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Answers: GCSE Biology Foundation

Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark


1 a A: trachea ii The graph is low during the night but rises to a
B: bronchus maximum during the day. 1
C: bronchioles Photosynthesis only takes place in light
D: diaphragm so the rate of photosynthesis is greatest
All four correct: 3 marks; three correct: when light is brightest. 1
2 marks; 2 correct: 1 mark. 3
c i They were concerned that respiration by plants
b diaphragm moves down 1 would reduce oxygen and increase carbon
rib cage moves upwards and outwards 1 dioxide levels and this might affect patients. 1

Examiner’s tip ii It was realised that this, while it might have


As you sit attempting the question take a deep breath in. some correct science, was not significant. 1
This should give you the correct answers. 4 a all bars correctly drawn 2
One mark for 2 or 3 correct.
c Either
mucus traps dust and bacteria 45

energy used in
1 minute (kJ)
or 40
cilia sweep the mucus with dust and bacteria 35
back up the throat 1
30

d capillaries 1 25
valves 1
20
veins 1
15
arteries 1
10

Examiner’s tip 5
Learn carefully the different parts of the circulatory
0
system. Veins and arteries are very different in lying still sitting walking dancing running
activity
structure and purpose.
b 5(kJ) 1
c Dancing for 10 minutes uses 300kJ. She would
e Blood leaving the lungs is richer in oxygen. 1
have to walk for 30 minutes to use the same
Blood reaching the lungs is richer in carbon
amount of energy. 1
dioxide. 1
d Any 1 from:
2 a Insecticide gets sprayed onto the fields. 1
for respiration, growth or repair 1
Insecticide is washed off the fields. 1
+ 1 mark for making the link between e The more physical the activity 1
the two statements. 1 the greater the amount of energy used. 1
b The small fish do not contain enough Examiner’s tip
poison to kill them. 1 Bar charts and pie diagrams can feature only on
The otters contain enough poison to kill them.1 Foundation papers.
Draw the bars carefully with a ruler and pencil. Many
Examiner’s tip
students do them roughly and fail to score. The answer to
You have probably learnt about DDT in your studies. This
(e) is a comparative – The more … the greater … .
built up along the food chain and caused problems, for
example, with birds of prey.
5 a i A: nucleus
B: cytoplasm
3 a i oxygen 1
C: cell membrane
ii carbon dioxide 1 3 correct: 2 marks; 2 correct 1 mark. 2
b i The graph is horizontal or flat. 1 ii X drawn anywhere in the central portion
Rate of respiration is the same throughout the labelled A. 1
24 hours. 1
iii cell wall 1
b dominant 1
recessive 1

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Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark
c i All the raspberry bushes are Tt. 1 7 C; E; B; A; E; E or D 6
That means they all have thorns because
T is dominant. 1 Examiner’s tip
Examiners often give you a starting point which you can
ii T t build on logically. Note that both plasma and platelets have
major roles in clotting of blood.
T TT Tt
t Tt tt
1
8 a i
iii One quarter of the new bushes are thornless. 1
The ones that are Tt or TT have thorns or
only tt are thornless. 1

Examiner’s tip.
Genetic questions can be difficult, but this one on the 2
Foundation paper is straightforward. The key to the
question is understanding the words dominant and Examiner’s tip
recessive. Hopefully by highlighting them in (b), you are Note that the parts exposed to light need to be shaded.
thinking in those terms for (c). If you gave the wrong Good candidates even remember to shade the shape in the
answer for the nucleus in (a) (i) you can still get the mark in middle of the foil!
(a) (ii) for putting the cross in the correct place.

ii • The leaf was dipped into boiling water to


6 a i A = cornea soften it.
B = lens • It was then put into boiling ethanol; in a
C = retina 3 water bath for 10 minutes to remove the green
colour from the leaf.
ii cornea/A; • The leaf was then dipped into water.
lens/B 2 • It was laid flat in a Petri dish and iodine
Examiner’s tip solution was poured over the leaf.
These two parts bend or refract the light to enable the eye to The parts which contained starch turned a
focus. Many pupils forget the cornea bends the light as well blue/black colour. 3
as the lens! c no light received;
so no photosynthesis 2

b becomes long and thin; d respiration 1


become tight;
Examiner’s tip
contract 3
Always remember that energy can be released from starch
Examiner’s tip in respiration!
Remember that in focusing a near object the opposite thing
happens to each part.
9 a
food substance enzyme breaks down
into
c Any four from: starch amylase maltose (sugar)
The retina contains light sensitive cells;
these react to the light and send; protein protease or amino acids
pepsin
electrical impulses;
along the optic nerve; fats and oils lipase fatty acid and
to the brain. 4 glycerol
4
+ 1 mark for correct spelling, punctuation
and grammar. 1 Examiner’s tip
Incomplete tables like this give you clues. This table
d i The size of the iris changes to make
includes the important enzyme controlled reactions for most
the pupil smaller. 1
GCSE Exam Boards. Learn them!
ii So less light enters the eye
preventing damage. 1

© Letts Educational 2004 35


Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark
b A No product is made/enzyme inactive; 10 a The pollutant which causes acid rain is released
no collisions between substrate molecules into the air when fossil fuels are burned.
and active sites of enzymes. 2 Sulphur dioxide is given off into the air. An
example when this gas is produced is at coal
B Maximum amount of product made;
burning power stations and from vehicle
many successful collisions between
exhausts. The gas mixes with water vapour in
substrate molecules and active sites of
the clouds and sulphuric acid is formed. 4
enzymes. 2
b i prevents plants absorbing some minerals;
C No product made;
kills plants/ defoliates plants
enzyme is destroyed/ enzyme denatured/
active site destroyed permanently. 2 ii destroys plants so herbivores have no food
or less food. 3
Examiner’s tip
Never state that enzymes are killed: not true and no mark! Examiner’s tip
Questions often ask about acid rain, the greenhouse effect
and the depletion of the ozone layer. Make sure you
understand these three environmental issues.

Grade Predictor
The grid below suggests the grade that you might expect to achieve on this examination paper.
It is an indication only and does not imply that this is the grade you will receive in the actual examination.

C (max. grade on foundation paper) 61+


D 48-60
E 35-47
F 21-34
G 11-21
Ungraded 10 and below

© Letts Educational 2004 36


Answers: GCSE Biology Higher
Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark

1 a i A = cornea c no light received;


B = lens so no photosynthesis 2
C = retina 3
d Respiration 1
ii cornea/A;
lens/B 2 Examiner’s tip
Always remember that energy can be released from starch
Examiner’s tip in respiration!
These two parts bend or refract the light to enable the eye to
focus. Many pupils forget the cornea bends the light as well food substance enzyme breaks down
as the lens! 4 a into
starch amylase maltose (sugar)

b becomes long and thin; protein protease or amino acids


become tight; pepsin
contract 3 fats and oils lipase fatty acid and
glycerol
Examiner’s tip 4
Remember that in focusing a near object the opposite thing
Examiner’s tip
happens to each part.
Incomplete tables like this give you clues. This table
includes the important enzyme controlled reactions for most
GCSE Exam Boards. Learn them!
c The retina contains light sensitive cells;
which are cones;
These react to the red light and send;
b A No product is made/enzyme inactive;
electrical impulses;
no collisions between substrate molecules
along the optic nerve;
and active sites of enzymes. 2
to the brain. any 5 of points shown 5
B Maximum amount of product made;
2 C; E; B; A; E; E or D 6
many successful collisions between substrate
Examiner’s tip molecules and active sites of enzymes. 2
Examiners often give you a starting point which you can C No product made;
build on logically. Note that both plasma and platelets have Enzyme is destroyed/ enzyme denatured/
major roles in clotting of blood. active site destroyed permanently. 2

Examiner’s tip
3 a i Never state that enzymes are killed: not true and no mark!

5 a Route Part
1 lungs
2
2 pulmonary vein
Examiner’s tip 3 left atrium
Note that the parts exposed to light need to be shaded. A 4 left ventricle
and B candidates even remember to shade the shape in the 5 aorta
middle of the foil! 6 renal artery
7 kidney
8 renal vein
ii • The leaf was dipped into boiling water to 9 vena cava
soften it. 10 right atrium or right ventricle
• It was then put into boiling ethanol; in a 11 pulmonary artery
water bath for 10 minutes to remove the green 12 lungs 5
colour from the leaf. 8 correct = 6 marks, 7 correct = 5 marks,
• The leaf was then dipped into water. 6 correct = 4 marks, 5 correct = 3 marks,
• It was laid flat in a Petri dish and iodine; 4 correct = 2 marks, 3 correct = 1 mark
solution was poured over the leaf.
The parts which contained starch turned a Examiner’s tip
blue/black; colour. 3 Take care with arteries and veins. An artery takes blood

© Letts Educational 2004 37


Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark
from the heart to an organ. A vein takes blood from an
Lucy David
organ towards the heart.
Genotypes Hh Hh

b Prevents the backflow of blood/ makes sure


the blood goes in one direction only. 1
Possible
gametes H h H h
6 a i Either
Possible
Blood glucose falls; genotypes of HH Hh Hh hh
offspring
sensory neurones detect level; 2
so pancreas secretes glucagon into blood;
liver responds by changing glycogen into ii 3 in 4/
glucose; 75%/
glucose leaves liver; 0.75/
blood glucose rises again so less glucagon 3:1 1
produced. iii 1 in 8/
or 12.5 %/
Blood glucose rises; 0.125 1
sensory neurones detect level;
so pancreas secretes insulin into blood; Examiner’s tip
glucose enters liver; A 1 in 4 chance of producing a non-sufferer so half of all
liver responds by changing glucose into non-sufferers will be female, hence 1 in 8 or 0.125.
glycogen;
blood glucose falls again so less insulin Examiner’s tip
produced. 4 Take care with ratios. 1:3 is different from 3:1. It is
recommended that you use the equivalent to 3 in 4 method
Examiner’s tip
to express your answer.
Always explain negative feedback in this way: the more
3:1, the chance is 3 in 4 of having the condition.
of a hormone that is produced, the more it leads to its
1:3, the chance is 1 in 4 of having the condition.
own decrease.
Either of the two ways of giving the answer above are
acceptable. e Rate of spread likely to increase;
You do not know that you have the disease
until you have already reproduced. 2
ii pancreas secretes insulin;
results in glucose entering the liver/and cells; 8 a The pollutant which causes acid rain is released
so blood glucose level decreases. 3 into the air when fossil fuels are burned.
Sulphur dioxide is given off into the air. An
b i diabetes 1
example when this gas is produced is at coal
ii 1 control diet by low carbohydrate intake; burning power stations and from vehicle
2 inject into blood stream; insulin. 3 exhausts. The gas mixes with water vapour in
the clouds and sulphuric acid is formed. 4
Examiner’s tip
Note that insulin must be injected into the bloodstream. b i prevents plants absorbing some minerals;
Insulin is a protein and we would digest it if it was in kills plants/ defoliates plants
tablet form. ii destroys plants so herbivores have no food or
less food. 3
7 a along a chromosome 1 9 a Glucose passes back into
blood capillaries C
b An allele is a different form of a gene 1 Waste substances pass to the bladder E
c i 3 1 Urea, glucose, salt and water pass into
the nephron B
ii 2 1
Blood passes from the renal artery to
iii Sufferer/has Huntingdon’s chorea 1 the glomerulus A
Ultrafiltration takes place B 5
d i

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Question Answer Mark Question Answer Mark

Examiner’s tip Communication mark:


Note that ultrafiltration is really the same as urea, glucose One mark awarded for ensuring that spelling
and water passing into the nephron, hence B is credited punctuation and grammar are accurate, so that
twice! the meaning is clear. 1

Examiner’s tip
To score this mark you need to spell the basic words
b More ADH produced;
correctly and use complete sentences. You will need to use
so more water reabsorbed back into blood;
capital letters to begin each sentence and a full stop to end.
less water content in urine/urine increased in
concentration. 3

Examiner’s tip b i Heating element can increase temperature;


ADH questions are often given. Remember that more ADH water jacket to cool the fermenter;
results in more reabsorption of water back into the temperature sensor to monitor and
bloodstream so less water leaves body in urine. Less ADH help regulation;
has the completely reverse effect! stirrer to ensure equal temperature
everywhere. 2
Any 2 of the 3 points.
10 a Stage 1: a plasmid is removed from ii To enable enzymes to work effectively. 1
a bacterium;
Stage 2: enzyme/restriction endonuclease; Examiner’s tip
used on human chromosome and on plasmid; Note that fermenter questions are often given. Always be
Stage 3: insulin gene has been removed ready to give the function of each part and how it is used to
from chromosome; give the best conditions for the process.
plasmid is cut (using same enzyme);
Stage 4 gene inserted into plasmid;
stuck in with enzyme/ stuck in with ligase;
Stage 5 modified plasmid put back
into bacterium;
modified plasmid increases in bacterium 5
Any of one of the points from each stage
credited up to a maximum of 5.

Grade Predictor
The grid below suggests the grade that you might expect to achieve on this examination paper.
It is an indication only and does not imply that this is the grade you will receive in the actual examination.

A* 83–90
A 70–82
B 56–69
C 43–55
D 27–42
E 16–26
Note; You cannot be awarded a grade below E on the higher tier paper.

© Letts Educational 2004 39