Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

# EXERCISE 1

HT083276E

## DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

2010
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The measurement of traffic volumes is one of the most basic functions of highway planning
and management. Traffic counting can include volume, direction of travel, vehicle
classification, speed, and lane position. In this Exercise 1 the objectives are:
 To understand how to observe, classify traffic by space, time and modes on Clementi
Avenue 6 in direction from AYE to PIE road;
 To describe the traffic conditions (qualitatively) on this road section;
 To measure the traffic and categorize by time interval, lane position, vehicle types.

## 2.1 Traffic measurement

Data collection is a critical step in the analysis process of traffic counts. Knowing what to
collect, when to collect, how long to collect, where to collect, and how to manage the data
must be addressed before starting the collection. In this Exercise 1, several matters should be
considered before do the traffic counts.
 A marked line- a certain line should be set as a reference to count vehicles. We count
vehicle when they cross the lines drawn on the screen from the front bumper touching
the line within strict lane discipline.
 Interval length-as traffic count is discrete, it is necessary to choose an appropriate time
interval to set vehicles into different groups. In our exercise the interval is
predetermined as 5-min by the lecturer.
 Vehicle type-we divide vehicles into 4 groups including car, bus, lorry and
motorcycle.
 Choosing lane- traffic lanes are often referred to by number. The right or “fast” lane is
called the “Number 1 Lane.” The lane to the left of the “Number 1 Lane” is called the
“Number 2 Lane”, then the “Number 3 Lane”,
differentiating characteristics included in the calculation of the traffic counts.

## 2.2 Data collection and relevant information needed

Data collection sites of one direction from AYE to PIE is using camcorder and video
technologies. However, several problems on data collection are adresses below:
 The observer records count data by videotaping traffic. Therefore traffic volumes can
be counted by viewing videotapes recorded with a camera at a collection site.
However, there is no a digital clock in the video image which can prove useful in
noting time intervals.
 In regards to position of camcorder, it is necessary to set strategically positioned, to
capture along of highway section. This allowed for the viewing of the entire highway
width in one direction. Besides video recording technique, onsite surveys were
essential for collecting roadway geometry and characteristics.
 In this Exercise, the count period is representative by the 5 minute to 30 minute count
interval from 6.50 AM-7.20 AM.
 However, in order to represent real traffic condition, the count period itself should be
represent the time of day, day of month, and month of year for the study area.

2
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

## 3.0 TRAFFIC CONDITIONS

As can be seen from the videotape recording, in general the characteristic of traffic on
Clementi Avenue 6 from direction of AYE to PIE segments can be characterised as
heterogenous traffic during period of count. During period of count the vehicles traffic in this
segment has strict lane discipline and has traffic various types whose dimensions vary much.
However, in order to describe the real problems of traffic condition, I will describe the
characteristic of road geometry, lane position and lane traffic markings which will be affected
the decision of lane changing behavior of drivers or vehicles. This issue will be explained by
road figure below were obtained from the Google Maps with Street View.

AYE exit from
City Marked
Jurong
B line
4
A 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1

## Figure 1. Road geometry design of study area

The study area of this exercise is road segment of Clementi Avenue 6 where all the traffic
come from two different exits of AYE (trumpet interchange). Based on observation from the
videotape recording, it can be seen that between locations A and B, the horizontal alignment
of road geometry is widen in order to accommodate an additional traffic volume from the
AYE exit of Jurong. However, a AYE exit of Jurong will adds considerable traffic to the road,
especially if the condition of B has interruption which occured by entrance and exit of buses
for alighting and boarding passenger to bus bay area especially in lane position of 3 and 4 (see
Figure 2). If lane 3 and 4 of location B reaches capacity due to this entrance and exit of buses,
there will be a backup of traffic on the mainstream, resulting in stop-and-go traffic at AYE
exit especially if the vehicles perform lane changing that may take place by vehicles.

In lane 1 and 2 position between location of A and B some vehicles can be considered to be in
a queue, waiting their turn to be served by the interruption section at location of B. Thus,
given by the record of traffic conditions, there is a good range of uncongested flow of road
segment in location B in lane position of 1 and 2. This cause between location A and B
drivers arrive at the front end of the queue moving very slowly, and accelerate away from that
point, increasing speed as they move through the bottleneck section. This segment of the
speedflow has been referred to as queue discharge flow.

3
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

Merging and
Interruption lane changing
section perform

Uncongested
flow

Queue
discharge flow

Figure 2. Interruption section at entrance bus bay and queue discharge flow area

## 4.0 DATA SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS

To more understand the traffic pattern on Clementi Avenue 6 of direction AYE to PIE road
segment, traffic counts were measured by time interval, lane position, and vehicle types. The
detail for traffic count data by site, entity type, and time interval is indicated on Appendix.
The percentage of traffic composition is shown on Figure 3.

11,0%
11,4% CAR
8,3%
BUS
69,3%
LORRY
MC

## Figure 3 Traffic composition at Clementi Avenue 6.

From the figure above, we can conclude that the proportion of each vehicles is dominated by
passenger cars which give the significant portion of traffic composition during period of
count. In more detail following figure will represent the count of vehicles in lane position by
time interval (in minutes).

4
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

Lane 1 Lane 3

70 70
60 60

No of counts
No of counts

50 50
40 MC 40 MC
30 30
LORRY LORRY
20 20
10 BUS 10 BUS
0 CAR 0 CAR
6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 - 6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 -
6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20 6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20
Time interval (minutes) Time interval (minutes)

Lane 2 Lane 4

70 70
60 60
No of counts

No of counts
50 50
40 MC 40 MC
30 30
LORRY LORRY
20 20
10 BUS 10 BUS
0 CAR 0 CAR
6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 - 6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 -
6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20 6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20
Time interval (minutes) Time interval (minutes)

## Figure 4 No of vehicles count and time interval

In general, the distribution of passenger cars during the time interval at each lane is relatively
constant. From figure lane 2 it is seems that abrupt change in traffic composition a proportion
of bus which relatively higher than lane 4 which is a bus bay area. Therefore, since the
videotaped data allowed to spot check the counts and measurements. When miscounting or
mismeasurement occurred, reobservation of the entire 5-min segment is conducted again to
make a sure of traffic pattern. After reobservation, I found that most of private bus were
occupied of lane 2 position.

However, in more clearly to illustrate overall traffic stream condition therefore we should
converted all of each vehicles into PCE according to the following conversion coefficient
which obtained from study by Henry Fan on Passenger Car Equivalents for Vehicles on
Singapore Expressways.

## Type Car Truck/Lorry Bus Motorcycle

Coefficient 1.0 2.6 2.7 0.4

After converting all types of vehicles into PCE, therefore it is easily to analyse the flow rates
in each time interval as illustrate by following figure and table.

5
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

## PCE conversion volume

100
90
80
70
60 Lane 1
50 Lane 2
40
30 Lane 3
20 Lane 4
10
-
6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 -
6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20

## Flow rates (vph)

1.000
900
800
700
600 Series1
500 Series2
400
300 Series3
200 Series4
100
-
6:50 - 6:55 - 7:00 - 7:05 - 7:10 - 7:15 -
6:55 7:00 7:05 7:10 7:15 7:20

## 5 minutes beginning Vehicle count Flow rate (vph)

6:50 - 6:55 226 2.717
6:55 - 7:00 170 2.045
7:00 - 7:05 256 3.074
7:05 - 7:10 237 2.845
7:10 - 7:15 195 2.339
7:15 - 7:20 238 2.851

## 5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

In this exercise, traffic count were measured at the road segment of Clementi Avenue 6 on
direction from AYE to PIE. However, since traffic and volume data does vary from day to
day. By collecting data on only one day, the data will likely not reflect the average traffic
patterns. Data should be collected during peak or off peak periods when typical traffic
conditions exist. Traffic data collection should be avoided during such conditions as during

6
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

incidents, inclement weather, special events, construction, holidays and seasonal variations
(unless these special conditions are part of the analysis purpose).

Videotape being able to refer back to see how lanes join or where signs are located is very
helpful. This is especially true for situations where the analyst is not located near the site.
Videotaping and digital images should be captured during the peak hour so as to depict
accurate congestion levels and queues. Therefore, for the future analysis we should included
all traffic counts measurement in preparing data collection in order to better interpretation of
traffic condition.

6.0 REFERENCES

A Policy on Geometric Design of Highway and Streets 2001, 4th Ed. (AASHTO)
Highway Capacity Manual. 2000. Special Report 209, 4th Ed., TRB, National Research
Council, Washington, D.C.,
Traffic Monitoring Guide, 3rd Ed. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Traffic Flow Theory A State-of-the-Art Report (2001). Committee on Traffic Flow Theory
and Characteristics (AHB45). TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,

7
Department of Civil Engineering
CE 5203 Traffic Flow and Control

Appendix

## Location: Clementi Ave 6 Recorder: Video

City/Town: Singapore Interval: 5
Direction: AYE to PIE (In Minutes)

______________________________________________________________________ __________
_ _ _ _ _ _
Lane: TIME CAR BUS LORRY MC TOTAL
1 ENDING TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4
--------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
6:50 - 6:55 49 5 0 6 60
6:55 - 7:00 40 2 0 5 47
7:00 - 7:05 50 3 3 5 61
7:05 - 7:10 42 9 0 5 56
7:10 - 7:15 50 2 0 7 59
7:15 - 7:20 40 2 2 7 51
Lane: --------- 271 23 5 35 334
2 6:50 - 6:55 19 9 12 15 55
6:55 - 7:00 10 6 8 5 29
7:00 - 7:05 13 9 17 7 46
7:05 - 7:10 12 11 8 14 45
7:10 - 7:15 14 0 14 15 43
7:15 - 7:20 13 1 24 16 54
Lane: --------- 81 36 83 72 272
3 6:50 - 6:55 22 2 1 1 26
6:55 - 7:00 16 0 0 1 17
7:00 - 7:05 20 2 0 0 22
7:05 - 7:10 17 1 2 0 20
7:10 - 7:15 15 0 2 3 20
7:15 - 7:20 22 2 3 2 29
Lane: --------- 112 7 8 7 134
4 6:50 - 6:55 29 4 4 1 38
6:55 - 7:00 47 2 2 0 51
7:00 - 7:05 47 4 8 0 59
7:05 - 7:10 52 4 5 0 61
7:10 - 7:15 45 5 0 1 51
7:15 - 7:20 46 3 5 0 54
--------- 266 22 24 2 314
TOTAL 730 88 120 116 1054