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MSC Nastran 2007 r1

Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)


User’s Guide

MD R2 Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide


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MSC.Software Corporation MSC.Software GmbH MSC.Software Japan Ltd.
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NA*2007R1*Z*INON*Z*DC-USR
Contents
MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1 Introduction
MSC.Software Products 2

MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) 3


Defining the Model 3
Nonlinear Analysis 4
Results 5
Feature List 7

How SOL 600 Solves Nonlinear Problems 10

This User’s Guide 12


Other MSC.Nastran Documentation for SOL 600 12
MSC.Marc Documentation 12
Patran Documentation 13

2 MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files


The MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File 16
Input Conventions 17
Defaults 18
Section Descriptions 18
Example 20
Running Existing Nonlinear Models 21
SOL 600 Executive Control Statement: 21
Restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 or into Another Linear Solution Sequence
26
Generating and Editing the Bulk Data File in MSC.Patran 27

Output Requests 28
Deformations 28

Results Files 38
Files Generated During the Analysis 38
Analysis Results Files 38
Postprocessing with MSC.Patran 39
iv MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
==

Grid Point Force Balance and Element Strain Energy in Nonlinear Static
Analysis 40

3 Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis


Introduction 46

Linear Static Analysis Procedure 47

Differences Between Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 48

Applying Constraints 50
Single Degrees of Freedom 50
Multiple Degrees of Freedom 51

Adding Nonlinear Effects 55


Sources of Nonlinearity 55
Subcases, Load Increments, and Iterations 56
Nonlinear Equation Solution 57
SOL 600 Analysis Procedure 59

Numerical Methods in Solving Equations 60


Direct Methods 60
Iterative Methods 61
Preconditioners 61
Storage Methods 62
Nonsymmetric Systems 63
Specifying the Solution Procedure 63
Other Factors Affecting Performance 63

Iteration Methods 66
Full Newton-Raphson Algorithm 66
Modified Newton-Raphson Algorithm 67
Strain Correction Method 68
The Secant Method 69
Specifying the Iteration Method 70

Load Increment Size 71


Fixed Load Incrementation 71
Adaptive Load (AUTO) Incrementation 71
Specifying the Load Incrementation Method 80

Convergence Controls 81
Specifying Convergence Criteria 83

Singularity Ratio 84
CONTENTS v

Guidelines for Analysis Methods 86


Analysis Methods 86
General Tips 86
Choosing a Solution Method 86
Time Steps or Load Increments 87
Nonlinear Dynamics 88
Efficiency 88

4 Nonlinearity and Analysis Types


Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 92
Linear Analysis 92
Nonlinear Analysis 92

Nonlinear Effects and Formulations 93


Geometric Nonlinearities 96
Material Nonlinearities 106
Nonlinear Boundary Conditions 115

Overview of Analysis Types 116

Static Analysis 118


Post-Buckling 119
Creep, Viscoplastic, and Viscoelastic Behavior 119

Body Approach 120

Buckling Analysis 121


Eigenvalue Buckling Prediction 121
Bifurcation Approach 122
Eigenvalue Extraction Methods 123

Normal Modes 124


Eigenvalue Analysis 126
Free Vibration Analysis 129
Support of Complex Eigenvalue Analysis 130
Transient Dynamic Analysis 132
Direct Transient Response 132
Technical Background 134
Time Step Definition 138
Initial Conditions 138
Damping 139

Creep 140
vi MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
==

5 Analysis Techniques
Domain Decomposition 144
Specifying Domain Decomposition 144
Single Input File Parallel Processing for SOL 600 146
DDM Results in MSC.Patran 146
DDM Configuration 147

RESTARTS 148
Specifying Restarts and Parameters 148

Inertia Relief with Auto-Support 149


Review 149
General Formulation 150
SUPPORT6 Entry 151

Superelements and Modal Neutral Files 154

BRKSQL 155
User Subroutine Support 159

6 Modeling
Coordinate Systems 162
Nodal Coordinate Systems 162
Element Coordinate Systems 162
Nodes 164

Elements 165

Modeling in MSC.Patran 166


Creating Geometry in MSC.Patran 166
Creating Finite Element Meshes in MSC.Patran 168

7 Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis


Solution Type 172
Specifying the Solution Type 172
SOL 600 Executive Control Statement 172
Defining the Solution Type in MSC.Patran 175

Analysis Procedures 176


Analysis Types 176
Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase 177
CONTENTS vii

Translation Parameters 179


Specifying the Translation Parameters 179

Solution Parameters 182


Specifying Solution Parameters 182

Subcases 185
Specifying Subcases 185

Subcase Parameters 188


Specifying Static Subcase Parameters 188
Specifying Normal Modes Subcase Parameters 190
Specifying Buckling Subcase Parameters 192
Specifying Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters 193
Specifying Creep Subcase Parameters 195
Specifying Body Approach Subcase Parameters 197

Execution Procedure for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear from the


Command Line 199
Using MSC.Patran to Execute MSC.Nastran 200
How to Tell When the Analysis is Done 200
How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully 201

Monitoring the Analysis 202


Editing a MSC.Nastran Input File 203

Debugging the Analysis 204


Resolving Convergence Problems 204
Standard Exit Messages 210
Using MSC.Patran to Debug an Analysis 213

8 Output from the Analysis


Overview 216
Input 216
.OP2 Data 216
Results Translation 217

Output Requests 218


Specifying Output Requests 218

SOL 600 Results Quantities 226


Using MSC.Patran to Postprocess Results Quantities 229

MSC.Nastran Results Quantities 231


viii MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
==

Using MSC.Patran to Postprocess MSC.Nastran Results Quantities 231

9 Assigned Conditions
Constraints 236
Boundary Conditions 236
Multi-Point Constraints 236
Support Conditions 247

Loads and Boundary Conditions 248


Using MSC.Patran to Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions 250
Displacement LBCs 253
Force LBCs 254
Pressure LBCs 255
Temperature LBCs 257
Inertial Loads LBCs 259
Velocity LBCs 260
Acceleration LBCs 261
Distributed Load LBCs 261
Total Load LBCs 263
Contact LBCs 264

Initial Conditions 265


Initial Displacement LBCs 265
Initial Velocity LBCs 265

10 Materials
Overview 268
Constitutive Models 269
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Material Entries 270

Linear Elastic 272


Isotropic Materials 273
Orthotropic Materials 274
Anisotropic Materials 276

Nonlinear Elastic 278


Hypoelastic - Isotropic 278
Hyperelastic - Isotropic 278
Viscoelastic 305
Narayanaswamy Model 315

Inelastic 317
CONTENTS ix

Yield Conditions 318


Work Hardening Rules 323
Flow Rules 327
Rate Dependent Yield 330
Experimental Stress-Strain Curves 332
Temperature-Dependent Behavior 341
Temperature-Dependent Stress Strain Curves 342
Specifying Elastoplastic Material Entries 344

Failure and Damage Models 349


Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Failure Models 349
Damage Models 358

Creep 365
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Laws 368
Viscoplasticity (Explicit Formulation) 369
Creep (Implicit Formulation) 369
Specifying Creep Material Entries 370

Composite 372
Specifying Composite Material Entries 373
Gasket 374
Specifying Gasket Material Entries 378
Material Damping 380
Specifying Material Damping Entries 381

Experimental Data Fitting 382

11 Element Library
Overview 402
Element Types 402

Element Selection 404


Element Interpolation 404
Element Integration 404
Incompressible Elements 405
Overriding MSC.Nastran Element Selections 405

Global Element Controls 406


Assumed Strain 406
Constant Dilatation 406
Setting Global Element Parameters in MSC.Patran 406
x MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
==

Mass Elements, Springs, Dampers, and Bush Elements 407


MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 407

Gap Elements 409


MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 409

Line Elements 410


MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 410

Membranes, Panels, and Shells 411


MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 412

Solid Elements 413


Axisymmetric Elements 414
Plane Strain Elements 414
3-D Solid Elements 416

Beam/Bar and Shell Offsets 417

12 Contact
Overview 420

Contact Methodology 421


Contact Bodies 421
Numerical Procedures 430
Implementation of Constraints 434
Separation 436
Higher Order Elements 437
3-D Beam and Shell Contact 437
Friction Modeling 438
Defining Contact Bodies 447
Deformable and Rigid Surfaces 447
Motion of Surfaces 447
Cautions 448
Control Variables and Option Flags 448
Time Step Control 449
Dynamic Contact - Impact 449
Two-dimensional Rigid Surfaces 449
Specifying Contact Body Entries= 462

Selecting and Controlling Contact Behavior 467


Contact Parameters 467
Contact Table 471
Movement of Contact Bodies 475
CONTENTS xi

Initial Conditions 476

Simulating Thermal Contact 477


Input 477

References 480

13 SOL 600 Example Problems


Engine Gasket Under Bolt Preload 482
Problem Statement 482
Model Description 483
Solving the Problem 485
Inspecting the Results 489
Elastic-Plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body
Loading 491
Problem Statement 491
Model Description 492
Solving the Problem 494
Inspecting the Results 497
Rubber Door Seal - Performance Door Closing 500
Problem Statement 500
Model Description 500
Solving the Problem 501
Inspecting the Results 504

Brake Forming 505


Problem Statement 505
Model Description 505
Solving the Problem 506
Inspecting the Results 509

Panel Buckling 510


Problem Statement 510
Model Description 510
Solving the Problem 512
Inspecting the Results 514

Index 515
xii MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
==
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 1: Introduction

1 Introduction


MSC.Software Products 2
 MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) 3

Feature List 7

How SOL 600 Solves Nonlinear Problems 10
 This User’s Guide 12
2 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Software Products
MSC.Software Corporation provides an extensive array of software products that make it possible to
simulate almost any engineered component with any level of detail you require. MSC is recognized as a
leader in finite element analysis software with a product list that includes MSC.Nastran, MSC.Patran,
MSC.Marc, MSC.Dytran and many others. Each of these codes within themselves are powerful general-
purpose analysis codes that can be used to solve structural, heat transfer, and coupled thermal-structural
finite element problems. When paired together and supplemented with special purpose application
modules and interfaces these software products can be tailor made to suit specific industries and
engineering problems unique to those industries.
CHAPTER 1 3
Introduction

MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) is an application module in the MSC.Nastran system that
pairs the full features of MSC.Nastran with the MSC.Marc solver to analyze a wide variety of structural
problems subjected to geometric and material nonlinearities, and contact. An extensive finite element
library for building your simulation model, and a set of solution procedures for the nonlinear analysis,
which can handle very large matrix equations, are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600).
The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear product is rapidly evolving. This document is based upon the
2005 r3 release and should be used with this or subsequent versions.

Defining the Model


A finite element model consists of a geometric description, which is given by the elements and their
nodes and a set of properties associated with the elements, describing their attributes. These properties
include material definitions, cross-section definitions in the case of structural elements like beams and
shells, and other parameters for contact bodies, springs, dashpots, etc. There may also be constraints that
must be included in the model - RBE elements, or “multi-point constraints'' or “equations'' (linear or
nonlinear equations involving several of the fundamental solution variables in the model), or simple
“boundary conditions'' that are to be imposed throughout the analysis. Nonzero initial conditions, such
as initial temperatures, displacements, velocities, and even initial stresses and/or plastic strains may also
be specified.
The model is described and communicated to MSC.Nastran in the form of a text file, called a
MSC.Nastran Input file. You can generate this file using any text editor, but it must adhere to
MSC.Nastran conventions for the ordering and format of the model information.

Using MSC.Patran with SOL 600


The amount of information that needs to be conveyed in the MSC.Nastran Input file is extensive for even
a modest size model. The amount of information and the complexity of most models makes it virtually
impossible to generate the MSC.Nastran Input file with a text editor alone. Typically you benefit from
using a preprocessor such as, MSC.Patran. MSC.Patran is another MSC Software simulation code that
provides a graphical user interface and an extensive line of model building tools that you can use to
construct and view your model, and generate a MSC.Nastran Input file.
If you are using MSC.Patran as a preprocessor, you are required to specify an analysis code. Selecting
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) as the analysis code under the Analysis Preference menu,
customizes MSC.Patran in five main areas:
• Material Library
• Element Library
• Loads and Boundary Conditions
• MPCs
• Analysis forms
4 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The analysis preference also specifies that the model information be output in the MSC.Nastran Input
File format.
Throughout this Users Guide, actual examples are described in the context of using MSC.Patran. Actual
MSC.Patran forms and instructions are provided.

Nonlinear Analysis
Linear analysis assumes a linear relationship between the load applied to a structure and the response of
the structure. The stiffness of a structure in a linear analysis does not change depending on its previous
state. Linear static problems are solved in one step, by a single decomposition of the stiffness matrix. A
number of important assumptions and limitations are inherent in linear static analysis. Materials behavior
is such that the stress is directly proportional to strain (linear) and to loads that do not take the material
beyond its permanent yield point (the material remains elastic). Linear analysis is restricted to small
displacements, otherwise the stiffness of the structures changes and must be accounted for by
regenerating the stiffness matrix. Lastly, loads are assumed to be applied slowly as to keep the structure
in equilibrium.
It becomes necessary to consider nonlinear effects in structures when modeling materials with nonlinear
behavior and where large deformations (rotations and/or strains) occur. In addition, contact problems
exhibit nonlinear effects due to changes in boundary conditions.
In a nonlinear problem the stiffness of the structure depends on the displacement and the response is no
longer a linear function of the load applied. As the structure displaces due to loading, the stiffness
changes, and as the stiffness changes the structure’s response changes. As a result, nonlinear problems
require incremental solution schemes that divide the problem up into steps calculating the displacement,
then updating the stiffness. Each step uses the results from the previous step as a starting point. As a result
the stiffness matrix must be generated and decomposed many times during the analysis adding time and
costs to the analysis.
Nonlinear problems present many challenges. A nonlinear problem does not always have a unique
solution. Sometimes a nonlinear problem does not have any solution, although the problem can seem to
be defined correctly.
Nonlinear analysis requires choosing a solution strategy which includes dividing the loading into logical
steps, controlling the numerical processing, and planning for the possibility of changing the solution
strategy during the analysis using restarts. Which solution method to use depends on the structure itself,
the nature of the loading, and the anticipated nonlinear behavior. In some cases, one method can be
advantageous over another; in other cases, the converse might be true.
If a solution is obtainable, there is also the issue of efficiency. Each solution procedure, has pros and cons
in terms of matrix operations and storage requirements. In addition, a very important variable regarding
overall efficiency is the size of the problem. The time required to assemble a stiffness matrix, as well as
the time required to recover stresses after a solution, vary roughly linearly with the number of degrees of
freedom of the problem. On the other hand, when using a direct solver the time required to go through
the solver varies roughly quadratically with the bandwidth, as well as linearly with the number of degrees
of freedom.
CHAPTER 1 5
Introduction

Applications for Nonlinear Analysis


Early development of nonlinear finite element technology was mostly influenced by the nuclear and
aerospace industries. In the nuclear industry, nonlinearities are mainly due to high-temperature behavior
of materials. Nonlinearities in the aerospace industry are mainly geometric in nature and range from
simple linear buckling to complicated post-bifurcation behavior. Nonlinear finite element techniques
have become popular in metal forming manufacturing processes, fluid-solid interaction, and fluid flow.
In recent years, the areas of biomechanics and electromagnetics have seen an increasing use of finite
elements.

Results
Like the enormous amount of data needed to define the simulation model to an analysis code, there is a
large volume of data returned from the simulation analysis. And just as it is virtually impossible to
construct a model with a text editor alone, it is equally as difficult to read and interpret the results by
hand. Using a postprocessor with a graphical user interface such as MSC.Patran is highly recommended.

Postprocessing Features of MSC.Patran


The MSC.Patran Results application gives you control of powerful graphical capabilities to display
results quantities in a variety of ways:
• Deformed structural plots
• Color banded fringe plots
• Marker plots (vectors, tensors)
• Freebody diagrams
• Graph (XY) plots
• Animations of most of these plot types.

The Results application treats all results quantities in a very flexible and general manner. In addition, for
maximum flexibility results can be:
• Sorted
• Reported
• Filtered
• Derived
• Deleted

All of these features help give meaningful insight into results interpretation of engineering problems that
would otherwise be difficult at best.
6 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The Results application is object oriented, providing postprocessing plots which are created, displayed,
and manipulated to obtain rapid insight into the nature of results data. The imaging is intended to provide
graphics performance sufficient for real time manipulation. Performance will vary depending on
hardware, but consistency of functionality is maintained as much as possible across all supported display
devices.
Capabilities for interactive results postprocessing also exist. Advanced visualization capabilities allow
creation of many plot types which can be saved, simultaneously plotted, and interactively manipulated
with results quantities reported at the click of the mouse button to better understand mechanical behavior.
Once defined, the visualization plots remain in the database for immediate access and provide the means
for results manipulation and review in a consistent and easy to use manner.
CHAPTER 1 7
Introduction

Feature List
The complete features of MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) are presented in the following list.
1. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) solves linear and nonlinear (material, contact and/or
geometric) static, modal (vibration), buckling, and transient dynamic structural finite element
problems.
2. Eigenvalue solutions are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) for solving
linear or nonlinear modal and buckling analyses using either Lanczos or Inverse Power Sweep
methods of iteration. Through the use of parameters you can control the convergence of the
eigenvalues, and the modes to retain.
3. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) has a variety of solution procedures and bandwidth
optimizers.
4. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports the following elements/bodies:
• 3 and 6 noded triangular shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain strain/axisymmetric
elements
• 4 and 8 noded quadrilateral shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain
strain/axisymmetric elements
• 4 and 10 noded solid tetrahedral elements
• 6 and 15 noded solid wedge elements
• 8 and 20 noded solid hexahedral elements
• 2 and 3 noded beam element
• 2 and 3 noded bar element
• 2 and 3 noded axisymmetric shell element
• 2 noded gap element
• 1 and 2 noded spring elements
• 1 and 2 noded damper elements
• Rigid and deformable contact bodies
• Point Mass element
RBE elements and multi-point constraint equations are supported in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) to tie specific nodes or degrees-of-freedom to each other. Special MPC
entities are supported, (e.g. rigid links) which can be used to tie two nodes together or equate the
motion of two DOFs.
8 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

5. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports the following loads and boundary
conditions:
• Constrained nodal displacements (zero displacements at specified
degrees-of-freedom).Enforced nodal displacements (non-zero displacements at specified
degrees-of-freedom in the nodal coordinate system).
• Forces applied to nodes in the nodal coordinate system.
• Pressures applied to element edges or faces, including strain-rate controlled application for
super-plastic forming simulations.
• Temperature applied to nodes. Temperature can be applied as a load in a structural analysis.
The reference temperature is user definable.
• Inertial body forces, acceleration and velocity can be applied in the global coordinate system.
• Contact between two bodies can be defined by selecting the contacting bodies and defining
the contact interaction properties.
6. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic
material properties. Temperature dependent isotropic and orthotropic material properties can be
defined for elastic, elastic-plastic, hyper-elastic, visco-elastic, and creep constitutive models.
Nonlinear elastic-plastic materials can be defined by specifying piecewise linear stress-strain
curves, which may be temperature dependent.
7. Physical properties can be associated with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) elements
such as the cross-sectional properties of the beam element, the area of the beam and rod elements,
the thickness of shell, plane stress, and membrane elements, spring parameters, masses, gap
element parameters, the alternate material coordinate frame for solid elements and material IDs.
8. Laminated composite solid and shell elements are supported in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600) through the PCOMP card of the materials capability. Each layer has its own material,
thickness, and orientation and may represent linear or nonlinear material behavior. Failure index
calculations are also supported. Equivalent material models may be incorporated using PSHELL.
9. Analysis jobs consisting of (possibly) complex loading histories (such as would occur in a multi-
step manufacturing process) for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) are defined using
subcases. A single subcase may represent the entire analysis, or may be one step in a multi-step
simulation. The loads and constraints in each subcase represent the total load at that point in the
analysis, making it easy to determine the state of loading at any point in the analysis. The starting
point of the current subcase is the ending point of the previous subcase.
10. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) jobs are submitted using text-based input decks that
may be generated manually with a text editor, or by a variety of pre/post processing programs such
as MSC.Patran. The input file is read in and a number of text files, such as the .f06, .log, .f04 files
are generated.
11. Results can be requested in several output formats such as .f06, .t16, .t19, .xdb, .op2, or punch
files. These files are typically read back into the pre/post processing programs for the purpose of
evaluating the results with plots such as deformed shape plots, contour stress/strain plots, or X-Y
history plots.
CHAPTER 1 9
Introduction

12. Nodal displacements, velocities and accelerations, mode shapes, element and nodal stresses,
element and nodal strains, element and nodal plastic strains, element and nodal creep strains,
nodal reaction forces and contact interface stress/force values, shell element stress resultants,
element strain energy, strain energy density, and phase angle values can all be requested as output
and visualized with the aforementioned results visualization tools such as MSC.Patran. Stress
functions, for example von Mises, beam stresses, strains, and internal forces, can also be
requested as output. Composite element results are returned for each layer of the composite.
13. A restart capability is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Any analysis can
be saved from any point for a possible restart. A new static load case or a buckling analysis can
be solved by restarting from the original static analysis.
10 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

How SOL 600 Solves Nonlinear Problems


The primary steps in running a MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) analysis are as follows:
1. Read MSC.Nastran Input File in IFP (input file processor) as in other MSC.Nastran solution
sequences.
2. Convert MSC.Nastran input to MSC.Marc input and write out a MSC.Marc input deck
(jid.marc.dat in IFP).
3. If there are no input errors, execute MSC.Marc.
4. If you request, do any of the following:
5. Translate MSC.Marc’s t16 file to obtain MSC.Nastran op2 or xdb output (this is done by code in
MSC.Nastran that creates output op2 data blocks on a file, which we call the f11 file, then
generating DMAP on the fly to use inputt2 to placed the f11 datablocks into the MSC.Nastran
database, and finally use OUTPUT2 to produce an OP2 file which has the geometry datablocks
and the f11 output datablocks all in one file (or similar DMAP to generate an xdb file with
geometry and output datablocks.
6. As in Step 5, DMAP can be extended to produce printed output in the.f06 file or punched output
in the .pch file having the exact formats MSC.Nastran uses for all other solution sequences (this
is done by generating OFP DMAP on the fly).
7. Copy MSC.Marc’s output file (known as the .out file) to the .f06 file with or without changing
any text strings. This output will have the MSC.Marc formats, but names such as MSC.Marc can
be changed to any desired user name (for example MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear). It is strongly
suggested that Steps 6 and 7are not both done in the same run, or the f06 file output could become
confusing.
8. Retain or delete the MSC.Marc input and output files (which normally consist of jid.marc.dat,
jid.marc.out, jid.marc.sts, jid.marc.log, jid.marc.t16 and possibly others which have the name
jid.marc.*).
The process of reading input data from a MSC.Nastran Input File, translating the model data to a
MSC.Marc input file, running a MSC.Marc solution, and translating back the results files is shown in the
flowchart that follows.
CHAPTER 1 11
Introduction

MSC.Nastran Input Deck deck echo and


error messages

IFP Processes Input Deck Nastran.f06,


.f04, .log files

Successful No
Translation?

Yes
Write jobname.marc.dat

Submit Marc No
Analysis?
.t16/19 results to Nast db
Yes

Submit Marc job -see note Use std Nast output req -
generate std xdb,op2,f06

Marc writes.out,.t16,.t19
.sts, etc (these will be
deleted later by Nastran Stop
if marccpy = 1 or 3) -.sts
and .log may be used by
MSC.Patran to monitor
the progress of the job Note - every attempt will be
while it is running made to have the MSC.Nastran Input
File Processor (IFP) catch all
input format errors. However,
No this may not be possible
Is marccpy in all cases and sometimes it is
= 1or 2?
necessary for you
to examine the MSC.Marc .dat files
Yes for errors.
Append runtime error
messages to .f06 and .log

Figure 1-1 MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) Solution Process


12 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This User’s Guide


This manual provides a complete background to SOL 600 and fully describes using SOL 600 within the
MSC.Nastran environment. The theoretical aspects of nonlinear analysis methods, types, and techniques
are included as well as thorough descriptions for nonlinear material models.
Where appropriate, actual MSC.Patran forms and menus are shown so you can easily use SOL 600 from
the MSC.Patran environment.

Other MSC.Nastran Documentation for SOL 600


MSC.Nastran Reference Manual
The MSC.Nastran Reference Manual provides supporting information that relates to MSC.Nastran input
formats, element libraries, and loads and boundary conditions.

Quick Reference Guide (QRG)


The QRG contains a complete description of all the input entries for MSC.Nastran. Within each section,
entries are organized alphabetically so they are easy to find. Each entry provides a description, formats,
examples, details on options, and general remarks.
You will find the full descriptions for all SOL 600 input entries in the QRG.

MSC.Marc Documentation
MSC provides extensive documentation covering all aspects of the MSC.Marc code. In particular the
following manuals are recommended to use in conjunction with SOL 600:
• MSC.Marc Volume A: Theory and User Information - explains the capabilities of MSC.Marc
and gives pertinent background information.
• MSC.Marc Volume C: Program Input - describes the file format of the MSC.Marc input file.\
• MSC.Macr Volume D: User subroutines and special routines - describes format for user
subroutines.
CHAPTER 1 13
Introduction

Patran Documentation
Three key books from the Patran library may be of assistance in running SOL 600:
• Patran User’s Guide - this introductory guide gives you the essential information you need to
immediately begin using MSC.Patran for SOL 600 projects. Understanding and using the
information in this guide requires no prior experience with CAE or finite element analysis.
• Patran Reference Manual -a counterpart to the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual, this manual
provides complete descriptions of basic functions in MSC.Patran, geometry modeling, finite
element modeling, material models, element properties, loads and boundary conditions,
analysis, and results.
• MSC Nastran Preference Guide - gives specific information that relates to using MSC.Patran
with MSC.Nastran as the intended analysis code. All application forms and required input are
tailored to MSC.Nastran.
14 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 2: MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

2 MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and


Results Files

 The MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File 16



Output Requests 28

Results Files 38
16 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File


The MSC.Nastran Input File, referred to as the Bulk Data File (BDF) is made up of three distinct sections:
1. Executive Control - describes the problem type and size.
2. Case Control - defines the load history.
3. Bulk Data - gives a detailed model description.
Input data is organized in (optional) blocks. Key words identify the data for each optional block. This
form of input enables you to specify only the data for the optional blocks that you need to define your
problem. The various blocks of input are “optional” in the sense that many have built-in default values
which can be used in the absence of any explicit input from you.
A typical input file setup for the MSC.Nastran program is shown below.
• Executive Control Statements
Terminated by an CEND parameter
• Case Control Commands
Terminated by the BEGIN BULK option
• Bulk Data Entries
Model data starting with the BEGIN BULK option and terminated by the ENDDATA option
IFP (Input File Processing) Checking
Checking of most SOL 600 Bulk Data entries are done during IFP. When one of these entries
has erroneous data entered it is more likely that IFP will flag the entry and issue a FATAL
ERROR. In most cases, IFP error checking has been enhanced to point to the field and
continuation line where the erroneous data occurs.
• (Additional History Definition
Option for the second, third, ..., Increments).
CHAPTER 2 17
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Model Data - grids,


elements, etc. Element and
Material
Bulk Data Properties,
Fixed Displ,
Etc.

Load Incrementation,
Complete Input Deck

Applied Loads,
Case Control
Control Information
p

Applied Displacements
Etc.

Title, Job Control,


Solution Sequence,
Executive Control Etc.

Input Conventions
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear performs all data conversion internally so that the system does not abort
because of data errors made by you. The program reads all input data options alphanumerically and
converts them to integer, floating point, or keywords, as necessary. MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
issues error messages and displays the illegal option image if it cannot interpret the option data field
according to the specifications given in the manual. When such errors occur, the program attempts to
scan the remainder of the data file and ends the run with a FATAL ERROR or SEVERE WARNING
message.
Two input format conventions can be used: fixed and free format. You can mix fixed and free format
options within a file.
The syntax rules for fixed fields are as follows:
• Give floating point numbers with or without an exponent. If you give an exponent, it must be
preceded by the character E or D and must be right-justified. If data is double precision, a D
must be used.
18 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The syntax rules for free fields are as follows:


• Check that each option contains the same number of data items that it would contain under
standard fixed-format control. This syntax rule allows you to mix fixed-field and free-field
options in the data file because the number of options you need to input any data list are the same
in both cases.
• Separate data items on a option with a comma. The comma can be surrounded by any number of
blanks. Within the data item itself, no embedded blanks can appear.
• Give floating point numbers with or without an exponent. If you use an exponent, it must
be preceded by the character E or D and must immediately follow the mantissa (no embedded
blanks).
• Give keywords exactly as they are written in the manual.
• All data can be entered as uppercase or lowercase text.
• Small field format is limited to 8 columns per field. Large field is 16 columns, see the MD
Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more details.

Defaults
For most bulk data entries, SOL 600 does not make the distinction between zero and blank. Thus, if a
zero is entered and the default is some other value, the default will normally be used. If you wish to use
zero, enter a small number such as 1.0E-12 instead.

Section Descriptions
Executive Control
This group of entries provides overall job control for the problem and sets up initial switches to control
the flow of the program through the desired analysis. This set of input must be terminated with an CEND
parameter. See Executive Control Statements (Ch. 3) in the for additional descriptions on input formats.

Case Control
This group of options provides the loads and constraints and load incrementation method and controls
the program after the initial elastic analysis. Case Control options also include blocks which allow
changes in the initial model specifications. Case Control options can also specify print-out and
postprocessing options. Each set of load sets must be begin with a SUBCASE command and be
terminated by another SUBCASE or a BEGIN BULK command. If there is only one load case, the
SUBCASE entry is not required. The SUBCASE option requests that the program perform another
increment or series of increments. See Case Control Command Descriptions (Ch. 4) in the for additional
descriptions on input formats.
CHAPTER 2 19
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Bulk Data Entries


This set of data options enters the initial loading, geometry, and material data of the model and provides
nodal point data, such as boundary conditions. Bulk data options are also used to govern the error control
and restart capability.This group of options must be terminated with the ENDDATA option. See Bulk
Data Entries (Ch. 8) in the for additional descriptions on input formats. Multiple BEGIN entries and
superelements are not allowed in SOL 600.
20 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Example
The following text illustrates a simple example of an MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear input file. It
includes the required Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections that are required for any
MSC.Nastran analysis.
$ NASTRAN input file created by the MSC MSC.Nastran input file
$ translator (MSC.Patran 2004) on February 03, 2003 at 15:09:41.
$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section
$ Advanced Nonlinear Analysis
SOL 600,106 PATH=1 STOP=1
CEND
SEALL = ALL
SUPER = ALL
TITLE = MSC.Nastran job created on 03-Feb-03 at 15:04:03
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 25 P YES
$ Direct Text Input for Bulk Data
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell_props
PSHELL 1 1 .253 1 1
$ Pset: "shell_props" will be imported as: "pshell.1"
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 5 4
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 6 5
CQUAD4 3 1 4 5 8 7
CQUAD4 4 1 5 6 9 8
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 03-Feb-03 Time: 15:01:32
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3 .0075
$ Nodes of the Entire Model
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
GRID 2 5. 0. 0.
GRID 3 10. 0. 0.
GRID 4 0. 5. 0.
GRID 5 5. 5. 0.
GRID 6 10. 5. 0.
GRID 7 0. 10. 0.
GRID 8 5. 10. 0.
GRID 9 10. 10. 0.
$ Loads for Load Case : Default
SPCADD 2 1
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fix_edge
SPC1 1 123456 1 4 7
$ Contact Table for Load Case: Default
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : point_load
FORCE 1 9 0 100. 0. 0. -1.
$ Referenced Coordinate Frames
ENDDATA
CHAPTER 2 21
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Running Existing Nonlinear Models


Some users may have existing models that have been developed and analyzed using MSC.Nastran
Nonlinear Solution Sequences 106 or 129. These models may be run through MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) by changing the SOLUTION procedure input to MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600) input.
The following is an example of the change required to run existing models through SOL 600. The first
line shows an existing MSC.Nastran SOL 106 Executive Control Statement and the second shows its
revision for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).
SOL 106
SOL 600,106

SOL 600 Executive Control Statement:


The new executive control statement is as follows:
SOL 600, ID PATH= COPYR= NOERROR OUTR=op2,xdb,pch,f06,eig,dmap,beam, NOEXIT STOP=
CONTINUE= S67OPT=

Some items such as dmap, beam, CONTINUE and S67OPT are explained here. See the MSC.Nastran
QRG for a complete discussion. An explanation of these items follows:

dmap The user will enter his own DMAP to create whatever type of output that is desired, such as
op2, xdb, punch, f06. For all other options, DMAP as needed is generated internally by
MSC.Nastran.
beam The beam option must be specified if op2,xdb,pch. or f06 options are specified and beam
internal loads are to be placed in any of these files. The beam and eig options are mutually
exclusive (you cannot specify both).

CONTINUE=
CONTINUE= An option that specifies how MSC.Nastran will continue its analysis after MSC.Marc
finishes. To continue the analysis, do not enter any STOP or OUTR options. It is possible to perform
more than one of these operations if necessary.
22 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

0 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example, if SOL
600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Only 3-D
contact or materials supported by SOL 106 may be used.
1 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example if SOL
600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Of course, no
3-D contact or materials not supported by SOL 106 may be used.
2 MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will
generate DMIG matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly damping) on a file specified by
pram,marcfil1,name and time specified by param,marcstif,time. This is accomplished by
making a complete copy of the original MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job
with the SOL entry changed and an include entry for the DMIG file.
3 (Option not presently available.) MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex
eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will generate OUTPUT4 matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly
damping) on a file specified by pram,marcfil2,name and time specified by
param,marcstif,time, This is accomplished by making a complete copy of the original
MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job with the SOL entry changed and an
include entry for the DMIG file.

The original MSC.Nastran file should include CMETHOD=id in the Case Control command
and a matching CEIG entry in the Bulk Data.
MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 111 to compute modal frequency response. MSC.Marc will
generate natural frequencies and mode shapes in (tbd) format which are read into
MSC.Nastran from a file specified by param,marcfil3,name.
4 (Option not presently available.) Same as option 3 except SOL 112 for linear transient
response will be used.
5 MSC.Nastran will switch to the solution sequence given in field 9 of the MDMIOUT entry.

In addition, the DMIG entries specified by MDMIOUT will be included in a separate


MSC.Nastran execution spawned from the original execution. Case Control and Bulk Data
will be added to the original input to properly handle these matrices in the spawned
MSC.Nastran execution.
CHAPTER 2 23
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

6 Same as option 1 except SOL 110 is run. For this option, the original MSC.Nastran input file
must contain METHOD=ID1 and CMETHOD=ID2 in the Case Control as well as matching
EIGRL (or EIGR) and CEIG entries in the Bulk Data.
7 Same as option 1 except SOL 103 is run for real eigenvalues/eigenvectors. The database can
be saved to restart into SOL 110 if desired. This should be done on the command line or in a
rc file with scratch=no. For this situation, the original MSC.Nastran input file must include
METHOD=id in the Case Control command and a matching EIGRL or EIGR entry in the
Bulk Data. (CMETHOD and CEIG can also be included.) The actual restart from SOL 103
to 110 must be performed manually at the present time.
101+ Continue options 101 to 400 are used to convert MSC.Marc’s initial contact tying constraints
to MPC’s and then continue in SOL 101 to 112 as a standard MSC.Nastran execution. For
example, if CONTINUE=101, a SOL 101 run with all the geometry load cases, etc. from the
original run would be conducted with the addition of the initial contact MPC determined from
MSC.Marc. The continue=101+ options are frequency used to model dissimilar meshes as
well as glued contact which does not change throughout the analysis. This option can be used
for any standard MSC.Nastran sequence where the initial contact condition does not change.
In order for initial contact to work, the surfaces must be initially touching. If they are
separated by a gap, the MPC’s will be zero until the gap closes and thus the initial MPC’s are
zero. This option automatically sets BCPARA INITCON=1.
24 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

An example of input using the continue=1 option is as follows:


SOL 600,106 path=1 stop=1 continue=1
TIME 10000
CEND
param,marcbug,0
ECHO = sort
DISP(print,plot) = ALL
STRESS(CORNER,plot) = ALL
STRAIN(plot) = ALL
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 1
CMETHOD=101
BEGIN BULK
param,marcfil1,dmig002
param,mrmtxnam,kaax
param,mrspawn2,tran
param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc
PARAM,OGEOM,NO
PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
PARAM,GRDPNT,0
EIGC, 101, HESS, , , , ,50
NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 P YES
PLOAD4 1 121 -800.
PLOAD4 1 122 -800.

(rest of deck is the same as any other SOL 600 input file)
CQUAD4 239 2 271 272 293 292
CQUAD4 240 2 272 273 294 293
ENDDATA
The full input for this example can be obtained from MSC.Nastran development. The name of the input
file continu2.dat
CHAPTER 2 25
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Critical new items are Case Control command, CMETHOD=101, the four parameters after BEGIN
BULK and Bulk Data entry, EIGC. An explanation of the parameters follows:

param,marcfil1,dmig002 This means that a file named dmig002 will be used. It contains stiffness
matrix terms (possibly from a set of unsymmetric friction stiffness
matrices)
param,mrmtxnam,kaax This means that in the dmig002 file, use DMIG matrix terms labeled kaax
(or KAAX – case does not matter).
param,mrspawn2,tran This means that the primary MSC.Nastran run will spawn another
MSC.Nastran run to compute the complex eigenvalues. The name of the
command is nastran (nas is always used and the characters specified by
this parameter are added to the end of nas. Thus, we get
nas+tran=nastran).
param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc This is the name of the rc file to be used for the second (spawned)
MSC.Nastran run.

The flow of the run is as follows:


• Create a primary MSC.Nastran SOL 600 input file (we will name it jid.dat for this example)
• Submit MSC.Nastran in the standard fashion. For this example, the following command is used:
nastran jid rc=nast1.rc

The nast1.rc file contains items such as scratch=yes, memory=16mw, etc.


• The primary MSC.Nastran run creates an MSC.Marc input file named jid.marc.dat
• The primary MSC.Nastran run spawns MSC.Marc to perform nonlinear analysis.
• The nonlinear MSC.Marc analyses completes and generates standard files.
• Control of the process returns to MSC.Nastran. A new MSC.Nastran input file named
jid.nast.dat will be created from the original input file. This file will contain the CMETHOD
Case Control and CEIG commands, all of the original geometry and additional entries to read
the dmig002 file.
• A second MSC.Nastran job will be spawned from the primary MC.Nastran run using the
command
nastran jid.nast rc=nast2.rc

The nast2.rc file can be the same as nast1.rc or can contain different items. Usually memory will
need to be larger in nast2.rc than in nast1.rc.
• The second MSC.Nastran run computes the complex eigenvalues and finishes.
• Control of the process returns to the primary MSC.Nastran run and it finishes.
26 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The first portion of the dmig002 file is as follows:


$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 234567812345
DMIG KAAX 0 1 2 0 324
DMIG* KAAX 6 1
* 6 1 3.014712042D+05
* 6 2 4.204709763D+08
*
DMIG* KAAX 6 2
* 6 1 1.204709763D+05
* 6 2 3.014712042D+05
*
DMIG* KAAX 6 3
* 6 1-4.616527206D+04
* 6 2-4.616527206D+04
* 6 3 1.308497299D+05
DMIG* KAAX 17 1
* 6 1 6.239021038D+04
* 6 2-2.528344607D+03
* 6 3-6.239758760D+03
* 17 1 5.939989945D+05
*

When the PATH keyword is omitted on the SOL 600 Executive statement, the program will search the
following location to find MSC.Marc:
MSC_BASE/MSC_VERSD/marc/MSC_ARCHM/marc20xx/tools
If MSC_ARCHM does not exist, MSC_ARCH is used instead. The environmental variables
MSC_BASE, MSC_VERSD, MSC_ARCH and/or MSC_ARCHM are set by the MSC.Nastran script
(see the MSC.Nastran Installation and Operations Guide for further details). If MSC.Marc is not found
on the above path, likely locations near that path are searched. If MSC.Marc is still not found, the job will
terminate with an appropriate message and the user must determine the correct location of the MSC.Marc
installation, use the PATH=1 keyword (see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide for further details).

DMIG-OUT
A new option named DMIG-OUT allows the stiffness, differential stiffness and mass matrices
(assembled or element-by-element) to be output for selected output times or at the end of each nonlinear
subcase for use in other analyses. This is a less expensive procedure, than using the Bulk Data entry,
MDMIOUT (which creates a superelement), but results in a much larger matrix.

Restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 or into Another Linear
Solution Sequence
For the purpose of a prestressed normal modes analysis, the old way of restarting from SOL 106 into SOL
103 is no longer necessary; the user can, instead, restart from a SOL 600 run into another SOL 600 run
to perform the prestressed normal modes calculation.
Restarts from SOL 600 into linear solution sequences are not recommended to the novice user because
of several limitations. The results of the linear restart are incremental values with respect to the preload,
CHAPTER 2 27
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

not total values. However, some experienced users restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 to perform
prestressed modal analysis with changing boundary conditions, or restart into another linear solution
sequence to perform a perturbed linear solution on a preluded structure.

Generating and Editing the Bulk Data File in MSC.Patran


MSC.Patran offers a MSC.Nastran interface that provides a communication link between MSC.Patran
and MSC.Nastran. It provides for the generation of the MSC.Nastran Input file as well as customization
of certain features in MSC.Patran. The interface is a fully integrated part of the MSC.Patran system.

Generating the BDF


Selecting MSC.Nastran as the analysis code preference in MSC.Patran, activates the customization
process. These customizations ensure that sufficient and appropriate data is generated for the
MSC.Nastran interface. Specifically, the MSC.Patran forms in these main areas are modified:
• Materials
• Element Properties
• Finite Elements/MPCs and Meshing
• Loads and Boundary Conditions
• Analysis Forms

Using MSC.Patran, you can run a MSC.Nastran analysis or you may generate the MSC.Nastran Input
File to run externally. For information on generating the MSC.Nastran Input file from within
MSC.Patran, see Analysis Form (Ch. 3) in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1:
Structural Analysis.

Editing the BDF


Once the Bulk Data File has been generated, you can edit the file directly from MSC.Patran.
1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis form set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Existing
Deck>Full Run and click Edit Input File...
MSC.Patran finds the BDF with the current job name and displays the file for editing in a text
editing window.
28 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Output Requests
As a part of the input, you can request which results quantities you want to be returned from MSC.Marc
back to MSC.Nastran and the formats of the results files.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) produces stress and strain results that differ from those
results available with SOL 106 and 129. A detailed discussion of the stress and strain measures for SOL
600 is given in the following section. For a complete listing of all possible results quantities that can be
returned for a SOL 600 analysis, see Output from the Analysis (Ch. 8).
Any of the results quantities can be placed on MSC.Marc’s t16/t19 output files to be postprocessed by
MSC.Patran. In addition, the more basic types of output (displacements, velocities, accelerations,
Cauchy stress tensor and one type of strain tensor) and basic contact information, can be translated to
MSC.Nastrans’s standard op2, xdb, punch and even f06 files using the OUTR option described above.
At present, new datablock definitions have not been created to handle all types of nonlinear output.
Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the t16 or t19 file be selected for postprocessing in order to view
all types of output. MSC.Patran can postprocess nearly all types of output selected by the MARCOUT
entry. For a complete description of the outputs available using MARCOUT, please see “Bulk Data
Entries” of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Deformations
Consider a three dimensional body B in its undeformed and deformed configuration (see Figure 2-1).
With respect to a Cartesian coordinate system ( E 1, E 2, E 3 ) , the position vector of a material point in the
undeformed configuration is written as:

X Z X1 E1 H X2 E2 H X3 E3 (2-1)

In the deformed configuration, the material point has a position vector x , given by:

x Z x1 E1 H x2 E2 H x3 E3 (2-2)

The displacement vector u is defined as the difference between the position vector in the deformed and
the undeformed configuration and reads:

u Z x ÓX Z u1 E1 H u2 E2 H u3 E3 (2-3)
CHAPTER 2 29
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Undeformed
B B
Deformed
u
dA 0

X ^ dA
dF
N
dF
E2 n
x

E1

E3

Figure 2-1 Body B in Undeformed and Deformed Configuration

It will be assumed that there is always a unique relation between the position vector of a point in the
deformed and the position vector of this point in the undeformed configuration. This can formally be
expressed as:

x Z x (X ) (2-4)

Based on Equation (2-4), a fundamental deformation measure can be given, namely the deformation
gradient F , which is defined by:

∂x 1 ∂x 1 ∂x 1
JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3
∂x 2 ∂ x 2 ∂ x 2
F Z JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ (2-5)
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3
∂x 3 ∂ x 3 ∂ x 3
JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

Substituting Equation (2-5) into Equation (2-3) shows that the deformation gradient can also be written
as a function of the coordinates in the undeformed configuration and the displacement components:
30 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

∂u 1 ∂u 1 ∂u 1 ∂ u 1 ∂ u 1 ∂u 1
1 H JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3
∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2
F Z JJJJJJJJJ
J 1 H JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J Z I H JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ (2-6)
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3
∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3
JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J 1 H JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

in which I is the 3x3 unit tensor:

1 0 0
I Z 0 1 0 (2-7)
0 0 1

Starting out from the deformation gradient, several well-known symmetric strain tensors can be defined,
namely the engineering strain tensor e , the Green-Lagrange strain tensor E and the right Cauchy-
Green strain tensor C :

1 T
e Z JJJ ( F H F Ó 2I ) (2-8)
2

1 T
E Z JJJ ( F F Ó I ) (2-9)
2
T
C Z F F (2-10)
T
where F denotes the transpose of F .

Notice that the Green-Lagrange and the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor are related by:

1
E Z JJJ ( C Ó I ) (2-11)
2

Example
Suppose that the deformation of a body is described by:

1 1 1
x 1 Z 4X 1 cos α Ó JJJ X 2 sin α , x 2 Z 4X 1 sin α H JJJ X 2 cos α , x 3 Z JJJ X 3
2 2 2

This deformation can be obtained by first stretching a block of material in the E 1 -direction and then

rotating it around the E 3 -axis (see Figure 2-1). The deformation gradient can easily be evaluated as:
CHAPTER 2 31
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

1
4 cos α Ó JJJ sin α 0
2
F Z 1
4 sin α JJJ cos α 0
2
1
JJJ
0 0
2

so that the engineering and the right Cauchy-Green strain tensors are given by:

7
4 cos α Ó 1 JJJ sin α 0 16 0 0
2
1
e Z 7 1 0 JJJ 0
JJJ sin α JJJ cos α Ó 1 0 , C Z 4
2 2
1
1 0 0 JJJ
0 0 Ó JJJ 4
2

From these expressions, it can be concluded that the engineering strain tensor only provides a useful
deformation measure if the angle α remains small, so that cos α ≈ 1 and sin α ≈ 0 . On the other hand,
the components of the right Cauchy-Green tensor, and by virtue of Equation (2-11) also the components
of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, are independent of the value of the angle α .

The deformation gradient can be rewritten as:

E3
L2
E2
L3
α

L 2 H ∆L 2
L1 L 3 H ∆L 3
E1 L 1 H ∆L 1

Figure 2-2 Stretching and Rotating a Body


32 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

4 0 0
cos α Ó sin α 0 1
F Z 0 JJJ 0 Z RU
sin α cos α 0 2
0 0 1 1
0 0 JJJ
2

in which R is a rotation tensor and U is a symmetric stretch tensor, where the stretch tensor and the right
Cauchy-Green strain tensor are related by:
1⁄2
C Z U
It can be proved that in this way any deformation gradient can be uniquely decomposed into a rotation
tensor and a stretch tensor.
If there is no rotation of the material the non-zero components of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor
can be expressed in terms of the components of the engineering strain tensor as:

C 11 Z 1 H e 11 , C 22 Z 1 H e 22 , C 33 Z 1 H e 33

Instead of 1 H e 11 , 1 H e 22 , and 1 H e 33 , one often uses the principal stretch ratios λ 1 , λ 2 and λ 3 ,
respectively.
A geometrical interpretation of the principal stretch ratios can be given by indicating the initial edge
lengths as L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and the changes in edge lengths as ∆L 1 , ∆L 2 , ∆L 3 (see Figure 2-2). Now the
principal stretch ratios can be written as:

L 1 H ∆L 1 L 2 H ∆L 2 L 3 H ∆L 3
λ 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J , λ 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J , λ 3 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J
L1 L2 L3

In the example discussed above, the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor only has non-zero terms on its main
diagonal, indicating that the deformation consists of a pure stretch. In a general state of deformation,
there will also be non-zero off-diagonal terms. Then the principal stretch ratios must be determined based
on the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor. Denoting these eigenvalues as CD 11 , CD 22 ,
and CD 33 , the principal stretch ratios are generally given by:

λ1 Z CD 11 , λ 2 Z CD 22 , λ 3 Z CD 33 (2-12)

It can be concluded that the principal stretch ratios completely define the stretch of a material, but not the
rotation.
CHAPTER 2 33
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Another way to characterize the deformation of a material is based on the invariants of the right Cauchy-
Green strain tensor. These invariants are defined as:

I 1 Z C 11 H C 22 H C 33 (2-13)

2 2 2
I 2 Z C 11 C 22 H C 22 C 33 H C 33 C 11 Ó C 12 Ó C 23 Ó C 31 (2-14)

2
I 3 Z C 11 C 22 C 33 H 2C 12 C 23 C 31 Ó C 11 C 23 H (2-15)

2 2
Ó C 22 C 31 Ó C 33 C 12

Because I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor, their values can also be
determined based on the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor. Using Equation (2-12), this
yields:
2 2 2
I 1 Z λ 1 H λ 2 H λ3 (2-16)

2 2 2 2 2 2
I 2 Z λ 1 λ2 H λ 2 λ 3 H λ3 λ 1 (2-17)

2 2 2
I 3 Z λ 1 λ2 λ 3 (2-18)

It should be noted that incompressibility of the material can be expressed as:

λ1 λ2 λ3 Z 1 (2-19)

or:

I3 Z 1 (2-20)

The compressibility can also be expressed in terms of the determinant of the deformation gradient,
det ( F ) . Since F Z RU , this can be evaluated as:

det ( F ) Z det ( RU ) Z det ( R )det ( U ) Z det ( U ) Z det  C JJJ Z λ 1 λ 2 λ


1
(2-21)
 2 3

so that incompressibility of the material yields:

det ( F ) Z 1 (2-22)
34 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Stresses
Consider the deformed configuration of body B , as indicated in Figure 2-1. On an elemental area dA
with unit normal vector n , an elemental force vector dF is acting. This force vector is a result of forces
being transmitted from one portion of the body to another. According to the Cauchy stress principle, the
stress vector or traction vector t is defined as:

dF
t Z JJJJJJJJJ (2-23)
dA

Similar to Equation (2-1) to Equation (2-3), the components of t , n , and dF are indicated as t 1 , t 2 , t 3 ,
n 1 , n 2 , n 3 , dF 1 , dF 2 and dF 3 . Now the following relation between the components of the stress
vector and the components of the normal vector can be given:

t1 T 11 T 12 T 13 n1
t2 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 n2 (2-24)
t3 T 31 T 32 T 33 n3

which, by virtue of Equation (2-23), can also be written as:

dF 1 T 11 T 12 T 13 n1
dF 2 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 n 2 dA (2-25)
dF 3 T 31 T 32 T 33 n3

In Equation (2-24) and Equation (2-25), T 11 to T 33 are the components of the true or Cauchy stress
tensor T . The components T 11 , T 22 and T 33 are called the normal or direct stress components, while
the other components are called shear stress components. The first index of the stress components defines
the normal of the plane on which the stress vector acts. The second index indicates the positive direction
of the component (see Figure 2-1). It can be shown that the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric, so
T 12 Z T 21 , T 13 Z T 31 and T 23 Z T 32 . The physical meaning of the Cauchy stress tensor is that it
gives the current force per unit deformed area.
Another frequently used stress tensor in a large deformation analysis is the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress
tensor. In order to define this tensor, the force vector dF is transformed using the inverse of the
deformation gradient F :
CHAPTER 2 35
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

E3

T 23

T 21
E1 E2

T
22
Figure 2-3 Interpretation of Stress Components

dF¾ 1 dF 1
Ó1
dF¾ 2
Z F dF 2 (2-26)

dF¾ 3 dF 3

^
Assuming that the transformed force vector d F acts on the elemental area dA 0 with unit normal vector

N in the undeformed configuration (see Figure 2-1), the components S 11 to S 33 of the symmetric
second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor S are defined as:

dF¾ 1 S 11 S 12 S 13 N1
dF¾ 2
Z S 21 S 22 S 23 N 2 dA 0 (2-27)

dF¾ 3 S 31 S 32 S 33 N3

The physical meaning of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor is not so clear. It can be considered to
give the transformed current force per unit undeformed area.
Using the deformation gradient, the Cauchy stress tensor and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor
can be related to another by:

Ó1 Ó1 T
S Z det ( F )F T ( F ) (2-28)

1 T
T Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ FSF (2-29)
det ( F )

Notice that for small deformations and small rotations, F ≈ I , so the differences between the Cauchy
stress tensor and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor vanish. In that case they reduce to the so-called
engineering stress tensor σ , which is known to give the force per unit undeformed area.
36 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Example
Due to a uniaxial tensile load, the state of deformation of a body is assumed to be given by (see also
Figure 2-1):

1
x 1 Z 4X 1 , x 2 Z Ó JJJ X 2 , x 3 Z Ó 1
JJJ X 3
2 2

The force is assumed to be homogeneously distributed over the cross section A in the E 2 - E 3 -plane.

Evaluating Equation (2-25) for the cases that n Z E1 , n Z E 2 , and n Z E 3 yields:

A0
A0
F

A
F
E3
E2
A
E1

Figure 2-4 Uniaxially Loaded Body

F T 11 T 12 T 13 1
0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 0 A
0 T 31 T 32 T 33 0

0 T 11 T 12 T 13 0
0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 1 A
0 T 31 T 32 T 33 0

0 T 11 T 12 T 13 0
0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 0 A
0 T 31 T 32 T 33 1

so that the only nonzero component of the Cauchy stress tensor is:

F
T 11 Z JJJJ
A
CHAPTER 2 37
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Because:

4 0 0
1
F Z 0 Ó JJJ 0 , det ( F ) Z 1
2
1
0 0 Ó JJJ
2

it follows from Equation (2-28) that the only non-zero component of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress
tensor is:

1 F
S 11 Z JJJJJJ JJJJ
16 A

Upon rewriting the current cross sectional area A in terms of the original cross-sectional area A 0 as

A Z 1
JJJ A 0 , the nonzero component of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor can also be written as:
4

1 F
S 11 Z JJJ JJJJJJJ
4 A0

in which F ⁄ A 0 is recognized as the engineering stress σ 11 . The differences between the various stress
components can be summarized as:

1
T 11 Z 4σ 11 , S 11 Z JJJ σ 11
4
38 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Results Files
When a SOL 600 analysis has been completed successfully, a message file and a results file are created
and saved. If you request that a print file be saved in addition to the standard results file, or if the analysis
aborts prematurely due to an error, a print file is also saved.

Files Generated During the Analysis


Print Files
The print files jobname.f06 and jobname.marc.out contain a complete text output of solution
information, including an input summary, solution diagnostics from each processor, a geometry
summary, and results if requested.
Because of the potential size of the print file, certain information is optional. Instead of printing out a
complete echo of the input deck, a summary can be printed. Stress and strain results, at the nodes of each
element, can be printed or not as selected by the user included in the print file.

Analysis Results Files


The analysis results file contains some all of the numerical results computed in the analysis. This file in
MSC.Nastran is designated as jobname.op2 or jobname.xdb. Because SOL 600 uses the
MSC.Marc solver, a MSC.Marc results file is also available, designated jobname.t16/t19. If you
are using MSC.Patran, the full set of stress and strain measures are available in the t16/t19 file while the
more basic measures are available in the .op2 and .xdb files. The t19 file is an ASCII file. The t16 file is
a binary file and can be moved and used on different platforms.
For more information, see Patran Reference Manual, Part 6: Results Postprocessing.

Message Files
The message files jobname.marc.sts and jobname.msg (if it is run from MSC.Patran) contain
diagnostic error and warning messages output by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). The
message file is the best way to immediately check an analysis for successful execution if the job is run
from MSC.Patran. Otherwise, check JID.MARC.OUT and JID.f06.
SOL 600 has five levels of messages:
1. Informative messages.
2. Nonfatal warning message of something that could affect the results.
3. Severe warnings (similar to fatal errors).
4. Fatal errors (all occurrences will be found before aborting).
CHAPTER 2 39
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

5. Immediately fatal errors:


• An example of a Level 1 message is a message that indicates that a new processor has begun
execution. These messages provide job information.
• An example of a Level 2 message is one indicating that the aspect ratio is greater than 15. This
may or may not be a serious problem.
• An example of a Level 3 message is a warning about a highly distorted element or a in Marc
that is not in SOL 600.
• An example of a Level 4 message is the warning “undefined node used in rigid element.”
• An example of a Level 5 message is “Unable to open file” message. The job is
immediately aborted.

Postprocessing with MSC.Patran


The results from an MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Analysis can be read into and postprocessed using
MSC.Patran. Typically you will get the most complete set of results (i.e. rigid contact body information
such as reaction forces, etc.) if you use the .t16 or .t19 results options (see Section 14.1 “Output from the
Analysis” on how to select which output files will be created), but you can also postprocess using an .xdb
or .op2 formatted file.
The Results application in MSC.Patran provides the capabilities for creating, modifying, deleting,
posting, unposting and manipulating results visualization plots as well as viewing the finite element
model. In addition, results can be derived, interpolated, extrapolated, transformed, and averaged in a
variety of ways, all controllable by the user.
Control is provided for manipulating the color/range assignment and other attributes for plot tools, and
for controlling and creating animations of static and transient results.
Results are selected from the database and assigned to plot tools using simple forms. Results
transformations are provided to derive scalars from vectors and tensors as well as to derive vectors from
tensors. This allows for a wide variety of visualization tools to be used with all of the available results.
If the job was created within MSC.Patran such that a Patran jobname of the same name as the Nastran
jobname exists, you only need to use the Results tools and MSC.Patran will import or attach the
jobname.xxx file without you having to select it. If you did not create the job in MSC.Patran you can still
import the model and results and postprocess (both are on the t16 file).
40 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Grid Point Force Balance and Element Strain Energy in


Nonlinear Static Analysis
Introduction
MSC.Nastran has provided long-standing support for the output of grid point force balance and element
strain energy in all linear solution sequences. Users have asked for the extension of the capabilities to
nonlinear analysis. In MSC.Nastran 2005 r3, the output of grid point force balance and element strain
energy is supported in SOL 600 nonlinear static analysis.

Theory
In nonlinear analysis, the strain energy, E , for an element is defined by integrating the specific energy
rate, the inner product of strain rate and stress, over element volume and time
t
T
E Z ∫ ∫ ε̌ σ dV dτ (2-30)
0V

σ stress tensor
ε̌ strain rate
V element volume
t actual time in the load history

The integration over time leads to the following recursive formula using the trapezoidal rule

1 T
E n H 1 Z E n H ∆E n H 1 Z E n H JJJ ∫ ∆ε n H 1 ( σ n H σ n H 1 ) dV (2-31)
2

nH1 current load step


n previous load step
∆E strain energy increment
∆ε strain-increment

The steps n and n H 1 are converged solution steps.


CHAPTER 2 41
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

By integrating Equation (2-31) over the element volume, we get

1 T
E n H 1 Z E n H JJJ ∆u n H 1 ( f n H f n H 1 ) (2-32)
2

f internal element forces


∆u displacement increment from n to n H 1

For computational convenience, MSC.Nastran uses Equation (2-32) to calculate the element strain
energy. The internal element forces are readily available in every step because they are needed for the
force equilibrium. Note that temperature effects are included in the internal element forces.
When loads from temperature differences or element deformation are present, the default definition of
element strain energy for linear elements differ from the definition for nonlinear elements. For linear
elements, the element strain energy is defined as

1 T T
E Z JJJ u K e u Ó u P e t (2-33)
2

where P e t is the element load vector for temperature loads and element deformation. Equation (2-33)
assumes that the temperatures are constant within a subcase. For nonlinear elements, the definition of
Equation (2-30) is used. In the case of linear material and geometry, Equation (2-30) becomes

1 T 1 T
E Z JJJ u K e u Ó JJJ u P e t (2-34)
2 2
Equation (2-34) assumes that the temperature varies linearly within a subcase. The user may request the
definition of Equation (2-34) to be applied to linear elements by adding PARAM,XFLAG,2 to the input
file. The default value for XFLAG is 0, meaning that linear elements will use the definition of
Equation (2-33).

User Input
The output of grid point force balance and strain energy in nonlinear analysis is requested with the
existing GPFORCE and ESE Case Control commands, respectively. The Case Control commands
remain unchanged.

Printed Output
The output is the same as in linear analysis. An example appears below.

Example
The following Nastran input deck represents a simplified model of a mechanical clutch that consists of
springs, beams, rigid elements, and gap elements. A geometric nonlinear analysis is performed. Both
42 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

GPFORCE and ESE output requests are applied above all subcases. This is a good example to show the
grid point force balance with both linear and nonlinear elements, that includes:
• applied loads
• element forces
• SPC forces
• MPC forces.

The model is shown in Figure 2-1. For clarity, only the elements are displayed.

The dashed lines represent rigid elements, the rest are gap and beam elements. Spring elements are
located at the intersection point of all dashed lines and are not visible in the figure because their
connection points are coincident.
CHAPTER 2 43
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Grid Point Force Output

1 GPF005B - FORD ELETRO-MECHANICAL CLUTCH SEPTEMBER 26, 2000 MSC.NASTRAN 9/25/00 PAGE 248
DISPLACEMENT IN MM., FORCE IN NEWTON, STRESS IN MPA
0 SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
G R I D P O I N T F O R C E B A L A N C E

POINT-ID ELEMENT-ID SOURCE T1 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3


1 APP-LOAD .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 -2.400000E+02
1 F-OF-SPC .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.400000E+02
1 10001 BEAM .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
1 10002 BEAM .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
1 *TOTALS* .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
0 100 F-OF-SPC -5.366200E-25 -4.514879E-24 .0 4.535559E-23 -6.400176E-24 .0
100 F-OF-MPC 5.366200E-25 4.514879E-24 .0 -4.535559E-23 6.400176E-24 1.292178E-24
100 3 ELAS2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1.070983E-24
100 *TOTALS* .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.363161E-24
0 101 F-OF-SPC .0 .0 -3.078859E-28 -3.549490E-26 2.535672E-24 .0
101 101 BEAM -3.701448E-08 2.907432E-07 .0 .0 .0 -5.474456E-09
101 2004 BEAM -3.888788E-07 -1.144153E-07 3.078859E-28 3.549490E-26 -2.535672E-24 -1.777338E-23
101 1 GAP 1.270000E-10 1.438901E-27 .0 .0 .0 .0
101 *TOTALS* -4.257663E-07 1.763280E-07 .0 .0 .0 -5.474456E-09
0 102 101 BEAM -2.715682E-08 -2.918291E-07 .0 .0 .0 -2.549396E-09
102 102 BEAM -1.637746E-08 1.273060E-07 .0 .0 .0 -1.374512E-25
102 2 GAP 1.270000E-10 -9.144001E-27 .0 .0 .0 .0

Element Strain Energy Output

1 GPF005B - FORD ELETRO-MECHANICAL CLUTCH SEPTEMBER 26, 2000 MSC.NASTRAN 9/25/00 PAGE 231
DISPLACEMENT IN MM., FORCE IN NEWTON, STRESS IN MPA
0 SUBCASE 1
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
E L E M E N T S T R A I N E N E R G I E S

ELEMENT-TYPE = BEAM * TOTAL ENERGY OF ALL ELEMENTS IN PROBLEM = 4.422530E+02


SUBCASE 1 * TOTAL ENERGY OF ALL ELEMENTS IN SET -1 = 4.422530E+02
0
ELEMENT-ID STRAIN-ENERGY PERCENT OF TOTAL STRAIN-ENERGY-DENSITY
101 1.211380E+01 2.6928 5.680606E-02
102 1.049874E+00 .2334 4.923244E-03
103 1.323984E-01 .0294 6.208644E-04
104 1.323428E-01 .0294 6.206040E-04
105 1.374425E-01 .0306 6.445181E-04
106 1.407006E-01 .0313 6.597968E-04
107 1.478413E-01 .0329 6.932822E-04
108 1.483829E-01 .0330 6.958218E-04
109 1.032130E-01 .0229 1.936014E-04
110 3.163312E-01 .0703 7.020313E-04
111 4.605607E-01 .1024 1.927717E-03
112 7.067609E-01 .1571 2.958209E-03
113 4.186914E-01 .0931 1.752469E-03
121 3.068841E+00 .6822 2.905759E-02
44 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Remarks
• Linear and nonlinear elements can be mixed. The output for grid point force and element strain
energy in nonlinear analysis follow the same format as in linear analysis.
• The reference system for the grid point force output is the grid point global coordinate system.
The user cannot specify another output coordinate system. In nonlinear, the grid point forces are
not aligned with element edges. Therefore, PARAM,NOELOF and PARAM,NOELOP are
ignored in nonlinear analysis.
• In nonlinear analysis, the element strain energy must be calculated for each intermediate load
step even if the output is requested only in the last load step. To save computations, the element
strain energy is only calculated upon user request. The Case Control commands, GPFORCE
must be present to activate grid point force output or element strain energy calculations
and output.
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 3: Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

3 Solution Methods and Strategies


in Nonlinear Analysis


Introduction 46
 Linear Static Analysis Procedure 47

Differences Between Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 48

Applying Constraints 50
 Adding Nonlinear Effects 55

Numerical Methods in Solving Equations 60

Iteration Methods 66
 Load Increment Size 71

Convergence Controls 81

Singularity Ratio 84
 Guidelines for Analysis Methods 86
46 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Introduction
The finite element method is a powerful tool for analyzing complex problems in structural and continuum
mechanics. The analysis of a structure using the finite element method has four basic steps:
1. Modeling, in which the structure is subdivided into an assemblage of discrete volumes called
finite elements, and properties are assigned to each element.
2. Evaluation of element characteristics, such as stiffness and mass matrices, followed by
assembling the element characteristic matrices to obtain the assembled or so-called “global”
matrices characteristic of the entire structure. A similar process is followed to obtain the total
loads, in vector form, applied to the structure.
3. Solution of the system equations for displacements, natural frequencies and mode shapes, or
buckling load factors.
4. Calculating other quantities of interest, such as strains, stresses and strain energy.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the finite element displacement method, in which a large system
of equations is solved to obtain the displacements at all node points of the structure. Strains are then
obtained on the element level as derivatives of displacements and stresses are obtained by multiplying a
small matrix of material constants by the strains. Comprehensive presentations of the finite element
method together with numerous applications are available in textbooks and the research literature.
The main purposes of this chapter are more limited, namely:
1. To give a brief overview of the finite element displacement method for solving linear and
nonlinear structural problems in statics.
2. To describe the theory, techniques and algorithms specifically used in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600).
3. Outline some guidelines for selecting appropriate analysis methods.
CHAPTER 3 47
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Linear Static Analysis Procedure


In a linear static analysis there is assumed to be a linear relationship between the applied loads and the
response of the structure. Because of the linear relationship you need only calculate the stiffness of the
structure once. From this stiffness representation you can find the structure’s response to other applied
loads by multiplying the load vectors by the decomposed stiffness matrix. In addition, loads can be
combined using the principle of superposition.
A linear analysis is the simplest and most cost effective type of analysis to perform. Because linear
analysis is simple and inexpensive to perform and often gives satisfactory results, it is the most
commonly used structural analysis. Nonlinearities due to material, geometry, or boundary conditions are
not included in this type of analysis. The behavior of an isotropic, linear, elastic material can be defined
by two material constants: Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio.
In actuality, linear analysis is merely an approximation to the true behavior of a structure. In some cases
the approximation is very close to the true behavior, in other cases linear analysis may provide highly
inaccurate results.
The following is a summary of the main steps in a linear static analysis:
1. Input: The problem geometry (nodes and elements), physical and material properties, and loads
and boundary conditions are taken from the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear input file and put
into the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear database.
2. Bandwidth: Minimization (Optional). The nodes are renumbered internally for
minimum bandwidth.
3. Element stiffness matrix and force vector calculation: The element stiffness matrices and
equivalent nodal forces for distributed forces are computed. The detailed descriptions in the
Element Library (Ch. 11) provide the kinds of forces that each element can support.
4. Global stiffness matrix and load vector assembly: The global stiffness matrix and the
combined nodal force vectors are assembled. Boundary and constraint conditions are
incorporated by modifying the element stiffness matrices and force vectors.
5. Solution of equations: The nodal displacement vector {δ} is computed by solving the system of
simultaneous Equation (3-6).
6. Strain energy and reaction force calculation: The strain energy and reaction forces
(unbalanced grid point forces) are computed using the displacement vector, the element stiffness
matrices and the force vectors.
7. Stresses and strains calculation: The strains and stresses are computed at selected points for
each element. See the Element Library (Ch. 11) for a detailed descriptions of the stress recovery
points for the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear elements.
48 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Differences Between Linear and Nonlinear Analysis


Non-linear analysis is intrinsically a multi-increment load process where the applied loads and/or
displacements are solved for, not in a single load increment but in a number of load increments. The
multiple-step procedure is necessary for the FE code to update changing conditions in the model during
the analysis. This situation is routinely encountered in non-linear analysis because the material properties
and/or boundary conditions can change during the analysis e.g. with the onset of plasticity (material non-
linearity), or with the occurrence of contact (BC nonlinearity). Below are the steps in a general linear and
a non-linear analysis. The presence of an extra loop of iterations (Newton-Raphson iterations) is the
unique feature of a nonlinear solution procedure.

A. Steps in Linear Analysis:


1. Set up the model (done by user, before the model is submitted)
- Mesh the part
- Apply Material Properties
- Apply Boundary Conditions
- Submit Job
2. Job Solution (done by FE Code)
- Assembly of stiffness Matrix
- Solution of stiffness matrix
- Compute displacements, strains, stresses (and other results)
3. View Results
The user is guaranteed a solution if the boundary conditions and material properties are set up
correctly (and sometimes even incorrectly!). The stiffness matrix is assembled and solved only once in
the entire analysis.

B. Steps in Nonlinear Analysis:


1. Set up the model (done by the user, before model set-up)
- Mesh the part
- Apply Material Properties
- Apply Boundary Conditions
- Submit Job
2. Job Solution (done by FE Code):
Newton-Raphson Iteration scheme begins: Apply a portion of the total load to start: (1% in
this case):
- Assembly of stiffness Matrix
- Solution of the Stiffness Matrix
- Check for convergence (IMPORTANT step, seen only in non-linear analysis)
If converged, the solution/structure is in equilibrium. Go to step 3 below
If not converged, update information and re-assemble, re-solve stiffness matrix
Keep iterating till convergence is achieved.
CHAPTER 3 49
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

3. (After convergence) Get displacements, strains, stresses


4. Apply the next increment of load and go to Step 2. Keep doing this until all the load is applied
5. View Results
The important point to note is that the total load is applied gradually in steps (or increments) and for each
load step, the solution is arrived at after one or more iterations. If the behavior of the model is generally
linear, few iterations are required to solve that load step. If the model behavior is complex/nonlinear,
many iterations might be required. Each iteration involves an assembly and solution of the stiffness
matrix. Hence, nonlinear problems inherently take longer than linear models (of the same size) to solve.
At the end of each iteration, a check is made to see if the solution has converged. If the convergence
check fails, the iteration is re-repeated with the new information; and it is re-assembled and re-solved.
This process repeats until convergence is achieved. Following that, the next increment of load is applied.
The load increments are applied until the full load of the model is solved.
50 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Applying Constraints
Once you have constructed a model of your structure, constraints are added that force selected portions
of your model to remain fixed or to move by a specified amount. These constraints can be either:
• Single Point Constraints
• Multipoint Constraints

Single Degrees of Freedom


A constraint on a single degree of freedom (Single Point Constraint, or SPC) assigns a zero or nonzero
value to a single degree of freedom. It can be expressed as:

δi Z u (3-1)

where u is the value of the prescribed displacement on the degree of freedom δi. The case of u = 0 is the
most common case, and is often used as a boundary condition, to “fix” or “ground” the movement of a
point in a certain direction.
Since the value of δi is known, one could, in principle, eliminate the specified degree of freedom from
the other degrees of freedom to be solved for as unknowns. This would reduce the size of the system of
equations to be solved, but on the other hand it would take time to perform the elimination, and this
approach adds complexity to the code.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses a different technique. A number which is large compared to the
stiffness coefficients (say, for discussion, 1020) is added to the diagonal term Kii of the equation for the
degree of freedom to be constrained. Also, if the degree of freedom is to be constrained to a nonzero value
u, then u x 1020 is added to the right hand side of the modified equation. This modified equation is now:

K i 1 δ 1 H … H ( K i i )10 20 δ i H … H K i n δ n Z F i H ( u × 10 20 )

Assuming all Kij to be small with respect to 1020, the solution of the system of equations is obtained with
negligible error.
The modified system of equations remain well conditioned. The value used by MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear for the large number is 1010 times the largest stiffness coefficient found on the diagonal of the
stiffness matrix.
CHAPTER 3 51
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Multiple Degrees of Freedom


A multipoint constraint (MPC) equation is a relationship between several degrees of freedom that must
be enforced on the structure.
Some examples are as follows:
Consider the structure in Figure 3-1, made up of three plane stress elements. To make node 4 lie exactly
on the straight line between nodes 2 and 7, we need to enforce the two MPC equations.
UX(4) = 0.5 x UX(2) + 0.5 x UX(7)
UY(4) = 0.5 x UY(2) + 0.5 x UY(7)

6 7 8 Y

1 4 5
3 X

1 2 3
Figure 3-1 Multipoint Equations to Enforce Compatibility of Node 4 Along Line Connecting
Nodes 2 and 7

To connect a plate or beam element (which has six degrees of freedom per node — three displacements
and three rotations) to a solid element (which has only three translations), it is necessary to relate the
rotation of the plate to the displacements of the solid. As an example, consider Figure 3-2 where we see
the side view of a plate-to-solid transition. The equation:

ROTZ ( 3 ) Z ( UX ( 2 ) Ó UX ( 6 ) ) ⁄ ( DELTAY )

where DELTAY is the difference in Y-coordinate between nodes 2 and 6, will enforce the desired
compatibility on the rotation about the global Z axis. Other constraints would need to be written to ensure
the compatibility of the other displacements and rotations.
Y

5 6
Z
X
3
4

1 2

Figure 3-2 Side View of a Solid-to-Plate Transition


52 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Compatibility requires that the rotations of the plate element be related to the displacements on the top
and bottom of the solid element.
Consider Figure 3-3, showing a rigid link connecting two nodes M and S, each of which has six degrees
of freedom and is attached to other elements in the structure.
The displacements at the dependent node S are related to those at the independent node M by the
following relationship:

 UX s   UX m   ROTX m 
     
 UY s  Z  UY m  H [ H ]  ROTY m 
     
 UZ s   UZ m   ROTZ m 

and

 ROTX s   ROTX m 
   
 ROTY s  Z [ I ]  ROTY m 
   
 ROTZ s   ROTZ m 

where [I] is a 3 x 3 unit matrix and [H] is given by

0 ( Zs Ó Zm) ( Ym Ó Ys )
[H ] Z ( Zm Ó Zs ) 0 ( Xs Ó Xm )
( Ys Ó Ym ) ( Xm Ó Xs ) 0

Z
M (XM, YM, ZM)

S (XS, YS, ZS)

M = Independent (master) node


S = Dependent (slave) node

Figure 3-3 Example of a “Rigid Link” in the Model

If both nodes have six degrees of freedom, then multipoint constraint equations can be written to ensure
that, for small displacements, the two nodes move as a rigid body.
CHAPTER 3 53
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Incorporating MPC Equations


Various techniques can be used to incorporate MPC equations into the equilibrium equations. Two of the
methods are as follows:
Lagrange Multiplier Method. This method uses the mathematical technique of Lagrange multipliers to
enforce the constraints. The number of degrees of freedom is increased, and the conditioning and
definiteness of the global matrix may be adversely affected.
Transformation Method. Using the constraint equations, this method eliminates dependent variables
from the list of unknowns, modifying the stiffness associated with the independent degrees-of-freedom
to account for the constraints.
The following describes the multipoint constraint algorithm used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
First, we rewrite the constraint equations in matrix form as

{ δ }s Z Ó [ A ] { δ } m (3-2)

where {δ}s are the dependent (“slave”) variables and {δ}m are the independent (“master”) variables.

Then, the global matrix of Equation (3-6) can be rewritten in partitioned form as

Ks s Ks m Ks i  δs   Fs 
   
Km s Km m Km i  δm  Z  Fm  (3-3)
   
Ki s Ki m Ki i  δi   Fi 

where the subscript i refers to those degrees of freedom which are not referenced in any
constraint equation.
Substituting {δ}s from Equation (3-2) into Equation (3-3) and rearranging, we get

 K  δ F
 m m K mi Ó K ms A 0   m  Z  m 
 K     (3-4)
 i m Ki i K i s A 0   δ i   Fi 

and

 δm 
( [K s m K s i ] Ó [Ks s A 0] ) ×   Z { F s } (3-5)
 δi 

[ ]T, we get
Premultiplying Equation (3-5) by A, 0

 ATK T T   δm   AT Fs 
 sm A K s i Ó A K ss A 0    Z   (3-6)
 0 0 0 0   δi   0 
54 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Now subtracting Equation (3-6) from Equation (3-4):

 K  δ F Ó A T Fs 
 m m K mi Ó K ms A 0 Ó A T K sm A T K s i H A T K ss A 0   m  Z  m
    (3-7)
 K
 i m Ki i Ki s A 0 0 0 0 0   δi   Fi 

This symmetric Equation (3-7) gives the reduced equations, which can be solved for the variables
{δ}m,{δ}i. Values of {δ}s can then be recovered from Equation (3-2). However, this needs
rearrangement of the coefficients in the stiffness matrix. Hence, we do some more manipulation.
First, we combine Equation (3-2) with Equation (3-7):

[I ] [A] 0  δs   0 
   
0 ( K m m Ó K ms A Ó A K s m H A K ss A ) ( K m i Ó A T K si )  δ m  Z  F m Ó A T F s 
T T
(3-8)
   
0 ( Ki m Ó Ki sA ) Ki i  δi   Fi 

Then we restore symmetry to Equation (3-8) by first premultiplying the first equation of Equation (3-8)
by [A]T[Kss] and adding the resulting equation to the second part of Equation (3-8), and then,
premultiplying the first equation of Equation (3-8) by Kss. This results in

Ks s Ks s A 0  δs   0 
   
A T K ss ( K m m Ó K ms A Ó A T K s m H 2A T K ss A ) ( K m i Ó A T K si )  δ m  Z  F m Ó A T F s  (3-9)
   
0 ( Ki m Ó Ki s A ) Ki i  δi   Fi 

If we solve this modified Equation (3-9), which is symmetric, the resulting solution vector will satisfy the
constraint equations.
For large problems, the modifications implied by Equation (3-9) will take a substantial amount of
computer time, if performed on the global stiffness matrix.
CHAPTER 3 55
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Adding Nonlinear Effects


Linear analysis is based on the following assumptions:
• the structure is only subjected to small displacements when loads are applied.
• the materials in the structure exhibit a linear relationship between stress and strain.
• boundary conditions remain constant.

When these assumptions are violated, linear analysis is no longer valid and nonlinear effects must
be introduced.
Nonlinear problems are classified into three broad categories: geometric nonlinearity, material
nonlinearity, and boundary condition nonlinearity (contact).

Sources of Nonlinearity
Geometric Nonlinearity
Geometrically nonlinear problems involve large displacements; “large” means that the displacements
invalidate the small displacement assumptions inherent in the equations of linear analysis. For example,
consider a classical thin plate subject to a lateral load; if the deflection of the plate’s midplane is anything
close to the thickness of the plate, then the displacement is considered large and a linear analysis is
not applicable.
Another aspect of geometric nonlinear analysis involves follower forces. Consider a slender cantilever
beam subject to an initially vertical end load. The load is sufficient to cause large displacements.

In the deformed shape plot, the load is no longer vertical; it has “followed” the structure to its deformed
state. Capturing this behavior requires the iterative update techniques of nonlinear analysis.
For details on the finite element formulations for geometric nonlinearities, see Geometric Nonlinearities
(Ch. 4).

Material Nonlinearity
Recall that linear analysis assumes a linear relationship between stress and strain.
Material nonlinear analysis solution sequences can be used to analyze problems in static analysis where
the stress-strain relationship of the material is nonlinear. In addition, large strain situations can be
analyzed. Examples of material nonlinearities include metal plasticity, materials such as soils and
concrete, or rubbery materials (where the stress-strain relationship is nonlinear elastic). Various plasticity
56 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

theories such as von Mises or Tresca (for metals), and Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager (for frictional
materials such as soils or concrete) can be selected by the user. Three choices for the definition of
subsequent yield surfaces are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. They are isotropic hardening,
kinematic hardening, or combined isotropic and kinematic hardening. With such generality, most plastic
material behavior, with or without the Bauschinger effect, can be modeled.
For details on the finite element formulations for material nonlinearities, see Material Nonlinearities
(Ch. 4).

Contact
Contact problems exhibit nonlinear effects due to changes in boundary conditions. If there is a change in
constraints due to contact during loading, the problem may be classified as a boundary nonlinear problem
and would require CGAP elements or the BCONTACT, BCBODY, or BSURF option. The use of GAP
elements is discouraged in SOL 600.
For details on the finite element formulations for boundary nonlinearities, see Nonlinear Boundary
Conditions (Ch. 4).

Subcases, Load Increments, and Iterations


In a nonlinear analysis, loading is typically applied in subcases both to allow for the nonlinear behavior
to occur in the numerical processing and to give you control over restarts if problems (divergence,
excessive iterations, etc.) occur during the solution. The subcase structure in a nonlinear analysis differs
from a typical linear analysis. In a nonlinear analysis, subcases are cumulative; that is, the loads and
boundary conditions at the end of a subcase are the initial conditions for the next subcase. Superposition
cannot be applied in nonlinear problems. In general, a different loading sequence (reordering of the
subcases) requires a complete new analysis.

Function of the Subcase


In a nonlinear static analysis, you first determine the total value of loading to be applied at a particular
stage of the analysis. This loading value is selected with the LOAD Case Control command specifying a
load set ID that exists in the Bulk Data. In this case, the subcase functions as a type of landmark in the
loading history. It may be an expected point or a point at which the nature of the loading changes (for
example, first applying an internal pressure loading and then an axial loading on a cylinder). The subcase
is a major partition of the loading history. The loading history should be divided into subcases since this
provides you with more control over the solution and restart strategy.

Load Increments
In the loading history, the total change of loading applied during a subcase can be subdivided into smaller
parts to allow the solution to converge. These subdivisions within a subcase are termed load increments.
Load increments are specified in MSC.Patran on the Load Increments subform and are defined in the
Bulk Data file by the NINC field on the NLPARM entry. Selecting a number of increments divides the
total load change applied during the subcase into NINC equal parts for FIXED load incrementation, but
only provides the initial load increment size in the case of adaptive load incrementation. See NLPARM
CHAPTER 3 57
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

and NLAUTO bulk data entries for more details. Load increments may be saved for restart if desired.This
is important because sometimes the solution does not converge during a subcase. If the loading is divided
into increments and these values are saved to the database, the restart strategy can continue from a
loading value closer to the problem value than having to go back to the previous subcase.

Iterations
In the incremental solution process, the unbalanced forces that occur during a load increment are
reintroduced internally into the solution until the solution has converged. The process of redistributing
the unbalanced force within a load increment is known as an iteration. The iteration is the lowest level
of the solution process. Iterations continue within a load increment until the solution converges or any
of the specified convergence parameters are exceeded.

Nonlinear Equation Solution


A linear finite element system is expressed as:

Ku Z F (3-10)
And a nonlinear system is expressed as:
T
K ∆u Z F Ó R Z r (3-11)
T
where K is the elastic stiffness matrix, K is the tangent stiffness matrix in a nonlinear system, ∆u is
the displacement vector, F is the applied load vector, and r is the residual.

The linearized system is converted to a minimization problem expressed as:


T T
ψ ( u ) Z 1 ⁄ 2u Ku Ó u F (3-12)
For linear structural problems, this process can be considered as the minimization of the potential energy.
The minimum is achieved when
Ó1
u Z K F (3-13)

The function ψ decreases most rapidly in the direction of the negative gradient.

∇ψ ( u ) Z F Ó Ku Z r (3-14)
One method to solve both linear and nonlinear problems is to use iterations. The objective of the
iterative techniques is to minimize the function, ψ , without decomposing the stiffness matrix. In the
simplest methods,

uk H 1 Z uk H α k rk (3-15)
58 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where
T T
α k Z r k r k ⁄ r k Kr k (3-16)

The problem is that the gradient directions are too close, which results in poor convergence.
An improved method led to the conjugate gradient method, in which

u k H 1 Z u k H α k Pk (3-17)

T T
α k Z P k r k Ó 1 ⁄ P k KP k (3-18)

The trick is to choose P k to be K conjugate to P 1, P 2, …, P k Ó 1 . Hence, the name “conjugate gradient


methods. Note the elegance of these methods is that the solution may be obtained through a series of
matrix multiplications and the stiffness matrix never needs to be decomposed.
Certain problems which are ill-conditioned can lead to poor convergence. The introduction of a
preconditioner has been shown to improve convergence. The next key step is to choose an appropriate
preconditioner which is both effective as well as computationally efficient. The easiest is to use the
diagonal of the stiffness matrix. The incomplete Cholesky method has been shown to be very effective
in reducing the number of required iterations.
CHAPTER 3 59
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

SOL 600 Analysis Procedure


Figure 3-4 is a diagram showing the flow sequence of the nonlinear solution sequence of SOL 600. This
diagram shows the input phase, equivalent nodal load vector calculation, matrix assembly, matrix
solution, stress recovery, and output phase. It also indicates load incrementation and iteration within a
load increment.

Input Phase:
Read Input Data
Space Allocation
Data Check
Incremental
Loads

Equivalent Nodal
Load Vector

Matrix Assembly
Iteration Loop

Matrix Solution
Time Step Loop

Stress Recovery

No
Convergence

Yes

Output Phase

Yes Next
Increment

No

Stop

Figure 3-4 MSC.Nastran Advanced Nonlinear Flow Diagram


60 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Numerical Methods in Solving Equations


The finite element formulation leads to a set of linear equations. The solution is obtained through
numerically decomposing the system or obtaining the solution using iterations. Because of the wide
range of problems encountered with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, there are several solution
procedures available.
Most analyses result in a system which is real, symmetric, and positive definite. While this is true for
linear structural problems, assuming adequate boundary conditions, it is not true for all analyses.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has two main modes of solvers – direct and iterative. Each of these
modes has two families of solvers, based upon the storage procedure. While all of these solvers can be
used if there is adequate memory, only a subset uses spill logic for an out-of-core solution. Finally, there
are classifications based upon nonsymmetric and complex systems. This is summarized below:

Direct Iterative Multifrontal Sparse


Profile Sparse (default) CASI
Solver Option 0 2 8 9
Real Symmetric Yes Yes Yes Yes
Real Nonsymmetric Yes No Yes No
Complex Symmetric Yes No Yes No
Complex nonsymmetric No No Yes No
Out-of-core Yes No Yes Yes
Possible problem with poorly No Yes No Yes
conditioned systems
Can be used in Parallel Yes Yes Yes No

Direct Methods
Traditionally, the solution of a system of linear equations was accomplished using direct solution
procedures, such as Cholesky decomposition and the Crout reduction method. These methods are usually
reliable, in that they give accurate results for virtually all problems at a predictable cost. For positive
definite systems, there are no computational difficulties. For poorly conditioned systems, however, the
results can degenerate but the cost remains the same. The problem with these direct methods is that a
large amount of memory (or disk space) is required, and the computational costs become very large.
CHAPTER 3 61
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Iterative Methods
Iterative solvers are a viable alternative for the solution of large systems. These iterative methods are
based on preconditioned conjugate gradient methods. The single biggest advantage of these iterative
methods is that they allow the solution of very large systems at a reduced computational cost. This is true
regardless of the hardware configuration. The disadvantage of these methods is that the solution time is
dependent not only upon the size of the problem, but also the numerical conditioning of the system. A
poorly conditioned system leads to slow convergence – hence increased computation costs.
When discussing iterative solvers, two related concepts are introduced: fractal dimension, and
conditioning number. Both are mathematical concepts, although the fractal dimension is a simpler
physical concept. The fractal dimension, the range of which is between 1 and 3, is a measure of the
“chunkiness” of the system. For instance, a beam has a fractal dimension of 1, while a cube has a fractal
dimension of 3.
The conditioning number is related to the ratio of the lowest to the highest eigenvalues of the system.
This number is also related to the singularity ratio, which is reported in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
output when using a direct solution procedure. In problems involving beams or shells, the conditioning
number is typically small, because of large differences between the membrane and bending stiffnesses.

Preconditioners
The choice of preconditioner can substantially improve the conditioning of the system, which in turn
reduces the number of iterations required. While all positive definite systems with N degrees of freedom
converges in N iterations, a well conditioned system typically converges in less than the square root of
N iterations.

The available preconditioners available in the sparse iterative solver are

Preconditioner Sparse
Diagonal Yes
Scaled Diagonal Yes
Incomplete Cholesky Yes

The sparse iterative solver requires an error criteria to determine when convergence occurs. The default
is to use an error criteria based upon the ratio between the residuals in the solution and the reaction force.
c
After obtaining the solution of the linear equations u evaluate:

C C (3-19)
Ku Z F
The residual from the solution procedure is:
A C A C (3-20)
Res Z F Ó F Z F Ó Ku
62 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

If the system is linear ( K does not change) and exact numerics are preformed, then Res Z 0 .
Because this is an iterative method the residual is nonzero, but reduces in size with further iterations.
Convergence is obtained when

Res ⁄ Reac < TOL (3-21)


The tolerance is specified through the NLPARM, TSTEPNL, NLAUTO, and NLSTRAT options.

Iterative Solvers
In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, two iterative solvers are available: one using a sparse matrix
technique and the other an element-based CASI technique. This method is advantageous for different
classes of problems.
There exist certain types of analyses for which the iterative solver is not appropriate. These types include:
• Elastic analysis
• Explicit creep analysis
• Eigenvalue analysis
• Use of gap elements
Elastic or explicit creep analysis involves repeated solutions using different load vectors. When a direct
solver is used, this is performed very efficiently using back substitution. However, when an iterative
solver is used, the stiffness matrix is never decomposed, and the solution associated with a new load
vector requires a complete re-solution.
The sparse iterative solver can exhibit poor convergence when shell elements or Herrmann
incompressible elements used for hyperelastic analyses are present.

Storage Methods
In general, a system of linear equations with N unknown is represented by a matrix of size N by N , or
2
N variables. Fortunately, in finite element or finite difference analyses, the system is “banded” and not
all of the entries need to be stored. This substantially reduces the memory (storage) requirements as well
as the computational costs.
In the finite element method, additional zeroes often exist in the system, which results in a partially full
bandwidth. Hence, the profile (or skyline) method of storage is advantageous. This profile storage method
is used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to store the stiffness matrix. When many zeroes exist within
the bandwidth, the sparse storage methods can be quite advantageous. Such techniques do not store the
zeroes, but require additional memory to store the locations of the nonzero values. You can determine the
“sparsity” of the system (before decomposition) by examining the statements:
“Number of nodal entries excluding fill in” x
“Number of nodal entries including fill in” y

If the ratio ( x ⁄ y ) is large, then the sparse matrix storage procedure is advantageous.
CHAPTER 3 63
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Nonsymmetric Systems
The following analyses types result in nonsymmetric systems of equations:
• Inclusion of convective terms in heat transfer analysis
• Coriolis effects in transient dynamic analysis
• Fluid mechanics
• Soil analysis
• Follower force stiffness
• Frictional contact
The first three always result in a nonsymmetric system. The last three can be solved either fully using
the nonsymmetric solver, or (approximately) using a symmetric solver. The nonsymmetric problem uses
twice as much memory for storing the stiffness matrix. Approximations using the symmetric solver may
require more iterations.

Specifying the Solution Procedure


Selection of the solution procedure is made through the solver related parameters (ISOLVER, ISYMM,
NONPOS, MBYTE, MAXITER, PREVITER, PRECOND, CJTOL) on the NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry
or the parameter MARCSOLV.

Other Factors Affecting Performance


Contact Speed Improvements
In new versions of SOL 600, parts of the code were rewritten to improve the speed of contact analyses
involving a large number of multi-point constraint equations (deformable contact) and/or kinematic
constraint equations (rigid contact). This is especially useful for analysis where if the total number of
nodes in contact is extremely large (a typical example would be two similar plates on top of each other,
so that about 50% of all the nodes are in contact). This code improvement is by default active so no
special options are required.

Multifrontal Solver Memory Reduction


In order to efficiently run large analyses using scratch files, the out-of-core behavior of the multi-frontal
sparse solver (MSC.Marc Solver 8) has been updated. These updates include:
1. Adding functionality to use out-of-core assembly of the operator matrix.
2. Utilizing the RAM, which affects both the in-core and out-of-core assembly of the operator
matrix, allocated for the solver more efficiently.
64 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Rewriting the code applying the multi-point constraint equations such that the amount of scratch
file access is tremendously reduced. This is active in solver by default. If needed, it can be
switched off by using the parameter feature, 4900.

Note: For very large analyses, it may be advantageous to set the third entry of the OOC
parameter to 1, in which case the solver memory is also used to store some nodal vectors,
so that the amount of RAM needed for the analysis is decreased considerably. This is
activated using bulk data PARAM,MARCOOCC,2.

Large Models
Translator speed enhancements have been implemented for certain types of large models. These are not
necessary for small or medium sized models but can be requested using the following parameters:

PARAM,MSPEEDSE,1 speeds up element processing


PARAM,MSPEEDP4,1 speeds up PLOAD4 processing particularly for solids

Rigid Element Use


Improvements have been made to SOL 600 to allow more problems with MPC's, RBE2, RBE3, RBAR,
and RTRPLT to run to completion. The majority of models with these entries should run without
difficulty. Should your analysis exit with an MSC.Marc exit code 2011, have a very low singularity ratio,
or experience convergence problems (for example MSC.Marc exit code 3015), then there are several
potential workarounds that you can try to attempt to get the problem to run.
First, try the bulk data parameter PARAM,MARMPCHK,3. This will cause MSC.Marc to attempt to
rearrange these entities if possible. If that does not work, and RBE3’s are present, they can be changed
to MPC’s using Bulk Data PARAM,MARCRBE3,0. If there are still problems, all rigid elements can be
changed to stiff beams using bulk data parameters PARAM,MARCRIGD,1. If the model still does not
run, check all rigid elements carefully and run the model using MSC.Nastran SOL 101 and/or 106,
replace contact with MPCs or springs between the surfaces, determine from the f06 file if any negative
or very large terms on the main diagonal of the decomposed stiffness matrix exist, and add CELAS or
SPC to ground for these degrees of freedom. If the MSC.Nastran run is satisfactory but SOL 600 still
fails, the only other solution is to remodel the rigid elements and MPC’s.
An alternative approach is to add the AUTOMSET option, which is triggered by
PARAM,AUTOMSET,YES in the bulk data. The use of the AUTOMSET option will increase the
simulation cost, so the MARCMPCHK,3 is preferred. If the PARAM,MARMPCHK is also included in
the model, it will be ignored.

Improved Contact
MPC's and rigid elements combined with contact and/or the same node in more than one contact body
sometimes caused the MSC.Marc portion of SOL 600 to fail in versions prior to 2005. There is a new
feature in MSC.Marc known as optimized contact that can frequently help these types of models to run
correctly. For version 2005 r2, optimized contact is not the default either in MSC.Marc (stand-alone) or
CHAPTER 3 65
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

MSC.Nastran SOL 600. If MSC.Marc exit 2011 or convergence problems are encountered with such
models, you should try optimized contact. To invoke optimized contact from MSC.Nastran, set field 6
of each BCBODY entry with flexible contact to 2. In addition, set field 3 of each "SLAVE" continuation
line (the next line after all lines with SLAVE) to 2. In turn, this sets MSC.Marc's CONTACT entry 4th
datablock, 3rd field to 2 and each CONTACT TABLE 3rd datablock 8th entry to 2 respectively. Detailed
discussions and an example of optimized are provided in Chapter 8 of the MSC.Marc Theory and User
Information Manual (Volume A of the MSC.Marc documentation) - see text before and after Figure 8-4.

References
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .
• For selecting the solution procedure in MSC.Patran, see Defining the Solution Type in
MSC.Patran (Ch. 7).
66 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Iteration Methods
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) offers four iterative procedures that are employed to solve
the equilibrium problem at each load increment: Newton-Raphson, Modified Newton-Raphson,
Newton-Raphson with strain correction, and a secant procedure.

Full Newton-Raphson Algorithm


The basis of the Newton-Raphson method in structural analysis is the requirement that equilibrium must
be satisfied. Consider the following set of equations:

K ( u )δu Z F Ó R ( u ) (3-22)

where u is the nodal-displacement vector, F is the external nodal-load vector, R is the internal
nodal-load vector (following from the internal stresses), and K is the tangent-stiffness matrix. The
internal nodal-load vector is obtained from the internal stresses as

T
R Z ∑ ∫β σ dv (3-23)
elem V

In this set of equations, both R and K are functions of u . In many cases, F is also a function of u (for
example, if F follows from pressure loads, the nodal load vector is a function of the orientation of the
structure). The equations suggest that use of the full Newton-Raphson method is appropriate.
i
Suppose that the last obtained approximate solution is termed δu , where i indicates the iteration
number. Equation (3-22) can then be written as
iÓ1 i iÓ1
K ( u n H 1 )δu Z F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) (3-24)

i
This equation is solved for δu and the next appropriate solution is obtained by

i iÓ1 i i iÓ1 i
∆u Z ∆u H δu and u n H 1 Z u n H 1 H δu (3-25)

Solution of this equation completes one iteration, and the process can be repeated. The subscript n
denotes the increment number representing the state t Z n . Unless stated otherwise, the subscript
n H 1 is dropped with all quantities referring to the current state.

The full Newton-Raphson method is the default in MSC.Nastran Advanced Nonlinear (see Figure 3-5).
The full Newton-Raphson method provides good results for most nonlinear problems, but is expensive
for large, three-dimensional problems when the direct solver is used. The computational problem is less
significant when the iterative solvers are used. It is also the best method for contact problems.
CHAPTER 3 67
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

r1
Fn + 1

Fn

Force

δu1
Solution Converged

0 ∆u1 ∆u2 ∆u3


Incremental Displacements
Figure 3-5 Full Newton-Raphson

Modified Newton-Raphson Algorithm


The modified Newton-Raphson method is similar to the full Newton-Raphson method, but does not
reassemble the stiffness matrix in each iteration.
0 i iÓ1
K ( u )δu Z F Ó R ( u ) (3-26)

Fn + 1
r1

Fn

Force δu1
Solution Converged

0 ∆u1 ∆u2 ∆u5


Incremental Displacements
Figure 3-6 Modified Newton-Raphson

The process is computationally inexpensive because the tangent stiffness matrix is formed and
decomposed once. From then on, each iteration requires only forming the right-hand side and a backward
68 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

substitution in the solution process. However, the convergence is only linear, and the potential for a very
large number of iterations, or even nonconvergence, is quite high.
If contact or sudden material nonlinearities occur, reassembly cannot be avoided. The modified
Newton-Raphson method is effective for large-scale, only mildly nonlinear problems. When the iterative
solver is employed, simple back substitution is not possible, making this process ineffective. In such
cases, the full Newton-Raphson method should be used instead.
If the load is applied incrementally, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear recalculates the stiffness matrix at
the start of each increment or at selected increments, as specified.

Strain Correction Method


The strain correction method is a variant of the full Newton method. This method uses a linearized strain
calculation, with the nonlinear portion of the strain increment applied as an initial strain increment in
subsequent iterations and recycles. This method is appropriate for shell and beam problems in which
rotations are large, but membrane stresses are small.
In such cases, rotation increments are usually much larger than the strain increments, and, hence, the
iH1
nonlinear terms can dominate the linear terms. After each displacement update, the new strains E α β
i i
are calculated from u and δu ( Z δ u ) which yield

iH1 i 1 i
Eα β Z E α β H JJJ ( δ u α, β H δu β, α ) H u κ, α δu κ, β H δu κ, α u κi β H δu κ, α δu κ, α
2
This expression is linear except for the last term. Since the iteration procedures start with a fully
linearized calculation of the displacement increments, the nonlinear contributions yield strain increments
inconsistent with the calculated displacement increments in the first iteration. These errors give rise to
either incorrect plasticity calculations (when using small strain plasticity method), or, in the case of
elastic material behavior, yields erroneous stresses. These stresses, in their turn, have a dominant
effect on the stiffness matrix for subsequent iterations or increments, which then causes the relatively
poor performance.
The remedy to this problem is simple and effective. The linear and nonlinear part of the strain increments
are calculated separately and only the linear part of

l i 1 i i
( E α β ) Z E α β H JJJ ( δu α, β H δu β, α ) H u κ, α δu κ, β H δu κ, α u κ β
2
is used for calculation of the stresses. The nonlinear part
nl iH1 1
( Eα β ) Z JJJ δu κ, α δu κ, β (3-27)
2
CHAPTER 3 69
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

is used as an “initial strain” in the next iteration or increment, which contributes to the residual load
vector defined by

C α βγ δ nl
R Z ∫ δ κ, β X κ, α L ∆E γ δ dV (3-28)
V0

This “strain correction” term is defined by


i i i C
K ( u n H 1 )δu Z F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) Ó R (3-29)

Since the displacement and strain increments are now calculated in a consistent way, the plasticity and/or
equilibrium errors are greatly reduced. The performance of the strain correction method is not as good if
the displacement increments are (almost) completely prescribed, which is not usually the case. Finally,
note that the strain correction method can be considered as a Newton method in which a different
stiffness matrix is used.

The Secant Method


The Secant method used by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is based on the Davidon-rank one,
quasi-Newton update. The Secant method is similar to the modified Newton-Raphson method in that the
stiffness matrix is calculated only once per increment. The residual is modified to improve the rate of
convergence. When the iterative solver is employed, simple back substitution is not possible, making this
process ineffective. Use the full Newton-Raphson method instead.

Fn + 1
r1

Fn

Force
δu1

∆u1 ∆u4
Incremental Displacements
Figure 3-7 Secant Newton
70 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The quasi-Newton requirement is that a stiffness matrix for iteration i could be found based on the
right-hand sides of iterations, i and i Ó 1 , as follows

i i i iÓ1 i iÓ1
K δu Z [ F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) ] Ó [ F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) ] Z r Ó r (3-30)

This problem does not uniquely determine K i . The Davidon-rank one update uses an additive form on
the inverse of the tangent stiffness matrix as follows:

iÓ1 0 Ó1 i iÓ1 iÓ1 0 Ó1 i iÓ1 T


i Ó1 0 Ó1 [ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r ) ] [ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r )]
(K ) Z (K ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-31)
iÓ1 0 Ó 1 i iÓ1 T i iÓ1
[ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r )] (r Ó r )

Specifying the Iteration Method


Selection of the iteration method in MSC.Nastran is made through the IKMETH parameter on the
NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry and on the NLPARM entry.

References
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .
• NLPARM (p. 1991) in the .
• For selecting the iteration method in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters (Ch. 7).
CHAPTER 3 71
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Load Increment Size


Selecting a proper load step (time step) increment is an important aspect of a nonlinear solution scheme.
Large steps often lead to many recycles per increment and, if the step is too large, it can lead to
inaccuracies and nonconvergence. On the other hand, using too small steps is inefficient.

Fixed Load Incrementation


When a fixed load stepping scheme is used, it is important to select an appropriate load step size that
captures the loading history and allows for convergence within a reasonable number of recycles. For
complex load histories, it is often necessary to break up the analysis into separate load cases with
different step sizes. For fixed stepping, there is an option to have the load step automatically cut back in
case of failure to obtain convergence. When an increment diverges, the intermediate deformations after
each recycle can show large fluctuations and the final cause of program exit can be any of the following:
maximum number of recycles reached (exit 3002), elements going inside out (exit 1005 or 1009) or, in
a contact analysis, nodes sliding off a rigid contact body (exit 2400). These deformations are normally
not visible as post results (there is a feature to allow for the intermediate results to be available on the
post file, see the POST option). If the cutback feature is activated and one of these failures occurs, the
state of the analysis at the end of the previous increment is restored from a copy kept in memory or disk,
and the increment is subdivided into a number of subincrements. The step size is halved until
convergence is obtained or the user-specified number of cutbacks has been performed. Once a
subincrement is converged, the analysis continues to complete the rest of the original increment. No
results are written to the post file during subincrementation. When the original increment is finished, the
calculation continues to the next increment with the original increment count maintained. These issues
are avoided by using the AUTO increment options (AUTO on the NLPARM card).

Adaptive Load (AUTO) Incrementation


In many nonlinear analyses, it is useful to have MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear figure out the
appropriate load step size automatically. The basic scheme for automatic load incrementation is
NLAUTO which is appropriate for most applications and is the default in SOL 600. In addition,
so-called “arc-length methods” are available which are designed for applications like post buckling and
snap-through analysis.

NLAUTO Basic Load Incrementation Scheme


The scheme appropriate for most applications is NLAUTO (MSC.Marc AUTO STEP). The primary
control of the load step is based upon the number of recycles needed to obtain convergence. There are a
number of optional user-specified physical criteria that can be used to additionally control the load step,
but they are rarely used or required. The NLAUTO defaults are appropriate for most models and the
NLAUTO entry is not required. For the recycle based option, the user specifies a desired number of
recycles. This number is used as a target value for the load stepping scheme. If the number of recycles
needed to obtain convergence exceeds the desired number, the load step size is reduced, the recycle
counter is reset to zero and the increment is performed again with the new load step. The factor with
which the time step is cut back defaults to 1.2 and can be specified by you. The load step for the next
72 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

increment is increased if the number of recycles required in the current increment is less than the desired
number. The same factor that is used for decreasing the time step is used for increasing it. The load step
is never increased during an increment. In addition, the same type of cut-back feature for fixed load
stepping, as described in Load Increments, 56, is available for this scheme as well.
There are some exceptions to the basic scheme outlined above. If an increment is consistently converging
with the original load step and the number of recycles exceeds the desired number, the number of recycles
is allowed to go beyond the desired number until convergence or up to the user specified maximum
number. The time step is then decreased for the next increment. An increment is determined to be
converging if the convergence ratio was decreasing in three previous recycles.
Special rules also apply in a contact analysis. For quasi-static problems, the NLAUTO option is designed
to only use the automated penetration check option (see CONTACT option, 7th field of 2nd data block;
option 3 is always used). Even if you flag the increment splitting penetration check option, MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear internally converts it to the automated penetration check. During the recycles, the
contact status can keep changing (new nodes come in contact, nodes slide to new segments, separate etc.).
Whenever the contact status changes during an increment, a new set of contact constraints are
incorporated into the equilibrium equations and more recycles are necessary in order to find equilibrium.
These extra recycles, which are solely due to contact changes, are not counted when the comparison is
made to the desired number for determining if the load step needs to be decreased within the increment.
Thus, only true Newton-Raphson iterations are taken into account. For the load step of the next
increment, the accumulated number of recycles during the previous increment is used. This ensures that
the time step is not increased when there are many changes in contact during the previous increment.
In addition to allowing MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to use the number of recycles for automatically
controlling the step size for NLAUTO, user-specified physical criteria can be used for controlling the step
size. You can specify the maximum allowed incremental change within certain ranges for specific
quantities during an increment. The quantities available are displacements, rotations, stresses, strains,
strain energy, and temperature (in thermal or thermomechanically coupled analyses). These criteria can
be utilized in two ways. By default, they are used as limits, which means that the load step is decreased
if a criterion is violated during the current increment, but they do not influence the decision to change the
load step for the next increment (that is, only the actual number of recycles versus desired number of
recycles controls the load step for the next increment). The criteria can also be used as targets; in which
case, they are used as the main means for controlling the time step for the current and next increments.
If the calculated values of the criteria are higher than the user-specified values the time step is scaled
down. If the obtained values for a converged increment are less than the user-specified, the time step is
scaled up. The scale factor used is the ratio between the actual value and the target value and this factor
is limited by user-specified minimum and maximum factors (defaults to 0.1 and 10 respectively). If this
type of load step control is used together with the recycle based control, the time step can be reduced due
to whichever criterion that is violated. The decision to increase the step size for the next increment is
based upon the physical criteria.
In many analyses, it is convenient to obtain post file results at specified time intervals. This is naturally
obtained with a fixed load stepping scheme but not with an automatic scheme. Traditionally, the post
output frequency is given as every nth increment. With the NLAUTO procedure, you can request post
output to be obtained at equally spaced time intervals. In this case, the time step is temporarily modified
to exactly reach the time for output. The time step is then restored in the following increment.
CHAPTER 3 73
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

The NLAUTO option also has an artificial damping feature available by default for structured statics
analyses. If the time step is decreased to below the user-specified minimum time step, MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear normally stops with exit number 3015; but if the artificial damping feature is
activated, the analysis is continued with a smaller time step. The solution is stabilized by adding a
factored lumped mass matrix to the stiffness matrix and modifying the force vector consistently. This
artificial stabilization is turned off once the time step increases above the minimum time step. If the
feature is used, it might be useful to write post file results at fixed time interval; otherwise, many
increments might appear on the post file even for a small time period. The critical parameter for this
feature is the (artificial) mass density, is normally selected automatically by the program. Use of the
artificial damping feature allows solution of many post-buckling problems without the need to use
arc-length methods (see below).
The defaults of the NLAUTO option are carefully chosen to be adequate in a wide variety of applications.
There are cases, however, when the settings may need to be modified. Assume that the default settings
are used, which means that the recycle based control is active with an initial load of one per cent of the
total. If the structure is weakly nonlinear, convergence is obtained in just a few recycles and the for
successive increments get progressively larger. This can lead to problems if the initially weakly nonlinear
structure suddenly exhibits stronger nonlinearities; for instance, occurrence of plasticity or parts coming
into contact. Possible remedies to this problem include:
• decrease the time step scale factor from 1.2 to a smaller number so the step size does not grow
so rapidly;
• use a physical criterion like maximum increment of displacements to limit the load step;
• use the maximum time step to limit large steps;
• decrease the desired and maximum number of recycles to make the scheme more prone to
decrease the load step if more recycles are needed.
Another situation is if the structure is highly nonlinear and convergence is slow. In this case, it may be
necessary to increase the desired number and maximum number of recycles. In general, there is a close
connection between the convergence tolerances used and the desired number and maximum number of
recycles. In some rare cases, it may be beneficial to use one or more physical criteria; for example, the
increment of plastic strain as targets for controlling the load step.

Arc-Length (AUTO INCREMENT) Methods Formulation


The solution methods described above involve an iterative process to achieve equilibrium for a fixed
increment of load. None of them have the ability to deal with problems involving snap-through and
snap-back behavior except the NLAUTO method with artificial damping. An equilibrium path as shown
in Figure 3-8 displays the features possibly involved.
74 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2
6
F
3

Force

5
u
Displacements
Figure 3-8 Snap-through Behavior

The issue at hand is the existence of multiple displacement vectors, u , for a given applied force vector,
F . This method provides the means to ensure that the correct displacement vector is found. If you have
a load controlled problem, the solution tends to jump from point 2 to 6 whenever the load increment after
2 is applied. If you have a displacement controlled problem, the solution tends to jump from 3 to 5
whenever the displacement increment after 3 is applied. Note that these problems appear essentially in
quasi-static analyses. In dynamic analyses, the inertia forces help determine equilibrium in a snap-
through problem.
Thus, in a quasi-static analysis sometimes it is impossible to find a converged solution for a particular
load (or displacement increment):

λ n H 1 F Ó λ n F Z ∆λF

This is illustrated in Figure 3-8 where both the phenomenon of snap-through (going from point 2 to 3)
and snap-back (going from point 3 to 4) require a solution procedure which can handle these problems
without going back along the same equilibrium curve.

As shown in Figure 3-9, assume that the solution is known at point A for load level λ n F . For arriving at
point B on the equilibrium curve, you either reduce the step size or adapt the load level in the iteration
process. To achieve this end, the equilibrium equations are augmented with a constraint equation
expressed typically as the norm of incremental displacements. Hence, this allows the load level to change
from iteration to iteration until equilibrium is found.
CHAPTER 3 75
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

g
λn + 1 F

B
λn F
A
r

u
Figure 3-9 Intersection of Equilibrium Curve with Constraining Surface

The augmented equation, c ( u, λ ) , describes the intersection of the equilibrium curve with an auxiliary
surface g for a particular size of the path parameter η :

r ( u, λ ) Z λF Ó R ( u ) Z 0
(3-32)
c ( u, λ ) Z g ( u, λ ) Ó ∆η Z 0

Variations of the parameter η moves the surface whose intersection with the equilibrium curve r
generates a sequence of points along the curve. The distance between two intersection points, denoted
with η 0 and η , denoted by l is the so-called arc-length.

Linearization of equation Equation (3-33) around point A in Figure 3-9 yields:

K P  δu   Ór 
  Z  Ór  (3-33)
n n 0  δλ 
T
 0

where:

∂r ∂r
K Z JJJJJJ : P Z JJJJJJ (3-34)
∂u ∂λ

T ∂c ∂c
n Z JJJJJJ : n 0 Z JJJJJJ (3-35)
∂u ∂λ

r Z λF Ó R (3-36)

r 0 Z g ( u, λ ) Ó ∆η (3-37)
76 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

It can be noted that a standard Newton-Raphson solution procedure is obtained if the constraint condition
is not imposed. The use of the constraint equation causes a loss of the banded system of equations which
would have been obtained if only the K matrix was used. Instead of solving the N H 1 set of equations
iteratively, the block elimination process is applied.
iÓ1
Consider the residual at iteration i to which the fraction of load level λ corresponds

i iÓ1 iÓ1 i iÓ1


r (λ ) Z λ F Ó R (u ) (3-38)
i
The residual for some variation of load level, δλ , becomes

i iÓ1 i i i iÓ1
r (λ H δλ ) Z δλ F H r ( λ ) (3-39)
which can be written as:
i iÓ1 i i iÓ1 i i
δu ( λ H δλ ) Z δu ( λ ) H δλ δu * (3-40)

i iÓ1 i Ó1
where δu ( λ ) Z (K ) r (3-41)

i i Ó1
and δu * Z ( K ) F (3-42)

i
Notice that δu * does not depend on the load level. The equation above essentially establishes the
i
influence of a change in the load level δλ during one iteration on the change in displacement increment
for that iteration. After one iteration is solved, this equation is used to determine the change in the load
level such that the constraint is followed. There are several arc-length methods corresponding to
different constraints.
Among them, the most well-known arc-length method is one proposed by Crisfield, in which the iterative
solution in displacement space follows a spherical path centered around the beginning of the increment.
This requirement is translated in the formula:
2 i i
c Z l Z ∆u ∆u (3-43)
where l is the arc length. The above equation with the help of Equation (3-46) and Equation (3-25) is
applied as:

i T i i 2 iÓ1 i iÓ1 T i i
[ ( δu * ) δu * ] ( δλ ) H [ 2 ( ∆u H δu ( λ ) ) δu * ] ( δλ ) H

iÓ1 i iÓ1 T iÓ1 i iÓ1 2 (3-44)


[ ( ∆u H δu ( λ ) ) ( ∆u H δu ( λ )) Ó l ] Z 0
CHAPTER 3 77
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

1
The equation above is interpreted with i Z 1 and δu Z 0 in the prediction phase while retaining the
full form of Equation (3-50) in the correction phase. Two solutions for δλ are available. We choose the
one that maintains a positive angle of the displacement increment from one iteration to the next.
i i
The two roots of this scalar equation are ( δλ ) 1 and ( δλ ) 2 . To avoid going back on the original
iÓ1 i
load-deflection curve, the angle between the incremental displacement vectors, ∆u and ∆u (before
i
and after the current iteration, respectively) should be positive. Two alternative values of ∆u (namely,
i i i i
( ∆u ) 1 and ( ∆u ) 2 corresponding to ( δλ ) 1 and ( δλ ) 2 are obtained and the cosine of two
corresponding angles ( φ 1 and φ 2 ) are given by

i T iÓ1
[ ( ∆u n H 1 ) 1 ] ∆u n H 1
cos φ 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J (3-45)
l
i T iÓ1
[ ( ∆u n H 1 ) 2 ] ∆u n H 1
and cos φ 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J (3-46)
l
0
Once again, the prediction phase is interpreted with i Z 1 and ∆u n H 1 Z ∆u n , while Equation (3-51)
and Equation (3-52) retain their full form in the correction phase.
i i
As mentioned earlier, the appropriate root, ( δλ ) 1 or ( δλ ) 2 is that which gives a positive cos φ . In case
both the angles are positive, the appropriate root is the one closest to the linear solution given as:

iÓ1 i iÓ1 i 2
i ( ∆u H δu ) ( ∆u H δu ) Ó l
δλ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-47)
iÓ1 i i
2 ( ∆u H δu )δu *

Crisfield’s solution procedure, generalized to an automatic load incrementation process, has been
implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear as one of the options using (NLPCI, NLSTRAT and
PARAM,MARCAUTO). Various components of this process are shown in Figure 3-10.
78 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

F
2 1 Ó1 2
δu ( λ ) Z K 2 f

Force

r1

0 1 1
λ ( ∆u * ) ( ∆u * ) Incremental Displacement

2
( δu * )

Figure 3-10 Crisfield’s Constant Arc Length

The constraints in Equation (3-49) and Equation (3-50) are imposed at every iteration. Disadvantage of
the quadratic equation suggested by Crisfield is the introduction of an equation with two roots and thus
the need for an extra equation to solve the system for the calculated roots if two real roots exists. This
1 1
situation arises when the contribution ∆u (or δu ) is very large in comparison to the arc-length. This
can be avoided in most cases by setting sufficiently small values of the error tolerance on the residual
force. In case the above situation still persists despite the reduction of error tolerance, MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear has two options to proceed:
1. To attempt to continue the analysis with the load increment used in the initial step of auto
increment process.
2. Use the increment resulting from the linear constraint for the load.
This is circumvented in Ramm’s procedure due to the linearization.
Another approach to impose the constraint is due to Ramm, who also makes use of a quadratic equation
to impose the constraint giving rise to the Riks-Ramm method. The difference is that while Crisfield
imposes the constraint as a quadratic equation, Ramm linearized the constraint.
Geometrically, the difference between the two methods is that the Crisfield method enforces the
correction on the curve of the augmented equation introducing no residual for the augmented equation.
Ramm takes the intersection between the linearizations of the curves which gives a residual of the
augmented equation for the next step. Both methods converge to the same solution, the intersection of
the two curves, unless approximations are made.
The Riks-Ramm constraint is linear, in that:
2
c Z l Z ∆u n ∆u n H 1
CHAPTER 3 79
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

which results in a linear equation for δλ :

T i i 2
∆u n ( δu H δλ δu * ) Z l

Thus, the load parameter predictor is calculated as:

T i Ó1 i
1 ∆u n l Ó ( ∆u n ) [ ( K ) r ]
δλ n H 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-48)
T 1
∆u n ( δu * )

while during the corrector phase it is:

i T i Ó1 i
i ( ∆u n H 1 ) [ ( K ) r ]
δλ n H 1 Z Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
i
(3-49)
i T
( ∆u n H 1 ) ( δu * )

It is noted that in the definition of the constraint, the normalized displacement of the previous step is used
∂cJ Z n . Thus, problems can arise if the step size is too big. In
for the normal to the auxiliary surface JJJJJ
∂u
situations with sharp curvatures in the solution path, the normal to the prediction may not find
intersections with the equilibrium curve. Note that the norm of the displacement increment during the
iterations is not constant in Riks-Ramm method.
In contact problems, sudden changes of the stiffness can be present (due to two bodies which are initially
not in contact suddenly make contact). Hence, a potential problem exists in the Riks-Ramm method if
i
the inner-product of the displacement due to the load vector δu * and the displacement increment ∆u n
is small. This could result in a very large value of the load increment for which convergence in the
subsequent iterations is difficult to achieve. Therefore, a modified predictor can be used resulting in a
modified Riks-Ramm procedure as:

1 1 T 1
1 l n Ó 1 δu Ó [ αδu * ] δu
∆λ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
* J (3-50)
1 1
[ αδ∆u * ]∆u *

where

T i
∆u n δu *
α Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J (3-51)
T i
∆u n δu *

This method effectively scales the load increment to be applied in the prediction and is found to be
effective for contact problems.
80 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Refinements and Controls


The success of the methods depend on the suitable choice of the arc-length:
2
C Z l

The initial value of the arc-length is calculated from the initial fraction β of the load specified by you in
the following fashion:

Kδu Z βF Ó R (3-52)
2
li n i Z ∆u (3-53)

In subsequent steps the arc-length can be reduced or increased at the start of a new load step depending
on the number of iterations I 0 in the previous step. This number of iterations in compared with the
desired number of iterations I d which is typically set to 3 or 5. The new arc-length is then given by:

2 Id 2
l new Z JJJJ l prev (3-54)
I0

Two control parameters exist to limit the maximum enlargement or the minimum reduction in the
arc-length.
2
l
min < JJJJJJJ < max (3-55)
2
l ini

In addition, the maximum value can be set to the load multiplier during a particular iteration. In general,
control on the limiting values with respect to the arc-length multiplier is preferred in comparison with the
maximum fraction of the load to be applied in the iteration since a solution is sought for a particular value
of the arc-length.
Also, attention must be paid to the following:
1. In order to tract snap-through problems, the method of allowing solution if the stiffness matrix
becomes nonpositive needs to be set.
2. The maximum number of iterations must be set larger than the desired number of iterations.

Specifying the Load Incrementation Method


Selection of the load incrementation method in MSC.Nastran is made on the NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry.

References
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .
• NLPCI (p. 1999) in the .
• For selecting the load incrementation method in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters (Ch. 7).
CHAPTER 3 81
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Convergence Controls
Three methods are available for determining if convergence is obtained on any given iteration: residual
force, displacement, and strain energy. You can select one of these three criteria for convergence or you
may specify a combination of residual and displacement. The AND combination signals that both
residual and displacement must be met, while the OR combination specifies that either one can satisfy
convergence criteria. If you are using residual there may be cases in which the force residuals are null in
which case is it necessary to switch over to displacement. An Autoswitching option (on by default)
allows for this switching. In addition you can specify that the convergence measures be in absolute terms,
in relative terms, or in both.
The default measure for convergence in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is residual which is based on
the magnitude of the maximum residual load compared to the maximum reaction force. This method is
appropriate since the residuals measure the out-of-equilibrium force, which should be minimized. This
technique is also appropriate for Newton methods, where zero-load iterations reduce the residual load.
The method has the additional benefit that convergence can be satisfied without iteration. You have
complete control over how convergence is defined through the Iterations Parameters form in
MSC.Patran or through the options on the NLSTRAT card.
The basic procedures are outlined below.
1. RESIDUAL CHECKING
F r e si d u a l ∞
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 1 (3-56)
F re a c t i o n ∞

F r e si d u a l ∞ M r e si d u a l ∞
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 1 and JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 2 (3-57)
F re a c t i o n ∞ M re a c t i o n ∞

F r e si d u a l ∞
< TOL 1 (3-58)

F r e si d u a l ∞
< TOL 1 and M r e si d u a l ∞
< TOL 2 (3-59)

Where F is the force vector, and M is the moment vector. TOL 1 and TOL 2 are control
tolerances. F ∞ indicates the component of F with the highest absolute value. Residual
checking has one drawback. In some special problems, such as free thermal expansion, there are
no reaction forces. If the AUTOSW flag on the NLSTRAT card is ON the program automatically
uses displacement checking in this cases.
2. DISPLACEMENT CHECKING
δu ∞
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J < TOL 1 (3-60)
∆u ∞

δu ∞ δφ ∞
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J < TOL 1 and JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J < TOL 2 (3-61)
∆u ∞ ∆φ ∞
82 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

δu ∞ < TOL 1 (3-62)

δu ∞ < TOL 1 and δφ ∞ < TOL 2 (3-63)

where ∆u is the displacement increment vector, δu is the displacement iteration vector, ∆φ is


the incremental rotation vector, and δφ is the rotation iteration vector. With this method,
convergence is satisfied if the maximum displacement of the last iteration is small compared to
the actual displacement change of the increment. A disadvantage of this approach is that it results
in at least one iteration, regardless of the accuracy of the solution.

δi Correction to incremental displacements of ith iteration


un Displacements at increment n
F
i
δ
δ0 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ≤ Tolerance
δ1 i

δk
∑ δj
j Z 0

0 k+1
un + 1 un + 1
u
Figure 3-11 Displacement Control

3. STRAIN ENERGY CHECKING


This is similar to displacement testing where a comparison is made between the strain energy
of the latest iteration and the strain energy of the increment. With this method, the entire model
is checked.
δE
JJJJJJJ < TOL 1 (3-64)
∆E
where ∆E is the strain energy of the increment and δE is the correction to incremental strain
energy of the iteration. These energies are the total energies, integrated over the whole volume. A
disadvantage of this approach is that it results in at least one iteration, regardless of the accuracy
of the solution. The advantage of this method is that it evaluates the global accuracy as opposed
to the local accuracy associated with a single node.
Different problems require different schemes to detect the convergence efficiently and accurately. To do
this, the following combinations of residual checking and displacement checking are also available.
4. RESIDUAL OR DISPLACEMENT CHECKING
This procedure does convergence checking on both residuals (Procedure 1) and displacements
(Procedure 2). Convergence is obtained if one converges.
5. RESIDUAL AND DISPLACEMENT CHECKING
This procedure does a convergence check on both residuals and displacements (Procedure 4).
Convergence is achieved if both criteria converge simultaneously.
CHAPTER 3 83
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

For problems where maximum reactions or displacements are extremely small (even close to the
round-off errors of computers), the convergence check based on relative values could be meaningless if
the convergence criteria chosen is based on these small values. It is necessary to check the convergence
with absolute values; otherwise, the analysis is prematurely terminated due to a nonconvergent solution.
Such situations are not predicable and usually happen at certain stages of an analysis. For example,
problems with stress free motion (rigid body motion or free thermal expansion) and small displacements
(springback or constraint thermal expansion) may need to check absolute value at some stage of the
analysis, as shown in the table below. However, it is also difficult to determine when to check the
absolute value and how small the absolute criterion value should be. In order to improve the robustness
of an FE analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to use the AUTOSW option specified
on the NLSTRAT card to switch the convergence check scheme automatically if the above mentioned
situation occurs during the analysis. Using the AUTOSW option allows MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
to automatically change the convergence check scheme to Procedure 4 if small reactions or
displacements are detected. This function can be deactivated by specifying an absolute value check
as before.
.

Convergence Variable
Displacement/ Residual Strain Energy
Analysis Type Rotation Force/Torque
Stress-free motion Yes No No
Springback No Yes No
Free Thermal Expansion Yes No No
Constraint Thermal Expansion No Yes Yes
Yes – relative tolerance testing works.
No – relative tolerance testing doesn’t work.

Specifying Convergence Criteria


Selection of the convergence criteria in MSC.Nastran is made through the convergence criteria
parameters on the NLPARM and NLSTRAT Bulk Data entries.

References
• NLPARM (p. 1991) in the .
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .
• For selecting the load incrementation method in MSC.Patran, see Solution Parameters (Ch. 7).
84 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Singularity Ratio
The singularity ratio, R , is a measure of the conditioning of the system of linear equations. R is related
to the conditioning number, C , which is defined as the ratio between the highest and lowest eigenvalues
in the system. The singularity ratio is an upper bound for the inverse of the matrix conditioning number.

1⁄R≤C (3-65)

C and R establish the growth of errors in the solution process. If the errors on the right-hand side of the
equation are less than E prior to the solution, the errors in the solution will be less than δ , with

δ ≤ CE (3-66)
The singularity ratio is a measure that is computed during the Crout elimination process of MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear using the direct solver. In this process, a recursive algorithm redefines the
diagonal terms
kÓ1
(k ) (k Ó 1)
Kk k Z Kk k Ó ∑ K mk K m k 1 ≤i≤kÓ1 (3-67)
m Z i

where i is a function of the matrix profile. K k k is a diagonal of the kth degree of freedom. The singularity
ratio is defined as
(k) (k Ó 1)
R Z min K k k ⁄ K k k (3-68)

(k ) (k Ó 1)
If all K k k and K k k are positive, the singularity ratio indicates loss of accuracy during the Crout
elimination process. This loss of accuracy occurs for all positive definite matrices. The number of digits
lost during the elimination process is approximately equal to

n l o s t Z Ó log 10 R (3-69)

The singularity ratio also indicates the presence of rigid body modes in the structure. In that case, the
(k )
elimination process produces zeros on the diagonal K k k ≅ 0 . Exact zeros never appear because of
numerical error; therefore, the singularity ratio is of the order

Ónd i g i t
R Z O  10  (3-70)
 

where n digit is the accuracy of floating-point numbers used in the calculation. For most versions of
(k)
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, n digit > 12 . If rigid body modes are present, K k k is very small or
negative. If either a zero or a negative diagonal is encountered, execution of MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear is terminated because the matrix is diagnosed as being singular.
CHAPTER 3 85
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

You can force the solution of a nonpositive definite or singular matrix. In this case, MSC.Nastran Implicit
(k )
Nonlinear does not stop when it encounters a negative or small term K k k on the diagonal. If you use
Lagrangian multiplier elements, the matrix becomes nonpositive definite and MSC.Nastran Implicit
(k )
Nonlinear automatically disables the test on the sign of K k k . However, it still tests for singular behavior.

MSC.Nastran SOL 600 also supports the PARAM,AUTOSPC, in which case the rigid body mechanism
is suppressed by putting a large number on the diagonal. The value of EPS on the AUTOSPC case control
is set to 1.E-8.

Note: The correctness of a solution obtained for a linearized set of equations in a nonpositive
definite system is not guaranteed.
86 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Guidelines for Analysis Methods

Analysis Methods
Nonlinear analysis is usually more complex and expensive than linear analysis. Also, a nonlinear
problem can never be formulated as a set of linear equations. In general, the solutions of nonlinear
problems always require incremental solution schemes and sometimes require iterations (or recycles)
within each load/time increment to ensure that equilibrium is satisfied at the end of each step.
Superposition cannot be applied in nonlinear problems.

General Tips
A nonlinear problem does not always have a unique solution. Sometimes a nonlinear problem does not
have any solution, although the problem can seem to be defined correctly.
• Nonlinear analysis requires good judgment and uses considerable computing time. Several runs
are often required. The first run should extract the maximum information with the minimum
amount of computing time. Some design considerations for a preliminary analysis are:
• Minimize degrees of freedom whenever possible.
• Always run a linear static analysis to check the model before attempting a nonlinear analysis.
• Impose a coarse tolerance on convergence to reduce the number of iterations. A coarse run
determines the area of most rapid change where additional load increments might be required.
Plan the increment size in the final run by the following rule of thumb: there should be as many
load increments as required to fit the nonlinear results by the same number of straight lines.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear solves nonlinear static problems according to one of the following two
methods: tangent modulus or initial strain. Examples of the tangent modulus method are elastic-plastic
analysis, nonlinear springs, nonlinear foundations, large displacement analysis and gaps. This method
requires at least the following three controls:
• A tolerance on convergence.
• A limit to the maximum allowable number of recycles.
• Specification of a minimum number of recycles.

An example of the initial strain method is creep or viscoelastic analysis. Creep analysis requires the
following tolerance controls:
• Maximum relative creep strain increment control.
• Maximum relative stress change control.
• A limit to the maximum allowable number of recycles.

Choosing a Solution Method


Which solution method to use depends very much on the problem. In some cases, one method can be
advantageous over another; in other cases, the converse might be true.
CHAPTER 3 87
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

The four iterative procedures available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are: Newton-Raphson,
Modified Newton-Raphson, Newton-Raphson with strain correction modification, and a
Secant procedure.
For Static analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the Newton-Raphson method as the default for
solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations. The motivation for this choice is primarily the convergence
rate obtained by using Newton’s method compared to the convergence rates obtained by alternate
methods (modified Newton or quasi-Newton methods) for the types of nonlinear problems most often
studied by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

Time Steps or Load Increments


The issue of choosing suitable time steps is a difficult problem to resolve. First of all, considerations are
quite different in static, dynamic, and heat transfer cases. It is always necessary to model the response as
a function of time to some acceptable level of accuracy. In the case of dynamic or heat transfer problems,
time is a physical dimension for the problem, and the time-stepping scheme must provide suitable steps
to allow accurate modeling in this dimension. Even if the problem is linear, this accuracy requirement
imposes restrictions on the choice of the time step. In contrast, most static problems have no imposed
time scale, and the only criterion involved in time step choice is accuracy involved in modeling nonlinear
effects. In dynamic and heat transfer problems, it is exceptional to encounter discontinuities in the time
history, because inertia and viscous effects provide smoothing in the solution (an exception is impact).
However, in static cases, sharp discontinuities (such as bifurcation caused by buckling) are common.
Softening systems or unconstrained systems require special attention in static cases, but are handled
naturally in static or heat transfer cases. Thus, the consideration upon which time step choice is made are
quite different for the three problem classes.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear provides both fixed and automatic time step choice. Fixed time
stepping is useful in cases where the problem behavior is well understood (as might occur when the user
is carrying out a series of parameter studies), or in cases where the automatic algorithms do not handle
the problem well. However, the automatic schemes in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are based on
extensive experience with a wide range of problems, and therefore generally provide a reliable approach.
A fixed-time stepping approach avoids some convergence problems with AUTO LOAD particularly for
multiple subcases. AUTO LOAD is still available but the new approach is recommended particularly for
multiple subcases. The available methods are selected using PARAM,MARCITER,N where N is the
number of fixed time steps desired.
For static problems, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses a scheme based predominantly on the
maximum force residuals following each iteration. By comparing consecutive values of these quantities,
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear determines whether convergence is likely in a reasonable number of
iterations. If convergence is deemed unlikely, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear adjusts the load
increment; otherwise MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear continues with the iteration process. In this way,
excessive iteration is eliminated in cases, where convergence is unlikely, and an increment that appears
to be converging is not aborted due to its needing a few more iterations. One other ingredient in this
algorithm is that a minimum increment size is specified. This prevents excessive computation in cases
88 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where buckling, limit load, or some modeling error causes the problem to stall. Other controls are built
into the algorithm, for example, it will cut back the increment size if an element inverts due to excessively
large geometry changes.

Nonlinear Dynamics
In dynamic analysis when implicit integration is used, the automatic time stepping is based on the
concept of half-step residuals. The basic idea is that the time-stepping operator defines the velocities and
accelerations at the end of the step in terms of displacement at the end of the step and conditions at the
beginning of the step. Equilibrium is then established at the end of the step. This, then ensures an
equilibrium solution at the end of each time step, and thus, at the beginning and end of any individual
time step. However, these equilibrium solutions do not guarantee equilibrium throughout the step. The
time-step control is based on measuring the equilibrium error (the force residuals) at some point during
the time step, by using the integrator operator together with the solution obtained at the end of the step,
to interpolate within a time step. This evaluation is performed at the half step. If the maximum entry in
this residual vector (the maximum “half step” residual) is greater than a user-specified tolerance, the time
step is considered too big and is replaced by an appropriate factor. If the maximum half-step residual is
sufficiently below the user-specified tolerance, the time step may be increased by an appropriate factor
for the next increment. Otherwise, the time step is deemed adequate.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is designed to analyze structural components, by which is meant that
the overall dynamic response of a structure is sought, in contrast to wave propagation solutions associated
with relatively local response in continua. These are labelled “inertial problems”, classified as problems
in which “wave effects such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction are not important.” Structural
problems are considered “inertial” because the response time sought is long compared to the time
required for waves to traverse the structure. The equilibrium considerations are similar to those for
nonlinear statics.

Buckling
In problems which are linear until buckling occurs, due to a sudden development of nonlinearity, it is
sometimes necessary for you to guide the arc-length algorithm by making sure that the arc length remains
sufficiently small prior to the occurrence of buckling.

Efficiency
Even if a solution is obtainable, there is always the issue of efficiency. The pros and cons of each solution
procedure, in terms of matrix operations and storage requirements have been discussed in the previous
sections. A very important variable regarding overall efficiency is the size of the problem. The time
required to assemble a stiffness matrix, as well as the time required to recover stresses after a solution,
vary roughly linearly with the number of degrees of freedom of the problem. On the other hand, the time
required to go through the solver when using the direct method varies roughly quadratically with the
bandwidth, as well as linearly with the number of degrees of freedom.
CHAPTER 3 89
Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

In small problems, where the time spent in the solver is negligible, you can easily wipe out any solver
gains, or even of assembly gains, with solution procedures such as a line search which requires a
double stress recovery. Also, for problems with strong material or contact nonlinearities, gains
obtained in assembly in modified Newton-Raphson can be nullified by increased number of iterations
or nonconvergence.

References
1. Zienkiewicz, O. C. and R. L. Taylor. The Finite Element Method (4th ed.) Vol. 1. Basic
Formulation and Linear Problems (1989),) Vol. 2. Solid and Fluid Mechanics, Dynamics, and
Nonlinearity (1991) McGraw-Hill Book Co., London, U. K.
2. Bathe, K. J. Finite Element Procedures, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.
3. Hughes, T. J. R. The Finite Element Method–Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1987.
4. Ogden, R. W. “Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity: On The Correlation of Theory and
Experiment for Incompressible Rubberlike Solids,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. A
(326), pp. 565-584, 1972.
5. Cook, R. D., D. S. Malkus, and M. E. Plesha, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element
Analysis (3rd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1989.
6. Bathe, K. J. Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996.
7. Riks, E. “An incremental approach to the solution of solution and buckling problems”, Int. J. of
Solids and Structures, V. 15, 1979.
8. Riks, E. “Some Computational Aspects of the Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Structures”, Comp.
Methods in Appl. Mech. and Eng., 47, 1984.
9. Crisfield, M. A. “A fast incremental iterative procedure that handles snapthrough”, Comput. &
Structures, V. 13, 1981.
10. Ramm, E. “Strategies for tracing the nonlinear response near limit points,” in K. J. Bathe et al
(eds), Europe-US Workshop on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis in Structural Mechanics,
Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp/ 63-89. Berlin, 1985.
90 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 4: Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

4 Nonlinearity and Analysis Types


Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 92

Nonlinear Effects and Formulations 93
 Overview of Analysis Types 116

Static Analysis 118

Body Approach 120
 Buckling Analysis 121

Normal Modes 124

Transient Dynamic Analysis 132
 Creep 140
92 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Linear and Nonlinear Analysis


In a linear static analysis we implicitly assume that the deflections and strains are very small and the
stresses are smaller than the material yield stresses. Consequently, the stiffness can be considered to
remain constant (i.e., independent of the displacements and forces) and the finite element equilibrium
equations
P Z Ku
are linear. Where the stiffness matrix K is independent of both u , the generalized displacement vector,
and P , the generalized force vector. This linearity implies that any increase or decrease in the load will
produce proportional increase or decrease in displacements, strains and stresses. Linear static problems
are solved in one step-a single decomposition of the stiffness matrix.
However, we know that in many structures the deflections and the stresses do not change proportionately
with the loads. In these problems the structure’s response depends upon its current state and the
equilibrium equations reflect the fact that the stiffness of the structure is dependent on both u and P .

P Z K ( P, u )u
As the structure displaces due to loading, the stiffness changes, and as the stiffness changes the structure’s
response changes. As a result, nonlinear problems require incremental solution schemes that divide the
problem up into steps calculating the displacement, then updating the stiffness. Each step uses the results
from the previous step as a starting point. As a result the stiffness matrix must be generated and inverted
many times during the analysis adding time and costs to the analysis.

Linear Analysis
SOL 600 allows you to perform linear elastic analysis using any element type in the program. Various
kinematic constraints and loadings can be prescribed to the structure being analyzed; the problem can
include both isotropic and anisotropic elastic materials.
The principle of superposition holds under conditions of linearity. Therefore, several individual solutions
can be superimposed (summed) to obtain a total solution to a problem.
Linear analysis does not require storing as many quantities as does nonlinear analysis; therefore, it uses
the core memory more sparingly. The assembled and decomposed stiffness matrices can be reused to
arrive at repeated solutions for different loads.

Nonlinear Analysis
Nonlinear analysis, while most complex and expensive, must be used to establish accurate results when
a structure is subject to large deformations, when the material behavior falls outside of a linear elastic
model, or where the structural interactions include contact.
In nonlinear analysis the stiffness matrix is assembled and decomposed repeatedly throughout the
incrementation process. This adds considerable time and cost to the analysis. In addition, because the
response is not proportional to the loads, each load case must be solved separately and the principle of
superposition is not applicable.
CHAPTER 4 93
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Nonlinear Effects and Formulations


There are three sources of nonlinearity: material, geometric, and nonlinear boundary conditions.
Material nonlinearity results from the nonlinear relationship between stresses and strains. Considerable
progress has been made in attempts to derive the continuum or macroscopic behavior of materials from
microscopic backgrounds, but, up to now, commonly accepted constitutive laws are phenomenological.
Difficulty in obtaining experimental data is usually a stumbling block in mathematical modeling of
material behavior. A plethora of models exist for more commonly available materials like elastomers and
metals. Other material model of considerable practical importance are: composites, viscoplastics, creep,
soils, concrete, powder, and foams. Figure 4-1 shows the elastoplastic, elasto-viscoplasticity, and creep.
Although the situation of strain hardening is more commonly encountered, strain softening and
localization has gained considerable importance in recent times.
Geometric nonlinearity results from the nonlinear relationship between strains and displacements on the
one hand and the nonlinear relation between stresses and forces on the other hand. If the stress measure
is conjugate to the strain measure, both sources of nonlinearity have the same form. This type of
nonlinearity is mathematically well defined, but often difficult to treat numerically. Two important types
of geometric nonlinearity occur:
1. The analysis of buckling and snap-through problems (see Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3).
2. Large strain problems such as manufacturing, crash, and impact problems. In such problems, due
to large strain kinematics, the mathematical separation into geometric and material nonlinearity
is nonunique.
σ
σ

ε ε
Elasto-Plastic Behavior Elasto-Viscoplastic Behavior

εc

Creep Behavior t

Figure 4-1 Material Nonlinearity


94 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

P Linear

P
Stable
u
Pc Neutral

Unstable

Figure 4-2 Buckling

Figure 4-3 Snap-Through


Boundary conditions and/or loads can also cause nonlinearity. Contact and friction problems lead to
nonlinear boundary conditions. This type of nonlinearity manifests itself in several real life situations;
for example, metal forming, gears, interference of mechanical components, pneumatic tire contact, and
crash (see Figure 4-4). Loads on a structure cause nonlinearity if they vary with the displacements of the
structure. These loads can be conservative, as in the case of a centrifugal force field (see Figure 4-5); they
can also be nonconservative, as in the case of a follower force on a cantilever beam (see Figure 4-6). Also,
such a follower force can be locally nonconservative, but represent a conservative loading system when
integrated over the structure. A pressurized cylinder (see Figure 4-7) is an example of this.

Figure 4-4 Contact and Friction Problem


CHAPTER 4 95
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Figure 4-5 Centrifugal Load Problem (Conservative)

Figure 4-6 Follower Force Problem (Nonconservative)

Figure 4-7 Pressurized Cylinder (Globally Conservative)

The three types of nonlinearities are described in detail in the following sections.
96 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Geometric Nonlinearities
Geometric nonlinearity leads to two types of phenomena: change in structural behavior and loss of
structural stability.
There are two natural classes of large deformation problems: the large displacement, small strain problem
and the large displacement, large strain problem. For the large displacement, small strain problem,
changes in the stress-strain law can be neglected, but the contributions from the nonlinear terms in the
strain displacement relations cannot be neglected. For the large displacement, large strain problem, the
constitutive relation must be defined in the correct frame of reference and is transformed from this frame
of reference to the one in which the equilibrium equations are written.
The collapse load of a structure can be predicted by performing an eigenvalue analysis. If performed after
the linear solution (increment zero), the Euler buckling estimate is obtained. An eigenvalue problem can
be formulated after each increment of load; this procedure can be considered a nonlinear buckling
analysis even though a linearized eigenvalue analysis is used at each stage.
The kinematics of deformation can be described by the following approaches:
• Lagrangian Formulation
• Eularian Formulation

The choice of one over another can be dictated by the convenience of modeling physics of the problem,
rezoning requirements, and integration of constitutive equations, and can be specified using
PARAM,MARUPDAT.

Lagrangian Formulation
In the Lagrangian method, the finite element mesh is attached to the material and moves through space
along with the material. In this case, there is no difficulty in establishing stress or strain histories at a
particular material point and the treatment of free surfaces is natural and straightforward.
The Lagrangian approach also naturally describes the deformation of structural elements; that is, shells
and beams, and transient problems, such as the indentation problem shown in Figure 4-8.

sz

∆u

Figure 4-8 Indentation Problem with Pressure Distribution on Tool


CHAPTER 4 97
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

This method can also analyze steady-state processes such as extrusion and rolling. Shortcomings of the
Lagrangian method are that flow problems are difficult to model and that the mesh distortion is as severe
as the deformation of the object. Severe mesh degeneration is shown in Figure 4-9b. However, recent
advances in adaptive meshing and rezoning available in MSC.Marc have alleviated the problems of
premature termination of the analysis due to mesh distortions as shown in Figure 4-9c.

(a) Original (b) Deformed Mesh


(Undeformed Mesh) Before Rezoning

(c) Deformed Mesh


After Rezoning
Figure 4-9 Rezoning Example

The Lagrangian approach can be classified in two categories: the total Lagrangian method and the
updated Lagrangian method. In the total Lagrangian approach, the equilibrium is expressed with the
original undeformed state as the reference; in the updated Lagrangian approach, the current
configuration acts as the reference state. The kinematics of deformation and the description of motion is
given in Table 4-1 and Figure 4-10.

Table 4-1 Kinematics and Stress-Strain Measures in Large Deformation


Configuration Measures Reference (t = 0 or n) Current (t = n + 1)
Coordinates X x
Deformation Tensor C (Right Cauchy-Green) b (Left Cauchy-Green)
Strain Measure E (Green-Lagrange) e (Logarithmic)
F (Deformation Gradient)
Stress Measure S (second Piola-Kirchhoff) σ (Cauchy)
P (first Piola-Kirchhoff)
98 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Previous f

t=n
∆u
Current

t=n+1

Fn

un + 1
un
F

Reference

t=0

Fn+1 = Fn

Figure 4-10 Description of Motion

Total Lagrangian Procedure


The total Lagrangian procedure can be used for linear or nonlinear materials, in conjunction with static
or dynamic analysis. Although this formulation is based on the initial element geometry, the incremental
stiffness matrices are formed to account for previously developed stress and changes in geometry.
This method is particularly suitable for the analysis of nonlinear elastic problems (for instance, with the
Mooney or Ogden material model). The total Lagrangian approach is also useful for problems in
plasticity and creep, where moderately large rotations but small strains occur. A case typical in problems
of beam or shell bending. However, this is only due to the approximations involved.
In the total Lagrangian approach, the equilibrium can be expressed by the principle of virtual work as:

0 0
∫ S i j δE i j dV Z ∫ b i δη i dV H ∫ t i δη i dA (4-1)
V V A
0 0 0

0
Here S i j is the symmetric second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, E i j , is the Green-Lagrange strain, b i is
0
the body force in the reference configuration, t i is the traction vector in the reference configuration, and
η i is the virtual displacements. Integrations are carried out in the original configuration at t Z 0 . The
strains are decomposed in total strains for equilibrated configurations and the incremental strains
between t Z n and t Z n H 1 as:

nH1 n
Ei j Z E i j H ∆E i j (4-2)
CHAPTER 4 99
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

n
while the incremental strains are further decomposed into linear, ∆E i j and nonlinear, ∆E i j parts as:

n
∆E i j Z ∆Ei j H ∆E i j

where ∆E is the linear part of the incremental strain expressed as:

n
1 ∂∆u i ∂∆u j 1  ∂u k   ∂∆u k
∆E Z JJ
J JJ
J
JJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJ H  J JJJJJJJJJJJJJ
JJJJJJJJ (4-3)
2 ∂X j ∂X i 2  ∂X i  ∂X j 

n
The second term in the bracket in Equation (4-3) is the initial displacement effect. ∆E is the nonlinear
part of the incremental strain expressed as:

n 1 
∂∆u k ∂∆u k
    ∂u kn   ∂∆u k
∆E Z JJ
J JJJJJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJJJ
J H  JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ (4-4)
2  ∂X i   ∂X j   ∂X j  ∂X i 

Linearization of equilibrium of Equation (4-1) yields:

{ K 0 H K 1 H K 2 }δu Z F Ó R (4-5)

where K 0 is the small displacement stiffness matrix defined as

0 0
( K 0 )i j Z ∫ βi m n D mn p q βp q j dV
V
0

K 1 is the initial displacement stiffness matrix defined as


u u u 0 u u
( K 1 )i j Z ∫ { βi mn D mn p q βp q j H βi mn D mn p q βp qj H βi mn D m n p q βp q j } dV
V
0

0 u
in the above equations, βi m n and βi m n are the constant and displacement dependent symmetric shape
function gradient matrices, respectively, and D m n p q is the material tangent,

and K 2 is the initial stress stiffness matrix

( K 2 )i j Z ∫ N i, k N j, l S k l dV
V0

in which S k l is the second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and N i, k is the shape function gradient matrix.
100 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Also, δu is the correction displacement vector. F and R are the external and internal
forces, respectively.
This Lagrangian formulation can be applied to problems if the undeformed configuration is known so
that integrals can be evaluated, and if the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress is a known function of the strain.
The first condition is not usually met for fluids, because the deformation history is usually unknown. For
solids, however, each analysis usually starts in the stress-free undeformed state, and the integrations can
be carried out without any difficulty.
For viscoelastic fluids and elastic-plastic and viscoplastic solids, the constitutive equations usually
supply an expression for the rate of stress in terms of deformation rate, stress, deformation, and
sometimes other (internal) material parameters. The relevant quantity for the constitutive equations is the
rate of stress at a given material point.
It, therefore, seems most obvious to differentiate the Lagrangian virtual work equation with respect to
time. The rate of virtual work is readily found as

ˇ ∂v k ∂δη k ˇ ˇ
∫ S i j δE i j H S i j JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ dV Z ∫ b i δη i dV H ∫ t i δη i dA (4-6)
∂X i ∂X j
V V A
0 0 0

This formulation is adequate for most materials, because the rate of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress can
be written as
ˇ ˇ ˇ
S i j Z S i j ( E k l, S m n, E p q ) (4-7)

For many materials, the stress rate is even a linear function of the strain rate
ˇ ˇ
S i j Z D i jk l ( S mn, E p q )E k l (4-8)

Equation (4-6) supplies a set of linear relations in terms of the velocity field. The velocity field can be
solved noniteratively and the displacement can be obtained by time integration of the velocities.
The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress for elastic and hyperelastic materials is a function of the Green-
Lagrange strain defined below:

Si j Z Si j ( Ek l ) (4-9)

If the stress is a linear function of the strain (linear elasticity)

S i j Z D i jk l E k l (4-10)

the resulting set of equations is still nonlinear because the strain is a nonlinear function of displacement.
CHAPTER 4 101
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Updated Lagrangian Procedure


The updated Lagrange formulation takes the reference configuration at t Z n H 1 . True or Cauchy
stress and an energetically conjugate strain measure, namely the true strain, are used in the constitutive
relationship.
The updated Lagrangian approach is useful in:
• analysis of shell and beam structures in which rotations are large so that the nonlinear terms in
the curvature expressions may no longer be neglected, and
• large strain plasticity analysis, for calculations which the plastic deformations cannot be
assumed to be infinitesimal.
In general, this approach can be used to analyze structures where inelastic behavior (for example,
plasticity, viscoplasticity, or creep) causes the large deformations. The (initial) Lagrangian coordinate
frame has little physical significance in these analyses since the inelastic deformations are, by definition,
permanent. For these analyses, the Lagrangian frame of reference is redefined at the last completed
iteration of the current increment.
It is instructive to derive the stiffness matrices for the updated Lagrangian formulation starting from the
virtual work principle in Equation (4-9).
Direct linearization of the left-hand side of Equation (4-9) yields:

∫ S i j ( d( δE i j ) ) dV Z ∫ ∇η i k σ k j ∇∆u i j dv (4-11)
V0 Vn H 1

where ∆u and η are actual incremental and virtual displacements respectively, and σkj is Cauchy stress
tensor.

s s
∫ dS i j δE i j dV Z ∫ ∇ η i j L i jk l ∇ ( ∆u k l ) dv (4-12)
V0 Vn H 1

s
∇ denotes the symmetric part of ∇ , which represents the gradient operator in the current configuration.
Also, in Equation (4-11) and Equation (4-12), three identities are used:
102 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1
σ i j Z JJJ F i m S mn F jn
J

s
δE i j Z F mi ∇ η mn F n j

and

1
L i jk l Z JJJ F i m F jn F k p F l q D m n p q
J (4-13)
in which D m n p q represents the material moduli tensor in the reference configuration which is convected
to the current configuration, L i jk . This yields:

{ K 1 H K 2 }δu Z F Ó R (4-14)

where K 1 is the material stiffness matrix written as

( K1 )i j Z ∫ β i m n L m n p q βp q j
Vn H 1

in which βi m n is the symmetric gradient operator-evaluated in the current configuration and σ k l is the
Cauchy stresses

and K 2 is the geometric stiffness matrix written as

( K2 )i j Z ∫ σ k l N i, k N j, l dv
Vn H 1

while F and R are the external and internal forces, respectively.

Keeping in view that the reference state is the current state, a rate formulation analogous to Equation (4-6)
can be obtained by setting:

∂ ∂
F i j Z δ i j, δE i j Z δd i j, JJJJJJJJJ Z JJJJJJJJ, Si j Z σi j (4-15)
∂X i ∂x i

where F is the deformation tensor, and d is the rate of deformation. Hence,

∂v k ∂δη k ˇ
tˇi δη i da

σ i j δd i j H σ i j JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ dv Z
∫ ∂x i ∂x j ∫ b i δη i dv H ∫ (4-16)
Vn H 1 Vn H 1 An H 1
CHAPTER 4 103
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

in which b i and t i is the body force and surface traction, respectively, in the current configuration


In this equation, σ i j is the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress which is essentially a Lie derivative of Cauchy

stress obtained as:

ˇ
∇ Ó1 Ó1
σi j Z F i n ( JF n k σ k l F ml ) F m j (4-17)

The Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress is materially objective implying that if a rigid rotation is imposed on
the material, the Truesdell rate vanishes, whereas the usual material rate does not vanish. This fact has
important consequences in the large deformation problems where large rotations are involved. The
constitutive equations can be formulated in terms of the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress as:


σ i j Z L i jk d k

Specifying the Geometric Nonlinearity Formulation


Selection of the geometric nonlinearity formulation in MSC.Nastran is made on the MARUPDAT
parameter entry.

References
• MARUPDAT(p. 723) in the .
• For selecting the geometric nonlinearity formulation in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters
(Chapter 7).

Note: Depending on the type of analysis specified by all entries in the input deck,
PARAMETER,MARUPDAT will be specified automatically as -1 or 1 unless entered by
the user.

More on Using Total Lagrangian


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will normally determine whether Total Lagrangian or Updated
Lagrangian is best for a particular problem. If you wish to exert more control, the parameters discussed
in this section and the next may be employed.
For problems (such as centrifugal or pressure load) that require follower forces, use the LGDISP
parameter. This parameter forms all distributed loads on the basis of the current geometry.
• LGDISP(p. 682) in the .
104 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Note: Do not use MSC.Marc’s CENTROID parameter with this parameter. Always use residual
load corrections with this parameter. To input control tolerances for large displacement
analysis, use model definition option NLSTRAT.

Using only the LGSTRN, 2 parameter, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the total Lagrangian
method. When the total Lagrangian method is specified, the program uses and prints second Piola-
Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. These measures are suitable for analysis with large
incremental rotations and large incremental strains.

More on Using Updated Lagrangian


You can use the updated procedure with or without MSC.Nastran’s LGDISP parameter. When you use
the LGDISP parameter, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear takes into account the effect of the internal
stresses by forming the initial stress stiffness. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear also calculates the strain
increment to second order accuracy to allow large rotation increments.
Another option is to use the MARUPDAT parameter (with or without the LGDISP parameter) to define
a new (Lagrangian) frame of reference at the beginning of each increment. This option is suitable for
analysis of problems of large total rotation but small strain. If analysis of large plastic strain is required,
use PARAM,MRFINITE,1 in addition to the PARAM, MARUPDAT parameter in which case
MSC.Nastran Implicit
With MARUPDAT,1 MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses Cauchy stresses and true strains. This
combination of parameters is suitable for analyses with small incremental rotations and small
incremental strains. Stress and strain components are printed with respect to the current state.
The MSC.Marc plasticity parameter with options 3 or 5 utilize the updated Lagrange procedure for
elastic-plastic analysis. The MSC.Marc,elasticity parameter with option 2 utilizes the updated Lagrange
procedure for large strain elasticity (Mooney or Ogden).
The combination of PARAM,MARUPDAT,1 and PARAM,MARCDILT (i.e., with constant dilatation) or
a MATEP material entry results in a complete large strain plasticity formulation (with B-Bar method) to
satisfy incompatibility using the updated Lagrange procedure. The use of MATEP replaces the need of
the MARCDILT parameter. The program internally uses true (Cauchy) stress and rotation neutralized
strains. In the case of proportional straining, this method leads to logarithmic strains.

Note: For materials exhibiting large strain plasticity with volumetric changes (for example, soils,
powder, snow, wood) only MSC.Marc’s LARGE DISP, FINITE and UPDATE should be
used (these are created automatically for you by the internal MSC.Marc translator in
MSC.Nastran). Use of MARCDILT parameter or MATEP will enforce the
incompressibility condition and, in such materials, yield incorrect and nonphysical
behavior.
CHAPTER 4 105
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Large strain rubber elasticity can be modeled in either total Lagrange MSC.Nastran’s
PARAM,MARCUPDAT,1: second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, Green Lagrange strain or updated Lagrange
PARAM,MARCELAS,2: Cauchy stress, Logarithmic strain framework.

Options Kinematics Formulation


param,marcplas,1 Total Lagrange Small strain, mean normal, additive decomposition of
strain rates.
param,marcplas,3 Updated Lagrange Large strain, mean normal, additive decomposition of
strain rates.
default
param,marcplas,5 Updated Lagrange Large strain, radial return multiplicative decomposition of
deformation gradient.
param,marcelas,1 Total Lagrange Large strain.
param,marcelas,2 Updated Lagrange Large strain.

Theoretically and numerically, if formulated mathematically correct, the two formulations yield exactly
the same results. However, integration of constitutive equations for certain types of material behavior
(for example, plasticity) make the implementation of the total Lagrange formulation inconvenient. If the
constitutive equations are convected back to the original configuration and proper transformations are
applied, then both formulations are equivalent.
106 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Material Nonlinearities
In a large strain analysis, it is usually difficult to separate the kinematics from the material description.
The following table lists the characteristics of some common materials.

Material Characteristics Examples Models


Composites Anisotropic: Bearings, aircraft Composite
panels continuum elements
1) layered, ds i j Z C i j k dε k
21 constants Tires, glass/epoxy Rebars

2)Fiber reinforced,
E t
S Z JJJ ( T CT Ó 1 )
2
one-dimensional strain in fibers
Creep Strains increasing with time under Metals at high ORNL
constant load. temperatures, Norton
Stresses decreasing with time under polymide films Maxwell
constant deformations.
Creep strains are non-instantaneous.
Elastic Stress functions of instantaneous strain Small deformation
only. Linear load-displacement (below yield) for
relation. most materials: Hookes Law
metals, glass, wood
Elasto- Yield condition flow rule and Metals von Mises Isotropic
plasticity hardening rule necessary to calculate Soils Cam -Clay
stress, plastic strain. Permanent Hill’s Anisotropic
deformation upon unloading.
Hyperelastic Stress function of instantaneous strain. Rubber Mooney
Nonlinear load-displacement relation. Ogden
Unloading path same as loading. Arruda Boyce
Gent
Foam
Hypoelastic Rate form of stress-strain law Concrete NLELAST
Viscoelastic Time dependence of stresses in elastic Rubber Simo Model
material under loads. Full recovery Glass Narayanaswamy
after unloading.
Viscoplastic Combined plasticity and creep Metals Power law
phenomenon Powder Shima Model

A complete description of the material types mentioned in the table is given in Materials (Chapter 10).
However, some notable characteristics and procedural considerations of some commonly encountered
materials behavior are listed next.
CHAPTER 4 107
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Inaccuracies in experimental data, misinterpretation of material model parameters and errors in user-
defined material law are some common sources of error in the analysis from the materials viewpoint. It
is useful to check the material behavior by running a small model with prescribed displacement and load
boundary conditions in uniaxial tension and shear (single element tests are not recommended).

Elasticity
Structures composed of elastomers, such as tires and bushings, are typically subjected to large
deformation and large strain. An elastomer is a polymer, such as rubber, which shows a nonlinear elastic
stress-strain behavior. The large strain elasticity capability in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear deals
primarily with elastomeric materials. These materials are characterized by the form of their elastic strain
energy function.
For the finite element analysis of elastomers, there are some special considerations that do not apply for
linear elastic analysis. These considerations include:
• Mesh Distortion
• Incompressible Behavior
• Instabilities
• Existence of Multiple Solutions

Mesh Distortions
When extremely large deformations occur, the element mesh should be designed so that it can follow
these deformations without complete degeneration of elements. This problem is more prevalent when the
updated Lagrange procedure is used. For problems involving extreme distortions, the MSC.Marc global
adaptive remeshing capability should be used.

Incompressible Behavior
One of the most frequent causes of problems analyzing elastomers is the incompressible material
behavior. Lagrangian multipliers (pressure variables) are used to apply the incompressibility constraint.
The result is that the volume is kept constant in a generalized sense, over an element.
Both the total, as well as updated Lagrange formulations, are implemented with appropriate constraint
ratios for lower- and higher-order elements in 2D and 3D. For many practical analysis, the LBB
(Ladyszhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi) condition does not have to be satisfied in the strictest sense; for
example, four node quadrilateral based on Herrmann principle.
For elements that satisfy the LBB condition, error estimates of the following form can be established
h h mi n { k, H 1 }
u Óu 1 H p Óp 0 Z O( h ) (4-18)

where k and are the orders of displacements and pressure interpolations, respectively. If
K Z m in { k, H 1 } , the rate of convergence is said to be optimal, and elements satisfying the LBB
condition will not lock.
108 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The large strain elasticity formulation may also be used with conventional plane stress, membrane, and
shell elements. Because of the plane stress conditions, the incompressibility constraint can be satisfied
without the use of Lagrange multipliers.

Instabilities
Under some circumstances, materials can become unstable. This instability can be real or can be due to
the mathematical formulation used in the calculations.
Instability can also result from the approximate satisfaction of incompressibility constraints. If the
number of Lagrangian multipliers is insufficient, local volume changes can occur. Under some
circumstances, these volume changes can be associated with a decrease in total energy. This type of
instability usually occurs only if there is a large tensile hydrostatic stress. Similarly, overconstraints give
rise to mesh locking and inordinate increase in total energy under large compressive stresses.

Existence of Multiple Solutions


It is possible that more than one stable solution exists (due to nonlinearity) for a given set of boundary
conditions. An example of such multiple solutions is a hollow hemisphere with zero prescribed loads.
Two equilibrium solutions exist: the undeformed stress-free state and the inverted self-equilibrating state.
An example of these solutions is shown in Figure 4-11 and Figure 4-12. If the equilibrium solution remains
stable, no problems should occur; however, if the equilibrium becomes unstable at some point in the
analysis, problems can occur.

Figure 4-11 Rubber Hemisphere


CHAPTER 4 109
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Figure 4-12 Inverted Rubber Hemisphere

When incompressible material is being modeled, the basic linearized incremental procedure is used in
conjunction with mixed variational principles similar in form to the Herrmann incompressible elastic
formulation. These formulations are incorporated in plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional
elements. These mixed elements may be used in combination with other elements in the library (suitable
constraint equations may be necessary) and with each other. Where different materials are joined, the
pressure variable at the corner nodes must be uncoupled to allow for mean pressure discontinuity. MPC’s
must be used to couple the displacements only.

Plasticity
In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the analysis of metal forming problems by the
finite element method. Although an Eularian flow-type approach has been used for steady-state and
transient problems, the updated Lagrangian procedure, pioneered by McMeeking and Rice, is most
suitable for analysis of large strain plasticity problems. The main reasons for this are: (a) its ability to
trace free boundaries, and (b) the flexibility of taking elasticity and history effects into account. Also,
residual stresses can be accurately calculated.
The large strain plasticity capability in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to analyze problems
of large-strain, elastic-plastic material behavior. These problems can include manufacturing processes
such as forging, upsetting, extension or deep drawing, and/or large deformation of structures that occur
during plastic collapse. The analysis involves both material, geometric and boundary nonlinearities.
In addition to the options required for plasticity analysis, the PARAM,LGSTRN and/or PARAM,
MRTABLS1 parameters are needed for large strain plasticity analysis.
110 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

In performing finite deformation elastic-plastic analysis, there are some special considerations which do
not apply for linear elastic analysis. These considerations include:
• Choice of Finite Element Types
• Nearly Incompressible Behavior
• Treatment of Boundary Conditions
• Severe Mesh Distortion
• Instabilities

Choice of Finite Element Types


Accurate calculation of large strain plasticity problems depends on the selection of adequate finite
element types. In addition to the usual criteria for selection, two aspects need to be given special
consideration: the element types selected need to be insensitive to (strong) distortion; for plane strain,
axisymmetric, and three-dimensional problems, the element mesh must be able to represent
nondilatational (incompressible) deformation modes.

Nearly Incompressible Behavior


Most finite element types tend to lock during fully plastic (incompressible) material behavior. A remedy
is to introduce a modified variational principle which effectively reduces the number of independent
dilatational modes (constraints) in the mesh. This procedure is successful for plasticity problems in the
conventional “small” strain formulation. Zienkiewicz pointed out the positive effect of reduced
integration for this type of problem and demonstrates the similarity between modified variational
procedures and reduced integration. MSC.Software Corporation recommends the use of lower-order
elements, invoking the constant dilatation option with certain exceptions such as 4-node tetras. The
lower-order elements, which use reduced integration and hourglass control, also behave well for nearly
incompressible materials.

Treatment of Boundary Conditions


In many large strain plasticity problems, specifically in the analysis of manufacturing processes, the
material slides with or without friction over curved surfaces. This results in a severely nonlinear
boundary condition. The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear CONTACT option can model such sliding
boundary conditions.

Severe Mesh Distortion


Because the mesh is attached to the deforming material, severe distortion of the element mesh often
occurs, which leads to a degeneration of the results in many problems. To avoid this degeneration,
generate a new finite element mesh for the problem and then transfer the current deformation state to the
new finite element mesh.
CHAPTER 4 111
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Instabilities
Elastic-plastic structures are sometimes unstable due to necking phenomena. Consider a rod of a rigid-
ˇ
plastic incompressible workhardening material. With ε the current true uniaxial strain rate and H the
ˇ
current workhardening, the rate of true uniaxial stress σ is equal to
ˇ ˇ
σ Z Hε (4-19)

The applied force is equal to F Z σA , where A is the current area of the rod. The rate of the force is
therefore equal to
ˇ ˇ ˇ
F Z σA H σA (4-20)
On the other hand, conservation of volume requires that
ˇ ˇ
Aε H A Z 0 (4-21)
Hence, the force rate can be calculated as
ˇ ˇ
F Z ( H Ó σ )Aε (4-22)

Instability clearly occurs if σ > H . For applied loads (as opposed to applied boundary conditions), the
stiffness matrix becomes singular (nonpositive definite).
For the large strain plasticity option, the workhardening slope for plasticity is the rate of true (Cauchy)
stress versus the true (logarithmic) plastic strain rate. The workhardening curve must, therefore, be
entered as the true stress versus the logarithmic plastic strain in a uniaxial tension test.

Computational Procedures for Elastic-Plastic Analysis


For more information on computational procedures, please see the MSC.Marc Reference manual.

Creep
Creep is a time-dependent inelastic behavior that can occur at any stress level, either below or above the
yield stress of a material. Creep is an important factor at elevated temperatures. In many cases, creep is
also accompanied by plasticity, which occurs above the yield stress of the material.
Conventional creep behavior is based on a von Mises creep potential with isotropic behavior described
by the equivalent creep law:
ˇ cr cr
ε Z f ( σ Iε IT It )
112 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The material behavior is therefore described by:

cr ˇ c r ∂σ
∆ε Z ε JJJJJJJJ ∆t

∂σ

∂σ ˇ cr
where JJJJJJJJ is the outward normal to the current von Mises stress surface and ε is the equivalent creep

∂σ
strain rate.
There are two numerical procedures used in implementing creep behavior. The default is an explicit
procedure in which the above relationship is implemented in the program by an initial strain technique.
In other words, a pseudo-load vector due to the creep strain increment is added to the right-hand side of
the stiffness equation.

T cr
K∆u Z ∆P H ∫β D∆ε dv
V

where K is the stiffness matrix, and ∆u and ∆P are incremental displacement and incremental nodal
force vectors, respectively. The integral:

T cr
∫β D∆ε dv
V

is the pseudo-load vector due to the creep strain increment in which β is the strain displacement relation
and D is the stress-strain relation. When plasticity is also specified through a suitably defined yield
criterion and yield stress inMSC.Nastran, the plasticity is treated implicitly while the creep is treated
explicitly.
As an alternative, an implicit creep procedure can be requested. In this case, the inelastic strain rate has
an influence on the stiffness matrix. Using this technique, significantly larger steps in strain space can be
used. This option is only to be used for isotropic materials with the creep strain rate defined by a creep
constant.
CHAPTER 4 113
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Creep Buckling
MSC.Nastran also predicts the creep time to buckling due to stress redistribution under given load or
repeated cyclic load. The buckling option solves the following equation for the first eigenvalue

( K H λK G )φ Z 0 (4-23)

The geometric stiffness matrix, K G , is a function of the increments of stress and displacement. These
increments are calculated during the last creep time step increment. To determine the creep time to
buckle, perform a buckle step after a converged creep increment. Note that the incremental time must be
scaled by the calculated eigenvalue, and added to the total (current) time to get an estimate as to when
buckling occurs.

Viscoelasticity
In certain problems, structural materials exhibit viscoelastic behavior. Two examples of these problems
are quenching of glass and time-dependent deformation of polymeric materials. The viscoelastic
material retains linearity between load and deformation; however, this linear relationship depends on
time. Consequently, the current state of deformation must be determined from the entire history of
loading. Different models consisting of elastic elements (spring) and viscous elements (dashpot) can be
used to simulate the viscoelastic material behavior described in Materials (Chapter 10). Both the equation
of state and the hereditary integral approaches can be used for viscoelastic analysis.
A special class of temperature dependence known as the Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior (TRS)
is also applicable to a variety of thermal viscoelastic problems. To model the thermo-rheologically
simple material behavior, MATTVE can be used to choose the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation or the
power series expression or Narayanaswamy model.
In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, two options are available for small strain viscoelastic analysis. The
first option uses the equation of state approach and represents a Kelvin model. The second option is
based on the hereditary integral approach and allows the selection of a generalized Maxwell model. The
thermo-rheologically simple behavior is also available in the second option for thermal viscoelastic
analysis. The Viscoelastic (Chapter 10) discusses these models in detail.
The Simo model for large strain viscoelasticity can be used in conjunction with the damage and
hyperelastic Mooney, Ogden, Gent, or Arruda Boyce material model. The large strain viscoelastic
material behavior can be simulated by incorporating MATVE.
Nonlinear structural relaxation behavior of materials can be modeled by the Narayanaswamy model
which accounts for memory effect. This model allows simulation of evolution of physical properties of
glass subjected to complex time temperature histories. The thermal expansion behavior for the
Narayanaswamy model is controlled via the MATTVE bulk data option.

Viscoplasticity
There are two procedures in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear for viscoplastic analysis: explicit and
implicit. A brief description of each procedure follows:
114 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Explicit Method
The elasto-viscoplasticity model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is a modified creep model to which
a plastic element is added. The plastic element is inactive when the stress is less than the yield stress of
the material. You can use the elasto-viscoplasticity model to solve time-dependent plasticity and creep as
well as plasticity problems with a nonassociated flow law.
The CREEP option in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has been modified to enable solving problems
with viscoplasticity. The method is modified to allow solving elastic-plastic problems with nonassociated
flow rules which result in nonsymmetric stress-strain relations if the tangent modulus method is used.
The requirements for solving the viscoplastic problem are:
PARAM,MCREEP,1 and creep controls
Load incrementation immediately followed by a series of creep increments specified by
PARAM,MAUTCREP,1.
Use of user subroutine CRPLAW and/or user subroutine NASSOC.
The following load incrementation procedure enables you to solve a viscoplastic problem:
1. Apply an elastic load increment that exceeds the steady-state yield stress.
2. Relieve the high yield stresses by turning on PARAM,MAUTCREP,1.
You may repeat steps 1 and 2 as many times as necessary to achieve the required load history.
The viscoplastic approach converts an iterative elastic-plastic method to one where a fraction of the
initial force vector is applied at each increment with the time step controls. The success of the method
depends on the proper use of the automatic creep time step controls. This means that it is necessary to
select an initial time step that will satisfy the tolerances placed on the allowable stress change.

allowable stress change x 0.7


The initial time step ∆t =
Maximum viscoplastic strain rate x Young’s modulus

The allowable stress change is specified in the creep controls. The most highly stressed element usually
yields the maximum strain rate. It is also important to select a total time that gives sufficient number of
increments to work off the effects of the initial force vector. A total time of 30 times the estimated ∆t is
usually sufficient.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear does not distinguish between viscoplastic and creep strains. A flag is
set in the CREEP parameter in order to use the viscoplastic option with a nonassociated flow rule.
The viscoplasticity feature can be used to implement very general constitutive relations with the aid of
user subroutines ZERO and YIEL.
Since the viscoplasticity model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is a modified creep model, you
should familiarize yourself with the creep analysis procedure (see Creep, Viscoplastic, and Viscoelastic
Behavior, page 119 of this chapter).
CHAPTER 4 115
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Implicit Method
A general viscoplastic material law can be implemented through user subroutine UVSCPL. When using
this method, you are responsible for defining the inelastic strain increment and the current stress.

Nonlinear Boundary Conditions


There are three types of nonlinear boundary conditions: contact, nonlinear support, and nonlinear
loading. The contact problem is solved using the BCONTACT Case Control specification. Nonlinear
support might involve nonlinear springs and/or foundations. Sometimes nonlinearities due to rigid links
that become activated or deactivated during an analysis can be modeled through adaptive linear
constraints. Nonlinear loading is present if the loading system is nonconservative, as is the case with
follower forces or frictional slip effects.
Discontinuities are inherent in the nature of many of these nonlinearities, making the solution more
challenging. Some of the most severe nonlinearities in mechanics are introduced by nonlinear boundary
conditions. It is, therefore, very important to be aware of potential problem areas and to have a good
understanding of the underlying principles. This awareness and understanding enables you to validate
numerical answers and to take alternative approaches if an initial attempt fails.

Nonlinear Loading
When the structure is deformed, the directions and the areas of the surface loads are changed. For most
deformed structures, such changes are so small that the effect on the equilibrium equation can be ignored.
For some structures, such as flexible shell structure with large pressure loads, the effects on the results
can be quite significant so that the surface load effects have to be included in the finite element equations.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear forms both pressure stiffness and pressure terms based on current
deformed configuration with MSC.Nastran’s PARAM,LGDISP. The PARAM,MARCCENT should not
be included due to the use of the residual load correction. Point forces may also be updated with
deformation.
116 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Overview of Analysis Types


A large class of stress analysis problems can be solved with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).
A fundamental division of stress problems is into static and dynamic response, the distinction being
whether or not inertia effects are significant. SOL 600 allows complete flexibility in making this
distinction, so that the same analysis may contain several static and dynamic phases. Thus, a static
preload might be applied, and then the linear or nonlinear dynamic response computed, (as in the case of
vibrations of a component of a rotating machine, or the response of a flexible offshore system which is
initially moved to an equilibrium position subject to buoyancy and steady current loads, then is excited
by wave loading).

Static
Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations. Many problems
involve history dependent response, so that the solution is usually obtained as a series of increments, with
iteration within each increment to obtain equilibrium. For most cases, the automatic incrementation
provided by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is preferred, although direct user control is also provided
for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.
Static analysis procedures frequently involve post buckling behavior where the load-displacement
response shows a negative stiffness, and the structure must release strain energy to remain in equilibrium.

Buckling
Eigenvalue buckling estimates are obtained. Classical eigenvalue buckling analysis (e.g., “Euler”
buckling) is often used to estimate the critical (buckling) load of “stiff” structures. “Stiff” structures are
those that carry their design loads primarily by axial or membrane action, rather than by bending action.
Their response usually involves very little deformation prior to buckling, although nonlinear effects can
be accounted for by preceding the buckling calculations with a nonlinear static analysis.

Normal Modes
This solution type uses eigenvalue techniques to extract the frequencies of the current system. The
stiffness determined at the end of the previous step is used as the basis for the extraction, so that small
vibrations of a preloaded structure or nonlinearly deformed structure can be modeled.

Transient Dynamic
This solution type is used when the transient dynamic response, which includes inertial effects, is being
studied. Because all of the equations of motion of the system must be integrated through time, direct
integration methods (which can be used for both linear and nonlinear problems) are generally
significantly more expensive than modal methods (which can only be used for linear problems). For most
cases, the automatic incrementation provided is preferred, although direct user control is also provided
for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.
CHAPTER 4 117
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Creep
This analysis procedure performs a transient, static, stress/displacement analysis. It is especially
provided for the analysis of materials which are described by the MATVP material form.

Viscoelastic (Time Domain)


This is especially provided for the time domain analysis of materials which are described by the MATVE
material options. The dissipative part of the material behavior is defined through a Prony series
representation of the normalized shear and bulk relaxation moduli.

Contact
This type of problem can be solved by either nonlinear static or nonlinear transient dynamic solution
procedures and simultaneous tracks the movement of multiple geometric bodies to detect contact and
then uses appropriate boundary conditions to simulate the friction between surfaces. A robust numerical
procedure is required to simulate these complex physical problems.
118 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Static Analysis
Static stress analysis is used when inertia effects can be neglected. The problem may still have a real time
scale, for example when the material has a viscoplastic response, such as rate dependent yield. The
analysis may be linear or nonlinear. Nonlinearity may arise from large displacement effects, material
nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity (such as contact and friction).
Linear static analysis involves the specification of load cases and appropriate boundary conditions.
Solutions may be combined in a postprocessing mode.
Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations, for which the program
uses Full Newton-Raphson, Modified Newton-Raphson, Newton-Raphson with Strain Correction, or the
Secant method. Many problems involve history dependent response, so that the solution is usually
obtained as a series of increments, with iteration within each increment to obtain equilibrium. Increments
must sometimes be kept small (in the sense that rotation and strain increments must be small) to assure
correct modeling of history dependent effects, but most commonly the choice of increment size is a
matter of computational efficiency - if the increments are too large, more iteration will be required. Each
solution method has a finite radius of convergence, which means that too large an increment can prevent
any solution from being obtained because the initial state is too far away from the equilibrium state that
is being sought - it is outside the radius of convergence. Thus, there is an algorithmic restriction on the
increment size. For most cases, the automatic incrementation scheme is preferred, because it will select
increment sizes based on these considerations. Direct user control of increment size is also provided
because there are cases when the user has considerable experience with his particular problem and can
therefore select a more economic approach.

References
For directions on setting up a Static analysis using MSC.Patran, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a
Subcase” and Specifying Static Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7)
CHAPTER 4 119
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Post-Buckling
Geometrically nonlinear static problems frequently involve buckling or collapse behavior, where the
load-displacement response shows a negative stiffness, and the structure must release strain energy to
remain in equilibrium. Several approaches are possible in such cases. One is to treat the buckling
response dynamically, thus actually modeling the kinetic response with inertia effects included as the
structure snaps. This is easily accomplished by using a transient dynamic procedure to include inertial
effects when the solution goes unstable. In some simple cases, displacement control can provide a
solution, even when the conjugate load (the reaction force) is decreasing as the displacement increases.
More generally, static equilibrium states during the unstable phase of the response can be found by using
an arc-length method. This method is for cases where the loading is proportional - that is, where the load
magnitudes are governed by a single scalar parameter. The method obtains equilibrium solutions by
controlling the path length along the load-displacement curve within each increment (rather than
controlling the load or displacement increment), so that the load magnitude becomes an unknown of the
system.
The method can provide solutions even in cases of complex or unstable response.

Creep, Viscoplastic, and Viscoelastic Behavior


Time dependent material response in static analysis may involve creep and swelling (generally occurring
over fairly long time periods), or rate dependent yield (which is often important in fairly rapid processes,
such as metal working problems). For rate dependent yield, the usual static procedure is used and an
appropriate time scale must be introduced so that MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will treat the
viscoplasticity correctly. The backward difference operator is used to integrate the plastic strains. Creep
and swelling problems, as well as hereditary viscoelasticity models, are analyzed by the CREEP
procedure (which is specified by including a non-zero time interval on the NLPARM entry). Nonlinear
creep problems are often solved efficiently by forward difference integration of the inelastic strains (the
“initial strain” method), because the numerical stability limit of this operator is usually sufficiently large
to allow the solution to be developed in a small number of time increments. Linear viscoelasticity models
are integrated with a simple, implicit, unconditionally stable operator. Automatic time stepping in such
cases is governed by an accuracy tolerance parameter specified by the user. This limits the maximum
inelastic strain rate change allowed over an increment.
120 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Body Approach
Body Approach enables you to position rigid bodies to just touch deformable bodies before beginning a
subsequent Load Step. No analysis is actually performed during a Body Approach step.It is used
commonly in multi-forming simulations where bodies are brought just into contact before the analysis
begins.
Body positioning can be synchronized or not, meaning that if Synchronized is ON, then as soon as one
rigid body contacts, all others stop at that point also. Otherwise all rigid bodies move until they come into
contact. The SOL 600 option, APPROACH and SYNCHRONIZE implement these concepts.

References
For directions on setting up a Body Approach analysis using MSC.Patran, see “Specifying the Analysis
Type for a Subcase” and Specifying Body Approach Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).
CHAPTER 4 121
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Buckling Analysis
Buckling analysis allows you to determine at what load the structure will collapse. You can detect the
buckling of a structure when the structure’s stiffness matrix approaches a singular value. You can extract
the eigenvalue in a linear analyses to obtain the linear buckling load.You can also perform eigenvalue
analysis for buckling load in a nonlinear problem based on the incremental stiffness matrices.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) solves elastic instability problems using the bifurcation
approach. Bifurcation buckling analysis predicts the load at which the structure becomes unstable, and
it predicts the shape that the structure will tend to have after the onset of instability. It does not make any
statement about whether buckling is coincident with overall structural failure. Some structures, including
flat plates, retain finite positive stiffness in the post-buckled range; others, such as thin cylinders under
external pressure, do not. In general, bifurcation buckling calculates critical loads which are
unconservative (i.e., higher than the loads at which the structure actually becomes elastically unstable).

Eigenvalue Buckling Prediction


The approach to buckling prediction with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is based on the development
of a linear perturbation of the structure’s stiffness about an equilibrium solution point, which may be the
initial equilibrium under no load, or a preloaded state. At any time a structure’s total elastic stiffness is

[ K ]0 H [ K ]p (4-24)

where [ K ] 0 is the stiffness caused by the material stiffness, and [ K ] p is the initial stress and load
stiffness caused by non-zero loading. For a “stiff” elastic system, [ K ] 0 is almost constant, and the
variation of [ K ] p is proportional to the load variation.

During the BUCKLING step there may be a non-zero “dead” load, P, and there must be a linear
perturbation load, Q, specified in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step. We wish to estimate what
multiple of Q, combined with P, which causes instability. Since the response is assumed to be “stiff” and
elastic, and therefore closely proportional to load, the stiffness at P + λQ. is, to a good approximation,
( [ K ] 0 H [ K ] p H λ [ K ] q ) , where [ K ] q is the initial stress and load stiffness caused by Q. Thus, the
buckling load estimate is provided by the eigen problem.

( [ K ] 0 H [ K ] p H λ [ K ]q ) { φ } Z { 0 } (4-25)
The eigenvalue, λ, is a multiplier of the applied load which added to the preload provides the critical load
estimate: the predicted collapse load is P + λQ. φ is the collapse mode.
If no boundary conditions are given in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step, the boundary conditions
of the state at the start of the buckling investigation (that is, of the previous nonlinear step) are used for
the buckling modes as well as for the perturbation loading. Since boundary conditions within any linear
perturbation step apply only locally within the step, if BIFURCATION BUCKLING steps follow one
another, boundary conditions for the buckling modes must be repeated within each of the
122 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

BIFURCATION BUCKLING steps except in steps where they are the same as those belonging to the
state at the start of the buckling investigation.
If boundary conditions are specified in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step, the complete set of
boundary conditions must be given, since MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes complete definition
of such an option in any linear perturbation analysis.
Several modes can be extracted simultaneously. This is often useful when the structure has different
buckling modes for which the critical loads have about the same magnitude, so that the designer must
consider the possibility of collapse in any of these modes. The collapse modes may be plotted with
MSC.Patran.

Bifurcation Approach
To illustrate the bifurcation approach, consider Equation (4-3), which shows a flat plate loaded by
uniaxial edge compression. Using linear static analysis, we can find the so-called “primary equilibrium
path” of the structure, which is always a straight line (denoted A in Figure 4-3). As shown, increasing the
loads will produce no out-of-plane deflection
.

Z
X
Y

A
C
Pcrit
B

UZ
Figure 4-13 Load vs. Deflection Paths for Central Deflection of a Flat Square Plate
Subjected to Uniaxial Edge Compression
CHAPTER 4 123
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

A = Primary equilibrium path, determined by linear elastic static analysis.


B = Secondary equilibrium path, determined by bifurcation buckling analysis.
C = Actual load deflection path, considering initial imperfections and geometrical
nonlinear effects.
Pcrit = Elastic buckling load.

Eigenvalue Extraction Methods


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses either the inverse power sweep or the Lanczos method to extract
eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Both of these methods are described in the following section, see
Eigenvalue Analysis, page 126.

References
For directions on setting up a Buckling analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase” and
Specifying Buckling Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).
124 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Normal Modes
The usual first step in performing a dynamic analysis is determining the natural frequencies and mode
shapes of the structure with damping neglected. Eigenvalue analysis is used to determine these basic
dynamic characteristics. The results of an eigenvalue analysis indicate the frequencies and shapes at
which a structure naturally tends to vibrate. These results characterize the basic dynamic behavior of the
structure and are an indication of how the structure will respond to dynamic loading.
The natural frequencies of a structure are the frequencies at which the structure naturally tends to vibrate
if it is subjected to a disturbance. For example, the strings of a piano are each tuned to vibrate at a specific
frequency. The deformed shape of the structure at a specific natural frequency of vibration is termed its
normal mode of vibration. Each mode shape is associated with a specific natural frequency.
Natural frequencies and mode shapes are functions of the structural properties and boundary conditions.
A cantilever beam has a set of natural frequencies and associated mode shapes (Figure 4-14). If the
structural properties change, the natural frequencies change, but the mode shapes may not necessarily
change. For example, if the elastic modulus of the cantilever beam is changed, the natural frequencies
change but the mode shapes remain the same. If the boundary conditions change, then the natural
frequencies and mode shapes both change. For example, if the cantilever beam is changed so that it is
pinned at both ends, the natural frequencies and mode shapes change.
CHAPTER 4 125
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

z x
1

z x
2

z x
3

z x
4
Figure 4-14 The First Four Mode Shapes of a Cantilever Beam

Modal quantities can be used to identify problem areas by indicating the more highly stressed elements.
Elements that are consistently highly stressed across many or all modes will probably be highly stressed
when dynamic loads are applied.
Modal strain energy is a useful quantity in identifying candidate elements for design changes to eliminate
problem frequencies. Elements with large values of strain energy in a mode indicate the location of large
elastic deformation (energy). These elements are those which most directly affect the deformation in a
mode. Therefore, changing the properties of these elements with large strain energy should have more
effect on the natural frequencies and mode shapes than if elements with low strain energy were changed.
SOL 600 contains two methods for eigenvalue extraction and three time integration operators. Nonlinear
effects, including material nonlinearity, geometric nonlinearity, and boundary nonlinearity, can be
incorporated.
In addition to distributed mass, you can also attach concentrated masses associated with each degree of
freedom of the system. You can include damping in either the modal superposition or the direct
126 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

integration methods. You can also include (nonuniform) displacement and/or velocity as an initial
condition, and apply time-dependent forces and/or displacements as boundary conditions.

Eigenvalue Analysis
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses either the inverse power sweep method or the Lanczos method to
extract eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The inverse power sweep method is typically used for extracting a
few modes while the Lanczos method is optimal for a few or many modes.
In dynamic eigenvalue analysis, we find the solution to an undamped linear dynamics problem:

( K Ó ω 2 M )φ Z 0

where K is the stiffness matrix, M is the mass matrix, ω are the eigenvalues (frequencies) and φ are
the eigenvectors. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, K is the tangent stiffness matrix, which can
include material and geometrically nonlinear contributions. The mass matrix is formed from both
distributed mass and point masses.

Inverse Power Sweep


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear creates an initial trial vector. To obtain a new vector, the program
multiplies the initial vector by the mass matrix and the inverse (factorized) stiffness matrix. This
process is repeated until convergence is reached according to either of the following criteria: single
eigenvalue convergence or double eigenvalue convergence. In single eigenvalue convergence, the
program computes an eigenvalue at each iteration. Convergence is assumed when the values of two
successive iterations are within a prescribed tolerance. In double eigenvalue convergence, the program
assumes that the trial vector is a linear combination of two eigenvectors.
Using the three latest vectors, the program calculates two eigenvalues. It compares these two values with
the two values calculated in the previous step; convergence is assumed if they are within the prescribed
tolerance.
When an eigenvalue has been calculated, the program either exits from the extraction loop (if a sufficient
number of vectors has been extracted) or it creates a new trial vector for the next calculation. If a single
eigenvalue was obtained, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the double eigenvalue routine to obtain
the best trial vector for the next eigenvalue. If two eigenvalues were obtained, the program creates an
arbitrary trial vector orthogonal to the previously obtained vectors.
CHAPTER 4 127
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

After MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has calculated the first eigenvalue, it orthogonalizes the trial
vector at each iteration to previously extracted vectors (using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization
procedure). Note that the power shift procedure is available with the inverse power sweep method.
• To select the power shift, set the following parameters:
• Initial shift frequency – This is normally set to zero (unless the structure has rigid body modes,
preventing a decomposition around the zeroth frequency).
• Number of modes to be extracted between each shift – A value smaller than five is probably not
economical because a shift requires a new decomposition of the stiffness matrix.
• Auto shift parameter – When you decide to do a shift, the new shift point is set to
Highest frequency2 + scalar x (highest frequency - next highest frequency)2
You can define the value of the scalar through the EIGR/EIGRL option.

The Lanczos Method


The Lanczos algorithm converts the original eigenvalue problem into the determination of the
eigenvalues of a tri-diagonal matrix. The method can be used either for the determination of all modes
or for the calculation of a small number of modes. For the latter case, the Lanczos method is the most
efficient eigenvalue extraction algorithm. A simple description of the algorithm is as follows.
Consider the eigenvalue problem:

Óω 2 M u H K u Z 0 (4-26)
Equation (4-26) can be rewritten as:

1
JJJJJJ M u Z M K Ó 1 M u (4-27)
ω2
Consider the transformation:

u Z Qη (4-28)
T
Substituting Equation (4-30) into Equation (4-29) and premultiplying by the matrix Q on both sides of
the equation, we have

1
JJJJJJ Q T M Q η Z Q T M K Ó 1 M Q η (4-29)
ω2

The Lanczos algorithm results in a transformation matrix Q such that:

QT M Q Z I (4-30)

Q T M K Ó 1 MQ Z T (4-31)
128 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where the matrix T is a symmetrical tri-diagonal matrix of the form:

α 1 β2 0 0
β2 α 2 β 3 0
T Z (4-32)
0 β3 α 3 βm
0 0 βm α m

Consequently, the original eigenvalue problem, Equation (4-26), is reduced to the following new
eigenvalue problem:

1
JJJJJJ η Z T η (4-33)
ω2
The eigenvalues in Equation (4-33) can be calculated by the standard QL-method.
You can either select the number of modes to be extracted, or a range of modes to be extracted. The Sturm
sequence check can be used to verify that all of the required eigenvalues have been found. In addition,
you can select the lowest frequency to be extracted to be greater than zero.
The Lanczos procedure also allows you to restart the analysis at a later time and extract additional roots.
It is unnecessary to recalculate previously obtained roots using this option.

Convergence Controls
Eigenvalue extraction is controlled by:
1. The maximum number of iterations per mode in the power sweep method; or the maximum
number of iterations for all modes in the Lanczos iteration method,
2. an eigenvalue has converged when the difference between the eigenvalues in two consecutive
sweeps divided by the eigenvalue is less than the tolerance, and
3. the Lanczos iteration method has converged when the normalized difference between all
eigenvalues satisfies the tolerance. The maximum number of iterations and the tolerance can be
specified.

Modal Stresses and Reactions


After the modal shapes (and frequencies) are extracted, stresses and reactions at a specified mode may
be recovered if desired. This option can be repeated for any of the extracted modes. The stresses are
computed from the modal displacement vector φ ; the nodal reactions are calculated from
2
F Z Kφ Ó ω Mφ .
CHAPTER 4 129
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Free Vibration Analysis


If a structure is not totally constrained in space, it is possible for the structure to displace (move) as a
rigid body or as a partial or complete mechanism. For each possible component of rigid-body motion or
mechanism, there exists one natural frequency which is equal to zero. The zero-frequency modes are
called rigid-body modes. Rigid-body motion of all or part of a structure represents the motion of the
structure in a stress-free condition. Stress-free, rigid-body modes are useful in conducting dynamic
analyses of unconstrained structures, such as aircraft and satellites. Also, rigid-body modes can be
indicative of modeling errors or an inadequate constraint set.
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 can perform free vibration analysis to compute the natural
frequencies and associated mode shapes of linear elastic structures. The structure is assumed to be
initially unstressed. A real eigenvalue analysis is performed, which assumes that there is no damping and
that the structure is not spinning (i.e., no Coriolis force).
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 free vibration analysis consists of the following steps:
1. Input. The problem geometry (nodes and elements), physical and material properties, loads and
boundary conditions are taken from the MSC.Patran Neutral File and put into the MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 deck.
2. Bandwidth Minimization (Optional). The FEA nodes are renumbered for minimum bandwidth.
3. Element stiffness matrix and mass matrix. The element stiffness matrices and the consistent mass
matrices are computed. See Element Library (Chapter 11) for a detailed description of the
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600.
4. Global stiffness matrix and mass matrix assembly. Stiffness matrix and the mass matrix are
assembled. Boundary and constraint conditions are incorporated by appropriately modifying the
element stiffness and mass matrices.
5. Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem. The frequencies and mode shape vectors are
computed by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem.
Modal strain energy. The modal strain energies are computed using the mode shape vectors.

References
For directions on setting up a Normal Modes analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase”
and Specifying Normal Modes Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).
130 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Support of Complex Eigenvalue Analysis


SOL 600 supports complex eigenvalue analysis via the CMETHOD Case Control command and the
EIGC Bulk Data entry. In addition, four new Bulk Data parameters have been introduced:

param,marcfil1,dmig002 This means that a file named dmig002 will be used. It contains stiffness
matrix terms (possibly from a set of unsymmetric friction stiffness
matrices)
param,mrmtxnam,kaax This means that in the dmig002 file, use DMIG matrix terms labeled kaax
(or KAAX – case does not matter).
param,mrspawn2,tran This means that the primary MSC.Nastran run will spawn another
MSC.Nastran run to compute the complex eigenvalues. The name of the
command is nastran (nas is always used and the characters specified by
this parameter are added to the end of nas. Thus, we get nas+tran=nastran).
param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc This is the name of the rc file to be used for the second (spawned)
MSC.Nastran run.

The flow of the run is as follows:


• Create a primary MSC.Nastran SOL 600 input file (we will name it jid.dat for this example),
using CONTINUE option on the command line.
• Submit MSC.Nastran in the standard fashion. For this example, the following command is used:
nastran jid rc=nast1.rc
The nast1.rc file contains items such as scratch=yes, memory=16mw, etc.
• The primary MSC.Nastran run creates an MSC.Marc input file named jid.marc.dat
• The primary MSC.Nastran run spawns MSC.Marc to perform nonlinear analysis. MSC.Marc
generates the required DMIG matrices for this example.
• The nonlinear MSC.Marc analyses completes and generates standard files.
• Control of the process returns to MSC.Nastran. A new MSC.Nastran input file named
jid.nast.dat will be created from the original input file. This file will contain the CMETHOD
Case Control command and EIGC Bulk Data entry, all of the original geometry and additional
entries to read the dmig002 file.
• A second MSC.Nastran job will be spawned from the primary MC.Nastran run using the
command
nastran jid.nast rc=nast2.rc
The nast2.rc file can be the same as nast1.rc or can contain different items. Usually memory will
need to be larger in nast2.rc than in nast1.rc.
• The second MSC.Nastran run computes the complex eigenvalues and finishes.
• Control of the process returns to the primary MSC.Nastran run and it finishes.
CHAPTER 4 131
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

The first portion of the dmig002 file is as follows:


$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 234567812345
DMIG KAAX 0 1 2 0 324
DMIG* KAAX 6 1
* 6 1 3.014712042D+05
* 6 2 4.204709763D+08
*
DMIG* KAAX 6 2
* 6 1 1.204709763D+05
* 6 2 3.014712042D+05
*
DMIG* KAAX 6 3
* 6 1-4.616527206D+04
* 6 2-4.616527206D+04
* 6 3 1.308497299D+05
DMIG* KAAX 17 1
* 6 1 6.239021038D+04
* 6 2-2.528344607D+03
* 6 3-6.239758760D+03
* 17 1 5.939989945D+05
132 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Transient Dynamic Analysis


Transient response analysis is the most general method for computing forced dynamic response. The
purpose of a transient response analysis is to compute the behavior of a structure subjected to
time-varying excitation. The transient excitation is explicitly defined in the time domain. All of the forces
applied to the structure are known at each instant in time. Forces can be in the form of applied forces
and/or enforced motions.
The important results obtained from a transient analysis are typically displacements, velocities, and
accelerations of grid points, and forces and stresses in elements.
Depending upon the structure and the nature of the loading, two different numerical methods can be used
for a transient response analysis: direct and modal. The direct method performs a numerical integration
on the complete coupled equations of motion. The Direct method can take into account nonlinearities.
The modal method is a linear solution and utilizes the mode shapes of the structure to reduce and
uncouple the equations of motion (when modal or no damping is used); the solution is then obtained
through the summation of the individual modal responses. The modal method is not available using
SOL 600 - use SOL 112.

Direct Transient Response


Transient dynamic analysis deals with an initial-boundary value problem. In order to solve the equations
of motion of a structural system, it is important to specify proper initial and boundary conditions. You
obtain the solution to the equations of motion by direct integration (for linear or nonlinear systems). In
direct integration, selecting a proper time step is very important. You can include damping in the system.
The following sections discuss the applicable aspects of transient analysis listed below.
• Direct Integration
• Time Step Definition
• Initial Conditions
• Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions
• Damping
CHAPTER 4 133
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Direct Integration
Direct integration is a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of a dynamic system. It is
used for both linear and nonlinear problems. In nonlinear problems, the nonlinear effects can include
geometric, material, and boundary nonlinearities. For transient analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear offers three direct integration operators listed below.
• Newmark-beta Operator
• Houbolt Operator
• Single Step Houbolt

Direct integration techniques are imprecise; this is true regardless of which technique you use. Each
technique exhibits at least one of the following problems: conditional stability, artificial damping, and
phase errors, but all can be minimized so that they are negligible.

Newmark-beta Operator
This operator is probably the most popular direct integration method used in finite element analysis. For
linear problems, it is unconditionally stable and exhibits no numerical damping. The Newmark-beta
operator can effectively obtain solutions for linear and nonlinear problems for a wide range of loadings.
The procedure allows for change of time step, so it can be used in problems where sudden impact makes
a reduction of time step desirable. This operator can be used with adaptive time step control. Although
this method is stable for linear problems, instability can develop if nonlinearities occur. By reducing the
time step and/or adding damping, you can overcome these problems.

Houbolt Operator
This operator has the same unconditional stability as the Newmark-beta operator. In addition, it has
strong numerical damping characteristics, particularly for higher frequencies. This strong damping
makes the method very stable for nonlinear problems as well. In fact, stability increases with the time
step size. The drawback of this high damping is that the solution can become inaccurate for large time
steps. Hence, the results obtained with the Houbolt operator usually have a smooth appearance, but are
not necessarily accurate. The Houbolt integration operator, implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear uses a fixed time step procedure, is particularly useful in obtaining a rough scoping solution
to the problem.

Single Step Houbolt Operator


Two computational drawbacks of the Houbolt operator are the requirement of a special starting
procedure and the restriction to fixed time steps. A Single Step Houbolt procedure has been presented
[Ref. 1.], being unconditionally stable, second order accurate and asymptotically annihilating. In this
way, the algorithm is computationally more convenient compared to the standard Houbolt method, and
the numerical damping for this method as implemented in SOL 600 has been significantly improved over
the standard Houbolt method. This algorithm is recommended for all dynamic analyses.
134 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Technical Background
Consider the equations of motion of a structural system:

Ma H Cv H Ku Z F (4-34)

where M , C , and K are mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, respectively, and a , v , u , and F are
acceleration, velocity, displacement, and force vectors. Various direct integration operators can be used
to integrate the equations of motion to obtain the dynamic response of the structural system. The
technical background of the three direct integration operators available in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear is described below.

Newmark-beta Operator

ˇˇ ˇˇ ˇˇ
Ut U t H ∆t U t H θ ∆t

(t) ( t H ∆t ) ( t H θ ∆t )
t

The generalized form of the Newmark-beta operator is

u n H 1 Z u n H ∆tv n H ( 1 ⁄ 2 Ó β )∆t 2 a n H β∆t 2 a n H 1 (4-35)

v n H 1 Z v n H ( 1 Ó γ )∆ta n H γ∆ta n H 1 (4-36)


n
where superscript denotes a value at the nth time step and u , v , and a take on their usual meanings.

The particular form of the dynamic equations corresponding to the trapezoidal rule

γ Z 1⁄2I β Z 1⁄4

results in

 JJJJJJJ
4J
M H JJJJJ C H K ∆u Z F n H 1 Ó R H M  a n H JJJJJ v n H Cv n
2 n 4
(4-37)
 ∆t 2 ∆t   ∆t 

where the internal force R is


CHAPTER 4 135
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

R Z ∫ βT σdv (4-38)
V

Equation (4-39) allows implicit solution of the system

u n H 1 Z u n H ∆u (4-39)

Notice that the operator matrix includes K , the tangent stiffness matrix. Hence, any nonlinearity results
in a reformulation of the operator matrix. Additionally, if the time step changes, this matrix must be
recalculated because the operator matrix also depends on the time step. It is possible to change the values
of γ and β if so desired.

Step by Step Solution Algorithm using Newmark Beta Method


1. Initialize:

U o , Uˇ o , Uˇˇ o

2. Select time step size ∆t and calculate integration constants:

1 γ
a o Z JJJJJJJJJ ; a 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
β∆t ( β∆t )

γ
a 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ; a 3 Z  JJJJJJ Ó 1
1
( β∆t )  2β

∆t
a 4 Z  JJJ Ó 1 ; a 5 Z  JJJJJ  JJγJ Ó 2
1
 β  2  β 

3. Form effective stiffness matrix [K]*:


[K]* = [K] + a0[M] + a1[C]

4. Triangularize (reduce) [K]*:


5. Compute effective load vector at time t + ∆t:

R t*H ∆ t Z R t H ∆ t H [ M ] ( a 0 U t H a 2 Uˇ t H a 3 U
ˇˇ )
t
(4-40)

+ [ C ] ( a 1 U t H a 4 Uˇ t H a 5 Uˇˇ t )

6. Solve for displacements at time t + ∆t:


[ K ] * U t H ∆ t Z R t*H ∆ t
136 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

7. Compute accelerations at time t + ∆t, using:

Uˇˇ t H ∆ t Z a 0 ( U t H ∆ t Ó U t ) Ó a 2 Uˇ t Ó a 3 Uˇˇ t

8. Compute velocities at time t + ∆t, using:

Uˇ t H ∆ t Z Uˇ t H ( 1 Ó γ )∆tǓˇ t H ( γ∆t )Ǔˇ t H ∆ t

Repeat steps 5 through 8 for each time step.

Houbolt Operator
The Houbolt operator is based on the use of a cubic fitted through three previous points and the current
(unknown) in time. This results in the equations

v n H 1 Z  JJJJJJ u n H 1 Ó 3u n H JJJ u n Ó 1 Ó JJJ u n Ó 2  ⁄ ∆t


11 3 1
(4-41)
6 2 3 

and

a n H 1 Z ( 2u n H 1 Ó 5u n H 4u n Ó 1 Ó u n Ó 2 ) ⁄ ∆t 2 (4-42)

Substituting this into the equation of motion results in

 JJJJJJJ
2J
M H JJJJJJJJJ C H K ∆u Z F n H 1 Ó R n H JJJJJJJJ ( 3u n Ó 4u n Ó 1 H u n Ó 2 )M H
11 1
 ∆t 2 6∆t  ∆t 2

JJJJJ  JJJ u n Ó JJJ u n Ó 1 H JJJ u n Ó 2 C


1 7 3 1
∆t  6 2 3 
(4-43)
This equation provides an implicit solution scheme. By solving Equation (4-39) for ∆u , you obtain
nH1 nH1
Equation (4-44), and so obtain v and a .

u n H 1 Z u n H ∆u (4-44)
Equation (4-43) is based on uniform time steps – errors occur when the time step is changed. Also, a
nÓ1 nÓ2
special starting procedure is necessary since u and u appear in Equation (4-43).
CHAPTER 4 137
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Single Step Houbolt Operator


The Single Step Houbolt operator starts with the following equilibrium equation and expressions for the
velocity and acceleration:

m1 nH1 c1 nH1 k1 nH1 m n c n k n


α Ma H α Cv Hα Ku H α Ma H α Cv H α Ku Z

f1 n H 1 f n
(4-45)
α F HaF

nH1 n n 2 n 1 2 nH1
u Z u H ∆tv H β∆t a H β ∆t a (4-46)
nH1 n n 1 nH1
v Z v H γ∆ta H γ ∆ta (4-47)
Notice that in contrast to the Newmark and the standard Houbolt method, the equilibrium equation also
contains terms corresponding to the beginning of the increment. Without loss of generality, the parameter
m1
α can be set to 1. Based on asymptotic annihilation and second order accuracy, the remaining
parameters can be shown to fulfill:
k 1 1 m k1 1
α Z 0, β Z γ, β Z γHγ ,α Z Ó1 ⁄ 2 , α Z 1 ⁄ 2β ,

c 1 12 c1 1 12 f k f1 k1
α Z Ó ( 2β H β ) ⁄ 4β ,α Z ( 2β H 3β ) ⁄ 4β ,α Z α ,α Z α
In this way, the number of unknown parameters has been reduced to two. Based on a Taylor series
1 1
expansion of the displacement about the nth time step, β and β should be related by β H β Z 1 ⁄ 2,
1 1
which finally yields γ Z 1 ⁄ 2 ( 1 ⁄ 2 Ó γ ) . According to [Ref. 1.], γ should be set to 3/2 (with
γ Z Ó 1 ⁄ 2 ) to minimize the velocity error and to 1/2 (with γ Z 0 ) to avoid velocity overshoot. The
1
default values in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are γ Z 3 ⁄ 2 and γ Z Ó 1 ⁄ 2 , but the user can
1
modify γ and γ if so desired.

Substitution of the velocity and acceleration into the equilibrium equation results in:

c1 1
 1 α γ  nH1 n
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
 1 2 k1 J M H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J C H K ∆u Z F Ó Ku H
1 k1
 β ∆t α β ∆tα 
m
1 n 2 n α n
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ M { ∆tv H β∆t a } Ó JJJJJJJJJ Ma Ó (4-48)
1 2 k1 k1
β ∆t α α
αc 1  n n
1
γ  2  α
c
n
JJJJJJJJ
J C  v H γ∆ta Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJ  ∆tv n H β∆t a n   Ó JJJJJJJJJ Cv
k1 1 k1
α  β ∆t   α
138 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Time Step Definition


In a transient dynamic analysis, time step parameters are required for integration in time. MSC.Nastran’s
PARAM,MARCAUTO,-1 option can be used for the Newmark-beta operator and the Single Step
Houbolt operator to invoke the adaptive time control. Enter parameters to specify the time step size and
period of time for this set of boundary conditions.
When using the Newmark-beta operator, decide which frequencies are important to the response. The
time step in this method should not exceed 10 percent of the period of the highest relevant frequency in
the structure. Otherwise, large phase errors will occur. The phenomenon usually associated with too large
a time step is strong oscillatory accelerations. With even larger time steps, the velocities start oscillating.
With still larger steps, the displacement eventually oscillates. In nonlinear problems, instability usually
follows oscillation. When using adaptive dynamics, you should prescribe a maximum time step.
As in the Newmark-beta operator, the time step in Houbolt integration should not exceed 10 percent of
the period of the highest frequency of interest. However, the Houbolt method not only causes phase
errors, it also causes strong artificial damping. Therefore, high frequencies are damped out quickly and
no obvious oscillations occur. It is, therefore, completely up to the engineer to determine whether the
time step was adequate. The damping problem is alleviated to a large extent with the Single Step Houbolt
operator.
In nonlinear problems, the mode shapes and frequencies are strong functions of time because of plasticity
and large displacement effects, so that the above guidelines can be only a coarse approximation. To obtain
a more accurate estimate, repeat the analysis with a significantly different time step (1/5 to 1/10 of the
original) and compare responses.

Initial Conditions
In a transient dynamic analysis, you can specify initial conditions such as nodal displacements and/or
nodal velocities. To enter initial conditions, use the following option: TIC for specified nodal
displacements, and Bulk Data nodal velocities.
CHAPTER 4 139
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Damping
In a transient dynamic analysis, damping represents the dissipation of energy in the structural system. It
also retards the response of the structural system.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to enter two types of damping in a transient dynamic
analysis: discrete dampers and Rayleigh damping.
For direct integration damping, you can specify the damping matrix as a linear combination of the mass
and stiffness matrices of the system. You can specify damping coefficients on an element basis.
Stiffness damping should not be applied to either Herrmann elements or gap elements because of the
presence of Lagrange multipliers.
Numerical damping is used to damp out unwanted high-frequency chatter in the structure. If the time step
is decreased (stiffness damping might cause too much damping), use the numerical damping option to
make the damping (stiffness) coefficient proportional to the time step. Thus, if the time step decreases,
high-frequency response can still be accurately represented. This type of damping is particularly useful
in problems where the characteristics of the model and/or the response change strongly during analysis
(for example, problems involving opening or closing gaps).
Element damping uses coefficients on the element matrices and is represented by the equation:
n
  ∆t 
C Z ∑  α i M i H  βi H γ i JJJJ
J K
π  i 
(4-49)
i Z 1

where
C is the global damping matrix
M i is the mass matrix of ith element
K i is the stiffness matrix of the ith element
a i is the mass damping coefficient on the ith element
βi is the usual stiffness damping coefficient on the ith element
γ i is the numerical damping coefficient on the ith element
∆t is the time increment
If the same damping coefficients are used throughout the structure, Equation (4-49) is equivalent to
Rayleigh damping.
The damping on elastic foundations is the same as the damping on the element on which the foundation
is applied.

References
For directions on setting up a Transient Dynamic analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a
Subcase” and Specifying Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).
140 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Creep
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) offers two schemes for modeling creep in conjunction with
plasticity. Creep for SOL 600 is described differently than Creep for SOL 106. The CREEP entry used
in SOL 106 will not work in SOL 600, and if entered will cause the job to terminate with an appropriate
message. Creep in SOL 600 must be described using viscoplastic materials (MATVP). The creep
formulations for SOL 600 are:
1. Treating creep strains and plastic strains separately using an explicit procedure (where the creep
is treated explicitly) or an implicit procedure (where both creep and plasticity are treated
implicitly). These procedures are available with standard options via data input or with user-
specified options via user subroutines. More details are provided below.
2. Modeling creep strains and plastic strains in a unified fashion (viscoplasticity). Both explicit and
implicit procedures are again available for modeling unified viscoplasticity. More details are
provided in the section titled Viscoplasticity in this chapter. The options offered by MSC.Nastran
for modeling creep are as follows:
• Creep data can be entered directly through the MATVP Bulk Data data entry. The form of the
creep is designated with either POWER for empirical creep law or TABLE for a tabular input of
creep model parameters.
• An automatic time stepping scheme can be used to maximize the time step size in the analysis.
• Eigenvalues can be extracted for the estimation of creep buckling time. In addition, for explicit
creep, the following additional options can be used:
• Creep behavior can be either isotropic or anisotropic.
• The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) rules on creep can be activated.

Adaptive Time Control


An automatic creep option takes advantage of the diffusive characteristics of most creep solutions.
Specifically, this option controls the transient creep analysis. You specify a period of creep time and a
suggested time increment. The program automatically selects the largest possible time increment that is
consistent with the tolerance set on stress and strain increments (see Creep Control Tolerances, page 141
in this chapter).
The algorithm is: for a given time step, a solution is obtained. The program then finds the largest values
of stress change per stress, and creep strain change per elastic strain. It compares these values to the
tolerance values, (stress change tolerance) and (strain change tolerance), for this period.
The value is calculated as the larger of:

( ∆σ ⁄ σ ) ⁄ T σ (4-50)

or
cr
( ∆ε ⁄ ε e l ) ⁄ Tε (4-51)
CHAPTER 4 141
Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

If p > 1 , the program resets the time step as:

∆t n e w Z 0.8∆t o l d ⁄ p (4-52)

The time increment is repeated until convergence is obtained or the maximum recycles control is
exceeded. In the latter case, the run is ended.
If the first repeat does not satisfy tolerances, the possible causes are:
• Excessive residual load correction
• Strong additional nonlinearities such as creep buckling-creep collapse
• Incorrect coding in user subroutine CRPLAW, VSWELL, or UVSCPL

Appropriate action should be taken before the solution is restarted.


If all is well, the solution is stepped forward and the next step is begun. The time step used in the next
increment is chosen as

∆t n e w Z ∆t o l d if 0.8 ≤ p < 1 (4-53)

∆t n e w Z 1.25∆t o l d if 0.65 ≤ p < 0.8 (4-54)

∆t n e w Z 1.5∆t o l d if p < 0.65 (4-55)

Since the time increment is adjusted to satisfy the tolerances, it is impossible to predetermine the total
number of time increments for a given total creep time.

Creep Control Tolerances


SOL 600 performs a creep analysis under constant load or displacement conditions on the basis of a set
of tolerances and controls you provide.These are as follows:
1. Stress change tolerance – This tolerance controls the allowable stress change per time step during
the creep solution, as a fraction of the total stress at a point. Stress change tolerance governs the
accuracy of the transient creep response. If you need accurate tracking of the transient response,
specify a tight tolerance of 1 percent or 2 percent stress change per time step. If you need only the
steady-state solution, supply a relatively loose tolerance of 10-20 percent. It is also possible to
check the absolute rather than the relative stress.
2. Creep strain increment per elastic strain – SOL 600 uses either explicit or implicit integration of
the creep rate equation. When the explicit procedure is used, the creep strain increment per elastic
strain is used to control stability. In almost all cases, the default of 50 percent represents the
stability limit, so that you need not provide any entry for this value. It is also possible to check
the absolute rather than the relative strain.
142 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Maximum number of recycles for satisfaction of tolerances – The automatic creep option in SOL
600 chooses its own time step. In some cases, the program recycles to choose a time step that
satisfies tolerances, but recycling rarely occurs more than once per step. Excessive recycling can
be caused by physical problems such as creep buckling, poor coding of user subroutine
CRPLAW, VSWELL, or UVSCPL or excessive residual load correction that can occur when the
creep solution begins from a state that is not in equilibrium. The maximum number of recycles
allows you to avoid wasting machine time under such circumstances. If there is no satisfaction of
tolerances after the attempts at stepping forward, the program stops. The default of five recycles
is conservative in most cases.
4. Low stress cut-off – Low stress cut-off avoids excessive iteration and small time steps caused by
tolerance checks that are based on small (round off) stress states. A simple example is a beam in
pure bending. The stress on the neutral axis is a very small roundoff-number, so that automatic
time stepping scheme should not base time step choices on tolerance satisfaction at such points.
The default of five percent of the maximum stress in the structure is satisfactory for most cases.
5. Choice of element for tolerance checking – Creep tolerance checking occurs as a default for all
integration points in all elements. You might wish to check tolerances in only 1 element or in up
to 14 elements of your choice. Usually, the most highly stressed element is chosen.

References
1. Chung, J. and Hulbert, G.M., “A family of single-step Houbolt time integration algorithms for
structural dynamics”, Comp. Meth. in App. Mech. Engg., 118, 1994.
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear SOL 600 User’s Guide
Ch. 5: Analysis Techniques

5 Analysis Techniques


Domain Decomposition 144

RESTARTS 148
 Inertia Relief with Auto-Support 149

Superelements and Modal Neutral Files 154

BRKSQL 155
 User Subroutine Support 159
144 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Domain Decomposition
The Domain
Decomposition Method
(DDM) is the ability to
subdivide your model into
domains. Each domain is
then submitted to a
separate computer or CPU
for parallel processing.
With this ability, you can
analyze large models with
much less over all compute
time. A single processor
job that might take 30
hours to run, can run in half
the time on two processors,
or even a quarter of the time with four processors. Jobs that take days to run on a single machine can be
run overnight on multiple processors that would otherwise lay idle. With DDM, large models that were
once thought impossible to practically optimize, now can be solved.

Specifying Domain Decomposition


The PARAMARC Bulk Data entry controls the domain decomposition process. Domains can now be
specified by you or automatically determined.

Entry Description
PARAMARC Specifies parallel regions for domain decomposition in nonlinear analysis when
MSC.Marc is executed from MSC.Nastran

References
• PARAMARC (SOL 600) (p. 2059) in the .

Defining Domain Decomposition Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.
2. Click on Solution Type..., then click Solution Parameters...
3. Select Domain Decomposition... to bring up the subform shown below.
CHAPTER 5 145
Analysis Techniques

Decomposition Method
• Automatic Automatic is recommended because the work is done by
MSC.Nastran.
• Manual If manual is selected, groups must be defined previously.
Number of Domains Defines the number of domains to be created.
Model/Current Group This switch is not applicable to this release. By default groups from
all domains will be translated.
146 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Single Input File Parallel Processing for SOL 600


Prior to version 2005, the basic MSC.Marc input file had to be split up into as many MSC.Marc input
files as processors to be used. MSC.Nastran 2005 incorporated the capability to use a MSC.Marc feature
called the Single File Parallel file. For this to work properly, you must use MSC.Marc 2003 or later to
run in combination with MSC.Nastran. The interface to use this capability specifies KIND=0 or blank on
the PARAMARC entry as shown below (the other options are still available but should be considered
obsolete).

Format:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PARAMARC ID KIND NPROC

Example: To create 4 parallel processes using a single file input procedure.


PARAMARC 51 4

Field Contents
ID Identification number of the PARAMARC entry -- Not presently used. (Integer)
KIND Designates how parallel domains are created. (Integer > 0, Default = 0)
0=Parallel processing is accomplished using MSC.Marc’s single file input. MSC.Marc
Version 2005 and subsequent versions must be used. The command line to execute
MSC.Marc is changed from -np N (or -nprocd N) to -nps N where N is the number of
processors. The maximum number of processors for is 256. Continuation lines may not be
entered for KIND=0.
NPROC Number of processors to be used.

A similar option to create a single-file MSC.Marc t16 file is also available. This option is selected using
Bulk Data PARAM,MARCOUTR,1 which is the default starting with the 2005 r3 version.

DDM Results in MSC.Patran


There may be multiple results (post) files from a DDM run just as there may be multiple input files. There
is one for each domain by the same names with the .t16 /.t19 file extension plus the master. If the
master jobname.marc.t16/t19 file is attached, results from all domains are automatically accessed
from each domain post file. If however, you want only results for a particular domain, you must attach
that file only.
CHAPTER 5 147
Analysis Techniques

DDM Configuration
Please see the MSC.Marc Parallel Version for Windows NT / UNIX Installation and User Notes for
proper configuration. MSC.Marc Parallel must be configured properly in order for DDM to work from
MSC.Patran or MSC.Nastran. If you have trouble, please check the following:
On Windows machines:
1. Make sure MPICH is installed. This can be done automatically by including bulk data PARAM,
MARMPICH,1 and a file named mpich.dat in the same directory as the Nastran input deck with
3 lines having the content (book) user name (the name you use to log in the PC) domain name (if
you are not a member of the domain, enter local) password (password you enter to login in to the
PC). All items must start in column 1.
2. When using a cluster of Windows machines you must have all the input files in a shared directory
when you submit the job. The MSC.Marc installation on the master host must be in a shared
directory also unless all machines have their own installation of MSC.Marc, and then they must
be referenced in the hostfile.
For UNIX you must be able to “rlogin” to all referenced machines in the hostfile without
supplying a password. If you cannot, check that your .rhosts file has the name of all the
machines in it. Check with a system administrator if you need help.
Only homogeneous clusters of machines are currently supported. They must all be running the same MPI
service or daemons. For example a cluster of 64 bit HP machines must all use the HP MPI; a cluster of
32 bit HP machines can use either HP MPI or MPICH, but not a mixture; heterogeneous clusters should
work if they all use MPICH; UNIX and Windows clusters are not supported.
More information on running jobs in parallel is provided in the MSC.Nastran Implicit SOL 600
Parallel Guide.
148 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

RESTARTS
A restart capability is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Any analysis can be
saved from any point for a possible restart. A new static load case or a buckling analysis can be solved
by restarting from the original static analysis.

Specifying Restarts and Parameters


The RESTART Bulk Data entry controls a restart for SOL 600.

Entry Description
RESTART Specifies writing or reading of restart data .

References
• RESTART (SOLs 600/700) (p. 2330) in the MSC.Natran Quick Reference Guide.

Specifying a Restart in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Restart>Full
Run.
3. Click on Restart Parameters... to bring up the subform shown below.
CHAPTER 5 149
Analysis Techniques

Inertia Relief with Auto-Support


Inertia Relief has been added. The SOL 600 capability exceeds that available in other MSC.Nastran
solution sequences using new Bulk Data entry, SUPORT6. One method is available for MSC.Nastran
2005 r3.
The “support” method may be used to specify which degrees of freedom should be “supported” for each
body. This is an extension of the PARAM,INREL,1 method and may use fewer computer resources than
the eigenvalue method for some models.
Inertia Relief may be employed on a subcase-by-subcase basis and can be removed if all previously
unsupported bodies merge into the main body (which is supported) either all at once or gradually. Please
consult MSC.Marc 2005 r3 documentation for a more detailed discussion of this capability.

Review
Inertia relief has long been a feature in MSC.Nastran SOL 101, which enables applied static loading to
an unconstrained structure and the calculation of deformed shape and internal loads within the
accelerated structure. Inertia relief calculates the rigid body mass x acceleration loads imparted by the
applied loads, and applies them in combination to the flexible body to produce a load-balanced static
formulation in the linear acceleration reference frame. The “steady-state” relative structural
displacements and internal loads are calculated using support entries (PARAM,INREL,-1) or the new
auto-support capability (PARAM,INREL,-2).
Inertia relief is commonly used to calculate psuedo-static stresses, strains, and loads of unsupported
structures due to static loading.
150 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

General Formulation
Consider common 3D unconstrained structure with six rigid body modes.
Rigid body mechanics loads balance (small motion):

∑ Fi Ó ∑ m i ai Z 0 and ∑ ( M i H r i ⁄ o ⋅ F i ) Ó ∑ ( Ii α i H ri ⁄ o ⋅ m i a i ) Z 0 (5-1)

In finite element matrix notation:

[ R ] { P } Ó [ R ] [ M ] [ R ] { ǔˇ o } Z { 0 }
T T
(5-2)

R is a (a-dof x 6) geometric rigid body matrix resulting from unit displacements in each basic direction
with respect to GRDPNT or (0,0,0). R provides summation and cross-product utilities for loads and
motion at each dof i . Rigid body accelerations ai and αi are represented by 6 x 1 ǔˇ o at

PARAM,GRDPNT. All Fi and Mi are entered into load vector P ; mi and I i are entered into a-set mass
matrix M . Solve for the rigid body accelerations:

Ó1
{ ǔˇ o } Z ( [ R ] [ M ] [ R ] ) [ R ] { P }
T T
(5-3)

T
R MR is the total 6 x 6 a-set mass, nonsingular for normal 3D models with appropriate mass properties.

Apply the balanced loads to the finite element structure in linear statics formulation. This form is
employed by the PARAM,INREL,-2 method:

[ K ] { U } Z { P } Ó [ M ] [ R ] { ǔˇ o } (Inrel = -2) (5-4)

In contrast, older method INREL = -1 and SOL 111 employ the following:
ˇˇ }
[K ]{ U } Z { P } Ó [ M ][D ]{ U (Inrel = -1) (5-5)
r

[ K ] { U } Z { P } Ó [ M ] [ φ r ] { q̌ˇ r } (SOL 111 free-free RESVEC’s) (5-6)

Each method uses a different representation for the rigid body matrix and accelerations. Stiffness matrix
K is singular (i.e., rank l Z a Ó 6 ), and each method likewise employs different techniques to solve for
displacement shape U.
CHAPTER 5 151
Analysis Techniques

SUPPORT6 Entry

SUPORT6 Inertia Relief for SOL 600 - Used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear -
SOL 600 only

Defines inertia relief for SOL 600.

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
SUPORT6 SID METH IREMOV GID CDOF CID IDS1
MODES FMAX FSHIFT

Examples:
SUPORT6 2 1 3000 123456 0

SUPORT6 3 2
6 0.6 -10.0

SUPORT6 0 3 1 101
SUPORT6 4 3 -2
152 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Field Contents
SID Set ID corresponding to a Case Control SUPORT1 command or zero (Integer, Default
= 0)
0 = if this is the only SUPORT6 entry, use this SUPORT6 entry for all subcases. If there
are multiple SUPORT6 entries, use the one with SID=0 for Marc increment zero.
N = Use this SUPORT6 entry for the subcase specified by Case Control SUPORT1=N
Different SUPORT6 entries can be used for each subcase if desired and different
subcases can use different methods.
If there is only one SUPORT6 entry (with SID=0) no Case Control SUPORT1
commands are necessary.
METH Method to use (Integer, Default = 0)
0 = Inertia relief is not active for this subcase
1 = Use the “Kinematic” method – do not enter continuation line. Input will come from
fields 5-7 of this entry
2 = Use the “Eigenvalue” method – Input data from the 2nd line must is used and fields
5-7 of the primary line must be blank (any SUPORT/SUPORT1 Bulk Data entries are
ignored).
3 = Use the “Support Method”, usually specified using param,inrel,-1 for other solution
sequences (see Remark 3). Do not enter the continuation line. Input will come from
all SUPORT entries and those SUPORT1 entries with ID=SID.
Only method 3 is available in the 2005 r3 release.
IREMOV Method to retain or remove inertia relief from a previous subcase (Integer, Default = 1)
1 = Retain inertia relief conditions from previous subcase
1 = Remove inertia relief loads immediately
2 = Remove inertia relief loads gradually
IREMOV should be blank or 1 unless METH is 0
GID Reference Grid ID for kinematic method (Integer, Default = 0)
=0 Use the origin
=N Use grid ID N
(Used for METH=1 ONLY)
CDOF Degrees of freedom for which inertia relief loads will be applied (Integer, no Default).
Enter a string of values identifying the degrees of freedom for the model. For 3D
models, usually 123456 is entered. For 2D models two or three degrees of freedom as
applicable may be entered. The limit is 6 degrees of freedom for 3D models (see
Remark 2).
(Used for METH=1 ONLY)
CID Coordinate system flag designating how to apply inertia relief loads (Integer, Default
= 0)
0= Basic coordinate system
N=Apply loads in coordinate system designated by field 7 of the GRID entry for grid
id N.
(Used for METH=1 ONLY)
CHAPTER 5 153
Analysis Techniques

Field Contents
IDS1 ID of SUPORT1 entries to be used if METH=3 and SID=0 (Integer, no Default)
For METH=3, only SUPORT1 entries with ID=IDS1 will be used in MSC.Marc
increment zero. All SUPORT entries will be used
(Used for METH=3 when SID=0 ONLY)
MODES Number of modes to use in the Eigenvalue method (Integer, no Default)
(Used for METH=2 ONLY)
FMAX Rigid body modes frequency cutoff (Hz) (Real, Default =1.0 Hz)
(Used for METH=2 ONLY)
FSHIFT Shift frequency used in Lanczos eigenvalue extraction (Hz) (Real, Default = -1.0 Hz)
(Used for METH=2 ONLY)

Remarks:
1. The continuation entry is required only if the eigenvalue method (METH=2) is used. Fields 5-7
must be blank if the eigenvalue method is to be used. The continuation option must be omitted if
the kinematic method is to be used. The kinematic method is similar to param,inrel,-2 for other
solution sequences except that the inertia relief loads are updated at each iteration.
2. For the kinematic method, a maximum of 6 degrees of freedom are allowed for 3D structures (2
or 3 dof for 2D structures). You are responsible for knowing how many rigid body modes need
to be “constrained” with inertia relief. For multiple contact bodies which are unsupported at the
beginning of an analysis but eventually contact, there are usually 6 dof per flexible body. This
situation requires the use of the eigenvalue method with MODES set to 6 times the number of
unsupported flexible bodies. If some flexible bodies are supported in some directions but not in
others, the number will be less than 6 per body. It is suggested that a preliminary SOL 103
eigenvalue extraction be performed to assess the number of rigid body modes.
3. The parameter INREL is ignored by SOL 600.
4. METH=3 is the only available METH for the 2005 r3 release. Inertia relief was not available prior
to the 2005 r3 release.
154 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Superelements and Modal Neutral Files


MSC.Nastran SOL 600 allows you to create external superelements or to output MSC.Adams MNF files.

External Superelements
External superelements are available both for input (generated by previous MSC.Nastran jobs) and
output. To generated matrices use Bulk Data entry, MDMIOUT to obtain the reduced (or full) stiffness.
These matrices can then be used to compute eigenvalues, perform harmonic or random vibration
analyses, etc. Note that for the MSC.Nastran 2005 r2 release, the corresponding mass matrix is assumed
to be the same as the original and is computed by MSC.Nastran.
For MSC.Nastran-generated matrices, follow the procedure outlined in the MSC.Nastran 2004 Release
Guide, Chapter 6 to create the external superelements. In other words, for each creation run, use the same
procedures that are used by other MSC.Nastran external superelement creation runs employing the
EXTSEOUT Case Control command. For the analysis that combines the external superelements, use the
new Bulk Data entry, MESUPER and include the .asm and .pch files from the superelement creation runs.

Example
An example of the input data for the combination run follows:
SOL 600,101 path=1 stop=1
CEND
param,marcbug,0
TITLE = 2 SUPERELEMENTS AND THE RESIDUAL -- TEST PROBLEM NO. EXTSE2R
SUBTITLE = 8 X 8 MESH OF QUAD4 ELEMENTS; GM-CMS PROJECT
param,mextsee,1
SPC = 100
LOAD = 1000
DISP = ALL
K2GG=KAAX
M2GG=MAAX
BEGIN BULK
param,marcnd99,-1
force, 1000, 844, , 0.1, 0., 0., 1.
SPC1 100 12346 840 848
$2345678 2345678 2345678
mesuper 100 extse2a.pch
mesuper 200 extse2b.pch
include 'OUTDIR:extse2a.asm'
include 'OUTDIR:extse2b.asm'
include 'OUTDIR:extse2a.pch'
include 'OUTDIR:extse2b.pch'
ENDDATA

MDMIOUT Entry for MNF Files and Stiffness Matrices


You can now create MSC.Adams modal neutral files (MNF) using the Bulk Data entry, MDMIOUT.
Once read into MSC.Adams you can view and animate modal results. You can find more information on
the MSC.Adams family of motion products by visiting our MSC website.
CHAPTER 5 155
Analysis Techniques

BRKSQL
Bulk Data entry BRKSQL is available for brake squeal simulation which replaces several parameters and
MARCIN entries previously used. It is now possible to determine the unstable brake squeal roots using
MSC.Nastran’s complex eigenvalue solver and unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices form MSC.Marc
either for an undeformed structure or after a nonlinear subcase. Brake squeal analysis for SOL 600 is
accomplished by starting a primary MSC.Nastran job, spawning MSC.Marc to calculate the
unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices either at the beginning or end of a nonlinear subcase, then
spawning a second MSC.Nastran job to calculate the complex eigenvalues. Unstable roots indicate
potential brake squeal. They are designated by positive real roots and negative damping in the f06
output file.

BRKSQL Specifies data for Brake Squeal Calculations using SOL 600

Specifies data for brake squeal calculations using SOL 600.

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
BRKSQL METH AVSTIF FACT1 GLUE ICORD
R1 R2 R3 X Y Z
NASCMD
RCFILE

Example:
BRKSQL 1 5.34E6 1.0 1.0
0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
tran
nastb
156 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Field Contents
METH Method flag corresponding to the type of brake squeal calculations to be performed.
(Integer, Default = 1)

0 = Perform brake squeal calculations before any nonlinear analysis has taken place

1 = Perform brake squeal calculations after all nonlinear load cases


AVSTIF Approximate average stiffness per unit area between the pads and disk. Corresponds to
MSC.Marc’s PARAMETERS fifth datablock, field 1. This value is also known as the
initial friction stiffness in the MSC.Marc Volume C documentation. AVSTIF can be
obtained by either experiment or numerical simulation. A larger value of AVSTIF
corresponds to a higher contact pressure, which usually results in more unstable modes.
(Real; no Default; required field)
FACT1 Factor to scale friction stiffness values calculated by MSC.Marc. (Real; Default = 1.0)
GLUE Flag specifying whether MPC for non-pad/disk surfaces with glued contact are used or
ignored (Integer, Default = 0). A value of 0 means ignore the MPC; a value of 1 means
include the MPCs (see Remark 6).
ICORD Flag indicating whether coordinates are updated or not. A value of 0 means coordinates
are not updated. A value of 1 means coordinates are updated using the formula
Cnew=Corig+Defl where Cnew are updated coordinates, Corig are original coordinates,
and Defl are the final displacements from last MSC.Marc increment. (Integer; Default =
0)
R1 X direction cosine (basic coord system) of axis of rotation; corresponds to MSC.Marc
ROTATION A second datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)
R2 Y direction cosine (basic coord system) of axis of rotation; corresponds to MSC.Marc
ROTATION A second datablock.
R3 Z direction cosine (basic coord system); corresponds to MSC.Marc ROTATION A
second datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)
X X coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to
MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)
Y Y coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to
MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)
Z Z coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to
MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)
CHAPTER 5 157
Analysis Techniques

Field Contents
NASCMD Name of a command to run MSC.Nastran (limited to 64 characters) -- used in
conjunction with the CONTINUE options on the SOL 600 entry. The full path of the
command to execute MSC.Nastran should be entered. The string will be converted to
lower case. See Remark 2. (Character; Default = nastran)
RCFILE Name of an RC file to be used with a secondary MSC.Nastran job (limited to 8
characters) -- used in conjunction with the CONTINUE options on the SOL 600 entry.
An extension of “.rc” will automatically be added. See Remark 2. (Character; Default =
nastb.rc)

Remarks:
1. This entry is used to calculate complex eigenvalues for brake squeal using unsymmetric stiffness
friction matrices calculated by MSC.Marc. Options exist to obtain the unsymmetric stiffness
matrices using the undeformed geometry (initial contact) or after all specified nonlinear subcases.
2. SOL 600 performs brake squeal calculations. The main (original) MSC.Nastran job with input
file jid.dat or jid.bdf spawns MSC.Marc just as it does for any other SOL 600 job. MSC.Marc
calculates unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices that1 are saved on a file (jid.marc.bde with
associated file jid.marc.ccc). The primary MSC.Nastran job then creates input data for a second
MSC.Nastran job (jid.nast.dat) to use the unsymmetric stiffness matrices in an complex
eigenvalue extraction. The primary MSC.Nastran job spawns a second MSC.Nastran job to
calculate the complex eigenvalues. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors are found in
jid.nast.f06, jid.nast.op2, etc.
NASCMD is the name of the command used to execute the secondary MSC.Nastran job.
NASCMD can be up to 64 characters long and must be left justified in field 2. The sting as entered
will be used as is -- except that it will be converted to lower case regardless of whether it is entered
in upper or lower case.
RCFILE is the name of an RC file to be used for the secondary MSC.Nastran job. It should be
similar to the RC file used for the primary run except that additional memory will usually be
necessary to calculate the complex eigenvalues and batch=no should also be specified. RCFILE
is limited to 8 characters and an extension of “.rc” will be added automatically. This entry will be
converted to upper case in MSC.Nastran but will be converted to lower case before spawning the
complex eigenvalue run. This RC file must be located in the same directory as the MSC.Nastran
input file. This entry is the same as specifying PARAM,MRRCFILE. One or the other should be
used.
3. MPC are produced for contact surfaces with glued contact. DMIGs are produced for contact
surfaces without glued contact. The brakes and drums should not use glued contact; other regions
of the structure can used glued contact.
4. The continuation lines may be omitted if defaults are appropriate.
5. When a BRKSQL entry is used, PARAM,MRMTXNAM and PARAM,MARCFIL1 should not
be entered.
158 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

6. When brake squeal matrices are output by MSC.Marc, unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices are
output for non-glued contact surfaces. For surfaces with glued contact, MPCs are output. The
GLUE flag signals SOL 600 to look for these MPCs and combine them with other MPCs that
might be in the model using MPCADD, or if no MPCs were originally used, to add the MCPs due
to glued contact. Glued contact surfaces may not be used for the disk-rotor interface. If GLUE is
zero or blank, the MPC for glued contact in the MSC.Marc brake squeal bde file (if any) will be
ignored. Sometimes MSC.Marc puts out MPCs with only one degree-of-freedom defined. Such
MPCs will be ignored; otherwise, MSC.Nastran will generate a fatal error.
7. If ICORD=1, an MSC.Marc t19 file will automatic.
CHAPTER 5 159
Analysis Techniques

User Subroutine Support


User subroutine support has been added through the bulk data entry USRSUB6.

USRSUB6 Defines User Subroutines for SOL 600 - Used in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear - SOL 600 only

Defines user subroutines for SOL 600

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
USRSUB6 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8
U9 U10

Examples:
USRSUB6 UDAMAG UVOID TENSOF

USRSUB6* SEPFORBBC

Field Contents
Ui Name of user subroutine to be included (Character, no Default) See MSC.Marc
Volume D for list of available User subroutines

Remarks:
1. All user subroutines must reside in the directory where the MSC.Nastran input file resides.
2. All names must be in lower case and have the extension.f
3. SOL 600 combines all user subroutines into one large subroutine named u600.f and u600.f is
passed to the MSC.Marc command line when spawned from MSC.Nastran
4. If the subroutine name is greater than 8 characters you must use fixed format.
160 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 6: Modeling

6 Modeling


Coordinate Systems 162

Nodes 164
 Elements 165

Modeling in MSC.Patran 166
162 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Coordinate Systems
The basic coordinate system in MSC.Nastran Nonlinear is a right-handed, rectangular Cartesian system.
Your may choose other systems locally for input, for output of nodal variables (displacements, velocities,
etc.) and point loads or boundary condition specification, and for material options. In general, all
coordinate systems are assumed to be right-handed. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear output is provided
in the “Global” Coordinate System. The Global Coordinate System is defined by field 7 of each GRID
entry and therefore may refer to a rotated rectangular or cylindrical coordinate system. If field 7 is blank
or zero, the output is in the Basic Coordinate System (which is rectangular). MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear does not support output in spherical coordinate systems, however input may be specified in
spherical coordinate systems.

Nodal Coordinate Systems


If the Coordinate ID is nonzero, it may refer to a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical local
coordinate frame.
Note the following points regarding nodal coordinate systems:
1. Displacement vectors and unbalanced force vectors are computed and written to the results file in
the global coordinate system.
2. Boundary conditions and nodal forces are applied in the global coordinate system.
3. Coupling equations and multipoint constraint (MPC) equation, including the MPC equations that
result from rigid links, relate displacement components in the global coordinate system.
4. Rigid link elements will produce erroneous results if a local coordinate system is defined at either
end of the element.
5. For 2-D models (i.e., models whose elements have only UX and UY degrees-of-freedom),
the Z-axis of the nodal coordinate system must coincide with the Z-axis of the basic
coordinate system.

Element Coordinate Systems


There is a rectangular coordinate system associated with each element in a MSC.Nastran SOL 600
analysis. The default coordinate system and the options available for modifying it, depend on the element
type. Descriptions are given in Element Library (Ch. 11) for each element type.
If the element is homogeneous and either isotropic or orthotropic, the components of stress and strain are
computed and passed to the results file in the element coordinate system.
If the element is homogeneous and orthotropic, the directions of orthotropy coincide with the element
coordinate system, unless an MCID is specified.
For laminated elements each layer has its own coordinate system. The reference line for defining layer
orientations is the X-axis of the element coordinate system. Material properties are entered, and stresses
and strains are computed in the layer coordinate systems for all layers of laminated elements.
CHAPTER 6 163
Modeling

Depending on the element type and material model, the default element coordinate system can be
overridden by referring to a nonzero Coordinate ID when meshing.

Note: When used to define an element coordinate system, the Coordinate ID can reference only a
rectangular coordinate system.

Defining Material Axes Orientations


With MSC.Nastran’s THETA and MCID fields on the CQUAD4, CTRIA3, etc. elements you specify the
orientation of the material axes of symmetry (relationship between the element coordinate system and
the global coordinate system, or the 0o ply angle line, if composite) in one of four different ways:
1. as a specific angle offset from an element edge,
2. as a specific angle offset from the line created by two intersecting planes,
3. as a particular coordinate system specified by user-supplied unit vectors, or
4. as specified by user subroutine ORIENT. This is accomplished by the specification of an
orientation type, an orientation angle, or one or two user-defined vectors.

Defining Material Axes in MSC.Patran


The orientation of the material axes are defined in MSC.Patran using the Element Properties application.
1. Click the Properties application icon to access the Element Properties application.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to create a CQUADi or CTRIAi element.
3. Click Input Properties... and enter the material axes orientation information.
There are three ways to assign the material orientation:
a. reference a coordinate system, which is then projected onto the element,
b. define a vector that will be projected onto the element, or
c. define a constant angle offset from the default element coordinate system.
This defines the setting of the THETA or MCID field on the CQUADi or CTRIAi entry. This
scalar value can either be a constant value in degrees, a vector, or a reference to an existing
coordinate system. This property is optional.
164 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Nodes
Model geometry is defined in MSC.Nastran with grid points. A grid point is a point on or in the structural
continuum which is used to define a finite element. A simple model may have only a handful of grid
points; a complex model may have many tens of thousands. The structure’s grid points displace with the
loaded structure. Each grid point of the structural model has six possible components of displacement:
three translations (in the x-, y-, or z-directions) and three rotations (about the x-, y-, or z-axes). These
components of displacement are called degrees of freedom (DOFs).

Degrees-of-Freedom
The degrees-of-freedom in MSC.Nastran Nonlinear are always referred to as follows:

1 x-displacement.
2 y-displacement.
3 z-displacement.
4 Rotation about the x-axis.
5 Rotation about the y-axis.
6 Rotation about the z-axis.

MSC.Nastran Nonlinear only activates those degrees-of-freedom needed at a node. Thus, some of the
degrees of freedom listed above may not be used at all nodes in a model, because each element type only
uses those degrees of freedom which are relevant. For example, two-dimensional solid (continuum)
stress/displacement elements only use degrees of freedom 1 and 2. The degrees of freedom actually used
at any node are thus the envelope of those variables needed in each element that uses the node.
CHAPTER 6 165
Modeling

Elements
Once the geometry (grid points) of the structural model has been established, the grid points are used to
define the finite elements.
MSC.Nastran has an extensive library of finite elements covering a wide range of physical behavior.
Some of these elements and their names are shown in figure below. The C in front of each element name
stands for “connection.”
• Point Element (not a finite element, but can be included in the finite element model)

CMASS1 (Scalar mass connection)


CONM1 (Concentrated mass)
• Spring Elements (they behave like simple extensional or rotational springs)

CELAS2

• Line Elements (they behave like rods, bars, or beams)

CROD, CBAR, CBEAM


• Surface Elements (they behave like membranes or thin plates)

CTRIA3 CQUAD4

• Solid Elements (they behave like bricks or thick plates)

CHEXA CPENTA CTETRA

• Rigid Bar (infinitely stiff without causing numerical difficulties in the mathematical model)

RBE2
Structural elements are defined on Bulk Data connection entries that identify the grid points to which
the element is connected. The mnemonics for all such entries have a prefix of the letter “C”, followed by
an indication of the type of element, such as CBAR and CROD. The order of the grid point identification
defines the positive direction of the axis of a one-dimensional element and the positive surface of a plate
element. The connection entries include additional orientation information when required. Some
elements allow for offsets between its connecting grid points and the reference plane of the element. The
coordinate systems associated with element offsets are defined in terms of the grid point coordinate
systems. For most elements, each connection entry references a property definition entry. If many
elements have the same properties, this system of referencing eliminates a large number of duplicate
entries.
Details for each element type are described in Element Library (Ch. 11).
166 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Modeling in MSC.Patran
In MSC.Patran, geometric models are the foundation on which most finite element models are built.
Geometric curves, surfaces, or solids provide the base for creating nodes, elements, and loads and
boundary conditions; the geometric model also serves as the structure to which material properties, as
well as element properties, may be assigned even before any mesh is actually generated.

Creating Geometry in MSC.Patran


Model geometry may be constructed in MSC.Patran, accessed directly from a CAD application, or
imported in specially formatted translator files. Whatever the source of the geometry, a single geometric
model will be maintained throughout all geometric and finite element operations. Geometric entities,
even if obtained from external files, retain their original mathematical representation without any
approximations or substitutions.

Accessing the Geometry Application


In MSC.Patran you can create, modify, and delete points, curves, surfaces, and solids. MSC.Patran
assigns a default color to the display of all geometric entities.
Pick the Geometry icon in the MSC.Patran Main Form to access the Geometry application.

The Geometry form controls all


processes in the Geometry application. The top
portion of the form contains three keywords,
Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same
throughout all activities. The rest of the entries will
vary depending on the requirements posed by the
specified action, object, and method.

Action Names the operation that will be performed; for example Create, Edit, or
Delete.
Object Identifies the geometric entity upon which the action is performed, for
example, Solid. In this case, if the Action is Create, then the command
requests that a solid be created.
Method Specifies the procedure used to perform the action. Taking the above
example one step further, if the Method is Surface, a solid will be created
by one of the techniques that utilize surfaces.

There are hundreds of action, object, method combinations available for creating geometric entities in
MSC.Patran. For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the Patran Reference Manual,
Part 2: Geometry Modeling.
CHAPTER 6 167
Modeling

Utilizing External Geometry (CAD) Files


MSC.Patran can make use of geometry created in databases outside of MSC.Patran by either accessing
geometric data directly from one of several CAD systems, or importing geometry using special files.
Geometry access, performed through the unique Direct Geometry Access (DGA) feature, does not
require any translation. MSC.Patran accesses the original geometry and uses the geometric definitions
of all entities.
On the other hand, when geometry is imported, MSC.Patran first evaluates the mathematical definition
of entities in their originating CAD system, and then formulates the information to be appropriate for
MSC.Patran operations.
Imported geometry comes to MSC.Patran via IGES, Express Neutral files, or MSC.Patran Neutral files.
IGES (Initial Graphic Exchange Specification) is an ANSI standard formatted file that makes it possible
to exchange data among most commercial CAD systems. Express Neutral files are intermediate files
created during a Unigraphics or CV CAD model access. MSC.Patran Neutral files are specially
formatted for the purpose of providing a means of importing and exporting model data.
Geometry received into the database, whether through direct access or import, is treated as if it had been
built in MSC.Patran; meshing, load and boundary condition assignments, element and material
properties definitions are all performed as if on MSC.Patran’s own “native” geometry.
168 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Creating Finite Element Meshes in MSC.Patran


Finite elements themselves are defined by both their topology (i.e., their shape) and their properties. For
example, the elements used to create a mesh for a surface may be composed of quadrilaterals or triangles.
Similarly, one element may be a steel plate modeling structural effects such as displacement and rotation,
while another may represent an air mass in an acoustic analysis.MSC.Patran provides numerous ways to
create a finite element mesh.
At this stage of using MSC.Patran, where you are creating a finite element mesh using the Finite
Elements application form, elements are defined purely in terms of their topology. Other properties such
as materials, thickness and behavior types are then defined for these elements in subsequent applications,
and discussed in later chapters of this guide.
The most rudimentary method of creating a finite element mesh is to manually generate individual nodes,
and then to create individual elements from previously defined nodes. Individual nodes can be either
be generated from the geometry model or directly created using node creation tools that bypass the
need for point definitions. A finite element model created manually supports the entire MSC.Patran
element library and where applicable, MSC.Patran automatically generates midedge, midface and
midbody nodes.
MSC.Patran contains many capabilities to help you manually create the right kind of finite element mesh
for your model, and capabilities that automate the process of finite element creation. MSC.Patran
provides the following capabilities for finite element modeling (FEM):
• Mesh seeding tools to control specific mesh densities in specific areas of your geometry.
• Several highly automated techniques for mesh generation.
• Equivalencing capabilities for joining meshes in adjacent regions.
• Tools to verify the quality and accuracy of your finite element model.
• Capabilities for direct input and editing of finite element data.

Automatic Meshing Tools


There are four basic mesh generation techniques available in MSC.Patran: IsoMesh, Paver Mesh, Auto
TetMesh, and 2-1/2D Meshing. Selecting the right technique for a particular model must be based on
geometry, model topology, analysis objectives, and engineering judgment.

Isomesh
Creates a traditional mapped mesh on regularly shaped geometry via simple subdivision. This method
creates Quad and Tria elements on surfaces and brick elements on solids. The resulting mesh supports all
element configurations in MSC.Patran.

Paver
The Paver is an automated surface meshing technique that you can use with any arbitrary surface region,
including trimmed surfaces, composite surfaces, and irregular surface regions. Unlike the IsoMesh
approach, the Paver technique creates a mesh by first subdividing the surface boundaries into mesh
points, and then operates on these boundaries to construct interior elements
CHAPTER 6 169
Modeling

TetMesh
Arbitrary solid mesher generates tetrahedral elements within MSC.Patran solids defined by an arbitrary
number of faces or volumes formed by collection of triangular element shells. This method is based on
MSC plastering technology.

2-1/2D Mesher
Transforms a planar 2D mesh to produce a 3D mesh of solid elements, using sweep and
extrude operations.

Accessing the Finite Element Application


All of MSC.Patran’s finite element modeling capabilities are available by selecting the
Finite Element button on the main form.
Like the Geometry Application, the top portion of the Finite Element form contains three
keywords, Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same throughout all activities. Finite Element
(FE) Meshing, Node and Element Editing, Nodal Equivalencing, ID Optimization, Model Verification,
FE Show, Modify and Delete, and ID Renumber, are all accessible by setting the Action/Object/Method
combination on the Finite Elements form.
For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the Patran Reference Manual, Part 3: Finite
Element Modeling.
170 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 7: Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

7 Setting Up, Monitoring, and


Debugging the Analysis


Solution Type 172
 Analysis Procedures 176

Translation Parameters 179

Solution Parameters 182
 Subcases 185

Subcase Parameters 188

Execution Procedure for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear from the
Command Line 199
 Monitoring the Analysis 202

Debugging the Analysis 204
172 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Solution Type
MSC.Nastran can simulate many different types of structural response. In general an analysis type can
be either static or dynamic. In a static analysis, loads and boundary conditions are applied to a model and
the response is assumed to remain the constant over time. In dynamic analysis the response changes over
time. In MSC.Nastran, both static and dynamic analysis may simulate linear response or nonlinear
response. SOL 600 incorporates the formulations and functionality to simulate nonlinear static and
dynamic structural responses. The specific procedure MSC.Nastran will run is specified on the Executive
Control Statement by the ID entry. SOL 600 represents multiple types of analysis procedures, any of
which can be specified by the ID value on the SOL 600 Executive Control Statements.

Specifying the Solution Type


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) is designated with the following Executive Control
Statement in the MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file, where the ID entry indicates which analysis procedure is
to be run.

Entry Description
SOL 600, ID Creates MSC.Marc input and optionally executes MSC.Marc from inside
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).

References
• SOL 600,ID (p. 138 in the .

SOL 600 Executive Control Statement


The new executive control statement is as follows:
SOL 600, ID PATH= COPYR= NOERROR OUTR=op2,xdb,pch,f06,eig,dmap,beam NOEXIT
STOP= CONTINUE=
Recently added are dmap, beam and CONTINUE. An explanation of these items follows:

dmap The user will enter his own DMAP to create whatever type of output that is
desired, such as op2, xdb, punch, f06. For all other options, DMAP is generated
as needed internally by MSC.Nastran.
beam The beam option must be specified if op2,xdb,pch. or f06 options are specified
and beam internal loads are to be placed in any of these files. The beam and eig
options are mutually exclusive (you cannot specify both).

CONTINUE= is an option that specifies how MSC.Nastran will continue its analysis after MSC.Marc
finishes. To continue the analysis, do not enter any STOP or OUTR options. It is possible to perform more
than one of these operations if necessary.
CHAPTER 7 173
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

0 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example, if SOL
600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Only 3-D
contact or materials supported by SOL 106 may be used.
1 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example if SOL
600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Of course, no
3-D contact or materials not supported by SOL 106 may be used.
2 MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will
generate DMIG matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly damping) on a file specified by
pram,marcfil1,name and time specified by param,marcstif,time. This is accomplished by
making a complete copy of the original MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job
with the SOL entry changed and an include entry for the DMIG file.
3 (Option not presently available.) MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex
eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will generate OUTPUT4 matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly
damping) on a file specified by pram,marcfil2,name and time specified by
param,marcstif,time, This is accomplished by making a complete copy of the original
MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job with the SOL entry changed and an
include entry for the DMIG file.

The original MSC.Nastran file should include CMETHOD=id in the Case Control command
and a matching CEIG entry in the Bulk Data.
MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 111 to compute modal frequency response. MSC.Marc will
generate natural frequencies and mode shapes in (tbd) format which are read into
MSC.Nastran from a file specified by param,marcfil3,name.
4 (Option not presently available.) Same as option 3 except SOL 112 for linear transient
response will be used.
5 MSC.Nastran will switch to the solution sequence given in field 9 of the MDMIOUT entry.

In addition, the DMIG entries specified by MDMIOUT will be included in a separate


MSC.Nastran execution spawned from the original execution. Case Control and Bulk Data
will be added to the original input to properly handle these matrices in the spawned
MSC.Nastran execution.
174 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

6 Same as option 1 except SOL 110 is run. For this option, the original MSC.Nastran input file
must contain METHOD=ID1 and CMETHOD=ID2 in the Case Control as well as matching
EIGRL (or EIGR) and CEIG entries in the Bulk Data.
7 Same as option 1 except SOL 103 is run for real eigenvalues/eigenvectors. The database can
be saved to restart into SOL 110 if desired. This should be done on the command line or in a
rc file with scratch=no. For this situation, the original MSC.Nastran input file must include
METHOD=id in the Case Control command and a matching EIGRL or EIGR entry in the
Bulk Data. (CMETHOD and CEIG can also be included.) The actual restart from SOL 103
to 110 must be performed manually at the present time.
101+ Continue options 101 to 400 are used to convert MSC.Marc’s initial contact tying constraints
to MPC’s and then continue in SOL 101 to 112 as a standard MSC.Nastran execution. For
example, if CONTINUE=101, a SOL 101 run with all the geometry load cases, etc. from the
original run would be conducted with the addition of the initial contact MPC determined from
MSC.Marc. The continue=101+ options are frequency used to model dissimilar meshes as
well as glued contact which does not change throughout the analysis. This option can be used
for any standard MSC.Nastran sequence where the initial contact condition does not change.
In order for initial contact to work, the surfaces must be initially touching. If they are
separated by a gap, the MPC’s will be zero until the gap closes and thus the initial MPC’s are
zero. This option automatically sets BCPARA INITCON=1.

An example of input using the continue=1 option is as follows:


SOL 600,106 path=1 stop=1 continue=1
TIME 10000
CEND
param,marcbug,0
ECHO = sort
DISP(print,plot) = ALL
STRESS(CORNER,plot) = ALL
STRAIN(plot) = ALL
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 1
CMETHOD=101
BEGIN BULK
param,marcfil1,dmig002
param,mrmtxnam,kaax
param,mrspawn2,tran
param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc
PARAM,OGEOM,NO
PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
PARAM,GRDPNT,0
EIGC, 101, HESS, , , , ,50
NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 P YES
PLOAD4 1 121 -800.
PLOAD4 1 122 -800.

(rest of deck is the same as any other SOL 600 input file)
CQUAD4 239 2 271 272 293 292
CQUAD4 240 2 272 273 294 293
ENDDATA
CHAPTER 7 175
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

The full input for this example can be obtained from MSC.Nastran development. The name of the input
file continu2.dat.

Defining the Solution Type in MSC.Patran


Prior to selecting a Solution Type, check to see that under Analysis Preferences the Analysis Code is set
to MSC.Nastran, and the Analysis Type is set to Structural.
To set the Solution Type:
1. Click on the Analysis Application button.
2. On the Analysis Application form, click Solution Type... and select Implicit Nonlinear from the
list of available Solution Types.

References
• Analyze - Setting Up a File for Analysis (p. 9 in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Analysis Application.
176 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Analysis Procedures
The subcase is the MSC.Nastran mechanism for associating loads and boundary conditions, output
requests, and various other parameters to be used during part of a complete run. Each subcase can be
designated with one of the analysis types listed below. For each analysis type, you will define the Solution
Parameters and Output Requests; these collectively constitute the Analysis Procedures.
In MSC.Nastran, Case Control options provide the loads and constraints, and load incrementation
method, and controls the program after the initial elastic analysis. Case Control options also include
blocks which allow changes in the initial model specifications. Case Control options can also specify
print-out and postprocessing options.Each set of load sets must be begin with a SUBCASE command and
be terminated by another SUBCASE or a BEGIN BULK command. If there is only one load case, the
SUBCASE entry is not required. The SUBCASE option requests that the program perform another
increment or series of increments. The input format for these options is described in MD Nastran Quick
Reference Guide.

Analysis Types
Analysis Types for subcases in SOL 600 include the following:

Type Description
Linear Static Static stress analysis is used when inertia effects can be neglected. During a
linear static step, the model’s response is defined by the linear elastic stiffness at
the base state, the state of deformation and stress at the beginning of the step.
Contact conditions cannot change during the step - they remain as they are
defined in the base state.
Nonlinear Static Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium
equations, for which MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses Newton’s method.
Many problems involve history dependent response, so that the solution is
usually obtained as a series of increments, with iteration within each increment
to obtain equilibrium. For most cases, the automatic incrementation provided by
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is preferred, although direct user control is also
provided for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.
Normal Modes This solution type uses eigenvalue techniques to extract the frequencies of the
current system, The stiffness determined at the end of the previous step is used
as the basis for the extraction, so that small vibrations of a preloaded structure
can be modeled.
Transient This solution procedure integrates all of the equations of motion through time.
Dynamic For linear systems, the dynamic method, using the Single-Step Houbolt operator,
is unconditionally stable, meaning there is no mathematical limit on the size of
the time increment that can be used to integrate a linear system. However, the
time step or the maximum allowable error parameter must be small enough to
ensure an accurate solution.
CHAPTER 7 177
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Type Description
Nonlinear This solution type is used when nonlinear dynamic response is being studied. For
Transient most cases, the automatic incrementation provided is preferred, although direct
Dynamic user control is also provided for those cases where the user has experience with
a particular problem.
Buckling Eigenvalue buckling estimates are obtained. Classical eigenvalue buckling
analysis (e.g., “Euler” buckling) is often used to estimate the critical (buckling)
load of “stiff” structures. “Stiff” structures are those that carry their design loads
primarily by axial or membrane action, rather than by bending action. Their
response usually involves very little deformation prior to buckling.
Creep This analysis procedure performs a transient, static, stress/displacement analysis.
It is especially provided for the analysis of materials which are described by the
CREEP material form.
Viscoelastic This is especially provided for the time domain analysis of materials which are
(Time Domain) described by the VISCOELASTIC, TIME material forms. The dissipative part
of the material behavior is defined through a Prony series representation of the
normalized shear and bulk relaxation moduli, either specified directly on the
VISCOELASTIC, TIME material forms, determined from user input creep test
data, or determined from user input relaxation test data.
Body Approach Body Approach enables you to position rigid bodies to just touch deformable
bodies before beginning a subsequent Load Step. No analysis is actually
performed during a Body Approach step.It is used commonly in multi-forming
simulations where bodies are brought just into contact before the analysis begins.

Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase


The Analysis Type is designated by specifying an ID as part of the Executive Control Statement in the
MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file.

Entry Description
SOL 600, ID Creates MSC.Marc input and optionally executes MSC.Marc from inside
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).
178 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The following Solution Sequences are available with SOL 600.

Table 7-1 Solution Sequences


SOL
Number SOL Name Description
101 SESTATIC Statics
103 SEMODES Normal Modes
105 SEBUCKL Buckling
106 NLSTATIC Nonlinear or Linear Statics
109 SEDTRAN Direct Transient Response
129 NLTRAN Nonlinear or Linear Transient Response
Other, as specified in the QRG, are available for special use.

References
• SOL 600,ID (p. 138 in the .

Defining Analysis Type for a Subcase in MSC.Patran


To define the Analysis Type for a subcase:
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. Click Solution Type... and click on the Implicit Nonlinear toggle.

Note: There are two ways to set up SOL 600 analysis jobs in MSC.Patran. The first is to
select Implicit Nonlinear as the Solution Type. This option gives you access to most
of the various analysis capabilities and numerical controls available through
SOL 600. The second option uses the same menus as if you were setting up a non-
SOL 600 analysis, such as a SOL 106 or 129, but simply changes the executive
command line. To use this second option, simply set up your analysis the same way
you would a non-SOL 600 job and click on the SOL 600 Run toggle on the Solution
Parameters form.

3. Click Subcases... and select an analysis type from the Analysis Type pull-down menu.

References
• Solution Types (p. 216 in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural
Analysis.
CHAPTER 7 179
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Translation Parameters
Translation parameters define file formats, numerical tolerances, processing options, numbering offsets,
and include files.

Specifying the Translation Parameters


There are numerous translation parameters for SOL 600. Most of these parameters start with the letters
M, MR or MARC and follow the format MXXXX, MRXXXX, or MARCXXX.

References
• Parameter Descriptions (p. 628 in the .
• Format of Bulk Data Entries (p. 888 in the .
• INCLUDE (p. 84 in the .

Defining Translation Parameters in MSC.Patran


To set translation parameters:
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis Application form, click Translation Parameters...
180 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
CHAPTER 7 181
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Data Output Defines the type of data output.


• XDB Buffer Size For the XDB results file, defines the buffer size used for
accessing results.
Tolerances • Division - prevents divide by zero errors.
• Numerical - determines if two real values are equal.
• Writing determines if a value is approximately zero when
generating a Bulk Data entry field.
Bulk Data Format • Sorted Bulk Data -
• Card Format -
• Grid Precision Digits - Specifies where to round off a grid point
coordinate before it’s written out to the bdf file. For example if
this value is specified as 2 the number 1.3398 will be written
out as 1.34.
Node Coordinates Defines which coordinate frame is used when generating the
grid coordinates.
Number of Tasks Represents the number of processors to be used to run an analysis.
It is assumed that the environment is configured for distributed
parallel processing.
Numbering Options... Subform used to indicate offsets for all IDS to be automatically
assigned during translation.
Bulk Data Include File... Prompts you for the filename of the include file.

References
• Translation Parameters (p. 210 in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1:
Structural Analysis.
182 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Solution Parameters
Solution parameters control a range of functions in the SOL 600 analysis. Functions such as
selecting the solver type, establishing a restart, specifying domain decomposition are all part of the
solution parameters.

Specifying Solution Parameters


Solution Parameters are designated in the Parameters portion of the MSC.Nastran Input file with the
following entries.

Entry Description
INCLUDE Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear
anywhere within the input data file.
NLPARM Selects the parameters used for nonlinear static analysis.
TSTEPNL Selects integration and output time steps for a nonlinear dynamic analysis.
NLSTRAT Defines strategy parameters for nonlinear structural analysis.*
NLAUTO Defines parameters for automatic load/time stepping.*
Note: *NLSTRAT and NLAUTO defaults are appropriate for most analyses and these entries are
not normally required.

References
• Parameter Descriptions (p. 628 in the .
• Format of Bulk Data Entries (p. 888 in the .
• INCLUDE (p. 84 in the .
CHAPTER 7 183
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Defining Solution Parameters in MSC.Patran


To set solution parameters:
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis Application form, click Solution Type..., and select Implicit Nonlinear. Then
click Solution Parameters...

Solver Options Specifies the solver to be used in numerically inverting the system of
linear equilibrium equations.
Contact Parameters Defines options for detecting and handling contact.
Direct Text Input This subform is used to directly enter entries in the File Management,
Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections of the
MSC.Nastran input file.
Restart Parameters Includes a Restart option in the MSC.Nastran input file.
Advanced Job Control Sets alternate versions of the solver and alternate formats for the
results file.
Domain Decomposition Designates that domain decomposition be done manually,
semi-automatically, or automatically.
184 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

References
• For more information on Solver Options, see Numerical Methods in Solving Equations (p. 60 in
the MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide.
• For more information on Contact parameters, see Contact Parameters Subform (p. 251 in the
MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.
• For more information on Restart Parameters, see Restart Parameters Subform (p. 256 in the MD
Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.
• For more information on Domain Decomposition, see Domain Decomposition (p. 258 in the MD
Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.
CHAPTER 7 185
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Subcases
Creating multiple subcases allows you to efficiently analyze multiple load cases in one run. Each subcase
is a collection of loads and boundary conditions, output requests, and other parameters. For nonlinear
analysis runs the starting point of each subcase is the ending point of the previous subcase.

Specifying Subcases
Each subcase is designated with the following Case Control Command.

Entry Description
SUBCASE Delimits and identifies a subcase.

References
• SUBCASE (p. 463 in the .

Defining Subcases in MSC.Patran


To define a subcase:
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
186 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2. From the Analysis Application form click Subcases...


CHAPTER 7 187
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Subcase Name Specifies a name for a new subcase.


Available Load Cases Selects one or more available load cases to be applied to the
new subcase.
Subcase Options
• Subcase Parameters Controls load increment and iteration parameters for the subcase. Also
defines the nonlinear effects for the subcase. See Subcase
Parameters, page 188.
• Output Requests Defines the nodal and element results quantities and also determines
the frequency of results reporting. See Output Requests (Ch. 8).
• Direct Text Input This subform is used to directly enter entries in the File Management,
Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections of the
MSC.Nastran input file.
• Select Superelements Defines which superelements are to be included in the subcase.
• Select Explicit MPCs Selects explicit MPCs to be included in the subcase.
188 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Subcase Parameters
The subcase parameters represent the settings in MSC.Nastran Case Control and Bulk Data Section that
take effect within a subcase and do not affect the analysis in other subcases. Subcase parameters are
dependent on the type of analysis being performed. The set of subcase parameters applicable for each
analysis type are described in the following sections. For more information, see Solution Methods and
Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis (Ch. 3) in the MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)
User’s Guide.

Specifying Static Subcase Parameters


For static nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the
load incrementation.

Entry Description
NLPARM Nonlinear Static Analysis Parameter Selection.
NLPCI Defines a set of parameters for the arc-length incremental solution strategies in
nonlinear static analysis.
NLAUTO Defines parameters for automatic load/time stepping used in SOL 600.
NLSTRAT Defines strategy parameters for nonlinear structural analysis used in SOL 600.

References
• NLPARM (p. 377 in the .
• NLPCI (p. 1999 in the .
• NLAUTO (SOLs 400/600) (p. 1983 in the .
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005 in the .

Defining Static Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Static from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
CHAPTER 7 189
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Linearity Prescribes the nonlinear effects for the subcase.


Nonlinear Solution Parameters
• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be
included in the subcase.
• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.
Load Increment Params... Defines whether the load increments will be fixed or adapted in
each iteration and the method by which adaptive load
increments will be determined.
Iteration Parameters... Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve the
equilibrium problem at each load increment.
Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact
bodies in the analysis.
Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for
the subcase.
190 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Specifying Normal Modes Subcase Parameters


For normal modes nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the eigenvalue extraction
techniques and the range of frequencies to be targeted for extraction.

Entry Description
EIGR Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue analysis.
EIGRL Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue (vibration or buckling) analysis
with the Lanczos method.

References
• EIGR (p. 1462 in the .
• EIGRL (p. 1466 in the .

Defining Normal Modes Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Normal Modes from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
CHAPTER 7 191
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Extraction Method Defines the method to use to extract the real eigenvalues.
Lancozs Parameters
• Number of Modes Indicates an estimate of the number of eigenvalues to be located.
• Lowest/Highest Frequency Defines the lower and upper limits to the range of frequencies to
be examined.
Sequence Checking Requests that Sturm sequence checking be performed on the
extracted eigenvalues.
192 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Specifying Buckling Subcase Parameters


For nonlinear buckling analysis the subcase parameters control the eigenvalue extraction techniques and
the range of frequencies to be targeted for extraction.
A METHOD command is specified in the desired subcase and selects an EIGB, or EIGRL Bulk
Data entry.
The linear buckling load analysis is correct when you take a very small load step in increment zero, or
make sure the solution has converged before buckling load analysis (if multiple increments are taken).
In a buckling problem that involves material nonlinearity (for example, plasticity), the nonlinear problem
must be solved incrementally. During the analysis, a failure to converge in the iteration process or
nonpositive definite stiffness signals the plastic collapse.
For extremely nonlinear problems, the EIGB option cannot produce accurate results. In that case, use
NLSTRAT options to specify an arc-length method that allows automatic load stepping in a quasi-static
fashion for both geometric large displacement and material (elastic-plastic) nonlinear problems. The
option can handle elastic-plastic snap-through phenomena. Therefore, the post-buckling behavior of
structures can be analyzed.
The eig option must be specified with the OUTR option on SOL 600 Executive Control statement if op2,
xdb, pch, or .f06 options are specified and MSC.Marc performs natural frequency or buckling eigenvalue
analysis. The reason it must be provided on the SOL entry is to enable MSC.Nastran to create DMAP on
the fly which include the LAMA data block. If the eig option is omitted, eigenvectors will be present in
the MSC.Nastran output but no eigenvalues will be available.

Entry Description
METHOD Selects the real eigenvalue extraction parameters.
EIGB Defines data needed to perform buckling analysis.
EIGRL Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue (vibration or buckling) analysis
with the Lanczos method.
MARCRBAL This parameter is used for eigenvalue analysis where natural frequencies or
buckling modes need to be calculated using the deformed geometry from a
nonlinear analysis.

References
• eig (p. 142 in the .
• METHOD (p. 353 in the .
• EIGB (p. 1454 in the .
• EIGRL (p. 1466 in the .
• MARCRBAL (p. 705 in the .
CHAPTER 7 193
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Defining Buckling Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Buckling from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Extraction Method Defines the method to use to extract the real eigenvalues.
Lancozs Parameters
• Max # of Modes Indicates the maximum number of eigenvalues to be located.
• Max # of Modes Indicates the maximum number of positive eigenvalues to be located.
w/Pos. Eigenvalues

Specifying Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters


For transient dynamic nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the
load incrementation.

Entry Description
TSTEPNL Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Parameter Selection.
NLAUTO Parameters for automatic load/time stepping.
NLSTRAT Strategy Parameters for nonlinear structural analysis.

References
• TSTEPNL (p. 489 in the .
• NLAUTO (SOLs 400/600) (p. 1983 in the .
• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005 in the .
194 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Defining Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Transient Dynamic from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Linearity Prescribes the nonlinear effects for the subcase.


Nonlinear Solution Parameters
• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be
included in the subcase.
• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.
Load Increment Params... Defines whether the load increments will be fixed or adapted in
each iteration and the method by which adaptive load
increments will be determined.
CHAPTER 7 195
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Iteration Parameters... Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve
the equilibrium problem at each load increment.
Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact
bodies in the analysis.
Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for the
subcase. Note that this option uses the equivalent of direct text
input (MARCIN option) and is not explicitly supported by
SOL 600.

Specifying Creep Subcase Parameters


The creep analysis option is activated in MSC.Nastran through the CREEP Bulk Data entry. The creep
time period and control tolerance information are input through the MARCAUTO=1 parameter. This
option can be used repeatedly to define a new creep time period and new tolerances. These tolerances
are defined in the section on Creep Control Tolerances. Alternatively, a fixed time step can also be
specified through the MARCAUTO parameter. In this case, no additional tolerances are checked for
controlling the time step.
Creep analysis is often carried out in several runs using the RESTART Bulk Data entry. Save restart files
for continued analysis. The RESTART entry allows you to reset the parameters defined in MARCAUTO
upon restart.

Entry Description
NLPARM Nonlinear Static Analysis Parameter Selection.
MATVP Defines creep characteristics based on experimental data or known empirical
creep law.
MARCAUTO Determines which MSC.Marc’s increment option is used.
RESTART Specifies writing or reading of restart data for Nonlinear Analysis when
MSC.Marc is executed from MSC.Nastran.

References
• MATVP (SOL 600) (p. 1613 in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• NLPARM (p. 1991 in the .
• MARCAUTO (p. 686 in the .
• RESTART (SOLs 600/700) (p. 2330 in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining Creep Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Creep from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
196 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Click Subcase Parameters...:


CHAPTER 7 197
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Creep Solution Parameters


• Procedure Selects Implicit or Explicit Creep method.
• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be
included in the subcase.
• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.
Increment Type Defines a fixed or adaptive increment method.
• Adaptive Increment For adaptive methods, sets boundaries for incrementation.
Parameters...
Iteration Parameters Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve
the equilibrium problem at each load increment.
Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact
bodies in the analysis.
Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for
the subcase.

Specifying Body Approach Subcase Parameters


For body approach analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the
load incrementation.

Entry Description
BCMOVE Specifies movement of rigid surfaces.

References
• “BCMOVE” in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining Body Approach Subcase Parameters in MSC.Patran


1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution
Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.
2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Body Approach from the Analysis Type
pull-down menu.
198 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Body Approach Parameters


• Total Time Places a time step option in the Load Step.
• Synchronized If ON, specifies that when the first rigid body comes into contact, the
rest stop moving.
Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact bodies in
the analysis.
CHAPTER 7 199
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Execution Procedure for MSC.Nastran Implicit


Nonlinear from the Command Line
After the generation of the input file is complete, it is submitted for execution as a batch process
(MSC.Nastran is not an interactive program). Once the input file has been submitted, you have no
additional interaction with MSC.Nastran until the job is complete except that you can terminate the job
prior to completion if it becomes necessary and monitor several keys files such as, .f04, .sts, .log, etc.
MSC.Nastran is executed with a command called nastran. (Your system manager may assign a different
name to the command.) The nastran command permits the specification of keywords used to request
options affecting MSC.Nastran job execution. The format of the nastran command is:
nastran input_data_file [keyword1 = value1 keyword2 = value2 ...]

where input_data_file is the name of the file containing the input data and keywordi=valuei is one or
more optional keyword assignment arguments. For example, to run an a job using the data file
example1.dat, enter the following command:
nastran example1

See The nastran Command (p. 2 in the .


The details of submitting an MSC.Nastran job are specific to your computer system— contact
your computer system personnel or your MSC.Nastran Installation and Operations Guide for
further information.
200 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Using MSC.Patran to Execute MSC.Nastran


The Analysis Application controls the execution of MSC.Nastran.

When the Action is set to Analyze, the Method is set to Full Run, and the Apply button is selected from
the Analysis form, a jobname.bdf file is created which contains the analysis model, and the
P3TRANS.INI script is spawned by MSC.Patran. This script controls the analysis process outside and
independent of MSC.Patran.
When the analysis is successfully completed, one or more output file is produced. These output files can
be directly imported or attached into the MSC.Patran database for postprocessing by setting the Action
menu to Access Results.

How to Tell When the Analysis is Done


If you submit the job from the MSC.Nastran icon (i.e., outside MSC.Patran), as long as the parent
window the job was run from is active, the analysis is still running. If you submit the job from within
MSC.Patran and use -stdout when you execute MSC.Patran, you can look in the MSC.Patran parent
window and it will tell you when it submits the Nastran job, and also when the Nastran job is completed.
Of course you can always use the Analysis Manager. Once the job is complete look in the parent window
to see what files were generated.
CHAPTER 7 201
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully


Look in the working directory and you will see the typical jobname.f06, jobname.f04,
jobname.log. If these files are there, you successfully submitted the Nastran job. If you submitted a
job with SOL 600, xxx as the executive command, there will also be some jobname.marc.xxx files
in the subdirectory. These are the files from the Marc run. To see if the run was successful, open
jobname.marc.sts and look for the number at the bottom. For most analyses, 3004 means the run
was successful.
For others, such as thermal contact, generation of DMIG matrices for subsequent use, other exit codes
such as 3031, 3030, 3031, and 3022 mean a successful run. Exit code 13 signifies a dta input error which
must normally be evaluated by MSC development. Exit 3015 means the job diverged and requires
additional time steps, changes to convergence controls or other changes to the input. A brief description
of most errors is provided at the end of this jid.mar.out file.
If there are no jobname.marc.xxx files, check to make sure you can submit Marc jobs successfully.
At the end of the jobname.f06 file, Nastran will tell you what command it used to submit the Marc
job. Take this command to a command prompt and enter it to see why the Marc job wasn’t submitted. If
you can go to a command window and type in “run_marc jid-jobname“ and it finds the Marc
executable and runs the jobname.dat Marc input file, you can just use PATH=2 on the SOL 600
command line.
202 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Monitoring the Analysis


The nastran command permits the specification of keywords used to request options affecting
MSC.Nastran job execution. The format of the nastran command is:
nastran input_data_file [keyword1 = value1 keyword2 = value2 ...]
where input_data_file is the name of the file containing the input data and keywordi=valuei is one or more
optional keyword assignment arguments.
Use the keyword xmonast to monitor a MSC.Nastran job as described below.

xmonast xmonast={yes|no|kill Default: No


Indicates if XMONAST is to be run to monitor the MSC.Nastran job. If “xmonast=yes” is
specified, XMONAST will be automatically started; you must manually exit XMONAST
when the MSC.Nastran job has completed. If “xmonast=kill” is specified, XMONAST will
start and will automatically exit when the MSC.Nastran job has completed.
Example: nastran example xmon=kill
This example runs the XMONITOR utility while the MSC.Nastran job is running. Once
the job completes, the XMONITOR program is automatically terminated.

For more information, see The nastran Command (p. 2 in the .


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear provides a status file (jobname.marc.sts) that can be queried
periodically to see how the analysis is progressing and if the job is completed. The file will report the
information relating to the progress of the analysis, with warning and informative messages.
The file review is especially important when manual or automatic time stepping procedures are being
used to step through an analysis procedure. One line is written after each successful increment. An
example file output is shown below.

dip

Figure 7-1 information Summary of Job: nas.cant_bmsm.marc

The first column shows the procedural step, while the second column shows the increment number. Note
that not every increment size is equal, as can be seen in the “TimeStep of the INC” column. For this
example, the third increment size is larger than the first two increments, which means that the procedure
is satisfied that equilibrium is being satisfied and that it has increased the time step size to take advantage
CHAPTER 7 203
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

of the better convergence characteristics. The third column (“cycle# of the Inc) indicates the number of
Newton Raphson iterations made during this increment. The next three columns show the increment
information, while the next six columns show the numbers for the total analysis.
Sepa means number of contact separations, cut refers to the number of time step size cutbacks, and split
refers to the number of increment splits due to contact penetration.
If the increment size becomes small, and there are a number of increments of this size, the analysis has
probably “stalled”, indicating that convergence is becoming very difficult to attain for the problem. A
review of the model is indicated.
The max disp column provides a valuable means to tell if a job is diverging or in some other way not
proceeding correctly.

Editing a MSC.Nastran Input File


There may be instances when you want to directly edit the MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file. Some
experienced MSC.Nastran users may want to add options directly to specific Parameters and Bulk Data
entries. MSC.Patran provides direct access to the Bulk Data file as follows.
To edit an existing Bulk Data File:
1. Click on the Analysis Application icon to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Existing Deck>Full Run.
3. Click Edit Input File...
MSC.Patran automatically looks for an existing deck name that matches the current database
name and displays the existing deck.
204 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Debugging the Analysis


MSC.Nastran generates a substantial amount of information concerning the problem being executed. The
.f04 file provides information on the sequence of modules being executed and the time required by each
of the modules; the .log file contains system messages.
MSC.Nastran may terminate as a result of errors detected by the operating system or by the program. If
the DIAG 44 is set (see the diag keyword (p. 253) and the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide),
MSC.Nastran will produce a dump of several key internal tables when most of these errors occur.
Before the dump occurs, there may be a fatal message written to the .f06 file. The general format of
this message is
***SYSTEM FATAL ERROR 4276, subroutine-name ERROR CODE n
These messages are SEVERE WARNING, or other text ... issued whenever an interrupt occurs that
MSC.Nastran is unable to satisfactorily process. The specific reasons for the interrupt are usually printed
in the .f06 and/or .log file.

Resolving Convergence Problems


There are three major steps in getting a complete solution.
1. get the model input debugged (see section titled “Exit 13 Errors”).
2. establish initial equilibrium (see section titled “Exit 2004 Errors”).
3. getting the analysis to run to completion.

Step 1: De-Bugging the Model Input


See How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully, page 201.

To Debug a Failed Analysis


First, check the .sts, .f04, .f06, or .out files for licensing, disk access or format errors. The number a the
bottom of the jobname.marc.sts is the Marc Exit Number. Exit 13 means there was a format error in the
Marc input. Exit 2004 generally means you have unconstrained degrees of freedom or rigid body modes.
3002 means the analysis got part way through and then stopped. The complete Marc Exit message is
given at the end of the jobname.marc.out file, which may also be in jobname.f06 depending on the value
of COPYR.
If you get an Exit 13 check your input, make sure everything you need is in the Nastran input deck. Check
for elements, grids, contact body creation, etc. An easy way to debug these type of problems is to read
the jobname.marc.dat file (the Marc input file Nastran created) in to Mentat or Patran (an empty db with
preference set to Marc) and see what is missing. Often you will see that some elements are missing, or
that the contact bodies were not created as you would expect them. For more information see Figure 7-2.
CHAPTER 7 205
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Submit job
Nastran job submit
from windows
Wait until process w/Pause=YES, ck
finishes. error msg

no
Do Is Ck Marc submit card,
no .f06, .f04, yes there a Fatal no find in .f06 and type
Does .sts .log files Error Message in a cmd window to
file exist? exist? in .f06, .f04, see why Marc job
.log? was not submitted.

yes
yes
ck .sts for fix-it - typical
Exit # Nastran debug

Do you
Is yes
get Nastran yes
requested Successful completion
Exit - go on to postprocess
#=3004? formatted output,
such
as .xdb?
no
no
look in ck T160P2.exe run, on windows
jobname.marc.out for make sure it is in search path.
Exit # and message.

No converged
increments, likely
no Is no yes unconstrained rigid
Is Is
Exit #=3002? Exit #=2004? body motion exists: a.)
Exit #=13? do modal to ID them,
b.) Ck equivalencing of
modal integrity, c.) add
yes yes constraints or weak
Some convergence springs, d.) see section
increments exist, on convergence
postprocess them & look problems.
Follow instructions in exit msg; if for possible causes of
its a formatting error ck Marc, stability loss, such as
Volc, or read the contact changes. Ck
jobname.marc.dat file into δ m a x , you may be
Patran’s Marc pref (or Mentat) encountering buckling
and compare this model modes. Do a buckling
w/original. The problem may be solution to see or try an
displayed when the file is read in. arc-length method.

Figure 7-2 Flowchart to Debugging a SOL 600 Run


206 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Step 2: Establishing Initial Equilibrium


If you get an Exit 2004 it means that the model was unable to reach equilibrium for the loads and
constraints applied in the initial subcase. Options include:
• adding more constraints (or equivalently soft springs) to ground the model.
• run a modal analysis to identify unconstrained rigid body modes.

Step 3: Getting the Analysis to Run to Completion


The first thing to check at this point is: “Has the solution gone as far as it can,” i.e. maybe you already
have the complete solution. Sometimes nonlinear loading causes structures to buckle which may take
your analysis into the post-buckled region. Depending on the type of buckling, you may be simply trying
to drive your analysis farther into the post-buckling range which may not give you the information you
are after. For example, if you load a frame structure with a load that exceeds the critical buckling load
and the analysis is simply working to drive the structure further into a plastic hinge.

Things to Do to Fix Non-Convergence


• Check the .sts, .log, and .out files for Exit 2004, 3002, or 3003 format error messages.
• If using fixed load incrementation try using a smaller time step, or use the automatic cutback
feature, or use adaptive time-stepping.
• Try running an eigenvalue buckling solution to see if you’ve passed a critical buckling load or
examine the stresses and strains to see if some portion of the structure has failed (if MATF
failure criteria was not included in the modal).
• If using Contact set the Contact Tolerance Bias to 0.9, particularly if doing shell contact (done by
default in SOL 600).
• Turn on Quasi-Static inertial damping or Non-Positive Definite to eliminate un-constrained rigid
body motions (done by default in SOL 600).
• Try running an eignevalue modal solution to identify unconstrained rigid body modes.
• Try using an arc-length method - you may be encountering local buckling.
• Look at any available results of converged increments.
• If doing contact try a different contact tolerance value.
• Isolate Non-linearities and add them one at a time.
• Making Sure Appropriate Non-linearities are Included.
• Check Material Stability – Make sure the entire strain range is covered by the material data.

For complex models involving multiple forms of nonlinear behavior the “tried and true” approach
(particularly if you are new to this type of problem) is to start with a linear model and add non-linearities
one at a time. Alternatively, remove the non-linearities one at a time until it runs. This approach helps
you determine which type of non-linearity is causing the convergence problem. If you have contact,
remove it and let the bodies “pass through” one another or replace the contact condition with an
equivalent displacement constraint. If you have nonlinear materials replace them with simple elastic
CHAPTER 7 207
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

ones. Add the non-linearities back one at a time, making sure the behavior is reasonable and correct.
Look at reaction forces and displacements of any converged increments to make sure they are of the
expected magnitude.
If you run the analysis and it doesn’t run at all, or ends before completing, you will get an error message
in the .OUT or .LOG file that will give you an indication of what the problem is. Do a text search on the
word “error” in the .OUT file. The first thing to check is to make sure you were able to get a license to
run the job. Licensing problems are one of the most common reasons for a run to fail. If you are sure you
have a license and submit the job correctly you should get a .OUT file that will end with an Exit #
preceded by a description of why the run stopped. Common Exit #’s are: Exit 3004 – means success, i.e.
the job ran to completion and did everything you asked it to. Exit 13 – means you have a syntax error in
the input file. You should check the input syntax of the line the error message points to, but it is likely
that the actual error was in the input block PRIOR to where the message points. Exit 2004 – typically
means non-convergence due to rigid body motions. See recommendations for Equilibrium. Exit 3002 –
this means the analysis ran into convergence problems part way through and did not complete. Any Exit
Message of 3000 or higher means there are converged increments. Plot the converged increments to see
what is going on. See Technical Application Note 4575 or Appendix A of Volume C: Program Input for
a more complete list with suggested “fixes.”

Things to consider if your model doesn’t converge:


1. Equilibrium - Make sure your model has LBC’s and contact conditions that will ensure force
equilibrium at EVERY increment/iteration and for ALL rigid-body modes (typically there are 6).
When in doubt eliminate this as the source of non-convergence by intentionally over-constraining
the model (or adding soft springs) and then removing constraints one at a time until you figure
out the unconstrained rigid body mode. One area that is sometimes overlooked regarding
equilibrium is that of the rigid body control. If you don’t specify adequate control information
(e.g. you forget to add the zero that fixes the rigid body rotation value) you may have
convergence problems.
2. LBC’s - When LBC’s are removed, the forces/pressures (and the reaction forces due to
displacement constraints) are removed gradually over the subsequent step. The forces and
pressures are always removed gradually, but the reaction forces of displacement constraints may
be are removed suddenly at the beginning of the subsequent step. This sudden change in loading
can cause convergence problems.
3. Stability and Collapse - Non-convergence will occur when a structural instability (i.e., buckling)
mode is encountered. Buckling can occur either locally (in highly stressed area where the stability
of individual elements is exceeded) or globally when the critical buckling load of any part of the
model is exceeded. You may want to do a linear buckling analysis to determine the load that
would buckle the least-stable part of the structure. If you suspect that you are approaching the
post-buckled region here are some other things to try: a) try using Quasi-static inertial damping
(turn this on under Analysis – Step Create – Solution Parameters) or one of the Arc-length
methods. This will help get through the unstable region if doing a snap-through buckling
problem, and may help get you past one or two elements of local buckling, but probably not more
than that.) try a finer mesh (smaller elements have shorter length and so higher Pcr);
208 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

4. Materials - Make sure that the material coefficient values are realistic and that the models will
support the stresses and loads developed in the model. For example if you hang a 1000 lb. weight
from a perfectly plastic wire with a 0.001 in**2 cross section and a 20 ksi yield stress, the
resulting 100 ksi stress cannot be supported by the (20 ksi yield stress) material and the run will
not converge. Comparable behavior in bending is referred to as a “plastic hinge.” Units mis-
matches will often result in this type of problem (note that this only occurs in non-linear analyses).
For example, let’s say you are modeling a cantilever beam and using a perfectly plastic material
model and a “follower force” tip load, and you mistakenly add an extra zero to the tip load. A
plastic hinge will develop with the beam “winding up” like a spring and the analysis continuing
to run until it runs out of increments (which may take a long time). If you suspect this type of
problem first run the problem with a small fraction of the load to see if it will converge. If you are
using an orthotropic or hyperelastic material it is possible to select combinations of material
properties that will result in a non-positive definite material coefficient matrix. Normally the
analysis code will warn you if you violate this requirement.
5. Contact - If there is a problem with “chattering” (a condition where a particular node jumps into
and out of contact thus preventing the increment from converging), you can go to Translation
Parameters – Contact Control Parameters – Separation and set the Chattering toggle to
“Suppress”. The parameters which have the biggest effect on contact behavior are “Contact
Distance Tolerance”, D (see Fig. 1), “Bias Factor,” B (see Fig. 2) -) and “Separation Force.” The
default uses D = 1/20 the of the element edge length. You can find the specific value in the.OUT
file and try a larger or smaller value, whichever you feel is most appropriate. The default on the
bias value is 0, if having problems with contact one of the first things to try is to over-ride this
value on the Analysis – Translation Parameters – Contact Detection – Contact Parameters form
with 0.9. Another option would be to increase the separation force (which defaults to 0) to prevent
chattering. When considering contact problems look for places (such as corners and other
discontinuities) where one contact surface may “slip” off.

Standard Steps to Resolving Convergence Problems:


If your model doesn’t run, or stops pre-maturely: FIRST, READ THE MESSAGES IN The .sts, .f06, .log
and .out files. Common causes of the run to fail include:
1. unconstrained rigid body modes.
2. you're in the post-buckled region.
3. problems resolving contact.
4. some part of the model/material is "over-constrained" such that the given displacement solution
doesn’t change when the load is increased (i.e. individual elements are buckling locally), this type
of non-unique solution can prevent convergence.
After trying the obvious things, talk to other experienced users about possible reasons your run isn’t
working. In one case, a user was using the standard element formulation with υ = 0.5 and hex/21
elements and his model would not converge even though there were no obvious problems. For this case,
using the constant volume formulation should provide a unique solution and allow convergence, unless
υ = 0.5 causes numerical problems. In that case you should use the Herrmann elements which should
take care of the numerical problems as well as the non-unique solution problem. If these options don’t
work, you could try using reduced integration, which may solve both problems at once, but may
CHAPTER 7 209
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

have problems with energy-free or "spurious" deformation modes (also called "hour-glassing"),
although the analysis has built-in hour glass stabilization. Also, try quasi-static inertial damping or an
arc-length methods.
Here are some other things to try:
a. try a finer mesh;
b. modify the material model: if its simple elastic-perfectly plastic with large plastic strains try
using constant volume Herrmann elements, if using a hyper-elastic material model try
lowering Nu from 0.5 to maybe 0.49 or so (or lower if you have to); make sure its based on
test data that includes the type of behavior you are trying to model (i.e. if your test data is from
a uni-axial tensile test and you are modeling a pressurized cylinder, which is a bi-axial stress
state, try analyzing a simple bi-axial sheet to see if your hyper-elastic material model will
successfully handle bi-axial stress states; if not you may have to include some bi-axial test
data (hyper-elastic models based on test data should include at least 2 "modes," although the
program has a new Arruda-Boyce model which often yields better results with limited
experimental data);
c. simplify - if the model you are running is a 3D cylinder made of solid elements, run a 2D axi-
symmetric test case to check out the mesh refinement and material model. If not in the post-
buckled region try: 1) look at deformed shape to see if it looks reasonable. Remember that
static equilibrium must be maintained at every step; 2) check reaction forces to see if the load
path is reasonable; 3) look for highly distorted elements, both visually and in the .out file - if
you find any you may need to go back and refine your mesh in that area to keep those elements
well-behaved, i.e. converging, or use adaptive re-meshing. Although distorted elements will
normally just give you bad results but not necessarily prevent convergence. Typically linear
elements (i.e. quad/4 instead of quad/8) do better in analyses where severe distortion is
expected. 4) if using contact elements you may be able to ease convergence problems by
simplifying the contact interaction: a) look at the .sts file for the # of increment splits and # of
separations to see if contact is the problem; b) set bias to 0.9, increase (or decrease) the contact
tolerance distance, suppress chattering; c) modify the contact table to eliminate suspected
trouble areas (at least as a diagnostic measure); d) look for areas where contact bodies may be
“sliding off. 5) PAY ATTENTION TO THE MESSAGES IN THE .STS, .LOG, .f06 AND
.OUT FILES, they may tell you why the model was not translated or convergence was not
reached and the analysis terminated. 6) if non-convergence relates to inelastic behavior of the
material, such as in a plasticity analysis, make sure there are no "plastic hinges" formed,
where static equilibrium cannot be achieved because the material is not strong enough, in this
case all the iterations go to deforming the body around the plastic region and static
equilibrium may never be reached. 7) when doing a hyperelastic material analysis the material
model may be unpredictable since the coefficients are generally quite unintuitive. The run
may not converge simply because the material model, while it may look reasonable, may
actually be inherently unstable (things like negative energy behavior, etc.) 8) make sure you
aren't stuck at a stability bifurcation point, (i.e. at a buckling mode), what may be happening
is that there are 2 valid (post-buckling in this case) equilibrium paths and the code flips back
and forth between them preventing convergence; the way to get past this is to make the
problem dynamic and use the inertia of the body to "select" the appropriate equilibrium path.
210 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Again, the “tried and true” method is to start with a linear model and add non-linearities one at a time, or
remove nonlinearities.
Consider changing the Contact Distance Tolerance. If you run into contact-related convergence problems
this is one of the first things to try.

Standard Exit Messages


Please refer to the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide and the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual for exit
codes and numbers.

SOL 600 Exit Numbers and their Interpretation:


Most SOL 600 jid.marc.out files end with an EXIT MESSAGE & NUMBER. This exit number is located
in the last few lines of the output file (.out file) of the SOL 600 run. If a.out file is not created, that
sometimes points to an installation issue or a FATAL ERROR or SEVERE WARNING will be present in
the jid.f06 file. EXIT #3004 is GOOD. It indicates a successful run. Most other exit numbers indicate a
failed run. Below are some common exit numbers that a user might encounter. Information on more exit
numbers are given in Volume C (Program Messages) of SOL 600 documentation, which contains the full
list of exit numbers/messages.
1. Exit 13: This exit # indicates an error with the SOL 600 input file. SOL 600 gives an exit 13
if it does not understand some term in the input deck. Causes include either the input deck is
written out incorrectly, or because the set-up is inconsistent (user set-up issue) e.g. user may set
up a shell model and not provide shell thickness; or the user creates but neglects to assign
material properties.
Fixing ‘exit 13’ errors: Go to the.out file and search for the keyword: error (*** error). The error
message listed there points to the section/line of the input deck causing the problem. The user has
to figure out why that is incorrect, along the lines discussed in the above paragraph or send the
MSC.Nastran implicit file (2) to MSC.
2. Exit 2004: If the user gets this message as soon as the job is submitted - i.e. no
increments/iterations successfully completed, it points to an unconstrained mesh. Exit 2004, from
a numerical stand-point, indicates a non-positive definite stiffness matrix. From a model set-up
stand-point, this implies that the mesh is not constrained in space, i.e. either incomplete (or no)
BCs have been applied to the model. User needs to check the BCs.
If this exit number comes after the analysis begins i.e. after some increments are done, the reasons
are to do with the mechanics of the model e.g. formation of a plastic hinge, or due to buckling, or
a deformable body sliding due to lack of friction in the model. The fix for each situation is unique
to the underlying physics of the model e.g. adding friction if that reflects the actual situation.
Turning on the “Suppress Rigid Body Motion” option on the NonLinear Solution parameters can
help in some cases.
CHAPTER 7 211
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

3. Exit 1005, Exit 1009: If this exit message (exit 1005) comes as soon as the job is submitted i.e.
at the first assembly of the first iteration, it indicates a meshing problem. Re-check mesh and re-
mesh. In most cases, this error message(s) comes after an analysis has started. Both exit numbers
1005 & 1009 indicate excessive element deformation during a particular load increment, in a
particular iteration. The way to get around this error is to reduce step size. However SOL 600 does
that automatically and if the problem still persists it gives exit 3015/3009. See explanations
below on exit 3015/3009.
4. Exit 3002: This message indicates that SOL 600 has reached the user-specified upper limit on
the number of (Newton-Raphson) iterations within a load increment. The default is set to 25.
SOL 600 keeps iterating 25 times, and tries to converge to a solution for that increment. If that
does not happen, SOL 600 will cut back the load (by half) and re-solve that increment.
Sometimes this is not enough to get convergence, and it will exit with 3002. One way to get
around this exit message is to increase the # of iterations, but that may not be the best way, since
25 is a high number to begin with. Treat this exit message the same way you would treat exit
3015/3009 i.e. look at the model to see what is causing it to not converge (i.e. what is causing it
difficulty at that stage of the analysis) and make changes accordingly. If this exit message
shows up in the first increment of the run, it could happen if the residual loads are very
low in the model to begin with. Check the output file to confirm this. Switching from relative
to absolute criterion will help, as might switching from load to displacement-based criteria.
5. Exit 3015, Exit 3009:
Exit 3009: This exit number indicates that SOL 600 cuts back to a the time-step size too small
for the analysis to continue. The load stepping algorithm has a cut-back feature where the load-
step is automatically reduced (halved) if SOL 600 runs into certain problems (exit 3002, or exit
1005). When an increment runs into these exit numbers, it will automatically cut the load-step
and re-solve that increment. If the problem continues to persist, it will cut back the load-step
again. This happens until the limit of the number of cut-backs is reached. This can result in a very
small time-step. In such a case, SOL 600 stops the analysis with an exit 3009. To fix this situation,
the user has to look at the results up to the point of failure to understand why SOL 600 cuts back
repeatedly at this stage of the analysis. An understanding of the physics of the model and/or
run-time issues at this stage of the analysis is important here. The user has to make a
determination and modify the model.
Exit 3015: SOL 600’s automatic load-stepping scheme is set up such that the applied load in an
increment scales up (or down) depending on how easy (or difficult) the solution was in the
previous increment. The degree of difficulty is determined based on the parameter: ‘desired
number of recycles’ (default = 3). SOL 600 will scale down the step size until it reaches a lower
limit on the step size (default = 0.001% of total time step) and then exit with # 3015. This is an
indication to the user that the analysis encountered some difficulty at that stage. As before, the
user has to view the results of the run up to that point and make a determination, based on the
physics of the run, as to why the analysis has problems. For more information on SOL 600’s
Automatic load-stepping procedure, please see Chapter 11 of Volume A: Considerations for
Non-linear Analysis, section: Automatic load-stepping.
212 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

6. Exit 2400 (seen only in contact problems):


This is seen in problems where a node on a mesh (deformable body) slides off from a rigid surface
that it was in contact with. For this exit # (and for exit numbers 1005, 1009 and 2004), SOL 600
attempts an automatic internal correction if the cut-back option is turned on (this is the default).
SOL 600 tries to set it right by cutting back the load step and re-solve. It keeps cutting back and
if it cannot resolve the problem, you get an exit 3009. To avoid this situation altogether, during
model set-up make sure that the ends of the rigid surface (or curves) are not close to the mesh. If
they are, you must extend them to beyond the end of the mesh- in any direction, preferably in a
manner satiate a smooth profile is maintained. If the extension of the rigid curve/surface results
in a sharp corner in the rigid body, put a fillet at the corner.

General Hints for Starting out with Nonlinear Analysis in Contact:


1. Start your model simple and gradually add complexity. For example, if you have a 4-body 3-D
contact problem that you are solving for the first time, initially try to run it as a 2-body contact
problem, get that running, and THEN add the 3rd and 4th contact body. In general, for any
nonlinear model, try to start with a simpler model and gradually add complexity.
2. A deformable-to-deformable contact problem takes more time/effort than a rigid-to-deformable
contact problem. So, wherever possible, use a rigid body in place of a mesh if that is appropriate
for the problem.
3. When starting with a new model, set up your model such that you get some initial results or a run-
failure within a few minutes. This means that you may need to start with a coarse mesh. Once you
know your model runs to completion, you can add refinement and/or complexity. As a general
comment, a 1000-2000 node job would fail within few minutes if there are set-up errors. This is
what we want: if the job fails, it should fail fast. These initial few runs serve the purpose of testing
the set-up parameters to make sure that they work right for this model. One can expect to make a
few/several runs to determine that the parameters are OK for that class of problems. Once these
parameters are known, the user can apply them to other models in that class of problems. Once
the job runs to completion, you can add complexity/refinement. Now the job will take longer, but
we know that it will run to completion.
4. Memory issues: Make sure your machine has enough RAM to accommodate the job run. If the
job goes out of RAM, the model will slow down significantly. The RAM needed for the run is
listed in the.out file (look for the keyword: memory and/or workspace). Open the file, search for
the key-words and pick out the largest RAM number you see. The RAM is in 'words'. Multiply
by 4 to get it in bytes. If the phrase ‘out-of-core’ appears in the.out file, it means that the job went
out of RAM. Typically, for large contact problems, it is recommended that the computer have
1.0+ GB of RAM but you can run non-linear jobs on computers with a fraction of that RAM.
5. Displacement control: In general, problems with applied displacements are numerically more
‘stable’ than problems with applied forces. For example, if a cantilever beam with a point BC at
the end is loaded using a force, formation of a plastic hinge can make the model go non-positive
definite. With an applied displacement, this scenario is less likely.
CHAPTER 7 213
Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

6. Linear problems have a unique solution, but that is not always true of non-linear problems.
Solutions to non-linear problems can also be quite sensitive to initial and boundary conditions.
Small changes in BCs/Is can sometimes change the solution quite a bit. When tackling nonlinear
problems, the user should take these into consideration.

Using MSC.Patran to Debug an Analysis


There are many error or warning messages that may be generated by the MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran
Interface. The following table outlines some of these.

Message Description
Unable to open a new message file If MSC.Patran tries to open a message file and cannot, it
" ". Translation messages will be will write messages to Standard Output. On most systems,
written to standard output. messages are written to standard output and never to a separate
message file.
Unable to open the specified The OUTPUT2 file was not found. Check the OUTPUT2 file
OUTPUT2 file " ". specification in the translation control file.
The specified OUTPUT2 file " " The OUTPUT2 file is not in standard binary format. Check the
is not in standard binary format and OUTPUT2 file specification in the translation control file.
cannot be translated.
Group " " does not exist in the The name of a nonexistent group was specified in the translator
database. Model data will not be control file. No model data will be translated from the
translated. OUTPUT2 file.
Needed file specification missing! The MSC.Patran control file must be specified as the first on-
The full name of the job file must be line argument to the translator.
specified as the first command-line
argument to this program.
Unable to open the specified If MSC.Patran cannot communicate directly to the specified
database " ". Writing the database. It will write the results and/or model data to a PCL
OUTPUT2 information to the PCL session file.
command file " ".
Unable to open either the specified The naspat3 translator is unable to open any output file. Check
database " ", or a PCL command file specification and directory protection.
file, " ".
Unable to open the NASTRAN MSC.Patran was unable to open a file to where the input file
input file " ". information will be written.
214 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Message Description
Unable to open the specified The forward MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran translator was unable to
database, " " . open the specified MSC.Patran database.
Alter file of the name " " could The OUTPUT2 DMAP alter file, for this type of analysis, could
not be found. No OUPUT2 alter not be found. Correct the search path to include the necessary
will be written to the NASTRAN directory if you want the alter files to be written to the input file.
input file.
No property regions are defined in Elements referenced by an element property region in the
the database. No elements or MSC.Patran database will not get translated by the forward
element properties can be MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran translator. If no element regions are
translated. defined, no elements will be translated.
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 8: Output from the Analysis

8 Output from the Analysis


Overview 216

Output Requests 218
 SOL 600 Results Quantities 226

MSC.Nastran Results Quantities 231
216 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Overview
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) produces stress and strain results that may differ from those
results available with SOL 106 and 129.
At present, new datablock definitions have not been created in MSC.Nastran to handle new types of
nonlinear output. Therefore, it is suggested that the MSC.Marc t16 or t19 file be used to evaluate results.
The result quantities included in the t16/t19 files are controlled using the MARCOUT Bulk Data entry.
For a complete description, see MARCOUT (SOL 600) (p. 1609) in the . MSC.Patran can be used to
postprocess nearly all types of output selected by the MARCOUT entry. In general, if the t16 file is saved
and brought into MSC.Patran, the types of stresses and strains will be labeled correctly and you can easily
choose which quantities to plot.
The more basic types of output (displacements, velocities, accelerations, Cauchy stress tensor and one
type of strain tensor) can be translated back to standard MSC.Nastran op2, xdb, punch and even f06 files
using the OUTR option on the SOL 600 Executive Control statement. For a complete description, see
SOL 600,ID (p. 138) in the . If the stresses and strains are brought back into the MSC.Nastran files (op2,
xdb, f06 or pch), only one type of stress and strain may be placed on the OP2 file. Generally the Cauchy
Stress tensor will be available along with a user selection of one of the following strains: plastic, total or
elastic in the strain measure selected for the analysis. The type of stress-strain pair brought back into the
Nastran results files is specified using PARAM, MARCEKND.

Input
SOL 600 Statement Default
If SOL 600 with nothing else on the line is entered, the statement will act the same as if the following
statement was used:
SOL 600,NLSTATIC OUTR=OP2

.OP2 Data
Outputs in the OP2 file (as well as f06, xdb and punch) have been enhanced in the following areas:
• MPC forces are available
• SPC forces are available
• 3-D contact results are available
• Displacement, velocity, acceleration results are available
• Cauchy Stress and one type of strain (total, plastic or elastic) are available
• Beam loads are available
• Output in the MSC.Nastran files is controlled the same way as in other MSC.Nastran
solution sequences
• Set definitions may be used to limit output for any of the above items
• Grid force
CHAPTER 8 217
Output from the Analysis

You must include Case Control requests such as DISP(PLOT)=ALL in order to obtain output in op2, xdb,
punch or f06 files. In addition, OUTR requests on the SOL 600 entry must be made (for example
OUTR=OP2,F06). The applicable Case Control requests for SOL 600 are DISP, STRESS, STRAIN,
SPCFORCE, MPCFORCE, and BOUTPUT. BOUTPUT maps 3D contact to the older 2D Slideline
Contact datablock (see item codes for contact in section 6 of the 2005 Quick Reference Guide).
The output interval for the t16 file (and thus the OP2 file) is controlled by either the NLPARAM Bulk
Data entry or the MARCOTIM entry.

Results Translation
The speed of the t16op2 results translator was increased in 2005 r3 by a factor of 4 or more for large
models. The speed increase is triggered using PARAM,MSPEEDOU,1, which is the default.
MSC.Nastran-to-MSC.Marc translation speed has increased for beam and shell type elements (in
addition to the previous speed enhancements for solid elements) by using PARAM,MSPEEDSE,1 (or 2).
The speed increase varies from model to model but can be as great as a factor of 4-10 for some models.
218 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Output Requests
Output requests are made in the Case Control section of the MSC.Nastran Input file. Case Control
commands are organized into three categories:
1. Output Control - defines how and where the output is delivered.
2. Sets/Grouping of Output - prescribes the set of geometrical or FEM entities for which results are
to be returned.
3. Actual Result Quantities - identifies the individual result quantities to be returned.

Specifying Output Requests


For a complete list of the output requests available via the Case Control commands, see Case Control
Command Summary (p. 178) in the .

Making Output Requests in MSC.Patran


The Output Requests form is used to request results from the MSC.Nastran analysis for use in
postprocessing (post tape) and verification (output file).
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis Application form, select Subcases... and choose Output Requests... from the
Subcase Options section.
CHAPTER 8 219
Output from the Analysis

Results (POST) File Options


• Increments between Defines the number of increments between writing results to
Writing Results the MSC.Nastran results file after the first increment of the
analysis. The default is one (1) for every increment.
• Select Nodal Results... Brings up a subform for selecting nodal results
• Select Element Results... Brings up a subform for selecting elemental results.

Although printed output requests can be different from Subcase to Subcase, there are certain aspects of
these requests that can only be written once. For those aspects of output requests that must remain
constant regardless of the Load Step, that information is extracted from the first Subcase in the Subcase
Selection form.
220 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Select Nodal Results


This subform controls which nodal result quantities are returned from the analysis.

Available Result Types Lists all of the available result types for the analysis. The numbers
in parentheses are the MSC.Marc POST code numbers.
Selected Result Types Shows the set of result types that have been selected to be returned
in the analysis.
CHAPTER 8 221
Output from the Analysis

The following table shows the post codes that may be selected for a SOL 600 structural
nonlinear analysis.

Nodal Result Postcode Default(?)


DISPLACEMENT 1 YES
ROTATION 2 YES
EXTERNAL FORCE 3 no
EXTERNAL MOMENT 4 no
REACTION FORCE 5 YES
REACTION MOMENT 6 no
PORE PRESSURE 23 no
VELOCITY 28 no
ROTATIONAL VELOCITY 29 no
ACCELERATION 30 no
ROTATIONAL ACCELERATION 31 no
MODAL MASS 32 no
ROTATION MODAL MASS 33 no
CONTACT NORMAL STRESS 34 no
CONTACT NORMAL FORCE 35 YES
FRICTION STRESS 36 no
FRICTION FORCE 37 YES
CONTACT STATUS 38 no
CONTACT TOUCHED body 39 YES
HERRMANN VARIABLE 40 no
POST CODE, No. -11 -11 thru -16 no
POST CODE, No. -22 -21 thru -23 no
POST CODE, No. -31 -31 no
POST CODE, No. -41 -41 no
POST CODE, No. -51 -51 no

Note: The POST CODE (<0) are for user-defined quantities via user subroutine UPSTNO.
222 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Element Output Requests


This subform controls which element result quantities are returned from the analysis.
CHAPTER 8 223
Output from the Analysis

Available Result Types Lists all of the available result types for the analysis. The numbers
in parentheses are the MSC.Marc POST code numbers.
Selected Result Types Shows the set of result types that have been selected to be returned
in the analysis.
Element X-section Results Defines the number of layer points to use through the cross section
of homogeneous shells, plates and beams. This number must be odd
if not a composite.

Note: If no elemental results are selected and no nodal results are selected, no POST option
is written.

The following table shows the post codes that may be selected for a SOL 600 structural
nonlinear analysis.

Elemental Result Postcode Solutions Default(?)


STRAIN, TOTAL COMPONENTS 301 nonlinear only YES
STRAIN, TOTAL COMPONENTS 461 nonlinear only no
(defined system)
STRAIN, ELASTIC COMPONENTS 401 any YES
STRAIN, ELASTIC COMPONENTS 421 any no
(global system)
STRAIN, ELASTIC EQUIVALENT 127 any no
STRAIN, PLASTIC COMPONENTS 321 nonlinear only YES
STRAIN, PLASTIC COMPONENTS 431 nonlinear only no
(global system)
STRAIN, PLASTIC EQUIVALENT 27 nonlinear only YES
STRAIN, PLASTIC EQUIVALENT 7 nonlinear only YES
(from rate)
STRAIN, CREEP COMPONENTS 331 creep only no
STRAIN, CREEP COMPONENTS 441 creep only no
(global system)
STRAIN, CREEP EQUIVALENT 37 creep only no
STRAIN, CREEP EQUIVALENT 8 creep only no
(from rate)
STRAIN, THERMAL 371 any no
STRAIN, THICKNESS 49 any no
224 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Elemental Result Postcode Solutions Default(?)


STRAIN, VELOCITY 451 nonlinear only no
STRESS, COMPONENTS 311 any no
STRESS, COMPONENTS 391 an no
(defined system)
STRESS, COMPONENTS 411 any no
(global system)
STRESS, EQUIVALENT YIELD 59 nonlinear only no
STRESS, EQUIVALENT MISES 17 any YES
STRESS, MEAN NORMAL 18 any YES
STRESS, INTERLAMINAR SHEAR 108 any no
No. 1
STRESS, INTERLAMINAR SHEAR 109 any no
No. 2
STRESS, INTERLAMINAR 501,511 any no
COMPONENTS
STRESS, CAUCHY COMPONENTS 341 nonlinear only no
STRESS, CAUCHY EQUIVALENT 47 nonlinear only YES
STRESS, HARMONIC 351 (real) harmonic only no
COMPONENTS 361(imag)
FORCES, ELEMENT 264-269 any no
BIMOMENT 270 any no
STRAIN RATE, PLASTIC 28 nonlinear only no
STRAIN RATE, EQUIVALENT 175 any no
VISCOPLASTIC
STATE VARIABLE, SECOND 29 any no
STATE VARIABLE, THIRD 39 any no
TEMPERATURE, ELEMENT TOTAL 9 any no
TEMPERATURE, ELEMENT 10 any no
INCREMENTAL
STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, TOTAL 48 nonlinear only YES
STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, 58 any no
ELASTIC
STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, 68 nonlinear only no
PLASTIC
THICKNESS, ELEMENT 20 any no
VOLUME, ELEMENT 78 any no
VOLUME, VOID FRACTION 177 any no
CHAPTER 8 225
Output from the Analysis

Elemental Result Postcode Solutions Default(?)


FAILURE, INDEX No. 1-7 91-103 any no
POST CODE, No. 19 19 any no
POST CODE, No. 38 38 any no
POST CODE, No. -11 -11 thru -16 any no
POST CODE, No. -21 -21 thru -23 any no
POST CODE, No. -31 -31 any no
POST CODE, No. -41 -41 any no
POST CODE, No. -51 -51 any no
226 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

SOL 600 Results Quantities


The following table indicates all the possible result quantities which can be loaded into the MSC.Patran
database from the t16 file. The Primary and Secondary Labels are items selected from the postprocessing
menus. The Type indicates whether the results are Scalar, Vector, or Tensor. These types will determine
which postprocessing techniques will be available in order to view the results quantity. Postcodes
indicates which MSC.Marc element postcodes (selected automatically or by Nastran bulk data card
MARCOUT) the data comes from. The Description gives a brief discussion about the results quantity.
The Output Request forms use the actual primary and secondary labels which will appear in the results.
For example, if “Strain, Elastic” is selected on the Element Output Requests form, the “Strain, Elastic”
is created for postprocessing.

Primary Secondary
Label Label Type Postcodes Description
Displacement Translation Vector 1 (nodal) Translational displacements at nodes
from a structural analysis.
Displacement Rotation Vector 2 (nodal) Rotational displacements at nodes
from a structural analysis.
Velocity Translation Vector 28 (nodal) Translational velocities at nodes from
a dynamic analysis.
Velocity Rotation Vector 29 (nodal) Rotational velocities at nodes.
Acceleration Translation Vector 30 (nodal) Translational accelerations at nodes
from a dynamic analysis.
Acceleration Rotation Vector 31 (nodal) Rotational accelerations at nodes from
a dynamic analysis.
Force Nodal External Vector 3 (nodal) Forces applied to the model in a
Applied structural analysis.
Force Nodal Reaction Vector 5 (nodal) Reaction forces at boundary
conditions from a structural analysis.
Moment Nodal External Vector 4 (nodal) Moments applied to the model in a
Applied structural analysis.
Moment Nodal Reaction Vector 6 (nodal) Reaction moments at boundary
conditions from a structural analysis.
Modal Mass Translation Vector 32 (nodal) Translational modal masses from
modal extractions.
Modal Mass Rotation Vector 33 (nodal) Rotational modal masses from modal
extractions.
Stress Contact Normal Vector 34 (nodal) Contact Normal Stress
Force Contact Normal Vector 35 (nodal) Contact Normal Force
Stress Friction Vector 36 (nodal) Friction Stress
CHAPTER 8 227
Output from the Analysis

Primary Secondary
Label Label Type Postcodes Description
Force Friction Vector 37 (nodal) Friction Force
Contact Status Scalar 38 (nodal) Contact Status
Contact Touched Body Scalar 39 (nodal) Touched Body Contact
Variable Herrmann Scalar 40 (nodal) Herrmann Variable
Post Code No. -11 through - Tensor -11 thru -16, User defined nodal quantities via user
16 (nodal) subroutine UPSTNO.
Post Code No. -21 through - Vector -21 thru -23, User defined nodal quantities via user
23 (nodal) subroutine UPSTNO.
Post Code No. -31 Scalar -31, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user
subroutine UPSTNO.
Post Code No. -41 Scalar -41, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user
subroutine UPSTNO.
Post Code No. -51 Scalar -51, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user
subroutine UPSTNO.
Strain Creep Tensor 31-36 or 331 Creep strain from a nonlinear
structural analysis.
Strain Plastic Scalar 28 Equivalent plastic strain rate from a
Equivalent Rate nonlinear structural analysis.
Strain Thermal Tensor 71-76 or 371 Thermal strain from a structural
analysis.
Strain Thickness Scalar 49 Thickness strain from a structural
analysis.
Strain Total Tensor 1-6 or 301 Total strain from a structural analysis.
Temperature Element Scalar 9 Element temperature from a thermal or
structural analysis.
Temperature Element Gradient Vector 181-183 Element temperature gradient from a
thermal analysis.
Temperature Element Scalar 10 Incremental element temperature from
Incremental a thermal or structural analysis.
Stress Tensor 11-16 or 311 Stress from a structural analysis.
Stress Cauchy Tensor 41-46 or 341 Cauchy stress from a nonlinear
structural analysis.
Stress Cauchy Scalar 47 Equivalent Cauchy stress from a
Equivalent Mises nonlinear structural analysis.
Stress Equivalent Mises Scalar 17 Equivalent (von mises) stress from a
structural analysis.
228 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Primary Secondary
Label Label Type Postcodes Description
Stress Hydrostatic Scalar 18 Hydrostatic stress from a structural
analysis.
Stress Interlaminar Scalar 108 Interlaminar shear in one direction
Shear No. 1 from a structural analysis.
Stress Interlaminar Scalar 109 Interlaminar shear in two direction
Shear No. 2 from a structural analysis.
Energy Elastic Scalar 48 Elastic strain energy density from a
Density structural analysis.
Energy Plastic Scalar 58 Plastic strain energy density from a
Density nonlinear structural analysis.
Energy Total Scalar 68 Total strain energy density from a
Density structural analysis.
Flux Element Vector 184-186 Element heat flux from a thermal
analysis.
State Variable Second Scalar 29 Second state variable from a nonlinear
thermal or structural analysis.
State Variable Third Scalar 39 Third state variable from a nonlinear
thermal or structural analysis.
Failure Index No. 1 Scalar 91 Failure index one from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 2 Scalar 92 Failure index two from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 3 Scalar 93 Failure index three from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 4 Scalar 94 Failure index four from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 5 Scalar 95 Failure index five from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 6 Scalar 96 Failure index six from a structural
analysis.
Failure Index No. 7 Scalar 97 Failure index seven from a structural
analysis.
Thickness Scalar 20 Element thickness from a thermal or
structural analysis.
Volume Scalar 78 Element Volume from a thermal or
structural analysis.
CHAPTER 8 229
Output from the Analysis

In addition to these standard results quantities, several Global Variable results can be created. Global
Variables are results quantities where one value is representative of the entire model. The following
table defines the Global Variables which may be created.

Global Variable Label Type Description


Increment Scalar Increment of the analysis.
Time Scalar Time of the analysis.
Buckling Mode Scalar Buckling mode number.
Critical Load Factor Scalar Critical load factor for buckling analysis.
Dynamic Mode Scalar Dynamic mode number from modal extraction.
Frequency (radians/time) Scalar Frequency in radians per unit time for modal extraction.

Using MSC.Patran to Postprocess Results Quantities


1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Access Results>Attach
t16/t19>Results Entities.
230 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

After selecting a t16 or t19 file, you will need to specify the translation parameters.
CHAPTER 8 231
Output from the Analysis

MSC.Nastran Results Quantities


If you wish to return result quantities from MSC.Marc back to MSC.Nastran you must include the OUTR
option on the SOL 600 Executive Control statement.

Entry Description
OUTR Specifies that MSC.Marc output results be converted to various types of
MSC.Nastran formats

References
• SOL 600,ID (p. 138) in the .

Using MSC.Patran to Postprocess MSC.Nastran


Results Quantities
1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Access Results>Attach XBD>Results Entities
or Access Results>Read Output2>Results Entities.
232 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

After selecting an XDB or op2 file, you will need to specify the translation parameters.
CHAPTER 8 233
Output from the Analysis

Tolerances
• Division Prevent division by zero errors.
• Numerical Compares real values for equality.
Additional Results to be Imported
• Rotational Nodal Results Indicates whether Rotational Nodal Results are skipped or
included in translation.
• Stress/Strain Invariants Indicates whether Stress/Strain Invariants are skipped or
included in translation.
• Principal Directions Indicates whether Principal Directions are skipped or
included in translation.
• Element Results Positions If an element has results at both the centroid and at the
nodes, this filter indicates which results are to be included
in the translation.
234 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 9: Assigned Conditions

9 Assigned Conditions


Constraints 236

Loads and Boundary Conditions 248
 Initial Conditions 265
236 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Constraints
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to input kinematic constraints through various options that
include:
• Boundary Conditions (prescribed nodal values)
• Multi-Point Constraints (Rigid elements such as RBE1, RBE2, RBE3, RBAR, etc.)
• Support Conditions

Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions, in terms of fixed displacements at nodes, define one type of kinematic constraint
for a structural analysis. Loads and boundary conditions are addressed in the following section of this
chapter, please see (p. 248).

Multi-Point Constraints
MPCs are special element types which define a rigorous behavior between several specified nodes. The
following table lists the MPC types which are supported for MSC. Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
MPC Types
• Explicit • RBE1
• Rigid (Fixed) • RBE2
• Cyclic Symmetry • RBE3
• Sliding Surface • RROD
• RBAR • RTRPLT

Specifying Explicit MPCs


Explicit MPC’s may be created between a dependent degree of freedom and one or more independent
degrees of freedom. The dependent term consists of a node ID and a degree of freedom, while an
independent term consists of a coefficient, a node ID, and a degree of freedom. An unlimited number of
independent terms can be specified, while only one dependent term can be specified.

Entry Description
MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation.

References
• MPC (p. 1963) in the .

Defining Explicit MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define an Explicit MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
CHAPTER 9 237
Assigned Conditions

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>Explicit.


3. Click on Define Terms... to define the explicit constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the fields for G1 and C1 on the MPC entry. Only one
node and DOF combination may be defined for any given explicit MPC. The
A1 field on the MPC entry is automatically set to -1.0.
Independent Terms Independent terms define the Gi, Ci, and Ai fields on the MPC entry, where i
is greater than one. As many coefficient, node, and DOF combinations as
desired may be defined.
238 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Specifying Rigid MPCs


Rigid MPC’s may be created between one independent node and one or more dependent nodes in which
all six structural degrees of freedom are rigidly attached to each other. An unlimited number of dependent
terms can be specified, while only one independent term can be specified. Each term consists of a single
node. There is no constant term for this MPC type.:

Entry Description
RBE2 Defines a rigid body with independent degrees-of-freedom that are specified at a
single grid point and with dependent degrees-of-freedom that are specified at an
arbitrary number of grid points.

References
• RBE2 (p. 2286) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining Rigid MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a Rigid MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>Rigid (Fixed).
3. Click on Define Terms... to define the rigid constraints.
CHAPTER 9 239
Assigned Conditions

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi fields on the RBE2 entry. As many nodes as
desired may be selected as dependent terms.
Independent Terms Independent terms define the GN field on the RBE2 entry. Only one node may
be selected.

Entry Description
Shell Nodes Dependent terms define the ESi fields on the RSSCON entry. One dependent
node must be selected for every two independent terms.
Solid Nodes ndependent terms define the EA and EB field on the RSSCON entry. Two
independent terms are required.

Specifying Sliding Surface MPCs


Describes the boundary conditions of sliding surfaces, such as pipe sleeves. These boundary conditions
are written as explicit MPCs. Be careful, for this option automatically redefines the analysis coordinate
references of all affected nodes. This could erroneously alter the meaning of previously applied load and
boundary conditions, as well as element properties.

Entry Description
MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation.

References
• MPC (p. 1963) in the .

Defining Sliding Surface MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a Sliding Surface MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>Sliding Surface.
240 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the sliding surface constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Region Specifies the dependent nodes on the sliding surface. The same number of
unique nodes must be specified in both regions.
Independent Region Specifies the independent nodes on the sliding surface. The same number of
unique nodes must be specified in both regions.

Specifying RBAR MPCs


Creates an RBAR element, which defines a rigid bar between two nodes. Up to two dependent and two
independent terms can be specified. Each term consists of a node and a list of degrees of freedom. The
nodes specified in the two dependent terms must be the same as the nodes specified in the two
independent terms. Any combination of the degrees of freedom of the two nodes can be specified as
independent as long as the total number of independent degrees of freedom adds up to six. There is no
constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description
RBAR Defines a rigid bar with six degrees-of-freedom at each end.

References
• RBAR (p. 2280) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
CHAPTER 9 241
Assigned Conditions

Defining RBAR MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RBAR MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBAR.
3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RBAR constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Either one or two nodes may be defined as having dependent terms. The Nodes
define the GA and GB fields on the RBAR entry. The DOFs define the CMA
and CMB fields.
Independent Terms Either one or two nodes may be defined as having independent terms.The
Nodes define the GA and GB fields on the RBAR entry.The DOFs define the
CNA and CNB fields.

Specifying RBE1 MPCs


RBEI is not allowed in SOL 600.

References
• RBE1 (p. 2284) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
242 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Defining RBE1 MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RBE1 MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE1.

Specifying RBE2 MPCs


Creates an RBE2 element, which defines a rigid body between an arbitrary number of nodes. Although
the user can only specify one dependent term, an arbitrary number of nodes can be associated to this term.
The user is also prompted to associate a list of degrees of freedom to this term. A single independent term
can be specified, which consists of a single node. There is no constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description
RBE2 Defines a rigid body with independent degrees of freedom that are specified at
a single grid point and with dependent degrees of freedom that are specified at
an arbitrary number of grid points.

References
• RBE2 (p. 2286) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining RBE2 MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RBE2 MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE2.
CHAPTER 9 243
Assigned Conditions

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RBE2 constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi and CM fields on the RBE2 entry. As many
nodes as desired may be selected as dependent terms.
Independent Terms Independent terms define the GN field on the RBE2 entry. Only one node may
be selected.

Specifying RBE3 MPCs


Creates an RBE3 element, which defines the motion of a reference node as the weighted average of the
motions of a set of nodes. An arbitrary number of dependent terms can be specified, each term consisting
of a node and a list of degrees of freedom. The first dependent term is used to define the reference node.
The other dependent terms define additional node/degrees of freedom, which are added to the m-set. An
arbitrary number of independent terms can also be specified. Each independent term consists of a
constant coefficient (weighting factor), a node, and a list of degrees of freedom. There is no constant term
for this MPC type.

Entry Description
RBE3 Defines the motion at a reference grid point as the weighted average of the
motions at a set of other grid points.

References
• RBE3 (p. 2299) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
244 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Defining RBE3 MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RBE3 MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE3.
3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RBE3 constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi and CMi fields on the RBE3 entry. The first
dependent term will be treated as the reference node, REFGRID and REFC.
The rest of the dependent terms become the GMi and CMi components.
Independent Terms Independent terms define the Gi, j, Ci, and WTi fields on the RBE3 entry.

Specifying RROD MPCs


Creates an RROD element, which defines a pinned rod between two nodes that is rigid in extension.
One dependent term is specified, which consists of a node and a single translational degree of freedom.
One independent term is specified, which consists of a single node. There is no constant term for this
MPC type.

Entry Description
RROD Defines a pin-ended element that is rigid in translation.
CHAPTER 9 245
Assigned Conditions

References
• RROD (p. 2352) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining RROD MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RROD MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RROD.
3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RROD constraints.

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GB and CMB on the RROD entry. Only one
translational degree of freedom may be referenced for this entry.
Independent Terms Independent terms define the GA field on the RROD entry. The CMA field is
left blank.

Specifying RTRPLT MPCs


Creates an RTRPLT element, which defines a rigid triangular plate between three nodes. Up to three
dependent and three independent terms can be specified. Each term consists of a node and a list of
degrees of freedom. The nodes specified in the three dependent terms must be the same as the nodes
specified in the three independent terms. Any combination of the degrees of freedom of the three nodes
246 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

can be specified as independent as long as the total number of independent degrees of freedom adds up
to six. There is no constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description
RTRPLT Defines a rigid triangular plate.

References
• RTRPLT (p. 2366) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining RTRPLT MPCs in MSC.Patran


To define a RTRPLT MPC:
1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements
Application form.
2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RTRPLT.
3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RTRPLT constraints.
CHAPTER 9 247
Assigned Conditions

Entry Description
Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GA, GB, GC, CMA, CMB, and CMC fields of the
RTRPLT entry.
Independent Terms The total number of nodes referenced in both the dependent terms and the
independent terms must equal three. There must be exactly six independent
degrees of freedom, and they must be capable of describing rigid body motion.
Defines the GA, GB, GC, CNA, CNB, and CNC fields of the RTRPLT entry.

Support Conditions
In static analysis by the displacement method, the rigid body modes must be restrained in order to
remove the singularity of the stiffness matrix. The required constraints may be supplied with single point
constraints, multipoint constraints, or free body supports. If free body supports are used, the rigid body
characteristics will be calculated and a check will be made on the sufficiency of the supports.
Free-body supports are defined with a SUPORT6 or SUPORT1 entry. Free-body supports must be
defined in the global coordinate system. The SUPORT6 entry must be selected by the SUPORT1 Case
Control command.
For more information on Support Conditions, see Rigid Body Supports (p. 357) in the .
248 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Loads and Boundary Conditions


The loads for the analysis can be either Static or Time Dependent (dynamic). Time dependency is
introduced either through the inclusion of a time dependent field multiplier, or through use of initial
condition options (e.g., initial displacements).
When defining loads on a model it is important to define the following terms and concepts.

Load Sets
A Loads/BC set is comprised of a collection of data (which may include fields) that are associated with
both an analysis type and geometric and/or FEM entities. A typical example is displacements associated
with nodes in a structural analysis.

Load Cases
A load case contains all the loads and boundary conditions used within a single analysis step. For
example, one load case may represent the loads and BC for each time point in a time-dependent nonlinear
analysis. Multiple load cases can be applied to the same model for linear analysis to examine how the
model reacts to different loading conditions. Load cases are central to the ability to perform complex
analyses on an individual model. For nonlinear analysis multiple loadcase runs are used to define the load
history on the model. The ending point of the last subcase is the starting point of the next subcase.

Load Steps
A Load Step (or analysis step) is defined by associating a load case, an analysis procedure, output
requests, and any associated parameters that guide the solution path for the chosen analysis procedure.
Whereas a load case is a collection of loads and boundary conditions for a particular Load Step, a Load
Step is a collection of relevant analysis parameters including the associated load case.
The load for a subcase is often subdivided into the number of increments specified for the subcase. The
solution strategy in nonlinear analysis is to apply the loads in an incremental fashion until the desired
load level is reached.

Load Types
The static loads in nonlinear analysis consist of concentrated loads, distributed loads, and thermal loads
as well as applied displacements. Most of the relevant loads data applicable to the linear static analysis
are also applicable to nonlinear static analysis. Transient loads define the loadings as functions of time
and the location. A load can be applied at a particular degree of freedom, pressure over the surface area,
or the body force simulating an acceleration.
CHAPTER 9 249
Assigned Conditions

The following types of loads are available for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

Table 9-1 Bulk Data Entries for Loads


Loads
FORCEi Defines concentrated load at grid point.
LSEQ Defines static load sets for dynamic analysis.
MOMENTi Defines moment at a grid point.
NOLINi Defines nonlinear transient load.
PLOAD Defines pressure loads on CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA.
Should not be used for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4, CQUAD8, CQUAD,
CTRIA3, and CTRIA6 or for hyperelastic CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA with
midside nodes.
PLOAD2 Defines pressure loads on shell elements, CQUAD4 and CTRIA3. Not available for
hyperelastic elements.
PLOAD4 Defines pressure loads on surfaces of CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3 and
CQUAD4 elements. Not available for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4,
CQUAD8, CQUAD, CTRIA3, and CTRIA6.
PLOADX1 Defines pressure loads on axisymmetric elements CQUADX and CTRIAX.
RFORCE Defines load due to centrifugal force field.
TIC Specifies initial values for displacement and velocity.
TLOADi Defines loads as a function of time.

References
• FORCE (p. 1494) in the .
• LSEQ (p. 1603) in the .
• MOMENT (p. 1949) in the .
• NOLIN1 (p. 2014) in the .
• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .
• RFORCE (p. 2336) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• TIC (p. 2519) in the .
• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .
250 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Using MSC.Patran to Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions


The Loads and Boundary Conditions application controls which loads and boundaries and contact
information will be created in the MSC.Nastran input file.

The Loads and Boundary Conditions application in MSC.Patran provides the ability to apply a variety of
static and dynamic loads and boundary conditions including contact surfaces to finite element models.
Loads/BCs may be associated with geometric entities as well as FEM entities. When associated with
geometric entities, they can be transferred to finite elements created on the geometry. Loads and
boundary conditions are intended to be created in multiple single purpose groups referred to as load sets.
These sets are grouped into load cases in the Load Cases application.
One of the most elegant features in MSC.Patran is its ability to create fields that describes the variation
of loads and boundary conditions. The way in which Loads and BCs vary may be defined spatially, by
previous analysis results, based on time, or associated with material properties.
Sets can be visually displayed on the screen by markers which show the location, type, magnitude, and
direction of the applied loads or boundary condition. Only the static portion of a dynamic Loads/BCs set
is reflected in the marker display. Sets can also be displayed as tables.
A powerful capability is the display of any set scalar data directly on the model as a fringe plot. For
display purposes, data are treated as “results,” with full user control over the spectrum, method, shading,
etc. Data display is scalar, but the data can be pressures, vector component magnitudes, and vector
resultant magnitudes. Fringe plots can only be displayed on finite elements. Fringes of a dynamic
Loads/BCs set may be displayed at user-specified times.

Creating Load Cases


The Load Cases application enables you to combine a large number of individual loads and boundary
condition (LBCs) sets into a single coherent case for application to the model. Each load case you create
has a unique user-selected descriptive name as well as an associated descriptive statement. Load case
information is permanently stored in the database (unless deleted). You can modify it at any time
.

Even if you do not create any load cases, your load and boundary conditions will still be placed into a
default current load case, named “default.” If you create a special load case and make it the current load
case, then all subsequent LBCs will be placed in that load case as long as it is current.

Static Load Cases


Load cases in which none of the constituent loads or boundary conditions sets has a time varying
component are called static load cases. Loads and boundary conditions that will make up a static load
CHAPTER 9 251
Assigned Conditions

case are generated using the Input Data subform. For static load cases, this subform will vary according
to the type of load being created, but its general format remains constant.
252 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Time-Dependent Load Cases


Load cases in which one or more of the loads and boundary conditions sets has a time varying component
are called time-dependent, or dynamic load cases Loads and boundary conditions that will make up a
time-dependent load case are also generated using the Input Data subform. For time-dependent load
cases, this subform incorporates time dependency data fields.

For more information, see Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application (p. 6) in the MSC
Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional Assignments.
CHAPTER 9 253
Assigned Conditions

Displacement LBCs
Boundary conditions can be used to specify the value of the displacements at nodes. To create a boundary
condition for displacement, you need to specify the node number, the degree of freedom(s), and the
magnitude of the displacement.
Displacements can be imposed directly on nodes using SPC1 and SPCD Bulk Data entries. All non blank
entries will cause an SPC1 entry to be created. If the specified value is not 0.0, an SCPD entry will also
be created to define the non zero enforced displacement or rotation.

References
• SPC1 (p. 2429) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• SPCD (p. 2432) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Zero or nonzero displacements can also be applied across elements in a uniform or variable fashion. The
primary use of this boundary condition is to apply constraints to solid elements.

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Displacement boundary conditions are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type
combinations on the LBC Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Displacement Nodal SPC1, SPCD
Element Uniform 2-D/3-D SPC1, SPCD

Element Variable

Entry Description
Translations (T1,T2,T3) Defines the enforced translational displacement values. These are in model
length units.
Rotations (R1,R2,R3) Defines the enforced rotational displacement values. These are in radians.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.
254 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Force LBCs
Concentrated forces and moments can be applied directly to nodes with the ability to define the direction
as well as the magnitude.
Forces and moments are specified with FORCEi and MOMENTi Bulk Data entries, where:

Entry Description
FORCE Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point by specifying the
magnitude and direction.
MOMENT
FORCE1 Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point where the direction
of the force/moment is defined to be parallel to a vector between two defined
MOMENT1 grid points.
FORCE2 Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point where the direction
of the force/moment is parallel to the cross product of vectors from G1 to G2
MOMENT2 and G3 to G4.

References
• FORCE (p. 1494) in the .
• FORCE1 (p. 1495) in the .
• FORCE2 (p. 1496) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Forces and moments are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the
LBC Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Force Nodal FORCEi, MOMENTi

Entry Description
Force (F1,F2,F3) Defines the applied forces in the translation degrees of freedom. This
defines the N vector and the F magnitude on the FORCE entry.
Moment (M1,M2,M3) Defines the applied moments in the rotational degrees of freedom. This
defines the N vector and the M magnitude on the MOMENT entry.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.
CHAPTER 9 255
Assigned Conditions

Pressure LBCs
Pressure loads can be applied to edges or surfaces of 2-D and 3-D elements. Several Bulk Data entries
are used to apply pressure loading depending on the element topology.

Entry Description
PLOAD Defines pressure loads on CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CHEXA, CPENTA, and
CTETRA. Should not be used for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4,
CQUAD8, CQUAD, CTRIA3, and CTRIA6 or for hyperelastic CHEXA,
CPENTA, CTETRA with midside nodes.
PLOAD2 Defines pressure loads on shell elements, CQUAD4 and CTRIA3.
PLOAD4 Defines pressure loads on surfaces of CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3
and CQUAD4 elements.
PLOADX1 Defines pressure loads on axisymmetric elements CQUADX and CTRIAX.

These pressures are applied to 2-D and 3-D elements only. Pressures for 1-D elements are applied using
the Total Load LBCs, 263 object.

References
• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .
• PLOAD2 (p. 2191) in the .
• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .
• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Pressures are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form.

1. Uniform Pressure Loads on 2-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Pressure Element Uniform 2-D PLOAD4, PLOADX1, or FORCE

Entry Description
Top Surf Pressure Defines the top surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4 entry.
The negative of this value defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. These values
are all equal for a given element, producing a uniform pressure field across
that face.
Bot Surf Pressure Defines the bottom surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4
entry. This value defines the P1 through P4 values.These values are all equal
for a given element, producing a uniform pressure field across that face.
256 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description
Edge Pressure For Axisymmetric Solid elements (CTRIAX6), defines the P1 through P3
values on the PLOADX1 entry where THETA on that entry is defined as zero.
For other 2D elements, this will be interpreted as a load per unit length (i.e.
independent of thickness) and converted into equivalent nodal loads (FORCE
entries). If a scalar field is referenced, it will be evaluated at the middle of the
application region. Edge pressures are not available in SOL 600 prior to the
2006 release.

2. Uniform Pressure Loads on 3-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Pressure Element Uniform 3-D PLOAD4

Entry Description
Pressure Defines the face pressure value on solid elements using a PLOAD4 entry. This
defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field is referenced, it will be
evaluated once at the center of the applied region.

3. Variable Pressure Loads on 2-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Pressure Element Variable 2-D PLOAD4, PLOADX1, FORCE

Entry Description
Top Surf Pressure Defines the top surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4 entry.
The negative of this value defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field
is referenced, it will be evaluated separately for the P1 through P4 values.
Bot Surf Pressure Defines the bottom surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4
entry. This value defines the P1 through P4 values. If a scalar field is
referenced, it will be evaluated separately for the P1 through P4 values.
Edge Pressure For Axisymmetric Solid elements (CTRIAX6), defines the P1 through P3
values on the PLOADX1 entry where THETA on that entry is defined as
zero. For other 2D elements, this will be interpreted as a load per unit length
(e.g., independent of thickness) and converted into equivalent nodal loads
(FORCE entries). If a scalar field is referenced, it will be evaluated
independently at each node. Edge pressures are not available in SOL 600
prior to the 2006 release.
CHAPTER 9 257
Assigned Conditions

4. Variable Pressure Loads on 3-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Pressure Element Variable 3-D PLOAD4

Entry Description
Pressure Defines the face pressure value on solid elements using a PLOAD4 entry. This
defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field is referenced, it will be
evaluated separately for each of the P1 through P4 values.
Note: In the current version of SOL 600, a constant pressure is applied on the element face based
on the average of P1, P2, P3, and P4.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.

Temperature LBCs
Temperatures can be defined directly at nodes or temperature fields can be defined across
element surfaces.
Temperatures are specified with TEMP, TEMPPi, or TEMPRB Bulk Data entries, where:

Entry Description
TEMP Defines temperature at grid points.
TEMPPi Defines temperature field for surface elements.
TEMPRB Defines temperature field for line elements.

References
• TEMP (p. 2500) in the .
• TEMPP1 (p. 2510) in the .
• TEMPRB (p. 2513) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Temperatures are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combinations on the LBC
Application form.

1. Grid Point Temperatures


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Nodal 0D TEMP
258 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description
Temperature Defines the T fields on the TEMP entry.

2. Uniform Temperature Fields on 1-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Element Uniform 1-D TEMPRB

Entry Description
Temperature Defines a uniform temperature field using a TEMPRB entry. The temperature
value is used for both the TA and TB fields. The T1a, T1b, T2a, and T2b fields
are all defined as 0.0.

3. Uniform Temperature Fields on 2-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Element Uniform 2-D TEMPP1

Entry Description
Temperature Defines a uniform temperature field using a TEMPP1 entry. The temperature
value is used for the T field. The gradient through the thickness is defined to
be 0.0.

4. Variable Temperature Fields on 1-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Element Variable 1-D TEMPRB

Entry Description
Centroid Temp Defines a variable temperature file using a TEMPRB entry. A field reference
will be evaluated at either end of the element to define the TA and TB fields.
Axis-1 Gradient Defines the temperature gradient in the 1 direction. A field reference will be
evaluated at either end of the element to define the T1a and T1b fields.
Axis-2 Gradient Defines the temperature gradient in the 2 direction. A field reference will be
evaluated at either end of the element to define the T2a and T2b fields.

5. Variable Temperature Fields on -2D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Element Variable 2-D TEMPP1
CHAPTER 9 259
Assigned Conditions

Entry Description
Top Surf Temp Defines the temperature on the top surface of a shell element. The top and
bottom values are used to compute the average and gradient values on the
TEMPP1 entry.
Bot Surf Temp Defines the temperature on the bottom surface of a shell element. The top and
bottom values are used to compute the average and gradient values on the
TEMPP1 entry.

6. Uniform and Variable Temperature Fields on 3-D Elements


Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries
Temperature Element Uniform 3-D TEMP

Element Variable

Entry Description
Temperature Defines the temperature or temperature distribution in the element.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments

Inertial Loads LBCs


Inertial loads can be applied to the entire model using the GRAV or RFORCE Bulk Data entries.

Entry Description
GRAV Defines acceleration vectors for gravity or other acceleration loading.
RFORCE Defines load due to centrifugal force field.

References
• GRAV (p. 1561) in the .
• RFORCE (p. 2336) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Inertial loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Inertial Load Element Uniform Entire Model GRAV or RFORCE
260 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description
Trans Accel (A1,A2,A3) Defines the N vector and the G magnitude value on the GRAV entry.
Rot Velocity (w1,w2,w3) Defines the R vector and the A magnitude value on the RFORCE entry.

The acceleration and velocity vectors are defined with respect to the input analysis coordinate frame. The
origin of the rotational vectors is the origin of the analysis coordinate frame. In generating the GRAV and
RFORCE entries, the interface produces one GRAV and/or RFORCE entry image for each MSC.Patran
load set.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.

Velocity LBCs
Velocities can be defined for transient analysis using the TLOAD entry.
:

Entry Description
TLOAD Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced motion

References
• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Velocities are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Velocity Nodal TLOAD

Entry Description
Trans Veloc (v1,v2,v3) Defines the velocity values for the translational degrees-of-freedom.
Rot Veloc (w1, w2, w3) Defines the velocity values for the rotational degrees-of-freedom.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.
CHAPTER 9 261
Assigned Conditions

Acceleration LBCs
Accelerations can be defined for transient response analysis using the TLOAD entry.
:

Entry Description
TLOAD Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced motion

References
• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Accelerations are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Acceleration Nodal TLOAD

Entry Description
Trans Accel (A1,A2,A3) Defines the acceleration values for the translational degrees-of-freedom.
Rot Accel (a1,a2,a3) Defines the acceleration values for the rotational degrees-of-freedom.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.

Distributed Load LBCs


Distributed forces and moments can be applied in a uniform or variable fashion to 1D and 2D elements.
Several Bulk Data entries are used to apply distributed loading depending on the element topology.

Entry Description
PLOAD Defines a uniform static pressure load on a triangular or quadrilateral surface
comprised of surface elements and/or the faces of solid elements.
PLOAD1 Defines concentrated, uniformly distributed, or linearly distributed applied
loads to the CBAR or CBEAM elements at user-chosen points along the
axis. For the CBEND element, only distributed loads over an entire length
may be defined
262 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description
PLOAD2 Defines a uniform static pressure load applied to CQUAD4, CSHEAR, or
CTRIA3 two-dimensional elements.
PLOAD4 Defines a pressure load on a face of a CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3,
CTRIA6, CTRIAR, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, or CQUADR element.
PLOADX1 Defines surface traction to be used with the CQUADX, CTRIAX, and
CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element.

References
• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .
• PLOAD1 (p. 2188) in the .
• PLOAD2 (p. 2191) in the .
• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .
• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Distributed loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combinations on the
LBC Application form.
1. Uniform and Variable Loads on 1-D Elements
Defines distributed force or moment loading along beam elements using MSC .Nastran PLOAD1
entries. The coordinate system in which the load is applied is defined by the beam axis and the
Bar Orientation element property. The Bar Orientation must be defined before this Distributed
Load can be created. If the Bar Orientation is subsequently changed, the Distributed Load must
be updated manually if necessary.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Distributed Load Element Uniform 1-D PLOAD1

Element Variable

Entry Description
Distributed Load (f1,f2,f3) Defines the FXE, FYE, and FZE fields on three
PLOAD1 entries.
Distributed Moment (m1,m2,m3) Defines the MXE, MYE, and MZE fields on three
PLOAD1 entries.

For the element variable type, a field reference is evaluated at each end of the beam to define a
linear load variation.
2. Uniform and Variable Loads on 2-D Elements
CHAPTER 9 263
Assigned Conditions

Defines a distributed force or moment load along the edges of 2-D elements. The coordinate
system for the load is defined by the surface or element edge and normal. The x direction is along
the edge. Positive x is determined by the element corner node connectivity. See The Patran
Element Library (p. 343) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 3: Finite Element Modeling.
For example, if the element is a CQUAD4, with node connectivity of 1, 2, 3, 4. The positive x
directions for each edge would be from nodes 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, and 4 to 1. The z direction
is normal to the surface or element. Positive z is in the direction of the element normal. The y
direction is normal to x and z. Positive y is determined by the cross product of the z and x axes and
always points into the element. The MSC.Nastran entries generated, depend on the element type.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Distributed Load Element Uniform 2-D PLOAD, PLOAD2, PLOAD4,
PLOADX1
Element Variable

Entry Description
Edge Distributed Load For axisymmetric solid elements (CTRIAX6), the PA, PB, and
(f1,f2,f3) THETA fields on the PLOADX1 entry are defined. For other 2-D
elements, the input vector is interpreted as load per unit length and
converted into equivalent nodal loads (FORCE entries).
Edge Distributed Moment For 2-D shell elements, the input vector is interpreted as moment
(m1,m2,m3) per unit length and converted into equivalent nodal moments
(MOMENT entries).

For the element variable type, a field reference is evaluated at each end of the beam to define a
linear load variation.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.

Total Load LBCs


The total load capability is not available directly in MSC.Nastran, but is a convenient way to have
MSC.Patran distribute a force load uniformly over an application area without having to calculate the
number of nodes or application area. The total force load is defined for the application region, but
equivalent uniform pressures are written to the Bulk Data. The equivalent pressure value is are found by
dividing the total load value by the area of the application region.
264 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description
PLOAD4 Defines a pressure load on a face of a CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3,
CTRIA6, CTRIAR, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, or CQUADR element.
PLOADX1 Defines surface traction to be used with the CQUADX, CTRIAX, and
CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element.

References
• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .
• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Total Loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form

Note: Currently only 1D element types are supported with this Object even though the form
allows for other types.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries


Total Load Element Uniform 1-D PLOAD4

Entry Description
Load <F1 F2 F3> Defines the total load component values to element nodes.
Analysis Coordinate Frame Defines the coordinate frame for the distributed load.

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.

Contact LBCs
A complete description of Contact loads and boundary conditions is given in Specifying Contact Body
Entries (Ch. 12).

References
• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments.
CHAPTER 9 265
Assigned Conditions

Initial Conditions
Initial conditions provides various ways of initializing the state variables throughout the model.

Initial Displacement LBCs


Creates a set of TIC Bulk Data entries.
.

Entry Description
TIC Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient
analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at
independent degrees-of-freedom.

References
• TIC (p. 2519) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Initial Displacements are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the
LBC Application form.

Object Type Bulk Data Entries


Initial Displacement Nodal TIC

Entry Description
Translations (T1,T2,T3) Defines the initial translational displacement values. These are in model
length units.
Rotations (R1,R2,R3) Defines the initial rotational displacement values. These are in radians.

References
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional
Assignments.

Initial Velocity LBCs


Creates a set of TIC Bulk Data entries.
.

Entry Description
TIC Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient
analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at
independent degrees-of-freedom.
266 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

References
• TIC (p. 2519) in the .

MSC.Patran LBC Application Input Data


Initial velocities are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC
Application form.

Object Type Bulk Data Entries


Initial Velocity Nodal TIC

Entry Description
Trans Veloc (v1,v2,v3) Defines the V0 fields for translational degrees of freedom on the TIC entry.
A unique TIC entry will be created for each nonblank entry.
Rot Veloc (w1,w2,w3) Defines the V0 fields for rotational degrees of freedom on the TIC entry. A
unique TIC entry will be created for each nonblank entry.

References
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional
Assignments.
MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide
Ch. 10: Materials

10 Materials


Overview 268

Linear Elastic 272
 Nonlinear Elastic 278

Inelastic 317

Failure and Damage Models 349
 Creep 365

Composite 372

Gasket 374
 Material Damping 380

Experimental Data Fitting 382
268 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Overview
A wide variety of materials are encountered in stress analysis problems, and for any one of these
materials a range of constitutive models is available to describe the material’s behavior. We can broadly
classify the materials of interest as those which exhibit almost purely elastic response, possibly with some
energy dissipation during rapid loading by viscoelastic response (the elastomers, such as rubber or solid
propellant); materials that yield, and exhibit considerable ductility beyond yield (such as mild steel and
other commonly used metals, ice at low strain rates, and clay); materials that flow by rearrangement of
particles which interact generally through some dominantly frictional mechanism (such as sand); and
brittle materials (rock, concrete, ceramics).

Table 10-1 Common Material Characteristics


Material Characteristics Examples Models
Composites Anisotropic: Aircraft panels Composite
continuum
(MATi, 1) Layered, ds i j Z C i jk l dε k l elements
MATORT,
PCOMP) 21 Constants Tires, glass/epoxy

2)Fiber Reinforced,
E t
S Z JJJ ( T CT Ó 1 )
2

One dimensional strain in fibers


Creep Strains increasing with time under Metals at high ORNL
constant load. Stresses decreasing temperatures, polymide
(MATVP) with time under constant films, semiconductor Norton
deformations. Creep strains are materials
noninstantaneous. Maxwell

Elastic Stress functions of instantaneous Small deformation Hookes Law


strain only. Linear (below yield) for most
(MATi, load-displacement relation. materials: metals, glass,
MATORT) wood
Elastoplasticity Yield condition flow rule and Metals von Mises
hardening rule necessary to Isotropic
(MATEP) calculate stress, plastic strain. Soils
Permanent deformation Cam -Clay
upon unloading.
Hill’s Anisotropic
CHAPTER 10 269
Materials

Table 10-1 Common Material Characteristics (continued)


Material Characteristics Examples Models
Hyperelastic Stress function of instantaneous Rubber Mooney
strain. Nonlinear load-
(MATHE) displacement relation. Unloading Ogden
path same as loading.
Arruda-Boyce

Gent

Hypoelastic Rate form of stress-strain law Concrete Buyukozturk

Viscoelastic Time dependence of stresses in Rubber, Simo Model


elastic material under loads. Full
(MATVE) recovery after unloading. Glass, industrial Narayanaswamy

plastics

Viscoplastic Combined plasticity and creep Metals Power law


phenomenon
(MATVP) Powder Shima Model

Constitutive Models
A single material may contain multiple constitutive models. Each constitutive model characterizes
distinct ranges of the material’s response. The constitutive models in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear contain a range of linear and nonlinear material models that can address or approximate the
material response of most commonly encountered materials. The constitutive models in MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear can be accessed by any of the solid or structural elements. The models are assessed
independently at each “constitutive calculation point” (i.e., the numerical integration points in the
elements). Thus, the constitutive models are concerned only with a single calculation point. The element
then provides an estimate of the kinematic solution to the problem at the point under consideration.

Constitutive Models in MSC.Patran


In MSC.Patran, the constitutive model to be used is defined by the Constitutive Model Status.
MSC.Patran uses all active constitutive models when the analysis is submitted. Redundant or unneeded
constitutive models should be rendered inactive.
270 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Existing constitutive models of an existing material appear in either the active or inactive listbox
depending on their active/inactive status. Selection of a model from one listbox will add it to the other
one. If you do not wish for a constitutive model to be translated into the MSC.Nastran input file, place it
in the inactive list box
To view or change the constitutive model status:
1. Click on the Materials Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Materials
Application form.
2. Select Change Material Status...

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Material Entries


The following material bulk data entries are available in SOL 600. Each of these options are overviewed
in the sections of this chapter and detailed in the Bulk Data Entries (Ch. 8) in the . All standard
MSC.Nastran materials are also available in SOL 600.

Bulk Data Entry Description


MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties.
--MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties.
MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials.
MATG Specifies gasket material properties to be used in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTG Specifies gasket material property temperature variation to be used in
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
CHAPTER 10 271
Materials

Bulk Data Entry Description


MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large strain
and large rotation) analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTHE Specifies temperature-dependent properties of hyperelastic (rubber-like)
materials (elastomers) in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATED Specifies damage model properties for hyperelastic materials in MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for 3-dimensional and plane
strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTORT Specifies temperature-dependent properties of elastic orthotropic materials for
linear and nonlinear analyses used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600) only.
MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600) only.
MATVP Specifies viscoplastic or creep material properties to be used for quasi-static
analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

The following sections describe how to model material behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
Modeling material behavior consists of both specifying the constitutive models used to describe the
material behavior and defining the actual material data necessary to represent the material. Directional
dependency can be included for materials other than isotropic materials. Data for the materials can be
entered into MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear either directly through the input file or by user subroutines,
or material models may be defined in the MSC.Patran Materials Application. Each section of this chapter
discusses various options for organizing material data for input. Each section also discusses the
constitutive (stress-strain) relation and graphic representation of the models and includes
recommendations and cautions concerning the use of the models.
272 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Linear Elastic
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is capable of handling problems with any combination of isotropic,
orthrotropic, or anisotropic linear elastic material behavior.
The linear elastic model is the model most commonly used to represent engineering materials. This
model, which has a linear relationship between stresses and strains, is represented by Hooke’s Law.
Figure 10-1 shows that stress is proportional to strain in a uniaxial tension test. The ratio of stress to strain
is the familiar definition of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of the material.
E (modulus of elasticity) = (axial stress)/(axial strain) (10-1)
Stress

Strain

Figure 10-1 Uniaxial Stress-Strain Relation of Linear Elastic Material

Experiments show that axial elongation is always accompanied by lateral contraction of the bar. The ratio
for a linear elastic material is:

v = (lateral contraction)/(axial elongation) (10-2)


This is known as Poisson’s ratio. Similarly, the shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) is defined as:

G (shear modulus) = (shear stress)/(shear strain) (10-3)


A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, which would be appropriate for an incompressible material, can be used for the
following elements: Herrmann, plane stress, shell, truss, or beam. A Poisson’s ratio which is close (but
not equal) to 0.5 can be used for constant dilation elements and reduced integration elements in situations
which do not include other severe kinematic constraints. Using a Poisson’s ratio close to 0.5 for all other
elements usually leads to behavior that is too stiff. A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5 can also be used with the
updated Lagrangian formulation in the multiplicative decomposition framework using the standard
displacement elements. In these elements, the treatment for incompressibility is transparent.
CHAPTER 10 273
Materials

Isotropic Materials
Most linear elastic materials are assumed to be isotropic (their elastic properties are the same in all
directions). For an isotropic material, every plane is a plane of symmetry and every direction is an axis
of symmetry. It can be shown that for an isotropic material:

G Z E ⁄ ( 2( 1 H v ) ) (10-4)

The shear modulus G can be easily calculated if the modulus of elasticity E and Poisson’s ratio v
are known.

Specifying Isotropic Material Entries


Isotropic material models are designated with the MAT1 Bulk Data entry in the MSC.Nastran Input File.

Entry Description
MAT1 Defines the material properties for linear isotropic materials.

References
• MAT1, 1613 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define an isotropic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to
Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties...
Isotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Options subform
on the Materials Application form.

Isotropic-Linear Elastic Description


Elastic Modulus Defines the elastic modulus. This property is generally required. May vary
with temperature via a defined material field.
Poisson’s Ratio Defines the Poisson’s ratio. This property is generally required. May vary
with temperature via a defined material field.
Density Defines the mass density. This property is optional.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficient of thermal expansion. This property is optional.
Expansion May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature. This property is optional. When
defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference
temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.
274 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The material density, used to define the mass of the structure, and the damping value are used in dynamic
loadings, while the expansion coefficient is used to identify the thermal strains.

Orthotropic Materials
An orthotropic material has three mutually orthogonal planes of symmetry. With respect to a coordinate
system parallel to these planes, the constitutive law for this material is given by the following more
general form of Hooke’s Law:

ε 11 1 ⁄ ( E1 ) Ó ( υ 12 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) Ó ( υ 13 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) 0 0 0 σ 11
ε 22 ( Ó υ 12 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) 1 ⁄ ( E2 ) ( Ó υ 23 ) ⁄ ( E 2 ) 0 0 0 σ 22
ε 33 ( Ó υ 13 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) ( Ó υ 23 ) ⁄ ( E 2 ) 1 ⁄ ( E3 ) 0 0 0 σ 33
Z
γ 12 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 12 ) 0 0 τ 12
γ 23 0 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 23 ) 0 τ 23
γ 13 0 0 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 13 ) τ 13

3-D Orthotropic
Due to symmetry of the compliance matrix, E11 ν 21 = E22 ν 12 , E22 ν 32 = E33 ν 23 , and E33 ν 13 =
E11 ν 31 . Using these relations, a general orthotropic material has nine independent constants:

E11, E22, E33, ν 12 , ν 23 , ν 31 , G12, G23, G31

These nine constants must be specified in constructing the material model.

Note: The inequalities E22 > ν 23 E33, E11 > ν 12 E22, and E33 > ν 31 E11 must be satisfied in
order for the orthotropic material to be stable. This is checked by MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear.

2-D Orthotropic
Orthotropic material models can be used with 2-D elements, such as plane stress, plane strain, and
axisymmetric elements. For example, the orthotropic stress-strain relationship for a plane stress
element is:

E1 ν 21 E 1 0
1
C Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ν 12 E 2 E2 0 (10-5)
( 1 Ó ν 12 ν 21 )
0 0 ( 1 Ó ν 12 ν 21 )G
CHAPTER 10 275
Materials

Specifying Orthotropic Material Entries


2-D and 3-D othrotropic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran using the following bulk
data entries.

Entry Description
MAT3 Defines the material properties for linear orthotropic materials used by the
CTRIAX6 element entry.
MAT2 Defines the material property for an orthotropic material for solids and
isoparametric shell elements.
MAT8
MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for three-dimensional and
plane strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only in a more general way than MAT2 or MAT8.

References
• MAT3, 1619 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• MAT8, 1624of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• MATORT (SOL 600), 1572 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define an orthotropic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create>2D
or 3D Orthotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties...
The required properties for orthotropic linear elastic material models vary based on dimension, element
type, and thermal dependencies. 3-D orthotropic material models require the following material data
(2-D requires a reduced set) via the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.

Orthotropic-Linear Elastic Description


Elastic Modulus 11/22/33 Defines the elastic moduli in the element’s coordinate system. This is
required data. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
Poisson’s Ratio 12/23/31 Defines the Poisson’s ratios relative to the element’s coordinate
system. This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field.
Shear Modulus 12/23/31 Defines the shear moduli relative to the element’s coordinate system.
This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field.
276 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Orthotropic-Linear Elastic Description


Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficients of thermal expansion relative to the element’s
Expansion 11/22/33 coordinate system. These properties are optional. May vary with
temperature via a defined material field.
Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature which is an optional property.
When defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference
temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.

Anisotropic Materials
Anisotropic material exhibits different elastic properties in different directions. The significant directions
of the material are labeled as preferred directions, and it is easiest to express the material behavior with
respect to these directions.
The stress-strain relationship for an anisotropic linear elastic material can be expressed as

σ i j Z C i jk l ε k l (10-6)

The values of C i jk l (the stress-strain relation) and the preferred directions (if necessary) must be defined
for an anisotropic material.

Specifying Anisotropic Material Entries


Anisotropic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran using the following bulk data entries.

Entry Description
MAT2 Defines the material properties for linear anisotropic materials for two-
dimensional elements.

References
• MAT2, 1617 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define anisotropic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create>2D
or 3D Anisotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties...
CHAPTER 10 277
Materials

Anisotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties
subform on the Materials Application form.

Anisotropic-Linear Elastic Description


Stress-Strain Matrix, Cij Defines the upper right portion of the symmetric stress-strain matrix
relative to the element’s coordinate system.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficients of thermal expansion relative to the element’s
Expansion coordinate system. They are optional properties.
Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature which is an optional property.
When defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference
temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
278 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Nonlinear Elastic

Hypoelastic - Isotropic
The hypoelastic model is able to represent a nonlinear elastic (reversible) material behavior. For this
constitutive theory, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that

σ̌ i j Z L i jk l ε̌ k l H g i j (10-7)

where L is a function of the mechanical strain and g is a function of the temperature.

The stress and strains are true stresses and logarithmic strains, respectively, when used in conjunction
with the updated Lagrange and large displacement options.
When used in conjunction with the large displacement option only, Equation (10-7) is expressed as
ˇ ˇ
S i j Z L i jk l E H gi j (10-8)
kl

where E, S are the Green-Lagrangian strain and second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, respectively.

This model can be used with any stress element, including Herrmann formulation elements.

The tensors L and g may be defined by user subroutine HYPELA. In order to provide an accurate
solution, L should be a tangent stiffness evaluated at the beginning of the iteration. In addition, the total
stress should be defined as its exact value at the end of the increment. This allows the residual load
correction to work effectively.
In user subroutine HYPELA2, besides the functionality of HYPELA, additional information is available
regarding the kinematics of deformation. In particular, the deformation gradient ( F ), rotation tensor ( R ),
and the eigenvalues ( λ ) and eigenvectors ( N ) to form the stretch tensor ( U ) are also provided. This
information is available only for the continuum elements namely: plane strain, generalized plane strain,
plane stress, axisymmetric, axisymmetric with twist, and three-dimensional cases.

Hyperelastic - Isotropic
Hyperelastic models are specified using either the MATHP or MATHE bulk data entries and are used to
describe the behavior of materials that exhibit elastic response up to large strains, such as rubber, solid
propellant, and other elastomeric materials. These materials are described in terms of a “strain energy
potential”, U, which defines the strain energy stored in the material per unit of volume in the initial
configuration as a function of the strain at that point in the material.
Elastomeric materials are elastic in the classical sense. Upon unloading, the stress-strain curve is retraced
and there is no permanent deformation. Elastomeric materials are initially isotropic. Figure 10-2 shows a
typical stress-strain curve for an elastomeric material.
CHAPTER 10 279
Materials

σ, Stress

100%

ε, Strain
Figure 10-2 A Typical Stress-Strain Curve for an Elastomeric Material

Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which
is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios. Significance and calculation of these kinematic
quantities is discussed next.

Characteristics of Elastomeric Materials


Most solid rubberlike materials are nearly incompressible: their bulk modulus is several orders of
magnitude larger than their shear modulus. For applications where the material is not highly confined,
the assumption that the material is fully incompressible is usually a good approximation. In cases where
the material is highly confined (such as in an O-ring), modeling the compressibility can be important for
obtaining accurate results. In either case, the use of “hybrid” (mixed formulation) elements is
recommended for this type of material in all but plane stress cases.
Elastomeric foams on the other hand are elastic but very compressible.
Elastomeric materials are considered to be isotropic in nature with random orientation of the long
chain molecules.

Strain Energy Potential and Representative Models


Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which
is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios.

In the rectangular block in Figure 10-3, λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 are the principal stretch ratios along the edges
of the block defined by

λi Z ( Li H ui ) ⁄ Li (10-9)
280 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

L3 λ3L3

λ1L1 λ2L2
Undeformed
L2 Deformed
L1
Figure 10-3 Rectangular Rubber Block

In practice, the material behavior is (approximately) incompressible, leading to the constraint equation

λ 1 λ2 λ 3 Z 1

the strain invariants are defined as


2 2 2
I 1 Z λ H λ 2 H λ3
1

2 2 2 2 2 2
I2 Z λ1 λ H λ λ H λ λ (10-10)
2 2 3 3 1

2 2 2
I3 Z λ1 λ2 λ3

Depending on the choice of configurations, for example, reference (at t Z 0 ) or current ( t Z n H 1 ),


you obtain total or updated Lagrange formulations for elasticity. The kinematic measures for the two
formulations are discussed next.

Total Lagrangian Formulation


The strain measure is the Green-Lagrange strain defined as:

1
E i j Z JJJ ( C i j Ó δ i j ) (10-11)
2

where C i j is the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor defined as:

Ci j Z Fk i Fk j (10-12)

in which F k j is the deformation gradient (a two-point tensor) written as:

∂x
F k j Z JJJJJJJJkJ (10-13)
∂X j
CHAPTER 10 281
Materials

The Jacobian J is defined as:

1
JJJ
2 (10-14)
J Z λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z ( det C i j )

Thus, the invariants can be written as:

I1 Z Ci i (implied sum on i)

2
( Ci j Ci j Ó ( Ci i ) )
I2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J (10-15)
2

1
I 3 Z JJJ e i jk e p q r C i p C jq C k r Z det ( C i j )
6

in which e i j k is the permutation tensor. Also, using spectral decomposition theorem,

2 A A
Ci j Z λA Ni Nj (10-16)

2
in which the stretches λ A are the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, C i j and
A
the eigenvectors are N i .

Updated Lagrange Formulation


The strain measure is the true or logarithmic measure defined as:

1
ε i j Z JJJ ln b i j (10-17)
2

where the left Cauchy-Green or finger tensor b i j is defined as:

bi j Z F i k F j k (10-18)

Thus, using the spectral decomposition theorem, the true strains are written as:

1 A A
ε i j Z JJJ ( ln λ A )n i n j (10-19)
2
A
where n i is the eigenvectors in the current configuration. It is noted that the true strains can also be
approximated using first Padé approximation, which is a rational expansion of the tensor, as:
Ó1
εi j Z 2 ( V i j Ó δ i j ) ( V i j H δ i j ) (10-20)
282 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where a polar decomposition of the deformation gradient F i j is done into the left stretch tensor V i j and
rotation tensor R i j as:

Fi j Z Vi k Rk j

The Jacobian J is defined as:

1
JJJ
2
J Z λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z ( det b i j ) (10-21)

and the invariants are now defined as:

I1 Z b i i

1 2
I 2 Z JJJ ( b i j b i j Ó ( b i i ) )
2 (10-22)

1
and I 3 Z JJJ e i jk e p q r b i p b jq b k r Z det ( b i j )
6
It is noted that either Equation (10-15) or Equation (10-22) gives the same strain energy since it is scalar
and invariant. Also, to account for the incompressibility condition, in both formulations, the strain energy
is split into deviatoric and volumertic parts as:

W Z W deviatoric H W volumetric (10-23)

Mooney-Rivlin Model
The generalized Mooney-Rivlin model for nearly-incompressible elastomeric materials is written as:
N N
gmr m n
Wd e v i a t o r i c Z ∑ ∑ Cm n ( I1 Ó 3 ) ( I2 Ó 3 ) (10-24)
m Z 1 n Z 1

where I 1 and I 2 are the first and second deviatoric invariants.

Jamus-Green-Simpson Model
A particular form of the generalized Mooney-Rivlin model, namely the third order deformation (tod)
model, is implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). This is one of the few places
where the formulation for SOLs 106 and 129 may be more appropriate because they can use up to fifth
order terms. However, the Ogden formulation (below) is usually better for large strain behavior than even
the fifth order Mooney-Rivlin.
tod 3
W devratoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H C 01 ( I 2 Ó 3 ) H C 11 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) ( I 2 Ó 3 ) H C 20 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) 2 H C 30 ( I 1 Ó 3 )
(10-25)
CHAPTER 10 283
Materials

tod
where W deviatoric is the deviatoric third order deformation form strain energy function,

C 10, C 01, C 11, C 20, C 30 are material constants obtained from experimental data.

Simpler and popular forms of the above strain energy function are obtained as:
nh
W deviatoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) Neo-Hookean

mr
W deviatoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H C 01 ( I 2 Ó 3 ) Mooney-Rivlin
(10-26)

Ogden Model
The form of strain energy for the Ogden model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is,
N
µ α α α
JJJJJkJ  λ 1 H λ 2 H λ 3 Ó 3
ogden k k k
Wd e v i a t o r i c Z ∑ αk  
(10-27)
k Z 1

αk
αk Ó JJJJJJJ α
3 k
where λ i Z J λi are the deviatoric stretch ratios while C mn , µ k , and α k are the
material constants obtained from the curve fitting of experimental data.
The Ogden model is usually applied to slightly compressible materials. If no bulk modulus is given, it is
taken to be virtually incompressible. This model is different from the Mooney model in several respects.
The Mooney material model is with respect to the invariants of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain
tensor and implicitly assumes that the material is incompressible. The Ogden formulation is with respect
to the eigenvalues of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain, and the presence of the bulk modulus implies
some compressibility. Using a two-term series results in identical behavior as the Mooney mode if:

µ 1 Z 2C 10 , α 1 Z 2 , µ 2 Z Ó 2C 01 , and α 2 Z Ó 2

Arruda-Boyce Model
In the Arruda-Boyce strain energy model, the underlying molecular structure of elastomer is represented
by an eight-chain model to simulate the non-Gaussian behavior of individual chains in the network. The
two parameters, nkΘ and N ( n is the chain density, k is the Botzmann constant, Θ is the temperature,
and N is the number of statistical links of length l in the chain between chemical crosslinks) representing
initial modules and limiting chain extensibility and are related to the molecular chain orientation thus
representing the physics of network deformation.
As evident in most models describing rubber deformation, the strain energy function constructed by
fitting experiment data obtained from one state of deformation to another fails to accurately describe that
deformation mode. The Arruda-Boyce model ameliorates this defect and is unique since the standard
tensile test data provides sufficient accuracy for multiple modes of deformation.
284 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

λ2 α 0

C1

λ3 α 0

λ1 α 0
k

Figure 10-4 Eight Chain Network in Stretched Configuration

The model is constructed using the eight chain network as follows:

Consider a cube of dimension α 0 with an unstretched network including eight chains of length

r0 Z Nl , where the fully extended chain has an approximate length of Nl. A chain vector from the
center of the cube to a corner can be expressed as:

α0 α0 α0
C 1 Z JJJJJJ λ 1 i H JJJJJJ λ 2 j H JJJJJJ λ 3 k (10-28)
2 2 2
Using geometrical considerations, the chain vector length can be written as:

1 1⁄2
r chain Z JJJJJJJ Nl ( λ 12 H λ 22 H λ 32 ) (10-29)
3
and

r chain 1 1⁄2
J Z JJJJJJJ ( I 1 )
λ chain Z JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-30)
r0 3
Using statistical mechanics considerations, the work of deformation is proportional to the entropy change
on stretching the chains from the unstretched state and may be written in terms of the chain length as:

r chain β
W Z nkΘN  JJJJJJJJJJJJ β H ln JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ  Ó ΘC¾ (10-31)
 Nl sinh β 

where n is the chain density and C¾ is a constant. β is an inverse Langevin function correctly accounts
for the limiting chain extensibility and is defined as:
r chain
β Z L Ó 1  JJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-32)
 Nl 
CHAPTER 10 285
Materials

where Langevin is defined as:

ℑ ( β ) Z coth β Ó JJ1J (10-33)


β
With Equation (10-30) through Equation (10-33), the Arruda-Boyce model can be written

Arruda-Boyce 1 1 11
W dev Z nkΘ JJJ ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJ ( I 12 Ó 9 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 13 Ó 27 )
2 20N 1050N
2

(10-34)
19 519
H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 14 Ó 81 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 15 Ó 243 ) ]
3 4
7000N 673750N

Gent Model
Also, using the notion of limiting chain extensibility, Gent proposed the following constitutive relation:

Gent Ó EI m Im
W dev Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJ log JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-35)
6 I m Ó I 1*

where

I 1* Z I 1 Ó 3 (10-36)

The constant EI m is independent of molecular length and, hence, of degree of crosslinking. The model
is attractive due to its simplicity, but yet captures the main behavior of a network of extensible molecules
over the entire range of possible strains.
The volumetric part of the strain energy is for all the rubber models in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear is:
1 2
JJJ
9K  3 
W volumetric Z JJJJJJJ  J Ó 1 (10-37)
2  

when K is the bulk modulus. It can be noted that the particular form of volumetric strain energy is chosen
such that:
1. The constraint condition is satisfied for incompressible deformations only; for example:


 > 0 if I 3 > 0

f ( I 3 )  Z 0 if I 3 Z 1 (10-38)

 < 0 if I 3 < 0

286 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2. The constraint condition does not contribute to the dilatational stiffness.


This yields the constraint function as:
1
 JJ6J 
f ( I 3 ) Z 3  I Ó 1 (10-39)
 3 

upon substitution of Equation (10-39) in Equation (10-35) and taking the first variation of the variational
principle, you obtain the pressure variable as:
1
 JJ3J 
p Z 3K  J Ó 1 (10-40)
 

The equation has a physical significance in that for small deformations, the pressure is linearly related to
the volumetric strains by the bulk modulus K .

The discontinuous or continuous damage models discussed in the models section on damage can be
included with the generalized Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Gent models to simulate
Mullins effect or fatigue of elastomers when using the updated Lagrangian approach. In the total
Lagrangian framework however, this is available for the Ogden model only.

Foam Model
Sometimes elastomeric materials show large volumetric deformations. For this type of behavior, the
models discussed above are not appropriate. Instead, the foam model expressed by:
N N
µ αn αn αn µn βn
W Z ∑ JJJJJnJ  λ 1 H λ 2 H λ 3 Ó 3 H ∑ JJJJJJ  1 Ó J  (10-41)
αn   βn  
n Z 1 n Z 1

should be used. In contrast to the Ogden model, the first part of the foam strain energy function is not
purely deviatoric. The material constants βn provide additional flexibility to describe the material
behavior also for a large amount of compressibility.

Updated Lagrange Formulation for Nonlinear Elasticity


The Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Foam models may be used either in the total
Lagrange or updated Lagrange framework. This is selected using the PARAM,MARUPDAT. For plane
stress analysis the total Lagrange procedure will always be used.
The updated Lagrangian rubber elasticity capability can be used in conjunction with both continuous as
well as discontinuous damage models. Thermal, as well as viscoelastic, effects can be modeled with the
current formulation. While the Mooney model can account for the temperature dependent material
properties, the Ogden model does not support the temperature dependence at this time. The singularity
ratio of the system is inversely proportional to the order of bulk modulus of the material due to the
condensation procedure.
CHAPTER 10 287
Materials

A consistent linearization has been carried out to obtain the tangent modulus. The singularity for the case
of two- or three-equal stretch ratios is analytically removed by application of L’Hospital’s rule. The
current framework with an exact implementation of the finite strain kinematics along with the split of
strain energy to handle compressible and nearly incompressible response is eminently suitable for
implementation of any nonlinear elastic as well as inelastic material models. In fact, the finite
e θ p
deformation plasticity model based on the multiplicative decomposition, F Z F F F is implemented
in the same framework.
To simulate elastomeric materials, incompressible element(s) are used for plane strain, axisymmetric,
and three-dimensional problems for elasticity in total Lagrangian framework. These elements can be
used with each other or in combination with other elements. For plane stress, beam, plate or shell
analysis, conventional elements can be used. For updated Lagrangian elasticity, both conventional
elements (as well as Herrmann elements) can be used for plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-
dimensional problems.

Experimental Determination of Hyperelastic Material Parameters


In order to determine the material parameters to be used, like Mooney coefficients, Ogden moduli,
relaxation times, etc., experiments must be carried out. In this section, the laboratory tests of which data
can be used to fit the material parameters will be described. Once the test data is available the
Experimental Data Fitting module in MSC.Patran can be used to calculate appropriate coefficient values.
For a homogeneous material, homogeneous deformation modes suffice to characterize the material
constants. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear accepts test data from the following deformation modes:
• Uniaxial tension and compression.
• Biaxial tension and compression.
• Planar tension and compression (also known as pure shear).
• Simple Shear
• Volumetric tension and compression
288 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Uniaxial Test Data

1 3
2

Biaxial Test Data


1 3
2

Planar Test Data

1 3
2

Volumetric Test Data

1 3
2

Figure 10-5 Test Data

Uniaxial Test
Probably the most popular test is the uniaxial test (see Figure 10-6). This test can be used in tension as
well as in compression, both for incompressible and (slightly) compressible elastomeric materials. The
CHAPTER 10 289
Materials

shape of the specimen used in compression will usually be less slender than the shape used in tension.
Within the region indicated by the dashed line, the state of deformation will be homogeneous, where the
deformation can be described by:

λ 1 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 , λ 2 Z λ 3 Z J⁄λ (10-42)

while the corresponding engineering stresses are given by:

FJ , σ
σ 11 Z σ Z JJJJJJ Z σ 33 Z 0 (10-43)
A 0 22

in which F is the applied force and A 0 is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the

E 2 - E 3 -plane, within the region indicated by the dashed line.

F F
E2

E3 E1
Figure 10-6 Uniaxial (Tensile) Test

Necessary input for the curve fitting program in MSC.Patran consists of at least engineering strain ( e 11 )
versus engineering stress ( σ 11 ) data points. In case of (slightly) compressible materials, information
about the volume changes is also needed. This data can be given either in terms of the area ratio or the
volume ratio. The area ratio is defined by the current cross sectional area A over the original cross
sectional area A 0 . Similarly, the volume ratio is defined by the current volume V over the undeformed
volume V 0 . Notice that the volume ratio and the area ratio are related by:

V A
JJJJJJJ Z J Z JJJJJJJ ( 1 H e 11 )
V0 A0

If, for a particular elastomeric material, both a tensile and a compression test have been performed, all
the data points should be collected into one data file. The layout of a data file containing uniaxial test
data is given in the figure below. The columns may be separated by either spaces or commas. For (nearly)
incompressible material behavior, the third column can be omitted.
290 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

e 11 σ 11 A ⁄ A0 e 11 σ 11 V ⁄ V0

or

Figure 10-7 Layout of Data File for a Uniaxial Test

Equi-Biaxial Test
The equi-biaxial tensile test outlined in Figure 10-8 can be used to obtain, within the region indicated by
the dashed line, a homogeneous state of deformation defined by:

F F

E2

E3 E1
F
Figure 10-8 Equi-biaxial (Tensile) Test

2
λ 1 Z λ 2 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 Z 1 H e 22 , λ 3 Z J ⁄ λ (10-44)

with corresponding engineering stresses:

F
σ 11 Z σ 22 Z σ Z JJJJJJJ , σ 33 Z 0 (10-45)
A0
CHAPTER 10 291
Materials

with A 0 being the original cross sectional area of the elastomeric sheet in the direction perpendicular to

the applied forces, which is assumed to be the same in the E 1 - E 3 -plane and the E 2 - E 3 -plane.

For compressible elastomers, volumetric information is needed. For the equi-biaxial test, this can be
given in terms of a thickness ratio or, similar to the uniaxial test, a volume ratio. The thickness ratio is
defined as the current sheet thickness t over the original sheet thickness t 0 . The relation between the
thickness ratio and the volume ratio is:

V t 2
JJJJJJJ Z J Z JJJJ ( 1 H e 11 ) (10-46)
V0 t0

The layout of a data file for an equi-biaxial tensile test is given in Figure 10-8.

Planar Shear Test


A state of planar shear, also sometimes called pure shear, can be obtained by clamping and stretching an
elastomeric rectangular sheet of material, as indicated in Figure 10-9.

F F

E2

E3 E1
Figure 10-9 Planar Shear Test

Except for the vicinity of the free edges and the clamps, the state of strain can be found to be substantially
uniform, according to:

J
λ 1 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 , λ 2 Z 1 , λ 3 Z JJJ (10-47)
λ
where the known stress components are given by:

FJ , σ
σ 11 Z σ Z JJJJJJ Z 0 (10-48)
A 0 33
292 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

in which A 0 is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the E 1 - E 3 -plane. Notice that the
engineering strain e 22 is zero, but that the corresponding engineering stress σ 22 depends on the material
behavior.

δU Z T S δλ S (10-49)

∂ Ó 3  ∂U ∂U 
TS Z U Z 2  λS Ó λS   H  (10-50)
∂ λS   ∂I ∂
1 I 2

Simple Shear Test


A test which, compared to the above mentioned tests, leads to a more complex kinematic description, is
the simple shear test (see Figure 10-10).Upon introducing the shear strain γ , the coordinates in the
deformed configuration are given by:

x 1 Z X 1 H γX 2 , x 2 Z X 2 , x 3 Z X 3 (10-51)

which yields for the deformation gradient:

1 γ 0
F Z 0 1 0 (10-52)
0 0 1

2F

E2 atan γ

E3 E1
Figure 10-10 Simple Shear Test

Notice that det ( F ) Z 1 , irrespective of the value of γ , from which it can be concluded that a simple
shear test is a constant volume test.
CHAPTER 10 293
Materials

Based on Equation (10-51), Equation (10-52) and Figure 10-10, the engineering strain tensor and the right
Cauchy-Green strain tensor can be evaluated as:

0 γ⁄2 0
e Z γ⁄2 0 0 (10-53)
0 0 0

1 γ 0
C Z γ 1Hγ 0
2 (10-54)
0 0 1

According to Equation (10-54), the principal stretch ratios follow from the principal values of C
and read:

2 2
γ γ
λ 1, 2 Z 1 H JJJJJ ± γ 1 H JJJJJ , λ 3 Z 1 (10-55)
2 4

It can easily be verified that λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z 1 , which again shows that the simple shear test is a constant
volume test. The relevant engineering stress is given by:

FJ
σ 12 Z JJJJJJ (10-56)
A0

with A 0 being the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the E 1 - E 3 -plane.

The layout of a data file containing measurements of a simple shear test is given in Figure 10-11.

2e 12 Z γ σ 12

Figure 10-11 Layout of Data File for a Simple Shear Test

Volumetric Test
Although a uniaxial, equi-biaxial and planar shear test can be used to obtain information about the
volumetric behavior, for compressible materials an additional volumetric test may be preferable. This is
especially true for slightly compressible materials, since volumetric data from other tests other than a
volumetric one may easily be inaccurate (because most of the deformation is deviatoric). Two commonly
294 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

used volumetric tests are outlined in Figure 10-12. In Figure 10-12a, a cylindrical specimen is
compressed in a cylindrical hole. This test can be successfully applied for slightly compressible
materials. In Figure 10-12b, a specimen is deformed by compressing the surrounding fluid. This
volumetric test can also be used for highly compressible materials.

E1

(a) (b)
F
E3 E2
Figure 10-12 Volumetric Tests

For a volumetric test, the direct true stress components are assumed to be equal to the hydrostatic pressure
p and given by:

F
T 11 Z T 22 Z T 33 Z JJJJJJ
J (10-57)
p
A
p
in which A denotes the area of the piston in the E 2 - E 3 -plane. The deformation can be expressed in
terms of an engineering strain e and corresponding stretch ratio λ , which can be determined from the
measured volume change according to:

V
e Z λÓ1 Z 3 JJJJJJJ Ó 1 Z 3 JÓ1 (10-58)
V0

Based on λ according to Figure 10-12b, the engineering stress σ follows from:

2
σ Z T 11 λ (10-59)

Notice that only in the case of Figure 10-12b the engineering strain e and the engineering stress σ are
equal to the direct components of the engineering strain and the engineering stress tensor.
The layout of the data file corresponding to a volumetric test is given in Figure 10-13. Notice that because
of Figure 10-12b, the entries of the first and the third column are not independent.
CHAPTER 10 295
Materials

e σ V ⁄ V0

Figure 10-13 Layout of Data File for a Volumetric Test

Relaxation Test
The basic feature of a relaxation test is that the force or stress response to a prescribed fixed displacement
or deformation is measured as a function of time. A relaxation test for a large strain elastomeric material
is indicated in Figure 10-14. By measuring the force needed for a displacement ∆u at different time
intervals, the decay of the strain energy as a function of time can be determined. For linear elastic
isotropic material, similar tests can be performed to get information about the shear modulus and/or the
bulk modulus as a function of time. In order to properly measure the instantaneous values, application
of the prescribed displacement should occur sufficiently fast. It should be noted, due to the assumption
introduced in equation Equation (10-94), that for large strain visco-elastic materials the magnitude of (the
instantaneous value of) the strain energy is not important, since every energy term in the Prony series
expansion is related to the instantaneous strain energy using a scalar multiplier. The data does not need
to be equispaced in time. Usually, at the beginning of the relaxation experiment the measurements are
done at smaller time intervals than at the end of the experiment.

∆u

Figure 10-14 Relaxation Test

If, for linear visco-elastic materials, instead of a relaxation test only a creep test can be performed, the
creep data must be transformed into relaxation data. Converting creep data into relaxation data can be
done using a numerical integration scheme, but is not part of MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
296 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Hyperelastic Foam Properties


Elastomeric foams are cellular solids that have the following primary mechanical characteristics:
• They can deform elastically up to large strain: up to 90% strain in compression. In most
applications, this is the dominant mode of deformation.
• Their porosity permits very large volumetric changes. This is in contrast to solid rubbers, which
are approximately incompressible.
• Cellular solids are made up of interconnected networks of solid struts or plates which form the
edges and faces of cells. Foams are made up of polyhedral cells that pack in three dimensions.
The foam cells can either be open (e.g., sponge) or closed (e.g., flotation foam). Common
examples of elastomeric foam materials are cellular polymers such as cushions, padding, and
packaging materials which utilize the excellent energy absorption properties of foams - for a
certain stress level, the energy absorbed by foams is substantially greater than by ordinary stiff
elastic materials.
The figure below shows a typical compressive stress-strain curve for elastomeric foam.

Densification
STRESS

Plateau: Elastic buckling


of cell walls

Cell wall bending

STRAIN

Figure 10-15 Typical Compressive Stress-Strain Curve

Three stages can be distinguished during compression:


At small strains (< 5%) the foam deforms in a linear elastic manner, due to cell wall bending.
This is followed by a plateau of deformation at almost constant stress, caused by the elastic buckling of
the columns or plates which make up the cell edges or walls. In closed cells, the enclosed gas pressure
and membrane stretching increase the level and slope of the plateau.
Finally, a region of densification occurs, where the cell walls crush together, resulting in a rapid increase
of compressive stress. Ultimate compressive nominal strains of 0.7 to 0.9 are typical.
The tensile deformation mechanisms for small strains are similar to the compression mechanisms but
differ for large strains. The figure shows a typical tensile stress-strain curve.
CHAPTER 10 297
Materials

STRESS

Cell wall alignment

Cell wall bending

STRAIN

Figure 10-16 Typical Tensile Stress-Strain Curve

There are two stages during tension:


At small strains the foam deforms in a linear, elastic manner, due to cell wall bending, similar to that
in compression.
The cell walls rotate and align, resulting in rising stiffness. The walls are substantially aligned at a tensile
strain of about 1/3. Further stretching results in increased axial strains in the walls.
At small strains for both compression and tension, the average experimentally observed Poisson's ratio,
ν, of foams is 1/3. At larger strains it is commonly observed that Poisson's ratio is effectively zero during
compression - the buckling of the cell walls does not result in any significant lateral deformation.
However, during tension, ν is nonzero, which is a result of the alignment and stretching of the cell walls.
The manufacture of foams often results in cells with different principal dimensions. This shape
anisotropy results in different loading responses in different directions. However, the foam model does
not take this kind of initial anisotropy into account.

Determination of Foam Material Parameters


The response of the material is defined by the parameters in the strain energy function, U, so that it is
necessary to determine these parameters to use the foam model. MSC.Patran contains a capability
for obtaining the µi, αi and βi for the foam model with up to six terms (N=6) directly from test data. It
is usually best to obtain data from several experiments involving different kinds of deformation, over
the range of strains of interest in the actual application, and to use all of these data to determine
the parameters.
Since the properties of foam materials can vary significantly from one batch to another, all of the
experiments should be performed on specimens taken from the same batch of material or to use
MSC.Stocastics in combination with SOL 600.
298 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Uniaxial, Equibiaxial and Planar Deformations


The deformation modes are characterized in terms of the principal stretches, λi, and the volume ratio, J.
The elastomeric foams are not incompressible, so that J = λ1λ2λ3 != 1. The transverse stretches, λ2 and/or
λ3, are independently specified in the test data either as individual values from the measured lateral
deformations or through the definition of an effective Poisson’s ratio.

Uniaxial mode: λ1=λU, λ2=λ3, J=λUλ22

Equibiaxial mode: λ1=λ2=λB, J=λB2λ3

Planar mode: λ1=λP, λ2=1, J=λPλ3

The three deformation modes above use a single form of the nominal stress-stretch relation,

N
µi αi Ó α i βi
∂U 2
JJJJJ  λ Ó J 
TL Z Z JJJJJJJ ∑ (10-60)
∂ λL λL αi  L 
i Z 1
where TL is the nominal stress and LL is the stretch in the direction of loading. Because of the
compressible behavior, the planar mode does not result in a state of pure shear. In fact, if the effective
Poisson’s ratio is zero, planar deformation is identical to uniaxial deformation.

Simple Shear Deformation


Simple shear is described by the deformation gradient

1 γ 0
F Z 0 1 0 (10-61)
0 0 1
where γ is the shear strain. For this deformation, J=det F =1. A schematic illustration of simple shear
deformation is shown in Figure 10-17.
The nominal shear stress TS is:

2  N 
 µi αi
∂U 2γ
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJ
J  λ Ó 1 
TS Z
∂γ
Z ∑  2 ∑ α j 
(10-62)
 2  λ Ó 1 Ó γ 2 i 
j Z 1  j  i Z 1 

where λj= are the principal stretches in the plane of shearing, related to the shear strain, γ, by:

2 2
γ γ
λ 1, 2 Z 1 H JJJJJ ± γ 1 H JJJJJ (10-63)
2 4
CHAPTER 10 299
Materials

2F

E2 atan γ

E3 E1

Figure 10-17 Simple Shear Test

The stretch in the direction perpendicular to the shear plane is L3=1. The transverse (tensile) stress, TT,
developed during simple shear deformation due to the Poynting effect, is

2
2  2  λ j Ó 1 N
µi αi 
∂U     λ Ó 1 
TT Z Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
∑  4 2 2 J JJJJ
∑ α j J

(10-64)
∂ε  2λ Ó λ ( γ H 2 ) i 
j Z 1 j j i Z 1 

Volumetric Deformation
The volumetric deformation mode consists of all principal stretches being equal,

λ1=λ2=λ3=λV, J=λV3.

The pressure-volumetric ratio relation is

α
 Ji 
µ i  JJJJ
N Ó α i βi
∂U 2 3
Óp Z Z JJJ ∑ JJJJ
JJ Ó J  (10-65)
∂J J αi  
i Z 1  

A volumetric compression test is illustrated Figure 10-18.


The pressure exerted on the foam specimen is the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid and the decrease in
the specimen volume is equal to the additional fluid entering the pressure chamber. The specimen is
sealed against fluid penetration.
300 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

E1

(a) (b)
F
E3 E2
Figure 10-18 Volumetric Compression Test Setup

Difference in Compression and Tension Deformation


For small strains (< 5%), foams behave similarly for both compression and tension. However, we have
seen that at large strains, the deformation mechanisms differ for compression (buckling and crushing) and
tension (alignment and stretching). Accurate modeling with the FOAM option therefore requires that the
experimental data used to define the material parameters correspond to the dominant deformation modes
of the actual problem being analyzed.
If compression dominates in the problem, the pertinent tests are:
• Uniaxial compression.
• Simple shear.
• Planar compression (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).
• Volumetric compression (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

If tension dominates, the pertinent tests are:


• Uniaxial tension.
• Simple shear.
• Biaxial tension (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).
• Planar tension (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

Lateral strain data can also be used to define the compressibility of the foam. Measurement of the lateral
strains may make other tests redundant, e.g., providing lateral strains for a uniaxial test eliminates the
need for a volumetric test. The foam model may not accurately fit Poisson's ratio if it varies significantly
between compression and tension.
CHAPTER 10 301
Materials

Experimental Data Fitting

Least Squares Fit


The equations derived above for TU, TB, and TS, with the assumption of material incompressibility,
allow the material parameters Cij and µi, αi to be determined from the experimentally measured stress-
strain relationships in the uniaxial, equibiaxial, and planar loading tests. A least squares fit, which
minimizes the relative error in stress, is used for this purpose. The equation for TS alone will not
determine the constants uniquely. The planar test data input must be augmented by either or both of the
other two types of test data to determine the material parameters.
The Ogden potential is linear in the coefficients µi but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents αi,
thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the nominal stress-nominal strain data
pairs, the error measure, E, is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-Tith/Titest2), where Titest is a stress value
from the test data and Tith comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.

The foam parameters µi, αi, βi are determined from the experimentally measured stress-strain
relationships in the various loading tests described above. A least squares fit, which minimizes the
relative error in stress, is used for this purpose.
The foam potential is linear in the coefficients µi but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents αi and
βi thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the n nominal stress-nominal strain
data pairs, the error measure E is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-Tith/Titest2, where Titest is a stress
value from the test data and Tith comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.
Minimizing the relative error in stress implies that the error in slope (modulus) is minimized;
minimization of the absolute error would decrease the error at larger strains, at the expense of the
accuracy at small strains.

Alternative Method for Determination of Constants for Moderate Strains


Since the polynomial form with N=1 is very commonly used for cases where the nominal strain is not
too large, an alternative method of finding the material constants, assuming incompressibility, is to use
the uniaxial test data as follows. The nominal strain in the direction of loading in the uniaxial test is
εU=λU-1. Expanding the equation for TB in terms of εU, using the Mooney-Rivlin form, and neglecting
terms of higher than second-order in εU, gives

TU=6εU(C10+C01 -(C10+2C01)εU).
This is a parabola: the slope of this curve at the origin (the effective Young’s modulus at zero strain) is
6(C10+C01); this slope, together with the second-order term -6(C10+2C01)εU2, defines the constants C10
and C01.

If compressibility should be modeled, then, under pure pressure loading, the compressible model with
N=1 gives, to first-order in the volumetric strain εV=3ε11,
302 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

p=-(2 / D1)εV,

so that, at small nominal strains, the bulk modulus is defined as:


K=(2 / D1)

Hyperelastic Models in MSC.Nastran


Various options are provided for defining the material properties. The first (available in both MSC.Patran
and MSC.Nastran) is to give the parameters of the polynomial form N, A i j and D i , or the parameters of
the Ogden form N, µ i, α i and D i as functions of the temperature. The second is to give the value of N,
and give experimental stress-data for up to four simple tests: uniaxial, equilibrium, planar and, if the
material is compressible for volumetric compression test. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will then
compute the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] and the D i . This method is available for N = 1 and N=2 for the polynomial
form and up to N = 6 for the Ogden form, and does not allow the properties to be temperature dependent.

In either case, you should be careful about defining the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] : especially when N > 1, the
behavior at higher strains is strongly sensitive to the values of the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] , and unstable material
behavior may result if these values are not correctly defined. When some of the coefficients are strongly
negative, instability at higher strain levels is likely to occur.
Because the properties of rubber-like materials can vary significantly from one sample to another, it is
important that test data are taken from experiments on the same sample (or samples cut from the same
sheet), regardless whether the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] are computed by the user or by the built-in method.

This material option can be used by itself, or can be combined with viscoelasticity to define time
dependent hyperelastic behavior. It cannot be combined with other material options such as plasticity or
creep. It may be used with the pure displacement formulation elements or with the “hybrid” (mixed
formulation) elements. Because elastomeric materials are usually almost completely incompressible,
fully integrated pure displacement method elements are not recommended for use with this material,
except for plane stress cases. If fully or selectively reduced integration displacement method elements
are used with the almost incompressible form of this material model in anything except plane stress
analysis, a penalty method is used to impose the incompressibility constraint. This can sometimes lead
to numerical difficulties, and the fully or selectively reduced integrated “hybrid” formulation elements
are therefore recommended.

Specifying Hyperelastic Material Entries


Nonlinear hyperelastic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran with the following Bulk Data entries:
.

Entry Description
MATHP Specifies material properties for use in fully nonlinear (i.e., large strain and
large rotation) hyperelastic analysis of rubber-like materials (elastomers).
MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large
strain and large rotation) analysis in (SOL 600) only.
CHAPTER 10 303
Materials

References
• MATHP, 1569 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• MATHE (SOL 600) (p. 1559) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define a hyperelastic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to
Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties..., and select Hyperelastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.
3. Select Test Data or Coefficients as the Data Type.
4. From the Strain Energy Potential pull-down menu, select a model and enter properties as
described below.
Hyperelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the
Materials Application form.

Mooney-Rivlin and James-Green-Simpson


Hyperelastic -Mooney/ James Description
Strain Energy Function, C10, Strain energy densities as a function of the strain invariants in the
C01, C11, C20, C30 material. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
This option consolidates several of the MSC.Marc hyperelastic
material models.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This
Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field.
Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal
expansion coefficient.

Ogden
Hyperelastic-Ogden Description
Bulk Modulus K Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the material mass density.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This
Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field
304 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Hyperelastic-Ogden Description
Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal expansion
coefficient.
Modulus k µ k in the Ogden equation.

Exponent k α k in the Ogden equation.

Foam
Hyperelastic-Foam Description
Density Defines the material mass density.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This
Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field
Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal
expansion coefficient.
Modulus n u n in the Foam equation.

Deviatoric Exponent n α n in the Foam equation.

Volumetric Exponent n βn in the Foam equation.

Arruda-Boyce
Hyperelastic-Arruda- Boyce Description
NKT Chain density times Boltzmann constant times temperature.
Chain Length Average chemical chain cross length.
Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density This defines the material mass density.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This
Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field
Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal
expansion coefficient.
CHAPTER 10 305
Materials

Gent
Hyperelastic-Gent Description
Tensile Modulus Defines standard tension modulus (E).
I 1* Maximum 1st Invariant *
Defines I 1 Z I 1 Ó 3 .

Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.


Density This defines the material mass density.
Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficient of thermal expansion.
Expansion
Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal
expansion coefficient.

Viscoelastic
The material models discussed in previous sections are considered to be time independent. However,
rubber materials often show a rate-dependent behavior and can be modeled as viscoelastic materials.
Viscoelasticity can be applied:
• To determine the current state of deformation based on the entire time history of loading.
• To characterize small strain and large strain problems.
• With other material options for linear elastic response (small strain) and hyperelastic response
(large strain).
• To include temperature dependencies.
• For isotropic, anisotropic, and incompressible materials.

Small Strain Viscoelasticity


In the stress relaxation form, the constitutive relation can be written as a hereditary integral formulation

t
dε kl ( τ )
σ ij ( t ) Z ∫ G ijkl ( t Ó τ ) JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J dτ H G
ijkl ( t )ε kl ( 0 ) (10-66)
0
The functions G i jk l are called stress relaxation functions. They represent the response to a unit applied
strain and have characteristic relaxation times associated with them. The relaxation functions for
materials with a fading memory can be expressed in terms of Prony or exponential series.

N
∞ n n
G ijkl ( t ) Z G ijkl H ∑ G ijkl exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ ) (10-67)
n Z 1
306 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

n n
in which G i jk l is a tensor of amplitudes and λ is a positive time constant (relaxation time). In the

current implementation, it is assumed that the time constant is isotropic. In Equation (10-67), G i jk l
represents the long term modulus of the material.
The short term moduli (describing the instantaneous elastic effect) are then given by

N
0 ∞ n
G ijkl Z G ijkl ( 0 ) Z G ijkl H ∑ G ijkl (10-68)
n Z 1
The stress can now be considered as the summation of the stresses in a generalized Maxwell model
(Figure 10-19)

N
∞ n
σ ij ( t ) Z σ ij ( t ) H ∑ σ ij ( t ) (10-69)
n Z 1
where

∞ ∞
σ ij Z G ijkl ε kl ( t ) (10-70)

t
n n n dε kl ( τ )
σ ij Z ∫ G ijkl exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ ] JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ dτ (10-71)

0

η1 η2 ηi
ε
q1 q2 qi
ηE E1
E2 Ei
E0
τi = ηi/Ei

Figure 10-19 The Generalized Maxwell or Stress Relaxation Form

For integration of the constitutive equation, the total time interval is subdivided into a number of
subintervals ( t m Ó 1, t m ) with time-step h Z t m Ó t m Ó 1 . A recursive relation can now be derived
expressing the stress increment in terms of the values of the internal stresses σ inj at the start of the
interval. With the assumption that the strain varies linearly during the time interval h, we obtain the
increment stress-strain relation as
CHAPTER 10 307
Materials

N N
∞ n n n n
∆σ ij ( t m ) Z G ijkl H ∑ β ( h )G ijkl ∆ε kl Ó ∑ α ( h )σ ij ( t m Ó h ) (10-72)
n Z 1 n Z 1
where

n
α n ( h ) Z 1 Ó exp ( Ó h ⁄ λ ) (10-73)
and

n n n
β ( h ) Z α ( h )λ ⁄ h (10-74)
In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the incremental equation for the total stress is expressed in terms of
the short term moduli (See Equation (10-68)).

N N
0 n n n n
∆σ ij ( t m ) Z G ijkl Ó ∑ { 1 Ó β ( h ) }G ijkl ∆ε kl ( t m ) Ó ∑ α ( h )σ ij ( t m Ó h ) (10-75)
n Z 1 n Z 1
Note that the set of equations given by Equation (10-75) can directly be used for both anisotropic and
isotropic materials.

Isotropic Viscoelastic Material


For an isotropic viscoelastic material, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that the deviatoric and
volumetric behavior are fully uncoupled and that the behavior can be described by a time dependent
shear and bulk modules. The bulk moduli is generally assumed to be time independent; however, this is
an unnecessary restriction of the general theory.
Both the shear and bulk moduli can be expressed in a series

N
∞ n n
G( t) Z G H ∑ G exp  Ó t ⁄ λ d (10-76)
 
n Z 1

N
∞ n n
K( t) Z K H ∑ K exp  Ó t ⁄ λ v (10-77)
 
n Z 1
with short term values given by

N
G0 Z G∞ H ∑ Gn (10-78)
n Z 1
308 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

N
K0 Z K∞ H ∑ Kn (10-79)
n Z 1
Let the deviatoric and volumetric component matrices π d and π v be given by

4 ⁄ 3 Ó2 ⁄ 3 Ó2 ⁄ 3 0 0 0
Ó2 ⁄ 3 4 ⁄ 3 Ó 2 ⁄ 3 0 0 0
πd Z Ó2 ⁄ 3 Ó 2 ⁄ 3 4 ⁄ 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
πv Z 1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

The increment set of equations is then given by

Nd
 
 0 n n
∆σ ( t m ) Z  G Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó βd ( h ) ]G π d ∆ε ( t m )
 
 n Z 1 
Nv
 
 0 n n (10-80)
 K Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β v ( h ) ]K π v ∆ε ( t m )
 
 n Z 1 
Nd Nv
n n n n
Ó ∑ α d ( h )σ d ( t m Ó h ) Ó ∑ α v ( h )σ v ( t m Ó h )
n Z 1 n Z 1
and

n n n n n
∆σ d ( t m ) Z βd ( h )G π d ∆ε ( t m ) Ó α d ( h )σ d ( t m Ó h )
(10-81)
n n n n n
∆σ v ( t m ) Z βv ( h )K π v ∆ε ( t m ) Ó α v ( h )σ v ( t m Ó h )

Note that the deviatoric and volumetric response are fully decoupled.
CHAPTER 10 309
Materials

Note that the algorithm is exact for linear variations of the strain during the increment. The algorithm is
implicit; hence, for each change in time-step, a new assembly of the stiffness matrix is required.

Anisotropic Viscoelastic Material


Equation (10-75) can be used for the analysis of anisotropic viscoelastic materials.

Also, a complete set of moduli (21 components) can be specified in the HOOKVI user subroutine.
Referencing a local coordinate system or use of the ORIENT user subroutine can be used to define a
0 n
preferred orientation both for the short time moduli G i jk l and the amplitude functions G i jk l .

Incompressible Isotropic Viscoelastic Materials


Incompressible elements in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allow the analysis of incompressible and
nearly incompressible materials in plane strain, axisymmetric and three-dimensional problems. The
incompressibility of the element is simulated through the use of an perturbed Lagrangian variational
principle based on the Herrmann formulation.
The constitutive equation for a material with no time dependence in the volumetric behavior can be
expressed as

 N 
 0 n n  1
∆σ ij ( t m ) Z 2  G ijkl Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β ( h ) ]G ijkl  ∆ε kl ( t m ) Ó JJJ ∆ε pp ( t m )δ kl
  3
 n Z 1  (10-82)
N
n n 1
Ó ∑ α ( h ) ( σ′ij ) ( t m ) H JJJ σ kk δ ij
3
n Z 1

0
∆σ pp ( t m ) Z 3K ∆ε pp ( t m ) (10-83)

The hydrostatic pressure term is used as an independent variable in the variational principle. The
Herrmann pressure variable is now defined in the same way as in the formulation for time independent
elastic materials.

σ
pp
H Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-84)
2G 0 ( 1 H ν 0 )
The constitutive Equation (10-82) and Equation (10-83) can then be rewritten

N
e n
∆σ ij ( t m ) Z 2G ( ∆ε ij H ν∗ Hδ ij ) Ó ∑ α n ( h ) ( σ′ ij ) ( t m Ó h ) (10-85)
n Z 1
310 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where
N
Ge Z G0 Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β n ( h )G n ] (10-86)
n Z 1

0 0 e 0
G ( 1 H ν ) Ó G ( 1 Ó 2ν )
ν∗ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-87)
e
3G

Large Strain Viscoelasticity


For an elastomeric time independent material, the constitutive equation is expressed in terms of an energy
function W . For a large strain viscoelastic material, Simo generalized the small strain viscoelasticity
material behavior to a large strain viscoelastic material. The energy functional then becomes
N N
n 0 n n n
ψ ( Ei j Qi j ) Z ψ ( Ei j ) Ó ∑ Qi j Ei j H ∑ ψI ( Qi j ) (10-88)
n Z 1 n Z 1

n 0
where E i j are the components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, Q i j internal variables and ψ the
elastic strain energy density for instantaneous deformations. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, it is
0
assumed that ψ Z W , meaning that the energy density for instantaneous deformations is given by the
third order James Green and Simpson form or the Ogden form.
The components of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress then follow from
N
∂ψ Z ∂ψ 0 Ó n
Si j Z JJJJJJJJJ
∂E i j
J JJJJJJJJJJ
∂E i j ∑ Qi j (10-89)
n Z 1

The energy function can also be written in terms of the long term moduli resulting in a different set of
n
internal variables T i j

N
n n
ψ ( E i j, T i j ) Z ψ ∞ ( E i j ) H ∑ Ti j E i j (10-90)
n Z 1


where ψ is the elastic strain energy for long term deformations. Using this energy definition, the
stresses are obtained from
N
∞( E)
Z ∂ψ
n
Si j JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ H
∂E i j ∑ Ti j (10-91)
n Z 1
CHAPTER 10 311
Materials

Observing the similarity with the equations for small strain viscoelasticity the internal variables can be
obtained from a convolution expression
n t n
∫0 Š i j ( τ )exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ
n
Ti j Z ]dτ (10-92)

n
where S i j are internal stresses obtained from energy functions.

n ∂ψ n
S i j Z JJJJJJJJJJ (10-93)
∂E i j

Let the total strain energy be expressed as a Prony series expansion


N

ψ Z ψ H ∑ ψ n exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ n ) (10-94)
n Z 1

If, in the energy function, each term in the series expansion has a similar form, Equation (10-94) can
be rewritten
N

ψ Z ψ H ∑ δ n ψ 0 exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ n ) (10-95)
n Z 1

n
where δ is a scalar multiplier for the energy function based on the short term values.

The stress-strain relation is now given by


N
∞ n
Si j ( t ) Z Si j ( t ) H ∑ Ti j ( t ) (10-96)
n Z 1

 N 
∂ψ ∞ ∂ψ 0
S i j Z JJJJJJJJJJJ Z  1 Ó n JJJJJJJJJ
∑  ∂E iJj
δ (10-97)
∂E i j 
 n Z 1 

t
n n 0 n
Ti j Z ∫δ S i j ( t )exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ ]dτ (10-98)
0

Analogue to the derivation for small strain viscoelasticity, a recursive relation can be derived expressing
the stress increment in terms of values of the internal stresses at the start of the increment.
312 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The equations are reformulated in terms of the short time values of the energy function

 N 
∆S i j ( t m ) Z 1 Ó ∑ 1 Ó β n ( h ) δ n { S i j ( t m ) Ó S i j ( t m Ó h ) }
 0 0
 
 nZ1 
N (10-99)
n
Ó ∑ α n Si j ( tm Ó h)
n Z 1

0 n n
∆S i j ( t m ) Z β n ( h )δ n [ S i j ( t m ) Ó S i j ( t m Ó h ) ] Ó α n ( h )S i j ( t m Ó h ) (10-100)

It is assumed that the viscoelastic behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear acts only on the
deviatoric behavior.

Viscoelastic Models in MSC.Nastran


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has two models that represent viscoelastic materials. The first can be
defined as a Kelvin-Voigt model. The latter is a general hereditary integral approach.

Kelvin-Voigt Model
The Kelvin model allows the rate of change of the inelastic strain to be a function of the total stress and
previous strain.
k
The Kelvin material behavior (viscoelasticity) is modeled by assuming an additional creep strain ε ,
ij
governed by

d
JJJJJ ε k Z A i j k l σ′ Ó B i jk l ε k (10-101)
dt i j kl kl

where A and B may be defined in the user subroutine CRPVIS and the total strain is

ε i j Z ε iej H ε ipj H ε icj H ε ikj H εti hj (10-102)

εti hj = thermal strain components (10-103)

ε iej = elastic strain components (instantaneous response) (10-104)

ε ipj = plastic strain components (10-105)

ε icj Z creep strains defined via the CRPLAW and VSWELL user subroutines (10-106)

ε ikj = Kelvin model strain components as defined above (10-107)


CHAPTER 10 313
Materials

The CRPVIS user subroutine is called at each integration point of each element when the Kelvin model
is used.
Use the NLPARM option and set a nonzero time increment to define the time step and to set the tolerance
control for the maximum strain in any increment.
This option allows Maxwell models to be included in series with the Kelvin model.

Hereditary Integral Model


The stress-strain equations in viscoelasticity are not only dependent on the current stress and strain state
(as represented in the Kelvin model), but also on the entire history of development of these states. This
constitutive behavior is most readily expressed in terms of hereditary or Duhamel integrals. These
integrals are formed by considering the stress or strain build-up at successive times. Two equivalent
integral forms exist: the stress relaxation form and the creep function form. In MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear, the stress relaxation form is used.
The viscoelasticity option in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear can be used for both the small strain and
large strain Mooney, Ogden, Arruda Boyce, and Gent material stress-relaxation problems. A description
of these models is as follows:

Experimental Determination of Viscoelastic Material Parameters


The free energy function versus time data being used for large strain viscoelasticity can be generated by
fitting experimental data provided the following two tests are done:
1. Standard quasi-static tests (tensile, planar-shear, simple-shear, equi-biaxial tension, volumertic)
0
to determine the elastomer free energy W constants.
2. Standard relaxation tests to obtain stress versus time.

Temperature Dependence of Viscoelastic Materials


The rate processes in many viscoelastic materials is known to be highly sensitive to temperature changes.
Such temperature-dependent properties cannot be neglected in the presence of any appreciable
temperature variation. For example, there is a large class of polymers which are adequately represented
by linear viscoelastic laws at uniform temperature. These polymers exhibit an approximate translational
shift of all the characteristic response functions with a change of temperature, along a logarithmic time
axis. This shift occurs without a change of shape. These temperature-sensitive viscoelastic materials are
characterized as Thermo-Rheologically Simple.
A “reduced” or “pseudo” time can be defined for the materials of this type and for a given temperature
field. This new parameter is a function of both time and space variables. The viscoelastic law has the
same form as one at constant temperature in real time. If the shifted time is used, however, the
transformed viscoelastic equilibrium and compatibility equations are not equivalent to the corresponding
elastic equations.
In the case where the temperature varies with time, the extended constitutive law implies a nonlinear
dependence of the instantaneous stress state at each material point of the body upon the entire local
314 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

temperature history. In other words, the functionals are linear in the strains but nonlinear in
the temperature.
The time scale of experimental data is extended for Thermo-Rheologically Simple materials. All
characteristic functions of the material must obey the same property. The shift function is a basic property
of the material and must be determined experimentally. As a consequence of the shifting of the
mechanical properties data parallel to the time axis, the values of the zero and infinite frequency complex
moduli do not change due to shifting. Hence, elastic materials with temperature-dependent
characteristics neither belong to nor are consistent with the above hypothesis for the class of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple viscoelastic solids.
In addition to the Thermo-Rheologically Simple material behavior variations of initial stress-strain
0
moduli G i jk l , the temperature of the other mechanical properties (coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.)
due to changes in temperature can be specified.
Note, however, that only the instantaneous moduli are effected. Hence, the long term moduli given by
N
∞ 0 n
G i jk l Z G i jk l ( t ) Ó ∑ G i jk l (10-108)
n Z 1

can easily become negative if the temperature effects are not defined properly.
The effect of temperature, θ, on the material behavior is introduced through the dependence of the elastic
modulus, G, on temperature, and through a reduced time concept:

 t 
τ Z G γ H ∫ g ( ξ ( t ) Ó ξ ( s ) ) γ̌ ( s ) ds
 (10-109)
 
 0 

where G=G(θ), and xi(t) is the reduced time, defined by


t
ds
ξ(t) Z ∫ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
A( θ( s) )
(10-110)
0

where A(θ(t)) is the shift function at time t. Often the shift function is approximated by the Williams
Landell Ferry (WLF) form:

C1 ( θ Ó θ0 )
log ( A ) Z Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-111)
C2 H ( θ Ó θ0 )

where C1, C2 and θ0 are constants (θ0 is the “glassy transition” temperature).
CHAPTER 10 315
Materials

Narayanaswamy Model
The annealing of flat glass requires that the residual stresses be of an acceptable magnitude, while the
specification for optical glass components usually includes a homogenous refractive index. The design
of heat treated processes can be accomplished using the Narayanaswamy model. This allows you to
study the time dependence of physical properties (for example, volumes) of glass subjected to a change
in temperature.
For more information pertaining to the Narayanaswamy Model, see MSC.Marc Volume A: Theory and
User Information, Chapter 7 Material Library.

Specifying Viscoelastic Material Entries


The viscoelastic MATVE and MATTVE material options are provided for cases where dissipative losses
caused by “viscous” (internal friction) effects in materials must be modeled. For time domain analysis,
this option is used with an elastic model to define classical linear, small strain, viscoelastic behavior, or
with hyperelastic or foam models to define finite linear, large deformation, viscoelastic behavior. As
described in the previous section, viscoelastic relaxation data can be fit using the experimental data
fitting (EDF) capability available in MSC.Patran. See Experimental Data Fitting, 382.

Entry Description
MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties to be used for quasi-static
or dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior to be used for quasi-static or transient
dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

References
• MATVE (SOL 600), 1608 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• MATTVE (SOL 600), 1604 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define a viscoelastic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to
Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties..., and select Viscoelastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.
This input data creates the viscoelastic options. All inputs must have the same number of time points (at
the same times) in the referenced fields. The following equations may be useful when creating the Prony
series for the bulk and shear moduli: K Z E ⁄ ( 3 ( 1 Ó 2 v ) ) G Z E ⁄ (2 (1 H v )) .
316 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Viscoelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the
Materials Application form.

Isotropic Description
Shear Constant If a material field of time vs. value is supplied, will create a
MATVE option. This is valid when MAT1/MATS1 are used.
Energy Function Multiplier Defines the duration effect on the hyperelastic model as a
multiplier to the strain energy density function. This is valid when
a Hyperelastic constitutive model for Neo-Hookean,
Mooney-Rivlin, Jamus-Green-Simpson, Arruda-Boyce, or
Gent is present.
Deviatoric Multiplier If a material field of time vs. value is supplied, will create a
MATVE option.
Dilatational Multiplier Creates a dilatational multiplier.
Solid Coeff. of Thermal Creates coefficient of thermal expansion for solids.

Exp
Liquid Coeff of Thermal Exp Creates coefficient of thermal expansion for liquids.

Orthotropic Description
Young’s Modulus, E11/E22/E33 Defines the duration effects on the elastic moduli. This
information is optional. This is only valid when an elastic and/or
plastic constitutive model is present.
Poissons Ratio 12/23/31 Defines the duration effects on the Poisson’s ratios. This
information is optional.
Shear Modulus G12/G23/G31 Defines the duration effects on the shear moduli. This information
is optional.
Solid Coeff of Thermal Same as for Isotropic

Exp
Liquid Coeff of Thermal Exp Same as for Isotropic
CHAPTER 10 317
Materials

Inelastic
Most materials of engineering interest initially respond elastically. Elastic behavior means that the
deformation is fully recoverable, so that, when the load is removed, the specimen returns to its original
shape. If the load exceeds some limit (the “yield load”), the deformation is no longer fully recoverable.
Some parts of the deformation will remain when the load is removed as, for example, when a paper clip
is bent too much, or when a billet of metal is rolled or forged in a manufacturing process. Plasticity
theories model the material’s mechanical response as it undergoes such nonrecoverable deformation in
a ductile fashion. The theories have been developed most intensively for metals, but they are applied to
soils, concrete, rock, ice, and so on. These materials behave in very different ways (for example, even
large values of pure hydrostatic pressure cause very little inelastic deformation in metals, but quite small
hydrostatic pressure may cause a significant, non-recoverable volume change in a soil sample), but the
fundamental concepts of plasticity theories are sufficiently general that models based on these concepts
have been successfully developed for a wide range of materials. A number of these plasticity modes are
available in the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear material library.
In nonlinear material behavior, the material parameters depend on the state of stress. Up to the
proportional limit, i.e., the point at which linearity in material behavior ceases, the linear elastic
formulation for the behavior can be used. Beyond that point, and especially after the onset of
yield, nonlinear formulations are required. In general, two ingredients are required to ascertain
material behavior:
1. an initial yield criterion to determine the state of stress at which yielding is considered to begin
2. mathematical rules to explain the post-yielding behavior.
There are two major theories of plastic behavior that address these criterion differently. In the first, called
deformation theory, the plastic strains are uniquely defined by the state of stress. The second theory,
called flow or incremental theory, expresses the increments of plastic strain (irrecoverable strains) as
functions of the current stress, the strain increments, and the stress increments. Incremental theory is
more general and can be adapted in its particulars to fit a variety of material behaviors. The plasticity
models in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are “incremental” theories, in which the mechanical strain
rate is decomposed into an elastic part and a plastic (inelastic) part through various assumed flow rules.
The incremental plasticity models are formulated in terms of:
• A yield surface, which generalizes the concept of “yield load” into a test function which can be
used to determine if the material will respond purely elastically at a particular state of stress,
temperature, etc.;
• A flow rule that defines the inelastic deformation that must occur if the material point is no
longer responding purely elastically;
• and some evolution laws that define the hardening - the way in which the yield and/or flow
definitions change as inelastic deformation occurs.
The models also need an elasticity definition, to deal with the recoverable part of the strain models divide
into those that are rate-dependent and those that are rate-independent.
318 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear includes the following models of inelastic behavior.


• Metal Plasticity (von Mises or Hill)
• ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) - characterizes creep behavior and cyclic loading
effects on stainless steel materials.
• Porous Metal Plasticity (Gurson) - includes effects of hydrostatic pressure and failure processes
in ductile materials.
• Pressure-Dependent models - models the behavior of granular (soil and rock) materials or
polymers, in which the yield behavior depends on the equivalent pressure stress.
• Linear Mohr-Coulomb
• Parabolic Morh-Coulomb
• Buyukozturk Concrete

Yield Conditions
The yield stress of a material is a measured stress level that separates the elastic and inelastic behavior of
the material. The magnitude of the yield stress is generally obtained from a uniaxial test. However, the
stresses in a structure are usually multiaxial. A measurement of yielding for the multiaxial state of stress
is called the yield condition. Depending on how the multiaxial state of stress is represented, there can be
many forms of yield conditions. For example, the yield condition can be dependent on all stress
components, on shear components only, or on hydrostatic stress. A number of yield conditions are
available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, and are discussed in this section.

Metal Plasticity
The von Mises yield surface is widely used for plasticity in isotropic metals. It is assumed that the yield
and plastic flow describe isotropic metals at low temperatures where creep effects can be ignored.
Anisotropic metals and composite materials, can be treated by extensions of von Mises yield function, as
described in Hill’s yield function.

von Mises
The success of the von Mises criterion is due to the continuous nature of the function that defines this
criterion and its agreement with observed behavior for the commonly encountered ductile materials.
The von Mises criterion states that yield occurs when the effective (or equivalent) stress (σ) equals
the yield stress (σy) as measured in a uniaxial test. Figure 10-20 shows the von Mises yield surface in
two-dimensional and three-dimensional stress space.
CHAPTER 10 319
Materials

σ2 σ′3
Yield
Surface
Yield
Surface

Elastic
Region
σ1

Elastic σ′1 σ′2


Region

(a) Two-dimensional Stress Space (b) π-Plane


Figure 10-20 von Mises Yield Surface

For an isotropic material

σ Z [ ( σ 1 Ó σ 2 ) 2 H ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) 2 H ( σ 3 Ó σ 1 ) 2 ]1 ⁄ 2 ⁄ 2 (10-112)

where σ1, σ2, and σ3 are the principal Cauchy stresses.

σ can also be expressed in terms of nonprincipal Cauchy stresses.

( σ Z [ ( σ x Ó σ y ) 2 H ( σ y Ó σ z ) 2 H ( σ z Ó σ x ) 2 H 6 ( τ x2y H τ y2z H τ z2x ) ] 1 ⁄ 2 ) ⁄ 2 (10-113)

The yield condition can also be expressed in terms of the deviatoric stresses as:

3
σ Z JJJ σ′ σ′ (10-114)
2 ij ij

where σ′ is the deviatoric Cauchy stress expressed as


ij

1
σ′ Z σ i j Ó JJJ σ k k δ i j (10-115)
ij 3
For isotropic material, the von Mises yield condition is the default condition in MSC.Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear.
320 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Hill’s Yield Function


Hill’s yield surface has been widely used both as a yield surface and as a failure surface for anisotropic
and composite materials. Hill’s yield function is a generalization of von Mises as expressed below.

σx x 2 σy y 2 σz z 2
 JJJJJJJJ
J H  JJJJJJJJ
J H  JJJJJJJ
J
 Fx   Fy   Fz 

1 1J σ σ
1J Ó JJJJJ
Ó  JJJJJ
J H JJJJJ  xx yy
F 2
Fy Fz
2 2
x

1 1 1
Ó  JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ σ x x σ z z (10-116)
 F 2 F 2 F 2
x y z

 1 1 1
Ó  Ó JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ σ y y σ z z
 F 2 F 2 F 2
x y z

τxy 2 τy z 2 τzx 2
+  JJJJJJJJ H  JJJJJJJJ H  JJJJJJJJ Z 1
 F x y  F y z  F z x

Note the following points about Hill’s surface:


1. It degenerates into von Mises surface when all three direct yield stresses are equal
(Fx = Fy = Fz) and all three shear yield stresses are equal.
2. It is invariant with respect to hydrostatic stress, as is von Mises.
3. Hill's surface, unlike von Mises, is not always an ellipsoid in stress space. When it is not an
ellipsoid, it is not appropriate for use as a yield function (since it does not have an inside and an
outside, thereby dividing stress space into elastic and plastic regions).

Mohr-Coulomb Material (Hydrostatic Stress Dependence)


MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear includes options for elastic-plastic behavior based on a yield surface
that exhibits hydrostatic stress dependence. Such behavior is observed in a wide class of soil and
rock-like materials. These materials are generally classified as Mohr-Coulomb materials (generalized
von Mises materials). Ice is also thought to be a Mohr-Coulomb material. The generalized
Mohr-Coulomb model developed by Drucker and Prager is implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear. There are two types of Mohr-Coulomb materials: linear and parabolic. Each is discussed on
the following pages.
CHAPTER 10 321
Materials

Linear Mohr-Coulomb Material


The deviatoric yield function, as shown in Figure 10-21, is assumed to be a linear function of the
hydrostatic stress.

σ
f Z αJ 1 H J 21 ⁄ 2 Ó JJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-117)
3
where

J1 Z σi i (10-118)

1
J 2 Z JJJ σ′ σ′ (10-119)
2 ij ij

The constants α and σ can be related to c and φ by

σ 3α
c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ X JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Z sin φ (10-120)
1⁄2 ( 1 Ó 3α 2 ) 1 ⁄ 2
[ 3 ( 1 Ó 12α 2 ) ]

where c is the cohesion and φ is the angle of friction.


τ

Yield Envelope

R
c φ
σ

σx + σy
2

Figure 10-21 Yield Envelope of Plane Strain (Linear Mohr-Coulomb Material)

Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb Material


The hydrostatic dependence is generalized to give a yield envelope which is parabolic in the case of plane
strain (see Figure 10-22).

f Z ( 3J 2 H 3βσJ 1 ) 1 ⁄ 2 Ó σ Z 0 (10-121)
322 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2 α
2 α
Z 3  c Ó JJJJJJ β Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
2 (10-122)
σ
 3 ( 3 ( 3c 2 Ó α 2 ) ) 1 ⁄ 2

where c is the cohesion.


τ

R c
σ

σx + σy c2
2 α

Figure 10-22 Resultant Yield Condition of Plane Strain (Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb Material

Buyukozturk Criterion (Hydrostatic Stress Dependence)


The Buyukozturk concrete plasticity model is a particular form of the generalized Drucker-Prager
plasticity model, which is developed specifically for plane stress cases by Buyukozturk. This yield
criterion, which originally has been proposed as a failure criterion, has the general form:

2 2
f Z β 3σJ 1 H γJ 1 H 3J 2 Ó σ (10-123)

The Buyukozturk criterion reduces to the parabolic Mohr-Coulomb criterion if γ Z 0 .

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Options


Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a large number of creep tests on stainless and
other alloy steels. It has also set certain rules that characterize creep behavior for application in the
nuclear structures. A summary of the ORNL rules on creep is discussed in MSC.Marc Volume A, Theory
and User Information. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the ORNL options are based on the
definitions of ORNL-TM- 3602 [1] for stainless steels and ORNL recommendations [2] for 2 1/4 Cr-1
Mo steel.
The initial yield stress should be used for the initial inelastic loading calculations for both the stainless
steels and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. The 10th-cycle yield stress should be used for the hardened material. The
100th-cycle yield stress must be used in the following circumstances:
1. To accommodate cyclic softening of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel after many load cycles.
2. After a long period of high temperature exposure.
3. After the occurrence of creep strain.
CHAPTER 10 323
Materials

Work Hardening Rules


The work-hardening rule defines the way the yield surface changes with plastic straining. A material is
said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an infinitesimal increase
in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear models all materials
as work hardening, and treats perfectly plastic materials as a special case. Because the tangent stiffness
method is used, no difficulties arise in setting the work hardening slope equal to zero. Besides perfect
plasticity, three possibilities are provided: isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening.
The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the
stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. This type of
hardening is appropriate when the straining is the same in all directions.
For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic
loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening
model represents the material better.

fëçíêçéáÅ=e~êÇÉåáåÖ háåÉã~íáÅ=e~êÇÉåáåÖ
e~êÇÉåÉÇ

lêáÖáå~ä

Isotropic, Kinematic, and Combined Hardening


The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the
stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. The change of
the von Mises yield surface is plotted in Figure 10-23b.
A review of the load path of a uniaxial test that involves both the loading and unloading of a specimen
will assist in describing the isotropic workhardening rule. The specimen is first loaded from stress free
(point 0) to initial yield at point 1, as shown in Figure 10-23a. It is then continuously loaded to point 2.
Then, unloading from 2 to 3 following the elastic slope E (Young’s modulus) and then elastic reloading
from 3 to 2 takes place. Finally, the specimen is plastically loaded again from 2 to 4 and elastically
unloaded from 4 to 5. Reverse plastic loading occurs between 5 and 6.

It is obvious that the stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress σ y and stresses at points 2 and 4 are
larger than σ y , due to workhardening. During unloading, the stress state can remain elastic (for example,
point 3), or it can reach a subsequent (reversed) yield point (for example, point 5). The isotropic
workhardening rule states that the reverse yield occurs at current stress level in the reversed direction.
324 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ
4
2
1
σy
E
E +σ4

E
3
0

−σ4

6
(a) Loading Path

σ′3

5 6

0
3

2 1
4

σ′1 σ′2

(b) von Mises Yield Surface

Figure 10-23 Schematic of Isotropic Hardening Rule (Uniaxial Test)

Let σ 4 be the stress level at point 4. Then, the reverse yield can only take place at a stress level of Ó σ 4
(point 5).
For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic
loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening model
represents the material better.
CHAPTER 10 325
Materials

Kinematic Hardening
Under the kinematic hardening rule, the von Mises yield surface does not change in size or shape, but
the center of the yield surface can move in stress space. Figure 10-23d illustrates this condition. Ziegler’s
law is used to define the translation of the yield surface in the stress space.
The loading path of a uniaxial test is shown in Figure 10-23c. The specimen is loaded in the following
order: from stress free (point 0) to initial yield (point 1), 2 (loading), 3 (unloading), 2 (reloading), 4
(loading), 5 and 6 (unloading). As in isotropic hardening, stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress σ y ,
and stresses at 2 and 4 are higher than σ y , due to workhardening. Point 3 is elastic, and reverse yield
takes place at point 5. Under the kinematic hardening rule, the reverse yield occurs at the level of
σ 5 Z ( σ 4 Ó 2σ y ) , rather than at the stress level of Ó σ 4 . Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to a higher
stress level σ 7 (point 7), and then unloaded to the subsequent yield point 8, the stress at point 8 is
σ 8 Z ( σ 7 Ó 2σ y ) . If the specimen is unloaded from a (tensile) stress state (such as point 4 and 7), the
reverse yield can occur at a stress state in either the reverse (point 5) or the same (point 8) direction.
For many materials, the kinematic hardening model gives a better representation of loading/unloading
behavior than the isotropic hardening model. For cyclic loading, however, the kinematic hardening
model can represent neither cyclic hardening nor cyclic softening.

Combined Hardening
Figure 10-25 shows a material with highly nonlinear hardening. Here, the initial hardening is assumed to
be almost entirely isotropic, but after some plastic straining, the elastic range attains an essentially
constant value (that is, pure kinematic hardening). The basic assumption of the combined hardening
model is that such behavior is reasonably approximated by a classical constant kinematic hardening
constraint, with the superposition of initial isotropic hardening. The isotropic hardening rate eventually
decays to zero as a function of the equivalent plastic strain measured by

ˇp ˇp 2ˇp ˇp 1⁄2
ε Z ∫ε dt Z ∫  JJ3J ε i j εi j dt (10-124)

σ
fåáíá~ä `çãÄáåÉÇ cìääó=e~êÇÉåÉÇ
bä~ëíáÅ e~êÇÉåáåÖ mìêÉ=háåÉã~íáÅ
o~åÖÉ o~åÖÉ o~åÖÉ

píêÉëë

fåáíá~ä
váÉäÇ
låÉJÜ~äÑ=`ìêêÉåí
bä~ëíáÅ=o~åÖÉ

P Çα
háåÉã~íáÅ=päçéÉI
O Çεé
ε
píê~áå

Figure 10-24 Basic Uniaxial Tension Behavior of the Combined Hardening Model
326 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This implies a constant shift of the center of the elastic domain, with a growth of elastic domain around
this center until pure kinematic hardening is attained. In this model, there is a variable proportion between
the isotropic and kinematic contributions that depends on the extent of plastic deformation (as measured
p
by ε ).

The workhardening data at small strains governs the isotropic behavior, and the data at large strains
( ε p > 1000 ) governs the kinematic hardening behavior. If the last workhardening slope is zero, the
behavior is the same as the isotropic hardening model.

Experimental Determination of Work Hardening Slope


In a uniaxial test, the workhardening slope is defined as the slope of the stress-plastic strain curve. The
workhardening slope relates the incremental stress to incremental plastic strain in the inelastic region and
dictates the conditions of subsequent yielding. A number of workhardening rules (isotropic, kinematic,
and combined) are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. A description of these workhardening
rules is given below. The uniaxial stress-plastic strain curve can be represented by a piecewise linear
function or through the user subroutine WKSLP . This requires the use of MARCIN to specify the MARC
WORKHARD option.

Stress

∆σ3
∆σ2

∆σ1

σ
E E E E

Strain
p p p
∆ε1 ∆ε 2 ∆ε 3

Figure 10-25 Workhardening Slopes


CHAPTER 10 327
Materials

Slope Breakpoint

∆σ
JJJJJJJJJ1J 0.0
p
∆ε1

∆σ 2 p
JJJJJJJJJJ ∆ε1
p
∆ε 2

∆σ p p
JJJJJJJJJ3J ∆ε1 H ∆ε 2
p
∆ε 3

You enter a table of yield stress, plastic strain points.

Note: The data points should be based on a plot of the stress versus plastic strain for a tensile test.
The elastic strain components should not be included.

The yield stress and the workhardening data must be compatible with the procedure used in the analysis.
For small strain analyses, the engineering stress and engineering strain are appropriate. If only
PARAM,LGDISP is used, the yield stress should be entered as the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and
the workhard data be given with respect to plastic Green-Lagrange strains. If PARAM,LGDISP,1 or 2
are used, the yield stress must be defined as a true or Cauchy stress, and the workhardening data with
respect to logarithmic plastic strains. Engineering stress and strain may be defined and Bulk Data
parameter MRTABLS1 used to provide the program with rules to convert to the proper stress and strain
measures. See MRTABLS1 (p. 755) in the .

Flow Rules
Yield stress and workhardening rules are two experimentally related phenomena that characterize plastic
material behavior. The flow rule is also essential in establishing the incremental stress-strain relations for
p
plastic material. The flow rule describes the differential changes in the plastic strain components dε as
a function of the current stress state. So long as a material point is elastic, Hooke’s law provides a
relationship between total stress and strain. After a material becomes plastic, however, there is no longer
a unique relationship between total stress and strain. The problem then is usually solved incrementally,
following the exact loading path.
For points which are plastic, a flow rule is used to relate increments of stress to plastic strain.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses an associated flow rule, which prescribes that increments of
plastic strain are computed as a constant times the gradient of the yield function.
In other words, considering the yield function as a surface in stress space, the plastic strain increment is
a vector in the direction of the outward normal to the surface at the point where it is touched by the
stresses on the loading path.
328 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The equation representing this is:

∂F
dε ipj Z λ JJJJJJJJJJ (10-125)
∂σ i j

where λ is a constant. Writing the six equations explicitly:

∂F
dε xpx Z JJJJJJJJJJJ
J
∂σ x x
∂F
dε ypy Z JJJJJJJJJJJJ
∂σ y y
∂F
dε zpz Z JJJJJJJJJJJJ
∂σ z z
(10-126)
∂F
dε xpy Z JJJJJJJJJJJ
∂τ x y
∂F J
dε ypz Z JJJJJJJJJJ
∂τ y z
∂F
dε zpx Z JJJJJJJJJJ
J
∂τ x z

These stress vs. plastic strain equations are analogous to the stress vs. total strain equations of elasticity,
where elastic strains can be computed as the gradient of a strain energy potential function, namely;

∂U
dε i j Z JJJJJJJJJJ (10-127)
∂σ i j

Thus, the yield function F plays the role of a plastic potential. If a theory of plasticity uses something
other than the yield function as a plastic potential, a so-called nonassociated flow rule results.
Nonassociated flow rules are not available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
CHAPTER 10 329
Materials

For the von Mises and modified Hill yield functions programmed in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear,
the derivatives in the yield function are obtained simply by differentiating with respect to individual
components of stress. For example, for the modified Hill function, we have:

2σ x x σ y y σz z
dε xpx Z λ JJJJJJJJJJJ
J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ
J
Fx 2 Fx Fy Fx Fz

σx x 2σ y y σz z
dε ypy Z λ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ
J H JJJJJJJJJJJ
J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ
J
Fx Fy Fy 2 F y Fz

σ xx σy y 2σ z z
dε zpz Z λ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ
J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ
J H JJJJJJJJJJJ
J
Fx Fz Fy Fz F z2

σx y (10-128)
dε xpy Z λ JJJJJJJJJ
F x2y

σx z
dε y2z Z λ JJJJJJJJJ
F y2z

σy z
dε zpx Z λ JJJJJJJJJ
F z2x

The constant in these flow rule equations is evaluated automatically by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
on the basis of material stability during plastic flow (i.e., by the requirement that the stress state remain
on the yield surface during plastic straining).
The Prandtl-Reuss representation of the flow rule is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. In
conjunction with the von Mises yield function, this can be represented as:

p ∂σ
dε i j Z dε p JJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-129)
∂σ i′j

where dε p and σ are equivalent plastic strain increment and equivalent stress, respectively.

The significance of this representation is illustrated in Figure 10-26. This figure illustrates the
“stress-space” for the two-dimensional case. The solid curve gives the yield surface (locus of all stress
states causing yield) as defined by the von Mises criterion.
Equation (10-139) expresses the condition that the direction of inelastic straining is normal to the yield
surface. This condition is called either the normality condition or the associated flow rule.
If the von Mises yield surface is used, then the normal is equal to the deviatoric stress.
330 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ2

dεp p
dε2

dεp
1

σ1

Yield Surface

Figure 10-26 Yield Surface and Normality Criterion 2-D Stress Space

Rate Dependent Yield


Strain rate effects cause the structural response of a body to change because they influence the material
properties of the body. These material changes lead to an instantaneous change in the strength of the
material. Strain rate effects become more pronounced for temperatures greater than half the melting
temperature ( T m ), but are sometimes present even at room temperature. The following discussion
explains the effect of strain rate on the size of the yield surface.
Using the von Mises yield condition and normality rule, we obtain an expression for the stress rate of
the form
ˇˇ p
σ̌ i j Z L i jk l ε̌ k l H r i j ε

For elastic-plastic response

∂σ ∂σ
L i jk l Z C i jk l Ó  C i jm n JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJ C p q k l ⁄ D (10-130)
 ∂σ mn ∂σ p q 

and

∂σ 2 ∂σ
r i j Z C i jmn JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJ σ JJJJJJJJ ⁄ D (10-131)
∂σ m n 3 ˇp
∂ε
where

4 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ
D Z JJJ σ 2 JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJ C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-132)
9 ∂ε p ∂σ ij ∂σ kl
CHAPTER 10 331
Materials

As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. The model provided in
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear for this purpose is

ˇ σ P
where: ε Z D  JJJJJJ Ó 1 for α ≥ σ 0
σ 
0

ˇ pl = the uniaxial equivalent plastic strain rate


ε

σ = the effective yield stress at a non-zero strain rate


pl the static yield stress (which may depend on the equivalent plastic strain,
σ0 ( ε , T ) = pl
ε , via isotropic hardening, or on the temperature, T .
are material parameters that may be functions of temperature. D and p are
D ( T ), p ( T ) = defined on the input forms. This model is effective in both static and
dynamic procedures.

Yield stress variation with strain rate is given using one of three options:
1. The breakpoints and slopes for a piecewise linear approximation to the yield stress strain rate
curve are given. The strain rate breakpoints should be in ascending order, or
2. The Cowper and Symonds model is used. The yield behavior is assumed to be completely
determined by one stress-strain curve and a scale factor depending on the strain rate.

Note: If multiple material models are used, they must all be expressed as piecewise linear, or as
Cowper and Symonds model.

Perfectly Plastic
A material is said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an
infinitesimal increase in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. The uniaxial stress-strain diagram
for an elastic-perfectly plastic material is shown in Figure 10-27. Some materials, such as mild steel,
behave in a manner which is close to perfectly plastic.
332 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σxx
.

YS


xx

Figure 10-27 Perfectly Plastic Material Stress-Strain Relationship

Experimental Stress-Strain Curves


Metals
In uniaxial tension tests of most metals (and many other materials), the following phenomena can be
observed. If the stress in the specimen is below the yield stress of the material, the material behaves
elastically and the stress in the specimen is proportional to the strain. If the stress in the specimen is
greater than the yield stress, the material no longer exhibits elastic behavior, and the stress-strain
relationship becomes nonlinear. Figure 10-28 shows a typical uniaxial stress-strain curve. Both the elastic
and inelastic regions are indicated.

Stress Inelastic
Region

Yield
Stress

Strain
Elastic Region
Note: Stress and strain are total quantities.

Figure 10-28 Typical Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve (Uniaxial Test)


CHAPTER 10 333
Materials

Within the elastic region, the stress-strain relationship is unique. As illustrated in , if the stress in the
specimen is increased (loading) from zero (point 0) to σ 1 (point 1), and then decreased (unloading) to
zero, the strain in the specimen is also increased from zero to ε 1 , and then returned to zero. The elastic
strain is completely recovered upon the release of stress in the specimen.
The loading-unloading situation in the inelastic region is different from the elastic behavior. If the
specimen is loaded beyond yield to point 2, where the stress in the specimen is σ 2 and the total strain is
e
ε 2 , upon release of the stress in the specimen the elastic strain, ε , is completely recovered. However,
2
p
the inelastic (plastic) strain, ε 2 , remains in the specimen. Figure 10-29 illustrates this relationship.
Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to point 3 and then unloaded to zero stress state, the plastic strain
p p p
ε 3 remains in the specimen. It is obvious that ε is not equal to ε . We can conclude that in the
2 3
inelastic region:
• Plastic strain permanently remains in the specimen upon removal of stress.
• The amount of plastic strain remaining in the specimen is dependent upon the stress level at
which the unloading starts (path-dependent behavior).
The uniaxial stress-strain curve is usually plotted for total quantities (total stress versus total strain). The
total stress-strain curve shown in Figure 10-29 can be replotted as a total stress versus plastic strain curve,
as shown in Figure 10-30. The slope of the total stress versus plastic strain curve is defined as the
workhardening slope (H) of the material. The workhardening slope is a function of plastic strain.

Total Strain = Strain and Elastic Strain


Stress

σ3 3
σ2 2

Yield Stress σy
σ1 1

0 Strain
ε1 ε2 ε3
p e
ε
p
ε 2e ε2 Z ε 2 H ε 2
2 p e
ε3 Z ε 3 H ε 3
p e
ε ε
3 3

Figure 10-29 Schematic of Simple Loading - Unloading (Uniaxial Test)


334 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Total Stress
σ θ

Plastic Strain
εp
H = tan θ (Workhardening Slope)
= dσ/dεp

Figure 10-30 Definition of Workhardening Slope (Uniaxial Test)

The stress-strain curve shown in Figure 10-29 is directly plotted from experimental data. It can be
simplified for the purpose of numerical modeling. A few simplifications are shown in Figure 10-31 and
are listed below:
1. Bilinear representation – constant workhardening slope.
2. Elastic perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening.
3. Perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening and no elastic response.
4. Piecewise linear representation – multiple constant workhardening slopes.
5. Strain-softening material – negative workhardening slope.
In addition to elastic material constants (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio), it is essential to include
yield stress and workhardening slopes when dealing with inelastic (plastic) material behavior. These
quantities can vary with parameters such as temperature and strain rate. Since the yield stress is generally
measured from uniaxial tests, and the stresses in real structures are usually multiaxial, the yield condition
of a multiaxial stress state must be considered. The conditions of subsequent yield (workhardening rules)
must also be studied.
CHAPTER 10 335
Materials

σ σ

ε ε
(1) Bilinear Representation (2) Elastic-Perfectly Plastic

σ σ

ε ε
(3) Perfectly Plastic (4) Piecewise Linear Representation

ε
(5) Strain Softening

Figure 10-31 Simplified Stress-Strain Curves (Uniaxial Test)

Geological Materials
Data for geological materials are most commonly available from triaxial compression testing. In such a
test, the specimen is confined by pressure and an additional compression stress is superposed in one
direction. Thus, the principal stresses are all negative, with 0 ≥ σ 1 Z σ 2 ≥ σ 3 .

-σ3 -σ1

σ1=σ2>σ3 σ1>σ2=σ3

−σ1 −σ2 −σ2 −σ3

Figure 10-32 Triaxial Compression and Tension


336 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The values of the stress invariants in a uniaxial compression experiment are:


p=-{1/3}(2σ1+σ3)

q=σ1-σ3

r3=-(σ1-σ3)3

so that t=q=σ1-σ3

The triaxial results may thus be plotted in the t-p plane shown above. Fitting the best straight line through
the results then provides β and d.
Triaxial tension data are also needed to define K. Under triaxial tension, the specimen is again confined
by pressure, then the pressure in one direction is reduced. In this case, the principal stresses are
. σ1 ≥ σ2 Z σ3

The stress invariants are now:


p=-{1/3}(σ1+2σ3),

q=σ1-σ3,

r3=(σ1-σ3)3,

so that t={q/K}={1/K}(σ1-σ3)

K may thus be found by plotting these test results as q versus p and again fitting the best straight line.
The triaxial compression and tension lines must intercept the p-axis at the same point, and the ratio of
values of q for triaxial tension and compression at the same value of p then gives K as shown in
Figure 10-33.

Best fit to triaxial


q compression data

Best fit to triaxial


tension data

hc ht
d
β
p

Figure 10-33 Triaxial Compression and Tension Data


CHAPTER 10 337
Materials

Matching Mohr-Coulomb Parameters


Sometimes, experimental data are not directly available. Instead, the user is provided with the friction
angle and cohesion values for the Mohr-Coulomb model. We, therefore, need to calculate values
for the parameters of the Drucker-Prager model to provide a reasonable match to the
Mohr-Coulomb parameters.
The Mohr-Coulomb failure model is based on plotting Mohr’s circle for states of stress at failure in the
plane of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The failure line is the best straight line that
touches these Mohr’s circles.
The Mohr-Coulomb model is thus
s+σmsinϕ-c cosϕ=0,

where s={1/2}(σ1-σ3)

is half of the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses (and is, therefore, the
maximum shear stress), and
σm={1/2}(σ1+σ3)

is the average of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.


We see that the Mohr-Coulomb model assumes that failure is independent of the value of the
intermediate principal stress. The Drucker-Prager model does not. The failure of typical geotechnical
materials generally includes some small dependence on the intermediate principal stress.

Matching Triaxial Test Response


One approach to matching Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager model parameters is to make the two
models provide the same failure definition in triaxial compression and tension. For this purpose, we can
rewrite the Mohr-Coulomb model in terms of principal stresses.

σ 1 Ó σ 3 H ( σ 1 H σ 3 ) sin ( φ ) Ó 2c cos φ Z 0 (10-133)

Using the results above (for the stress invariants p, q, and r), in triaxial compression and tension, allows
the Drucker-Prager model to be written for triaxial compression as

1
1 Ó JJJ tan β
tan β 3 0
σ 1 Ó σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 1 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ σ c Z 0 (10-134)
2 H 1 1
JJJ tan β 1 H JJJ tan β
 3  6

and, for triaxial tension, as


338 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1
1 Ó JJJ tan β
tan β 3 0
σ 1 Ó σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 1 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ σ c Z 0 (10-135)
1
 JJJJ Ó JJJ tan β
2 1 JJJJ Ó 1JJJ tan β
K 3  K 6

We wish to make the equations for triaxial compression and biaxial tension identical to the general
Mohr-Coulomb equation for all values of (σ1,σ3).

Comparing the equations for triaxial compression and triaxial tension requires that:

1 1 Ó1
J JJJ tan β
1 H JJJ tan β Z JJJ (10-136)
6 K 6
so that

1
K Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-137)
1
1 H JJJ tan β
3
Comparing the coefficients of (σ1+σ3) in the equation for triaxial compression and that for triaxial
tension provides:

6 sin φ
tan β JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-138)
3 Ó sin φ
and hence, from the derived equation for K:

3 Ó sin φ
K Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-139)
3 H sin Φ
Finally, comparing the last terms in the general expression for the Mohr-Coulomb model and the equation
for triaxial compression and using the expression for tanβ provides:

0 2c cos ΦJ
σ c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-140)
1 Ó sin Φ
The expression for tanβ, K, and this last expression and thus provide Drucker-Prager parameters that
match the Mohr-Coulomb model in triaxial compression and tension.

The value of K in the Drucker-Prager model is restricted to K ≥ 0.778 for the yield surface to remain
convex. Rewriting the expression for K as:

1ÓK
sin Φ Z 3  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-141)
 1 H k

shows that this implies φ ≤ 22° . Many real materials have a larger Mohr-Coulomb friction angle than
this value. In such circumstances, one approach is to choose K = 0.778 and then to use the expression for
0 0
tan β to define β and the expression for σ c to define σ c , ignoring the expression for K. This matches the
CHAPTER 10 339
Materials

models for triaxial compression only, while providing the closest approximation that the model can
provide to failure being independent of the intermediate principal stress. If ϕ is significantly larger than
22°, this approach may provide a poor Drucker-Prager match of the Mohr-Coulomb parameters.
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses K=1 by default.

Matching Plane Strain Response


Plane strain problems are often encountered in geotechnical analysis: examples are long tunnels,
footings, and embankments. For this reason, the constitutive model parameters are often matched to
provide the same flow and failure response in plane strain.
The Drucker-Prager flow potential defines the plastic strain increment as:

 

Z dε  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( t Ó p tan ψ )
pl pl 1
dε (10-142)
 1 ∂σ 
 1 Ó JJJ tan ψ 
3
pl
where dε is the equivalent plastic strain increment.
Since we only wish to match the behavior in one plane we can assume K=1, which implies that t=q. Then:

 
∂p
Z dε  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ  ∂ q Ó tan ψ 
pl pl 1
dε (10-143)
 1  ∂σ ∂ σ
 1 Ó JJJ tan ψ
3
Writing this expression in terms of principal stresses provides:

 
dε 1 Z dε  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ  JJJJJJ ( 2σ 1 Ó σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) H JJJ tan ψ
pl pl 1 1 1
(10-144)
 1   2q 3 
 1 Ó JJJ tan ψ
3

pl pl
with similar expressions for dε 2 and dε 3 .

pl
Assume plane strain in the 1-direction. Then, at limit load, we must have dε 1 =0. From the above
expression, this provides the constraint:

1 1
JJJJJJ ( 2σ Ó σ Ó σ ) H JJJ tan ψ Z 0 (10-145)
2q 1 2 3 3
so that:

1 1
σ 1 Z JJJ ( σ 2 H σ 3 ) Ó JJJ tan ψq (10-146)
2 3
340 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Using this constraint, we can rewrite q and p in terms of the principal stresses in the plane of deformation,

3 3
q Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) (10-147)
2
2 9 Ó ( tan ψ )
and

1 tan ψ
p Z Ó JJJ ( σ 2 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) (10-148)
2 2
2 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

With these expressions, the Drucker-Prager yield surface can be written in terms of σ2 and σ3 as

9 Ó tan β tan ψ 1
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ Ó σ ) H JJJ tan β ( σ H σ ) Ó d Z 0 (10-149)
2 2 3 2 2 3
2 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

The Mohr-Coulomb yield surface in the (2,3) plane is:

σ 2 Ó σ 3 H sin ϕ ( σ 2 H σ 3 ) Ó 2c cos ϕ Z 0 (10-150)

By comparison,

2
tan β 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )
sin ϕ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-151)
9 Ó tan β tan ψ

2
3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )
c cos ϕ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ d (10-152)
9 Ó tan β tan ψ
Now consider the two extreme cases of flow definition: associated flow, ψ=β, and nondilatant flow, when
ψ=0.
Assuming associated flow, the last two equations provide:

3 sin ϕ
tan β Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
J (10-153)
1 2
1 H JJJ ( sin ϕ )
3
and

d Z 3 cos ϕ
JJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-154)
c 1 2
1 H JJJ ( sin ϕ )
3

d
while for nondilatant flow they give tan β Z 3 sin ϕ and JJJ Z ϕ cos ϕ
c
CHAPTER 10 341
Materials

0
In either case, σ c is immediately available as:

0 1
σ c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ d (10-155)
1
1 Ó JJJ tan β
3
The difference between these two approaches increases with the friction angle but, for typical friction
angles, the results are not very different, as illustrated in the table below.

Mohr-Coulomb
Friction Angle, Φ Associated Flow Nondilatant Flow
Drucker-Prager Drucker-Prager friction
friction angle, β d/c angle, β d/c
10 ° 16.7 ° 1.70 16.7 ° 1.70
20 ° 30.2 ° 1.60 30.6 ° 1.63
30 ° 39.8 ° 1.44 40.9 ° 1.50
40 ° 46.2 ° 1.24 48.1 ° 1.33
50 ° 50.5 ° 1.02 53.0 ° 1.11

Plane strain matching of Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb models.


As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. This effect often becomes
important when the strain rates are in the range of -0.1 to 1 per second, and can be very important if the
strain rates are in the range of 10 to 100 per second, as commonly occurs in high energy dynamic events
or in manufacturing processes.

Temperature-Dependent Behavior
This section discusses the effects of temperature-dependent plasticity on the constitutive relation.
The following constitutive relations for thermo-plasticity were developed by Naghdi. Temperature
effects are discussed using the isotropic hardening model and the von Mises yield condition.
The stress rate can be expressed in the form

ˇ ˇ ˇ
σ i j Z L i jk l ε k l H h i j T (10-156)

For elastic-plastic behavior, the moduli L i jk l are

∂σ ∂σ
L i jk l Z C i jk l Ó  C i jm n JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJ C p q k l ⁄ D (10-157)
 ∂σ mn ∂σ p q 

and for purely elastic response


342 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

L i jk l Z C i jk l (10-158)

The term that relates the stress increment to the increment of temperature for elastic-plastic behavior is

∂σ 2 ∂σ
h i j Z X i j Ó C i j k l α k l Ó  C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ  σ p q X p q Ó JJJ σ JJJJJJJ  ⁄ D (10-159)
 ∂σ k l  3 ∂T 

and for purely elastic response

H i j Z X i j Ó C i jk l α k l (10-160)

where

4 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ
D Z JJJ σ 2 JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJ C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-161)
9 ∂ε p ∂σ i j ∂σ k l

and

∂C i jk l e
X i j Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ε (10-162)
∂T k l

and α k l are the coefficients of thermal expansion.

Temperature-Dependent Stress Strain Curves


Starting in MSC.Nastran 2005, SOL 600 offers the capability of stress-strain curve dependence as a
function of temperature. The user specifies these stress strain curves at different temperatures and then
specifies the temperature to use for each subcase. Linear interpolation between the supplied curves is
used to determine the appropriate curve at the temperature specified for a particular subcase.
MSC.Marc’s AF-Flowmat capability is used for this capability; therefore, user subroutines do not have
to be supplied. This capability is best explained with an example (this example can be obtained from
MSC.Nastran development. The name of the file is mattep20.dat).
SOL 600,NLSTATIC path=1 stop=1
TIME 10000
CEND
ECHO = NONE
DISPLACEMENT(plot) = ALL
SPCFORCE(PLOT) = ALL
Stress(PLOT) = ALL
Strain(PLOT) = ALL
SPC = 1
NLPARM = 2
temp(init)=10
subcase 1
temp(load)=11
LOAD = 100
subcase 2
temp(load)=12
LOAD = 200
CHAPTER 10 343
Materials

subcase 3
temp(load)=13
LOAD = 300
BEGIN BULK
param,mrafflow,mymat0
param,mrtabls1,4
param,mrtabls2,1
NLPARM 2 10 AUTO 1 20 P
PARAM,LGDISP,1
tempd, 10, 70.
tempd, 11, 110.
tempd, 12, 700.
tempd, 13, 1100.
$LOAD, 20, 1.0, 2.0, 1, 1.0, 2
load, 100, 1., 1., 1
load, 200, 1., -.5, 1
load, 300, 1., 1.1, 1
PLOAD4 1 1 -15.
.
.
.
$ Constraint Set 1 : Untitled
SPC 1 1 123456 0.
SPC 1 8 123456 0.
SPC 1 15 123456 0.
SPC 1 22 123456 0.
SPC 1 29 123456 0.
$ Property 1 : Untitled
PSHELL 1 1 0.125 1 1 0.
$ Material 1 : AISI 4340 Steel
MATEP, 1,TABLE, 35000., 2,CAUCHY,ISOTROP,ADDMEAN
MAT1 1 2.9E+7 0.327.331E-4 6.6E-6 70. +MT 1
+MT 1 215000. 240000. 156000.
MAT4 14.861E-4 38.647.331E-4
$ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678
MATTEP 1 21
MATT1 1 7
TABLEM1 7
+ 70.0 6.6E-6 1000. 6.5E-6 1200. 6.4E-6 1500. 6.3E-6
+ 2000. 6.2E-6 ENDT
$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678
TABLEST 21
+ 70.0 31 1000. 32 1200. 33 1500. 34
+ 2000. 35 ENDT
TABLES1, 31
, 0., 15000., 1.0, 16000., 10., 25000., 100., 30000.,
, 99999., 40000., ENDT
TABLES1, 32
, 0., 13000., 1.0, 14000., 10., 23000., 100., 28000.,
, 99999., 28000., ENDT
TABLES1, 33
, 0., 11000., 1.0, 12000., 10., 21000., 100., 26000.,
, 99999., 25000., ENDT
TABLES1, 34
, 0., 9000., 1.0, 10000., 10., 19000., 100., 22000.,
, 99999., 24000., ENDT
TABLES1, 35
, 0., 5000., 1.0, 7000., 10., 9000., 100., 13000.,
, 99999., 15000., ENDT
344 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

GRID 1 0 0. 0. 0. 0
.
.
.
CQUAD4
.
.
.
ENDDATA
In this input, the stress strain curves are specified by TABLES1 entries. The collection of stress-strain
curves to be used is specified in the TABLEST entry and the corresponding temperatures at which they
apply is specified in the TABLEM1 entry. The TABLEM1 ID is called out in field 7 of the MATT1 entry
and the TABLEST ID is called out in field 5 of the MATTEP entry. TABLEST must list the stress strain
TABLES1 IDs in order of increasing temperature and the first ID must be at the lowest temperature
specified anywhere in the analysis. In this example, it is a temperature of 70 corresponding to
temp(init)=10 in the Case Control. Similarly, the temperatures in the TABLEM1 entry must be in
increasing order. The stress-strain curves should cover the entire range of temperatures for the analysis
so that no extrapolation is needed. The actual temperatures for each subcase are given by the temp(load)
specifications for each subcase.
There is one parameter that is critical to this analysis:

param,mrafflow,mymat0 Name of the file containing temperature dependent stress versus plastic
strain curves in MSC.Marc’s AF_flowmat format. This file can be
generated from the current MSC.Nastran run using TABLEST and
TABLES1 entries or a pre-existing file can be used depending on the
value of PARAM,MRAFFLOR. The extension “.mat” will be added
to Name. If this is a new file, it will be saved in the directory from
which the MSC.Nastran execution is submitted. If a pre-existing file
is to be used, it can either be located in the directory where the
MSC.Nastran execution is submitted and run or in the MSC.Marc
AF_flowmat directory.

Specifying Elastoplastic Material Entries


Each of the elastoplastic models described in this section can be selected with the MATEP bulk
data entry.

Entry Description
MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties to be used for large
deformation analysis.
MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties to be used
for static, quasi-static, or transient dynamic analysis.

References
• MATEP (SOL 600), 1539 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
• MATTEP (SOL 600), 1596 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
CHAPTER 10 345
Materials

MSC.Patran Materials Application Input Data


To define an inelastic material in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to
Create>Isotropic-or-Orthotropic-or-Anisotropic>Manual Input.
2. Click Input Properties..., and select Elastoplastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down
menu.
The required properties for describing elasticplastic behavior vary based on material type, dimension,
type of nonlinear data input, hardening rule, yield criteria, strain rate method, and thermal dependencies.
The table below shows the various input options and criteria available to you for defining
elastoplastic behavior.

Elastoplastic Model Summary


Constitutive Nonlinear Data Hardening Strain Rate
Model Input Rule Yield Criteria Method
• Plastic • Stress/Strain • Isotropic • von Mises • Piecewise
Curve • Kinematic • Tresca Linear

• Combined • Mohr-Coulomb • Cowper-


Symonds
• Drucker-Prager
• Parabolic Mohr-
Coulomb
• Buyukozturk Concrete
• Oak Ridge National
Lab
• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL
• Reversed Plasticity
ORNL
• Full Alpha Reset
ORNL
• Hardening Slope • Isotropic • von Mises • None
• Kinematic • Tresca
• Combined • Mohr-Coulomb
• Drucker-Prager
346 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Elastoplastic Model Summary


Constitutive Hardening Strain Rate
Model Type Rule Yield Criteria Method
• Plastic • Perfectly Plastic • None • von Mises • Piecewise
• Linear Mohr-Coulomb Linear

• Parabolic Mohr- • Cowper-


Coulomb Symonds

• Buyukozturk Concrete
• Oak Ridge National
Lab
• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL
• Reversed Plasticity
ORNL
• Full Alpha Reset
ORNL
• Power Law
• Rate Power Law
• Johnson-Cook
• Kumar
• Piecewise • None • Piecewise
Linear Linear
• Cowper-
Symonds

Nonlinear Data Input


The type of nonlinear data input you choose to use to define elastoplastic material behavior determines
the input data required for the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.
• Stress/Strain Curve - All stress-strain curves are input as piecewise linear. MSC.Patran transfers
the stress-strain curve input on the material property field directly to the TABLES1 entry.
The number of linear segments used to define the stress-strain curve may be different from one
material to another. The same strain breakpoints need not be used for all of the different
material’s stress-strain curves. It is recommended to define the stress-strain curves throughout
the range of strains which the analysis is likely to predict. If the analysis predicts a plastic strain
greater than the last point defined by the user, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear continues the
analysis after shifting the last strain breakpoint on that curve to match the predicted value,
thereby changing (reducing) the work hardening slope for the last segment of the curve.
• Hardening Slope - The hardening slope and the yield point are required with this Nonlinear Data
Input option.
• Perfectly Plastic - Perfect plasticity is described by simply specifying the yield point.
CHAPTER 10 347
Materials

The tables below provide descriptions for the input data for each of the four types of nonlinear input.

Isotropic - Stress/Strain Curve or Perfectly Plastic:


All Yield Functions
Property Name Description
Stress /Strain Curve Defines the Cauchy stress vs. logarithmic strain (also called equivalent
tensile stress versus total equivalent strain) by reference to a tabular
or field. The field is selected from the Field Definition list. The field is
Yield Stress created using the Fields application. See Fields Create (Spatial, Tabular
Input) (p. 153) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:
Functional Assignments. For Perfectly Plastic models, only a Yield
Stress needs to be entered.

Can also be strain rate dependent if Strain Rate Method is Piecewise


Linear. Accepts field of yield stress vs. strain rate.
10th Cycle Yield Stress vs. When set to ORNL, accepts field of 10th cycle yield stress vs. plastic
Plastic Strain strain. Can be temperature dependent also. For Perfectly Plastic
models, only a 10th Cycle Yield Stress needs to be entered.

or
10th Cycle Yield Stress
Coefficient C Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.
Inverse Exponent P Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.
Alpha When set to Linear Mohr-Coulomb, defines the slope of the yield
surface in square root J2 versus J1 space. This property is required.
Beta When set to Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb, defines the beta parameter in
the equation that defines the parabolic yield surface in square root J2
versus J1 space. This property is required.

Note: 2 1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL, Reversed Plasticity ORNL, Full Alpha Reset ORNL are the same as
Oak Ridge National Labs. Generalized Plasticity is the same as von Mises.
Perfectly Plastic is identical to Stress/Strain except that no hardening rules apply.
348 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Anisotropic/Orthotropic - Stress/Strain Curve or Perfectly Plastic:


All Yield Functions
Description
Stress vs. Strain Same as description for Isotropic Elastic-Plastic. If Strain Rate Method
or is Piecewise Linear, accepts field of yield stress vs. strain rate.
Tensile Yield Stress Or defines an isotropic yield stress. It is a required property when the
plasticity type is Perfectly Plastic.
Stress 11/22/33 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of direct yield stresses to the isotropic yield stress in
the element’s coordinate system.
Stress 12/23/31 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of shear yield stresses to the isotropic shear yield
stress (yield divided by square root three) in the element’s
coordinate system.

Note: Perfectly Plastic is identical to Elastic-Plastic except that no hardening rules apply. Stress
vs Plastic Strain is replaced with Yield Stress data only as is 10th Cycle Yield vs. Strain
replaced with 10th Cycle Yield Stress data. Thus no tabular data is necessary.

Hardening Slope - Nonlinear Data Input


Isotropic/Anisotropic/Orthotropic - Hardening Slope
Property Name Description
Hardening Slope Slope of the stress-strain curve once yielding has started.
Yield Point Defines the stress level at which plastic strain begins to develop.
Internal Friction Angle When yield function is set to Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager this
gives the parameter describing the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the
yield stress.
CHAPTER 10 349
Materials

Failure and Damage Models


One of the nonlinear features of a material's behavior is failure. When a certain criterion (failure
criterion) is met, the material fails and no longer sustains its loading and breaks. In a finite-element
method, this means that the element, where the material reaches the failure limit, cannot carry any
stresses anymore. The stress tensor is effectively zero. The element is flagged for failure, and, essentially,
is no longer part of the structure.
Failure criteria can be defined for a range of materials and element types. The failure models are
referenced from the material definition entries.

Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Failure Models


For isotropic, 2-D orthotropic, and 2-D anisotropic materials, you can implement one of five failure
models in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Failure models are based on maximum stress
criteria, maximum strain criteria, or one of three composite stress/strain failure theories.

Failure Model Applicable Material Type


Maximum Stress Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic, 2-D Anisotropic
Maximum Strain 2-D Orthotropic
Hill Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic
Hoffman Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic
Tsai-Wu Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic

Maximum Stress Criterion


At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates six quantities:

 σ 1
 JJJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ1 > 0
 X t
1. (10-163)
 σ 1
 Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ1 < 0
 X c

 σ 2
 JJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ2 > 0
 Yt
2. (10-164)
 σ 2
 Ó JJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ2 < 0
 Y c
350 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ
 JJJJJ3J ⁄ F if σ3 > 0
 Zt
3.
(10-165)
Óσ
JJJJJ3J ⁄ F if σ3 < 0
 Z 
c

 σ 1 2J  ⁄ F
4.  JJJJJJJJ (10-166)
S 12 

 σ 23J  ⁄ F
5.  JJJJJJJ (10-167)
S 23 

 σ 31J  ⁄ F
6.  JJJJJJJ (10-168)
S 31 

where

F is the failure index (F =1.0).


X t, X c are the maximum allowable stresses in the 1-direction in tension and compression.

Y t, Y c are maximum allowable stresses in the 2-direction in tension and compression.

Z t, Z c are maximum allowed stresses in the 3-direction in tension and compression.

S 12 is the maximum allowable in-plane shear stress.

S 23 is the maximum allowable 23 shear stress.

S 31 is the maximum allowable 31 shear stress.

Maximum Strain Failure Criterion


At each integration point, calculates six quantities:

ε1
 JJJJJJ
J ⁄ F if ε1 > 0
 e 1 t
1. (10-169)
ε1 
 Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε1 < 0
 e 
1c
CHAPTER 10 351
Materials

ε2
 JJJJJJ
J ⁄ F if ε2 > 0
 e 2 t
2. (10-170)
ε2 
 Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε2 < 0
 e 
2c

ε3
 JJJJJJ
J ⁄ F if ε3 > 0
 e 3 t
3. (10-171)
ε3 
 Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε3 < 0
 e 
3c

 γ 12J  ⁄ F
4.  JJJJJJJ (10-172)
g 12 

 γ 2 3J  ⁄ F
5.  JJJJJJJ (10-173)
g 23 

 γ 31J  ⁄ F
6.  JJJJJJJ (10-174)
g 31 

where

F is the failure index (F=1.0).


e 1 t, e 1 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 1 direction in tension and compression.

e 2 t, e 2 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 2 direction in tension and compression.

e 3 t, e 3 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 3 direction in tension and compression.

g 12 is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 12 plane.


g 23 is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 23 plane.
g 31 is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 31 plane.

Hill Failure Criterion


Assumptions:
• Orthotropic materials only
• Incompressibility during plastic deformation
• Tensile and compressive behavior are identical
352 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates:

σ2 σ2 σ2
JJJJJJ1J H JJJJJJ2J H JJJJJ3J Ó  JJJJJJ
1
J H JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 σ 2 Ó  JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJ σ 1 σ 3
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2  2 2 2  2 2 2
X Y Z X Y Z X Z Y
σ 23 (10-175)
σ 122 σ 132 2
Ó  JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJ σ 2 σ 3 H JJJJJJJJ
1 1 1
J H JJJJJJJJJ ⁄ F
J H JJJJJJJJ
 2 2 2 S 122 S 132 S 232
Y Z X

For plane stress condition, it becomes

2 2 2
 σ 1 σ 1 σ 2 σ 2 σ 12 
 JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJ ⁄ F (10-176)
 X2 X2 Y 2 S 12 2 

where

X is the maximum allowable stress in the 1 direction

Y is the maximum allowable stress in the 2 direction

Z is the maximum allowable stress in the 3 direction

S 12, S 23, S 31, F are as before

Hoffman Failure Criterion

Note: Hoffman criterion is essentially Hill criterion modified to allow unequal maximum
allowable stresses in tension and compression.

At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates:


2 2 2
[ C1 ( σ2 Ó σ3 ) H C2 ( σ3 Ó σ1 ) H C3 ( σ1 Ó σ2 ) H C4 σ1 H C5 σ2
(10-177)
H C 6 σ 3 H C 7 σ 23
2 H C σ2 H C σ2 ] ⁄ F
8 13 9 12

with
CHAPTER 10 353
Materials

C 1 Z JJJ  JJJJJJJJJJJ 1 Ó 1 
1 1
H JJJJJJJJJJJJ
J JJJJJJJJJJJJJ
2  Z t Z c Y t Y c X t X c

C 2 Z JJJ  JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJ


1 1 1 1
2  X t X c Z t Z c Y t Y c

C 3 Z JJJ  JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ


1 1 1 1
2 Xt Xc Yt Yc Zt Zc
1 1
C 4 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ
Xt Xc
1 1
C 5 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ (10-178)
Yt Yc
1 1
C 6 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ
Zt Zc
1
C 7 Z JJJJJJJJ
S 232

1
C 8 Z JJJJJJJJ
S 132

1
C 9 Z JJJJJJJ
J
S 122

For plane stress condition, it becomes

2 2 2
 1 1 1 1 σ1 σ2 σ 12 σ 1 σ 2 
2
J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJ  ⁄ F
  JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H  JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ (10-179)
 Xt Xc Yt Yc X t X c Y t Y c S 12 Xt Xc 

where: X t, X c, Y t, Y c, Z t, Z c, S 12, S 23, S 31, F are as before.

σ1
For small ratios of, for example, JJJJJJ , the Hoffman criteria can become negative due to the
Note: Xt
presence of the linear terms.

Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion


Tsai-Wu is a tensor polynomial failure criterion. At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear calculates:
354 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

 JJJJJ σ 12 σ 22 σ 32
Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H  JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H  JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJ
1 1 1 1 1 1
J H JJJJJJJJJJJJ
J H JJJJJJJJJJJ
X X  Y Y  Z Z  Xt Xc Yt Yc Zt Zc
t c t c t c
(10-180)
τ 122 τ 232 τ 132
H JJJJJJJ
J H JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ H 2F 12 σ 1 σ 2 H 2F 23 σ 2 σ 3 H 2F 13 σ 1 σ 3 ] ⁄ F
S 122 S 232 S 132

where X t, X c, Y t, Y c, Z t, Z c, S 12, S 23, S 31, F are as before.

F 12 Interactive strength constant for the 12 plane

F 23 Interactive strength constant for the 23 plane

F 13 Interactive strength constant for the 31 plane

For plane stress condition, it becomes

2 2 2
 1 1  1 1 σ1 σ2 σ1 2 
  JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H  JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJ H 2F 12 σ 1 σ 2  ⁄ F (10-181)
 Xt Xc Y2 Yc X t X c Y t Y c S 12 

Note: In order for the Tsai-Wu failure surface to be closed,


1
2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ 1 1 1 1 1
F 12 J • JJJJJJJJJJJJJ 2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ
F 23 J • JJJJJJJJJJJ 2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ
F 31 J • JJJJJJJJJJJ
Xt Xc Yt Yc Yt Yc Zt Zc Xt Xc Zt Zc

See Wu, R.Y. and Stachurski, 2, “Evaluation of the Normal Stress Interaction Parameter in the Tensor
Polynomial Strength Theory for Anisotropic Materials”, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 18, Sept.
1984, pp. 456-463.

Interlaminar Shear for Thick Shell and Beam Elements


Calculation of interlaminar shear stress (a parabolic distribution through the thickness direction) for thick
shells and beams is available. These interlaminar shears are printed in the local coordinate system above
and below each layer selected for printing. These values are also available for postprocessing.
PARAM,MRTSHEAR,1 must be used for activating the parabolic shear distribution calculations.
In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the distribution of transverse shear strains through the thickness for
thick shell and beam elements was assumed to be constant. From basic strength of materials and the
equilibrium of a beam cross section, it is known that the actual distribution is more parabolic in nature.
As an additional option, the formulations for certain beam and shell elements have been modified to
include a parabolic distribution of transverse shear strain. The formulation is exact for MSC.Marc beam
element 45, but is approximate for MSC.Marc thick shell elements 22, 75, and 140. Nevertheless, the
CHAPTER 10 355
Materials

approximation is expected to give improved results from the previous constant shear distribution.
Furthermore, interlaminar shear stresses for composite beams and shells can be easily calculated.
1 2
With the assumption that the stresses in the V and V direction are uncoupled, the equilibrium
condition through the thickness is given by

∂τ ( z ) ∂σ ( z )
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-182)
∂z ∂x

where σ ( z ) is the layer axial stress; τ ( t ) is the layer shear stress. From beam theory, we have

∂M
V H JJJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-183)
∂x

where M is the section bending moment and V is the shear force. Assuming that

σ ( z ) Z f ( z )M (10-184)
by taking the derivative of Equation (10-184) with respect to x, substituting the result into
Equation (10-182), using Equation (10-183) and integrating, we obtain

τ(z) Z ∫ f ( z )dz • V (10-185)


z

The function f ( z ) is given from beam theory as

E0 ( z )
f ( z ) Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( z Ó z ) (10-186)
EI
where E 0 ( z ) is the layer initial Young’s modulus, z is the location of the neutral axis and EI is the
section bending moment of inertia. Equation (10-186) and Equation (10-184) express
the usual bending relation

Mz
σ ( z ) Z Ó JJJJJJJJ (10-187)
I

except that these two equations are written so that the z Z 0 axis is not necessarily the neutral axis of
bending. With respect to this axis, membrane and bending action is, in general, coupled. Note that

∫ zE ( z )dz
z Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
z J (10-188)
∫ E ( z )dz
z

and stress τ ( z ) Z 0 at the top and bottom surface of the shell.


356 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Interlaminar Stresses for Continuum Composite Elements


In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the interlaminar shear and normal stresses are calculated by
averaging the stresses in the stacked layers. The stresses are transformed into a component tangent to the
interface and a component normal to the interface. The two components, considered as shear stress and
normal stress, respectively, are printed out in the output file.

Progressive Composite Failure


A model has been put into MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to allow the progressive failure of certain
types of composite materials. The aspects of this model are defined below:
1. Failure occurs when any one of the failure criteria is satisfied.
2. The behavior up to the failure point is linear elastic.
3. Upon failure, the material moduli for orthotropic materials at the integration points are changed
such that all of the moduli have the lowest moduli entered.
4. Upon failure, for isotropic materials, the failed moduli are taken as 10% of the original moduli.
5. If there is only one modulus, such as in a beam or truss problem, the failed modulus is taken as
10% of the original one.
6. There is no healing of the material.

Specifying the Failure Criteria


Any of the failure models described above can be selected with the MATF Bulk Data entry.

Entry Description
MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials to be used for
static, quasi static or transient dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

References
• MATF (SOL 600), 1551 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Defining Failure Models in MSC.Patran


To define a Failure Model in MSC.Patran:
1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to one of the
following:
• Create>Isotropic>Manual Input
• Create>2D Orthotropic>Manual Input
• Create>2D Anisotropic>Manual Input
2. Click on Input Properties.... , and choose Failure from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.
3. If the failure model applies to a 2-D orthotropic material, you can select Stress or Strain from the
Failure Limit pull-down menu.
CHAPTER 10 357
Materials

Isotropic Material Input Data


Isotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the
Materials Application form.

Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress


Property Name Description
Tension Stress Limit Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system.
Compression Stress Limit Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system. Absolute values are used.
Shear Stress Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.
358 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2-D Orthotropic Material Input Data


2-D orthotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the
Materials Application form.

Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress, Maximum Strain


Property Name Description
Tension Stress (Strain) Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in direction 1 of the
Limit 11 element’s coordinate system.
Tension Stress (Strain) Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in direction 2 of the
Limit 22 element’s coordinate system.
Compression Stress (Strain) Limit 11 Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in direction 1
of the element’s coordinate system. Absolute values are used.
Compression Stress (Strain) Limit 22 Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in direction 2
of the element’s coordinate system. Absolute values are used.
Shear Stress (Strain) Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.
Interaction Term Defines the stress interaction parameter.

2-D Anisotropic Material Input Data


2-D anisotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the
Materials Application form.

Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress


Property Name Description
Tension Stress Limit Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system.
Compression Stress Limit Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system. Absolute values are used.
Shear Stress Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.

Damage Models
In many structural applications, the finite element method is used to predict failure. This is often
performed by comparing the calculated solution to some failure criteria, or by using classical
fracture mechanics.

Ductile Metals
In ductile materials given the appropriate loading conditions, voids will form in the material, grow, then
coalesce, leading to crack formation and potentially, failure. Experimental studies have shown that these
processes are strongly influenced by hydrostatic stress. Gurson studied microscopic voids in materials
and derived a set of modified constitutive equations for elastic-plastic materials. Tvergaard and
CHAPTER 10 359
Materials

Needleman modified the model with respect to the behavior for small void volume fractions and for
void coalescence.
In the modified Gurson model, the amount of damage is indicated with a scalar parameter called the
void volume fraction f. The yield criterion for the macroscopic assembly of voids and matrix material is
given by:

σ 2  q 2 σ k k
F Z  JJJJJJ H 2q 1 f∗ cosh  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó [ 1 H ( q 1 f∗ ) 2 ] Z 0 (10-189)
 σ y  2σ y 

as seen in Figure 10-34.

σe ⁄ σM

1.0
f* Z 0

0.5 f * ⁄ f u* = 0.01
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.9
0
0 1 2 3 4 σ k k ⁄ 3σ M

Figure 10-34 Plot of Yield Surfaces in Gurson Model

The parameter q 1 was introduced by Tvergaard to improve the Gurson model at small values of the void
volume fraction. For solids with periodically spaced voids, numerical studies [10] showed that the values
of q 1 Z 1.5 and q 2 Z 1 were quite accurate.

The evolution of damage as measured by the void volume fraction is due to void nucleation and growth.
Void nucleation occurs by debonding of second phase particles. The strain for nucleation depends on the
particle sizes. Assuming a normal distribution of particle sizes, the nucleation of voids is itself modeled
as a normal distribution in the strains, if nucleation is strain controlled. If void nucleation is assumed to
be stress controlled in the matrix, a normal distribution is assumed in the stresses. The original Gurson
model predicts that ultimate failure occurs when the void volume fraction f, reaches unity. This is too
high a value and, hence, the void volume fraction f is replaced by the modified void volume fraction f∗
in the yield function.

The parameter f∗ is introduced to model the rapid decrease in load carrying capacity if void
coalescence occurs.
360 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

f∗ Z f if f ≤ Ñc
 f u* Ó f c (10-190)
f∗ Z f c H  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( f Ó f c ) if f > fc
 f F Ó f c

where fc is the critical void volume fraction, and f F is the void volume at failure, and f u* Z 1 ⁄ q 1 . A
safe choice for f F would be a value greater than ( 1 ⁄ q 1 ) namely, f F Z 1.1 ⁄ q 1 . Hence, you can control
the void volume fraction, f F , at which the solid loses all stress carrying capability.

Numerical studies show that plasticity starts to localize between voids at void volume fractions as low as
0.1 to 0.2. You can control the void volume fraction f c , beyond which void-void interaction is modeled
by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. Based on the classical studies, a value of f c Z 0.2 can be chosen.

The existing value of the void volume fraction changes due to the growth of existing voids and due to the
nucleation of new voids.
ˇ ˇ ˇ
f Z fg r o w t h H fn u c l e a t i o n (10-191)

The growth of voids can be determined based upon compressibility of the matrix material surrounding
the void.
ˇ ˇp
f g r o w t h Z ( 1 Ó f ) εk k (10-192)

As mentioned earlier, the nucleation of new voids can be defined as either strain or stress controlled. Both
follow a normal distribution about a mean value.
In the case of strain controlled nucleation, this is given by

ˇ 1 ε m Ó εn
fN p 2
ˇp
f n u c l e a t i o n Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ exp Ó JJJ  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ε m (10-193)
S 2π 2 S 

where f N is the volume fraction of void forming particles, ε n the mean strain for void nucleation and S
the standard deviation.
In the case of stress controlled nucleation, the rate of nucleation is given by:

1 2
ˇ fN  σ H JJJ σ k k Ó σ n ˇ 1ˇ
f n u c l e a t i o n Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ exp Ó JJJ  JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ * σ H JJJ σ k k
1 3
(10-194)
S 2π 2 S  3
 

If the second phase particle sizes in the solid are widely varied in size, the standard deviation would be
larger than in the case when the particle sizes are more uniform. The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
CHAPTER 10 361
Materials

user can also input the volume fraction of the nucleating second phase void nucleating particles in the
input deck, as the variable f N .

A typical set of values for an engineering alloy is given by Tvergaard for strain controlled nucleation as

ε n Z 0.30 ; f N Z 0.04 ; S Z 0.01 (10-195)

It must be remarked that the determination of the three above constants from experiments is extremely
difficult. The modeling of the debonding process must itself be studied including the effect of differing
particle sizes in a matrix. It is safe to say that such an experimental study is not possible. The above three
constants must necessarily be obtained by intuition keeping in mind the meaning of the terms.

When the material reaches 90 percent of f F , the material is considered to be failed. At this point, the
stiffness and the stress at this element are reduced to zero.

Elastomers
Under repeated application of loads, elastomers undergo damage by mechanisms involving chain
breakage, multi-chain damage, micro-void formation, and micro-structural degradation due to
detachment of filler particles from the network entanglement. Two types of phenomenological models
namely, discontinuous and continuous, exists to simulate the phenomenon of damage.

Discontinuous Damage
The discontinuous damage model simulates the “Mullins’ effect” as shown in Figure 10-35.

Figure 10-35 Discontinuous Damage

This involves a loss of stiffness below the previously attained maximum strain. The higher the maximum
attained strain, the larger is the loss of stiffness. Upon reloading, the uniaxial stress-strain curve remains
insensitive to prior behavior at strains above the previously attained maximum in a cyclic test. Hence,
there is a progressive stiffness loss with increasing maximum strain amplitude. Also, most of the stiffness
loss takes place in the few earliest cycles provided the maximum strain level is not increased. This
362 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

phenomenon is found in both filled as well as natural rubber although the higher levels of carbon black
particles increase the hysteresis and the loss of stiffness. The free energy, W, can be written as:
0
W Z K ( α, β )W (10-196)
0
where W is the nominal strain energy function, and

0
α Z max ( W ) (10-197)
determines the evolution of the discontinuous damage. The reduced form of Clausius-Duhem dissipation
inequality yields the stress as:
0
∂W
S Z 2K ( α Iβ ) JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-198)
∂C
Mathematically, the discontinuous damage model has a structure very similar to that of strain space