jae Lee
--The Paper is scripted by Imthiyaz Ali,
(KAIST, Dept. of Materials Science and
Engineering) and Prof. Zhong Lin Wang Reach me -
(Georgia Institute of Technology, Dept.
of Materials Science and Engineering) Linked In – Imthiyaz Ali LinkedIn Profile
 IBM nanotechnology might improve cell
phones. Face Book – Face Book Account
 Portugal Telecom makes the first 100G
connection in Portugal over its optical Twitter -
fiber network
 Nanotechnology soon could enhance Follow us on -
cell phones with carbon-nanotube
vacuum tubes, microscopic
microphones, liquid lenses, compasses

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[5G THE NANOCORE] March 5, 2011

Let’s Shape the Future …..

To be continued…

Next Generation |Imthiyaz Ali 24