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User’s Guide

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MSC.Software Corporation MSC.Software GmbH MSC.Software Japan Ltd.

2 MacArthur Place Am Moosfeld 13 Shinjuku First West 8F

Santa Ana, CA 92707 USA 81829 Munich, Germany 23-7 Nishi Shinjuku

Telephone: (800) 345-2078 Telephone: (49) (89) 43 19 87 1-Chome, Shinjyku-Ku, Tokyo

Fax: (714) 784-4056 0 160-0023, Japan

Fax: (49) (89) 43 61 71 6 Telephone: (81) (03) 6911 1200

Fax: (81) (03) 6911 1201

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NA*2007R1*Z*INON*Z*DC-USR

Contents

MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1 Introduction

MSC.Software Products 2

Defining the Model 3

Nonlinear Analysis 4

Results 5

Feature List 7

Other MSC.Nastran Documentation for SOL 600 12

MSC.Marc Documentation 12

Patran Documentation 13

The MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File 16

Input Conventions 17

Defaults 18

Section Descriptions 18

Example 20

Running Existing Nonlinear Models 21

SOL 600 Executive Control Statement: 21

Restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 or into Another Linear Solution Sequence

26

Generating and Editing the Bulk Data File in MSC.Patran 27

Output Requests 28

Deformations 28

Results Files 38

Files Generated During the Analysis 38

Analysis Results Files 38

Postprocessing with MSC.Patran 39

iv MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

==

Grid Point Force Balance and Element Strain Energy in Nonlinear Static

Analysis 40

Introduction 46

Applying Constraints 50

Single Degrees of Freedom 50

Multiple Degrees of Freedom 51

Sources of Nonlinearity 55

Subcases, Load Increments, and Iterations 56

Nonlinear Equation Solution 57

SOL 600 Analysis Procedure 59

Direct Methods 60

Iterative Methods 61

Preconditioners 61

Storage Methods 62

Nonsymmetric Systems 63

Specifying the Solution Procedure 63

Other Factors Affecting Performance 63

Iteration Methods 66

Full Newton-Raphson Algorithm 66

Modified Newton-Raphson Algorithm 67

Strain Correction Method 68

The Secant Method 69

Specifying the Iteration Method 70

Fixed Load Incrementation 71

Adaptive Load (AUTO) Incrementation 71

Specifying the Load Incrementation Method 80

Convergence Controls 81

Specifying Convergence Criteria 83

Singularity Ratio 84

CONTENTS v

Analysis Methods 86

General Tips 86

Choosing a Solution Method 86

Time Steps or Load Increments 87

Nonlinear Dynamics 88

Efficiency 88

Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 92

Linear Analysis 92

Nonlinear Analysis 92

Geometric Nonlinearities 96

Material Nonlinearities 106

Nonlinear Boundary Conditions 115

Post-Buckling 119

Creep, Viscoplastic, and Viscoelastic Behavior 119

Eigenvalue Buckling Prediction 121

Bifurcation Approach 122

Eigenvalue Extraction Methods 123

Eigenvalue Analysis 126

Free Vibration Analysis 129

Support of Complex Eigenvalue Analysis 130

Transient Dynamic Analysis 132

Direct Transient Response 132

Technical Background 134

Time Step Definition 138

Initial Conditions 138

Damping 139

Creep 140

vi MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

==

5 Analysis Techniques

Domain Decomposition 144

Specifying Domain Decomposition 144

Single Input File Parallel Processing for SOL 600 146

DDM Results in MSC.Patran 146

DDM Configuration 147

RESTARTS 148

Specifying Restarts and Parameters 148

Review 149

General Formulation 150

SUPPORT6 Entry 151

BRKSQL 155

User Subroutine Support 159

6 Modeling

Coordinate Systems 162

Nodal Coordinate Systems 162

Element Coordinate Systems 162

Nodes 164

Elements 165

Creating Geometry in MSC.Patran 166

Creating Finite Element Meshes in MSC.Patran 168

Solution Type 172

Specifying the Solution Type 172

SOL 600 Executive Control Statement 172

Defining the Solution Type in MSC.Patran 175

Analysis Types 176

Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase 177

CONTENTS vii

Specifying the Translation Parameters 179

Specifying Solution Parameters 182

Subcases 185

Specifying Subcases 185

Specifying Static Subcase Parameters 188

Specifying Normal Modes Subcase Parameters 190

Specifying Buckling Subcase Parameters 192

Specifying Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters 193

Specifying Creep Subcase Parameters 195

Specifying Body Approach Subcase Parameters 197

Command Line 199

Using MSC.Patran to Execute MSC.Nastran 200

How to Tell When the Analysis is Done 200

How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully 201

Editing a MSC.Nastran Input File 203

Resolving Convergence Problems 204

Standard Exit Messages 210

Using MSC.Patran to Debug an Analysis 213

Overview 216

Input 216

.OP2 Data 216

Results Translation 217

Specifying Output Requests 218

Using MSC.Patran to Postprocess Results Quantities 229

viii MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

==

9 Assigned Conditions

Constraints 236

Boundary Conditions 236

Multi-Point Constraints 236

Support Conditions 247

Using MSC.Patran to Apply Loads and Boundary Conditions 250

Displacement LBCs 253

Force LBCs 254

Pressure LBCs 255

Temperature LBCs 257

Inertial Loads LBCs 259

Velocity LBCs 260

Acceleration LBCs 261

Distributed Load LBCs 261

Total Load LBCs 263

Contact LBCs 264

Initial Displacement LBCs 265

Initial Velocity LBCs 265

10 Materials

Overview 268

Constitutive Models 269

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Material Entries 270

Isotropic Materials 273

Orthotropic Materials 274

Anisotropic Materials 276

Hypoelastic - Isotropic 278

Hyperelastic - Isotropic 278

Viscoelastic 305

Narayanaswamy Model 315

Inelastic 317

CONTENTS ix

Work Hardening Rules 323

Flow Rules 327

Rate Dependent Yield 330

Experimental Stress-Strain Curves 332

Temperature-Dependent Behavior 341

Temperature-Dependent Stress Strain Curves 342

Specifying Elastoplastic Material Entries 344

Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Failure Models 349

Damage Models 358

Creep 365

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Laws 368

Viscoplasticity (Explicit Formulation) 369

Creep (Implicit Formulation) 369

Specifying Creep Material Entries 370

Composite 372

Specifying Composite Material Entries 373

Gasket 374

Specifying Gasket Material Entries 378

Material Damping 380

Specifying Material Damping Entries 381

11 Element Library

Overview 402

Element Types 402

Element Interpolation 404

Element Integration 404

Incompressible Elements 405

Overriding MSC.Nastran Element Selections 405

Assumed Strain 406

Constant Dilatation 406

Setting Global Element Parameters in MSC.Patran 406

x MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

==

MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 407

MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 409

MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 410

MSC.Patran FE Application Input Data 412

Axisymmetric Elements 414

Plane Strain Elements 414

3-D Solid Elements 416

12 Contact

Overview 420

Contact Bodies 421

Numerical Procedures 430

Implementation of Constraints 434

Separation 436

Higher Order Elements 437

3-D Beam and Shell Contact 437

Friction Modeling 438

Defining Contact Bodies 447

Deformable and Rigid Surfaces 447

Motion of Surfaces 447

Cautions 448

Control Variables and Option Flags 448

Time Step Control 449

Dynamic Contact - Impact 449

Two-dimensional Rigid Surfaces 449

Specifying Contact Body Entries= 462

Contact Parameters 467

Contact Table 471

Movement of Contact Bodies 475

CONTENTS xi

Input 477

References 480

Engine Gasket Under Bolt Preload 482

Problem Statement 482

Model Description 483

Solving the Problem 485

Inspecting the Results 489

Elastic-Plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body

Loading 491

Problem Statement 491

Model Description 492

Solving the Problem 494

Inspecting the Results 497

Rubber Door Seal - Performance Door Closing 500

Problem Statement 500

Model Description 500

Solving the Problem 501

Inspecting the Results 504

Problem Statement 505

Model Description 505

Solving the Problem 506

Inspecting the Results 509

Problem Statement 510

Model Description 510

Solving the Problem 512

Inspecting the Results 514

Index 515

xii MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

==

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 1: Introduction

1 Introduction

MSC.Software Products 2

MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) 3

Feature List 7

How SOL 600 Solves Nonlinear Problems 10

This User’s Guide 12

2 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Software Products

MSC.Software Corporation provides an extensive array of software products that make it possible to

simulate almost any engineered component with any level of detail you require. MSC is recognized as a

leader in finite element analysis software with a product list that includes MSC.Nastran, MSC.Patran,

MSC.Marc, MSC.Dytran and many others. Each of these codes within themselves are powerful general-

purpose analysis codes that can be used to solve structural, heat transfer, and coupled thermal-structural

finite element problems. When paired together and supplemented with special purpose application

modules and interfaces these software products can be tailor made to suit specific industries and

engineering problems unique to those industries.

CHAPTER 1 3

Introduction

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) is an application module in the MSC.Nastran system that

pairs the full features of MSC.Nastran with the MSC.Marc solver to analyze a wide variety of structural

problems subjected to geometric and material nonlinearities, and contact. An extensive finite element

library for building your simulation model, and a set of solution procedures for the nonlinear analysis,

which can handle very large matrix equations, are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

(SOL 600).

The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear product is rapidly evolving. This document is based upon the

2005 r3 release and should be used with this or subsequent versions.

A finite element model consists of a geometric description, which is given by the elements and their

nodes and a set of properties associated with the elements, describing their attributes. These properties

include material definitions, cross-section definitions in the case of structural elements like beams and

shells, and other parameters for contact bodies, springs, dashpots, etc. There may also be constraints that

must be included in the model - RBE elements, or “multi-point constraints'' or “equations'' (linear or

nonlinear equations involving several of the fundamental solution variables in the model), or simple

“boundary conditions'' that are to be imposed throughout the analysis. Nonzero initial conditions, such

as initial temperatures, displacements, velocities, and even initial stresses and/or plastic strains may also

be specified.

The model is described and communicated to MSC.Nastran in the form of a text file, called a

MSC.Nastran Input file. You can generate this file using any text editor, but it must adhere to

MSC.Nastran conventions for the ordering and format of the model information.

The amount of information that needs to be conveyed in the MSC.Nastran Input file is extensive for even

a modest size model. The amount of information and the complexity of most models makes it virtually

impossible to generate the MSC.Nastran Input file with a text editor alone. Typically you benefit from

using a preprocessor such as, MSC.Patran. MSC.Patran is another MSC Software simulation code that

provides a graphical user interface and an extensive line of model building tools that you can use to

construct and view your model, and generate a MSC.Nastran Input file.

If you are using MSC.Patran as a preprocessor, you are required to specify an analysis code. Selecting

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) as the analysis code under the Analysis Preference menu,

customizes MSC.Patran in five main areas:

• Material Library

• Element Library

• Loads and Boundary Conditions

• MPCs

• Analysis forms

4 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The analysis preference also specifies that the model information be output in the MSC.Nastran Input

File format.

Throughout this Users Guide, actual examples are described in the context of using MSC.Patran. Actual

MSC.Patran forms and instructions are provided.

Nonlinear Analysis

Linear analysis assumes a linear relationship between the load applied to a structure and the response of

the structure. The stiffness of a structure in a linear analysis does not change depending on its previous

state. Linear static problems are solved in one step, by a single decomposition of the stiffness matrix. A

number of important assumptions and limitations are inherent in linear static analysis. Materials behavior

is such that the stress is directly proportional to strain (linear) and to loads that do not take the material

beyond its permanent yield point (the material remains elastic). Linear analysis is restricted to small

displacements, otherwise the stiffness of the structures changes and must be accounted for by

regenerating the stiffness matrix. Lastly, loads are assumed to be applied slowly as to keep the structure

in equilibrium.

It becomes necessary to consider nonlinear effects in structures when modeling materials with nonlinear

behavior and where large deformations (rotations and/or strains) occur. In addition, contact problems

exhibit nonlinear effects due to changes in boundary conditions.

In a nonlinear problem the stiffness of the structure depends on the displacement and the response is no

longer a linear function of the load applied. As the structure displaces due to loading, the stiffness

changes, and as the stiffness changes the structure’s response changes. As a result, nonlinear problems

require incremental solution schemes that divide the problem up into steps calculating the displacement,

then updating the stiffness. Each step uses the results from the previous step as a starting point. As a result

the stiffness matrix must be generated and decomposed many times during the analysis adding time and

costs to the analysis.

Nonlinear problems present many challenges. A nonlinear problem does not always have a unique

solution. Sometimes a nonlinear problem does not have any solution, although the problem can seem to

be defined correctly.

Nonlinear analysis requires choosing a solution strategy which includes dividing the loading into logical

steps, controlling the numerical processing, and planning for the possibility of changing the solution

strategy during the analysis using restarts. Which solution method to use depends on the structure itself,

the nature of the loading, and the anticipated nonlinear behavior. In some cases, one method can be

advantageous over another; in other cases, the converse might be true.

If a solution is obtainable, there is also the issue of efficiency. Each solution procedure, has pros and cons

in terms of matrix operations and storage requirements. In addition, a very important variable regarding

overall efficiency is the size of the problem. The time required to assemble a stiffness matrix, as well as

the time required to recover stresses after a solution, vary roughly linearly with the number of degrees of

freedom of the problem. On the other hand, when using a direct solver the time required to go through

the solver varies roughly quadratically with the bandwidth, as well as linearly with the number of degrees

of freedom.

CHAPTER 1 5

Introduction

Early development of nonlinear finite element technology was mostly influenced by the nuclear and

aerospace industries. In the nuclear industry, nonlinearities are mainly due to high-temperature behavior

of materials. Nonlinearities in the aerospace industry are mainly geometric in nature and range from

simple linear buckling to complicated post-bifurcation behavior. Nonlinear finite element techniques

have become popular in metal forming manufacturing processes, fluid-solid interaction, and fluid flow.

In recent years, the areas of biomechanics and electromagnetics have seen an increasing use of finite

elements.

Results

Like the enormous amount of data needed to define the simulation model to an analysis code, there is a

large volume of data returned from the simulation analysis. And just as it is virtually impossible to

construct a model with a text editor alone, it is equally as difficult to read and interpret the results by

hand. Using a postprocessor with a graphical user interface such as MSC.Patran is highly recommended.

The MSC.Patran Results application gives you control of powerful graphical capabilities to display

results quantities in a variety of ways:

• Deformed structural plots

• Color banded fringe plots

• Marker plots (vectors, tensors)

• Freebody diagrams

• Graph (XY) plots

• Animations of most of these plot types.

The Results application treats all results quantities in a very flexible and general manner. In addition, for

maximum flexibility results can be:

• Sorted

• Reported

• Filtered

• Derived

• Deleted

All of these features help give meaningful insight into results interpretation of engineering problems that

would otherwise be difficult at best.

6 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The Results application is object oriented, providing postprocessing plots which are created, displayed,

and manipulated to obtain rapid insight into the nature of results data. The imaging is intended to provide

graphics performance sufficient for real time manipulation. Performance will vary depending on

hardware, but consistency of functionality is maintained as much as possible across all supported display

devices.

Capabilities for interactive results postprocessing also exist. Advanced visualization capabilities allow

creation of many plot types which can be saved, simultaneously plotted, and interactively manipulated

with results quantities reported at the click of the mouse button to better understand mechanical behavior.

Once defined, the visualization plots remain in the database for immediate access and provide the means

for results manipulation and review in a consistent and easy to use manner.

CHAPTER 1 7

Introduction

Feature List

The complete features of MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) are presented in the following list.

1. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) solves linear and nonlinear (material, contact and/or

geometric) static, modal (vibration), buckling, and transient dynamic structural finite element

problems.

2. Eigenvalue solutions are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) for solving

linear or nonlinear modal and buckling analyses using either Lanczos or Inverse Power Sweep

methods of iteration. Through the use of parameters you can control the convergence of the

eigenvalues, and the modes to retain.

3. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) has a variety of solution procedures and bandwidth

optimizers.

4. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports the following elements/bodies:

• 3 and 6 noded triangular shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain strain/axisymmetric

elements

• 4 and 8 noded quadrilateral shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain

strain/axisymmetric elements

• 4 and 10 noded solid tetrahedral elements

• 6 and 15 noded solid wedge elements

• 8 and 20 noded solid hexahedral elements

• 2 and 3 noded beam element

• 2 and 3 noded bar element

• 2 and 3 noded axisymmetric shell element

• 2 noded gap element

• 1 and 2 noded spring elements

• 1 and 2 noded damper elements

• Rigid and deformable contact bodies

• Point Mass element

RBE elements and multi-point constraint equations are supported in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) to tie specific nodes or degrees-of-freedom to each other. Special MPC

entities are supported, (e.g. rigid links) which can be used to tie two nodes together or equate the

motion of two DOFs.

8 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

5. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports the following loads and boundary

conditions:

• Constrained nodal displacements (zero displacements at specified

degrees-of-freedom).Enforced nodal displacements (non-zero displacements at specified

degrees-of-freedom in the nodal coordinate system).

• Forces applied to nodes in the nodal coordinate system.

• Pressures applied to element edges or faces, including strain-rate controlled application for

super-plastic forming simulations.

• Temperature applied to nodes. Temperature can be applied as a load in a structural analysis.

The reference temperature is user definable.

• Inertial body forces, acceleration and velocity can be applied in the global coordinate system.

• Contact between two bodies can be defined by selecting the contacting bodies and defining

the contact interaction properties.

6. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) supports isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic

material properties. Temperature dependent isotropic and orthotropic material properties can be

defined for elastic, elastic-plastic, hyper-elastic, visco-elastic, and creep constitutive models.

Nonlinear elastic-plastic materials can be defined by specifying piecewise linear stress-strain

curves, which may be temperature dependent.

7. Physical properties can be associated with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) elements

such as the cross-sectional properties of the beam element, the area of the beam and rod elements,

the thickness of shell, plane stress, and membrane elements, spring parameters, masses, gap

element parameters, the alternate material coordinate frame for solid elements and material IDs.

8. Laminated composite solid and shell elements are supported in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

(SOL 600) through the PCOMP card of the materials capability. Each layer has its own material,

thickness, and orientation and may represent linear or nonlinear material behavior. Failure index

calculations are also supported. Equivalent material models may be incorporated using PSHELL.

9. Analysis jobs consisting of (possibly) complex loading histories (such as would occur in a multi-

step manufacturing process) for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) are defined using

subcases. A single subcase may represent the entire analysis, or may be one step in a multi-step

simulation. The loads and constraints in each subcase represent the total load at that point in the

analysis, making it easy to determine the state of loading at any point in the analysis. The starting

point of the current subcase is the ending point of the previous subcase.

10. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) jobs are submitted using text-based input decks that

may be generated manually with a text editor, or by a variety of pre/post processing programs such

as MSC.Patran. The input file is read in and a number of text files, such as the .f06, .log, .f04 files

are generated.

11. Results can be requested in several output formats such as .f06, .t16, .t19, .xdb, .op2, or punch

files. These files are typically read back into the pre/post processing programs for the purpose of

evaluating the results with plots such as deformed shape plots, contour stress/strain plots, or X-Y

history plots.

CHAPTER 1 9

Introduction

12. Nodal displacements, velocities and accelerations, mode shapes, element and nodal stresses,

element and nodal strains, element and nodal plastic strains, element and nodal creep strains,

nodal reaction forces and contact interface stress/force values, shell element stress resultants,

element strain energy, strain energy density, and phase angle values can all be requested as output

and visualized with the aforementioned results visualization tools such as MSC.Patran. Stress

functions, for example von Mises, beam stresses, strains, and internal forces, can also be

requested as output. Composite element results are returned for each layer of the composite.

13. A restart capability is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Any analysis can

be saved from any point for a possible restart. A new static load case or a buckling analysis can

be solved by restarting from the original static analysis.

10 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The primary steps in running a MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) analysis are as follows:

1. Read MSC.Nastran Input File in IFP (input file processor) as in other MSC.Nastran solution

sequences.

2. Convert MSC.Nastran input to MSC.Marc input and write out a MSC.Marc input deck

(jid.marc.dat in IFP).

3. If there are no input errors, execute MSC.Marc.

4. If you request, do any of the following:

5. Translate MSC.Marc’s t16 file to obtain MSC.Nastran op2 or xdb output (this is done by code in

MSC.Nastran that creates output op2 data blocks on a file, which we call the f11 file, then

generating DMAP on the fly to use inputt2 to placed the f11 datablocks into the MSC.Nastran

database, and finally use OUTPUT2 to produce an OP2 file which has the geometry datablocks

and the f11 output datablocks all in one file (or similar DMAP to generate an xdb file with

geometry and output datablocks.

6. As in Step 5, DMAP can be extended to produce printed output in the.f06 file or punched output

in the .pch file having the exact formats MSC.Nastran uses for all other solution sequences (this

is done by generating OFP DMAP on the fly).

7. Copy MSC.Marc’s output file (known as the .out file) to the .f06 file with or without changing

any text strings. This output will have the MSC.Marc formats, but names such as MSC.Marc can

be changed to any desired user name (for example MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear). It is strongly

suggested that Steps 6 and 7are not both done in the same run, or the f06 file output could become

confusing.

8. Retain or delete the MSC.Marc input and output files (which normally consist of jid.marc.dat,

jid.marc.out, jid.marc.sts, jid.marc.log, jid.marc.t16 and possibly others which have the name

jid.marc.*).

The process of reading input data from a MSC.Nastran Input File, translating the model data to a

MSC.Marc input file, running a MSC.Marc solution, and translating back the results files is shown in the

flowchart that follows.

CHAPTER 1 11

Introduction

error messages

.f04, .log files

Successful No

Translation?

Yes

Write jobname.marc.dat

Submit Marc No

Analysis?

.t16/19 results to Nast db

Yes

Submit Marc job -see note Use std Nast output req -

generate std xdb,op2,f06

Marc writes.out,.t16,.t19

.sts, etc (these will be

deleted later by Nastran Stop

if marccpy = 1 or 3) -.sts

and .log may be used by

MSC.Patran to monitor

the progress of the job Note - every attempt will be

while it is running made to have the MSC.Nastran Input

File Processor (IFP) catch all

input format errors. However,

No this may not be possible

Is marccpy in all cases and sometimes it is

= 1or 2?

necessary for you

to examine the MSC.Marc .dat files

Yes for errors.

Append runtime error

messages to .f06 and .log

12 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This manual provides a complete background to SOL 600 and fully describes using SOL 600 within the

MSC.Nastran environment. The theoretical aspects of nonlinear analysis methods, types, and techniques

are included as well as thorough descriptions for nonlinear material models.

Where appropriate, actual MSC.Patran forms and menus are shown so you can easily use SOL 600 from

the MSC.Patran environment.

MSC.Nastran Reference Manual

The MSC.Nastran Reference Manual provides supporting information that relates to MSC.Nastran input

formats, element libraries, and loads and boundary conditions.

The QRG contains a complete description of all the input entries for MSC.Nastran. Within each section,

entries are organized alphabetically so they are easy to find. Each entry provides a description, formats,

examples, details on options, and general remarks.

You will find the full descriptions for all SOL 600 input entries in the QRG.

MSC.Marc Documentation

MSC provides extensive documentation covering all aspects of the MSC.Marc code. In particular the

following manuals are recommended to use in conjunction with SOL 600:

• MSC.Marc Volume A: Theory and User Information - explains the capabilities of MSC.Marc

and gives pertinent background information.

• MSC.Marc Volume C: Program Input - describes the file format of the MSC.Marc input file.\

• MSC.Macr Volume D: User subroutines and special routines - describes format for user

subroutines.

CHAPTER 1 13

Introduction

Patran Documentation

Three key books from the Patran library may be of assistance in running SOL 600:

• Patran User’s Guide - this introductory guide gives you the essential information you need to

immediately begin using MSC.Patran for SOL 600 projects. Understanding and using the

information in this guide requires no prior experience with CAE or finite element analysis.

• Patran Reference Manual -a counterpart to the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual, this manual

provides complete descriptions of basic functions in MSC.Patran, geometry modeling, finite

element modeling, material models, element properties, loads and boundary conditions,

analysis, and results.

• MSC Nastran Preference Guide - gives specific information that relates to using MSC.Patran

with MSC.Nastran as the intended analysis code. All application forms and required input are

tailored to MSC.Nastran.

14 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 2: MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Results Files

Output Requests 28

Results Files 38

16 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The MSC.Nastran Input File, referred to as the Bulk Data File (BDF) is made up of three distinct sections:

1. Executive Control - describes the problem type and size.

2. Case Control - defines the load history.

3. Bulk Data - gives a detailed model description.

Input data is organized in (optional) blocks. Key words identify the data for each optional block. This

form of input enables you to specify only the data for the optional blocks that you need to define your

problem. The various blocks of input are “optional” in the sense that many have built-in default values

which can be used in the absence of any explicit input from you.

A typical input file setup for the MSC.Nastran program is shown below.

• Executive Control Statements

Terminated by an CEND parameter

• Case Control Commands

Terminated by the BEGIN BULK option

• Bulk Data Entries

Model data starting with the BEGIN BULK option and terminated by the ENDDATA option

IFP (Input File Processing) Checking

Checking of most SOL 600 Bulk Data entries are done during IFP. When one of these entries

has erroneous data entered it is more likely that IFP will flag the entry and issue a FATAL

ERROR. In most cases, IFP error checking has been enhanced to point to the field and

continuation line where the erroneous data occurs.

• (Additional History Definition

Option for the second, third, ..., Increments).

CHAPTER 2 17

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

elements, etc. Element and

Material

Bulk Data Properties,

Fixed Displ,

Etc.

Load Incrementation,

Complete Input Deck

Applied Loads,

Case Control

Control Information

p

Applied Displacements

Etc.

Solution Sequence,

Executive Control Etc.

Input Conventions

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear performs all data conversion internally so that the system does not abort

because of data errors made by you. The program reads all input data options alphanumerically and

converts them to integer, floating point, or keywords, as necessary. MSC Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

issues error messages and displays the illegal option image if it cannot interpret the option data field

according to the specifications given in the manual. When such errors occur, the program attempts to

scan the remainder of the data file and ends the run with a FATAL ERROR or SEVERE WARNING

message.

Two input format conventions can be used: fixed and free format. You can mix fixed and free format

options within a file.

The syntax rules for fixed fields are as follows:

• Give floating point numbers with or without an exponent. If you give an exponent, it must be

preceded by the character E or D and must be right-justified. If data is double precision, a D

must be used.

18 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

• Check that each option contains the same number of data items that it would contain under

standard fixed-format control. This syntax rule allows you to mix fixed-field and free-field

options in the data file because the number of options you need to input any data list are the same

in both cases.

• Separate data items on a option with a comma. The comma can be surrounded by any number of

blanks. Within the data item itself, no embedded blanks can appear.

• Give floating point numbers with or without an exponent. If you use an exponent, it must

be preceded by the character E or D and must immediately follow the mantissa (no embedded

blanks).

• Give keywords exactly as they are written in the manual.

• All data can be entered as uppercase or lowercase text.

• Small field format is limited to 8 columns per field. Large field is 16 columns, see the MD

Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more details.

Defaults

For most bulk data entries, SOL 600 does not make the distinction between zero and blank. Thus, if a

zero is entered and the default is some other value, the default will normally be used. If you wish to use

zero, enter a small number such as 1.0E-12 instead.

Section Descriptions

Executive Control

This group of entries provides overall job control for the problem and sets up initial switches to control

the flow of the program through the desired analysis. This set of input must be terminated with an CEND

parameter. See Executive Control Statements (Ch. 3) in the for additional descriptions on input formats.

Case Control

This group of options provides the loads and constraints and load incrementation method and controls

the program after the initial elastic analysis. Case Control options also include blocks which allow

changes in the initial model specifications. Case Control options can also specify print-out and

postprocessing options. Each set of load sets must be begin with a SUBCASE command and be

terminated by another SUBCASE or a BEGIN BULK command. If there is only one load case, the

SUBCASE entry is not required. The SUBCASE option requests that the program perform another

increment or series of increments. See Case Control Command Descriptions (Ch. 4) in the for additional

descriptions on input formats.

CHAPTER 2 19

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

This set of data options enters the initial loading, geometry, and material data of the model and provides

nodal point data, such as boundary conditions. Bulk data options are also used to govern the error control

and restart capability.This group of options must be terminated with the ENDDATA option. See Bulk

Data Entries (Ch. 8) in the for additional descriptions on input formats. Multiple BEGIN entries and

superelements are not allowed in SOL 600.

20 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Example

The following text illustrates a simple example of an MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear input file. It

includes the required Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections that are required for any

MSC.Nastran analysis.

$ NASTRAN input file created by the MSC MSC.Nastran input file

$ translator (MSC.Patran 2004) on February 03, 2003 at 15:09:41.

$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section

$ Advanced Nonlinear Analysis

SOL 600,106 PATH=1 STOP=1

CEND

SEALL = ALL

SUPER = ALL

TITLE = MSC.Nastran job created on 03-Feb-03 at 15:04:03

$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data

SUBCASE 1

$ Subcase name : Default

SUBTITLE=Default

NLPARM = 1

SPC = 2

LOAD = 2

DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL

SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL

STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL

$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase

BEGIN BULK

PARAM PRTMAXIM YES

NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 25 P YES

$ Direct Text Input for Bulk Data

$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell_props

PSHELL 1 1 .253 1 1

$ Pset: "shell_props" will be imported as: "pshell.1"

CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 5 4

CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 6 5

CQUAD4 3 1 4 5 8 7

CQUAD4 4 1 5 6 9 8

$ Referenced Material Records

$ Material Record : steel

$ Description of Material : Date: 03-Feb-03 Time: 15:01:32

MAT1 1 3.+7 .3 .0075

$ Nodes of the Entire Model

GRID 1 0. 0. 0.

GRID 2 5. 0. 0.

GRID 3 10. 0. 0.

GRID 4 0. 5. 0.

GRID 5 5. 5. 0.

GRID 6 10. 5. 0.

GRID 7 0. 10. 0.

GRID 8 5. 10. 0.

GRID 9 10. 10. 0.

$ Loads for Load Case : Default

SPCADD 2 1

$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fix_edge

SPC1 1 123456 1 4 7

$ Contact Table for Load Case: Default

$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : point_load

FORCE 1 9 0 100. 0. 0. -1.

$ Referenced Coordinate Frames

ENDDATA

CHAPTER 2 21

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Some users may have existing models that have been developed and analyzed using MSC.Nastran

Nonlinear Solution Sequences 106 or 129. These models may be run through MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) by changing the SOLUTION procedure input to MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

(SOL 600) input.

The following is an example of the change required to run existing models through SOL 600. The first

line shows an existing MSC.Nastran SOL 106 Executive Control Statement and the second shows its

revision for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).

SOL 106

SOL 600,106

The new executive control statement is as follows:

SOL 600, ID PATH= COPYR= NOERROR OUTR=op2,xdb,pch,f06,eig,dmap,beam, NOEXIT STOP=

CONTINUE= S67OPT=

Some items such as dmap, beam, CONTINUE and S67OPT are explained here. See the MSC.Nastran

QRG for a complete discussion. An explanation of these items follows:

dmap The user will enter his own DMAP to create whatever type of output that is desired, such as

op2, xdb, punch, f06. For all other options, DMAP as needed is generated internally by

MSC.Nastran.

beam The beam option must be specified if op2,xdb,pch. or f06 options are specified and beam

internal loads are to be placed in any of these files. The beam and eig options are mutually

exclusive (you cannot specify both).

CONTINUE=

CONTINUE= An option that specifies how MSC.Nastran will continue its analysis after MSC.Marc

finishes. To continue the analysis, do not enter any STOP or OUTR options. It is possible to perform

more than one of these operations if necessary.

22 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

0 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example, if SOL

600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Only 3-D

contact or materials supported by SOL 106 may be used.

1 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example if SOL

600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Of course, no

3-D contact or materials not supported by SOL 106 may be used.

2 MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will

generate DMIG matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly damping) on a file specified by

pram,marcfil1,name and time specified by param,marcstif,time. This is accomplished by

making a complete copy of the original MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job

with the SOL entry changed and an include entry for the DMIG file.

3 (Option not presently available.) MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex

eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will generate OUTPUT4 matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly

damping) on a file specified by pram,marcfil2,name and time specified by

param,marcstif,time, This is accomplished by making a complete copy of the original

MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job with the SOL entry changed and an

include entry for the DMIG file.

The original MSC.Nastran file should include CMETHOD=id in the Case Control command

and a matching CEIG entry in the Bulk Data.

MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 111 to compute modal frequency response. MSC.Marc will

generate natural frequencies and mode shapes in (tbd) format which are read into

MSC.Nastran from a file specified by param,marcfil3,name.

4 (Option not presently available.) Same as option 3 except SOL 112 for linear transient

response will be used.

5 MSC.Nastran will switch to the solution sequence given in field 9 of the MDMIOUT entry.

MSC.Nastran execution spawned from the original execution. Case Control and Bulk Data

will be added to the original input to properly handle these matrices in the spawned

MSC.Nastran execution.

CHAPTER 2 23

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

6 Same as option 1 except SOL 110 is run. For this option, the original MSC.Nastran input file

must contain METHOD=ID1 and CMETHOD=ID2 in the Case Control as well as matching

EIGRL (or EIGR) and CEIG entries in the Bulk Data.

7 Same as option 1 except SOL 103 is run for real eigenvalues/eigenvectors. The database can

be saved to restart into SOL 110 if desired. This should be done on the command line or in a

rc file with scratch=no. For this situation, the original MSC.Nastran input file must include

METHOD=id in the Case Control command and a matching EIGRL or EIGR entry in the

Bulk Data. (CMETHOD and CEIG can also be included.) The actual restart from SOL 103

to 110 must be performed manually at the present time.

101+ Continue options 101 to 400 are used to convert MSC.Marc’s initial contact tying constraints

to MPC’s and then continue in SOL 101 to 112 as a standard MSC.Nastran execution. For

example, if CONTINUE=101, a SOL 101 run with all the geometry load cases, etc. from the

original run would be conducted with the addition of the initial contact MPC determined from

MSC.Marc. The continue=101+ options are frequency used to model dissimilar meshes as

well as glued contact which does not change throughout the analysis. This option can be used

for any standard MSC.Nastran sequence where the initial contact condition does not change.

In order for initial contact to work, the surfaces must be initially touching. If they are

separated by a gap, the MPC’s will be zero until the gap closes and thus the initial MPC’s are

zero. This option automatically sets BCPARA INITCON=1.

24 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

SOL 600,106 path=1 stop=1 continue=1

TIME 10000

CEND

param,marcbug,0

ECHO = sort

DISP(print,plot) = ALL

STRESS(CORNER,plot) = ALL

STRAIN(plot) = ALL

SPC = 1

LOAD = 1

NLPARM = 1

CMETHOD=101

BEGIN BULK

param,marcfil1,dmig002

param,mrmtxnam,kaax

param,mrspawn2,tran

param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc

PARAM,OGEOM,NO

PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES

PARAM,GRDPNT,0

EIGC, 101, HESS, , , , ,50

NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 P YES

PLOAD4 1 121 -800.

PLOAD4 1 122 -800.

(rest of deck is the same as any other SOL 600 input file)

CQUAD4 239 2 271 272 293 292

CQUAD4 240 2 272 273 294 293

ENDDATA

The full input for this example can be obtained from MSC.Nastran development. The name of the input

file continu2.dat

CHAPTER 2 25

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Critical new items are Case Control command, CMETHOD=101, the four parameters after BEGIN

BULK and Bulk Data entry, EIGC. An explanation of the parameters follows:

param,marcfil1,dmig002 This means that a file named dmig002 will be used. It contains stiffness

matrix terms (possibly from a set of unsymmetric friction stiffness

matrices)

param,mrmtxnam,kaax This means that in the dmig002 file, use DMIG matrix terms labeled kaax

(or KAAX – case does not matter).

param,mrspawn2,tran This means that the primary MSC.Nastran run will spawn another

MSC.Nastran run to compute the complex eigenvalues. The name of the

command is nastran (nas is always used and the characters specified by

this parameter are added to the end of nas. Thus, we get

nas+tran=nastran).

param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc This is the name of the rc file to be used for the second (spawned)

MSC.Nastran run.

• Create a primary MSC.Nastran SOL 600 input file (we will name it jid.dat for this example)

• Submit MSC.Nastran in the standard fashion. For this example, the following command is used:

nastran jid rc=nast1.rc

• The primary MSC.Nastran run creates an MSC.Marc input file named jid.marc.dat

• The primary MSC.Nastran run spawns MSC.Marc to perform nonlinear analysis.

• The nonlinear MSC.Marc analyses completes and generates standard files.

• Control of the process returns to MSC.Nastran. A new MSC.Nastran input file named

jid.nast.dat will be created from the original input file. This file will contain the CMETHOD

Case Control and CEIG commands, all of the original geometry and additional entries to read

the dmig002 file.

• A second MSC.Nastran job will be spawned from the primary MC.Nastran run using the

command

nastran jid.nast rc=nast2.rc

The nast2.rc file can be the same as nast1.rc or can contain different items. Usually memory will

need to be larger in nast2.rc than in nast1.rc.

• The second MSC.Nastran run computes the complex eigenvalues and finishes.

• Control of the process returns to the primary MSC.Nastran run and it finishes.

26 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 234567812345

DMIG KAAX 0 1 2 0 324

DMIG* KAAX 6 1

* 6 1 3.014712042D+05

* 6 2 4.204709763D+08

*

DMIG* KAAX 6 2

* 6 1 1.204709763D+05

* 6 2 3.014712042D+05

*

DMIG* KAAX 6 3

* 6 1-4.616527206D+04

* 6 2-4.616527206D+04

* 6 3 1.308497299D+05

DMIG* KAAX 17 1

* 6 1 6.239021038D+04

* 6 2-2.528344607D+03

* 6 3-6.239758760D+03

* 17 1 5.939989945D+05

*

When the PATH keyword is omitted on the SOL 600 Executive statement, the program will search the

following location to find MSC.Marc:

MSC_BASE/MSC_VERSD/marc/MSC_ARCHM/marc20xx/tools

If MSC_ARCHM does not exist, MSC_ARCH is used instead. The environmental variables

MSC_BASE, MSC_VERSD, MSC_ARCH and/or MSC_ARCHM are set by the MSC.Nastran script

(see the MSC.Nastran Installation and Operations Guide for further details). If MSC.Marc is not found

on the above path, likely locations near that path are searched. If MSC.Marc is still not found, the job will

terminate with an appropriate message and the user must determine the correct location of the MSC.Marc

installation, use the PATH=1 keyword (see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide for further details).

DMIG-OUT

A new option named DMIG-OUT allows the stiffness, differential stiffness and mass matrices

(assembled or element-by-element) to be output for selected output times or at the end of each nonlinear

subcase for use in other analyses. This is a less expensive procedure, than using the Bulk Data entry,

MDMIOUT (which creates a superelement), but results in a much larger matrix.

Restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 or into Another Linear

Solution Sequence

For the purpose of a prestressed normal modes analysis, the old way of restarting from SOL 106 into SOL

103 is no longer necessary; the user can, instead, restart from a SOL 600 run into another SOL 600 run

to perform the prestressed normal modes calculation.

Restarts from SOL 600 into linear solution sequences are not recommended to the novice user because

of several limitations. The results of the linear restart are incremental values with respect to the preload,

CHAPTER 2 27

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

not total values. However, some experienced users restart from SOL 600 into SOL 103 to perform

prestressed modal analysis with changing boundary conditions, or restart into another linear solution

sequence to perform a perturbed linear solution on a preluded structure.

MSC.Patran offers a MSC.Nastran interface that provides a communication link between MSC.Patran

and MSC.Nastran. It provides for the generation of the MSC.Nastran Input file as well as customization

of certain features in MSC.Patran. The interface is a fully integrated part of the MSC.Patran system.

Selecting MSC.Nastran as the analysis code preference in MSC.Patran, activates the customization

process. These customizations ensure that sufficient and appropriate data is generated for the

MSC.Nastran interface. Specifically, the MSC.Patran forms in these main areas are modified:

• Materials

• Element Properties

• Finite Elements/MPCs and Meshing

• Loads and Boundary Conditions

• Analysis Forms

Using MSC.Patran, you can run a MSC.Nastran analysis or you may generate the MSC.Nastran Input

File to run externally. For information on generating the MSC.Nastran Input file from within

MSC.Patran, see Analysis Form (Ch. 3) in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1:

Structural Analysis.

Once the Bulk Data File has been generated, you can edit the file directly from MSC.Patran.

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.

2. On the Analysis form set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Existing

Deck>Full Run and click Edit Input File...

MSC.Patran finds the BDF with the current job name and displays the file for editing in a text

editing window.

28 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Output Requests

As a part of the input, you can request which results quantities you want to be returned from MSC.Marc

back to MSC.Nastran and the formats of the results files.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) produces stress and strain results that differ from those

results available with SOL 106 and 129. A detailed discussion of the stress and strain measures for SOL

600 is given in the following section. For a complete listing of all possible results quantities that can be

returned for a SOL 600 analysis, see Output from the Analysis (Ch. 8).

Any of the results quantities can be placed on MSC.Marc’s t16/t19 output files to be postprocessed by

MSC.Patran. In addition, the more basic types of output (displacements, velocities, accelerations,

Cauchy stress tensor and one type of strain tensor) and basic contact information, can be translated to

MSC.Nastrans’s standard op2, xdb, punch and even f06 files using the OUTR option described above.

At present, new datablock definitions have not been created to handle all types of nonlinear output.

Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the t16 or t19 file be selected for postprocessing in order to view

all types of output. MSC.Patran can postprocess nearly all types of output selected by the MARCOUT

entry. For a complete description of the outputs available using MARCOUT, please see “Bulk Data

Entries” of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Deformations

Consider a three dimensional body B in its undeformed and deformed configuration (see Figure 2-1).

With respect to a Cartesian coordinate system ( E 1, E 2, E 3 ) , the position vector of a material point in the

undeformed configuration is written as:

X Z X1 E1 H X2 E2 H X3 E3 (2-1)

In the deformed configuration, the material point has a position vector x , given by:

x Z x1 E1 H x2 E2 H x3 E3 (2-2)

The displacement vector u is defined as the difference between the position vector in the deformed and

the undeformed configuration and reads:

u Z x ÓX Z u1 E1 H u2 E2 H u3 E3 (2-3)

CHAPTER 2 29

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Undeformed

B B

Deformed

u

dA 0

X ^ dA

dF

N

dF

E2 n

x

E1

E3

It will be assumed that there is always a unique relation between the position vector of a point in the

deformed and the position vector of this point in the undeformed configuration. This can formally be

expressed as:

x Z x (X ) (2-4)

Based on Equation (2-4), a fundamental deformation measure can be given, namely the deformation

gradient F , which is defined by:

∂x 1 ∂x 1 ∂x 1

JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

∂x 2 ∂ x 2 ∂ x 2

F Z JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ (2-5)

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

∂x 3 ∂ x 3 ∂ x 3

JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

Substituting Equation (2-5) into Equation (2-3) shows that the deformation gradient can also be written

as a function of the coordinates in the undeformed configuration and the displacement components:

30 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

∂u 1 ∂u 1 ∂u 1 ∂ u 1 ∂ u 1 ∂u 1

1 H JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u 2

F Z JJJJJJJJJ

J 1 H JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J Z I H JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ (2-6)

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3 ∂u 3

JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J 1 H JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJ

∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3

1 0 0

I Z 0 1 0 (2-7)

0 0 1

Starting out from the deformation gradient, several well-known symmetric strain tensors can be defined,

namely the engineering strain tensor e , the Green-Lagrange strain tensor E and the right Cauchy-

Green strain tensor C :

1 T

e Z JJJ ( F H F Ó 2I ) (2-8)

2

1 T

E Z JJJ ( F F Ó I ) (2-9)

2

T

C Z F F (2-10)

T

where F denotes the transpose of F .

Notice that the Green-Lagrange and the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor are related by:

1

E Z JJJ ( C Ó I ) (2-11)

2

Example

Suppose that the deformation of a body is described by:

1 1 1

x 1 Z 4X 1 cos α Ó JJJ X 2 sin α , x 2 Z 4X 1 sin α H JJJ X 2 cos α , x 3 Z JJJ X 3

2 2 2

This deformation can be obtained by first stretching a block of material in the E 1 -direction and then

rotating it around the E 3 -axis (see Figure 2-1). The deformation gradient can easily be evaluated as:

CHAPTER 2 31

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

1

4 cos α Ó JJJ sin α 0

2

F Z 1

4 sin α JJJ cos α 0

2

1

JJJ

0 0

2

so that the engineering and the right Cauchy-Green strain tensors are given by:

7

4 cos α Ó 1 JJJ sin α 0 16 0 0

2

1

e Z 7 1 0 JJJ 0

JJJ sin α JJJ cos α Ó 1 0 , C Z 4

2 2

1

1 0 0 JJJ

0 0 Ó JJJ 4

2

From these expressions, it can be concluded that the engineering strain tensor only provides a useful

deformation measure if the angle α remains small, so that cos α ≈ 1 and sin α ≈ 0 . On the other hand,

the components of the right Cauchy-Green tensor, and by virtue of Equation (2-11) also the components

of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, are independent of the value of the angle α .

E3

L2

E2

L3

α

L 2 H ∆L 2

L1 L 3 H ∆L 3

E1 L 1 H ∆L 1

32 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

4 0 0

cos α Ó sin α 0 1

F Z 0 JJJ 0 Z RU

sin α cos α 0 2

0 0 1 1

0 0 JJJ

2

in which R is a rotation tensor and U is a symmetric stretch tensor, where the stretch tensor and the right

Cauchy-Green strain tensor are related by:

1⁄2

C Z U

It can be proved that in this way any deformation gradient can be uniquely decomposed into a rotation

tensor and a stretch tensor.

If there is no rotation of the material the non-zero components of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor

can be expressed in terms of the components of the engineering strain tensor as:

C 11 Z 1 H e 11 , C 22 Z 1 H e 22 , C 33 Z 1 H e 33

Instead of 1 H e 11 , 1 H e 22 , and 1 H e 33 , one often uses the principal stretch ratios λ 1 , λ 2 and λ 3 ,

respectively.

A geometrical interpretation of the principal stretch ratios can be given by indicating the initial edge

lengths as L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and the changes in edge lengths as ∆L 1 , ∆L 2 , ∆L 3 (see Figure 2-2). Now the

principal stretch ratios can be written as:

L 1 H ∆L 1 L 2 H ∆L 2 L 3 H ∆L 3

λ 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J , λ 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J , λ 3 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J

L1 L2 L3

In the example discussed above, the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor only has non-zero terms on its main

diagonal, indicating that the deformation consists of a pure stretch. In a general state of deformation,

there will also be non-zero off-diagonal terms. Then the principal stretch ratios must be determined based

on the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor. Denoting these eigenvalues as CD 11 , CD 22 ,

and CD 33 , the principal stretch ratios are generally given by:

λ1 Z CD 11 , λ 2 Z CD 22 , λ 3 Z CD 33 (2-12)

It can be concluded that the principal stretch ratios completely define the stretch of a material, but not the

rotation.

CHAPTER 2 33

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Another way to characterize the deformation of a material is based on the invariants of the right Cauchy-

Green strain tensor. These invariants are defined as:

I 1 Z C 11 H C 22 H C 33 (2-13)

2 2 2

I 2 Z C 11 C 22 H C 22 C 33 H C 33 C 11 Ó C 12 Ó C 23 Ó C 31 (2-14)

2

I 3 Z C 11 C 22 C 33 H 2C 12 C 23 C 31 Ó C 11 C 23 H (2-15)

2 2

Ó C 22 C 31 Ó C 33 C 12

Because I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 are invariants of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor, their values can also be

determined based on the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor. Using Equation (2-12), this

yields:

2 2 2

I 1 Z λ 1 H λ 2 H λ3 (2-16)

2 2 2 2 2 2

I 2 Z λ 1 λ2 H λ 2 λ 3 H λ3 λ 1 (2-17)

2 2 2

I 3 Z λ 1 λ2 λ 3 (2-18)

λ1 λ2 λ3 Z 1 (2-19)

or:

I3 Z 1 (2-20)

The compressibility can also be expressed in terms of the determinant of the deformation gradient,

det ( F ) . Since F Z RU , this can be evaluated as:

1

(2-21)

2 3

det ( F ) Z 1 (2-22)

34 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Stresses

Consider the deformed configuration of body B , as indicated in Figure 2-1. On an elemental area dA

with unit normal vector n , an elemental force vector dF is acting. This force vector is a result of forces

being transmitted from one portion of the body to another. According to the Cauchy stress principle, the

stress vector or traction vector t is defined as:

dF

t Z JJJJJJJJJ (2-23)

dA

Similar to Equation (2-1) to Equation (2-3), the components of t , n , and dF are indicated as t 1 , t 2 , t 3 ,

n 1 , n 2 , n 3 , dF 1 , dF 2 and dF 3 . Now the following relation between the components of the stress

vector and the components of the normal vector can be given:

t1 T 11 T 12 T 13 n1

t2 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 n2 (2-24)

t3 T 31 T 32 T 33 n3

dF 1 T 11 T 12 T 13 n1

dF 2 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 n 2 dA (2-25)

dF 3 T 31 T 32 T 33 n3

In Equation (2-24) and Equation (2-25), T 11 to T 33 are the components of the true or Cauchy stress

tensor T . The components T 11 , T 22 and T 33 are called the normal or direct stress components, while

the other components are called shear stress components. The first index of the stress components defines

the normal of the plane on which the stress vector acts. The second index indicates the positive direction

of the component (see Figure 2-1). It can be shown that the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric, so

T 12 Z T 21 , T 13 Z T 31 and T 23 Z T 32 . The physical meaning of the Cauchy stress tensor is that it

gives the current force per unit deformed area.

Another frequently used stress tensor in a large deformation analysis is the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress

tensor. In order to define this tensor, the force vector dF is transformed using the inverse of the

deformation gradient F :

CHAPTER 2 35

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

E3

T 23

T 21

E1 E2

T

22

Figure 2-3 Interpretation of Stress Components

dF¾ 1 dF 1

Ó1

dF¾ 2

Z F dF 2 (2-26)

dF¾ 3 dF 3

^

Assuming that the transformed force vector d F acts on the elemental area dA 0 with unit normal vector

N in the undeformed configuration (see Figure 2-1), the components S 11 to S 33 of the symmetric

second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor S are defined as:

dF¾ 1 S 11 S 12 S 13 N1

dF¾ 2

Z S 21 S 22 S 23 N 2 dA 0 (2-27)

dF¾ 3 S 31 S 32 S 33 N3

The physical meaning of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor is not so clear. It can be considered to

give the transformed current force per unit undeformed area.

Using the deformation gradient, the Cauchy stress tensor and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor

can be related to another by:

Ó1 Ó1 T

S Z det ( F )F T ( F ) (2-28)

1 T

T Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ FSF (2-29)

det ( F )

Notice that for small deformations and small rotations, F ≈ I , so the differences between the Cauchy

stress tensor and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor vanish. In that case they reduce to the so-called

engineering stress tensor σ , which is known to give the force per unit undeformed area.

36 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Example

Due to a uniaxial tensile load, the state of deformation of a body is assumed to be given by (see also

Figure 2-1):

1

x 1 Z 4X 1 , x 2 Z Ó JJJ X 2 , x 3 Z Ó 1

JJJ X 3

2 2

The force is assumed to be homogeneously distributed over the cross section A in the E 2 - E 3 -plane.

A0

A0

F

A

F

E3

E2

A

E1

F T 11 T 12 T 13 1

0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 0 A

0 T 31 T 32 T 33 0

0 T 11 T 12 T 13 0

0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 1 A

0 T 31 T 32 T 33 0

0 T 11 T 12 T 13 0

0 Z T 21 T 22 T 23 0 A

0 T 31 T 32 T 33 1

so that the only nonzero component of the Cauchy stress tensor is:

F

T 11 Z JJJJ

A

CHAPTER 2 37

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

Because:

4 0 0

1

F Z 0 Ó JJJ 0 , det ( F ) Z 1

2

1

0 0 Ó JJJ

2

it follows from Equation (2-28) that the only non-zero component of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress

tensor is:

1 F

S 11 Z JJJJJJ JJJJ

16 A

Upon rewriting the current cross sectional area A in terms of the original cross-sectional area A 0 as

A Z 1

JJJ A 0 , the nonzero component of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor can also be written as:

4

1 F

S 11 Z JJJ JJJJJJJ

4 A0

in which F ⁄ A 0 is recognized as the engineering stress σ 11 . The differences between the various stress

components can be summarized as:

1

T 11 Z 4σ 11 , S 11 Z JJJ σ 11

4

38 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Results Files

When a SOL 600 analysis has been completed successfully, a message file and a results file are created

and saved. If you request that a print file be saved in addition to the standard results file, or if the analysis

aborts prematurely due to an error, a print file is also saved.

Print Files

The print files jobname.f06 and jobname.marc.out contain a complete text output of solution

information, including an input summary, solution diagnostics from each processor, a geometry

summary, and results if requested.

Because of the potential size of the print file, certain information is optional. Instead of printing out a

complete echo of the input deck, a summary can be printed. Stress and strain results, at the nodes of each

element, can be printed or not as selected by the user included in the print file.

The analysis results file contains some all of the numerical results computed in the analysis. This file in

MSC.Nastran is designated as jobname.op2 or jobname.xdb. Because SOL 600 uses the

MSC.Marc solver, a MSC.Marc results file is also available, designated jobname.t16/t19. If you

are using MSC.Patran, the full set of stress and strain measures are available in the t16/t19 file while the

more basic measures are available in the .op2 and .xdb files. The t19 file is an ASCII file. The t16 file is

a binary file and can be moved and used on different platforms.

For more information, see Patran Reference Manual, Part 6: Results Postprocessing.

Message Files

The message files jobname.marc.sts and jobname.msg (if it is run from MSC.Patran) contain

diagnostic error and warning messages output by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). The

message file is the best way to immediately check an analysis for successful execution if the job is run

from MSC.Patran. Otherwise, check JID.MARC.OUT and JID.f06.

SOL 600 has five levels of messages:

1. Informative messages.

2. Nonfatal warning message of something that could affect the results.

3. Severe warnings (similar to fatal errors).

4. Fatal errors (all occurrences will be found before aborting).

CHAPTER 2 39

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

• An example of a Level 1 message is a message that indicates that a new processor has begun

execution. These messages provide job information.

• An example of a Level 2 message is one indicating that the aspect ratio is greater than 15. This

may or may not be a serious problem.

• An example of a Level 3 message is a warning about a highly distorted element or a in Marc

that is not in SOL 600.

• An example of a Level 4 message is the warning “undefined node used in rigid element.”

• An example of a Level 5 message is “Unable to open file” message. The job is

immediately aborted.

The results from an MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Analysis can be read into and postprocessed using

MSC.Patran. Typically you will get the most complete set of results (i.e. rigid contact body information

such as reaction forces, etc.) if you use the .t16 or .t19 results options (see Section 14.1 “Output from the

Analysis” on how to select which output files will be created), but you can also postprocess using an .xdb

or .op2 formatted file.

The Results application in MSC.Patran provides the capabilities for creating, modifying, deleting,

posting, unposting and manipulating results visualization plots as well as viewing the finite element

model. In addition, results can be derived, interpolated, extrapolated, transformed, and averaged in a

variety of ways, all controllable by the user.

Control is provided for manipulating the color/range assignment and other attributes for plot tools, and

for controlling and creating animations of static and transient results.

Results are selected from the database and assigned to plot tools using simple forms. Results

transformations are provided to derive scalars from vectors and tensors as well as to derive vectors from

tensors. This allows for a wide variety of visualization tools to be used with all of the available results.

If the job was created within MSC.Patran such that a Patran jobname of the same name as the Nastran

jobname exists, you only need to use the Results tools and MSC.Patran will import or attach the

jobname.xxx file without you having to select it. If you did not create the job in MSC.Patran you can still

import the model and results and postprocess (both are on the t16 file).

40 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Nonlinear Static Analysis

Introduction

MSC.Nastran has provided long-standing support for the output of grid point force balance and element

strain energy in all linear solution sequences. Users have asked for the extension of the capabilities to

nonlinear analysis. In MSC.Nastran 2005 r3, the output of grid point force balance and element strain

energy is supported in SOL 600 nonlinear static analysis.

Theory

In nonlinear analysis, the strain energy, E , for an element is defined by integrating the specific energy

rate, the inner product of strain rate and stress, over element volume and time

t

T

E Z ∫ ∫ ε̌ σ dV dτ (2-30)

0V

σ stress tensor

ε̌ strain rate

V element volume

t actual time in the load history

The integration over time leads to the following recursive formula using the trapezoidal rule

1 T

E n H 1 Z E n H ∆E n H 1 Z E n H JJJ ∫ ∆ε n H 1 ( σ n H σ n H 1 ) dV (2-31)

2

n previous load step

∆E strain energy increment

∆ε strain-increment

CHAPTER 2 41

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

1 T

E n H 1 Z E n H JJJ ∆u n H 1 ( f n H f n H 1 ) (2-32)

2

∆u displacement increment from n to n H 1

For computational convenience, MSC.Nastran uses Equation (2-32) to calculate the element strain

energy. The internal element forces are readily available in every step because they are needed for the

force equilibrium. Note that temperature effects are included in the internal element forces.

When loads from temperature differences or element deformation are present, the default definition of

element strain energy for linear elements differ from the definition for nonlinear elements. For linear

elements, the element strain energy is defined as

1 T T

E Z JJJ u K e u Ó u P e t (2-33)

2

where P e t is the element load vector for temperature loads and element deformation. Equation (2-33)

assumes that the temperatures are constant within a subcase. For nonlinear elements, the definition of

Equation (2-30) is used. In the case of linear material and geometry, Equation (2-30) becomes

1 T 1 T

E Z JJJ u K e u Ó JJJ u P e t (2-34)

2 2

Equation (2-34) assumes that the temperature varies linearly within a subcase. The user may request the

definition of Equation (2-34) to be applied to linear elements by adding PARAM,XFLAG,2 to the input

file. The default value for XFLAG is 0, meaning that linear elements will use the definition of

Equation (2-33).

User Input

The output of grid point force balance and strain energy in nonlinear analysis is requested with the

existing GPFORCE and ESE Case Control commands, respectively. The Case Control commands

remain unchanged.

Printed Output

The output is the same as in linear analysis. An example appears below.

Example

The following Nastran input deck represents a simplified model of a mechanical clutch that consists of

springs, beams, rigid elements, and gap elements. A geometric nonlinear analysis is performed. Both

42 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

GPFORCE and ESE output requests are applied above all subcases. This is a good example to show the

grid point force balance with both linear and nonlinear elements, that includes:

• applied loads

• element forces

• SPC forces

• MPC forces.

The model is shown in Figure 2-1. For clarity, only the elements are displayed.

The dashed lines represent rigid elements, the rest are gap and beam elements. Spring elements are

located at the intersection point of all dashed lines and are not visible in the figure because their

connection points are coincident.

CHAPTER 2 43

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data File and Results Files

1 GPF005B - FORD ELETRO-MECHANICAL CLUTCH SEPTEMBER 26, 2000 MSC.NASTRAN 9/25/00 PAGE 248

DISPLACEMENT IN MM., FORCE IN NEWTON, STRESS IN MPA

0 SUBCASE 2

LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00

G R I D P O I N T F O R C E B A L A N C E

1 APP-LOAD .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 -2.400000E+02

1 F-OF-SPC .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.400000E+02

1 10001 BEAM .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0

1 10002 BEAM .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0

1 *TOTALS* .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0

0 100 F-OF-SPC -5.366200E-25 -4.514879E-24 .0 4.535559E-23 -6.400176E-24 .0

100 F-OF-MPC 5.366200E-25 4.514879E-24 .0 -4.535559E-23 6.400176E-24 1.292178E-24

100 3 ELAS2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1.070983E-24

100 *TOTALS* .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2.363161E-24

0 101 F-OF-SPC .0 .0 -3.078859E-28 -3.549490E-26 2.535672E-24 .0

101 101 BEAM -3.701448E-08 2.907432E-07 .0 .0 .0 -5.474456E-09

101 2004 BEAM -3.888788E-07 -1.144153E-07 3.078859E-28 3.549490E-26 -2.535672E-24 -1.777338E-23

101 1 GAP 1.270000E-10 1.438901E-27 .0 .0 .0 .0

101 *TOTALS* -4.257663E-07 1.763280E-07 .0 .0 .0 -5.474456E-09

0 102 101 BEAM -2.715682E-08 -2.918291E-07 .0 .0 .0 -2.549396E-09

102 102 BEAM -1.637746E-08 1.273060E-07 .0 .0 .0 -1.374512E-25

102 2 GAP 1.270000E-10 -9.144001E-27 .0 .0 .0 .0

1 GPF005B - FORD ELETRO-MECHANICAL CLUTCH SEPTEMBER 26, 2000 MSC.NASTRAN 9/25/00 PAGE 231

DISPLACEMENT IN MM., FORCE IN NEWTON, STRESS IN MPA

0 SUBCASE 1

LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00

E L E M E N T S T R A I N E N E R G I E S

SUBCASE 1 * TOTAL ENERGY OF ALL ELEMENTS IN SET -1 = 4.422530E+02

0

ELEMENT-ID STRAIN-ENERGY PERCENT OF TOTAL STRAIN-ENERGY-DENSITY

101 1.211380E+01 2.6928 5.680606E-02

102 1.049874E+00 .2334 4.923244E-03

103 1.323984E-01 .0294 6.208644E-04

104 1.323428E-01 .0294 6.206040E-04

105 1.374425E-01 .0306 6.445181E-04

106 1.407006E-01 .0313 6.597968E-04

107 1.478413E-01 .0329 6.932822E-04

108 1.483829E-01 .0330 6.958218E-04

109 1.032130E-01 .0229 1.936014E-04

110 3.163312E-01 .0703 7.020313E-04

111 4.605607E-01 .1024 1.927717E-03

112 7.067609E-01 .1571 2.958209E-03

113 4.186914E-01 .0931 1.752469E-03

121 3.068841E+00 .6822 2.905759E-02

44 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Remarks

• Linear and nonlinear elements can be mixed. The output for grid point force and element strain

energy in nonlinear analysis follow the same format as in linear analysis.

• The reference system for the grid point force output is the grid point global coordinate system.

The user cannot specify another output coordinate system. In nonlinear, the grid point forces are

not aligned with element edges. Therefore, PARAM,NOELOF and PARAM,NOELOP are

ignored in nonlinear analysis.

• In nonlinear analysis, the element strain energy must be calculated for each intermediate load

step even if the output is requested only in the last load step. To save computations, the element

strain energy is only calculated upon user request. The Case Control commands, GPFORCE

must be present to activate grid point force output or element strain energy calculations

and output.

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 3: Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

in Nonlinear Analysis

Introduction 46

Linear Static Analysis Procedure 47

Differences Between Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 48

Applying Constraints 50

Adding Nonlinear Effects 55

Numerical Methods in Solving Equations 60

Iteration Methods 66

Load Increment Size 71

Convergence Controls 81

Singularity Ratio 84

Guidelines for Analysis Methods 86

46 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Introduction

The finite element method is a powerful tool for analyzing complex problems in structural and continuum

mechanics. The analysis of a structure using the finite element method has four basic steps:

1. Modeling, in which the structure is subdivided into an assemblage of discrete volumes called

finite elements, and properties are assigned to each element.

2. Evaluation of element characteristics, such as stiffness and mass matrices, followed by

assembling the element characteristic matrices to obtain the assembled or so-called “global”

matrices characteristic of the entire structure. A similar process is followed to obtain the total

loads, in vector form, applied to the structure.

3. Solution of the system equations for displacements, natural frequencies and mode shapes, or

buckling load factors.

4. Calculating other quantities of interest, such as strains, stresses and strain energy.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the finite element displacement method, in which a large system

of equations is solved to obtain the displacements at all node points of the structure. Strains are then

obtained on the element level as derivatives of displacements and stresses are obtained by multiplying a

small matrix of material constants by the strains. Comprehensive presentations of the finite element

method together with numerous applications are available in textbooks and the research literature.

The main purposes of this chapter are more limited, namely:

1. To give a brief overview of the finite element displacement method for solving linear and

nonlinear structural problems in statics.

2. To describe the theory, techniques and algorithms specifically used in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600).

3. Outline some guidelines for selecting appropriate analysis methods.

CHAPTER 3 47

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

In a linear static analysis there is assumed to be a linear relationship between the applied loads and the

response of the structure. Because of the linear relationship you need only calculate the stiffness of the

structure once. From this stiffness representation you can find the structure’s response to other applied

loads by multiplying the load vectors by the decomposed stiffness matrix. In addition, loads can be

combined using the principle of superposition.

A linear analysis is the simplest and most cost effective type of analysis to perform. Because linear

analysis is simple and inexpensive to perform and often gives satisfactory results, it is the most

commonly used structural analysis. Nonlinearities due to material, geometry, or boundary conditions are

not included in this type of analysis. The behavior of an isotropic, linear, elastic material can be defined

by two material constants: Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio.

In actuality, linear analysis is merely an approximation to the true behavior of a structure. In some cases

the approximation is very close to the true behavior, in other cases linear analysis may provide highly

inaccurate results.

The following is a summary of the main steps in a linear static analysis:

1. Input: The problem geometry (nodes and elements), physical and material properties, and loads

and boundary conditions are taken from the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear input file and put

into the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear database.

2. Bandwidth: Minimization (Optional). The nodes are renumbered internally for

minimum bandwidth.

3. Element stiffness matrix and force vector calculation: The element stiffness matrices and

equivalent nodal forces for distributed forces are computed. The detailed descriptions in the

Element Library (Ch. 11) provide the kinds of forces that each element can support.

4. Global stiffness matrix and load vector assembly: The global stiffness matrix and the

combined nodal force vectors are assembled. Boundary and constraint conditions are

incorporated by modifying the element stiffness matrices and force vectors.

5. Solution of equations: The nodal displacement vector {δ} is computed by solving the system of

simultaneous Equation (3-6).

6. Strain energy and reaction force calculation: The strain energy and reaction forces

(unbalanced grid point forces) are computed using the displacement vector, the element stiffness

matrices and the force vectors.

7. Stresses and strains calculation: The strains and stresses are computed at selected points for

each element. See the Element Library (Ch. 11) for a detailed descriptions of the stress recovery

points for the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear elements.

48 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Non-linear analysis is intrinsically a multi-increment load process where the applied loads and/or

displacements are solved for, not in a single load increment but in a number of load increments. The

multiple-step procedure is necessary for the FE code to update changing conditions in the model during

the analysis. This situation is routinely encountered in non-linear analysis because the material properties

and/or boundary conditions can change during the analysis e.g. with the onset of plasticity (material non-

linearity), or with the occurrence of contact (BC nonlinearity). Below are the steps in a general linear and

a non-linear analysis. The presence of an extra loop of iterations (Newton-Raphson iterations) is the

unique feature of a nonlinear solution procedure.

1. Set up the model (done by user, before the model is submitted)

- Mesh the part

- Apply Material Properties

- Apply Boundary Conditions

- Submit Job

2. Job Solution (done by FE Code)

- Assembly of stiffness Matrix

- Solution of stiffness matrix

- Compute displacements, strains, stresses (and other results)

3. View Results

The user is guaranteed a solution if the boundary conditions and material properties are set up

correctly (and sometimes even incorrectly!). The stiffness matrix is assembled and solved only once in

the entire analysis.

1. Set up the model (done by the user, before model set-up)

- Mesh the part

- Apply Material Properties

- Apply Boundary Conditions

- Submit Job

2. Job Solution (done by FE Code):

Newton-Raphson Iteration scheme begins: Apply a portion of the total load to start: (1% in

this case):

- Assembly of stiffness Matrix

- Solution of the Stiffness Matrix

- Check for convergence (IMPORTANT step, seen only in non-linear analysis)

If converged, the solution/structure is in equilibrium. Go to step 3 below

If not converged, update information and re-assemble, re-solve stiffness matrix

Keep iterating till convergence is achieved.

CHAPTER 3 49

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

4. Apply the next increment of load and go to Step 2. Keep doing this until all the load is applied

5. View Results

The important point to note is that the total load is applied gradually in steps (or increments) and for each

load step, the solution is arrived at after one or more iterations. If the behavior of the model is generally

linear, few iterations are required to solve that load step. If the model behavior is complex/nonlinear,

many iterations might be required. Each iteration involves an assembly and solution of the stiffness

matrix. Hence, nonlinear problems inherently take longer than linear models (of the same size) to solve.

At the end of each iteration, a check is made to see if the solution has converged. If the convergence

check fails, the iteration is re-repeated with the new information; and it is re-assembled and re-solved.

This process repeats until convergence is achieved. Following that, the next increment of load is applied.

The load increments are applied until the full load of the model is solved.

50 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Applying Constraints

Once you have constructed a model of your structure, constraints are added that force selected portions

of your model to remain fixed or to move by a specified amount. These constraints can be either:

• Single Point Constraints

• Multipoint Constraints

A constraint on a single degree of freedom (Single Point Constraint, or SPC) assigns a zero or nonzero

value to a single degree of freedom. It can be expressed as:

δi Z u (3-1)

where u is the value of the prescribed displacement on the degree of freedom δi. The case of u = 0 is the

most common case, and is often used as a boundary condition, to “fix” or “ground” the movement of a

point in a certain direction.

Since the value of δi is known, one could, in principle, eliminate the specified degree of freedom from

the other degrees of freedom to be solved for as unknowns. This would reduce the size of the system of

equations to be solved, but on the other hand it would take time to perform the elimination, and this

approach adds complexity to the code.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses a different technique. A number which is large compared to the

stiffness coefficients (say, for discussion, 1020) is added to the diagonal term Kii of the equation for the

degree of freedom to be constrained. Also, if the degree of freedom is to be constrained to a nonzero value

u, then u x 1020 is added to the right hand side of the modified equation. This modified equation is now:

K i 1 δ 1 H … H ( K i i )10 20 δ i H … H K i n δ n Z F i H ( u × 10 20 )

Assuming all Kij to be small with respect to 1020, the solution of the system of equations is obtained with

negligible error.

The modified system of equations remain well conditioned. The value used by MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear for the large number is 1010 times the largest stiffness coefficient found on the diagonal of the

stiffness matrix.

CHAPTER 3 51

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

A multipoint constraint (MPC) equation is a relationship between several degrees of freedom that must

be enforced on the structure.

Some examples are as follows:

Consider the structure in Figure 3-1, made up of three plane stress elements. To make node 4 lie exactly

on the straight line between nodes 2 and 7, we need to enforce the two MPC equations.

UX(4) = 0.5 x UX(2) + 0.5 x UX(7)

UY(4) = 0.5 x UY(2) + 0.5 x UY(7)

6 7 8 Y

1 4 5

3 X

1 2 3

Figure 3-1 Multipoint Equations to Enforce Compatibility of Node 4 Along Line Connecting

Nodes 2 and 7

To connect a plate or beam element (which has six degrees of freedom per node — three displacements

and three rotations) to a solid element (which has only three translations), it is necessary to relate the

rotation of the plate to the displacements of the solid. As an example, consider Figure 3-2 where we see

the side view of a plate-to-solid transition. The equation:

ROTZ ( 3 ) Z ( UX ( 2 ) Ó UX ( 6 ) ) ⁄ ( DELTAY )

where DELTAY is the difference in Y-coordinate between nodes 2 and 6, will enforce the desired

compatibility on the rotation about the global Z axis. Other constraints would need to be written to ensure

the compatibility of the other displacements and rotations.

Y

5 6

Z

X

3

4

1 2

52 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Compatibility requires that the rotations of the plate element be related to the displacements on the top

and bottom of the solid element.

Consider Figure 3-3, showing a rigid link connecting two nodes M and S, each of which has six degrees

of freedom and is attached to other elements in the structure.

The displacements at the dependent node S are related to those at the independent node M by the

following relationship:

UX s UX m ROTX m

UY s Z UY m H [ H ] ROTY m

UZ s UZ m ROTZ m

and

ROTX s ROTX m

ROTY s Z [ I ] ROTY m

ROTZ s ROTZ m

0 ( Zs Ó Zm) ( Ym Ó Ys )

[H ] Z ( Zm Ó Zs ) 0 ( Xs Ó Xm )

( Ys Ó Ym ) ( Xm Ó Xs ) 0

Z

M (XM, YM, ZM)

S = Dependent (slave) node

If both nodes have six degrees of freedom, then multipoint constraint equations can be written to ensure

that, for small displacements, the two nodes move as a rigid body.

CHAPTER 3 53

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Various techniques can be used to incorporate MPC equations into the equilibrium equations. Two of the

methods are as follows:

Lagrange Multiplier Method. This method uses the mathematical technique of Lagrange multipliers to

enforce the constraints. The number of degrees of freedom is increased, and the conditioning and

definiteness of the global matrix may be adversely affected.

Transformation Method. Using the constraint equations, this method eliminates dependent variables

from the list of unknowns, modifying the stiffness associated with the independent degrees-of-freedom

to account for the constraints.

The following describes the multipoint constraint algorithm used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

First, we rewrite the constraint equations in matrix form as

{ δ }s Z Ó [ A ] { δ } m (3-2)

where {δ}s are the dependent (“slave”) variables and {δ}m are the independent (“master”) variables.

Then, the global matrix of Equation (3-6) can be rewritten in partitioned form as

Ks s Ks m Ks i δs Fs

Km s Km m Km i δm Z Fm (3-3)

Ki s Ki m Ki i δi Fi

where the subscript i refers to those degrees of freedom which are not referenced in any

constraint equation.

Substituting {δ}s from Equation (3-2) into Equation (3-3) and rearranging, we get

K δ F

m m K mi Ó K ms A 0 m Z m

K (3-4)

i m Ki i K i s A 0 δ i Fi

and

δm

( [K s m K s i ] Ó [Ks s A 0] ) × Z { F s } (3-5)

δi

[ ]T, we get

Premultiplying Equation (3-5) by A, 0

ATK T T δm AT Fs

sm A K s i Ó A K ss A 0 Z (3-6)

0 0 0 0 δi 0

54 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

K δ F Ó A T Fs

m m K mi Ó K ms A 0 Ó A T K sm A T K s i H A T K ss A 0 m Z m

(3-7)

K

i m Ki i Ki s A 0 0 0 0 0 δi Fi

This symmetric Equation (3-7) gives the reduced equations, which can be solved for the variables

{δ}m,{δ}i. Values of {δ}s can then be recovered from Equation (3-2). However, this needs

rearrangement of the coefficients in the stiffness matrix. Hence, we do some more manipulation.

First, we combine Equation (3-2) with Equation (3-7):

[I ] [A] 0 δs 0

0 ( K m m Ó K ms A Ó A K s m H A K ss A ) ( K m i Ó A T K si ) δ m Z F m Ó A T F s

T T

(3-8)

0 ( Ki m Ó Ki sA ) Ki i δi Fi

Then we restore symmetry to Equation (3-8) by first premultiplying the first equation of Equation (3-8)

by [A]T[Kss] and adding the resulting equation to the second part of Equation (3-8), and then,

premultiplying the first equation of Equation (3-8) by Kss. This results in

Ks s Ks s A 0 δs 0

A T K ss ( K m m Ó K ms A Ó A T K s m H 2A T K ss A ) ( K m i Ó A T K si ) δ m Z F m Ó A T F s (3-9)

0 ( Ki m Ó Ki s A ) Ki i δi Fi

If we solve this modified Equation (3-9), which is symmetric, the resulting solution vector will satisfy the

constraint equations.

For large problems, the modifications implied by Equation (3-9) will take a substantial amount of

computer time, if performed on the global stiffness matrix.

CHAPTER 3 55

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Linear analysis is based on the following assumptions:

• the structure is only subjected to small displacements when loads are applied.

• the materials in the structure exhibit a linear relationship between stress and strain.

• boundary conditions remain constant.

When these assumptions are violated, linear analysis is no longer valid and nonlinear effects must

be introduced.

Nonlinear problems are classified into three broad categories: geometric nonlinearity, material

nonlinearity, and boundary condition nonlinearity (contact).

Sources of Nonlinearity

Geometric Nonlinearity

Geometrically nonlinear problems involve large displacements; “large” means that the displacements

invalidate the small displacement assumptions inherent in the equations of linear analysis. For example,

consider a classical thin plate subject to a lateral load; if the deflection of the plate’s midplane is anything

close to the thickness of the plate, then the displacement is considered large and a linear analysis is

not applicable.

Another aspect of geometric nonlinear analysis involves follower forces. Consider a slender cantilever

beam subject to an initially vertical end load. The load is sufficient to cause large displacements.

In the deformed shape plot, the load is no longer vertical; it has “followed” the structure to its deformed

state. Capturing this behavior requires the iterative update techniques of nonlinear analysis.

For details on the finite element formulations for geometric nonlinearities, see Geometric Nonlinearities

(Ch. 4).

Material Nonlinearity

Recall that linear analysis assumes a linear relationship between stress and strain.

Material nonlinear analysis solution sequences can be used to analyze problems in static analysis where

the stress-strain relationship of the material is nonlinear. In addition, large strain situations can be

analyzed. Examples of material nonlinearities include metal plasticity, materials such as soils and

concrete, or rubbery materials (where the stress-strain relationship is nonlinear elastic). Various plasticity

56 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

theories such as von Mises or Tresca (for metals), and Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager (for frictional

materials such as soils or concrete) can be selected by the user. Three choices for the definition of

subsequent yield surfaces are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. They are isotropic hardening,

kinematic hardening, or combined isotropic and kinematic hardening. With such generality, most plastic

material behavior, with or without the Bauschinger effect, can be modeled.

For details on the finite element formulations for material nonlinearities, see Material Nonlinearities

(Ch. 4).

Contact

Contact problems exhibit nonlinear effects due to changes in boundary conditions. If there is a change in

constraints due to contact during loading, the problem may be classified as a boundary nonlinear problem

and would require CGAP elements or the BCONTACT, BCBODY, or BSURF option. The use of GAP

elements is discouraged in SOL 600.

For details on the finite element formulations for boundary nonlinearities, see Nonlinear Boundary

Conditions (Ch. 4).

In a nonlinear analysis, loading is typically applied in subcases both to allow for the nonlinear behavior

to occur in the numerical processing and to give you control over restarts if problems (divergence,

excessive iterations, etc.) occur during the solution. The subcase structure in a nonlinear analysis differs

from a typical linear analysis. In a nonlinear analysis, subcases are cumulative; that is, the loads and

boundary conditions at the end of a subcase are the initial conditions for the next subcase. Superposition

cannot be applied in nonlinear problems. In general, a different loading sequence (reordering of the

subcases) requires a complete new analysis.

In a nonlinear static analysis, you first determine the total value of loading to be applied at a particular

stage of the analysis. This loading value is selected with the LOAD Case Control command specifying a

load set ID that exists in the Bulk Data. In this case, the subcase functions as a type of landmark in the

loading history. It may be an expected point or a point at which the nature of the loading changes (for

example, first applying an internal pressure loading and then an axial loading on a cylinder). The subcase

is a major partition of the loading history. The loading history should be divided into subcases since this

provides you with more control over the solution and restart strategy.

Load Increments

In the loading history, the total change of loading applied during a subcase can be subdivided into smaller

parts to allow the solution to converge. These subdivisions within a subcase are termed load increments.

Load increments are specified in MSC.Patran on the Load Increments subform and are defined in the

Bulk Data file by the NINC field on the NLPARM entry. Selecting a number of increments divides the

total load change applied during the subcase into NINC equal parts for FIXED load incrementation, but

only provides the initial load increment size in the case of adaptive load incrementation. See NLPARM

CHAPTER 3 57

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

and NLAUTO bulk data entries for more details. Load increments may be saved for restart if desired.This

is important because sometimes the solution does not converge during a subcase. If the loading is divided

into increments and these values are saved to the database, the restart strategy can continue from a

loading value closer to the problem value than having to go back to the previous subcase.

Iterations

In the incremental solution process, the unbalanced forces that occur during a load increment are

reintroduced internally into the solution until the solution has converged. The process of redistributing

the unbalanced force within a load increment is known as an iteration. The iteration is the lowest level

of the solution process. Iterations continue within a load increment until the solution converges or any

of the specified convergence parameters are exceeded.

A linear finite element system is expressed as:

Ku Z F (3-10)

And a nonlinear system is expressed as:

T

K ∆u Z F Ó R Z r (3-11)

T

where K is the elastic stiffness matrix, K is the tangent stiffness matrix in a nonlinear system, ∆u is

the displacement vector, F is the applied load vector, and r is the residual.

T T

ψ ( u ) Z 1 ⁄ 2u Ku Ó u F (3-12)

For linear structural problems, this process can be considered as the minimization of the potential energy.

The minimum is achieved when

Ó1

u Z K F (3-13)

The function ψ decreases most rapidly in the direction of the negative gradient.

∇ψ ( u ) Z F Ó Ku Z r (3-14)

One method to solve both linear and nonlinear problems is to use iterations. The objective of the

iterative techniques is to minimize the function, ψ , without decomposing the stiffness matrix. In the

simplest methods,

uk H 1 Z uk H α k rk (3-15)

58 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where

T T

α k Z r k r k ⁄ r k Kr k (3-16)

The problem is that the gradient directions are too close, which results in poor convergence.

An improved method led to the conjugate gradient method, in which

u k H 1 Z u k H α k Pk (3-17)

T T

α k Z P k r k Ó 1 ⁄ P k KP k (3-18)

methods. Note the elegance of these methods is that the solution may be obtained through a series of

matrix multiplications and the stiffness matrix never needs to be decomposed.

Certain problems which are ill-conditioned can lead to poor convergence. The introduction of a

preconditioner has been shown to improve convergence. The next key step is to choose an appropriate

preconditioner which is both effective as well as computationally efficient. The easiest is to use the

diagonal of the stiffness matrix. The incomplete Cholesky method has been shown to be very effective

in reducing the number of required iterations.

CHAPTER 3 59

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Figure 3-4 is a diagram showing the flow sequence of the nonlinear solution sequence of SOL 600. This

diagram shows the input phase, equivalent nodal load vector calculation, matrix assembly, matrix

solution, stress recovery, and output phase. It also indicates load incrementation and iteration within a

load increment.

Input Phase:

Read Input Data

Space Allocation

Data Check

Incremental

Loads

Equivalent Nodal

Load Vector

Matrix Assembly

Iteration Loop

Matrix Solution

Time Step Loop

Stress Recovery

No

Convergence

Yes

Output Phase

Yes Next

Increment

No

Stop

60 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The finite element formulation leads to a set of linear equations. The solution is obtained through

numerically decomposing the system or obtaining the solution using iterations. Because of the wide

range of problems encountered with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, there are several solution

procedures available.

Most analyses result in a system which is real, symmetric, and positive definite. While this is true for

linear structural problems, assuming adequate boundary conditions, it is not true for all analyses.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has two main modes of solvers – direct and iterative. Each of these

modes has two families of solvers, based upon the storage procedure. While all of these solvers can be

used if there is adequate memory, only a subset uses spill logic for an out-of-core solution. Finally, there

are classifications based upon nonsymmetric and complex systems. This is summarized below:

Profile Sparse (default) CASI

Solver Option 0 2 8 9

Real Symmetric Yes Yes Yes Yes

Real Nonsymmetric Yes No Yes No

Complex Symmetric Yes No Yes No

Complex nonsymmetric No No Yes No

Out-of-core Yes No Yes Yes

Possible problem with poorly No Yes No Yes

conditioned systems

Can be used in Parallel Yes Yes Yes No

Direct Methods

Traditionally, the solution of a system of linear equations was accomplished using direct solution

procedures, such as Cholesky decomposition and the Crout reduction method. These methods are usually

reliable, in that they give accurate results for virtually all problems at a predictable cost. For positive

definite systems, there are no computational difficulties. For poorly conditioned systems, however, the

results can degenerate but the cost remains the same. The problem with these direct methods is that a

large amount of memory (or disk space) is required, and the computational costs become very large.

CHAPTER 3 61

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Iterative Methods

Iterative solvers are a viable alternative for the solution of large systems. These iterative methods are

based on preconditioned conjugate gradient methods. The single biggest advantage of these iterative

methods is that they allow the solution of very large systems at a reduced computational cost. This is true

regardless of the hardware configuration. The disadvantage of these methods is that the solution time is

dependent not only upon the size of the problem, but also the numerical conditioning of the system. A

poorly conditioned system leads to slow convergence – hence increased computation costs.

When discussing iterative solvers, two related concepts are introduced: fractal dimension, and

conditioning number. Both are mathematical concepts, although the fractal dimension is a simpler

physical concept. The fractal dimension, the range of which is between 1 and 3, is a measure of the

“chunkiness” of the system. For instance, a beam has a fractal dimension of 1, while a cube has a fractal

dimension of 3.

The conditioning number is related to the ratio of the lowest to the highest eigenvalues of the system.

This number is also related to the singularity ratio, which is reported in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

output when using a direct solution procedure. In problems involving beams or shells, the conditioning

number is typically small, because of large differences between the membrane and bending stiffnesses.

Preconditioners

The choice of preconditioner can substantially improve the conditioning of the system, which in turn

reduces the number of iterations required. While all positive definite systems with N degrees of freedom

converges in N iterations, a well conditioned system typically converges in less than the square root of

N iterations.

Preconditioner Sparse

Diagonal Yes

Scaled Diagonal Yes

Incomplete Cholesky Yes

The sparse iterative solver requires an error criteria to determine when convergence occurs. The default

is to use an error criteria based upon the ratio between the residuals in the solution and the reaction force.

c

After obtaining the solution of the linear equations u evaluate:

C C (3-19)

Ku Z F

The residual from the solution procedure is:

A C A C (3-20)

Res Z F Ó F Z F Ó Ku

62 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

If the system is linear ( K does not change) and exact numerics are preformed, then Res Z 0 .

Because this is an iterative method the residual is nonzero, but reduces in size with further iterations.

Convergence is obtained when

The tolerance is specified through the NLPARM, TSTEPNL, NLAUTO, and NLSTRAT options.

Iterative Solvers

In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, two iterative solvers are available: one using a sparse matrix

technique and the other an element-based CASI technique. This method is advantageous for different

classes of problems.

There exist certain types of analyses for which the iterative solver is not appropriate. These types include:

• Elastic analysis

• Explicit creep analysis

• Eigenvalue analysis

• Use of gap elements

Elastic or explicit creep analysis involves repeated solutions using different load vectors. When a direct

solver is used, this is performed very efficiently using back substitution. However, when an iterative

solver is used, the stiffness matrix is never decomposed, and the solution associated with a new load

vector requires a complete re-solution.

The sparse iterative solver can exhibit poor convergence when shell elements or Herrmann

incompressible elements used for hyperelastic analyses are present.

Storage Methods

In general, a system of linear equations with N unknown is represented by a matrix of size N by N , or

2

N variables. Fortunately, in finite element or finite difference analyses, the system is “banded” and not

all of the entries need to be stored. This substantially reduces the memory (storage) requirements as well

as the computational costs.

In the finite element method, additional zeroes often exist in the system, which results in a partially full

bandwidth. Hence, the profile (or skyline) method of storage is advantageous. This profile storage method

is used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to store the stiffness matrix. When many zeroes exist within

the bandwidth, the sparse storage methods can be quite advantageous. Such techniques do not store the

zeroes, but require additional memory to store the locations of the nonzero values. You can determine the

“sparsity” of the system (before decomposition) by examining the statements:

“Number of nodal entries excluding fill in” x

“Number of nodal entries including fill in” y

If the ratio ( x ⁄ y ) is large, then the sparse matrix storage procedure is advantageous.

CHAPTER 3 63

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Nonsymmetric Systems

The following analyses types result in nonsymmetric systems of equations:

• Inclusion of convective terms in heat transfer analysis

• Coriolis effects in transient dynamic analysis

• Fluid mechanics

• Soil analysis

• Follower force stiffness

• Frictional contact

The first three always result in a nonsymmetric system. The last three can be solved either fully using

the nonsymmetric solver, or (approximately) using a symmetric solver. The nonsymmetric problem uses

twice as much memory for storing the stiffness matrix. Approximations using the symmetric solver may

require more iterations.

Selection of the solution procedure is made through the solver related parameters (ISOLVER, ISYMM,

NONPOS, MBYTE, MAXITER, PREVITER, PRECOND, CJTOL) on the NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry

or the parameter MARCSOLV.

Contact Speed Improvements

In new versions of SOL 600, parts of the code were rewritten to improve the speed of contact analyses

involving a large number of multi-point constraint equations (deformable contact) and/or kinematic

constraint equations (rigid contact). This is especially useful for analysis where if the total number of

nodes in contact is extremely large (a typical example would be two similar plates on top of each other,

so that about 50% of all the nodes are in contact). This code improvement is by default active so no

special options are required.

In order to efficiently run large analyses using scratch files, the out-of-core behavior of the multi-frontal

sparse solver (MSC.Marc Solver 8) has been updated. These updates include:

1. Adding functionality to use out-of-core assembly of the operator matrix.

2. Utilizing the RAM, which affects both the in-core and out-of-core assembly of the operator

matrix, allocated for the solver more efficiently.

64 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Rewriting the code applying the multi-point constraint equations such that the amount of scratch

file access is tremendously reduced. This is active in solver by default. If needed, it can be

switched off by using the parameter feature, 4900.

Note: For very large analyses, it may be advantageous to set the third entry of the OOC

parameter to 1, in which case the solver memory is also used to store some nodal vectors,

so that the amount of RAM needed for the analysis is decreased considerably. This is

activated using bulk data PARAM,MARCOOCC,2.

Large Models

Translator speed enhancements have been implemented for certain types of large models. These are not

necessary for small or medium sized models but can be requested using the following parameters:

PARAM,MSPEEDP4,1 speeds up PLOAD4 processing particularly for solids

Improvements have been made to SOL 600 to allow more problems with MPC's, RBE2, RBE3, RBAR,

and RTRPLT to run to completion. The majority of models with these entries should run without

difficulty. Should your analysis exit with an MSC.Marc exit code 2011, have a very low singularity ratio,

or experience convergence problems (for example MSC.Marc exit code 3015), then there are several

potential workarounds that you can try to attempt to get the problem to run.

First, try the bulk data parameter PARAM,MARMPCHK,3. This will cause MSC.Marc to attempt to

rearrange these entities if possible. If that does not work, and RBE3’s are present, they can be changed

to MPC’s using Bulk Data PARAM,MARCRBE3,0. If there are still problems, all rigid elements can be

changed to stiff beams using bulk data parameters PARAM,MARCRIGD,1. If the model still does not

run, check all rigid elements carefully and run the model using MSC.Nastran SOL 101 and/or 106,

replace contact with MPCs or springs between the surfaces, determine from the f06 file if any negative

or very large terms on the main diagonal of the decomposed stiffness matrix exist, and add CELAS or

SPC to ground for these degrees of freedom. If the MSC.Nastran run is satisfactory but SOL 600 still

fails, the only other solution is to remodel the rigid elements and MPC’s.

An alternative approach is to add the AUTOMSET option, which is triggered by

PARAM,AUTOMSET,YES in the bulk data. The use of the AUTOMSET option will increase the

simulation cost, so the MARCMPCHK,3 is preferred. If the PARAM,MARMPCHK is also included in

the model, it will be ignored.

Improved Contact

MPC's and rigid elements combined with contact and/or the same node in more than one contact body

sometimes caused the MSC.Marc portion of SOL 600 to fail in versions prior to 2005. There is a new

feature in MSC.Marc known as optimized contact that can frequently help these types of models to run

correctly. For version 2005 r2, optimized contact is not the default either in MSC.Marc (stand-alone) or

CHAPTER 3 65

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

MSC.Nastran SOL 600. If MSC.Marc exit 2011 or convergence problems are encountered with such

models, you should try optimized contact. To invoke optimized contact from MSC.Nastran, set field 6

of each BCBODY entry with flexible contact to 2. In addition, set field 3 of each "SLAVE" continuation

line (the next line after all lines with SLAVE) to 2. In turn, this sets MSC.Marc's CONTACT entry 4th

datablock, 3rd field to 2 and each CONTACT TABLE 3rd datablock 8th entry to 2 respectively. Detailed

discussions and an example of optimized are provided in Chapter 8 of the MSC.Marc Theory and User

Information Manual (Volume A of the MSC.Marc documentation) - see text before and after Figure 8-4.

References

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .

• For selecting the solution procedure in MSC.Patran, see Defining the Solution Type in

MSC.Patran (Ch. 7).

66 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Iteration Methods

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) offers four iterative procedures that are employed to solve

the equilibrium problem at each load increment: Newton-Raphson, Modified Newton-Raphson,

Newton-Raphson with strain correction, and a secant procedure.

The basis of the Newton-Raphson method in structural analysis is the requirement that equilibrium must

be satisfied. Consider the following set of equations:

K ( u )δu Z F Ó R ( u ) (3-22)

where u is the nodal-displacement vector, F is the external nodal-load vector, R is the internal

nodal-load vector (following from the internal stresses), and K is the tangent-stiffness matrix. The

internal nodal-load vector is obtained from the internal stresses as

T

R Z ∑ ∫β σ dv (3-23)

elem V

In this set of equations, both R and K are functions of u . In many cases, F is also a function of u (for

example, if F follows from pressure loads, the nodal load vector is a function of the orientation of the

structure). The equations suggest that use of the full Newton-Raphson method is appropriate.

i

Suppose that the last obtained approximate solution is termed δu , where i indicates the iteration

number. Equation (3-22) can then be written as

iÓ1 i iÓ1

K ( u n H 1 )δu Z F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) (3-24)

i

This equation is solved for δu and the next appropriate solution is obtained by

i iÓ1 i i iÓ1 i

∆u Z ∆u H δu and u n H 1 Z u n H 1 H δu (3-25)

Solution of this equation completes one iteration, and the process can be repeated. The subscript n

denotes the increment number representing the state t Z n . Unless stated otherwise, the subscript

n H 1 is dropped with all quantities referring to the current state.

The full Newton-Raphson method is the default in MSC.Nastran Advanced Nonlinear (see Figure 3-5).

The full Newton-Raphson method provides good results for most nonlinear problems, but is expensive

for large, three-dimensional problems when the direct solver is used. The computational problem is less

significant when the iterative solvers are used. It is also the best method for contact problems.

CHAPTER 3 67

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

r1

Fn + 1

Fn

Force

δu1

Solution Converged

Incremental Displacements

Figure 3-5 Full Newton-Raphson

The modified Newton-Raphson method is similar to the full Newton-Raphson method, but does not

reassemble the stiffness matrix in each iteration.

0 i iÓ1

K ( u )δu Z F Ó R ( u ) (3-26)

Fn + 1

r1

Fn

Force δu1

Solution Converged

Incremental Displacements

Figure 3-6 Modified Newton-Raphson

The process is computationally inexpensive because the tangent stiffness matrix is formed and

decomposed once. From then on, each iteration requires only forming the right-hand side and a backward

68 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

substitution in the solution process. However, the convergence is only linear, and the potential for a very

large number of iterations, or even nonconvergence, is quite high.

If contact or sudden material nonlinearities occur, reassembly cannot be avoided. The modified

Newton-Raphson method is effective for large-scale, only mildly nonlinear problems. When the iterative

solver is employed, simple back substitution is not possible, making this process ineffective. In such

cases, the full Newton-Raphson method should be used instead.

If the load is applied incrementally, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear recalculates the stiffness matrix at

the start of each increment or at selected increments, as specified.

The strain correction method is a variant of the full Newton method. This method uses a linearized strain

calculation, with the nonlinear portion of the strain increment applied as an initial strain increment in

subsequent iterations and recycles. This method is appropriate for shell and beam problems in which

rotations are large, but membrane stresses are small.

In such cases, rotation increments are usually much larger than the strain increments, and, hence, the

iH1

nonlinear terms can dominate the linear terms. After each displacement update, the new strains E α β

i i

are calculated from u and δu ( Z δ u ) which yield

iH1 i 1 i

Eα β Z E α β H JJJ ( δ u α, β H δu β, α ) H u κ, α δu κ, β H δu κ, α u κi β H δu κ, α δu κ, α

2

This expression is linear except for the last term. Since the iteration procedures start with a fully

linearized calculation of the displacement increments, the nonlinear contributions yield strain increments

inconsistent with the calculated displacement increments in the first iteration. These errors give rise to

either incorrect plasticity calculations (when using small strain plasticity method), or, in the case of

elastic material behavior, yields erroneous stresses. These stresses, in their turn, have a dominant

effect on the stiffness matrix for subsequent iterations or increments, which then causes the relatively

poor performance.

The remedy to this problem is simple and effective. The linear and nonlinear part of the strain increments

are calculated separately and only the linear part of

l i 1 i i

( E α β ) Z E α β H JJJ ( δu α, β H δu β, α ) H u κ, α δu κ, β H δu κ, α u κ β

2

is used for calculation of the stresses. The nonlinear part

nl iH1 1

( Eα β ) Z JJJ δu κ, α δu κ, β (3-27)

2

CHAPTER 3 69

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

is used as an “initial strain” in the next iteration or increment, which contributes to the residual load

vector defined by

C α βγ δ nl

R Z ∫ δ κ, β X κ, α L ∆E γ δ dV (3-28)

V0

i i i C

K ( u n H 1 )δu Z F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) Ó R (3-29)

Since the displacement and strain increments are now calculated in a consistent way, the plasticity and/or

equilibrium errors are greatly reduced. The performance of the strain correction method is not as good if

the displacement increments are (almost) completely prescribed, which is not usually the case. Finally,

note that the strain correction method can be considered as a Newton method in which a different

stiffness matrix is used.

The Secant method used by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is based on the Davidon-rank one,

quasi-Newton update. The Secant method is similar to the modified Newton-Raphson method in that the

stiffness matrix is calculated only once per increment. The residual is modified to improve the rate of

convergence. When the iterative solver is employed, simple back substitution is not possible, making this

process ineffective. Use the full Newton-Raphson method instead.

Fn + 1

r1

Fn

Force

δu1

∆u1 ∆u4

Incremental Displacements

Figure 3-7 Secant Newton

70 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The quasi-Newton requirement is that a stiffness matrix for iteration i could be found based on the

right-hand sides of iterations, i and i Ó 1 , as follows

i i i iÓ1 i iÓ1

K δu Z [ F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) ] Ó [ F Ó R ( u n H 1 ) ] Z r Ó r (3-30)

This problem does not uniquely determine K i . The Davidon-rank one update uses an additive form on

the inverse of the tangent stiffness matrix as follows:

i Ó1 0 Ó1 [ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r ) ] [ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r )]

(K ) Z (K ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-31)

iÓ1 0 Ó 1 i iÓ1 T i iÓ1

[ δu Ó (K ) (r Ó r )] (r Ó r )

Selection of the iteration method in MSC.Nastran is made through the IKMETH parameter on the

NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry and on the NLPARM entry.

References

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .

• NLPARM (p. 1991) in the .

• For selecting the iteration method in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters (Ch. 7).

CHAPTER 3 71

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Selecting a proper load step (time step) increment is an important aspect of a nonlinear solution scheme.

Large steps often lead to many recycles per increment and, if the step is too large, it can lead to

inaccuracies and nonconvergence. On the other hand, using too small steps is inefficient.

When a fixed load stepping scheme is used, it is important to select an appropriate load step size that

captures the loading history and allows for convergence within a reasonable number of recycles. For

complex load histories, it is often necessary to break up the analysis into separate load cases with

different step sizes. For fixed stepping, there is an option to have the load step automatically cut back in

case of failure to obtain convergence. When an increment diverges, the intermediate deformations after

each recycle can show large fluctuations and the final cause of program exit can be any of the following:

maximum number of recycles reached (exit 3002), elements going inside out (exit 1005 or 1009) or, in

a contact analysis, nodes sliding off a rigid contact body (exit 2400). These deformations are normally

not visible as post results (there is a feature to allow for the intermediate results to be available on the

post file, see the POST option). If the cutback feature is activated and one of these failures occurs, the

state of the analysis at the end of the previous increment is restored from a copy kept in memory or disk,

and the increment is subdivided into a number of subincrements. The step size is halved until

convergence is obtained or the user-specified number of cutbacks has been performed. Once a

subincrement is converged, the analysis continues to complete the rest of the original increment. No

results are written to the post file during subincrementation. When the original increment is finished, the

calculation continues to the next increment with the original increment count maintained. These issues

are avoided by using the AUTO increment options (AUTO on the NLPARM card).

In many nonlinear analyses, it is useful to have MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear figure out the

appropriate load step size automatically. The basic scheme for automatic load incrementation is

NLAUTO which is appropriate for most applications and is the default in SOL 600. In addition,

so-called “arc-length methods” are available which are designed for applications like post buckling and

snap-through analysis.

The scheme appropriate for most applications is NLAUTO (MSC.Marc AUTO STEP). The primary

control of the load step is based upon the number of recycles needed to obtain convergence. There are a

number of optional user-specified physical criteria that can be used to additionally control the load step,

but they are rarely used or required. The NLAUTO defaults are appropriate for most models and the

NLAUTO entry is not required. For the recycle based option, the user specifies a desired number of

recycles. This number is used as a target value for the load stepping scheme. If the number of recycles

needed to obtain convergence exceeds the desired number, the load step size is reduced, the recycle

counter is reset to zero and the increment is performed again with the new load step. The factor with

which the time step is cut back defaults to 1.2 and can be specified by you. The load step for the next

72 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

increment is increased if the number of recycles required in the current increment is less than the desired

number. The same factor that is used for decreasing the time step is used for increasing it. The load step

is never increased during an increment. In addition, the same type of cut-back feature for fixed load

stepping, as described in Load Increments, 56, is available for this scheme as well.

There are some exceptions to the basic scheme outlined above. If an increment is consistently converging

with the original load step and the number of recycles exceeds the desired number, the number of recycles

is allowed to go beyond the desired number until convergence or up to the user specified maximum

number. The time step is then decreased for the next increment. An increment is determined to be

converging if the convergence ratio was decreasing in three previous recycles.

Special rules also apply in a contact analysis. For quasi-static problems, the NLAUTO option is designed

to only use the automated penetration check option (see CONTACT option, 7th field of 2nd data block;

option 3 is always used). Even if you flag the increment splitting penetration check option, MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear internally converts it to the automated penetration check. During the recycles, the

contact status can keep changing (new nodes come in contact, nodes slide to new segments, separate etc.).

Whenever the contact status changes during an increment, a new set of contact constraints are

incorporated into the equilibrium equations and more recycles are necessary in order to find equilibrium.

These extra recycles, which are solely due to contact changes, are not counted when the comparison is

made to the desired number for determining if the load step needs to be decreased within the increment.

Thus, only true Newton-Raphson iterations are taken into account. For the load step of the next

increment, the accumulated number of recycles during the previous increment is used. This ensures that

the time step is not increased when there are many changes in contact during the previous increment.

In addition to allowing MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to use the number of recycles for automatically

controlling the step size for NLAUTO, user-specified physical criteria can be used for controlling the step

size. You can specify the maximum allowed incremental change within certain ranges for specific

quantities during an increment. The quantities available are displacements, rotations, stresses, strains,

strain energy, and temperature (in thermal or thermomechanically coupled analyses). These criteria can

be utilized in two ways. By default, they are used as limits, which means that the load step is decreased

if a criterion is violated during the current increment, but they do not influence the decision to change the

load step for the next increment (that is, only the actual number of recycles versus desired number of

recycles controls the load step for the next increment). The criteria can also be used as targets; in which

case, they are used as the main means for controlling the time step for the current and next increments.

If the calculated values of the criteria are higher than the user-specified values the time step is scaled

down. If the obtained values for a converged increment are less than the user-specified, the time step is

scaled up. The scale factor used is the ratio between the actual value and the target value and this factor

is limited by user-specified minimum and maximum factors (defaults to 0.1 and 10 respectively). If this

type of load step control is used together with the recycle based control, the time step can be reduced due

to whichever criterion that is violated. The decision to increase the step size for the next increment is

based upon the physical criteria.

In many analyses, it is convenient to obtain post file results at specified time intervals. This is naturally

obtained with a fixed load stepping scheme but not with an automatic scheme. Traditionally, the post

output frequency is given as every nth increment. With the NLAUTO procedure, you can request post

output to be obtained at equally spaced time intervals. In this case, the time step is temporarily modified

to exactly reach the time for output. The time step is then restored in the following increment.

CHAPTER 3 73

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

The NLAUTO option also has an artificial damping feature available by default for structured statics

analyses. If the time step is decreased to below the user-specified minimum time step, MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear normally stops with exit number 3015; but if the artificial damping feature is

activated, the analysis is continued with a smaller time step. The solution is stabilized by adding a

factored lumped mass matrix to the stiffness matrix and modifying the force vector consistently. This

artificial stabilization is turned off once the time step increases above the minimum time step. If the

feature is used, it might be useful to write post file results at fixed time interval; otherwise, many

increments might appear on the post file even for a small time period. The critical parameter for this

feature is the (artificial) mass density, is normally selected automatically by the program. Use of the

artificial damping feature allows solution of many post-buckling problems without the need to use

arc-length methods (see below).

The defaults of the NLAUTO option are carefully chosen to be adequate in a wide variety of applications.

There are cases, however, when the settings may need to be modified. Assume that the default settings

are used, which means that the recycle based control is active with an initial load of one per cent of the

total. If the structure is weakly nonlinear, convergence is obtained in just a few recycles and the for

successive increments get progressively larger. This can lead to problems if the initially weakly nonlinear

structure suddenly exhibits stronger nonlinearities; for instance, occurrence of plasticity or parts coming

into contact. Possible remedies to this problem include:

• decrease the time step scale factor from 1.2 to a smaller number so the step size does not grow

so rapidly;

• use a physical criterion like maximum increment of displacements to limit the load step;

• use the maximum time step to limit large steps;

• decrease the desired and maximum number of recycles to make the scheme more prone to

decrease the load step if more recycles are needed.

Another situation is if the structure is highly nonlinear and convergence is slow. In this case, it may be

necessary to increase the desired number and maximum number of recycles. In general, there is a close

connection between the convergence tolerances used and the desired number and maximum number of

recycles. In some rare cases, it may be beneficial to use one or more physical criteria; for example, the

increment of plastic strain as targets for controlling the load step.

The solution methods described above involve an iterative process to achieve equilibrium for a fixed

increment of load. None of them have the ability to deal with problems involving snap-through and

snap-back behavior except the NLAUTO method with artificial damping. An equilibrium path as shown

in Figure 3-8 displays the features possibly involved.

74 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2

6

F

3

Force

5

u

Displacements

Figure 3-8 Snap-through Behavior

The issue at hand is the existence of multiple displacement vectors, u , for a given applied force vector,

F . This method provides the means to ensure that the correct displacement vector is found. If you have

a load controlled problem, the solution tends to jump from point 2 to 6 whenever the load increment after

2 is applied. If you have a displacement controlled problem, the solution tends to jump from 3 to 5

whenever the displacement increment after 3 is applied. Note that these problems appear essentially in

quasi-static analyses. In dynamic analyses, the inertia forces help determine equilibrium in a snap-

through problem.

Thus, in a quasi-static analysis sometimes it is impossible to find a converged solution for a particular

load (or displacement increment):

λ n H 1 F Ó λ n F Z ∆λF

This is illustrated in Figure 3-8 where both the phenomenon of snap-through (going from point 2 to 3)

and snap-back (going from point 3 to 4) require a solution procedure which can handle these problems

without going back along the same equilibrium curve.

As shown in Figure 3-9, assume that the solution is known at point A for load level λ n F . For arriving at

point B on the equilibrium curve, you either reduce the step size or adapt the load level in the iteration

process. To achieve this end, the equilibrium equations are augmented with a constraint equation

expressed typically as the norm of incremental displacements. Hence, this allows the load level to change

from iteration to iteration until equilibrium is found.

CHAPTER 3 75

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

g

λn + 1 F

B

λn F

A

r

u

Figure 3-9 Intersection of Equilibrium Curve with Constraining Surface

The augmented equation, c ( u, λ ) , describes the intersection of the equilibrium curve with an auxiliary

surface g for a particular size of the path parameter η :

r ( u, λ ) Z λF Ó R ( u ) Z 0

(3-32)

c ( u, λ ) Z g ( u, λ ) Ó ∆η Z 0

Variations of the parameter η moves the surface whose intersection with the equilibrium curve r

generates a sequence of points along the curve. The distance between two intersection points, denoted

with η 0 and η , denoted by l is the so-called arc-length.

K P δu Ór

Z Ór (3-33)

n n 0 δλ

T

0

where:

∂r ∂r

K Z JJJJJJ : P Z JJJJJJ (3-34)

∂u ∂λ

T ∂c ∂c

n Z JJJJJJ : n 0 Z JJJJJJ (3-35)

∂u ∂λ

r Z λF Ó R (3-36)

r 0 Z g ( u, λ ) Ó ∆η (3-37)

76 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

It can be noted that a standard Newton-Raphson solution procedure is obtained if the constraint condition

is not imposed. The use of the constraint equation causes a loss of the banded system of equations which

would have been obtained if only the K matrix was used. Instead of solving the N H 1 set of equations

iteratively, the block elimination process is applied.

iÓ1

Consider the residual at iteration i to which the fraction of load level λ corresponds

r (λ ) Z λ F Ó R (u ) (3-38)

i

The residual for some variation of load level, δλ , becomes

i iÓ1 i i i iÓ1

r (λ H δλ ) Z δλ F H r ( λ ) (3-39)

which can be written as:

i iÓ1 i i iÓ1 i i

δu ( λ H δλ ) Z δu ( λ ) H δλ δu * (3-40)

i iÓ1 i Ó1

where δu ( λ ) Z (K ) r (3-41)

i i Ó1

and δu * Z ( K ) F (3-42)

i

Notice that δu * does not depend on the load level. The equation above essentially establishes the

i

influence of a change in the load level δλ during one iteration on the change in displacement increment

for that iteration. After one iteration is solved, this equation is used to determine the change in the load

level such that the constraint is followed. There are several arc-length methods corresponding to

different constraints.

Among them, the most well-known arc-length method is one proposed by Crisfield, in which the iterative

solution in displacement space follows a spherical path centered around the beginning of the increment.

This requirement is translated in the formula:

2 i i

c Z l Z ∆u ∆u (3-43)

where l is the arc length. The above equation with the help of Equation (3-46) and Equation (3-25) is

applied as:

i T i i 2 iÓ1 i iÓ1 T i i

[ ( δu * ) δu * ] ( δλ ) H [ 2 ( ∆u H δu ( λ ) ) δu * ] ( δλ ) H

[ ( ∆u H δu ( λ ) ) ( ∆u H δu ( λ )) Ó l ] Z 0

CHAPTER 3 77

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

1

The equation above is interpreted with i Z 1 and δu Z 0 in the prediction phase while retaining the

full form of Equation (3-50) in the correction phase. Two solutions for δλ are available. We choose the

one that maintains a positive angle of the displacement increment from one iteration to the next.

i i

The two roots of this scalar equation are ( δλ ) 1 and ( δλ ) 2 . To avoid going back on the original

iÓ1 i

load-deflection curve, the angle between the incremental displacement vectors, ∆u and ∆u (before

i

and after the current iteration, respectively) should be positive. Two alternative values of ∆u (namely,

i i i i

( ∆u ) 1 and ( ∆u ) 2 corresponding to ( δλ ) 1 and ( δλ ) 2 are obtained and the cosine of two

corresponding angles ( φ 1 and φ 2 ) are given by

i T iÓ1

[ ( ∆u n H 1 ) 1 ] ∆u n H 1

cos φ 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J (3-45)

l

i T iÓ1

[ ( ∆u n H 1 ) 2 ] ∆u n H 1

and cos φ 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J (3-46)

l

0

Once again, the prediction phase is interpreted with i Z 1 and ∆u n H 1 Z ∆u n , while Equation (3-51)

and Equation (3-52) retain their full form in the correction phase.

i i

As mentioned earlier, the appropriate root, ( δλ ) 1 or ( δλ ) 2 is that which gives a positive cos φ . In case

both the angles are positive, the appropriate root is the one closest to the linear solution given as:

iÓ1 i iÓ1 i 2

i ( ∆u H δu ) ( ∆u H δu ) Ó l

δλ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-47)

iÓ1 i i

2 ( ∆u H δu )δu *

Crisfield’s solution procedure, generalized to an automatic load incrementation process, has been

implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear as one of the options using (NLPCI, NLSTRAT and

PARAM,MARCAUTO). Various components of this process are shown in Figure 3-10.

78 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

F

2 1 Ó1 2

δu ( λ ) Z K 2 f

Force

r1

0 1 1

λ ( ∆u * ) ( ∆u * ) Incremental Displacement

2

( δu * )

The constraints in Equation (3-49) and Equation (3-50) are imposed at every iteration. Disadvantage of

the quadratic equation suggested by Crisfield is the introduction of an equation with two roots and thus

the need for an extra equation to solve the system for the calculated roots if two real roots exists. This

1 1

situation arises when the contribution ∆u (or δu ) is very large in comparison to the arc-length. This

can be avoided in most cases by setting sufficiently small values of the error tolerance on the residual

force. In case the above situation still persists despite the reduction of error tolerance, MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear has two options to proceed:

1. To attempt to continue the analysis with the load increment used in the initial step of auto

increment process.

2. Use the increment resulting from the linear constraint for the load.

This is circumvented in Ramm’s procedure due to the linearization.

Another approach to impose the constraint is due to Ramm, who also makes use of a quadratic equation

to impose the constraint giving rise to the Riks-Ramm method. The difference is that while Crisfield

imposes the constraint as a quadratic equation, Ramm linearized the constraint.

Geometrically, the difference between the two methods is that the Crisfield method enforces the

correction on the curve of the augmented equation introducing no residual for the augmented equation.

Ramm takes the intersection between the linearizations of the curves which gives a residual of the

augmented equation for the next step. Both methods converge to the same solution, the intersection of

the two curves, unless approximations are made.

The Riks-Ramm constraint is linear, in that:

2

c Z l Z ∆u n ∆u n H 1

CHAPTER 3 79

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

T i i 2

∆u n ( δu H δλ δu * ) Z l

T i Ó1 i

1 ∆u n l Ó ( ∆u n ) [ ( K ) r ]

δλ n H 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (3-48)

T 1

∆u n ( δu * )

i T i Ó1 i

i ( ∆u n H 1 ) [ ( K ) r ]

δλ n H 1 Z Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

i

(3-49)

i T

( ∆u n H 1 ) ( δu * )

It is noted that in the definition of the constraint, the normalized displacement of the previous step is used

∂cJ Z n . Thus, problems can arise if the step size is too big. In

for the normal to the auxiliary surface JJJJJ

∂u

situations with sharp curvatures in the solution path, the normal to the prediction may not find

intersections with the equilibrium curve. Note that the norm of the displacement increment during the

iterations is not constant in Riks-Ramm method.

In contact problems, sudden changes of the stiffness can be present (due to two bodies which are initially

not in contact suddenly make contact). Hence, a potential problem exists in the Riks-Ramm method if

i

the inner-product of the displacement due to the load vector δu * and the displacement increment ∆u n

is small. This could result in a very large value of the load increment for which convergence in the

subsequent iterations is difficult to achieve. Therefore, a modified predictor can be used resulting in a

modified Riks-Ramm procedure as:

1 1 T 1

1 l n Ó 1 δu Ó [ αδu * ] δu

∆λ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

* J (3-50)

1 1

[ αδ∆u * ]∆u *

where

T i

∆u n δu *

α Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J (3-51)

T i

∆u n δu *

This method effectively scales the load increment to be applied in the prediction and is found to be

effective for contact problems.

80 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The success of the methods depend on the suitable choice of the arc-length:

2

C Z l

The initial value of the arc-length is calculated from the initial fraction β of the load specified by you in

the following fashion:

Kδu Z βF Ó R (3-52)

2

li n i Z ∆u (3-53)

In subsequent steps the arc-length can be reduced or increased at the start of a new load step depending

on the number of iterations I 0 in the previous step. This number of iterations in compared with the

desired number of iterations I d which is typically set to 3 or 5. The new arc-length is then given by:

2 Id 2

l new Z JJJJ l prev (3-54)

I0

Two control parameters exist to limit the maximum enlargement or the minimum reduction in the

arc-length.

2

l

min < JJJJJJJ < max (3-55)

2

l ini

In addition, the maximum value can be set to the load multiplier during a particular iteration. In general,

control on the limiting values with respect to the arc-length multiplier is preferred in comparison with the

maximum fraction of the load to be applied in the iteration since a solution is sought for a particular value

of the arc-length.

Also, attention must be paid to the following:

1. In order to tract snap-through problems, the method of allowing solution if the stiffness matrix

becomes nonpositive needs to be set.

2. The maximum number of iterations must be set larger than the desired number of iterations.

Selection of the load incrementation method in MSC.Nastran is made on the NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry.

References

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .

• NLPCI (p. 1999) in the .

• For selecting the load incrementation method in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters (Ch. 7).

CHAPTER 3 81

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

Convergence Controls

Three methods are available for determining if convergence is obtained on any given iteration: residual

force, displacement, and strain energy. You can select one of these three criteria for convergence or you

may specify a combination of residual and displacement. The AND combination signals that both

residual and displacement must be met, while the OR combination specifies that either one can satisfy

convergence criteria. If you are using residual there may be cases in which the force residuals are null in

which case is it necessary to switch over to displacement. An Autoswitching option (on by default)

allows for this switching. In addition you can specify that the convergence measures be in absolute terms,

in relative terms, or in both.

The default measure for convergence in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is residual which is based on

the magnitude of the maximum residual load compared to the maximum reaction force. This method is

appropriate since the residuals measure the out-of-equilibrium force, which should be minimized. This

technique is also appropriate for Newton methods, where zero-load iterations reduce the residual load.

The method has the additional benefit that convergence can be satisfied without iteration. You have

complete control over how convergence is defined through the Iterations Parameters form in

MSC.Patran or through the options on the NLSTRAT card.

The basic procedures are outlined below.

1. RESIDUAL CHECKING

F r e si d u a l ∞

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 1 (3-56)

F re a c t i o n ∞

F r e si d u a l ∞ M r e si d u a l ∞

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 1 and JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ < TOL 2 (3-57)

F re a c t i o n ∞ M re a c t i o n ∞

F r e si d u a l ∞

< TOL 1 (3-58)

F r e si d u a l ∞

< TOL 1 and M r e si d u a l ∞

< TOL 2 (3-59)

Where F is the force vector, and M is the moment vector. TOL 1 and TOL 2 are control

tolerances. F ∞ indicates the component of F with the highest absolute value. Residual

checking has one drawback. In some special problems, such as free thermal expansion, there are

no reaction forces. If the AUTOSW flag on the NLSTRAT card is ON the program automatically

uses displacement checking in this cases.

2. DISPLACEMENT CHECKING

δu ∞

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J < TOL 1 (3-60)

∆u ∞

δu ∞ δφ ∞

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J < TOL 1 and JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J < TOL 2 (3-61)

∆u ∞ ∆φ ∞

82 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

the incremental rotation vector, and δφ is the rotation iteration vector. With this method,

convergence is satisfied if the maximum displacement of the last iteration is small compared to

the actual displacement change of the increment. A disadvantage of this approach is that it results

in at least one iteration, regardless of the accuracy of the solution.

un Displacements at increment n

F

i

δ

δ0 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ≤ Tolerance

δ1 i

δk

∑ δj

j Z 0

0 k+1

un + 1 un + 1

u

Figure 3-11 Displacement Control

This is similar to displacement testing where a comparison is made between the strain energy

of the latest iteration and the strain energy of the increment. With this method, the entire model

is checked.

δE

JJJJJJJ < TOL 1 (3-64)

∆E

where ∆E is the strain energy of the increment and δE is the correction to incremental strain

energy of the iteration. These energies are the total energies, integrated over the whole volume. A

disadvantage of this approach is that it results in at least one iteration, regardless of the accuracy

of the solution. The advantage of this method is that it evaluates the global accuracy as opposed

to the local accuracy associated with a single node.

Different problems require different schemes to detect the convergence efficiently and accurately. To do

this, the following combinations of residual checking and displacement checking are also available.

4. RESIDUAL OR DISPLACEMENT CHECKING

This procedure does convergence checking on both residuals (Procedure 1) and displacements

(Procedure 2). Convergence is obtained if one converges.

5. RESIDUAL AND DISPLACEMENT CHECKING

This procedure does a convergence check on both residuals and displacements (Procedure 4).

Convergence is achieved if both criteria converge simultaneously.

CHAPTER 3 83

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

For problems where maximum reactions or displacements are extremely small (even close to the

round-off errors of computers), the convergence check based on relative values could be meaningless if

the convergence criteria chosen is based on these small values. It is necessary to check the convergence

with absolute values; otherwise, the analysis is prematurely terminated due to a nonconvergent solution.

Such situations are not predicable and usually happen at certain stages of an analysis. For example,

problems with stress free motion (rigid body motion or free thermal expansion) and small displacements

(springback or constraint thermal expansion) may need to check absolute value at some stage of the

analysis, as shown in the table below. However, it is also difficult to determine when to check the

absolute value and how small the absolute criterion value should be. In order to improve the robustness

of an FE analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to use the AUTOSW option specified

on the NLSTRAT card to switch the convergence check scheme automatically if the above mentioned

situation occurs during the analysis. Using the AUTOSW option allows MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

to automatically change the convergence check scheme to Procedure 4 if small reactions or

displacements are detected. This function can be deactivated by specifying an absolute value check

as before.

.

Convergence Variable

Displacement/ Residual Strain Energy

Analysis Type Rotation Force/Torque

Stress-free motion Yes No No

Springback No Yes No

Free Thermal Expansion Yes No No

Constraint Thermal Expansion No Yes Yes

Yes – relative tolerance testing works.

No – relative tolerance testing doesn’t work.

Selection of the convergence criteria in MSC.Nastran is made through the convergence criteria

parameters on the NLPARM and NLSTRAT Bulk Data entries.

References

• NLPARM (p. 1991) in the .

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005) in the .

• For selecting the load incrementation method in MSC.Patran, see Solution Parameters (Ch. 7).

84 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Singularity Ratio

The singularity ratio, R , is a measure of the conditioning of the system of linear equations. R is related

to the conditioning number, C , which is defined as the ratio between the highest and lowest eigenvalues

in the system. The singularity ratio is an upper bound for the inverse of the matrix conditioning number.

1⁄R≤C (3-65)

C and R establish the growth of errors in the solution process. If the errors on the right-hand side of the

equation are less than E prior to the solution, the errors in the solution will be less than δ , with

δ ≤ CE (3-66)

The singularity ratio is a measure that is computed during the Crout elimination process of MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear using the direct solver. In this process, a recursive algorithm redefines the

diagonal terms

kÓ1

(k ) (k Ó 1)

Kk k Z Kk k Ó ∑ K mk K m k 1 ≤i≤kÓ1 (3-67)

m Z i

where i is a function of the matrix profile. K k k is a diagonal of the kth degree of freedom. The singularity

ratio is defined as

(k) (k Ó 1)

R Z min K k k ⁄ K k k (3-68)

(k ) (k Ó 1)

If all K k k and K k k are positive, the singularity ratio indicates loss of accuracy during the Crout

elimination process. This loss of accuracy occurs for all positive definite matrices. The number of digits

lost during the elimination process is approximately equal to

n l o s t Z Ó log 10 R (3-69)

The singularity ratio also indicates the presence of rigid body modes in the structure. In that case, the

(k )

elimination process produces zeros on the diagonal K k k ≅ 0 . Exact zeros never appear because of

numerical error; therefore, the singularity ratio is of the order

Ónd i g i t

R Z O 10 (3-70)

where n digit is the accuracy of floating-point numbers used in the calculation. For most versions of

(k)

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, n digit > 12 . If rigid body modes are present, K k k is very small or

negative. If either a zero or a negative diagonal is encountered, execution of MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear is terminated because the matrix is diagnosed as being singular.

CHAPTER 3 85

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

You can force the solution of a nonpositive definite or singular matrix. In this case, MSC.Nastran Implicit

(k )

Nonlinear does not stop when it encounters a negative or small term K k k on the diagonal. If you use

Lagrangian multiplier elements, the matrix becomes nonpositive definite and MSC.Nastran Implicit

(k )

Nonlinear automatically disables the test on the sign of K k k . However, it still tests for singular behavior.

MSC.Nastran SOL 600 also supports the PARAM,AUTOSPC, in which case the rigid body mechanism

is suppressed by putting a large number on the diagonal. The value of EPS on the AUTOSPC case control

is set to 1.E-8.

Note: The correctness of a solution obtained for a linearized set of equations in a nonpositive

definite system is not guaranteed.

86 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Analysis Methods

Nonlinear analysis is usually more complex and expensive than linear analysis. Also, a nonlinear

problem can never be formulated as a set of linear equations. In general, the solutions of nonlinear

problems always require incremental solution schemes and sometimes require iterations (or recycles)

within each load/time increment to ensure that equilibrium is satisfied at the end of each step.

Superposition cannot be applied in nonlinear problems.

General Tips

A nonlinear problem does not always have a unique solution. Sometimes a nonlinear problem does not

have any solution, although the problem can seem to be defined correctly.

• Nonlinear analysis requires good judgment and uses considerable computing time. Several runs

are often required. The first run should extract the maximum information with the minimum

amount of computing time. Some design considerations for a preliminary analysis are:

• Minimize degrees of freedom whenever possible.

• Always run a linear static analysis to check the model before attempting a nonlinear analysis.

• Impose a coarse tolerance on convergence to reduce the number of iterations. A coarse run

determines the area of most rapid change where additional load increments might be required.

Plan the increment size in the final run by the following rule of thumb: there should be as many

load increments as required to fit the nonlinear results by the same number of straight lines.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear solves nonlinear static problems according to one of the following two

methods: tangent modulus or initial strain. Examples of the tangent modulus method are elastic-plastic

analysis, nonlinear springs, nonlinear foundations, large displacement analysis and gaps. This method

requires at least the following three controls:

• A tolerance on convergence.

• A limit to the maximum allowable number of recycles.

• Specification of a minimum number of recycles.

An example of the initial strain method is creep or viscoelastic analysis. Creep analysis requires the

following tolerance controls:

• Maximum relative creep strain increment control.

• Maximum relative stress change control.

• A limit to the maximum allowable number of recycles.

Which solution method to use depends very much on the problem. In some cases, one method can be

advantageous over another; in other cases, the converse might be true.

CHAPTER 3 87

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

The four iterative procedures available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are: Newton-Raphson,

Modified Newton-Raphson, Newton-Raphson with strain correction modification, and a

Secant procedure.

For Static analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the Newton-Raphson method as the default for

solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations. The motivation for this choice is primarily the convergence

rate obtained by using Newton’s method compared to the convergence rates obtained by alternate

methods (modified Newton or quasi-Newton methods) for the types of nonlinear problems most often

studied by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

The issue of choosing suitable time steps is a difficult problem to resolve. First of all, considerations are

quite different in static, dynamic, and heat transfer cases. It is always necessary to model the response as

a function of time to some acceptable level of accuracy. In the case of dynamic or heat transfer problems,

time is a physical dimension for the problem, and the time-stepping scheme must provide suitable steps

to allow accurate modeling in this dimension. Even if the problem is linear, this accuracy requirement

imposes restrictions on the choice of the time step. In contrast, most static problems have no imposed

time scale, and the only criterion involved in time step choice is accuracy involved in modeling nonlinear

effects. In dynamic and heat transfer problems, it is exceptional to encounter discontinuities in the time

history, because inertia and viscous effects provide smoothing in the solution (an exception is impact).

However, in static cases, sharp discontinuities (such as bifurcation caused by buckling) are common.

Softening systems or unconstrained systems require special attention in static cases, but are handled

naturally in static or heat transfer cases. Thus, the consideration upon which time step choice is made are

quite different for the three problem classes.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear provides both fixed and automatic time step choice. Fixed time

stepping is useful in cases where the problem behavior is well understood (as might occur when the user

is carrying out a series of parameter studies), or in cases where the automatic algorithms do not handle

the problem well. However, the automatic schemes in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are based on

extensive experience with a wide range of problems, and therefore generally provide a reliable approach.

A fixed-time stepping approach avoids some convergence problems with AUTO LOAD particularly for

multiple subcases. AUTO LOAD is still available but the new approach is recommended particularly for

multiple subcases. The available methods are selected using PARAM,MARCITER,N where N is the

number of fixed time steps desired.

For static problems, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses a scheme based predominantly on the

maximum force residuals following each iteration. By comparing consecutive values of these quantities,

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear determines whether convergence is likely in a reasonable number of

iterations. If convergence is deemed unlikely, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear adjusts the load

increment; otherwise MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear continues with the iteration process. In this way,

excessive iteration is eliminated in cases, where convergence is unlikely, and an increment that appears

to be converging is not aborted due to its needing a few more iterations. One other ingredient in this

algorithm is that a minimum increment size is specified. This prevents excessive computation in cases

88 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where buckling, limit load, or some modeling error causes the problem to stall. Other controls are built

into the algorithm, for example, it will cut back the increment size if an element inverts due to excessively

large geometry changes.

Nonlinear Dynamics

In dynamic analysis when implicit integration is used, the automatic time stepping is based on the

concept of half-step residuals. The basic idea is that the time-stepping operator defines the velocities and

accelerations at the end of the step in terms of displacement at the end of the step and conditions at the

beginning of the step. Equilibrium is then established at the end of the step. This, then ensures an

equilibrium solution at the end of each time step, and thus, at the beginning and end of any individual

time step. However, these equilibrium solutions do not guarantee equilibrium throughout the step. The

time-step control is based on measuring the equilibrium error (the force residuals) at some point during

the time step, by using the integrator operator together with the solution obtained at the end of the step,

to interpolate within a time step. This evaluation is performed at the half step. If the maximum entry in

this residual vector (the maximum “half step” residual) is greater than a user-specified tolerance, the time

step is considered too big and is replaced by an appropriate factor. If the maximum half-step residual is

sufficiently below the user-specified tolerance, the time step may be increased by an appropriate factor

for the next increment. Otherwise, the time step is deemed adequate.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is designed to analyze structural components, by which is meant that

the overall dynamic response of a structure is sought, in contrast to wave propagation solutions associated

with relatively local response in continua. These are labelled “inertial problems”, classified as problems

in which “wave effects such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction are not important.” Structural

problems are considered “inertial” because the response time sought is long compared to the time

required for waves to traverse the structure. The equilibrium considerations are similar to those for

nonlinear statics.

Buckling

In problems which are linear until buckling occurs, due to a sudden development of nonlinearity, it is

sometimes necessary for you to guide the arc-length algorithm by making sure that the arc length remains

sufficiently small prior to the occurrence of buckling.

Efficiency

Even if a solution is obtainable, there is always the issue of efficiency. The pros and cons of each solution

procedure, in terms of matrix operations and storage requirements have been discussed in the previous

sections. A very important variable regarding overall efficiency is the size of the problem. The time

required to assemble a stiffness matrix, as well as the time required to recover stresses after a solution,

vary roughly linearly with the number of degrees of freedom of the problem. On the other hand, the time

required to go through the solver when using the direct method varies roughly quadratically with the

bandwidth, as well as linearly with the number of degrees of freedom.

CHAPTER 3 89

Solution Methods and Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis

In small problems, where the time spent in the solver is negligible, you can easily wipe out any solver

gains, or even of assembly gains, with solution procedures such as a line search which requires a

double stress recovery. Also, for problems with strong material or contact nonlinearities, gains

obtained in assembly in modified Newton-Raphson can be nullified by increased number of iterations

or nonconvergence.

References

1. Zienkiewicz, O. C. and R. L. Taylor. The Finite Element Method (4th ed.) Vol. 1. Basic

Formulation and Linear Problems (1989),) Vol. 2. Solid and Fluid Mechanics, Dynamics, and

Nonlinearity (1991) McGraw-Hill Book Co., London, U. K.

2. Bathe, K. J. Finite Element Procedures, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.

3. Hughes, T. J. R. The Finite Element Method–Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis,

Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1987.

4. Ogden, R. W. “Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity: On The Correlation of Theory and

Experiment for Incompressible Rubberlike Solids,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. A

(326), pp. 565-584, 1972.

5. Cook, R. D., D. S. Malkus, and M. E. Plesha, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element

Analysis (3rd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1989.

6. Bathe, K. J. Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996.

7. Riks, E. “An incremental approach to the solution of solution and buckling problems”, Int. J. of

Solids and Structures, V. 15, 1979.

8. Riks, E. “Some Computational Aspects of the Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Structures”, Comp.

Methods in Appl. Mech. and Eng., 47, 1984.

9. Crisfield, M. A. “A fast incremental iterative procedure that handles snapthrough”, Comput. &

Structures, V. 13, 1981.

10. Ramm, E. “Strategies for tracing the nonlinear response near limit points,” in K. J. Bathe et al

(eds), Europe-US Workshop on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis in Structural Mechanics,

Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp/ 63-89. Berlin, 1985.

90 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 4: Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Linear and Nonlinear Analysis 92

Nonlinear Effects and Formulations 93

Overview of Analysis Types 116

Static Analysis 118

Body Approach 120

Buckling Analysis 121

Normal Modes 124

Transient Dynamic Analysis 132

Creep 140

92 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

In a linear static analysis we implicitly assume that the deflections and strains are very small and the

stresses are smaller than the material yield stresses. Consequently, the stiffness can be considered to

remain constant (i.e., independent of the displacements and forces) and the finite element equilibrium

equations

P Z Ku

are linear. Where the stiffness matrix K is independent of both u , the generalized displacement vector,

and P , the generalized force vector. This linearity implies that any increase or decrease in the load will

produce proportional increase or decrease in displacements, strains and stresses. Linear static problems

are solved in one step-a single decomposition of the stiffness matrix.

However, we know that in many structures the deflections and the stresses do not change proportionately

with the loads. In these problems the structure’s response depends upon its current state and the

equilibrium equations reflect the fact that the stiffness of the structure is dependent on both u and P .

P Z K ( P, u )u

As the structure displaces due to loading, the stiffness changes, and as the stiffness changes the structure’s

response changes. As a result, nonlinear problems require incremental solution schemes that divide the

problem up into steps calculating the displacement, then updating the stiffness. Each step uses the results

from the previous step as a starting point. As a result the stiffness matrix must be generated and inverted

many times during the analysis adding time and costs to the analysis.

Linear Analysis

SOL 600 allows you to perform linear elastic analysis using any element type in the program. Various

kinematic constraints and loadings can be prescribed to the structure being analyzed; the problem can

include both isotropic and anisotropic elastic materials.

The principle of superposition holds under conditions of linearity. Therefore, several individual solutions

can be superimposed (summed) to obtain a total solution to a problem.

Linear analysis does not require storing as many quantities as does nonlinear analysis; therefore, it uses

the core memory more sparingly. The assembled and decomposed stiffness matrices can be reused to

arrive at repeated solutions for different loads.

Nonlinear Analysis

Nonlinear analysis, while most complex and expensive, must be used to establish accurate results when

a structure is subject to large deformations, when the material behavior falls outside of a linear elastic

model, or where the structural interactions include contact.

In nonlinear analysis the stiffness matrix is assembled and decomposed repeatedly throughout the

incrementation process. This adds considerable time and cost to the analysis. In addition, because the

response is not proportional to the loads, each load case must be solved separately and the principle of

superposition is not applicable.

CHAPTER 4 93

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

There are three sources of nonlinearity: material, geometric, and nonlinear boundary conditions.

Material nonlinearity results from the nonlinear relationship between stresses and strains. Considerable

progress has been made in attempts to derive the continuum or macroscopic behavior of materials from

microscopic backgrounds, but, up to now, commonly accepted constitutive laws are phenomenological.

Difficulty in obtaining experimental data is usually a stumbling block in mathematical modeling of

material behavior. A plethora of models exist for more commonly available materials like elastomers and

metals. Other material model of considerable practical importance are: composites, viscoplastics, creep,

soils, concrete, powder, and foams. Figure 4-1 shows the elastoplastic, elasto-viscoplasticity, and creep.

Although the situation of strain hardening is more commonly encountered, strain softening and

localization has gained considerable importance in recent times.

Geometric nonlinearity results from the nonlinear relationship between strains and displacements on the

one hand and the nonlinear relation between stresses and forces on the other hand. If the stress measure

is conjugate to the strain measure, both sources of nonlinearity have the same form. This type of

nonlinearity is mathematically well defined, but often difficult to treat numerically. Two important types

of geometric nonlinearity occur:

1. The analysis of buckling and snap-through problems (see Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3).

2. Large strain problems such as manufacturing, crash, and impact problems. In such problems, due

to large strain kinematics, the mathematical separation into geometric and material nonlinearity

is nonunique.

σ

σ

ε ε

Elasto-Plastic Behavior Elasto-Viscoplastic Behavior

εc

Creep Behavior t

94 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

P Linear

P

Stable

u

Pc Neutral

Unstable

Boundary conditions and/or loads can also cause nonlinearity. Contact and friction problems lead to

nonlinear boundary conditions. This type of nonlinearity manifests itself in several real life situations;

for example, metal forming, gears, interference of mechanical components, pneumatic tire contact, and

crash (see Figure 4-4). Loads on a structure cause nonlinearity if they vary with the displacements of the

structure. These loads can be conservative, as in the case of a centrifugal force field (see Figure 4-5); they

can also be nonconservative, as in the case of a follower force on a cantilever beam (see Figure 4-6). Also,

such a follower force can be locally nonconservative, but represent a conservative loading system when

integrated over the structure. A pressurized cylinder (see Figure 4-7) is an example of this.

CHAPTER 4 95

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

The three types of nonlinearities are described in detail in the following sections.

96 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Geometric Nonlinearities

Geometric nonlinearity leads to two types of phenomena: change in structural behavior and loss of

structural stability.

There are two natural classes of large deformation problems: the large displacement, small strain problem

and the large displacement, large strain problem. For the large displacement, small strain problem,

changes in the stress-strain law can be neglected, but the contributions from the nonlinear terms in the

strain displacement relations cannot be neglected. For the large displacement, large strain problem, the

constitutive relation must be defined in the correct frame of reference and is transformed from this frame

of reference to the one in which the equilibrium equations are written.

The collapse load of a structure can be predicted by performing an eigenvalue analysis. If performed after

the linear solution (increment zero), the Euler buckling estimate is obtained. An eigenvalue problem can

be formulated after each increment of load; this procedure can be considered a nonlinear buckling

analysis even though a linearized eigenvalue analysis is used at each stage.

The kinematics of deformation can be described by the following approaches:

• Lagrangian Formulation

• Eularian Formulation

The choice of one over another can be dictated by the convenience of modeling physics of the problem,

rezoning requirements, and integration of constitutive equations, and can be specified using

PARAM,MARUPDAT.

Lagrangian Formulation

In the Lagrangian method, the finite element mesh is attached to the material and moves through space

along with the material. In this case, there is no difficulty in establishing stress or strain histories at a

particular material point and the treatment of free surfaces is natural and straightforward.

The Lagrangian approach also naturally describes the deformation of structural elements; that is, shells

and beams, and transient problems, such as the indentation problem shown in Figure 4-8.

sz

∆u

CHAPTER 4 97

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

This method can also analyze steady-state processes such as extrusion and rolling. Shortcomings of the

Lagrangian method are that flow problems are difficult to model and that the mesh distortion is as severe

as the deformation of the object. Severe mesh degeneration is shown in Figure 4-9b. However, recent

advances in adaptive meshing and rezoning available in MSC.Marc have alleviated the problems of

premature termination of the analysis due to mesh distortions as shown in Figure 4-9c.

(Undeformed Mesh) Before Rezoning

After Rezoning

Figure 4-9 Rezoning Example

The Lagrangian approach can be classified in two categories: the total Lagrangian method and the

updated Lagrangian method. In the total Lagrangian approach, the equilibrium is expressed with the

original undeformed state as the reference; in the updated Lagrangian approach, the current

configuration acts as the reference state. The kinematics of deformation and the description of motion is

given in Table 4-1 and Figure 4-10.

Configuration Measures Reference (t = 0 or n) Current (t = n + 1)

Coordinates X x

Deformation Tensor C (Right Cauchy-Green) b (Left Cauchy-Green)

Strain Measure E (Green-Lagrange) e (Logarithmic)

F (Deformation Gradient)

Stress Measure S (second Piola-Kirchhoff) σ (Cauchy)

P (first Piola-Kirchhoff)

98 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Previous f

t=n

∆u

Current

t=n+1

Fn

un + 1

un

F

Reference

t=0

Fn+1 = Fn

The total Lagrangian procedure can be used for linear or nonlinear materials, in conjunction with static

or dynamic analysis. Although this formulation is based on the initial element geometry, the incremental

stiffness matrices are formed to account for previously developed stress and changes in geometry.

This method is particularly suitable for the analysis of nonlinear elastic problems (for instance, with the

Mooney or Ogden material model). The total Lagrangian approach is also useful for problems in

plasticity and creep, where moderately large rotations but small strains occur. A case typical in problems

of beam or shell bending. However, this is only due to the approximations involved.

In the total Lagrangian approach, the equilibrium can be expressed by the principle of virtual work as:

0 0

∫ S i j δE i j dV Z ∫ b i δη i dV H ∫ t i δη i dA (4-1)

V V A

0 0 0

0

Here S i j is the symmetric second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, E i j , is the Green-Lagrange strain, b i is

0

the body force in the reference configuration, t i is the traction vector in the reference configuration, and

η i is the virtual displacements. Integrations are carried out in the original configuration at t Z 0 . The

strains are decomposed in total strains for equilibrated configurations and the incremental strains

between t Z n and t Z n H 1 as:

nH1 n

Ei j Z E i j H ∆E i j (4-2)

CHAPTER 4 99

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

n

while the incremental strains are further decomposed into linear, ∆E i j and nonlinear, ∆E i j parts as:

n

∆E i j Z ∆Ei j H ∆E i j

n

1 ∂∆u i ∂∆u j 1 ∂u k ∂∆u k

∆E Z JJ

J JJ

J

JJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJ H J JJJJJJJJJJJJJ

JJJJJJJJ (4-3)

2 ∂X j ∂X i 2 ∂X i ∂X j

n

The second term in the bracket in Equation (4-3) is the initial displacement effect. ∆E is the nonlinear

part of the incremental strain expressed as:

n 1

∂∆u k ∂∆u k

∂u kn ∂∆u k

∆E Z JJ

J JJJJJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ (4-4)

2 ∂X i ∂X j ∂X j ∂X i

{ K 0 H K 1 H K 2 }δu Z F Ó R (4-5)

0 0

( K 0 )i j Z ∫ βi m n D mn p q βp q j dV

V

0

u u u 0 u u

( K 1 )i j Z ∫ { βi mn D mn p q βp q j H βi mn D mn p q βp qj H βi mn D m n p q βp q j } dV

V

0

0 u

in the above equations, βi m n and βi m n are the constant and displacement dependent symmetric shape

function gradient matrices, respectively, and D m n p q is the material tangent,

( K 2 )i j Z ∫ N i, k N j, l S k l dV

V0

in which S k l is the second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and N i, k is the shape function gradient matrix.

100 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Also, δu is the correction displacement vector. F and R are the external and internal

forces, respectively.

This Lagrangian formulation can be applied to problems if the undeformed configuration is known so

that integrals can be evaluated, and if the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress is a known function of the strain.

The first condition is not usually met for fluids, because the deformation history is usually unknown. For

solids, however, each analysis usually starts in the stress-free undeformed state, and the integrations can

be carried out without any difficulty.

For viscoelastic fluids and elastic-plastic and viscoplastic solids, the constitutive equations usually

supply an expression for the rate of stress in terms of deformation rate, stress, deformation, and

sometimes other (internal) material parameters. The relevant quantity for the constitutive equations is the

rate of stress at a given material point.

It, therefore, seems most obvious to differentiate the Lagrangian virtual work equation with respect to

time. The rate of virtual work is readily found as

ˇ ∂v k ∂δη k ˇ ˇ

∫ S i j δE i j H S i j JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ dV Z ∫ b i δη i dV H ∫ t i δη i dA (4-6)

∂X i ∂X j

V V A

0 0 0

This formulation is adequate for most materials, because the rate of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress can

be written as

ˇ ˇ ˇ

S i j Z S i j ( E k l, S m n, E p q ) (4-7)

For many materials, the stress rate is even a linear function of the strain rate

ˇ ˇ

S i j Z D i jk l ( S mn, E p q )E k l (4-8)

Equation (4-6) supplies a set of linear relations in terms of the velocity field. The velocity field can be

solved noniteratively and the displacement can be obtained by time integration of the velocities.

The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress for elastic and hyperelastic materials is a function of the Green-

Lagrange strain defined below:

Si j Z Si j ( Ek l ) (4-9)

S i j Z D i jk l E k l (4-10)

the resulting set of equations is still nonlinear because the strain is a nonlinear function of displacement.

CHAPTER 4 101

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

The updated Lagrange formulation takes the reference configuration at t Z n H 1 . True or Cauchy

stress and an energetically conjugate strain measure, namely the true strain, are used in the constitutive

relationship.

The updated Lagrangian approach is useful in:

• analysis of shell and beam structures in which rotations are large so that the nonlinear terms in

the curvature expressions may no longer be neglected, and

• large strain plasticity analysis, for calculations which the plastic deformations cannot be

assumed to be infinitesimal.

In general, this approach can be used to analyze structures where inelastic behavior (for example,

plasticity, viscoplasticity, or creep) causes the large deformations. The (initial) Lagrangian coordinate

frame has little physical significance in these analyses since the inelastic deformations are, by definition,

permanent. For these analyses, the Lagrangian frame of reference is redefined at the last completed

iteration of the current increment.

It is instructive to derive the stiffness matrices for the updated Lagrangian formulation starting from the

virtual work principle in Equation (4-9).

Direct linearization of the left-hand side of Equation (4-9) yields:

∫ S i j ( d( δE i j ) ) dV Z ∫ ∇η i k σ k j ∇∆u i j dv (4-11)

V0 Vn H 1

where ∆u and η are actual incremental and virtual displacements respectively, and σkj is Cauchy stress

tensor.

s s

∫ dS i j δE i j dV Z ∫ ∇ η i j L i jk l ∇ ( ∆u k l ) dv (4-12)

V0 Vn H 1

s

∇ denotes the symmetric part of ∇ , which represents the gradient operator in the current configuration.

Also, in Equation (4-11) and Equation (4-12), three identities are used:

102 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1

σ i j Z JJJ F i m S mn F jn

J

s

δE i j Z F mi ∇ η mn F n j

and

1

L i jk l Z JJJ F i m F jn F k p F l q D m n p q

J (4-13)

in which D m n p q represents the material moduli tensor in the reference configuration which is convected

to the current configuration, L i jk . This yields:

{ K 1 H K 2 }δu Z F Ó R (4-14)

( K1 )i j Z ∫ β i m n L m n p q βp q j

Vn H 1

in which βi m n is the symmetric gradient operator-evaluated in the current configuration and σ k l is the

Cauchy stresses

( K2 )i j Z ∫ σ k l N i, k N j, l dv

Vn H 1

Keeping in view that the reference state is the current state, a rate formulation analogous to Equation (4-6)

can be obtained by setting:

∂ ∂

F i j Z δ i j, δE i j Z δd i j, JJJJJJJJJ Z JJJJJJJJ, Si j Z σi j (4-15)

∂X i ∂x i

∂v k ∂δη k ˇ

tˇi δη i da

∇

σ i j δd i j H σ i j JJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJ dv Z

∫ ∂x i ∂x j ∫ b i δη i dv H ∫ (4-16)

Vn H 1 Vn H 1 An H 1

CHAPTER 4 103

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

in which b i and t i is the body force and surface traction, respectively, in the current configuration

∇

In this equation, σ i j is the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress which is essentially a Lie derivative of Cauchy

ˇ

∇ Ó1 Ó1

σi j Z F i n ( JF n k σ k l F ml ) F m j (4-17)

The Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress is materially objective implying that if a rigid rotation is imposed on

the material, the Truesdell rate vanishes, whereas the usual material rate does not vanish. This fact has

important consequences in the large deformation problems where large rotations are involved. The

constitutive equations can be formulated in terms of the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress as:

∇

σ i j Z L i jk d k

Selection of the geometric nonlinearity formulation in MSC.Nastran is made on the MARUPDAT

parameter entry.

References

• MARUPDAT(p. 723) in the .

• For selecting the geometric nonlinearity formulation in MSC.Patran, see Subcase Parameters

(Chapter 7).

Note: Depending on the type of analysis specified by all entries in the input deck,

PARAMETER,MARUPDAT will be specified automatically as -1 or 1 unless entered by

the user.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will normally determine whether Total Lagrangian or Updated

Lagrangian is best for a particular problem. If you wish to exert more control, the parameters discussed

in this section and the next may be employed.

For problems (such as centrifugal or pressure load) that require follower forces, use the LGDISP

parameter. This parameter forms all distributed loads on the basis of the current geometry.

• LGDISP(p. 682) in the .

104 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Note: Do not use MSC.Marc’s CENTROID parameter with this parameter. Always use residual

load corrections with this parameter. To input control tolerances for large displacement

analysis, use model definition option NLSTRAT.

Using only the LGSTRN, 2 parameter, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the total Lagrangian

method. When the total Lagrangian method is specified, the program uses and prints second Piola-

Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. These measures are suitable for analysis with large

incremental rotations and large incremental strains.

You can use the updated procedure with or without MSC.Nastran’s LGDISP parameter. When you use

the LGDISP parameter, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear takes into account the effect of the internal

stresses by forming the initial stress stiffness. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear also calculates the strain

increment to second order accuracy to allow large rotation increments.

Another option is to use the MARUPDAT parameter (with or without the LGDISP parameter) to define

a new (Lagrangian) frame of reference at the beginning of each increment. This option is suitable for

analysis of problems of large total rotation but small strain. If analysis of large plastic strain is required,

use PARAM,MRFINITE,1 in addition to the PARAM, MARUPDAT parameter in which case

MSC.Nastran Implicit

With MARUPDAT,1 MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses Cauchy stresses and true strains. This

combination of parameters is suitable for analyses with small incremental rotations and small

incremental strains. Stress and strain components are printed with respect to the current state.

The MSC.Marc plasticity parameter with options 3 or 5 utilize the updated Lagrange procedure for

elastic-plastic analysis. The MSC.Marc,elasticity parameter with option 2 utilizes the updated Lagrange

procedure for large strain elasticity (Mooney or Ogden).

The combination of PARAM,MARUPDAT,1 and PARAM,MARCDILT (i.e., with constant dilatation) or

a MATEP material entry results in a complete large strain plasticity formulation (with B-Bar method) to

satisfy incompatibility using the updated Lagrange procedure. The use of MATEP replaces the need of

the MARCDILT parameter. The program internally uses true (Cauchy) stress and rotation neutralized

strains. In the case of proportional straining, this method leads to logarithmic strains.

Note: For materials exhibiting large strain plasticity with volumetric changes (for example, soils,

powder, snow, wood) only MSC.Marc’s LARGE DISP, FINITE and UPDATE should be

used (these are created automatically for you by the internal MSC.Marc translator in

MSC.Nastran). Use of MARCDILT parameter or MATEP will enforce the

incompressibility condition and, in such materials, yield incorrect and nonphysical

behavior.

CHAPTER 4 105

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Large strain rubber elasticity can be modeled in either total Lagrange MSC.Nastran’s

PARAM,MARCUPDAT,1: second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, Green Lagrange strain or updated Lagrange

PARAM,MARCELAS,2: Cauchy stress, Logarithmic strain framework.

param,marcplas,1 Total Lagrange Small strain, mean normal, additive decomposition of

strain rates.

param,marcplas,3 Updated Lagrange Large strain, mean normal, additive decomposition of

strain rates.

default

param,marcplas,5 Updated Lagrange Large strain, radial return multiplicative decomposition of

deformation gradient.

param,marcelas,1 Total Lagrange Large strain.

param,marcelas,2 Updated Lagrange Large strain.

Theoretically and numerically, if formulated mathematically correct, the two formulations yield exactly

the same results. However, integration of constitutive equations for certain types of material behavior

(for example, plasticity) make the implementation of the total Lagrange formulation inconvenient. If the

constitutive equations are convected back to the original configuration and proper transformations are

applied, then both formulations are equivalent.

106 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Material Nonlinearities

In a large strain analysis, it is usually difficult to separate the kinematics from the material description.

The following table lists the characteristics of some common materials.

Composites Anisotropic: Bearings, aircraft Composite

panels continuum elements

1) layered, ds i j Z C i j k dε k

21 constants Tires, glass/epoxy Rebars

2)Fiber reinforced,

E t

S Z JJJ ( T CT Ó 1 )

2

one-dimensional strain in fibers

Creep Strains increasing with time under Metals at high ORNL

constant load. temperatures, Norton

Stresses decreasing with time under polymide films Maxwell

constant deformations.

Creep strains are non-instantaneous.

Elastic Stress functions of instantaneous strain Small deformation

only. Linear load-displacement (below yield) for

relation. most materials: Hookes Law

metals, glass, wood

Elasto- Yield condition flow rule and Metals von Mises Isotropic

plasticity hardening rule necessary to calculate Soils Cam -Clay

stress, plastic strain. Permanent Hill’s Anisotropic

deformation upon unloading.

Hyperelastic Stress function of instantaneous strain. Rubber Mooney

Nonlinear load-displacement relation. Ogden

Unloading path same as loading. Arruda Boyce

Gent

Foam

Hypoelastic Rate form of stress-strain law Concrete NLELAST

Viscoelastic Time dependence of stresses in elastic Rubber Simo Model

material under loads. Full recovery Glass Narayanaswamy

after unloading.

Viscoplastic Combined plasticity and creep Metals Power law

phenomenon Powder Shima Model

A complete description of the material types mentioned in the table is given in Materials (Chapter 10).

However, some notable characteristics and procedural considerations of some commonly encountered

materials behavior are listed next.

CHAPTER 4 107

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Inaccuracies in experimental data, misinterpretation of material model parameters and errors in user-

defined material law are some common sources of error in the analysis from the materials viewpoint. It

is useful to check the material behavior by running a small model with prescribed displacement and load

boundary conditions in uniaxial tension and shear (single element tests are not recommended).

Elasticity

Structures composed of elastomers, such as tires and bushings, are typically subjected to large

deformation and large strain. An elastomer is a polymer, such as rubber, which shows a nonlinear elastic

stress-strain behavior. The large strain elasticity capability in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear deals

primarily with elastomeric materials. These materials are characterized by the form of their elastic strain

energy function.

For the finite element analysis of elastomers, there are some special considerations that do not apply for

linear elastic analysis. These considerations include:

• Mesh Distortion

• Incompressible Behavior

• Instabilities

• Existence of Multiple Solutions

Mesh Distortions

When extremely large deformations occur, the element mesh should be designed so that it can follow

these deformations without complete degeneration of elements. This problem is more prevalent when the

updated Lagrange procedure is used. For problems involving extreme distortions, the MSC.Marc global

adaptive remeshing capability should be used.

Incompressible Behavior

One of the most frequent causes of problems analyzing elastomers is the incompressible material

behavior. Lagrangian multipliers (pressure variables) are used to apply the incompressibility constraint.

The result is that the volume is kept constant in a generalized sense, over an element.

Both the total, as well as updated Lagrange formulations, are implemented with appropriate constraint

ratios for lower- and higher-order elements in 2D and 3D. For many practical analysis, the LBB

(Ladyszhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi) condition does not have to be satisfied in the strictest sense; for

example, four node quadrilateral based on Herrmann principle.

For elements that satisfy the LBB condition, error estimates of the following form can be established

h h mi n { k, H 1 }

u Óu 1 H p Óp 0 Z O( h ) (4-18)

where k and are the orders of displacements and pressure interpolations, respectively. If

K Z m in { k, H 1 } , the rate of convergence is said to be optimal, and elements satisfying the LBB

condition will not lock.

108 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The large strain elasticity formulation may also be used with conventional plane stress, membrane, and

shell elements. Because of the plane stress conditions, the incompressibility constraint can be satisfied

without the use of Lagrange multipliers.

Instabilities

Under some circumstances, materials can become unstable. This instability can be real or can be due to

the mathematical formulation used in the calculations.

Instability can also result from the approximate satisfaction of incompressibility constraints. If the

number of Lagrangian multipliers is insufficient, local volume changes can occur. Under some

circumstances, these volume changes can be associated with a decrease in total energy. This type of

instability usually occurs only if there is a large tensile hydrostatic stress. Similarly, overconstraints give

rise to mesh locking and inordinate increase in total energy under large compressive stresses.

It is possible that more than one stable solution exists (due to nonlinearity) for a given set of boundary

conditions. An example of such multiple solutions is a hollow hemisphere with zero prescribed loads.

Two equilibrium solutions exist: the undeformed stress-free state and the inverted self-equilibrating state.

An example of these solutions is shown in Figure 4-11 and Figure 4-12. If the equilibrium solution remains

stable, no problems should occur; however, if the equilibrium becomes unstable at some point in the

analysis, problems can occur.

CHAPTER 4 109

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

When incompressible material is being modeled, the basic linearized incremental procedure is used in

conjunction with mixed variational principles similar in form to the Herrmann incompressible elastic

formulation. These formulations are incorporated in plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional

elements. These mixed elements may be used in combination with other elements in the library (suitable

constraint equations may be necessary) and with each other. Where different materials are joined, the

pressure variable at the corner nodes must be uncoupled to allow for mean pressure discontinuity. MPC’s

must be used to couple the displacements only.

Plasticity

In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the analysis of metal forming problems by the

finite element method. Although an Eularian flow-type approach has been used for steady-state and

transient problems, the updated Lagrangian procedure, pioneered by McMeeking and Rice, is most

suitable for analysis of large strain plasticity problems. The main reasons for this are: (a) its ability to

trace free boundaries, and (b) the flexibility of taking elasticity and history effects into account. Also,

residual stresses can be accurately calculated.

The large strain plasticity capability in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to analyze problems

of large-strain, elastic-plastic material behavior. These problems can include manufacturing processes

such as forging, upsetting, extension or deep drawing, and/or large deformation of structures that occur

during plastic collapse. The analysis involves both material, geometric and boundary nonlinearities.

In addition to the options required for plasticity analysis, the PARAM,LGSTRN and/or PARAM,

MRTABLS1 parameters are needed for large strain plasticity analysis.

110 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

In performing finite deformation elastic-plastic analysis, there are some special considerations which do

not apply for linear elastic analysis. These considerations include:

• Choice of Finite Element Types

• Nearly Incompressible Behavior

• Treatment of Boundary Conditions

• Severe Mesh Distortion

• Instabilities

Accurate calculation of large strain plasticity problems depends on the selection of adequate finite

element types. In addition to the usual criteria for selection, two aspects need to be given special

consideration: the element types selected need to be insensitive to (strong) distortion; for plane strain,

axisymmetric, and three-dimensional problems, the element mesh must be able to represent

nondilatational (incompressible) deformation modes.

Most finite element types tend to lock during fully plastic (incompressible) material behavior. A remedy

is to introduce a modified variational principle which effectively reduces the number of independent

dilatational modes (constraints) in the mesh. This procedure is successful for plasticity problems in the

conventional “small” strain formulation. Zienkiewicz pointed out the positive effect of reduced

integration for this type of problem and demonstrates the similarity between modified variational

procedures and reduced integration. MSC.Software Corporation recommends the use of lower-order

elements, invoking the constant dilatation option with certain exceptions such as 4-node tetras. The

lower-order elements, which use reduced integration and hourglass control, also behave well for nearly

incompressible materials.

In many large strain plasticity problems, specifically in the analysis of manufacturing processes, the

material slides with or without friction over curved surfaces. This results in a severely nonlinear

boundary condition. The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear CONTACT option can model such sliding

boundary conditions.

Because the mesh is attached to the deforming material, severe distortion of the element mesh often

occurs, which leads to a degeneration of the results in many problems. To avoid this degeneration,

generate a new finite element mesh for the problem and then transfer the current deformation state to the

new finite element mesh.

CHAPTER 4 111

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Instabilities

Elastic-plastic structures are sometimes unstable due to necking phenomena. Consider a rod of a rigid-

ˇ

plastic incompressible workhardening material. With ε the current true uniaxial strain rate and H the

ˇ

current workhardening, the rate of true uniaxial stress σ is equal to

ˇ ˇ

σ Z Hε (4-19)

The applied force is equal to F Z σA , where A is the current area of the rod. The rate of the force is

therefore equal to

ˇ ˇ ˇ

F Z σA H σA (4-20)

On the other hand, conservation of volume requires that

ˇ ˇ

Aε H A Z 0 (4-21)

Hence, the force rate can be calculated as

ˇ ˇ

F Z ( H Ó σ )Aε (4-22)

Instability clearly occurs if σ > H . For applied loads (as opposed to applied boundary conditions), the

stiffness matrix becomes singular (nonpositive definite).

For the large strain plasticity option, the workhardening slope for plasticity is the rate of true (Cauchy)

stress versus the true (logarithmic) plastic strain rate. The workhardening curve must, therefore, be

entered as the true stress versus the logarithmic plastic strain in a uniaxial tension test.

For more information on computational procedures, please see the MSC.Marc Reference manual.

Creep

Creep is a time-dependent inelastic behavior that can occur at any stress level, either below or above the

yield stress of a material. Creep is an important factor at elevated temperatures. In many cases, creep is

also accompanied by plasticity, which occurs above the yield stress of the material.

Conventional creep behavior is based on a von Mises creep potential with isotropic behavior described

by the equivalent creep law:

ˇ cr cr

ε Z f ( σ Iε IT It )

112 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

cr ˇ c r ∂σ

∆ε Z ε JJJJJJJJ ∆t

′

∂σ

∂σ ˇ cr

where JJJJJJJJ is the outward normal to the current von Mises stress surface and ε is the equivalent creep

′

∂σ

strain rate.

There are two numerical procedures used in implementing creep behavior. The default is an explicit

procedure in which the above relationship is implemented in the program by an initial strain technique.

In other words, a pseudo-load vector due to the creep strain increment is added to the right-hand side of

the stiffness equation.

T cr

K∆u Z ∆P H ∫β D∆ε dv

V

where K is the stiffness matrix, and ∆u and ∆P are incremental displacement and incremental nodal

force vectors, respectively. The integral:

T cr

∫β D∆ε dv

V

is the pseudo-load vector due to the creep strain increment in which β is the strain displacement relation

and D is the stress-strain relation. When plasticity is also specified through a suitably defined yield

criterion and yield stress inMSC.Nastran, the plasticity is treated implicitly while the creep is treated

explicitly.

As an alternative, an implicit creep procedure can be requested. In this case, the inelastic strain rate has

an influence on the stiffness matrix. Using this technique, significantly larger steps in strain space can be

used. This option is only to be used for isotropic materials with the creep strain rate defined by a creep

constant.

CHAPTER 4 113

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Creep Buckling

MSC.Nastran also predicts the creep time to buckling due to stress redistribution under given load or

repeated cyclic load. The buckling option solves the following equation for the first eigenvalue

( K H λK G )φ Z 0 (4-23)

The geometric stiffness matrix, K G , is a function of the increments of stress and displacement. These

increments are calculated during the last creep time step increment. To determine the creep time to

buckle, perform a buckle step after a converged creep increment. Note that the incremental time must be

scaled by the calculated eigenvalue, and added to the total (current) time to get an estimate as to when

buckling occurs.

Viscoelasticity

In certain problems, structural materials exhibit viscoelastic behavior. Two examples of these problems

are quenching of glass and time-dependent deformation of polymeric materials. The viscoelastic

material retains linearity between load and deformation; however, this linear relationship depends on

time. Consequently, the current state of deformation must be determined from the entire history of

loading. Different models consisting of elastic elements (spring) and viscous elements (dashpot) can be

used to simulate the viscoelastic material behavior described in Materials (Chapter 10). Both the equation

of state and the hereditary integral approaches can be used for viscoelastic analysis.

A special class of temperature dependence known as the Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior (TRS)

is also applicable to a variety of thermal viscoelastic problems. To model the thermo-rheologically

simple material behavior, MATTVE can be used to choose the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation or the

power series expression or Narayanaswamy model.

In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, two options are available for small strain viscoelastic analysis. The

first option uses the equation of state approach and represents a Kelvin model. The second option is

based on the hereditary integral approach and allows the selection of a generalized Maxwell model. The

thermo-rheologically simple behavior is also available in the second option for thermal viscoelastic

analysis. The Viscoelastic (Chapter 10) discusses these models in detail.

The Simo model for large strain viscoelasticity can be used in conjunction with the damage and

hyperelastic Mooney, Ogden, Gent, or Arruda Boyce material model. The large strain viscoelastic

material behavior can be simulated by incorporating MATVE.

Nonlinear structural relaxation behavior of materials can be modeled by the Narayanaswamy model

which accounts for memory effect. This model allows simulation of evolution of physical properties of

glass subjected to complex time temperature histories. The thermal expansion behavior for the

Narayanaswamy model is controlled via the MATTVE bulk data option.

Viscoplasticity

There are two procedures in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear for viscoplastic analysis: explicit and

implicit. A brief description of each procedure follows:

114 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Explicit Method

The elasto-viscoplasticity model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is a modified creep model to which

a plastic element is added. The plastic element is inactive when the stress is less than the yield stress of

the material. You can use the elasto-viscoplasticity model to solve time-dependent plasticity and creep as

well as plasticity problems with a nonassociated flow law.

The CREEP option in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has been modified to enable solving problems

with viscoplasticity. The method is modified to allow solving elastic-plastic problems with nonassociated

flow rules which result in nonsymmetric stress-strain relations if the tangent modulus method is used.

The requirements for solving the viscoplastic problem are:

PARAM,MCREEP,1 and creep controls

Load incrementation immediately followed by a series of creep increments specified by

PARAM,MAUTCREP,1.

Use of user subroutine CRPLAW and/or user subroutine NASSOC.

The following load incrementation procedure enables you to solve a viscoplastic problem:

1. Apply an elastic load increment that exceeds the steady-state yield stress.

2. Relieve the high yield stresses by turning on PARAM,MAUTCREP,1.

You may repeat steps 1 and 2 as many times as necessary to achieve the required load history.

The viscoplastic approach converts an iterative elastic-plastic method to one where a fraction of the

initial force vector is applied at each increment with the time step controls. The success of the method

depends on the proper use of the automatic creep time step controls. This means that it is necessary to

select an initial time step that will satisfy the tolerances placed on the allowable stress change.

The initial time step ∆t =

Maximum viscoplastic strain rate x Young’s modulus

The allowable stress change is specified in the creep controls. The most highly stressed element usually

yields the maximum strain rate. It is also important to select a total time that gives sufficient number of

increments to work off the effects of the initial force vector. A total time of 30 times the estimated ∆t is

usually sufficient.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear does not distinguish between viscoplastic and creep strains. A flag is

set in the CREEP parameter in order to use the viscoplastic option with a nonassociated flow rule.

The viscoplasticity feature can be used to implement very general constitutive relations with the aid of

user subroutines ZERO and YIEL.

Since the viscoplasticity model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is a modified creep model, you

should familiarize yourself with the creep analysis procedure (see Creep, Viscoplastic, and Viscoelastic

Behavior, page 119 of this chapter).

CHAPTER 4 115

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Implicit Method

A general viscoplastic material law can be implemented through user subroutine UVSCPL. When using

this method, you are responsible for defining the inelastic strain increment and the current stress.

There are three types of nonlinear boundary conditions: contact, nonlinear support, and nonlinear

loading. The contact problem is solved using the BCONTACT Case Control specification. Nonlinear

support might involve nonlinear springs and/or foundations. Sometimes nonlinearities due to rigid links

that become activated or deactivated during an analysis can be modeled through adaptive linear

constraints. Nonlinear loading is present if the loading system is nonconservative, as is the case with

follower forces or frictional slip effects.

Discontinuities are inherent in the nature of many of these nonlinearities, making the solution more

challenging. Some of the most severe nonlinearities in mechanics are introduced by nonlinear boundary

conditions. It is, therefore, very important to be aware of potential problem areas and to have a good

understanding of the underlying principles. This awareness and understanding enables you to validate

numerical answers and to take alternative approaches if an initial attempt fails.

Nonlinear Loading

When the structure is deformed, the directions and the areas of the surface loads are changed. For most

deformed structures, such changes are so small that the effect on the equilibrium equation can be ignored.

For some structures, such as flexible shell structure with large pressure loads, the effects on the results

can be quite significant so that the surface load effects have to be included in the finite element equations.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear forms both pressure stiffness and pressure terms based on current

deformed configuration with MSC.Nastran’s PARAM,LGDISP. The PARAM,MARCCENT should not

be included due to the use of the residual load correction. Point forces may also be updated with

deformation.

116 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

A large class of stress analysis problems can be solved with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).

A fundamental division of stress problems is into static and dynamic response, the distinction being

whether or not inertia effects are significant. SOL 600 allows complete flexibility in making this

distinction, so that the same analysis may contain several static and dynamic phases. Thus, a static

preload might be applied, and then the linear or nonlinear dynamic response computed, (as in the case of

vibrations of a component of a rotating machine, or the response of a flexible offshore system which is

initially moved to an equilibrium position subject to buoyancy and steady current loads, then is excited

by wave loading).

Static

Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations. Many problems

involve history dependent response, so that the solution is usually obtained as a series of increments, with

iteration within each increment to obtain equilibrium. For most cases, the automatic incrementation

provided by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is preferred, although direct user control is also provided

for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.

Static analysis procedures frequently involve post buckling behavior where the load-displacement

response shows a negative stiffness, and the structure must release strain energy to remain in equilibrium.

Buckling

Eigenvalue buckling estimates are obtained. Classical eigenvalue buckling analysis (e.g., “Euler”

buckling) is often used to estimate the critical (buckling) load of “stiff” structures. “Stiff” structures are

those that carry their design loads primarily by axial or membrane action, rather than by bending action.

Their response usually involves very little deformation prior to buckling, although nonlinear effects can

be accounted for by preceding the buckling calculations with a nonlinear static analysis.

Normal Modes

This solution type uses eigenvalue techniques to extract the frequencies of the current system. The

stiffness determined at the end of the previous step is used as the basis for the extraction, so that small

vibrations of a preloaded structure or nonlinearly deformed structure can be modeled.

Transient Dynamic

This solution type is used when the transient dynamic response, which includes inertial effects, is being

studied. Because all of the equations of motion of the system must be integrated through time, direct

integration methods (which can be used for both linear and nonlinear problems) are generally

significantly more expensive than modal methods (which can only be used for linear problems). For most

cases, the automatic incrementation provided is preferred, although direct user control is also provided

for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.

CHAPTER 4 117

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Creep

This analysis procedure performs a transient, static, stress/displacement analysis. It is especially

provided for the analysis of materials which are described by the MATVP material form.

This is especially provided for the time domain analysis of materials which are described by the MATVE

material options. The dissipative part of the material behavior is defined through a Prony series

representation of the normalized shear and bulk relaxation moduli.

Contact

This type of problem can be solved by either nonlinear static or nonlinear transient dynamic solution

procedures and simultaneous tracks the movement of multiple geometric bodies to detect contact and

then uses appropriate boundary conditions to simulate the friction between surfaces. A robust numerical

procedure is required to simulate these complex physical problems.

118 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Static Analysis

Static stress analysis is used when inertia effects can be neglected. The problem may still have a real time

scale, for example when the material has a viscoplastic response, such as rate dependent yield. The

analysis may be linear or nonlinear. Nonlinearity may arise from large displacement effects, material

nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity (such as contact and friction).

Linear static analysis involves the specification of load cases and appropriate boundary conditions.

Solutions may be combined in a postprocessing mode.

Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations, for which the program

uses Full Newton-Raphson, Modified Newton-Raphson, Newton-Raphson with Strain Correction, or the

Secant method. Many problems involve history dependent response, so that the solution is usually

obtained as a series of increments, with iteration within each increment to obtain equilibrium. Increments

must sometimes be kept small (in the sense that rotation and strain increments must be small) to assure

correct modeling of history dependent effects, but most commonly the choice of increment size is a

matter of computational efficiency - if the increments are too large, more iteration will be required. Each

solution method has a finite radius of convergence, which means that too large an increment can prevent

any solution from being obtained because the initial state is too far away from the equilibrium state that

is being sought - it is outside the radius of convergence. Thus, there is an algorithmic restriction on the

increment size. For most cases, the automatic incrementation scheme is preferred, because it will select

increment sizes based on these considerations. Direct user control of increment size is also provided

because there are cases when the user has considerable experience with his particular problem and can

therefore select a more economic approach.

References

For directions on setting up a Static analysis using MSC.Patran, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a

Subcase” and Specifying Static Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7)

CHAPTER 4 119

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Post-Buckling

Geometrically nonlinear static problems frequently involve buckling or collapse behavior, where the

load-displacement response shows a negative stiffness, and the structure must release strain energy to

remain in equilibrium. Several approaches are possible in such cases. One is to treat the buckling

response dynamically, thus actually modeling the kinetic response with inertia effects included as the

structure snaps. This is easily accomplished by using a transient dynamic procedure to include inertial

effects when the solution goes unstable. In some simple cases, displacement control can provide a

solution, even when the conjugate load (the reaction force) is decreasing as the displacement increases.

More generally, static equilibrium states during the unstable phase of the response can be found by using

an arc-length method. This method is for cases where the loading is proportional - that is, where the load

magnitudes are governed by a single scalar parameter. The method obtains equilibrium solutions by

controlling the path length along the load-displacement curve within each increment (rather than

controlling the load or displacement increment), so that the load magnitude becomes an unknown of the

system.

The method can provide solutions even in cases of complex or unstable response.

Time dependent material response in static analysis may involve creep and swelling (generally occurring

over fairly long time periods), or rate dependent yield (which is often important in fairly rapid processes,

such as metal working problems). For rate dependent yield, the usual static procedure is used and an

appropriate time scale must be introduced so that MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will treat the

viscoplasticity correctly. The backward difference operator is used to integrate the plastic strains. Creep

and swelling problems, as well as hereditary viscoelasticity models, are analyzed by the CREEP

procedure (which is specified by including a non-zero time interval on the NLPARM entry). Nonlinear

creep problems are often solved efficiently by forward difference integration of the inelastic strains (the

“initial strain” method), because the numerical stability limit of this operator is usually sufficiently large

to allow the solution to be developed in a small number of time increments. Linear viscoelasticity models

are integrated with a simple, implicit, unconditionally stable operator. Automatic time stepping in such

cases is governed by an accuracy tolerance parameter specified by the user. This limits the maximum

inelastic strain rate change allowed over an increment.

120 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Body Approach

Body Approach enables you to position rigid bodies to just touch deformable bodies before beginning a

subsequent Load Step. No analysis is actually performed during a Body Approach step.It is used

commonly in multi-forming simulations where bodies are brought just into contact before the analysis

begins.

Body positioning can be synchronized or not, meaning that if Synchronized is ON, then as soon as one

rigid body contacts, all others stop at that point also. Otherwise all rigid bodies move until they come into

contact. The SOL 600 option, APPROACH and SYNCHRONIZE implement these concepts.

References

For directions on setting up a Body Approach analysis using MSC.Patran, see “Specifying the Analysis

Type for a Subcase” and Specifying Body Approach Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).

CHAPTER 4 121

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Buckling Analysis

Buckling analysis allows you to determine at what load the structure will collapse. You can detect the

buckling of a structure when the structure’s stiffness matrix approaches a singular value. You can extract

the eigenvalue in a linear analyses to obtain the linear buckling load.You can also perform eigenvalue

analysis for buckling load in a nonlinear problem based on the incremental stiffness matrices.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) solves elastic instability problems using the bifurcation

approach. Bifurcation buckling analysis predicts the load at which the structure becomes unstable, and

it predicts the shape that the structure will tend to have after the onset of instability. It does not make any

statement about whether buckling is coincident with overall structural failure. Some structures, including

flat plates, retain finite positive stiffness in the post-buckled range; others, such as thin cylinders under

external pressure, do not. In general, bifurcation buckling calculates critical loads which are

unconservative (i.e., higher than the loads at which the structure actually becomes elastically unstable).

The approach to buckling prediction with MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is based on the development

of a linear perturbation of the structure’s stiffness about an equilibrium solution point, which may be the

initial equilibrium under no load, or a preloaded state. At any time a structure’s total elastic stiffness is

[ K ]0 H [ K ]p (4-24)

where [ K ] 0 is the stiffness caused by the material stiffness, and [ K ] p is the initial stress and load

stiffness caused by non-zero loading. For a “stiff” elastic system, [ K ] 0 is almost constant, and the

variation of [ K ] p is proportional to the load variation.

During the BUCKLING step there may be a non-zero “dead” load, P, and there must be a linear

perturbation load, Q, specified in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step. We wish to estimate what

multiple of Q, combined with P, which causes instability. Since the response is assumed to be “stiff” and

elastic, and therefore closely proportional to load, the stiffness at P + λQ. is, to a good approximation,

( [ K ] 0 H [ K ] p H λ [ K ] q ) , where [ K ] q is the initial stress and load stiffness caused by Q. Thus, the

buckling load estimate is provided by the eigen problem.

( [ K ] 0 H [ K ] p H λ [ K ]q ) { φ } Z { 0 } (4-25)

The eigenvalue, λ, is a multiplier of the applied load which added to the preload provides the critical load

estimate: the predicted collapse load is P + λQ. φ is the collapse mode.

If no boundary conditions are given in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step, the boundary conditions

of the state at the start of the buckling investigation (that is, of the previous nonlinear step) are used for

the buckling modes as well as for the perturbation loading. Since boundary conditions within any linear

perturbation step apply only locally within the step, if BIFURCATION BUCKLING steps follow one

another, boundary conditions for the buckling modes must be repeated within each of the

122 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

BIFURCATION BUCKLING steps except in steps where they are the same as those belonging to the

state at the start of the buckling investigation.

If boundary conditions are specified in the BIFURCATION BUCKLING step, the complete set of

boundary conditions must be given, since MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes complete definition

of such an option in any linear perturbation analysis.

Several modes can be extracted simultaneously. This is often useful when the structure has different

buckling modes for which the critical loads have about the same magnitude, so that the designer must

consider the possibility of collapse in any of these modes. The collapse modes may be plotted with

MSC.Patran.

Bifurcation Approach

To illustrate the bifurcation approach, consider Equation (4-3), which shows a flat plate loaded by

uniaxial edge compression. Using linear static analysis, we can find the so-called “primary equilibrium

path” of the structure, which is always a straight line (denoted A in Figure 4-3). As shown, increasing the

loads will produce no out-of-plane deflection

.

Z

X

Y

A

C

Pcrit

B

UZ

Figure 4-13 Load vs. Deflection Paths for Central Deflection of a Flat Square Plate

Subjected to Uniaxial Edge Compression

CHAPTER 4 123

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

B = Secondary equilibrium path, determined by bifurcation buckling analysis.

C = Actual load deflection path, considering initial imperfections and geometrical

nonlinear effects.

Pcrit = Elastic buckling load.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses either the inverse power sweep or the Lanczos method to extract

eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Both of these methods are described in the following section, see

Eigenvalue Analysis, page 126.

References

For directions on setting up a Buckling analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase” and

Specifying Buckling Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).

124 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Normal Modes

The usual first step in performing a dynamic analysis is determining the natural frequencies and mode

shapes of the structure with damping neglected. Eigenvalue analysis is used to determine these basic

dynamic characteristics. The results of an eigenvalue analysis indicate the frequencies and shapes at

which a structure naturally tends to vibrate. These results characterize the basic dynamic behavior of the

structure and are an indication of how the structure will respond to dynamic loading.

The natural frequencies of a structure are the frequencies at which the structure naturally tends to vibrate

if it is subjected to a disturbance. For example, the strings of a piano are each tuned to vibrate at a specific

frequency. The deformed shape of the structure at a specific natural frequency of vibration is termed its

normal mode of vibration. Each mode shape is associated with a specific natural frequency.

Natural frequencies and mode shapes are functions of the structural properties and boundary conditions.

A cantilever beam has a set of natural frequencies and associated mode shapes (Figure 4-14). If the

structural properties change, the natural frequencies change, but the mode shapes may not necessarily

change. For example, if the elastic modulus of the cantilever beam is changed, the natural frequencies

change but the mode shapes remain the same. If the boundary conditions change, then the natural

frequencies and mode shapes both change. For example, if the cantilever beam is changed so that it is

pinned at both ends, the natural frequencies and mode shapes change.

CHAPTER 4 125

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

z x

1

z x

2

z x

3

z x

4

Figure 4-14 The First Four Mode Shapes of a Cantilever Beam

Modal quantities can be used to identify problem areas by indicating the more highly stressed elements.

Elements that are consistently highly stressed across many or all modes will probably be highly stressed

when dynamic loads are applied.

Modal strain energy is a useful quantity in identifying candidate elements for design changes to eliminate

problem frequencies. Elements with large values of strain energy in a mode indicate the location of large

elastic deformation (energy). These elements are those which most directly affect the deformation in a

mode. Therefore, changing the properties of these elements with large strain energy should have more

effect on the natural frequencies and mode shapes than if elements with low strain energy were changed.

SOL 600 contains two methods for eigenvalue extraction and three time integration operators. Nonlinear

effects, including material nonlinearity, geometric nonlinearity, and boundary nonlinearity, can be

incorporated.

In addition to distributed mass, you can also attach concentrated masses associated with each degree of

freedom of the system. You can include damping in either the modal superposition or the direct

126 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

integration methods. You can also include (nonuniform) displacement and/or velocity as an initial

condition, and apply time-dependent forces and/or displacements as boundary conditions.

Eigenvalue Analysis

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses either the inverse power sweep method or the Lanczos method to

extract eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The inverse power sweep method is typically used for extracting a

few modes while the Lanczos method is optimal for a few or many modes.

In dynamic eigenvalue analysis, we find the solution to an undamped linear dynamics problem:

( K Ó ω 2 M )φ Z 0

where K is the stiffness matrix, M is the mass matrix, ω are the eigenvalues (frequencies) and φ are

the eigenvectors. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, K is the tangent stiffness matrix, which can

include material and geometrically nonlinear contributions. The mass matrix is formed from both

distributed mass and point masses.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear creates an initial trial vector. To obtain a new vector, the program

multiplies the initial vector by the mass matrix and the inverse (factorized) stiffness matrix. This

process is repeated until convergence is reached according to either of the following criteria: single

eigenvalue convergence or double eigenvalue convergence. In single eigenvalue convergence, the

program computes an eigenvalue at each iteration. Convergence is assumed when the values of two

successive iterations are within a prescribed tolerance. In double eigenvalue convergence, the program

assumes that the trial vector is a linear combination of two eigenvectors.

Using the three latest vectors, the program calculates two eigenvalues. It compares these two values with

the two values calculated in the previous step; convergence is assumed if they are within the prescribed

tolerance.

When an eigenvalue has been calculated, the program either exits from the extraction loop (if a sufficient

number of vectors has been extracted) or it creates a new trial vector for the next calculation. If a single

eigenvalue was obtained, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses the double eigenvalue routine to obtain

the best trial vector for the next eigenvalue. If two eigenvalues were obtained, the program creates an

arbitrary trial vector orthogonal to the previously obtained vectors.

CHAPTER 4 127

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

After MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has calculated the first eigenvalue, it orthogonalizes the trial

vector at each iteration to previously extracted vectors (using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization

procedure). Note that the power shift procedure is available with the inverse power sweep method.

• To select the power shift, set the following parameters:

• Initial shift frequency – This is normally set to zero (unless the structure has rigid body modes,

preventing a decomposition around the zeroth frequency).

• Number of modes to be extracted between each shift – A value smaller than five is probably not

economical because a shift requires a new decomposition of the stiffness matrix.

• Auto shift parameter – When you decide to do a shift, the new shift point is set to

Highest frequency2 + scalar x (highest frequency - next highest frequency)2

You can define the value of the scalar through the EIGR/EIGRL option.

The Lanczos algorithm converts the original eigenvalue problem into the determination of the

eigenvalues of a tri-diagonal matrix. The method can be used either for the determination of all modes

or for the calculation of a small number of modes. For the latter case, the Lanczos method is the most

efficient eigenvalue extraction algorithm. A simple description of the algorithm is as follows.

Consider the eigenvalue problem:

Óω 2 M u H K u Z 0 (4-26)

Equation (4-26) can be rewritten as:

1

JJJJJJ M u Z M K Ó 1 M u (4-27)

ω2

Consider the transformation:

u Z Qη (4-28)

T

Substituting Equation (4-30) into Equation (4-29) and premultiplying by the matrix Q on both sides of

the equation, we have

1

JJJJJJ Q T M Q η Z Q T M K Ó 1 M Q η (4-29)

ω2

QT M Q Z I (4-30)

Q T M K Ó 1 MQ Z T (4-31)

128 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

α 1 β2 0 0

β2 α 2 β 3 0

T Z (4-32)

0 β3 α 3 βm

0 0 βm α m

Consequently, the original eigenvalue problem, Equation (4-26), is reduced to the following new

eigenvalue problem:

1

JJJJJJ η Z T η (4-33)

ω2

The eigenvalues in Equation (4-33) can be calculated by the standard QL-method.

You can either select the number of modes to be extracted, or a range of modes to be extracted. The Sturm

sequence check can be used to verify that all of the required eigenvalues have been found. In addition,

you can select the lowest frequency to be extracted to be greater than zero.

The Lanczos procedure also allows you to restart the analysis at a later time and extract additional roots.

It is unnecessary to recalculate previously obtained roots using this option.

Convergence Controls

Eigenvalue extraction is controlled by:

1. The maximum number of iterations per mode in the power sweep method; or the maximum

number of iterations for all modes in the Lanczos iteration method,

2. an eigenvalue has converged when the difference between the eigenvalues in two consecutive

sweeps divided by the eigenvalue is less than the tolerance, and

3. the Lanczos iteration method has converged when the normalized difference between all

eigenvalues satisfies the tolerance. The maximum number of iterations and the tolerance can be

specified.

After the modal shapes (and frequencies) are extracted, stresses and reactions at a specified mode may

be recovered if desired. This option can be repeated for any of the extracted modes. The stresses are

computed from the modal displacement vector φ ; the nodal reactions are calculated from

2

F Z Kφ Ó ω Mφ .

CHAPTER 4 129

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

If a structure is not totally constrained in space, it is possible for the structure to displace (move) as a

rigid body or as a partial or complete mechanism. For each possible component of rigid-body motion or

mechanism, there exists one natural frequency which is equal to zero. The zero-frequency modes are

called rigid-body modes. Rigid-body motion of all or part of a structure represents the motion of the

structure in a stress-free condition. Stress-free, rigid-body modes are useful in conducting dynamic

analyses of unconstrained structures, such as aircraft and satellites. Also, rigid-body modes can be

indicative of modeling errors or an inadequate constraint set.

Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 can perform free vibration analysis to compute the natural

frequencies and associated mode shapes of linear elastic structures. The structure is assumed to be

initially unstressed. A real eigenvalue analysis is performed, which assumes that there is no damping and

that the structure is not spinning (i.e., no Coriolis force).

Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 free vibration analysis consists of the following steps:

1. Input. The problem geometry (nodes and elements), physical and material properties, loads and

boundary conditions are taken from the MSC.Patran Neutral File and put into the MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600 deck.

2. Bandwidth Minimization (Optional). The FEA nodes are renumbered for minimum bandwidth.

3. Element stiffness matrix and mass matrix. The element stiffness matrices and the consistent mass

matrices are computed. See Element Library (Chapter 11) for a detailed description of the

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, SOL 600.

4. Global stiffness matrix and mass matrix assembly. Stiffness matrix and the mass matrix are

assembled. Boundary and constraint conditions are incorporated by appropriately modifying the

element stiffness and mass matrices.

5. Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem. The frequencies and mode shape vectors are

computed by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem.

Modal strain energy. The modal strain energies are computed using the mode shape vectors.

References

For directions on setting up a Normal Modes analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a Subcase”

and Specifying Normal Modes Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).

130 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

SOL 600 supports complex eigenvalue analysis via the CMETHOD Case Control command and the

EIGC Bulk Data entry. In addition, four new Bulk Data parameters have been introduced:

param,marcfil1,dmig002 This means that a file named dmig002 will be used. It contains stiffness

matrix terms (possibly from a set of unsymmetric friction stiffness

matrices)

param,mrmtxnam,kaax This means that in the dmig002 file, use DMIG matrix terms labeled kaax

(or KAAX – case does not matter).

param,mrspawn2,tran This means that the primary MSC.Nastran run will spawn another

MSC.Nastran run to compute the complex eigenvalues. The name of the

command is nastran (nas is always used and the characters specified by

this parameter are added to the end of nas. Thus, we get nas+tran=nastran).

param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc This is the name of the rc file to be used for the second (spawned)

MSC.Nastran run.

• Create a primary MSC.Nastran SOL 600 input file (we will name it jid.dat for this example),

using CONTINUE option on the command line.

• Submit MSC.Nastran in the standard fashion. For this example, the following command is used:

nastran jid rc=nast1.rc

The nast1.rc file contains items such as scratch=yes, memory=16mw, etc.

• The primary MSC.Nastran run creates an MSC.Marc input file named jid.marc.dat

• The primary MSC.Nastran run spawns MSC.Marc to perform nonlinear analysis. MSC.Marc

generates the required DMIG matrices for this example.

• The nonlinear MSC.Marc analyses completes and generates standard files.

• Control of the process returns to MSC.Nastran. A new MSC.Nastran input file named

jid.nast.dat will be created from the original input file. This file will contain the CMETHOD

Case Control command and EIGC Bulk Data entry, all of the original geometry and additional

entries to read the dmig002 file.

• A second MSC.Nastran job will be spawned from the primary MC.Nastran run using the

command

nastran jid.nast rc=nast2.rc

The nast2.rc file can be the same as nast1.rc or can contain different items. Usually memory will

need to be larger in nast2.rc than in nast1.rc.

• The second MSC.Nastran run computes the complex eigenvalues and finishes.

• Control of the process returns to the primary MSC.Nastran run and it finishes.

CHAPTER 4 131

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 234567812345

DMIG KAAX 0 1 2 0 324

DMIG* KAAX 6 1

* 6 1 3.014712042D+05

* 6 2 4.204709763D+08

*

DMIG* KAAX 6 2

* 6 1 1.204709763D+05

* 6 2 3.014712042D+05

*

DMIG* KAAX 6 3

* 6 1-4.616527206D+04

* 6 2-4.616527206D+04

* 6 3 1.308497299D+05

DMIG* KAAX 17 1

* 6 1 6.239021038D+04

* 6 2-2.528344607D+03

* 6 3-6.239758760D+03

* 17 1 5.939989945D+05

132 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Transient response analysis is the most general method for computing forced dynamic response. The

purpose of a transient response analysis is to compute the behavior of a structure subjected to

time-varying excitation. The transient excitation is explicitly defined in the time domain. All of the forces

applied to the structure are known at each instant in time. Forces can be in the form of applied forces

and/or enforced motions.

The important results obtained from a transient analysis are typically displacements, velocities, and

accelerations of grid points, and forces and stresses in elements.

Depending upon the structure and the nature of the loading, two different numerical methods can be used

for a transient response analysis: direct and modal. The direct method performs a numerical integration

on the complete coupled equations of motion. The Direct method can take into account nonlinearities.

The modal method is a linear solution and utilizes the mode shapes of the structure to reduce and

uncouple the equations of motion (when modal or no damping is used); the solution is then obtained

through the summation of the individual modal responses. The modal method is not available using

SOL 600 - use SOL 112.

Transient dynamic analysis deals with an initial-boundary value problem. In order to solve the equations

of motion of a structural system, it is important to specify proper initial and boundary conditions. You

obtain the solution to the equations of motion by direct integration (for linear or nonlinear systems). In

direct integration, selecting a proper time step is very important. You can include damping in the system.

The following sections discuss the applicable aspects of transient analysis listed below.

• Direct Integration

• Time Step Definition

• Initial Conditions

• Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

• Damping

CHAPTER 4 133

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Direct Integration

Direct integration is a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of a dynamic system. It is

used for both linear and nonlinear problems. In nonlinear problems, the nonlinear effects can include

geometric, material, and boundary nonlinearities. For transient analysis, MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear offers three direct integration operators listed below.

• Newmark-beta Operator

• Houbolt Operator

• Single Step Houbolt

Direct integration techniques are imprecise; this is true regardless of which technique you use. Each

technique exhibits at least one of the following problems: conditional stability, artificial damping, and

phase errors, but all can be minimized so that they are negligible.

Newmark-beta Operator

This operator is probably the most popular direct integration method used in finite element analysis. For

linear problems, it is unconditionally stable and exhibits no numerical damping. The Newmark-beta

operator can effectively obtain solutions for linear and nonlinear problems for a wide range of loadings.

The procedure allows for change of time step, so it can be used in problems where sudden impact makes

a reduction of time step desirable. This operator can be used with adaptive time step control. Although

this method is stable for linear problems, instability can develop if nonlinearities occur. By reducing the

time step and/or adding damping, you can overcome these problems.

Houbolt Operator

This operator has the same unconditional stability as the Newmark-beta operator. In addition, it has

strong numerical damping characteristics, particularly for higher frequencies. This strong damping

makes the method very stable for nonlinear problems as well. In fact, stability increases with the time

step size. The drawback of this high damping is that the solution can become inaccurate for large time

steps. Hence, the results obtained with the Houbolt operator usually have a smooth appearance, but are

not necessarily accurate. The Houbolt integration operator, implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear uses a fixed time step procedure, is particularly useful in obtaining a rough scoping solution

to the problem.

Two computational drawbacks of the Houbolt operator are the requirement of a special starting

procedure and the restriction to fixed time steps. A Single Step Houbolt procedure has been presented

[Ref. 1.], being unconditionally stable, second order accurate and asymptotically annihilating. In this

way, the algorithm is computationally more convenient compared to the standard Houbolt method, and

the numerical damping for this method as implemented in SOL 600 has been significantly improved over

the standard Houbolt method. This algorithm is recommended for all dynamic analyses.

134 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Technical Background

Consider the equations of motion of a structural system:

Ma H Cv H Ku Z F (4-34)

where M , C , and K are mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, respectively, and a , v , u , and F are

acceleration, velocity, displacement, and force vectors. Various direct integration operators can be used

to integrate the equations of motion to obtain the dynamic response of the structural system. The

technical background of the three direct integration operators available in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear is described below.

Newmark-beta Operator

ˇˇ ˇˇ ˇˇ

Ut U t H ∆t U t H θ ∆t

(t) ( t H ∆t ) ( t H θ ∆t )

t

n

where superscript denotes a value at the nth time step and u , v , and a take on their usual meanings.

The particular form of the dynamic equations corresponding to the trapezoidal rule

γ Z 1⁄2I β Z 1⁄4

results in

JJJJJJJ

4J

M H JJJJJ C H K ∆u Z F n H 1 Ó R H M a n H JJJJJ v n H Cv n

2 n 4

(4-37)

∆t 2 ∆t ∆t

CHAPTER 4 135

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

R Z ∫ βT σdv (4-38)

V

u n H 1 Z u n H ∆u (4-39)

Notice that the operator matrix includes K , the tangent stiffness matrix. Hence, any nonlinearity results

in a reformulation of the operator matrix. Additionally, if the time step changes, this matrix must be

recalculated because the operator matrix also depends on the time step. It is possible to change the values

of γ and β if so desired.

1. Initialize:

U o , Uˇ o , Uˇˇ o

1 γ

a o Z JJJJJJJJJ ; a 1 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

β∆t ( β∆t )

γ

a 2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ; a 3 Z JJJJJJ Ó 1

1

( β∆t ) 2β

∆t

a 4 Z JJJ Ó 1 ; a 5 Z JJJJJ JJγJ Ó 2

1

β 2 β

[K]* = [K] + a0[M] + a1[C]

5. Compute effective load vector at time t + ∆t:

R t*H ∆ t Z R t H ∆ t H [ M ] ( a 0 U t H a 2 Uˇ t H a 3 U

ˇˇ )

t

(4-40)

+ [ C ] ( a 1 U t H a 4 Uˇ t H a 5 Uˇˇ t )

[ K ] * U t H ∆ t Z R t*H ∆ t

136 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Uˇˇ t H ∆ t Z a 0 ( U t H ∆ t Ó U t ) Ó a 2 Uˇ t Ó a 3 Uˇˇ t

Houbolt Operator

The Houbolt operator is based on the use of a cubic fitted through three previous points and the current

(unknown) in time. This results in the equations

11 3 1

(4-41)

6 2 3

and

a n H 1 Z ( 2u n H 1 Ó 5u n H 4u n Ó 1 Ó u n Ó 2 ) ⁄ ∆t 2 (4-42)

JJJJJJJ

2J

M H JJJJJJJJJ C H K ∆u Z F n H 1 Ó R n H JJJJJJJJ ( 3u n Ó 4u n Ó 1 H u n Ó 2 )M H

11 1

∆t 2 6∆t ∆t 2

1 7 3 1

∆t 6 2 3

(4-43)

This equation provides an implicit solution scheme. By solving Equation (4-39) for ∆u , you obtain

nH1 nH1

Equation (4-44), and so obtain v and a .

u n H 1 Z u n H ∆u (4-44)

Equation (4-43) is based on uniform time steps – errors occur when the time step is changed. Also, a

nÓ1 nÓ2

special starting procedure is necessary since u and u appear in Equation (4-43).

CHAPTER 4 137

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

The Single Step Houbolt operator starts with the following equilibrium equation and expressions for the

velocity and acceleration:

α Ma H α Cv Hα Ku H α Ma H α Cv H α Ku Z

f1 n H 1 f n

(4-45)

α F HaF

nH1 n n 2 n 1 2 nH1

u Z u H ∆tv H β∆t a H β ∆t a (4-46)

nH1 n n 1 nH1

v Z v H γ∆ta H γ ∆ta (4-47)

Notice that in contrast to the Newmark and the standard Houbolt method, the equilibrium equation also

contains terms corresponding to the beginning of the increment. Without loss of generality, the parameter

m1

α can be set to 1. Based on asymptotic annihilation and second order accuracy, the remaining

parameters can be shown to fulfill:

k 1 1 m k1 1

α Z 0, β Z γ, β Z γHγ ,α Z Ó1 ⁄ 2 , α Z 1 ⁄ 2β ,

c 1 12 c1 1 12 f k f1 k1

α Z Ó ( 2β H β ) ⁄ 4β ,α Z ( 2β H 3β ) ⁄ 4β ,α Z α ,α Z α

In this way, the number of unknown parameters has been reduced to two. Based on a Taylor series

1 1

expansion of the displacement about the nth time step, β and β should be related by β H β Z 1 ⁄ 2,

1 1

which finally yields γ Z 1 ⁄ 2 ( 1 ⁄ 2 Ó γ ) . According to [Ref. 1.], γ should be set to 3/2 (with

γ Z Ó 1 ⁄ 2 ) to minimize the velocity error and to 1/2 (with γ Z 0 ) to avoid velocity overshoot. The

1

default values in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are γ Z 3 ⁄ 2 and γ Z Ó 1 ⁄ 2 , but the user can

1

modify γ and γ if so desired.

Substitution of the velocity and acceleration into the equilibrium equation results in:

c1 1

1 α γ nH1 n

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

1 2 k1 J M H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J C H K ∆u Z F Ó Ku H

1 k1

β ∆t α β ∆tα

m

1 n 2 n α n

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ M { ∆tv H β∆t a } Ó JJJJJJJJJ Ma Ó (4-48)

1 2 k1 k1

β ∆t α α

αc 1 n n

1

γ 2 α

c

n

JJJJJJJJ

J C v H γ∆ta Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJ ∆tv n H β∆t a n Ó JJJJJJJJJ Cv

k1 1 k1

α β ∆t α

138 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

In a transient dynamic analysis, time step parameters are required for integration in time. MSC.Nastran’s

PARAM,MARCAUTO,-1 option can be used for the Newmark-beta operator and the Single Step

Houbolt operator to invoke the adaptive time control. Enter parameters to specify the time step size and

period of time for this set of boundary conditions.

When using the Newmark-beta operator, decide which frequencies are important to the response. The

time step in this method should not exceed 10 percent of the period of the highest relevant frequency in

the structure. Otherwise, large phase errors will occur. The phenomenon usually associated with too large

a time step is strong oscillatory accelerations. With even larger time steps, the velocities start oscillating.

With still larger steps, the displacement eventually oscillates. In nonlinear problems, instability usually

follows oscillation. When using adaptive dynamics, you should prescribe a maximum time step.

As in the Newmark-beta operator, the time step in Houbolt integration should not exceed 10 percent of

the period of the highest frequency of interest. However, the Houbolt method not only causes phase

errors, it also causes strong artificial damping. Therefore, high frequencies are damped out quickly and

no obvious oscillations occur. It is, therefore, completely up to the engineer to determine whether the

time step was adequate. The damping problem is alleviated to a large extent with the Single Step Houbolt

operator.

In nonlinear problems, the mode shapes and frequencies are strong functions of time because of plasticity

and large displacement effects, so that the above guidelines can be only a coarse approximation. To obtain

a more accurate estimate, repeat the analysis with a significantly different time step (1/5 to 1/10 of the

original) and compare responses.

Initial Conditions

In a transient dynamic analysis, you can specify initial conditions such as nodal displacements and/or

nodal velocities. To enter initial conditions, use the following option: TIC for specified nodal

displacements, and Bulk Data nodal velocities.

CHAPTER 4 139

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

Damping

In a transient dynamic analysis, damping represents the dissipation of energy in the structural system. It

also retards the response of the structural system.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to enter two types of damping in a transient dynamic

analysis: discrete dampers and Rayleigh damping.

For direct integration damping, you can specify the damping matrix as a linear combination of the mass

and stiffness matrices of the system. You can specify damping coefficients on an element basis.

Stiffness damping should not be applied to either Herrmann elements or gap elements because of the

presence of Lagrange multipliers.

Numerical damping is used to damp out unwanted high-frequency chatter in the structure. If the time step

is decreased (stiffness damping might cause too much damping), use the numerical damping option to

make the damping (stiffness) coefficient proportional to the time step. Thus, if the time step decreases,

high-frequency response can still be accurately represented. This type of damping is particularly useful

in problems where the characteristics of the model and/or the response change strongly during analysis

(for example, problems involving opening or closing gaps).

Element damping uses coefficients on the element matrices and is represented by the equation:

n

∆t

C Z ∑ α i M i H βi H γ i JJJJ

J K

π i

(4-49)

i Z 1

where

C is the global damping matrix

M i is the mass matrix of ith element

K i is the stiffness matrix of the ith element

a i is the mass damping coefficient on the ith element

βi is the usual stiffness damping coefficient on the ith element

γ i is the numerical damping coefficient on the ith element

∆t is the time increment

If the same damping coefficients are used throughout the structure, Equation (4-49) is equivalent to

Rayleigh damping.

The damping on elastic foundations is the same as the damping on the element on which the foundation

is applied.

References

For directions on setting up a Transient Dynamic analysis, see “Specifying the Analysis Type for a

Subcase” and Specifying Transient Dynamic Subcase Parameters (Chapter 7).

140 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Creep

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) offers two schemes for modeling creep in conjunction with

plasticity. Creep for SOL 600 is described differently than Creep for SOL 106. The CREEP entry used

in SOL 106 will not work in SOL 600, and if entered will cause the job to terminate with an appropriate

message. Creep in SOL 600 must be described using viscoplastic materials (MATVP). The creep

formulations for SOL 600 are:

1. Treating creep strains and plastic strains separately using an explicit procedure (where the creep

is treated explicitly) or an implicit procedure (where both creep and plasticity are treated

implicitly). These procedures are available with standard options via data input or with user-

specified options via user subroutines. More details are provided below.

2. Modeling creep strains and plastic strains in a unified fashion (viscoplasticity). Both explicit and

implicit procedures are again available for modeling unified viscoplasticity. More details are

provided in the section titled Viscoplasticity in this chapter. The options offered by MSC.Nastran

for modeling creep are as follows:

• Creep data can be entered directly through the MATVP Bulk Data data entry. The form of the

creep is designated with either POWER for empirical creep law or TABLE for a tabular input of

creep model parameters.

• An automatic time stepping scheme can be used to maximize the time step size in the analysis.

• Eigenvalues can be extracted for the estimation of creep buckling time. In addition, for explicit

creep, the following additional options can be used:

• Creep behavior can be either isotropic or anisotropic.

• The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) rules on creep can be activated.

An automatic creep option takes advantage of the diffusive characteristics of most creep solutions.

Specifically, this option controls the transient creep analysis. You specify a period of creep time and a

suggested time increment. The program automatically selects the largest possible time increment that is

consistent with the tolerance set on stress and strain increments (see Creep Control Tolerances, page 141

in this chapter).

The algorithm is: for a given time step, a solution is obtained. The program then finds the largest values

of stress change per stress, and creep strain change per elastic strain. It compares these values to the

tolerance values, (stress change tolerance) and (strain change tolerance), for this period.

The value is calculated as the larger of:

( ∆σ ⁄ σ ) ⁄ T σ (4-50)

or

cr

( ∆ε ⁄ ε e l ) ⁄ Tε (4-51)

CHAPTER 4 141

Nonlinearity and Analysis Types

∆t n e w Z 0.8∆t o l d ⁄ p (4-52)

The time increment is repeated until convergence is obtained or the maximum recycles control is

exceeded. In the latter case, the run is ended.

If the first repeat does not satisfy tolerances, the possible causes are:

• Excessive residual load correction

• Strong additional nonlinearities such as creep buckling-creep collapse

• Incorrect coding in user subroutine CRPLAW, VSWELL, or UVSCPL

If all is well, the solution is stepped forward and the next step is begun. The time step used in the next

increment is chosen as

Since the time increment is adjusted to satisfy the tolerances, it is impossible to predetermine the total

number of time increments for a given total creep time.

SOL 600 performs a creep analysis under constant load or displacement conditions on the basis of a set

of tolerances and controls you provide.These are as follows:

1. Stress change tolerance – This tolerance controls the allowable stress change per time step during

the creep solution, as a fraction of the total stress at a point. Stress change tolerance governs the

accuracy of the transient creep response. If you need accurate tracking of the transient response,

specify a tight tolerance of 1 percent or 2 percent stress change per time step. If you need only the

steady-state solution, supply a relatively loose tolerance of 10-20 percent. It is also possible to

check the absolute rather than the relative stress.

2. Creep strain increment per elastic strain – SOL 600 uses either explicit or implicit integration of

the creep rate equation. When the explicit procedure is used, the creep strain increment per elastic

strain is used to control stability. In almost all cases, the default of 50 percent represents the

stability limit, so that you need not provide any entry for this value. It is also possible to check

the absolute rather than the relative strain.

142 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

3. Maximum number of recycles for satisfaction of tolerances – The automatic creep option in SOL

600 chooses its own time step. In some cases, the program recycles to choose a time step that

satisfies tolerances, but recycling rarely occurs more than once per step. Excessive recycling can

be caused by physical problems such as creep buckling, poor coding of user subroutine

CRPLAW, VSWELL, or UVSCPL or excessive residual load correction that can occur when the

creep solution begins from a state that is not in equilibrium. The maximum number of recycles

allows you to avoid wasting machine time under such circumstances. If there is no satisfaction of

tolerances after the attempts at stepping forward, the program stops. The default of five recycles

is conservative in most cases.

4. Low stress cut-off – Low stress cut-off avoids excessive iteration and small time steps caused by

tolerance checks that are based on small (round off) stress states. A simple example is a beam in

pure bending. The stress on the neutral axis is a very small roundoff-number, so that automatic

time stepping scheme should not base time step choices on tolerance satisfaction at such points.

The default of five percent of the maximum stress in the structure is satisfactory for most cases.

5. Choice of element for tolerance checking – Creep tolerance checking occurs as a default for all

integration points in all elements. You might wish to check tolerances in only 1 element or in up

to 14 elements of your choice. Usually, the most highly stressed element is chosen.

References

1. Chung, J. and Hulbert, G.M., “A family of single-step Houbolt time integration algorithms for

structural dynamics”, Comp. Meth. in App. Mech. Engg., 118, 1994.

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear SOL 600 User’s Guide

Ch. 5: Analysis Techniques

5 Analysis Techniques

Domain Decomposition 144

RESTARTS 148

Inertia Relief with Auto-Support 149

Superelements and Modal Neutral Files 154

BRKSQL 155

User Subroutine Support 159

144 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Domain Decomposition

The Domain

Decomposition Method

(DDM) is the ability to

subdivide your model into

domains. Each domain is

then submitted to a

separate computer or CPU

for parallel processing.

With this ability, you can

analyze large models with

much less over all compute

time. A single processor

job that might take 30

hours to run, can run in half

the time on two processors,

or even a quarter of the time with four processors. Jobs that take days to run on a single machine can be

run overnight on multiple processors that would otherwise lay idle. With DDM, large models that were

once thought impossible to practically optimize, now can be solved.

The PARAMARC Bulk Data entry controls the domain decomposition process. Domains can now be

specified by you or automatically determined.

Entry Description

PARAMARC Specifies parallel regions for domain decomposition in nonlinear analysis when

MSC.Marc is executed from MSC.Nastran

References

• PARAMARC (SOL 600) (p. 2059) in the .

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.

2. Click on Solution Type..., then click Solution Parameters...

3. Select Domain Decomposition... to bring up the subform shown below.

CHAPTER 5 145

Analysis Techniques

Decomposition Method

• Automatic Automatic is recommended because the work is done by

MSC.Nastran.

• Manual If manual is selected, groups must be defined previously.

Number of Domains Defines the number of domains to be created.

Model/Current Group This switch is not applicable to this release. By default groups from

all domains will be translated.

146 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Prior to version 2005, the basic MSC.Marc input file had to be split up into as many MSC.Marc input

files as processors to be used. MSC.Nastran 2005 incorporated the capability to use a MSC.Marc feature

called the Single File Parallel file. For this to work properly, you must use MSC.Marc 2003 or later to

run in combination with MSC.Nastran. The interface to use this capability specifies KIND=0 or blank on

the PARAMARC entry as shown below (the other options are still available but should be considered

obsolete).

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PARAMARC ID KIND NPROC

PARAMARC 51 4

Field Contents

ID Identification number of the PARAMARC entry -- Not presently used. (Integer)

KIND Designates how parallel domains are created. (Integer > 0, Default = 0)

0=Parallel processing is accomplished using MSC.Marc’s single file input. MSC.Marc

Version 2005 and subsequent versions must be used. The command line to execute

MSC.Marc is changed from -np N (or -nprocd N) to -nps N where N is the number of

processors. The maximum number of processors for is 256. Continuation lines may not be

entered for KIND=0.

NPROC Number of processors to be used.

A similar option to create a single-file MSC.Marc t16 file is also available. This option is selected using

Bulk Data PARAM,MARCOUTR,1 which is the default starting with the 2005 r3 version.

There may be multiple results (post) files from a DDM run just as there may be multiple input files. There

is one for each domain by the same names with the .t16 /.t19 file extension plus the master. If the

master jobname.marc.t16/t19 file is attached, results from all domains are automatically accessed

from each domain post file. If however, you want only results for a particular domain, you must attach

that file only.

CHAPTER 5 147

Analysis Techniques

DDM Configuration

Please see the MSC.Marc Parallel Version for Windows NT / UNIX Installation and User Notes for

proper configuration. MSC.Marc Parallel must be configured properly in order for DDM to work from

MSC.Patran or MSC.Nastran. If you have trouble, please check the following:

On Windows machines:

1. Make sure MPICH is installed. This can be done automatically by including bulk data PARAM,

MARMPICH,1 and a file named mpich.dat in the same directory as the Nastran input deck with

3 lines having the content (book) user name (the name you use to log in the PC) domain name (if

you are not a member of the domain, enter local) password (password you enter to login in to the

PC). All items must start in column 1.

2. When using a cluster of Windows machines you must have all the input files in a shared directory

when you submit the job. The MSC.Marc installation on the master host must be in a shared

directory also unless all machines have their own installation of MSC.Marc, and then they must

be referenced in the hostfile.

For UNIX you must be able to “rlogin” to all referenced machines in the hostfile without

supplying a password. If you cannot, check that your .rhosts file has the name of all the

machines in it. Check with a system administrator if you need help.

Only homogeneous clusters of machines are currently supported. They must all be running the same MPI

service or daemons. For example a cluster of 64 bit HP machines must all use the HP MPI; a cluster of

32 bit HP machines can use either HP MPI or MPICH, but not a mixture; heterogeneous clusters should

work if they all use MPICH; UNIX and Windows clusters are not supported.

More information on running jobs in parallel is provided in the MSC.Nastran Implicit SOL 600

Parallel Guide.

148 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

RESTARTS

A restart capability is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Any analysis can be

saved from any point for a possible restart. A new static load case or a buckling analysis can be solved

by restarting from the original static analysis.

The RESTART Bulk Data entry controls a restart for SOL 600.

Entry Description

RESTART Specifies writing or reading of restart data .

References

• RESTART (SOLs 600/700) (p. 2330) in the MSC.Natran Quick Reference Guide.

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form.

2. On the Analysis form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Restart>Full

Run.

3. Click on Restart Parameters... to bring up the subform shown below.

CHAPTER 5 149

Analysis Techniques

Inertia Relief has been added. The SOL 600 capability exceeds that available in other MSC.Nastran

solution sequences using new Bulk Data entry, SUPORT6. One method is available for MSC.Nastran

2005 r3.

The “support” method may be used to specify which degrees of freedom should be “supported” for each

body. This is an extension of the PARAM,INREL,1 method and may use fewer computer resources than

the eigenvalue method for some models.

Inertia Relief may be employed on a subcase-by-subcase basis and can be removed if all previously

unsupported bodies merge into the main body (which is supported) either all at once or gradually. Please

consult MSC.Marc 2005 r3 documentation for a more detailed discussion of this capability.

Review

Inertia relief has long been a feature in MSC.Nastran SOL 101, which enables applied static loading to

an unconstrained structure and the calculation of deformed shape and internal loads within the

accelerated structure. Inertia relief calculates the rigid body mass x acceleration loads imparted by the

applied loads, and applies them in combination to the flexible body to produce a load-balanced static

formulation in the linear acceleration reference frame. The “steady-state” relative structural

displacements and internal loads are calculated using support entries (PARAM,INREL,-1) or the new

auto-support capability (PARAM,INREL,-2).

Inertia relief is commonly used to calculate psuedo-static stresses, strains, and loads of unsupported

structures due to static loading.

150 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

General Formulation

Consider common 3D unconstrained structure with six rigid body modes.

Rigid body mechanics loads balance (small motion):

∑ Fi Ó ∑ m i ai Z 0 and ∑ ( M i H r i ⁄ o ⋅ F i ) Ó ∑ ( Ii α i H ri ⁄ o ⋅ m i a i ) Z 0 (5-1)

[ R ] { P } Ó [ R ] [ M ] [ R ] { ǔˇ o } Z { 0 }

T T

(5-2)

R is a (a-dof x 6) geometric rigid body matrix resulting from unit displacements in each basic direction

with respect to GRDPNT or (0,0,0). R provides summation and cross-product utilities for loads and

motion at each dof i . Rigid body accelerations ai and αi are represented by 6 x 1 ǔˇ o at

PARAM,GRDPNT. All Fi and Mi are entered into load vector P ; mi and I i are entered into a-set mass

matrix M . Solve for the rigid body accelerations:

Ó1

{ ǔˇ o } Z ( [ R ] [ M ] [ R ] ) [ R ] { P }

T T

(5-3)

T

R MR is the total 6 x 6 a-set mass, nonsingular for normal 3D models with appropriate mass properties.

Apply the balanced loads to the finite element structure in linear statics formulation. This form is

employed by the PARAM,INREL,-2 method:

In contrast, older method INREL = -1 and SOL 111 employ the following:

ˇˇ }

[K ]{ U } Z { P } Ó [ M ][D ]{ U (Inrel = -1) (5-5)

r

Each method uses a different representation for the rigid body matrix and accelerations. Stiffness matrix

K is singular (i.e., rank l Z a Ó 6 ), and each method likewise employs different techniques to solve for

displacement shape U.

CHAPTER 5 151

Analysis Techniques

SUPPORT6 Entry

SUPORT6 Inertia Relief for SOL 600 - Used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear -

SOL 600 only

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUPORT6 SID METH IREMOV GID CDOF CID IDS1

MODES FMAX FSHIFT

Examples:

SUPORT6 2 1 3000 123456 0

SUPORT6 3 2

6 0.6 -10.0

SUPORT6 0 3 1 101

SUPORT6 4 3 -2

152 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Field Contents

SID Set ID corresponding to a Case Control SUPORT1 command or zero (Integer, Default

= 0)

0 = if this is the only SUPORT6 entry, use this SUPORT6 entry for all subcases. If there

are multiple SUPORT6 entries, use the one with SID=0 for Marc increment zero.

N = Use this SUPORT6 entry for the subcase specified by Case Control SUPORT1=N

Different SUPORT6 entries can be used for each subcase if desired and different

subcases can use different methods.

If there is only one SUPORT6 entry (with SID=0) no Case Control SUPORT1

commands are necessary.

METH Method to use (Integer, Default = 0)

0 = Inertia relief is not active for this subcase

1 = Use the “Kinematic” method – do not enter continuation line. Input will come from

fields 5-7 of this entry

2 = Use the “Eigenvalue” method – Input data from the 2nd line must is used and fields

5-7 of the primary line must be blank (any SUPORT/SUPORT1 Bulk Data entries are

ignored).

3 = Use the “Support Method”, usually specified using param,inrel,-1 for other solution

sequences (see Remark 3). Do not enter the continuation line. Input will come from

all SUPORT entries and those SUPORT1 entries with ID=SID.

Only method 3 is available in the 2005 r3 release.

IREMOV Method to retain or remove inertia relief from a previous subcase (Integer, Default = 1)

1 = Retain inertia relief conditions from previous subcase

1 = Remove inertia relief loads immediately

2 = Remove inertia relief loads gradually

IREMOV should be blank or 1 unless METH is 0

GID Reference Grid ID for kinematic method (Integer, Default = 0)

=0 Use the origin

=N Use grid ID N

(Used for METH=1 ONLY)

CDOF Degrees of freedom for which inertia relief loads will be applied (Integer, no Default).

Enter a string of values identifying the degrees of freedom for the model. For 3D

models, usually 123456 is entered. For 2D models two or three degrees of freedom as

applicable may be entered. The limit is 6 degrees of freedom for 3D models (see

Remark 2).

(Used for METH=1 ONLY)

CID Coordinate system flag designating how to apply inertia relief loads (Integer, Default

= 0)

0= Basic coordinate system

N=Apply loads in coordinate system designated by field 7 of the GRID entry for grid

id N.

(Used for METH=1 ONLY)

CHAPTER 5 153

Analysis Techniques

Field Contents

IDS1 ID of SUPORT1 entries to be used if METH=3 and SID=0 (Integer, no Default)

For METH=3, only SUPORT1 entries with ID=IDS1 will be used in MSC.Marc

increment zero. All SUPORT entries will be used

(Used for METH=3 when SID=0 ONLY)

MODES Number of modes to use in the Eigenvalue method (Integer, no Default)

(Used for METH=2 ONLY)

FMAX Rigid body modes frequency cutoff (Hz) (Real, Default =1.0 Hz)

(Used for METH=2 ONLY)

FSHIFT Shift frequency used in Lanczos eigenvalue extraction (Hz) (Real, Default = -1.0 Hz)

(Used for METH=2 ONLY)

Remarks:

1. The continuation entry is required only if the eigenvalue method (METH=2) is used. Fields 5-7

must be blank if the eigenvalue method is to be used. The continuation option must be omitted if

the kinematic method is to be used. The kinematic method is similar to param,inrel,-2 for other

solution sequences except that the inertia relief loads are updated at each iteration.

2. For the kinematic method, a maximum of 6 degrees of freedom are allowed for 3D structures (2

or 3 dof for 2D structures). You are responsible for knowing how many rigid body modes need

to be “constrained” with inertia relief. For multiple contact bodies which are unsupported at the

beginning of an analysis but eventually contact, there are usually 6 dof per flexible body. This

situation requires the use of the eigenvalue method with MODES set to 6 times the number of

unsupported flexible bodies. If some flexible bodies are supported in some directions but not in

others, the number will be less than 6 per body. It is suggested that a preliminary SOL 103

eigenvalue extraction be performed to assess the number of rigid body modes.

3. The parameter INREL is ignored by SOL 600.

4. METH=3 is the only available METH for the 2005 r3 release. Inertia relief was not available prior

to the 2005 r3 release.

154 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran SOL 600 allows you to create external superelements or to output MSC.Adams MNF files.

External Superelements

External superelements are available both for input (generated by previous MSC.Nastran jobs) and

output. To generated matrices use Bulk Data entry, MDMIOUT to obtain the reduced (or full) stiffness.

These matrices can then be used to compute eigenvalues, perform harmonic or random vibration

analyses, etc. Note that for the MSC.Nastran 2005 r2 release, the corresponding mass matrix is assumed

to be the same as the original and is computed by MSC.Nastran.

For MSC.Nastran-generated matrices, follow the procedure outlined in the MSC.Nastran 2004 Release

Guide, Chapter 6 to create the external superelements. In other words, for each creation run, use the same

procedures that are used by other MSC.Nastran external superelement creation runs employing the

EXTSEOUT Case Control command. For the analysis that combines the external superelements, use the

new Bulk Data entry, MESUPER and include the .asm and .pch files from the superelement creation runs.

Example

An example of the input data for the combination run follows:

SOL 600,101 path=1 stop=1

CEND

param,marcbug,0

TITLE = 2 SUPERELEMENTS AND THE RESIDUAL -- TEST PROBLEM NO. EXTSE2R

SUBTITLE = 8 X 8 MESH OF QUAD4 ELEMENTS; GM-CMS PROJECT

param,mextsee,1

SPC = 100

LOAD = 1000

DISP = ALL

K2GG=KAAX

M2GG=MAAX

BEGIN BULK

param,marcnd99,-1

force, 1000, 844, , 0.1, 0., 0., 1.

SPC1 100 12346 840 848

$2345678 2345678 2345678

mesuper 100 extse2a.pch

mesuper 200 extse2b.pch

include 'OUTDIR:extse2a.asm'

include 'OUTDIR:extse2b.asm'

include 'OUTDIR:extse2a.pch'

include 'OUTDIR:extse2b.pch'

ENDDATA

You can now create MSC.Adams modal neutral files (MNF) using the Bulk Data entry, MDMIOUT.

Once read into MSC.Adams you can view and animate modal results. You can find more information on

the MSC.Adams family of motion products by visiting our MSC website.

CHAPTER 5 155

Analysis Techniques

BRKSQL

Bulk Data entry BRKSQL is available for brake squeal simulation which replaces several parameters and

MARCIN entries previously used. It is now possible to determine the unstable brake squeal roots using

MSC.Nastran’s complex eigenvalue solver and unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices form MSC.Marc

either for an undeformed structure or after a nonlinear subcase. Brake squeal analysis for SOL 600 is

accomplished by starting a primary MSC.Nastran job, spawning MSC.Marc to calculate the

unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices either at the beginning or end of a nonlinear subcase, then

spawning a second MSC.Nastran job to calculate the complex eigenvalues. Unstable roots indicate

potential brake squeal. They are designated by positive real roots and negative damping in the f06

output file.

BRKSQL Specifies data for Brake Squeal Calculations using SOL 600

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

BRKSQL METH AVSTIF FACT1 GLUE ICORD

R1 R2 R3 X Y Z

NASCMD

RCFILE

Example:

BRKSQL 1 5.34E6 1.0 1.0

0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

tran

nastb

156 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Field Contents

METH Method flag corresponding to the type of brake squeal calculations to be performed.

(Integer, Default = 1)

0 = Perform brake squeal calculations before any nonlinear analysis has taken place

AVSTIF Approximate average stiffness per unit area between the pads and disk. Corresponds to

MSC.Marc’s PARAMETERS fifth datablock, field 1. This value is also known as the

initial friction stiffness in the MSC.Marc Volume C documentation. AVSTIF can be

obtained by either experiment or numerical simulation. A larger value of AVSTIF

corresponds to a higher contact pressure, which usually results in more unstable modes.

(Real; no Default; required field)

FACT1 Factor to scale friction stiffness values calculated by MSC.Marc. (Real; Default = 1.0)

GLUE Flag specifying whether MPC for non-pad/disk surfaces with glued contact are used or

ignored (Integer, Default = 0). A value of 0 means ignore the MPC; a value of 1 means

include the MPCs (see Remark 6).

ICORD Flag indicating whether coordinates are updated or not. A value of 0 means coordinates

are not updated. A value of 1 means coordinates are updated using the formula

Cnew=Corig+Defl where Cnew are updated coordinates, Corig are original coordinates,

and Defl are the final displacements from last MSC.Marc increment. (Integer; Default =

0)

R1 X direction cosine (basic coord system) of axis of rotation; corresponds to MSC.Marc

ROTATION A second datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)

R2 Y direction cosine (basic coord system) of axis of rotation; corresponds to MSC.Marc

ROTATION A second datablock.

R3 Z direction cosine (basic coord system); corresponds to MSC.Marc ROTATION A

second datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)

X X coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to

MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)

Y Y coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to

MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)

Z Z coordinate in basic coord system of a point on the axis of rotation; corresponds to

MSC.Marc ROTATION A third datablock. (Real; no Default. Required field)

CHAPTER 5 157

Analysis Techniques

Field Contents

NASCMD Name of a command to run MSC.Nastran (limited to 64 characters) -- used in

conjunction with the CONTINUE options on the SOL 600 entry. The full path of the

command to execute MSC.Nastran should be entered. The string will be converted to

lower case. See Remark 2. (Character; Default = nastran)

RCFILE Name of an RC file to be used with a secondary MSC.Nastran job (limited to 8

characters) -- used in conjunction with the CONTINUE options on the SOL 600 entry.

An extension of “.rc” will automatically be added. See Remark 2. (Character; Default =

nastb.rc)

Remarks:

1. This entry is used to calculate complex eigenvalues for brake squeal using unsymmetric stiffness

friction matrices calculated by MSC.Marc. Options exist to obtain the unsymmetric stiffness

matrices using the undeformed geometry (initial contact) or after all specified nonlinear subcases.

2. SOL 600 performs brake squeal calculations. The main (original) MSC.Nastran job with input

file jid.dat or jid.bdf spawns MSC.Marc just as it does for any other SOL 600 job. MSC.Marc

calculates unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices that1 are saved on a file (jid.marc.bde with

associated file jid.marc.ccc). The primary MSC.Nastran job then creates input data for a second

MSC.Nastran job (jid.nast.dat) to use the unsymmetric stiffness matrices in an complex

eigenvalue extraction. The primary MSC.Nastran job spawns a second MSC.Nastran job to

calculate the complex eigenvalues. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors are found in

jid.nast.f06, jid.nast.op2, etc.

NASCMD is the name of the command used to execute the secondary MSC.Nastran job.

NASCMD can be up to 64 characters long and must be left justified in field 2. The sting as entered

will be used as is -- except that it will be converted to lower case regardless of whether it is entered

in upper or lower case.

RCFILE is the name of an RC file to be used for the secondary MSC.Nastran job. It should be

similar to the RC file used for the primary run except that additional memory will usually be

necessary to calculate the complex eigenvalues and batch=no should also be specified. RCFILE

is limited to 8 characters and an extension of “.rc” will be added automatically. This entry will be

converted to upper case in MSC.Nastran but will be converted to lower case before spawning the

complex eigenvalue run. This RC file must be located in the same directory as the MSC.Nastran

input file. This entry is the same as specifying PARAM,MRRCFILE. One or the other should be

used.

3. MPC are produced for contact surfaces with glued contact. DMIGs are produced for contact

surfaces without glued contact. The brakes and drums should not use glued contact; other regions

of the structure can used glued contact.

4. The continuation lines may be omitted if defaults are appropriate.

5. When a BRKSQL entry is used, PARAM,MRMTXNAM and PARAM,MARCFIL1 should not

be entered.

158 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

6. When brake squeal matrices are output by MSC.Marc, unsymmetric friction stiffness matrices are

output for non-glued contact surfaces. For surfaces with glued contact, MPCs are output. The

GLUE flag signals SOL 600 to look for these MPCs and combine them with other MPCs that

might be in the model using MPCADD, or if no MPCs were originally used, to add the MCPs due

to glued contact. Glued contact surfaces may not be used for the disk-rotor interface. If GLUE is

zero or blank, the MPC for glued contact in the MSC.Marc brake squeal bde file (if any) will be

ignored. Sometimes MSC.Marc puts out MPCs with only one degree-of-freedom defined. Such

MPCs will be ignored; otherwise, MSC.Nastran will generate a fatal error.

7. If ICORD=1, an MSC.Marc t19 file will automatic.

CHAPTER 5 159

Analysis Techniques

User subroutine support has been added through the bulk data entry USRSUB6.

USRSUB6 Defines User Subroutines for SOL 600 - Used in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear - SOL 600 only

Format:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

USRSUB6 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8

U9 U10

Examples:

USRSUB6 UDAMAG UVOID TENSOF

USRSUB6* SEPFORBBC

Field Contents

Ui Name of user subroutine to be included (Character, no Default) See MSC.Marc

Volume D for list of available User subroutines

Remarks:

1. All user subroutines must reside in the directory where the MSC.Nastran input file resides.

2. All names must be in lower case and have the extension.f

3. SOL 600 combines all user subroutines into one large subroutine named u600.f and u600.f is

passed to the MSC.Marc command line when spawned from MSC.Nastran

4. If the subroutine name is greater than 8 characters you must use fixed format.

160 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 6: Modeling

6 Modeling

Coordinate Systems 162

Nodes 164

Elements 165

Modeling in MSC.Patran 166

162 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Coordinate Systems

The basic coordinate system in MSC.Nastran Nonlinear is a right-handed, rectangular Cartesian system.

Your may choose other systems locally for input, for output of nodal variables (displacements, velocities,

etc.) and point loads or boundary condition specification, and for material options. In general, all

coordinate systems are assumed to be right-handed. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear output is provided

in the “Global” Coordinate System. The Global Coordinate System is defined by field 7 of each GRID

entry and therefore may refer to a rotated rectangular or cylindrical coordinate system. If field 7 is blank

or zero, the output is in the Basic Coordinate System (which is rectangular). MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear does not support output in spherical coordinate systems, however input may be specified in

spherical coordinate systems.

If the Coordinate ID is nonzero, it may refer to a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical local

coordinate frame.

Note the following points regarding nodal coordinate systems:

1. Displacement vectors and unbalanced force vectors are computed and written to the results file in

the global coordinate system.

2. Boundary conditions and nodal forces are applied in the global coordinate system.

3. Coupling equations and multipoint constraint (MPC) equation, including the MPC equations that

result from rigid links, relate displacement components in the global coordinate system.

4. Rigid link elements will produce erroneous results if a local coordinate system is defined at either

end of the element.

5. For 2-D models (i.e., models whose elements have only UX and UY degrees-of-freedom),

the Z-axis of the nodal coordinate system must coincide with the Z-axis of the basic

coordinate system.

There is a rectangular coordinate system associated with each element in a MSC.Nastran SOL 600

analysis. The default coordinate system and the options available for modifying it, depend on the element

type. Descriptions are given in Element Library (Ch. 11) for each element type.

If the element is homogeneous and either isotropic or orthotropic, the components of stress and strain are

computed and passed to the results file in the element coordinate system.

If the element is homogeneous and orthotropic, the directions of orthotropy coincide with the element

coordinate system, unless an MCID is specified.

For laminated elements each layer has its own coordinate system. The reference line for defining layer

orientations is the X-axis of the element coordinate system. Material properties are entered, and stresses

and strains are computed in the layer coordinate systems for all layers of laminated elements.

CHAPTER 6 163

Modeling

Depending on the element type and material model, the default element coordinate system can be

overridden by referring to a nonzero Coordinate ID when meshing.

Note: When used to define an element coordinate system, the Coordinate ID can reference only a

rectangular coordinate system.

With MSC.Nastran’s THETA and MCID fields on the CQUAD4, CTRIA3, etc. elements you specify the

orientation of the material axes of symmetry (relationship between the element coordinate system and

the global coordinate system, or the 0o ply angle line, if composite) in one of four different ways:

1. as a specific angle offset from an element edge,

2. as a specific angle offset from the line created by two intersecting planes,

3. as a particular coordinate system specified by user-supplied unit vectors, or

4. as specified by user subroutine ORIENT. This is accomplished by the specification of an

orientation type, an orientation angle, or one or two user-defined vectors.

The orientation of the material axes are defined in MSC.Patran using the Element Properties application.

1. Click the Properties application icon to access the Element Properties application.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to create a CQUADi or CTRIAi element.

3. Click Input Properties... and enter the material axes orientation information.

There are three ways to assign the material orientation:

a. reference a coordinate system, which is then projected onto the element,

b. define a vector that will be projected onto the element, or

c. define a constant angle offset from the default element coordinate system.

This defines the setting of the THETA or MCID field on the CQUADi or CTRIAi entry. This

scalar value can either be a constant value in degrees, a vector, or a reference to an existing

coordinate system. This property is optional.

164 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Nodes

Model geometry is defined in MSC.Nastran with grid points. A grid point is a point on or in the structural

continuum which is used to define a finite element. A simple model may have only a handful of grid

points; a complex model may have many tens of thousands. The structure’s grid points displace with the

loaded structure. Each grid point of the structural model has six possible components of displacement:

three translations (in the x-, y-, or z-directions) and three rotations (about the x-, y-, or z-axes). These

components of displacement are called degrees of freedom (DOFs).

Degrees-of-Freedom

The degrees-of-freedom in MSC.Nastran Nonlinear are always referred to as follows:

1 x-displacement.

2 y-displacement.

3 z-displacement.

4 Rotation about the x-axis.

5 Rotation about the y-axis.

6 Rotation about the z-axis.

MSC.Nastran Nonlinear only activates those degrees-of-freedom needed at a node. Thus, some of the

degrees of freedom listed above may not be used at all nodes in a model, because each element type only

uses those degrees of freedom which are relevant. For example, two-dimensional solid (continuum)

stress/displacement elements only use degrees of freedom 1 and 2. The degrees of freedom actually used

at any node are thus the envelope of those variables needed in each element that uses the node.

CHAPTER 6 165

Modeling

Elements

Once the geometry (grid points) of the structural model has been established, the grid points are used to

define the finite elements.

MSC.Nastran has an extensive library of finite elements covering a wide range of physical behavior.

Some of these elements and their names are shown in figure below. The C in front of each element name

stands for “connection.”

• Point Element (not a finite element, but can be included in the finite element model)

CONM1 (Concentrated mass)

• Spring Elements (they behave like simple extensional or rotational springs)

CELAS2

• Surface Elements (they behave like membranes or thin plates)

CTRIA3 CQUAD4

• Rigid Bar (infinitely stiff without causing numerical difficulties in the mathematical model)

RBE2

Structural elements are defined on Bulk Data connection entries that identify the grid points to which

the element is connected. The mnemonics for all such entries have a prefix of the letter “C”, followed by

an indication of the type of element, such as CBAR and CROD. The order of the grid point identification

defines the positive direction of the axis of a one-dimensional element and the positive surface of a plate

element. The connection entries include additional orientation information when required. Some

elements allow for offsets between its connecting grid points and the reference plane of the element. The

coordinate systems associated with element offsets are defined in terms of the grid point coordinate

systems. For most elements, each connection entry references a property definition entry. If many

elements have the same properties, this system of referencing eliminates a large number of duplicate

entries.

Details for each element type are described in Element Library (Ch. 11).

166 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Modeling in MSC.Patran

In MSC.Patran, geometric models are the foundation on which most finite element models are built.

Geometric curves, surfaces, or solids provide the base for creating nodes, elements, and loads and

boundary conditions; the geometric model also serves as the structure to which material properties, as

well as element properties, may be assigned even before any mesh is actually generated.

Model geometry may be constructed in MSC.Patran, accessed directly from a CAD application, or

imported in specially formatted translator files. Whatever the source of the geometry, a single geometric

model will be maintained throughout all geometric and finite element operations. Geometric entities,

even if obtained from external files, retain their original mathematical representation without any

approximations or substitutions.

In MSC.Patran you can create, modify, and delete points, curves, surfaces, and solids. MSC.Patran

assigns a default color to the display of all geometric entities.

Pick the Geometry icon in the MSC.Patran Main Form to access the Geometry application.

processes in the Geometry application. The top

portion of the form contains three keywords,

Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same

throughout all activities. The rest of the entries will

vary depending on the requirements posed by the

specified action, object, and method.

Action Names the operation that will be performed; for example Create, Edit, or

Delete.

Object Identifies the geometric entity upon which the action is performed, for

example, Solid. In this case, if the Action is Create, then the command

requests that a solid be created.

Method Specifies the procedure used to perform the action. Taking the above

example one step further, if the Method is Surface, a solid will be created

by one of the techniques that utilize surfaces.

There are hundreds of action, object, method combinations available for creating geometric entities in

MSC.Patran. For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the Patran Reference Manual,

Part 2: Geometry Modeling.

CHAPTER 6 167

Modeling

MSC.Patran can make use of geometry created in databases outside of MSC.Patran by either accessing

geometric data directly from one of several CAD systems, or importing geometry using special files.

Geometry access, performed through the unique Direct Geometry Access (DGA) feature, does not

require any translation. MSC.Patran accesses the original geometry and uses the geometric definitions

of all entities.

On the other hand, when geometry is imported, MSC.Patran first evaluates the mathematical definition

of entities in their originating CAD system, and then formulates the information to be appropriate for

MSC.Patran operations.

Imported geometry comes to MSC.Patran via IGES, Express Neutral files, or MSC.Patran Neutral files.

IGES (Initial Graphic Exchange Specification) is an ANSI standard formatted file that makes it possible

to exchange data among most commercial CAD systems. Express Neutral files are intermediate files

created during a Unigraphics or CV CAD model access. MSC.Patran Neutral files are specially

formatted for the purpose of providing a means of importing and exporting model data.

Geometry received into the database, whether through direct access or import, is treated as if it had been

built in MSC.Patran; meshing, load and boundary condition assignments, element and material

properties definitions are all performed as if on MSC.Patran’s own “native” geometry.

168 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Finite elements themselves are defined by both their topology (i.e., their shape) and their properties. For

example, the elements used to create a mesh for a surface may be composed of quadrilaterals or triangles.

Similarly, one element may be a steel plate modeling structural effects such as displacement and rotation,

while another may represent an air mass in an acoustic analysis.MSC.Patran provides numerous ways to

create a finite element mesh.

At this stage of using MSC.Patran, where you are creating a finite element mesh using the Finite

Elements application form, elements are defined purely in terms of their topology. Other properties such

as materials, thickness and behavior types are then defined for these elements in subsequent applications,

and discussed in later chapters of this guide.

The most rudimentary method of creating a finite element mesh is to manually generate individual nodes,

and then to create individual elements from previously defined nodes. Individual nodes can be either

be generated from the geometry model or directly created using node creation tools that bypass the

need for point definitions. A finite element model created manually supports the entire MSC.Patran

element library and where applicable, MSC.Patran automatically generates midedge, midface and

midbody nodes.

MSC.Patran contains many capabilities to help you manually create the right kind of finite element mesh

for your model, and capabilities that automate the process of finite element creation. MSC.Patran

provides the following capabilities for finite element modeling (FEM):

• Mesh seeding tools to control specific mesh densities in specific areas of your geometry.

• Several highly automated techniques for mesh generation.

• Equivalencing capabilities for joining meshes in adjacent regions.

• Tools to verify the quality and accuracy of your finite element model.

• Capabilities for direct input and editing of finite element data.

There are four basic mesh generation techniques available in MSC.Patran: IsoMesh, Paver Mesh, Auto

TetMesh, and 2-1/2D Meshing. Selecting the right technique for a particular model must be based on

geometry, model topology, analysis objectives, and engineering judgment.

Isomesh

Creates a traditional mapped mesh on regularly shaped geometry via simple subdivision. This method

creates Quad and Tria elements on surfaces and brick elements on solids. The resulting mesh supports all

element configurations in MSC.Patran.

Paver

The Paver is an automated surface meshing technique that you can use with any arbitrary surface region,

including trimmed surfaces, composite surfaces, and irregular surface regions. Unlike the IsoMesh

approach, the Paver technique creates a mesh by first subdividing the surface boundaries into mesh

points, and then operates on these boundaries to construct interior elements

CHAPTER 6 169

Modeling

TetMesh

Arbitrary solid mesher generates tetrahedral elements within MSC.Patran solids defined by an arbitrary

number of faces or volumes formed by collection of triangular element shells. This method is based on

MSC plastering technology.

2-1/2D Mesher

Transforms a planar 2D mesh to produce a 3D mesh of solid elements, using sweep and

extrude operations.

All of MSC.Patran’s finite element modeling capabilities are available by selecting the

Finite Element button on the main form.

Like the Geometry Application, the top portion of the Finite Element form contains three

keywords, Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same throughout all activities. Finite Element

(FE) Meshing, Node and Element Editing, Nodal Equivalencing, ID Optimization, Model Verification,

FE Show, Modify and Delete, and ID Renumber, are all accessible by setting the Action/Object/Method

combination on the Finite Elements form.

For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the Patran Reference Manual, Part 3: Finite

Element Modeling.

170 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 7: Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Debugging the Analysis

Solution Type 172

Analysis Procedures 176

Translation Parameters 179

Solution Parameters 182

Subcases 185

Subcase Parameters 188

Execution Procedure for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear from the

Command Line 199

Monitoring the Analysis 202

Debugging the Analysis 204

172 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Solution Type

MSC.Nastran can simulate many different types of structural response. In general an analysis type can

be either static or dynamic. In a static analysis, loads and boundary conditions are applied to a model and

the response is assumed to remain the constant over time. In dynamic analysis the response changes over

time. In MSC.Nastran, both static and dynamic analysis may simulate linear response or nonlinear

response. SOL 600 incorporates the formulations and functionality to simulate nonlinear static and

dynamic structural responses. The specific procedure MSC.Nastran will run is specified on the Executive

Control Statement by the ID entry. SOL 600 represents multiple types of analysis procedures, any of

which can be specified by the ID value on the SOL 600 Executive Control Statements.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) is designated with the following Executive Control

Statement in the MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file, where the ID entry indicates which analysis procedure is

to be run.

Entry Description

SOL 600, ID Creates MSC.Marc input and optionally executes MSC.Marc from inside

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).

References

• SOL 600,ID (p. 138 in the .

The new executive control statement is as follows:

SOL 600, ID PATH= COPYR= NOERROR OUTR=op2,xdb,pch,f06,eig,dmap,beam NOEXIT

STOP= CONTINUE=

Recently added are dmap, beam and CONTINUE. An explanation of these items follows:

dmap The user will enter his own DMAP to create whatever type of output that is

desired, such as op2, xdb, punch, f06. For all other options, DMAP is generated

as needed internally by MSC.Nastran.

beam The beam option must be specified if op2,xdb,pch. or f06 options are specified

and beam internal loads are to be placed in any of these files. The beam and eig

options are mutually exclusive (you cannot specify both).

CONTINUE= is an option that specifies how MSC.Nastran will continue its analysis after MSC.Marc

finishes. To continue the analysis, do not enter any STOP or OUTR options. It is possible to perform more

than one of these operations if necessary.

CHAPTER 7 173

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

0 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example, if SOL

600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Only 3-D

contact or materials supported by SOL 106 may be used.

1 MSC.Nastran will continue the current solution sequence as normal. For example if SOL

600,106 is entered, SOL 106 will continue as normal after MSC.Marc finishes. Of course, no

3-D contact or materials not supported by SOL 106 may be used.

2 MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will

generate DMIG matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly damping) on a file specified by

pram,marcfil1,name and time specified by param,marcstif,time. This is accomplished by

making a complete copy of the original MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job

with the SOL entry changed and an include entry for the DMIG file.

3 (Option not presently available.) MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 107 to compute complex

eigenvalues. MSC.Marc will generate OUTPUT4 matrices for friction stiffness (and possibly

damping) on a file specified by pram,marcfil2,name and time specified by

param,marcstif,time, This is accomplished by making a complete copy of the original

MSC.Nastran input file and spawning off a new job with the SOL entry changed and an

include entry for the DMIG file.

The original MSC.Nastran file should include CMETHOD=id in the Case Control command

and a matching CEIG entry in the Bulk Data.

MSC.Nastran will switch to SOL 111 to compute modal frequency response. MSC.Marc will

generate natural frequencies and mode shapes in (tbd) format which are read into

MSC.Nastran from a file specified by param,marcfil3,name.

4 (Option not presently available.) Same as option 3 except SOL 112 for linear transient

response will be used.

5 MSC.Nastran will switch to the solution sequence given in field 9 of the MDMIOUT entry.

MSC.Nastran execution spawned from the original execution. Case Control and Bulk Data

will be added to the original input to properly handle these matrices in the spawned

MSC.Nastran execution.

174 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

6 Same as option 1 except SOL 110 is run. For this option, the original MSC.Nastran input file

must contain METHOD=ID1 and CMETHOD=ID2 in the Case Control as well as matching

EIGRL (or EIGR) and CEIG entries in the Bulk Data.

7 Same as option 1 except SOL 103 is run for real eigenvalues/eigenvectors. The database can

be saved to restart into SOL 110 if desired. This should be done on the command line or in a

rc file with scratch=no. For this situation, the original MSC.Nastran input file must include

METHOD=id in the Case Control command and a matching EIGRL or EIGR entry in the

Bulk Data. (CMETHOD and CEIG can also be included.) The actual restart from SOL 103

to 110 must be performed manually at the present time.

101+ Continue options 101 to 400 are used to convert MSC.Marc’s initial contact tying constraints

to MPC’s and then continue in SOL 101 to 112 as a standard MSC.Nastran execution. For

example, if CONTINUE=101, a SOL 101 run with all the geometry load cases, etc. from the

original run would be conducted with the addition of the initial contact MPC determined from

MSC.Marc. The continue=101+ options are frequency used to model dissimilar meshes as

well as glued contact which does not change throughout the analysis. This option can be used

for any standard MSC.Nastran sequence where the initial contact condition does not change.

In order for initial contact to work, the surfaces must be initially touching. If they are

separated by a gap, the MPC’s will be zero until the gap closes and thus the initial MPC’s are

zero. This option automatically sets BCPARA INITCON=1.

SOL 600,106 path=1 stop=1 continue=1

TIME 10000

CEND

param,marcbug,0

ECHO = sort

DISP(print,plot) = ALL

STRESS(CORNER,plot) = ALL

STRAIN(plot) = ALL

SPC = 1

LOAD = 1

NLPARM = 1

CMETHOD=101

BEGIN BULK

param,marcfil1,dmig002

param,mrmtxnam,kaax

param,mrspawn2,tran

param,mrrcfile,nast2.rc

PARAM,OGEOM,NO

PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES

PARAM,GRDPNT,0

EIGC, 101, HESS, , , , ,50

NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 1 P YES

PLOAD4 1 121 -800.

PLOAD4 1 122 -800.

(rest of deck is the same as any other SOL 600 input file)

CQUAD4 239 2 271 272 293 292

CQUAD4 240 2 272 273 294 293

ENDDATA

CHAPTER 7 175

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

The full input for this example can be obtained from MSC.Nastran development. The name of the input

file continu2.dat.

Prior to selecting a Solution Type, check to see that under Analysis Preferences the Analysis Code is set

to MSC.Nastran, and the Analysis Type is set to Structural.

To set the Solution Type:

1. Click on the Analysis Application button.

2. On the Analysis Application form, click Solution Type... and select Implicit Nonlinear from the

list of available Solution Types.

References

• Analyze - Setting Up a File for Analysis (p. 9 in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Analysis Application.

176 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Analysis Procedures

The subcase is the MSC.Nastran mechanism for associating loads and boundary conditions, output

requests, and various other parameters to be used during part of a complete run. Each subcase can be

designated with one of the analysis types listed below. For each analysis type, you will define the Solution

Parameters and Output Requests; these collectively constitute the Analysis Procedures.

In MSC.Nastran, Case Control options provide the loads and constraints, and load incrementation

method, and controls the program after the initial elastic analysis. Case Control options also include

blocks which allow changes in the initial model specifications. Case Control options can also specify

print-out and postprocessing options.Each set of load sets must be begin with a SUBCASE command and

be terminated by another SUBCASE or a BEGIN BULK command. If there is only one load case, the

SUBCASE entry is not required. The SUBCASE option requests that the program perform another

increment or series of increments. The input format for these options is described in MD Nastran Quick

Reference Guide.

Analysis Types

Analysis Types for subcases in SOL 600 include the following:

Type Description

Linear Static Static stress analysis is used when inertia effects can be neglected. During a

linear static step, the model’s response is defined by the linear elastic stiffness at

the base state, the state of deformation and stress at the beginning of the step.

Contact conditions cannot change during the step - they remain as they are

defined in the base state.

Nonlinear Static Nonlinear static analysis requires the solution of nonlinear equilibrium

equations, for which MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses Newton’s method.

Many problems involve history dependent response, so that the solution is

usually obtained as a series of increments, with iteration within each increment

to obtain equilibrium. For most cases, the automatic incrementation provided by

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is preferred, although direct user control is also

provided for those cases where the user has experience with a particular problem.

Normal Modes This solution type uses eigenvalue techniques to extract the frequencies of the

current system, The stiffness determined at the end of the previous step is used

as the basis for the extraction, so that small vibrations of a preloaded structure

can be modeled.

Transient This solution procedure integrates all of the equations of motion through time.

Dynamic For linear systems, the dynamic method, using the Single-Step Houbolt operator,

is unconditionally stable, meaning there is no mathematical limit on the size of

the time increment that can be used to integrate a linear system. However, the

time step or the maximum allowable error parameter must be small enough to

ensure an accurate solution.

CHAPTER 7 177

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Type Description

Nonlinear This solution type is used when nonlinear dynamic response is being studied. For

Transient most cases, the automatic incrementation provided is preferred, although direct

Dynamic user control is also provided for those cases where the user has experience with

a particular problem.

Buckling Eigenvalue buckling estimates are obtained. Classical eigenvalue buckling

analysis (e.g., “Euler” buckling) is often used to estimate the critical (buckling)

load of “stiff” structures. “Stiff” structures are those that carry their design loads

primarily by axial or membrane action, rather than by bending action. Their

response usually involves very little deformation prior to buckling.

Creep This analysis procedure performs a transient, static, stress/displacement analysis.

It is especially provided for the analysis of materials which are described by the

CREEP material form.

Viscoelastic This is especially provided for the time domain analysis of materials which are

(Time Domain) described by the VISCOELASTIC, TIME material forms. The dissipative part

of the material behavior is defined through a Prony series representation of the

normalized shear and bulk relaxation moduli, either specified directly on the

VISCOELASTIC, TIME material forms, determined from user input creep test

data, or determined from user input relaxation test data.

Body Approach Body Approach enables you to position rigid bodies to just touch deformable

bodies before beginning a subsequent Load Step. No analysis is actually

performed during a Body Approach step.It is used commonly in multi-forming

simulations where bodies are brought just into contact before the analysis begins.

The Analysis Type is designated by specifying an ID as part of the Executive Control Statement in the

MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file.

Entry Description

SOL 600, ID Creates MSC.Marc input and optionally executes MSC.Marc from inside

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600).

178 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

SOL

Number SOL Name Description

101 SESTATIC Statics

103 SEMODES Normal Modes

105 SEBUCKL Buckling

106 NLSTATIC Nonlinear or Linear Statics

109 SEDTRAN Direct Transient Response

129 NLTRAN Nonlinear or Linear Transient Response

Other, as specified in the QRG, are available for special use.

References

• SOL 600,ID (p. 138 in the .

To define the Analysis Type for a subcase:

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. Click Solution Type... and click on the Implicit Nonlinear toggle.

Note: There are two ways to set up SOL 600 analysis jobs in MSC.Patran. The first is to

select Implicit Nonlinear as the Solution Type. This option gives you access to most

of the various analysis capabilities and numerical controls available through

SOL 600. The second option uses the same menus as if you were setting up a non-

SOL 600 analysis, such as a SOL 106 or 129, but simply changes the executive

command line. To use this second option, simply set up your analysis the same way

you would a non-SOL 600 job and click on the SOL 600 Run toggle on the Solution

Parameters form.

3. Click Subcases... and select an analysis type from the Analysis Type pull-down menu.

References

• Solution Types (p. 216 in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural

Analysis.

CHAPTER 7 179

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Translation Parameters

Translation parameters define file formats, numerical tolerances, processing options, numbering offsets,

and include files.

There are numerous translation parameters for SOL 600. Most of these parameters start with the letters

M, MR or MARC and follow the format MXXXX, MRXXXX, or MARCXXX.

References

• Parameter Descriptions (p. 628 in the .

• Format of Bulk Data Entries (p. 888 in the .

• INCLUDE (p. 84 in the .

To set translation parameters:

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. On the Analysis Application form, click Translation Parameters...

180 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

CHAPTER 7 181

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

• XDB Buffer Size For the XDB results file, defines the buffer size used for

accessing results.

Tolerances • Division - prevents divide by zero errors.

• Numerical - determines if two real values are equal.

• Writing determines if a value is approximately zero when

generating a Bulk Data entry field.

Bulk Data Format • Sorted Bulk Data -

• Card Format -

• Grid Precision Digits - Specifies where to round off a grid point

coordinate before it’s written out to the bdf file. For example if

this value is specified as 2 the number 1.3398 will be written

out as 1.34.

Node Coordinates Defines which coordinate frame is used when generating the

grid coordinates.

Number of Tasks Represents the number of processors to be used to run an analysis.

It is assumed that the environment is configured for distributed

parallel processing.

Numbering Options... Subform used to indicate offsets for all IDS to be automatically

assigned during translation.

Bulk Data Include File... Prompts you for the filename of the include file.

References

• Translation Parameters (p. 210 in the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1:

Structural Analysis.

182 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Solution Parameters

Solution parameters control a range of functions in the SOL 600 analysis. Functions such as

selecting the solver type, establishing a restart, specifying domain decomposition are all part of the

solution parameters.

Solution Parameters are designated in the Parameters portion of the MSC.Nastran Input file with the

following entries.

Entry Description

INCLUDE Inserts an external file into the input file. The INCLUDE statement may appear

anywhere within the input data file.

NLPARM Selects the parameters used for nonlinear static analysis.

TSTEPNL Selects integration and output time steps for a nonlinear dynamic analysis.

NLSTRAT Defines strategy parameters for nonlinear structural analysis.*

NLAUTO Defines parameters for automatic load/time stepping.*

Note: *NLSTRAT and NLAUTO defaults are appropriate for most analyses and these entries are

not normally required.

References

• Parameter Descriptions (p. 628 in the .

• Format of Bulk Data Entries (p. 888 in the .

• INCLUDE (p. 84 in the .

CHAPTER 7 183

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

To set solution parameters:

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. On the Analysis Application form, click Solution Type..., and select Implicit Nonlinear. Then

click Solution Parameters...

Solver Options Specifies the solver to be used in numerically inverting the system of

linear equilibrium equations.

Contact Parameters Defines options for detecting and handling contact.

Direct Text Input This subform is used to directly enter entries in the File Management,

Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections of the

MSC.Nastran input file.

Restart Parameters Includes a Restart option in the MSC.Nastran input file.

Advanced Job Control Sets alternate versions of the solver and alternate formats for the

results file.

Domain Decomposition Designates that domain decomposition be done manually,

semi-automatically, or automatically.

184 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

References

• For more information on Solver Options, see Numerical Methods in Solving Equations (p. 60 in

the MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide.

• For more information on Contact parameters, see Contact Parameters Subform (p. 251 in the

MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.

• For more information on Restart Parameters, see Restart Parameters Subform (p. 256 in the MD

Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.

• For more information on Domain Decomposition, see Domain Decomposition (p. 258 in the MD

Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1: Structural Analysis.

CHAPTER 7 185

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Subcases

Creating multiple subcases allows you to efficiently analyze multiple load cases in one run. Each subcase

is a collection of loads and boundary conditions, output requests, and other parameters. For nonlinear

analysis runs the starting point of each subcase is the ending point of the previous subcase.

Specifying Subcases

Each subcase is designated with the following Case Control Command.

Entry Description

SUBCASE Delimits and identifies a subcase.

References

• SUBCASE (p. 463 in the .

To define a subcase:

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

186 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

CHAPTER 7 187

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Available Load Cases Selects one or more available load cases to be applied to the

new subcase.

Subcase Options

• Subcase Parameters Controls load increment and iteration parameters for the subcase. Also

defines the nonlinear effects for the subcase. See Subcase

Parameters, page 188.

• Output Requests Defines the nodal and element results quantities and also determines

the frequency of results reporting. See Output Requests (Ch. 8).

• Direct Text Input This subform is used to directly enter entries in the File Management,

Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections of the

MSC.Nastran input file.

• Select Superelements Defines which superelements are to be included in the subcase.

• Select Explicit MPCs Selects explicit MPCs to be included in the subcase.

188 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Subcase Parameters

The subcase parameters represent the settings in MSC.Nastran Case Control and Bulk Data Section that

take effect within a subcase and do not affect the analysis in other subcases. Subcase parameters are

dependent on the type of analysis being performed. The set of subcase parameters applicable for each

analysis type are described in the following sections. For more information, see Solution Methods and

Strategies in Nonlinear Analysis (Ch. 3) in the MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)

User’s Guide.

For static nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the

load incrementation.

Entry Description

NLPARM Nonlinear Static Analysis Parameter Selection.

NLPCI Defines a set of parameters for the arc-length incremental solution strategies in

nonlinear static analysis.

NLAUTO Defines parameters for automatic load/time stepping used in SOL 600.

NLSTRAT Defines strategy parameters for nonlinear structural analysis used in SOL 600.

References

• NLPARM (p. 377 in the .

• NLPCI (p. 1999 in the .

• NLAUTO (SOLs 400/600) (p. 1983 in the .

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005 in the .

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Static from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

CHAPTER 7 189

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Nonlinear Solution Parameters

• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be

included in the subcase.

• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.

Load Increment Params... Defines whether the load increments will be fixed or adapted in

each iteration and the method by which adaptive load

increments will be determined.

Iteration Parameters... Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve the

equilibrium problem at each load increment.

Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact

bodies in the analysis.

Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for

the subcase.

190 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

For normal modes nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the eigenvalue extraction

techniques and the range of frequencies to be targeted for extraction.

Entry Description

EIGR Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue analysis.

EIGRL Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue (vibration or buckling) analysis

with the Lanczos method.

References

• EIGR (p. 1462 in the .

• EIGRL (p. 1466 in the .

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Normal Modes from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

CHAPTER 7 191

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Extraction Method Defines the method to use to extract the real eigenvalues.

Lancozs Parameters

• Number of Modes Indicates an estimate of the number of eigenvalues to be located.

• Lowest/Highest Frequency Defines the lower and upper limits to the range of frequencies to

be examined.

Sequence Checking Requests that Sturm sequence checking be performed on the

extracted eigenvalues.

192 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

For nonlinear buckling analysis the subcase parameters control the eigenvalue extraction techniques and

the range of frequencies to be targeted for extraction.

A METHOD command is specified in the desired subcase and selects an EIGB, or EIGRL Bulk

Data entry.

The linear buckling load analysis is correct when you take a very small load step in increment zero, or

make sure the solution has converged before buckling load analysis (if multiple increments are taken).

In a buckling problem that involves material nonlinearity (for example, plasticity), the nonlinear problem

must be solved incrementally. During the analysis, a failure to converge in the iteration process or

nonpositive definite stiffness signals the plastic collapse.

For extremely nonlinear problems, the EIGB option cannot produce accurate results. In that case, use

NLSTRAT options to specify an arc-length method that allows automatic load stepping in a quasi-static

fashion for both geometric large displacement and material (elastic-plastic) nonlinear problems. The

option can handle elastic-plastic snap-through phenomena. Therefore, the post-buckling behavior of

structures can be analyzed.

The eig option must be specified with the OUTR option on SOL 600 Executive Control statement if op2,

xdb, pch, or .f06 options are specified and MSC.Marc performs natural frequency or buckling eigenvalue

analysis. The reason it must be provided on the SOL entry is to enable MSC.Nastran to create DMAP on

the fly which include the LAMA data block. If the eig option is omitted, eigenvectors will be present in

the MSC.Nastran output but no eigenvalues will be available.

Entry Description

METHOD Selects the real eigenvalue extraction parameters.

EIGB Defines data needed to perform buckling analysis.

EIGRL Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue (vibration or buckling) analysis

with the Lanczos method.

MARCRBAL This parameter is used for eigenvalue analysis where natural frequencies or

buckling modes need to be calculated using the deformed geometry from a

nonlinear analysis.

References

• eig (p. 142 in the .

• METHOD (p. 353 in the .

• EIGB (p. 1454 in the .

• EIGRL (p. 1466 in the .

• MARCRBAL (p. 705 in the .

CHAPTER 7 193

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Buckling from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Extraction Method Defines the method to use to extract the real eigenvalues.

Lancozs Parameters

• Max # of Modes Indicates the maximum number of eigenvalues to be located.

• Max # of Modes Indicates the maximum number of positive eigenvalues to be located.

w/Pos. Eigenvalues

For transient dynamic nonlinear analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the

load incrementation.

Entry Description

TSTEPNL Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Parameter Selection.

NLAUTO Parameters for automatic load/time stepping.

NLSTRAT Strategy Parameters for nonlinear structural analysis.

References

• TSTEPNL (p. 489 in the .

• NLAUTO (SOLs 400/600) (p. 1983 in the .

• NLSTRAT (SOL 600) (p. 2005 in the .

194 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Transient Dynamic from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

3. Click Subcase Parameters...

Nonlinear Solution Parameters

• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be

included in the subcase.

• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.

Load Increment Params... Defines whether the load increments will be fixed or adapted in

each iteration and the method by which adaptive load

increments will be determined.

CHAPTER 7 195

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Iteration Parameters... Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve

the equilibrium problem at each load increment.

Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact

bodies in the analysis.

Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for the

subcase. Note that this option uses the equivalent of direct text

input (MARCIN option) and is not explicitly supported by

SOL 600.

The creep analysis option is activated in MSC.Nastran through the CREEP Bulk Data entry. The creep

time period and control tolerance information are input through the MARCAUTO=1 parameter. This

option can be used repeatedly to define a new creep time period and new tolerances. These tolerances

are defined in the section on Creep Control Tolerances. Alternatively, a fixed time step can also be

specified through the MARCAUTO parameter. In this case, no additional tolerances are checked for

controlling the time step.

Creep analysis is often carried out in several runs using the RESTART Bulk Data entry. Save restart files

for continued analysis. The RESTART entry allows you to reset the parameters defined in MARCAUTO

upon restart.

Entry Description

NLPARM Nonlinear Static Analysis Parameter Selection.

MATVP Defines creep characteristics based on experimental data or known empirical

creep law.

MARCAUTO Determines which MSC.Marc’s increment option is used.

RESTART Specifies writing or reading of restart data for Nonlinear Analysis when

MSC.Marc is executed from MSC.Nastran.

References

• MATVP (SOL 600) (p. 1613 in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• NLPARM (p. 1991 in the .

• MARCAUTO (p. 686 in the .

• RESTART (SOLs 600/700) (p. 2330 in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Creep from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

196 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

CHAPTER 7 197

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

• Procedure Selects Implicit or Explicit Creep method.

• Nonlinear Geometric Effects Defines the type of geometric or material nonlinearity to be

included in the subcase.

• Follower Forces Specifies whether forces will follow displacements.

Increment Type Defines a fixed or adaptive increment method.

• Adaptive Increment For adaptive methods, sets boundaries for incrementation.

Parameters...

Iteration Parameters Sets forth the iterative procedures that are employed to solve

the equilibrium problem at each load increment.

Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact

bodies in the analysis.

Active/Deactive Elements... Defines groups of elements to be active or deactive for

the subcase.

For body approach analysis the subcase parameters control the iteration process and the

load incrementation.

Entry Description

BCMOVE Specifies movement of rigid surfaces.

References

• “BCMOVE” in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up Analysis Application form. Click on Solution

Type and check to see that Implicit Nonlinear is the selected Solution Type, then click OK.

2. On the Analysis form select Subcases... and choose Body Approach from the Analysis Type

pull-down menu.

198 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

• Total Time Places a time step option in the Load Step.

• Synchronized If ON, specifies that when the first rigid body comes into contact, the

rest stop moving.

Contact Table... Activates, deactivates, and controls the behavior of contact bodies in

the analysis.

CHAPTER 7 199

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Nonlinear from the Command Line

After the generation of the input file is complete, it is submitted for execution as a batch process

(MSC.Nastran is not an interactive program). Once the input file has been submitted, you have no

additional interaction with MSC.Nastran until the job is complete except that you can terminate the job

prior to completion if it becomes necessary and monitor several keys files such as, .f04, .sts, .log, etc.

MSC.Nastran is executed with a command called nastran. (Your system manager may assign a different

name to the command.) The nastran command permits the specification of keywords used to request

options affecting MSC.Nastran job execution. The format of the nastran command is:

nastran input_data_file [keyword1 = value1 keyword2 = value2 ...]

where input_data_file is the name of the file containing the input data and keywordi=valuei is one or

more optional keyword assignment arguments. For example, to run an a job using the data file

example1.dat, enter the following command:

nastran example1

The details of submitting an MSC.Nastran job are specific to your computer system— contact

your computer system personnel or your MSC.Nastran Installation and Operations Guide for

further information.

200 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The Analysis Application controls the execution of MSC.Nastran.

When the Action is set to Analyze, the Method is set to Full Run, and the Apply button is selected from

the Analysis form, a jobname.bdf file is created which contains the analysis model, and the

P3TRANS.INI script is spawned by MSC.Patran. This script controls the analysis process outside and

independent of MSC.Patran.

When the analysis is successfully completed, one or more output file is produced. These output files can

be directly imported or attached into the MSC.Patran database for postprocessing by setting the Action

menu to Access Results.

If you submit the job from the MSC.Nastran icon (i.e., outside MSC.Patran), as long as the parent

window the job was run from is active, the analysis is still running. If you submit the job from within

MSC.Patran and use -stdout when you execute MSC.Patran, you can look in the MSC.Patran parent

window and it will tell you when it submits the Nastran job, and also when the Nastran job is completed.

Of course you can always use the Analysis Manager. Once the job is complete look in the parent window

to see what files were generated.

CHAPTER 7 201

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Look in the working directory and you will see the typical jobname.f06, jobname.f04,

jobname.log. If these files are there, you successfully submitted the Nastran job. If you submitted a

job with SOL 600, xxx as the executive command, there will also be some jobname.marc.xxx files

in the subdirectory. These are the files from the Marc run. To see if the run was successful, open

jobname.marc.sts and look for the number at the bottom. For most analyses, 3004 means the run

was successful.

For others, such as thermal contact, generation of DMIG matrices for subsequent use, other exit codes

such as 3031, 3030, 3031, and 3022 mean a successful run. Exit code 13 signifies a dta input error which

must normally be evaluated by MSC development. Exit 3015 means the job diverged and requires

additional time steps, changes to convergence controls or other changes to the input. A brief description

of most errors is provided at the end of this jid.mar.out file.

If there are no jobname.marc.xxx files, check to make sure you can submit Marc jobs successfully.

At the end of the jobname.f06 file, Nastran will tell you what command it used to submit the Marc

job. Take this command to a command prompt and enter it to see why the Marc job wasn’t submitted. If

you can go to a command window and type in “run_marc jid-jobname“ and it finds the Marc

executable and runs the jobname.dat Marc input file, you can just use PATH=2 on the SOL 600

command line.

202 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The nastran command permits the specification of keywords used to request options affecting

MSC.Nastran job execution. The format of the nastran command is:

nastran input_data_file [keyword1 = value1 keyword2 = value2 ...]

where input_data_file is the name of the file containing the input data and keywordi=valuei is one or more

optional keyword assignment arguments.

Use the keyword xmonast to monitor a MSC.Nastran job as described below.

Indicates if XMONAST is to be run to monitor the MSC.Nastran job. If “xmonast=yes” is

specified, XMONAST will be automatically started; you must manually exit XMONAST

when the MSC.Nastran job has completed. If “xmonast=kill” is specified, XMONAST will

start and will automatically exit when the MSC.Nastran job has completed.

Example: nastran example xmon=kill

This example runs the XMONITOR utility while the MSC.Nastran job is running. Once

the job completes, the XMONITOR program is automatically terminated.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear provides a status file (jobname.marc.sts) that can be queried

periodically to see how the analysis is progressing and if the job is completed. The file will report the

information relating to the progress of the analysis, with warning and informative messages.

The file review is especially important when manual or automatic time stepping procedures are being

used to step through an analysis procedure. One line is written after each successful increment. An

example file output is shown below.

dip

The first column shows the procedural step, while the second column shows the increment number. Note

that not every increment size is equal, as can be seen in the “TimeStep of the INC” column. For this

example, the third increment size is larger than the first two increments, which means that the procedure

is satisfied that equilibrium is being satisfied and that it has increased the time step size to take advantage

CHAPTER 7 203

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

of the better convergence characteristics. The third column (“cycle# of the Inc) indicates the number of

Newton Raphson iterations made during this increment. The next three columns show the increment

information, while the next six columns show the numbers for the total analysis.

Sepa means number of contact separations, cut refers to the number of time step size cutbacks, and split

refers to the number of increment splits due to contact penetration.

If the increment size becomes small, and there are a number of increments of this size, the analysis has

probably “stalled”, indicating that convergence is becoming very difficult to attain for the problem. A

review of the model is indicated.

The max disp column provides a valuable means to tell if a job is diverging or in some other way not

proceeding correctly.

There may be instances when you want to directly edit the MSC.Nastran Bulk Data file. Some

experienced MSC.Nastran users may want to add options directly to specific Parameters and Bulk Data

entries. MSC.Patran provides direct access to the Bulk Data file as follows.

To edit an existing Bulk Data File:

1. Click on the Analysis Application icon to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Existing Deck>Full Run.

3. Click Edit Input File...

MSC.Patran automatically looks for an existing deck name that matches the current database

name and displays the existing deck.

204 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran generates a substantial amount of information concerning the problem being executed. The

.f04 file provides information on the sequence of modules being executed and the time required by each

of the modules; the .log file contains system messages.

MSC.Nastran may terminate as a result of errors detected by the operating system or by the program. If

the DIAG 44 is set (see the diag keyword (p. 253) and the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide),

MSC.Nastran will produce a dump of several key internal tables when most of these errors occur.

Before the dump occurs, there may be a fatal message written to the .f06 file. The general format of

this message is

***SYSTEM FATAL ERROR 4276, subroutine-name ERROR CODE n

These messages are SEVERE WARNING, or other text ... issued whenever an interrupt occurs that

MSC.Nastran is unable to satisfactorily process. The specific reasons for the interrupt are usually printed

in the .f06 and/or .log file.

There are three major steps in getting a complete solution.

1. get the model input debugged (see section titled “Exit 13 Errors”).

2. establish initial equilibrium (see section titled “Exit 2004 Errors”).

3. getting the analysis to run to completion.

See How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully, page 201.

First, check the .sts, .f04, .f06, or .out files for licensing, disk access or format errors. The number a the

bottom of the jobname.marc.sts is the Marc Exit Number. Exit 13 means there was a format error in the

Marc input. Exit 2004 generally means you have unconstrained degrees of freedom or rigid body modes.

3002 means the analysis got part way through and then stopped. The complete Marc Exit message is

given at the end of the jobname.marc.out file, which may also be in jobname.f06 depending on the value

of COPYR.

If you get an Exit 13 check your input, make sure everything you need is in the Nastran input deck. Check

for elements, grids, contact body creation, etc. An easy way to debug these type of problems is to read

the jobname.marc.dat file (the Marc input file Nastran created) in to Mentat or Patran (an empty db with

preference set to Marc) and see what is missing. Often you will see that some elements are missing, or

that the contact bodies were not created as you would expect them. For more information see Figure 7-2.

CHAPTER 7 205

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

Submit job

Nastran job submit

from windows

Wait until process w/Pause=YES, ck

finishes. error msg

no

Do Is Ck Marc submit card,

no .f06, .f04, yes there a Fatal no find in .f06 and type

Does .sts .log files Error Message in a cmd window to

file exist? exist? in .f06, .f04, see why Marc job

.log? was not submitted.

yes

yes

ck .sts for fix-it - typical

Exit # Nastran debug

Do you

Is yes

get Nastran yes

requested Successful completion

Exit - go on to postprocess

#=3004? formatted output,

such

as .xdb?

no

no

look in ck T160P2.exe run, on windows

jobname.marc.out for make sure it is in search path.

Exit # and message.

No converged

increments, likely

no Is no yes unconstrained rigid

Is Is

Exit #=3002? Exit #=2004? body motion exists: a.)

Exit #=13? do modal to ID them,

b.) Ck equivalencing of

modal integrity, c.) add

yes yes constraints or weak

Some convergence springs, d.) see section

increments exist, on convergence

postprocess them & look problems.

Follow instructions in exit msg; if for possible causes of

its a formatting error ck Marc, stability loss, such as

Volc, or read the contact changes. Ck

jobname.marc.dat file into δ m a x , you may be

Patran’s Marc pref (or Mentat) encountering buckling

and compare this model modes. Do a buckling

w/original. The problem may be solution to see or try an

displayed when the file is read in. arc-length method.

206 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

If you get an Exit 2004 it means that the model was unable to reach equilibrium for the loads and

constraints applied in the initial subcase. Options include:

• adding more constraints (or equivalently soft springs) to ground the model.

• run a modal analysis to identify unconstrained rigid body modes.

The first thing to check at this point is: “Has the solution gone as far as it can,” i.e. maybe you already

have the complete solution. Sometimes nonlinear loading causes structures to buckle which may take

your analysis into the post-buckled region. Depending on the type of buckling, you may be simply trying

to drive your analysis farther into the post-buckling range which may not give you the information you

are after. For example, if you load a frame structure with a load that exceeds the critical buckling load

and the analysis is simply working to drive the structure further into a plastic hinge.

• Check the .sts, .log, and .out files for Exit 2004, 3002, or 3003 format error messages.

• If using fixed load incrementation try using a smaller time step, or use the automatic cutback

feature, or use adaptive time-stepping.

• Try running an eigenvalue buckling solution to see if you’ve passed a critical buckling load or

examine the stresses and strains to see if some portion of the structure has failed (if MATF

failure criteria was not included in the modal).

• If using Contact set the Contact Tolerance Bias to 0.9, particularly if doing shell contact (done by

default in SOL 600).

• Turn on Quasi-Static inertial damping or Non-Positive Definite to eliminate un-constrained rigid

body motions (done by default in SOL 600).

• Try running an eignevalue modal solution to identify unconstrained rigid body modes.

• Try using an arc-length method - you may be encountering local buckling.

• Look at any available results of converged increments.

• If doing contact try a different contact tolerance value.

• Isolate Non-linearities and add them one at a time.

• Making Sure Appropriate Non-linearities are Included.

• Check Material Stability – Make sure the entire strain range is covered by the material data.

For complex models involving multiple forms of nonlinear behavior the “tried and true” approach

(particularly if you are new to this type of problem) is to start with a linear model and add non-linearities

one at a time. Alternatively, remove the non-linearities one at a time until it runs. This approach helps

you determine which type of non-linearity is causing the convergence problem. If you have contact,

remove it and let the bodies “pass through” one another or replace the contact condition with an

equivalent displacement constraint. If you have nonlinear materials replace them with simple elastic

CHAPTER 7 207

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

ones. Add the non-linearities back one at a time, making sure the behavior is reasonable and correct.

Look at reaction forces and displacements of any converged increments to make sure they are of the

expected magnitude.

If you run the analysis and it doesn’t run at all, or ends before completing, you will get an error message

in the .OUT or .LOG file that will give you an indication of what the problem is. Do a text search on the

word “error” in the .OUT file. The first thing to check is to make sure you were able to get a license to

run the job. Licensing problems are one of the most common reasons for a run to fail. If you are sure you

have a license and submit the job correctly you should get a .OUT file that will end with an Exit #

preceded by a description of why the run stopped. Common Exit #’s are: Exit 3004 – means success, i.e.

the job ran to completion and did everything you asked it to. Exit 13 – means you have a syntax error in

the input file. You should check the input syntax of the line the error message points to, but it is likely

that the actual error was in the input block PRIOR to where the message points. Exit 2004 – typically

means non-convergence due to rigid body motions. See recommendations for Equilibrium. Exit 3002 –

this means the analysis ran into convergence problems part way through and did not complete. Any Exit

Message of 3000 or higher means there are converged increments. Plot the converged increments to see

what is going on. See Technical Application Note 4575 or Appendix A of Volume C: Program Input for

a more complete list with suggested “fixes.”

1. Equilibrium - Make sure your model has LBC’s and contact conditions that will ensure force

equilibrium at EVERY increment/iteration and for ALL rigid-body modes (typically there are 6).

When in doubt eliminate this as the source of non-convergence by intentionally over-constraining

the model (or adding soft springs) and then removing constraints one at a time until you figure

out the unconstrained rigid body mode. One area that is sometimes overlooked regarding

equilibrium is that of the rigid body control. If you don’t specify adequate control information

(e.g. you forget to add the zero that fixes the rigid body rotation value) you may have

convergence problems.

2. LBC’s - When LBC’s are removed, the forces/pressures (and the reaction forces due to

displacement constraints) are removed gradually over the subsequent step. The forces and

pressures are always removed gradually, but the reaction forces of displacement constraints may

be are removed suddenly at the beginning of the subsequent step. This sudden change in loading

can cause convergence problems.

3. Stability and Collapse - Non-convergence will occur when a structural instability (i.e., buckling)

mode is encountered. Buckling can occur either locally (in highly stressed area where the stability

of individual elements is exceeded) or globally when the critical buckling load of any part of the

model is exceeded. You may want to do a linear buckling analysis to determine the load that

would buckle the least-stable part of the structure. If you suspect that you are approaching the

post-buckled region here are some other things to try: a) try using Quasi-static inertial damping

(turn this on under Analysis – Step Create – Solution Parameters) or one of the Arc-length

methods. This will help get through the unstable region if doing a snap-through buckling

problem, and may help get you past one or two elements of local buckling, but probably not more

than that.) try a finer mesh (smaller elements have shorter length and so higher Pcr);

208 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

4. Materials - Make sure that the material coefficient values are realistic and that the models will

support the stresses and loads developed in the model. For example if you hang a 1000 lb. weight

from a perfectly plastic wire with a 0.001 in**2 cross section and a 20 ksi yield stress, the

resulting 100 ksi stress cannot be supported by the (20 ksi yield stress) material and the run will

not converge. Comparable behavior in bending is referred to as a “plastic hinge.” Units mis-

matches will often result in this type of problem (note that this only occurs in non-linear analyses).

For example, let’s say you are modeling a cantilever beam and using a perfectly plastic material

model and a “follower force” tip load, and you mistakenly add an extra zero to the tip load. A

plastic hinge will develop with the beam “winding up” like a spring and the analysis continuing

to run until it runs out of increments (which may take a long time). If you suspect this type of

problem first run the problem with a small fraction of the load to see if it will converge. If you are

using an orthotropic or hyperelastic material it is possible to select combinations of material

properties that will result in a non-positive definite material coefficient matrix. Normally the

analysis code will warn you if you violate this requirement.

5. Contact - If there is a problem with “chattering” (a condition where a particular node jumps into

and out of contact thus preventing the increment from converging), you can go to Translation

Parameters – Contact Control Parameters – Separation and set the Chattering toggle to

“Suppress”. The parameters which have the biggest effect on contact behavior are “Contact

Distance Tolerance”, D (see Fig. 1), “Bias Factor,” B (see Fig. 2) -) and “Separation Force.” The

default uses D = 1/20 the of the element edge length. You can find the specific value in the.OUT

file and try a larger or smaller value, whichever you feel is most appropriate. The default on the

bias value is 0, if having problems with contact one of the first things to try is to over-ride this

value on the Analysis – Translation Parameters – Contact Detection – Contact Parameters form

with 0.9. Another option would be to increase the separation force (which defaults to 0) to prevent

chattering. When considering contact problems look for places (such as corners and other

discontinuities) where one contact surface may “slip” off.

If your model doesn’t run, or stops pre-maturely: FIRST, READ THE MESSAGES IN The .sts, .f06, .log

and .out files. Common causes of the run to fail include:

1. unconstrained rigid body modes.

2. you're in the post-buckled region.

3. problems resolving contact.

4. some part of the model/material is "over-constrained" such that the given displacement solution

doesn’t change when the load is increased (i.e. individual elements are buckling locally), this type

of non-unique solution can prevent convergence.

After trying the obvious things, talk to other experienced users about possible reasons your run isn’t

working. In one case, a user was using the standard element formulation with υ = 0.5 and hex/21

elements and his model would not converge even though there were no obvious problems. For this case,

using the constant volume formulation should provide a unique solution and allow convergence, unless

υ = 0.5 causes numerical problems. In that case you should use the Herrmann elements which should

take care of the numerical problems as well as the non-unique solution problem. If these options don’t

work, you could try using reduced integration, which may solve both problems at once, but may

CHAPTER 7 209

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

have problems with energy-free or "spurious" deformation modes (also called "hour-glassing"),

although the analysis has built-in hour glass stabilization. Also, try quasi-static inertial damping or an

arc-length methods.

Here are some other things to try:

a. try a finer mesh;

b. modify the material model: if its simple elastic-perfectly plastic with large plastic strains try

using constant volume Herrmann elements, if using a hyper-elastic material model try

lowering Nu from 0.5 to maybe 0.49 or so (or lower if you have to); make sure its based on

test data that includes the type of behavior you are trying to model (i.e. if your test data is from

a uni-axial tensile test and you are modeling a pressurized cylinder, which is a bi-axial stress

state, try analyzing a simple bi-axial sheet to see if your hyper-elastic material model will

successfully handle bi-axial stress states; if not you may have to include some bi-axial test

data (hyper-elastic models based on test data should include at least 2 "modes," although the

program has a new Arruda-Boyce model which often yields better results with limited

experimental data);

c. simplify - if the model you are running is a 3D cylinder made of solid elements, run a 2D axi-

symmetric test case to check out the mesh refinement and material model. If not in the post-

buckled region try: 1) look at deformed shape to see if it looks reasonable. Remember that

static equilibrium must be maintained at every step; 2) check reaction forces to see if the load

path is reasonable; 3) look for highly distorted elements, both visually and in the .out file - if

you find any you may need to go back and refine your mesh in that area to keep those elements

well-behaved, i.e. converging, or use adaptive re-meshing. Although distorted elements will

normally just give you bad results but not necessarily prevent convergence. Typically linear

elements (i.e. quad/4 instead of quad/8) do better in analyses where severe distortion is

expected. 4) if using contact elements you may be able to ease convergence problems by

simplifying the contact interaction: a) look at the .sts file for the # of increment splits and # of

separations to see if contact is the problem; b) set bias to 0.9, increase (or decrease) the contact

tolerance distance, suppress chattering; c) modify the contact table to eliminate suspected

trouble areas (at least as a diagnostic measure); d) look for areas where contact bodies may be

“sliding off. 5) PAY ATTENTION TO THE MESSAGES IN THE .STS, .LOG, .f06 AND

.OUT FILES, they may tell you why the model was not translated or convergence was not

reached and the analysis terminated. 6) if non-convergence relates to inelastic behavior of the

material, such as in a plasticity analysis, make sure there are no "plastic hinges" formed,

where static equilibrium cannot be achieved because the material is not strong enough, in this

case all the iterations go to deforming the body around the plastic region and static

equilibrium may never be reached. 7) when doing a hyperelastic material analysis the material

model may be unpredictable since the coefficients are generally quite unintuitive. The run

may not converge simply because the material model, while it may look reasonable, may

actually be inherently unstable (things like negative energy behavior, etc.) 8) make sure you

aren't stuck at a stability bifurcation point, (i.e. at a buckling mode), what may be happening

is that there are 2 valid (post-buckling in this case) equilibrium paths and the code flips back

and forth between them preventing convergence; the way to get past this is to make the

problem dynamic and use the inertia of the body to "select" the appropriate equilibrium path.

210 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Again, the “tried and true” method is to start with a linear model and add non-linearities one at a time, or

remove nonlinearities.

Consider changing the Contact Distance Tolerance. If you run into contact-related convergence problems

this is one of the first things to try.

Please refer to the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide and the MSC.Nastran Reference Manual for exit

codes and numbers.

Most SOL 600 jid.marc.out files end with an EXIT MESSAGE & NUMBER. This exit number is located

in the last few lines of the output file (.out file) of the SOL 600 run. If a.out file is not created, that

sometimes points to an installation issue or a FATAL ERROR or SEVERE WARNING will be present in

the jid.f06 file. EXIT #3004 is GOOD. It indicates a successful run. Most other exit numbers indicate a

failed run. Below are some common exit numbers that a user might encounter. Information on more exit

numbers are given in Volume C (Program Messages) of SOL 600 documentation, which contains the full

list of exit numbers/messages.

1. Exit 13: This exit # indicates an error with the SOL 600 input file. SOL 600 gives an exit 13

if it does not understand some term in the input deck. Causes include either the input deck is

written out incorrectly, or because the set-up is inconsistent (user set-up issue) e.g. user may set

up a shell model and not provide shell thickness; or the user creates but neglects to assign

material properties.

Fixing ‘exit 13’ errors: Go to the.out file and search for the keyword: error (*** error). The error

message listed there points to the section/line of the input deck causing the problem. The user has

to figure out why that is incorrect, along the lines discussed in the above paragraph or send the

MSC.Nastran implicit file (2) to MSC.

2. Exit 2004: If the user gets this message as soon as the job is submitted - i.e. no

increments/iterations successfully completed, it points to an unconstrained mesh. Exit 2004, from

a numerical stand-point, indicates a non-positive definite stiffness matrix. From a model set-up

stand-point, this implies that the mesh is not constrained in space, i.e. either incomplete (or no)

BCs have been applied to the model. User needs to check the BCs.

If this exit number comes after the analysis begins i.e. after some increments are done, the reasons

are to do with the mechanics of the model e.g. formation of a plastic hinge, or due to buckling, or

a deformable body sliding due to lack of friction in the model. The fix for each situation is unique

to the underlying physics of the model e.g. adding friction if that reflects the actual situation.

Turning on the “Suppress Rigid Body Motion” option on the NonLinear Solution parameters can

help in some cases.

CHAPTER 7 211

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

3. Exit 1005, Exit 1009: If this exit message (exit 1005) comes as soon as the job is submitted i.e.

at the first assembly of the first iteration, it indicates a meshing problem. Re-check mesh and re-

mesh. In most cases, this error message(s) comes after an analysis has started. Both exit numbers

1005 & 1009 indicate excessive element deformation during a particular load increment, in a

particular iteration. The way to get around this error is to reduce step size. However SOL 600 does

that automatically and if the problem still persists it gives exit 3015/3009. See explanations

below on exit 3015/3009.

4. Exit 3002: This message indicates that SOL 600 has reached the user-specified upper limit on

the number of (Newton-Raphson) iterations within a load increment. The default is set to 25.

SOL 600 keeps iterating 25 times, and tries to converge to a solution for that increment. If that

does not happen, SOL 600 will cut back the load (by half) and re-solve that increment.

Sometimes this is not enough to get convergence, and it will exit with 3002. One way to get

around this exit message is to increase the # of iterations, but that may not be the best way, since

25 is a high number to begin with. Treat this exit message the same way you would treat exit

3015/3009 i.e. look at the model to see what is causing it to not converge (i.e. what is causing it

difficulty at that stage of the analysis) and make changes accordingly. If this exit message

shows up in the first increment of the run, it could happen if the residual loads are very

low in the model to begin with. Check the output file to confirm this. Switching from relative

to absolute criterion will help, as might switching from load to displacement-based criteria.

5. Exit 3015, Exit 3009:

Exit 3009: This exit number indicates that SOL 600 cuts back to a the time-step size too small

for the analysis to continue. The load stepping algorithm has a cut-back feature where the load-

step is automatically reduced (halved) if SOL 600 runs into certain problems (exit 3002, or exit

1005). When an increment runs into these exit numbers, it will automatically cut the load-step

and re-solve that increment. If the problem continues to persist, it will cut back the load-step

again. This happens until the limit of the number of cut-backs is reached. This can result in a very

small time-step. In such a case, SOL 600 stops the analysis with an exit 3009. To fix this situation,

the user has to look at the results up to the point of failure to understand why SOL 600 cuts back

repeatedly at this stage of the analysis. An understanding of the physics of the model and/or

run-time issues at this stage of the analysis is important here. The user has to make a

determination and modify the model.

Exit 3015: SOL 600’s automatic load-stepping scheme is set up such that the applied load in an

increment scales up (or down) depending on how easy (or difficult) the solution was in the

previous increment. The degree of difficulty is determined based on the parameter: ‘desired

number of recycles’ (default = 3). SOL 600 will scale down the step size until it reaches a lower

limit on the step size (default = 0.001% of total time step) and then exit with # 3015. This is an

indication to the user that the analysis encountered some difficulty at that stage. As before, the

user has to view the results of the run up to that point and make a determination, based on the

physics of the run, as to why the analysis has problems. For more information on SOL 600’s

Automatic load-stepping procedure, please see Chapter 11 of Volume A: Considerations for

Non-linear Analysis, section: Automatic load-stepping.

212 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This is seen in problems where a node on a mesh (deformable body) slides off from a rigid surface

that it was in contact with. For this exit # (and for exit numbers 1005, 1009 and 2004), SOL 600

attempts an automatic internal correction if the cut-back option is turned on (this is the default).

SOL 600 tries to set it right by cutting back the load step and re-solve. It keeps cutting back and

if it cannot resolve the problem, you get an exit 3009. To avoid this situation altogether, during

model set-up make sure that the ends of the rigid surface (or curves) are not close to the mesh. If

they are, you must extend them to beyond the end of the mesh- in any direction, preferably in a

manner satiate a smooth profile is maintained. If the extension of the rigid curve/surface results

in a sharp corner in the rigid body, put a fillet at the corner.

1. Start your model simple and gradually add complexity. For example, if you have a 4-body 3-D

contact problem that you are solving for the first time, initially try to run it as a 2-body contact

problem, get that running, and THEN add the 3rd and 4th contact body. In general, for any

nonlinear model, try to start with a simpler model and gradually add complexity.

2. A deformable-to-deformable contact problem takes more time/effort than a rigid-to-deformable

contact problem. So, wherever possible, use a rigid body in place of a mesh if that is appropriate

for the problem.

3. When starting with a new model, set up your model such that you get some initial results or a run-

failure within a few minutes. This means that you may need to start with a coarse mesh. Once you

know your model runs to completion, you can add refinement and/or complexity. As a general

comment, a 1000-2000 node job would fail within few minutes if there are set-up errors. This is

what we want: if the job fails, it should fail fast. These initial few runs serve the purpose of testing

the set-up parameters to make sure that they work right for this model. One can expect to make a

few/several runs to determine that the parameters are OK for that class of problems. Once these

parameters are known, the user can apply them to other models in that class of problems. Once

the job runs to completion, you can add complexity/refinement. Now the job will take longer, but

we know that it will run to completion.

4. Memory issues: Make sure your machine has enough RAM to accommodate the job run. If the

job goes out of RAM, the model will slow down significantly. The RAM needed for the run is

listed in the.out file (look for the keyword: memory and/or workspace). Open the file, search for

the key-words and pick out the largest RAM number you see. The RAM is in 'words'. Multiply

by 4 to get it in bytes. If the phrase ‘out-of-core’ appears in the.out file, it means that the job went

out of RAM. Typically, for large contact problems, it is recommended that the computer have

1.0+ GB of RAM but you can run non-linear jobs on computers with a fraction of that RAM.

5. Displacement control: In general, problems with applied displacements are numerically more

‘stable’ than problems with applied forces. For example, if a cantilever beam with a point BC at

the end is loaded using a force, formation of a plastic hinge can make the model go non-positive

definite. With an applied displacement, this scenario is less likely.

CHAPTER 7 213

Setting Up, Monitoring, and Debugging the Analysis

6. Linear problems have a unique solution, but that is not always true of non-linear problems.

Solutions to non-linear problems can also be quite sensitive to initial and boundary conditions.

Small changes in BCs/Is can sometimes change the solution quite a bit. When tackling nonlinear

problems, the user should take these into consideration.

There are many error or warning messages that may be generated by the MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran

Interface. The following table outlines some of these.

Message Description

Unable to open a new message file If MSC.Patran tries to open a message file and cannot, it

" ". Translation messages will be will write messages to Standard Output. On most systems,

written to standard output. messages are written to standard output and never to a separate

message file.

Unable to open the specified The OUTPUT2 file was not found. Check the OUTPUT2 file

OUTPUT2 file " ". specification in the translation control file.

The specified OUTPUT2 file " " The OUTPUT2 file is not in standard binary format. Check the

is not in standard binary format and OUTPUT2 file specification in the translation control file.

cannot be translated.

Group " " does not exist in the The name of a nonexistent group was specified in the translator

database. Model data will not be control file. No model data will be translated from the

translated. OUTPUT2 file.

Needed file specification missing! The MSC.Patran control file must be specified as the first on-

The full name of the job file must be line argument to the translator.

specified as the first command-line

argument to this program.

Unable to open the specified If MSC.Patran cannot communicate directly to the specified

database " ". Writing the database. It will write the results and/or model data to a PCL

OUTPUT2 information to the PCL session file.

command file " ".

Unable to open either the specified The naspat3 translator is unable to open any output file. Check

database " ", or a PCL command file specification and directory protection.

file, " ".

Unable to open the NASTRAN MSC.Patran was unable to open a file to where the input file

input file " ". information will be written.

214 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Message Description

Unable to open the specified The forward MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran translator was unable to

database, " " . open the specified MSC.Patran database.

Alter file of the name " " could The OUTPUT2 DMAP alter file, for this type of analysis, could

not be found. No OUPUT2 alter not be found. Correct the search path to include the necessary

will be written to the NASTRAN directory if you want the alter files to be written to the input file.

input file.

No property regions are defined in Elements referenced by an element property region in the

the database. No elements or MSC.Patran database will not get translated by the forward

element properties can be MSC.Patran MSC.Nastran translator. If no element regions are

translated. defined, no elements will be translated.

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 8: Output from the Analysis

Overview 216

Output Requests 218

SOL 600 Results Quantities 226

MSC.Nastran Results Quantities 231

216 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Overview

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) produces stress and strain results that may differ from those

results available with SOL 106 and 129.

At present, new datablock definitions have not been created in MSC.Nastran to handle new types of

nonlinear output. Therefore, it is suggested that the MSC.Marc t16 or t19 file be used to evaluate results.

The result quantities included in the t16/t19 files are controlled using the MARCOUT Bulk Data entry.

For a complete description, see MARCOUT (SOL 600) (p. 1609) in the . MSC.Patran can be used to

postprocess nearly all types of output selected by the MARCOUT entry. In general, if the t16 file is saved

and brought into MSC.Patran, the types of stresses and strains will be labeled correctly and you can easily

choose which quantities to plot.

The more basic types of output (displacements, velocities, accelerations, Cauchy stress tensor and one

type of strain tensor) can be translated back to standard MSC.Nastran op2, xdb, punch and even f06 files

using the OUTR option on the SOL 600 Executive Control statement. For a complete description, see

SOL 600,ID (p. 138) in the . If the stresses and strains are brought back into the MSC.Nastran files (op2,

xdb, f06 or pch), only one type of stress and strain may be placed on the OP2 file. Generally the Cauchy

Stress tensor will be available along with a user selection of one of the following strains: plastic, total or

elastic in the strain measure selected for the analysis. The type of stress-strain pair brought back into the

Nastran results files is specified using PARAM, MARCEKND.

Input

SOL 600 Statement Default

If SOL 600 with nothing else on the line is entered, the statement will act the same as if the following

statement was used:

SOL 600,NLSTATIC OUTR=OP2

.OP2 Data

Outputs in the OP2 file (as well as f06, xdb and punch) have been enhanced in the following areas:

• MPC forces are available

• SPC forces are available

• 3-D contact results are available

• Displacement, velocity, acceleration results are available

• Cauchy Stress and one type of strain (total, plastic or elastic) are available

• Beam loads are available

• Output in the MSC.Nastran files is controlled the same way as in other MSC.Nastran

solution sequences

• Set definitions may be used to limit output for any of the above items

• Grid force

CHAPTER 8 217

Output from the Analysis

You must include Case Control requests such as DISP(PLOT)=ALL in order to obtain output in op2, xdb,

punch or f06 files. In addition, OUTR requests on the SOL 600 entry must be made (for example

OUTR=OP2,F06). The applicable Case Control requests for SOL 600 are DISP, STRESS, STRAIN,

SPCFORCE, MPCFORCE, and BOUTPUT. BOUTPUT maps 3D contact to the older 2D Slideline

Contact datablock (see item codes for contact in section 6 of the 2005 Quick Reference Guide).

The output interval for the t16 file (and thus the OP2 file) is controlled by either the NLPARAM Bulk

Data entry or the MARCOTIM entry.

Results Translation

The speed of the t16op2 results translator was increased in 2005 r3 by a factor of 4 or more for large

models. The speed increase is triggered using PARAM,MSPEEDOU,1, which is the default.

MSC.Nastran-to-MSC.Marc translation speed has increased for beam and shell type elements (in

addition to the previous speed enhancements for solid elements) by using PARAM,MSPEEDSE,1 (or 2).

The speed increase varies from model to model but can be as great as a factor of 4-10 for some models.

218 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Output Requests

Output requests are made in the Case Control section of the MSC.Nastran Input file. Case Control

commands are organized into three categories:

1. Output Control - defines how and where the output is delivered.

2. Sets/Grouping of Output - prescribes the set of geometrical or FEM entities for which results are

to be returned.

3. Actual Result Quantities - identifies the individual result quantities to be returned.

For a complete list of the output requests available via the Case Control commands, see Case Control

Command Summary (p. 178) in the .

The Output Requests form is used to request results from the MSC.Nastran analysis for use in

postprocessing (post tape) and verification (output file).

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. On the Analysis Application form, select Subcases... and choose Output Requests... from the

Subcase Options section.

CHAPTER 8 219

Output from the Analysis

• Increments between Defines the number of increments between writing results to

Writing Results the MSC.Nastran results file after the first increment of the

analysis. The default is one (1) for every increment.

• Select Nodal Results... Brings up a subform for selecting nodal results

• Select Element Results... Brings up a subform for selecting elemental results.

Although printed output requests can be different from Subcase to Subcase, there are certain aspects of

these requests that can only be written once. For those aspects of output requests that must remain

constant regardless of the Load Step, that information is extracted from the first Subcase in the Subcase

Selection form.

220 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This subform controls which nodal result quantities are returned from the analysis.

Available Result Types Lists all of the available result types for the analysis. The numbers

in parentheses are the MSC.Marc POST code numbers.

Selected Result Types Shows the set of result types that have been selected to be returned

in the analysis.

CHAPTER 8 221

Output from the Analysis

The following table shows the post codes that may be selected for a SOL 600 structural

nonlinear analysis.

DISPLACEMENT 1 YES

ROTATION 2 YES

EXTERNAL FORCE 3 no

EXTERNAL MOMENT 4 no

REACTION FORCE 5 YES

REACTION MOMENT 6 no

PORE PRESSURE 23 no

VELOCITY 28 no

ROTATIONAL VELOCITY 29 no

ACCELERATION 30 no

ROTATIONAL ACCELERATION 31 no

MODAL MASS 32 no

ROTATION MODAL MASS 33 no

CONTACT NORMAL STRESS 34 no

CONTACT NORMAL FORCE 35 YES

FRICTION STRESS 36 no

FRICTION FORCE 37 YES

CONTACT STATUS 38 no

CONTACT TOUCHED body 39 YES

HERRMANN VARIABLE 40 no

POST CODE, No. -11 -11 thru -16 no

POST CODE, No. -22 -21 thru -23 no

POST CODE, No. -31 -31 no

POST CODE, No. -41 -41 no

POST CODE, No. -51 -51 no

Note: The POST CODE (<0) are for user-defined quantities via user subroutine UPSTNO.

222 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This subform controls which element result quantities are returned from the analysis.

CHAPTER 8 223

Output from the Analysis

Available Result Types Lists all of the available result types for the analysis. The numbers

in parentheses are the MSC.Marc POST code numbers.

Selected Result Types Shows the set of result types that have been selected to be returned

in the analysis.

Element X-section Results Defines the number of layer points to use through the cross section

of homogeneous shells, plates and beams. This number must be odd

if not a composite.

Note: If no elemental results are selected and no nodal results are selected, no POST option

is written.

The following table shows the post codes that may be selected for a SOL 600 structural

nonlinear analysis.

STRAIN, TOTAL COMPONENTS 301 nonlinear only YES

STRAIN, TOTAL COMPONENTS 461 nonlinear only no

(defined system)

STRAIN, ELASTIC COMPONENTS 401 any YES

STRAIN, ELASTIC COMPONENTS 421 any no

(global system)

STRAIN, ELASTIC EQUIVALENT 127 any no

STRAIN, PLASTIC COMPONENTS 321 nonlinear only YES

STRAIN, PLASTIC COMPONENTS 431 nonlinear only no

(global system)

STRAIN, PLASTIC EQUIVALENT 27 nonlinear only YES

STRAIN, PLASTIC EQUIVALENT 7 nonlinear only YES

(from rate)

STRAIN, CREEP COMPONENTS 331 creep only no

STRAIN, CREEP COMPONENTS 441 creep only no

(global system)

STRAIN, CREEP EQUIVALENT 37 creep only no

STRAIN, CREEP EQUIVALENT 8 creep only no

(from rate)

STRAIN, THERMAL 371 any no

STRAIN, THICKNESS 49 any no

224 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

STRAIN, VELOCITY 451 nonlinear only no

STRESS, COMPONENTS 311 any no

STRESS, COMPONENTS 391 an no

(defined system)

STRESS, COMPONENTS 411 any no

(global system)

STRESS, EQUIVALENT YIELD 59 nonlinear only no

STRESS, EQUIVALENT MISES 17 any YES

STRESS, MEAN NORMAL 18 any YES

STRESS, INTERLAMINAR SHEAR 108 any no

No. 1

STRESS, INTERLAMINAR SHEAR 109 any no

No. 2

STRESS, INTERLAMINAR 501,511 any no

COMPONENTS

STRESS, CAUCHY COMPONENTS 341 nonlinear only no

STRESS, CAUCHY EQUIVALENT 47 nonlinear only YES

STRESS, HARMONIC 351 (real) harmonic only no

COMPONENTS 361(imag)

FORCES, ELEMENT 264-269 any no

BIMOMENT 270 any no

STRAIN RATE, PLASTIC 28 nonlinear only no

STRAIN RATE, EQUIVALENT 175 any no

VISCOPLASTIC

STATE VARIABLE, SECOND 29 any no

STATE VARIABLE, THIRD 39 any no

TEMPERATURE, ELEMENT TOTAL 9 any no

TEMPERATURE, ELEMENT 10 any no

INCREMENTAL

STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, TOTAL 48 nonlinear only YES

STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, 58 any no

ELASTIC

STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY, 68 nonlinear only no

PLASTIC

THICKNESS, ELEMENT 20 any no

VOLUME, ELEMENT 78 any no

VOLUME, VOID FRACTION 177 any no

CHAPTER 8 225

Output from the Analysis

FAILURE, INDEX No. 1-7 91-103 any no

POST CODE, No. 19 19 any no

POST CODE, No. 38 38 any no

POST CODE, No. -11 -11 thru -16 any no

POST CODE, No. -21 -21 thru -23 any no

POST CODE, No. -31 -31 any no

POST CODE, No. -41 -41 any no

POST CODE, No. -51 -51 any no

226 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The following table indicates all the possible result quantities which can be loaded into the MSC.Patran

database from the t16 file. The Primary and Secondary Labels are items selected from the postprocessing

menus. The Type indicates whether the results are Scalar, Vector, or Tensor. These types will determine

which postprocessing techniques will be available in order to view the results quantity. Postcodes

indicates which MSC.Marc element postcodes (selected automatically or by Nastran bulk data card

MARCOUT) the data comes from. The Description gives a brief discussion about the results quantity.

The Output Request forms use the actual primary and secondary labels which will appear in the results.

For example, if “Strain, Elastic” is selected on the Element Output Requests form, the “Strain, Elastic”

is created for postprocessing.

Primary Secondary

Label Label Type Postcodes Description

Displacement Translation Vector 1 (nodal) Translational displacements at nodes

from a structural analysis.

Displacement Rotation Vector 2 (nodal) Rotational displacements at nodes

from a structural analysis.

Velocity Translation Vector 28 (nodal) Translational velocities at nodes from

a dynamic analysis.

Velocity Rotation Vector 29 (nodal) Rotational velocities at nodes.

Acceleration Translation Vector 30 (nodal) Translational accelerations at nodes

from a dynamic analysis.

Acceleration Rotation Vector 31 (nodal) Rotational accelerations at nodes from

a dynamic analysis.

Force Nodal External Vector 3 (nodal) Forces applied to the model in a

Applied structural analysis.

Force Nodal Reaction Vector 5 (nodal) Reaction forces at boundary

conditions from a structural analysis.

Moment Nodal External Vector 4 (nodal) Moments applied to the model in a

Applied structural analysis.

Moment Nodal Reaction Vector 6 (nodal) Reaction moments at boundary

conditions from a structural analysis.

Modal Mass Translation Vector 32 (nodal) Translational modal masses from

modal extractions.

Modal Mass Rotation Vector 33 (nodal) Rotational modal masses from modal

extractions.

Stress Contact Normal Vector 34 (nodal) Contact Normal Stress

Force Contact Normal Vector 35 (nodal) Contact Normal Force

Stress Friction Vector 36 (nodal) Friction Stress

CHAPTER 8 227

Output from the Analysis

Primary Secondary

Label Label Type Postcodes Description

Force Friction Vector 37 (nodal) Friction Force

Contact Status Scalar 38 (nodal) Contact Status

Contact Touched Body Scalar 39 (nodal) Touched Body Contact

Variable Herrmann Scalar 40 (nodal) Herrmann Variable

Post Code No. -11 through - Tensor -11 thru -16, User defined nodal quantities via user

16 (nodal) subroutine UPSTNO.

Post Code No. -21 through - Vector -21 thru -23, User defined nodal quantities via user

23 (nodal) subroutine UPSTNO.

Post Code No. -31 Scalar -31, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user

subroutine UPSTNO.

Post Code No. -41 Scalar -41, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user

subroutine UPSTNO.

Post Code No. -51 Scalar -51, (nodal) User defined nodal quantities via user

subroutine UPSTNO.

Strain Creep Tensor 31-36 or 331 Creep strain from a nonlinear

structural analysis.

Strain Plastic Scalar 28 Equivalent plastic strain rate from a

Equivalent Rate nonlinear structural analysis.

Strain Thermal Tensor 71-76 or 371 Thermal strain from a structural

analysis.

Strain Thickness Scalar 49 Thickness strain from a structural

analysis.

Strain Total Tensor 1-6 or 301 Total strain from a structural analysis.

Temperature Element Scalar 9 Element temperature from a thermal or

structural analysis.

Temperature Element Gradient Vector 181-183 Element temperature gradient from a

thermal analysis.

Temperature Element Scalar 10 Incremental element temperature from

Incremental a thermal or structural analysis.

Stress Tensor 11-16 or 311 Stress from a structural analysis.

Stress Cauchy Tensor 41-46 or 341 Cauchy stress from a nonlinear

structural analysis.

Stress Cauchy Scalar 47 Equivalent Cauchy stress from a

Equivalent Mises nonlinear structural analysis.

Stress Equivalent Mises Scalar 17 Equivalent (von mises) stress from a

structural analysis.

228 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Primary Secondary

Label Label Type Postcodes Description

Stress Hydrostatic Scalar 18 Hydrostatic stress from a structural

analysis.

Stress Interlaminar Scalar 108 Interlaminar shear in one direction

Shear No. 1 from a structural analysis.

Stress Interlaminar Scalar 109 Interlaminar shear in two direction

Shear No. 2 from a structural analysis.

Energy Elastic Scalar 48 Elastic strain energy density from a

Density structural analysis.

Energy Plastic Scalar 58 Plastic strain energy density from a

Density nonlinear structural analysis.

Energy Total Scalar 68 Total strain energy density from a

Density structural analysis.

Flux Element Vector 184-186 Element heat flux from a thermal

analysis.

State Variable Second Scalar 29 Second state variable from a nonlinear

thermal or structural analysis.

State Variable Third Scalar 39 Third state variable from a nonlinear

thermal or structural analysis.

Failure Index No. 1 Scalar 91 Failure index one from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 2 Scalar 92 Failure index two from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 3 Scalar 93 Failure index three from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 4 Scalar 94 Failure index four from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 5 Scalar 95 Failure index five from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 6 Scalar 96 Failure index six from a structural

analysis.

Failure Index No. 7 Scalar 97 Failure index seven from a structural

analysis.

Thickness Scalar 20 Element thickness from a thermal or

structural analysis.

Volume Scalar 78 Element Volume from a thermal or

structural analysis.

CHAPTER 8 229

Output from the Analysis

In addition to these standard results quantities, several Global Variable results can be created. Global

Variables are results quantities where one value is representative of the entire model. The following

table defines the Global Variables which may be created.

Increment Scalar Increment of the analysis.

Time Scalar Time of the analysis.

Buckling Mode Scalar Buckling mode number.

Critical Load Factor Scalar Critical load factor for buckling analysis.

Dynamic Mode Scalar Dynamic mode number from modal extraction.

Frequency (radians/time) Scalar Frequency in radians per unit time for modal extraction.

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Access Results>Attach

t16/t19>Results Entities.

230 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

After selecting a t16 or t19 file, you will need to specify the translation parameters.

CHAPTER 8 231

Output from the Analysis

If you wish to return result quantities from MSC.Marc back to MSC.Nastran you must include the OUTR

option on the SOL 600 Executive Control statement.

Entry Description

OUTR Specifies that MSC.Marc output results be converted to various types of

MSC.Nastran formats

References

• SOL 600,ID (p. 138) in the .

Results Quantities

1. Click on the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Access Results>Attach XBD>Results Entities

or Access Results>Read Output2>Results Entities.

232 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

After selecting an XDB or op2 file, you will need to specify the translation parameters.

CHAPTER 8 233

Output from the Analysis

Tolerances

• Division Prevent division by zero errors.

• Numerical Compares real values for equality.

Additional Results to be Imported

• Rotational Nodal Results Indicates whether Rotational Nodal Results are skipped or

included in translation.

• Stress/Strain Invariants Indicates whether Stress/Strain Invariants are skipped or

included in translation.

• Principal Directions Indicates whether Principal Directions are skipped or

included in translation.

• Element Results Positions If an element has results at both the centroid and at the

nodes, this filter indicates which results are to be included

in the translation.

234 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 9: Assigned Conditions

9 Assigned Conditions

Constraints 236

Loads and Boundary Conditions 248

Initial Conditions 265

236 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Constraints

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allows you to input kinematic constraints through various options that

include:

• Boundary Conditions (prescribed nodal values)

• Multi-Point Constraints (Rigid elements such as RBE1, RBE2, RBE3, RBAR, etc.)

• Support Conditions

Boundary Conditions

Boundary conditions, in terms of fixed displacements at nodes, define one type of kinematic constraint

for a structural analysis. Loads and boundary conditions are addressed in the following section of this

chapter, please see (p. 248).

Multi-Point Constraints

MPCs are special element types which define a rigorous behavior between several specified nodes. The

following table lists the MPC types which are supported for MSC. Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

MPC Types

• Explicit • RBE1

• Rigid (Fixed) • RBE2

• Cyclic Symmetry • RBE3

• Sliding Surface • RROD

• RBAR • RTRPLT

Explicit MPC’s may be created between a dependent degree of freedom and one or more independent

degrees of freedom. The dependent term consists of a node ID and a degree of freedom, while an

independent term consists of a coefficient, a node ID, and a degree of freedom. An unlimited number of

independent terms can be specified, while only one dependent term can be specified.

Entry Description

MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation.

References

• MPC (p. 1963) in the .

To define an Explicit MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

CHAPTER 9 237

Assigned Conditions

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the explicit constraints.

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the fields for G1 and C1 on the MPC entry. Only one

node and DOF combination may be defined for any given explicit MPC. The

A1 field on the MPC entry is automatically set to -1.0.

Independent Terms Independent terms define the Gi, Ci, and Ai fields on the MPC entry, where i

is greater than one. As many coefficient, node, and DOF combinations as

desired may be defined.

238 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Rigid MPC’s may be created between one independent node and one or more dependent nodes in which

all six structural degrees of freedom are rigidly attached to each other. An unlimited number of dependent

terms can be specified, while only one independent term can be specified. Each term consists of a single

node. There is no constant term for this MPC type.:

Entry Description

RBE2 Defines a rigid body with independent degrees-of-freedom that are specified at a

single grid point and with dependent degrees-of-freedom that are specified at an

arbitrary number of grid points.

References

• RBE2 (p. 2286) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a Rigid MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>Rigid (Fixed).

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the rigid constraints.

CHAPTER 9 239

Assigned Conditions

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi fields on the RBE2 entry. As many nodes as

desired may be selected as dependent terms.

Independent Terms Independent terms define the GN field on the RBE2 entry. Only one node may

be selected.

Entry Description

Shell Nodes Dependent terms define the ESi fields on the RSSCON entry. One dependent

node must be selected for every two independent terms.

Solid Nodes ndependent terms define the EA and EB field on the RSSCON entry. Two

independent terms are required.

Describes the boundary conditions of sliding surfaces, such as pipe sleeves. These boundary conditions

are written as explicit MPCs. Be careful, for this option automatically redefines the analysis coordinate

references of all affected nodes. This could erroneously alter the meaning of previously applied load and

boundary conditions, as well as element properties.

Entry Description

MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation.

References

• MPC (p. 1963) in the .

To define a Sliding Surface MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>Sliding Surface.

240 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

Dependent Region Specifies the dependent nodes on the sliding surface. The same number of

unique nodes must be specified in both regions.

Independent Region Specifies the independent nodes on the sliding surface. The same number of

unique nodes must be specified in both regions.

Creates an RBAR element, which defines a rigid bar between two nodes. Up to two dependent and two

independent terms can be specified. Each term consists of a node and a list of degrees of freedom. The

nodes specified in the two dependent terms must be the same as the nodes specified in the two

independent terms. Any combination of the degrees of freedom of the two nodes can be specified as

independent as long as the total number of independent degrees of freedom adds up to six. There is no

constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description

RBAR Defines a rigid bar with six degrees-of-freedom at each end.

References

• RBAR (p. 2280) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

CHAPTER 9 241

Assigned Conditions

To define a RBAR MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBAR.

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RBAR constraints.

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Either one or two nodes may be defined as having dependent terms. The Nodes

define the GA and GB fields on the RBAR entry. The DOFs define the CMA

and CMB fields.

Independent Terms Either one or two nodes may be defined as having independent terms.The

Nodes define the GA and GB fields on the RBAR entry.The DOFs define the

CNA and CNB fields.

RBEI is not allowed in SOL 600.

References

• RBE1 (p. 2284) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

242 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

To define a RBE1 MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE1.

Creates an RBE2 element, which defines a rigid body between an arbitrary number of nodes. Although

the user can only specify one dependent term, an arbitrary number of nodes can be associated to this term.

The user is also prompted to associate a list of degrees of freedom to this term. A single independent term

can be specified, which consists of a single node. There is no constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description

RBE2 Defines a rigid body with independent degrees of freedom that are specified at

a single grid point and with dependent degrees of freedom that are specified at

an arbitrary number of grid points.

References

• RBE2 (p. 2286) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a RBE2 MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE2.

CHAPTER 9 243

Assigned Conditions

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi and CM fields on the RBE2 entry. As many

nodes as desired may be selected as dependent terms.

Independent Terms Independent terms define the GN field on the RBE2 entry. Only one node may

be selected.

Creates an RBE3 element, which defines the motion of a reference node as the weighted average of the

motions of a set of nodes. An arbitrary number of dependent terms can be specified, each term consisting

of a node and a list of degrees of freedom. The first dependent term is used to define the reference node.

The other dependent terms define additional node/degrees of freedom, which are added to the m-set. An

arbitrary number of independent terms can also be specified. Each independent term consists of a

constant coefficient (weighting factor), a node, and a list of degrees of freedom. There is no constant term

for this MPC type.

Entry Description

RBE3 Defines the motion at a reference grid point as the weighted average of the

motions at a set of other grid points.

References

• RBE3 (p. 2299) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

244 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

To define a RBE3 MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RBE3.

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RBE3 constraints.

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GMi and CMi fields on the RBE3 entry. The first

dependent term will be treated as the reference node, REFGRID and REFC.

The rest of the dependent terms become the GMi and CMi components.

Independent Terms Independent terms define the Gi, j, Ci, and WTi fields on the RBE3 entry.

Creates an RROD element, which defines a pinned rod between two nodes that is rigid in extension.

One dependent term is specified, which consists of a node and a single translational degree of freedom.

One independent term is specified, which consists of a single node. There is no constant term for this

MPC type.

Entry Description

RROD Defines a pin-ended element that is rigid in translation.

CHAPTER 9 245

Assigned Conditions

References

• RROD (p. 2352) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a RROD MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RROD.

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RROD constraints.

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GB and CMB on the RROD entry. Only one

translational degree of freedom may be referenced for this entry.

Independent Terms Independent terms define the GA field on the RROD entry. The CMA field is

left blank.

Creates an RTRPLT element, which defines a rigid triangular plate between three nodes. Up to three

dependent and three independent terms can be specified. Each term consists of a node and a list of

degrees of freedom. The nodes specified in the three dependent terms must be the same as the nodes

specified in the three independent terms. Any combination of the degrees of freedom of the three nodes

246 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

can be specified as independent as long as the total number of independent degrees of freedom adds up

to six. There is no constant term for this MPC type.

Entry Description

RTRPLT Defines a rigid triangular plate.

References

• RTRPLT (p. 2366) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a RTRPLT MPC:

1. Click on the FE Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Finite Elements

Application form.

2. Set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create> MPC>RTRPLT.

3. Click on Define Terms... to define the RTRPLT constraints.

CHAPTER 9 247

Assigned Conditions

Entry Description

Dependent Terms Dependent terms define the GA, GB, GC, CMA, CMB, and CMC fields of the

RTRPLT entry.

Independent Terms The total number of nodes referenced in both the dependent terms and the

independent terms must equal three. There must be exactly six independent

degrees of freedom, and they must be capable of describing rigid body motion.

Defines the GA, GB, GC, CNA, CNB, and CNC fields of the RTRPLT entry.

Support Conditions

In static analysis by the displacement method, the rigid body modes must be restrained in order to

remove the singularity of the stiffness matrix. The required constraints may be supplied with single point

constraints, multipoint constraints, or free body supports. If free body supports are used, the rigid body

characteristics will be calculated and a check will be made on the sufficiency of the supports.

Free-body supports are defined with a SUPORT6 or SUPORT1 entry. Free-body supports must be

defined in the global coordinate system. The SUPORT6 entry must be selected by the SUPORT1 Case

Control command.

For more information on Support Conditions, see Rigid Body Supports (p. 357) in the .

248 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The loads for the analysis can be either Static or Time Dependent (dynamic). Time dependency is

introduced either through the inclusion of a time dependent field multiplier, or through use of initial

condition options (e.g., initial displacements).

When defining loads on a model it is important to define the following terms and concepts.

Load Sets

A Loads/BC set is comprised of a collection of data (which may include fields) that are associated with

both an analysis type and geometric and/or FEM entities. A typical example is displacements associated

with nodes in a structural analysis.

Load Cases

A load case contains all the loads and boundary conditions used within a single analysis step. For

example, one load case may represent the loads and BC for each time point in a time-dependent nonlinear

analysis. Multiple load cases can be applied to the same model for linear analysis to examine how the

model reacts to different loading conditions. Load cases are central to the ability to perform complex

analyses on an individual model. For nonlinear analysis multiple loadcase runs are used to define the load

history on the model. The ending point of the last subcase is the starting point of the next subcase.

Load Steps

A Load Step (or analysis step) is defined by associating a load case, an analysis procedure, output

requests, and any associated parameters that guide the solution path for the chosen analysis procedure.

Whereas a load case is a collection of loads and boundary conditions for a particular Load Step, a Load

Step is a collection of relevant analysis parameters including the associated load case.

The load for a subcase is often subdivided into the number of increments specified for the subcase. The

solution strategy in nonlinear analysis is to apply the loads in an incremental fashion until the desired

load level is reached.

Load Types

The static loads in nonlinear analysis consist of concentrated loads, distributed loads, and thermal loads

as well as applied displacements. Most of the relevant loads data applicable to the linear static analysis

are also applicable to nonlinear static analysis. Transient loads define the loadings as functions of time

and the location. A load can be applied at a particular degree of freedom, pressure over the surface area,

or the body force simulating an acceleration.

CHAPTER 9 249

Assigned Conditions

The following types of loads are available for MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

Loads

FORCEi Defines concentrated load at grid point.

LSEQ Defines static load sets for dynamic analysis.

MOMENTi Defines moment at a grid point.

NOLINi Defines nonlinear transient load.

PLOAD Defines pressure loads on CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA.

Should not be used for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4, CQUAD8, CQUAD,

CTRIA3, and CTRIA6 or for hyperelastic CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA with

midside nodes.

PLOAD2 Defines pressure loads on shell elements, CQUAD4 and CTRIA3. Not available for

hyperelastic elements.

PLOAD4 Defines pressure loads on surfaces of CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3 and

CQUAD4 elements. Not available for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4,

CQUAD8, CQUAD, CTRIA3, and CTRIA6.

PLOADX1 Defines pressure loads on axisymmetric elements CQUADX and CTRIAX.

RFORCE Defines load due to centrifugal force field.

TIC Specifies initial values for displacement and velocity.

TLOADi Defines loads as a function of time.

References

• FORCE (p. 1494) in the .

• LSEQ (p. 1603) in the .

• MOMENT (p. 1949) in the .

• NOLIN1 (p. 2014) in the .

• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .

• RFORCE (p. 2336) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• TIC (p. 2519) in the .

• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .

250 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The Loads and Boundary Conditions application controls which loads and boundaries and contact

information will be created in the MSC.Nastran input file.

The Loads and Boundary Conditions application in MSC.Patran provides the ability to apply a variety of

static and dynamic loads and boundary conditions including contact surfaces to finite element models.

Loads/BCs may be associated with geometric entities as well as FEM entities. When associated with

geometric entities, they can be transferred to finite elements created on the geometry. Loads and

boundary conditions are intended to be created in multiple single purpose groups referred to as load sets.

These sets are grouped into load cases in the Load Cases application.

One of the most elegant features in MSC.Patran is its ability to create fields that describes the variation

of loads and boundary conditions. The way in which Loads and BCs vary may be defined spatially, by

previous analysis results, based on time, or associated with material properties.

Sets can be visually displayed on the screen by markers which show the location, type, magnitude, and

direction of the applied loads or boundary condition. Only the static portion of a dynamic Loads/BCs set

is reflected in the marker display. Sets can also be displayed as tables.

A powerful capability is the display of any set scalar data directly on the model as a fringe plot. For

display purposes, data are treated as “results,” with full user control over the spectrum, method, shading,

etc. Data display is scalar, but the data can be pressures, vector component magnitudes, and vector

resultant magnitudes. Fringe plots can only be displayed on finite elements. Fringes of a dynamic

Loads/BCs set may be displayed at user-specified times.

The Load Cases application enables you to combine a large number of individual loads and boundary

condition (LBCs) sets into a single coherent case for application to the model. Each load case you create

has a unique user-selected descriptive name as well as an associated descriptive statement. Load case

information is permanently stored in the database (unless deleted). You can modify it at any time

.

Even if you do not create any load cases, your load and boundary conditions will still be placed into a

default current load case, named “default.” If you create a special load case and make it the current load

case, then all subsequent LBCs will be placed in that load case as long as it is current.

Load cases in which none of the constituent loads or boundary conditions sets has a time varying

component are called static load cases. Loads and boundary conditions that will make up a static load

CHAPTER 9 251

Assigned Conditions

case are generated using the Input Data subform. For static load cases, this subform will vary according

to the type of load being created, but its general format remains constant.

252 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Load cases in which one or more of the loads and boundary conditions sets has a time varying component

are called time-dependent, or dynamic load cases Loads and boundary conditions that will make up a

time-dependent load case are also generated using the Input Data subform. For time-dependent load

cases, this subform incorporates time dependency data fields.

For more information, see Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application (p. 6) in the MSC

Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional Assignments.

CHAPTER 9 253

Assigned Conditions

Displacement LBCs

Boundary conditions can be used to specify the value of the displacements at nodes. To create a boundary

condition for displacement, you need to specify the node number, the degree of freedom(s), and the

magnitude of the displacement.

Displacements can be imposed directly on nodes using SPC1 and SPCD Bulk Data entries. All non blank

entries will cause an SPC1 entry to be created. If the specified value is not 0.0, an SCPD entry will also

be created to define the non zero enforced displacement or rotation.

References

• SPC1 (p. 2429) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• SPCD (p. 2432) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Zero or nonzero displacements can also be applied across elements in a uniform or variable fashion. The

primary use of this boundary condition is to apply constraints to solid elements.

Displacement boundary conditions are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type

combinations on the LBC Application form.

Displacement Nodal SPC1, SPCD

Element Uniform 2-D/3-D SPC1, SPCD

Element Variable

Entry Description

Translations (T1,T2,T3) Defines the enforced translational displacement values. These are in model

length units.

Rotations (R1,R2,R3) Defines the enforced rotational displacement values. These are in radians.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

254 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Force LBCs

Concentrated forces and moments can be applied directly to nodes with the ability to define the direction

as well as the magnitude.

Forces and moments are specified with FORCEi and MOMENTi Bulk Data entries, where:

Entry Description

FORCE Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point by specifying the

magnitude and direction.

MOMENT

FORCE1 Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point where the direction

of the force/moment is defined to be parallel to a vector between two defined

MOMENT1 grid points.

FORCE2 Defines a static concentrated force/moment at a grid point where the direction

of the force/moment is parallel to the cross product of vectors from G1 to G2

MOMENT2 and G3 to G4.

References

• FORCE (p. 1494) in the .

• FORCE1 (p. 1495) in the .

• FORCE2 (p. 1496) in the .

Forces and moments are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the

LBC Application form.

Force Nodal FORCEi, MOMENTi

Entry Description

Force (F1,F2,F3) Defines the applied forces in the translation degrees of freedom. This

defines the N vector and the F magnitude on the FORCE entry.

Moment (M1,M2,M3) Defines the applied moments in the rotational degrees of freedom. This

defines the N vector and the M magnitude on the MOMENT entry.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

CHAPTER 9 255

Assigned Conditions

Pressure LBCs

Pressure loads can be applied to edges or surfaces of 2-D and 3-D elements. Several Bulk Data entries

are used to apply pressure loading depending on the element topology.

Entry Description

PLOAD Defines pressure loads on CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CHEXA, CPENTA, and

CTETRA. Should not be used for hyperelastic plane elements CQUAD4,

CQUAD8, CQUAD, CTRIA3, and CTRIA6 or for hyperelastic CHEXA,

CPENTA, CTETRA with midside nodes.

PLOAD2 Defines pressure loads on shell elements, CQUAD4 and CTRIA3.

PLOAD4 Defines pressure loads on surfaces of CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3

and CQUAD4 elements.

PLOADX1 Defines pressure loads on axisymmetric elements CQUADX and CTRIAX.

These pressures are applied to 2-D and 3-D elements only. Pressures for 1-D elements are applied using

the Total Load LBCs, 263 object.

References

• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .

• PLOAD2 (p. 2191) in the .

• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .

• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

Pressures are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Pressure Element Uniform 2-D PLOAD4, PLOADX1, or FORCE

Entry Description

Top Surf Pressure Defines the top surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4 entry.

The negative of this value defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. These values

are all equal for a given element, producing a uniform pressure field across

that face.

Bot Surf Pressure Defines the bottom surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4

entry. This value defines the P1 through P4 values.These values are all equal

for a given element, producing a uniform pressure field across that face.

256 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

Edge Pressure For Axisymmetric Solid elements (CTRIAX6), defines the P1 through P3

values on the PLOADX1 entry where THETA on that entry is defined as zero.

For other 2D elements, this will be interpreted as a load per unit length (i.e.

independent of thickness) and converted into equivalent nodal loads (FORCE

entries). If a scalar field is referenced, it will be evaluated at the middle of the

application region. Edge pressures are not available in SOL 600 prior to the

2006 release.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Pressure Element Uniform 3-D PLOAD4

Entry Description

Pressure Defines the face pressure value on solid elements using a PLOAD4 entry. This

defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field is referenced, it will be

evaluated once at the center of the applied region.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Pressure Element Variable 2-D PLOAD4, PLOADX1, FORCE

Entry Description

Top Surf Pressure Defines the top surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4 entry.

The negative of this value defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field

is referenced, it will be evaluated separately for the P1 through P4 values.

Bot Surf Pressure Defines the bottom surface pressure load on shell elements using a PLOAD4

entry. This value defines the P1 through P4 values. If a scalar field is

referenced, it will be evaluated separately for the P1 through P4 values.

Edge Pressure For Axisymmetric Solid elements (CTRIAX6), defines the P1 through P3

values on the PLOADX1 entry where THETA on that entry is defined as

zero. For other 2D elements, this will be interpreted as a load per unit length

(e.g., independent of thickness) and converted into equivalent nodal loads

(FORCE entries). If a scalar field is referenced, it will be evaluated

independently at each node. Edge pressures are not available in SOL 600

prior to the 2006 release.

CHAPTER 9 257

Assigned Conditions

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Pressure Element Variable 3-D PLOAD4

Entry Description

Pressure Defines the face pressure value on solid elements using a PLOAD4 entry. This

defines the P1, P2, P3, and P4 values. If a scalar field is referenced, it will be

evaluated separately for each of the P1 through P4 values.

Note: In the current version of SOL 600, a constant pressure is applied on the element face based

on the average of P1, P2, P3, and P4.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

Temperature LBCs

Temperatures can be defined directly at nodes or temperature fields can be defined across

element surfaces.

Temperatures are specified with TEMP, TEMPPi, or TEMPRB Bulk Data entries, where:

Entry Description

TEMP Defines temperature at grid points.

TEMPPi Defines temperature field for surface elements.

TEMPRB Defines temperature field for line elements.

References

• TEMP (p. 2500) in the .

• TEMPP1 (p. 2510) in the .

• TEMPRB (p. 2513) in the .

Temperatures are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combinations on the LBC

Application form.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Nodal 0D TEMP

258 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

Temperature Defines the T fields on the TEMP entry.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Element Uniform 1-D TEMPRB

Entry Description

Temperature Defines a uniform temperature field using a TEMPRB entry. The temperature

value is used for both the TA and TB fields. The T1a, T1b, T2a, and T2b fields

are all defined as 0.0.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Element Uniform 2-D TEMPP1

Entry Description

Temperature Defines a uniform temperature field using a TEMPP1 entry. The temperature

value is used for the T field. The gradient through the thickness is defined to

be 0.0.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Element Variable 1-D TEMPRB

Entry Description

Centroid Temp Defines a variable temperature file using a TEMPRB entry. A field reference

will be evaluated at either end of the element to define the TA and TB fields.

Axis-1 Gradient Defines the temperature gradient in the 1 direction. A field reference will be

evaluated at either end of the element to define the T1a and T1b fields.

Axis-2 Gradient Defines the temperature gradient in the 2 direction. A field reference will be

evaluated at either end of the element to define the T2a and T2b fields.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Element Variable 2-D TEMPP1

CHAPTER 9 259

Assigned Conditions

Entry Description

Top Surf Temp Defines the temperature on the top surface of a shell element. The top and

bottom values are used to compute the average and gradient values on the

TEMPP1 entry.

Bot Surf Temp Defines the temperature on the bottom surface of a shell element. The top and

bottom values are used to compute the average and gradient values on the

TEMPP1 entry.

Object Type Dimension Bulk Data Entries

Temperature Element Uniform 3-D TEMP

Element Variable

Entry Description

Temperature Defines the temperature or temperature distribution in the element.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments

Inertial loads can be applied to the entire model using the GRAV or RFORCE Bulk Data entries.

Entry Description

GRAV Defines acceleration vectors for gravity or other acceleration loading.

RFORCE Defines load due to centrifugal force field.

References

• GRAV (p. 1561) in the .

• RFORCE (p. 2336) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

Inertial loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form.

Inertial Load Element Uniform Entire Model GRAV or RFORCE

260 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

Trans Accel (A1,A2,A3) Defines the N vector and the G magnitude value on the GRAV entry.

Rot Velocity (w1,w2,w3) Defines the R vector and the A magnitude value on the RFORCE entry.

The acceleration and velocity vectors are defined with respect to the input analysis coordinate frame. The

origin of the rotational vectors is the origin of the analysis coordinate frame. In generating the GRAV and

RFORCE entries, the interface produces one GRAV and/or RFORCE entry image for each MSC.Patran

load set.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

Velocity LBCs

Velocities can be defined for transient analysis using the TLOAD entry.

:

Entry Description

TLOAD Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced motion

References

• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .

Velocities are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form.

Velocity Nodal TLOAD

Entry Description

Trans Veloc (v1,v2,v3) Defines the velocity values for the translational degrees-of-freedom.

Rot Veloc (w1, w2, w3) Defines the velocity values for the rotational degrees-of-freedom.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

CHAPTER 9 261

Assigned Conditions

Acceleration LBCs

Accelerations can be defined for transient response analysis using the TLOAD entry.

:

Entry Description

TLOAD Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced motion

References

• TLOAD1 (p. 2532) in the .

Accelerations are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form.

Acceleration Nodal TLOAD

Entry Description

Trans Accel (A1,A2,A3) Defines the acceleration values for the translational degrees-of-freedom.

Rot Accel (a1,a2,a3) Defines the acceleration values for the rotational degrees-of-freedom.

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

Distributed forces and moments can be applied in a uniform or variable fashion to 1D and 2D elements.

Several Bulk Data entries are used to apply distributed loading depending on the element topology.

Entry Description

PLOAD Defines a uniform static pressure load on a triangular or quadrilateral surface

comprised of surface elements and/or the faces of solid elements.

PLOAD1 Defines concentrated, uniformly distributed, or linearly distributed applied

loads to the CBAR or CBEAM elements at user-chosen points along the

axis. For the CBEND element, only distributed loads over an entire length

may be defined

262 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

PLOAD2 Defines a uniform static pressure load applied to CQUAD4, CSHEAR, or

CTRIA3 two-dimensional elements.

PLOAD4 Defines a pressure load on a face of a CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3,

CTRIA6, CTRIAR, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, or CQUADR element.

PLOADX1 Defines surface traction to be used with the CQUADX, CTRIAX, and

CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element.

References

• PLOAD (p. 2186) in the .

• PLOAD1 (p. 2188) in the .

• PLOAD2 (p. 2191) in the .

• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .

• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

Distributed loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combinations on the

LBC Application form.

1. Uniform and Variable Loads on 1-D Elements

Defines distributed force or moment loading along beam elements using MSC .Nastran PLOAD1

entries. The coordinate system in which the load is applied is defined by the beam axis and the

Bar Orientation element property. The Bar Orientation must be defined before this Distributed

Load can be created. If the Bar Orientation is subsequently changed, the Distributed Load must

be updated manually if necessary.

Distributed Load Element Uniform 1-D PLOAD1

Element Variable

Entry Description

Distributed Load (f1,f2,f3) Defines the FXE, FYE, and FZE fields on three

PLOAD1 entries.

Distributed Moment (m1,m2,m3) Defines the MXE, MYE, and MZE fields on three

PLOAD1 entries.

For the element variable type, a field reference is evaluated at each end of the beam to define a

linear load variation.

2. Uniform and Variable Loads on 2-D Elements

CHAPTER 9 263

Assigned Conditions

Defines a distributed force or moment load along the edges of 2-D elements. The coordinate

system for the load is defined by the surface or element edge and normal. The x direction is along

the edge. Positive x is determined by the element corner node connectivity. See The Patran

Element Library (p. 343) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 3: Finite Element Modeling.

For example, if the element is a CQUAD4, with node connectivity of 1, 2, 3, 4. The positive x

directions for each edge would be from nodes 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, and 4 to 1. The z direction

is normal to the surface or element. Positive z is in the direction of the element normal. The y

direction is normal to x and z. Positive y is determined by the cross product of the z and x axes and

always points into the element. The MSC.Nastran entries generated, depend on the element type.

Distributed Load Element Uniform 2-D PLOAD, PLOAD2, PLOAD4,

PLOADX1

Element Variable

Entry Description

Edge Distributed Load For axisymmetric solid elements (CTRIAX6), the PA, PB, and

(f1,f2,f3) THETA fields on the PLOADX1 entry are defined. For other 2-D

elements, the input vector is interpreted as load per unit length and

converted into equivalent nodal loads (FORCE entries).

Edge Distributed Moment For 2-D shell elements, the input vector is interpreted as moment

(m1,m2,m3) per unit length and converted into equivalent nodal moments

(MOMENT entries).

For the element variable type, a field reference is evaluated at each end of the beam to define a

linear load variation.

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

The total load capability is not available directly in MSC.Nastran, but is a convenient way to have

MSC.Patran distribute a force load uniformly over an application area without having to calculate the

number of nodes or application area. The total force load is defined for the application region, but

equivalent uniform pressures are written to the Bulk Data. The equivalent pressure value is are found by

dividing the total load value by the area of the application region.

264 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Entry Description

PLOAD4 Defines a pressure load on a face of a CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3,

CTRIA6, CTRIAR, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, or CQUADR element.

PLOADX1 Defines surface traction to be used with the CQUADX, CTRIAX, and

CTRIAX6 axisymmetric element.

References

• PLOAD4 (p. 2193) in the .

• PLOADX1 (p. 2197) in the .

Total Loads are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form

Note: Currently only 1D element types are supported with this Object even though the form

allows for other types.

Total Load Element Uniform 1-D PLOAD4

Entry Description

Load <F1 F2 F3> Defines the total load component values to element nodes.

Analysis Coordinate Frame Defines the coordinate frame for the distributed load.

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

Contact LBCs

A complete description of Contact loads and boundary conditions is given in Specifying Contact Body

Entries (Ch. 12).

References

• Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments.

CHAPTER 9 265

Assigned Conditions

Initial Conditions

Initial conditions provides various ways of initializing the state variables throughout the model.

Creates a set of TIC Bulk Data entries.

.

Entry Description

TIC Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient

analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at

independent degrees-of-freedom.

References

• TIC (p. 2519) in the .

Initial Displacements are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the

LBC Application form.

Initial Displacement Nodal TIC

Entry Description

Translations (T1,T2,T3) Defines the initial translational displacement values. These are in model

length units.

Rotations (R1,R2,R3) Defines the initial rotational displacement values. These are in radians.

References

Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional

Assignments.

Creates a set of TIC Bulk Data entries.

.

Entry Description

TIC Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient

analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at

independent degrees-of-freedom.

266 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

References

• TIC (p. 2519) in the .

Initial velocities are generated in MSC.Patran using the following Object/Type combination on the LBC

Application form.

Initial Velocity Nodal TIC

Entry Description

Trans Veloc (v1,v2,v3) Defines the V0 fields for translational degrees of freedom on the TIC entry.

A unique TIC entry will be created for each nonblank entry.

Rot Veloc (w1,w2,w3) Defines the V0 fields for rotational degrees of freedom on the TIC entry. A

unique TIC entry will be created for each nonblank entry.

References

Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 18) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5: Functional

Assignments.

MSC.Nastran 2005 r3 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Ch. 10: Materials

10 Materials

Overview 268

Linear Elastic 272

Nonlinear Elastic 278

Inelastic 317

Failure and Damage Models 349

Creep 365

Composite 372

Gasket 374

Material Damping 380

Experimental Data Fitting 382

268 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Overview

A wide variety of materials are encountered in stress analysis problems, and for any one of these

materials a range of constitutive models is available to describe the material’s behavior. We can broadly

classify the materials of interest as those which exhibit almost purely elastic response, possibly with some

energy dissipation during rapid loading by viscoelastic response (the elastomers, such as rubber or solid

propellant); materials that yield, and exhibit considerable ductility beyond yield (such as mild steel and

other commonly used metals, ice at low strain rates, and clay); materials that flow by rearrangement of

particles which interact generally through some dominantly frictional mechanism (such as sand); and

brittle materials (rock, concrete, ceramics).

Material Characteristics Examples Models

Composites Anisotropic: Aircraft panels Composite

continuum

(MATi, 1) Layered, ds i j Z C i jk l dε k l elements

MATORT,

PCOMP) 21 Constants Tires, glass/epoxy

2)Fiber Reinforced,

E t

S Z JJJ ( T CT Ó 1 )

2

Creep Strains increasing with time under Metals at high ORNL

constant load. Stresses decreasing temperatures, polymide

(MATVP) with time under constant films, semiconductor Norton

deformations. Creep strains are materials

noninstantaneous. Maxwell

strain only. Linear (below yield) for most

(MATi, load-displacement relation. materials: metals, glass,

MATORT) wood

Elastoplasticity Yield condition flow rule and Metals von Mises

hardening rule necessary to Isotropic

(MATEP) calculate stress, plastic strain. Soils

Permanent deformation Cam -Clay

upon unloading.

Hill’s Anisotropic

CHAPTER 10 269

Materials

Material Characteristics Examples Models

Hyperelastic Stress function of instantaneous Rubber Mooney

strain. Nonlinear load-

(MATHE) displacement relation. Unloading Ogden

path same as loading.

Arruda-Boyce

Gent

elastic material under loads. Full

(MATVE) recovery after unloading. Glass, industrial Narayanaswamy

plastics

phenomenon

(MATVP) Powder Shima Model

Constitutive Models

A single material may contain multiple constitutive models. Each constitutive model characterizes

distinct ranges of the material’s response. The constitutive models in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear contain a range of linear and nonlinear material models that can address or approximate the

material response of most commonly encountered materials. The constitutive models in MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear can be accessed by any of the solid or structural elements. The models are assessed

independently at each “constitutive calculation point” (i.e., the numerical integration points in the

elements). Thus, the constitutive models are concerned only with a single calculation point. The element

then provides an estimate of the kinematic solution to the problem at the point under consideration.

In MSC.Patran, the constitutive model to be used is defined by the Constitutive Model Status.

MSC.Patran uses all active constitutive models when the analysis is submitted. Redundant or unneeded

constitutive models should be rendered inactive.

270 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Existing constitutive models of an existing material appear in either the active or inactive listbox

depending on their active/inactive status. Selection of a model from one listbox will add it to the other

one. If you do not wish for a constitutive model to be translated into the MSC.Nastran input file, place it

in the inactive list box

To view or change the constitutive model status:

1. Click on the Materials Application icon located on the Main form to bring up the Materials

Application form.

2. Select Change Material Status...

The following material bulk data entries are available in SOL 600. Each of these options are overviewed

in the sections of this chapter and detailed in the Bulk Data Entries (Ch. 8) in the . All standard

MSC.Nastran materials are also available in SOL 600.

MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties.

--MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties.

MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials.

MATG Specifies gasket material properties to be used in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

--MATTG Specifies gasket material property temperature variation to be used in

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

CHAPTER 10 271

Materials

MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large strain

and large rotation) analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

--MATTHE Specifies temperature-dependent properties of hyperelastic (rubber-like)

materials (elastomers) in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

MATED Specifies damage model properties for hyperelastic materials in MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for 3-dimensional and plane

strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

--MATTORT Specifies temperature-dependent properties of elastic orthotropic materials for

linear and nonlinear analyses used in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

(SOL 600) only.

MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

--MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of

Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

(SOL 600) only.

MATVP Specifies viscoplastic or creep material properties to be used for quasi-static

analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

The following sections describe how to model material behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

Modeling material behavior consists of both specifying the constitutive models used to describe the

material behavior and defining the actual material data necessary to represent the material. Directional

dependency can be included for materials other than isotropic materials. Data for the materials can be

entered into MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear either directly through the input file or by user subroutines,

or material models may be defined in the MSC.Patran Materials Application. Each section of this chapter

discusses various options for organizing material data for input. Each section also discusses the

constitutive (stress-strain) relation and graphic representation of the models and includes

recommendations and cautions concerning the use of the models.

272 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Linear Elastic

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is capable of handling problems with any combination of isotropic,

orthrotropic, or anisotropic linear elastic material behavior.

The linear elastic model is the model most commonly used to represent engineering materials. This

model, which has a linear relationship between stresses and strains, is represented by Hooke’s Law.

Figure 10-1 shows that stress is proportional to strain in a uniaxial tension test. The ratio of stress to strain

is the familiar definition of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of the material.

E (modulus of elasticity) = (axial stress)/(axial strain) (10-1)

Stress

Strain

Experiments show that axial elongation is always accompanied by lateral contraction of the bar. The ratio

for a linear elastic material is:

This is known as Poisson’s ratio. Similarly, the shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) is defined as:

A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, which would be appropriate for an incompressible material, can be used for the

following elements: Herrmann, plane stress, shell, truss, or beam. A Poisson’s ratio which is close (but

not equal) to 0.5 can be used for constant dilation elements and reduced integration elements in situations

which do not include other severe kinematic constraints. Using a Poisson’s ratio close to 0.5 for all other

elements usually leads to behavior that is too stiff. A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5 can also be used with the

updated Lagrangian formulation in the multiplicative decomposition framework using the standard

displacement elements. In these elements, the treatment for incompressibility is transparent.

CHAPTER 10 273

Materials

Isotropic Materials

Most linear elastic materials are assumed to be isotropic (their elastic properties are the same in all

directions). For an isotropic material, every plane is a plane of symmetry and every direction is an axis

of symmetry. It can be shown that for an isotropic material:

G Z E ⁄ ( 2( 1 H v ) ) (10-4)

The shear modulus G can be easily calculated if the modulus of elasticity E and Poisson’s ratio v

are known.

Isotropic material models are designated with the MAT1 Bulk Data entry in the MSC.Nastran Input File.

Entry Description

MAT1 Defines the material properties for linear isotropic materials.

References

• MAT1, 1613 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define an isotropic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to

Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties...

Isotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Options subform

on the Materials Application form.

Elastic Modulus Defines the elastic modulus. This property is generally required. May vary

with temperature via a defined material field.

Poisson’s Ratio Defines the Poisson’s ratio. This property is generally required. May vary

with temperature via a defined material field.

Density Defines the mass density. This property is optional.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficient of thermal expansion. This property is optional.

Expansion May vary with temperature via a defined material field.

Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature. This property is optional. When

defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference

temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.

274 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The material density, used to define the mass of the structure, and the damping value are used in dynamic

loadings, while the expansion coefficient is used to identify the thermal strains.

Orthotropic Materials

An orthotropic material has three mutually orthogonal planes of symmetry. With respect to a coordinate

system parallel to these planes, the constitutive law for this material is given by the following more

general form of Hooke’s Law:

ε 11 1 ⁄ ( E1 ) Ó ( υ 12 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) Ó ( υ 13 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) 0 0 0 σ 11

ε 22 ( Ó υ 12 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) 1 ⁄ ( E2 ) ( Ó υ 23 ) ⁄ ( E 2 ) 0 0 0 σ 22

ε 33 ( Ó υ 13 ) ⁄ ( E 1 ) ( Ó υ 23 ) ⁄ ( E 2 ) 1 ⁄ ( E3 ) 0 0 0 σ 33

Z

γ 12 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 12 ) 0 0 τ 12

γ 23 0 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 23 ) 0 τ 23

γ 13 0 0 0 0 0 1 ⁄ ( G 13 ) τ 13

3-D Orthotropic

Due to symmetry of the compliance matrix, E11 ν 21 = E22 ν 12 , E22 ν 32 = E33 ν 23 , and E33 ν 13 =

E11 ν 31 . Using these relations, a general orthotropic material has nine independent constants:

Note: The inequalities E22 > ν 23 E33, E11 > ν 12 E22, and E33 > ν 31 E11 must be satisfied in

order for the orthotropic material to be stable. This is checked by MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear.

2-D Orthotropic

Orthotropic material models can be used with 2-D elements, such as plane stress, plane strain, and

axisymmetric elements. For example, the orthotropic stress-strain relationship for a plane stress

element is:

E1 ν 21 E 1 0

1

C Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ν 12 E 2 E2 0 (10-5)

( 1 Ó ν 12 ν 21 )

0 0 ( 1 Ó ν 12 ν 21 )G

CHAPTER 10 275

Materials

2-D and 3-D othrotropic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran using the following bulk

data entries.

Entry Description

MAT3 Defines the material properties for linear orthotropic materials used by the

CTRIAX6 element entry.

MAT2 Defines the material property for an orthotropic material for solids and

isoparametric shell elements.

MAT8

MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for three-dimensional and

plane strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) only in a more general way than MAT2 or MAT8.

References

• MAT3, 1619 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• MAT8, 1624of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• MATORT (SOL 600), 1572 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define an orthotropic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create>2D

or 3D Orthotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties...

The required properties for orthotropic linear elastic material models vary based on dimension, element

type, and thermal dependencies. 3-D orthotropic material models require the following material data

(2-D requires a reduced set) via the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.

Elastic Modulus 11/22/33 Defines the elastic moduli in the element’s coordinate system. This is

required data. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.

Poisson’s Ratio 12/23/31 Defines the Poisson’s ratios relative to the element’s coordinate

system. This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field.

Shear Modulus 12/23/31 Defines the shear moduli relative to the element’s coordinate system.

This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field.

276 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficients of thermal expansion relative to the element’s

Expansion 11/22/33 coordinate system. These properties are optional. May vary with

temperature via a defined material field.

Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature which is an optional property.

When defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference

temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.

Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.

Anisotropic Materials

Anisotropic material exhibits different elastic properties in different directions. The significant directions

of the material are labeled as preferred directions, and it is easiest to express the material behavior with

respect to these directions.

The stress-strain relationship for an anisotropic linear elastic material can be expressed as

σ i j Z C i jk l ε k l (10-6)

The values of C i jk l (the stress-strain relation) and the preferred directions (if necessary) must be defined

for an anisotropic material.

Anisotropic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran using the following bulk data entries.

Entry Description

MAT2 Defines the material properties for linear anisotropic materials for two-

dimensional elements.

References

• MAT2, 1617 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define anisotropic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to Create>2D

or 3D Anisotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties...

CHAPTER 10 277

Materials

Anisotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties

subform on the Materials Application form.

Stress-Strain Matrix, Cij Defines the upper right portion of the symmetric stress-strain matrix

relative to the element’s coordinate system.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficients of thermal expansion relative to the element’s

Expansion coordinate system. They are optional properties.

Reference Temperature Defines the stress free temperature which is an optional property.

When defining temperature dependent properties, this is the reference

temperature from which values will be extracted or interpolated.

Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.

278 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Nonlinear Elastic

Hypoelastic - Isotropic

The hypoelastic model is able to represent a nonlinear elastic (reversible) material behavior. For this

constitutive theory, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that

σ̌ i j Z L i jk l ε̌ k l H g i j (10-7)

The stress and strains are true stresses and logarithmic strains, respectively, when used in conjunction

with the updated Lagrange and large displacement options.

When used in conjunction with the large displacement option only, Equation (10-7) is expressed as

ˇ ˇ

S i j Z L i jk l E H gi j (10-8)

kl

where E, S are the Green-Lagrangian strain and second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, respectively.

This model can be used with any stress element, including Herrmann formulation elements.

The tensors L and g may be defined by user subroutine HYPELA. In order to provide an accurate

solution, L should be a tangent stiffness evaluated at the beginning of the iteration. In addition, the total

stress should be defined as its exact value at the end of the increment. This allows the residual load

correction to work effectively.

In user subroutine HYPELA2, besides the functionality of HYPELA, additional information is available

regarding the kinematics of deformation. In particular, the deformation gradient ( F ), rotation tensor ( R ),

and the eigenvalues ( λ ) and eigenvectors ( N ) to form the stretch tensor ( U ) are also provided. This

information is available only for the continuum elements namely: plane strain, generalized plane strain,

plane stress, axisymmetric, axisymmetric with twist, and three-dimensional cases.

Hyperelastic - Isotropic

Hyperelastic models are specified using either the MATHP or MATHE bulk data entries and are used to

describe the behavior of materials that exhibit elastic response up to large strains, such as rubber, solid

propellant, and other elastomeric materials. These materials are described in terms of a “strain energy

potential”, U, which defines the strain energy stored in the material per unit of volume in the initial

configuration as a function of the strain at that point in the material.

Elastomeric materials are elastic in the classical sense. Upon unloading, the stress-strain curve is retraced

and there is no permanent deformation. Elastomeric materials are initially isotropic. Figure 10-2 shows a

typical stress-strain curve for an elastomeric material.

CHAPTER 10 279

Materials

σ, Stress

100%

ε, Strain

Figure 10-2 A Typical Stress-Strain Curve for an Elastomeric Material

Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which

is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios. Significance and calculation of these kinematic

quantities is discussed next.

Most solid rubberlike materials are nearly incompressible: their bulk modulus is several orders of

magnitude larger than their shear modulus. For applications where the material is not highly confined,

the assumption that the material is fully incompressible is usually a good approximation. In cases where

the material is highly confined (such as in an O-ring), modeling the compressibility can be important for

obtaining accurate results. In either case, the use of “hybrid” (mixed formulation) elements is

recommended for this type of material in all but plane stress cases.

Elastomeric foams on the other hand are elastic but very compressible.

Elastomeric materials are considered to be isotropic in nature with random orientation of the long

chain molecules.

Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which

is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios.

In the rectangular block in Figure 10-3, λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 are the principal stretch ratios along the edges

of the block defined by

λi Z ( Li H ui ) ⁄ Li (10-9)

280 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

L3 λ3L3

λ1L1 λ2L2

Undeformed

L2 Deformed

L1

Figure 10-3 Rectangular Rubber Block

In practice, the material behavior is (approximately) incompressible, leading to the constraint equation

λ 1 λ2 λ 3 Z 1

2 2 2

I 1 Z λ H λ 2 H λ3

1

2 2 2 2 2 2

I2 Z λ1 λ H λ λ H λ λ (10-10)

2 2 3 3 1

2 2 2

I3 Z λ1 λ2 λ3

you obtain total or updated Lagrange formulations for elasticity. The kinematic measures for the two

formulations are discussed next.

The strain measure is the Green-Lagrange strain defined as:

1

E i j Z JJJ ( C i j Ó δ i j ) (10-11)

2

Ci j Z Fk i Fk j (10-12)

∂x

F k j Z JJJJJJJJkJ (10-13)

∂X j

CHAPTER 10 281

Materials

1

JJJ

2 (10-14)

J Z λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z ( det C i j )

I1 Z Ci i (implied sum on i)

2

( Ci j Ci j Ó ( Ci i ) )

I2 Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J (10-15)

2

1

I 3 Z JJJ e i jk e p q r C i p C jq C k r Z det ( C i j )

6

2 A A

Ci j Z λA Ni Nj (10-16)

2

in which the stretches λ A are the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, C i j and

A

the eigenvectors are N i .

The strain measure is the true or logarithmic measure defined as:

1

ε i j Z JJJ ln b i j (10-17)

2

bi j Z F i k F j k (10-18)

Thus, using the spectral decomposition theorem, the true strains are written as:

1 A A

ε i j Z JJJ ( ln λ A )n i n j (10-19)

2

A

where n i is the eigenvectors in the current configuration. It is noted that the true strains can also be

approximated using first Padé approximation, which is a rational expansion of the tensor, as:

Ó1

εi j Z 2 ( V i j Ó δ i j ) ( V i j H δ i j ) (10-20)

282 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where a polar decomposition of the deformation gradient F i j is done into the left stretch tensor V i j and

rotation tensor R i j as:

Fi j Z Vi k Rk j

1

JJJ

2

J Z λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z ( det b i j ) (10-21)

I1 Z b i i

1 2

I 2 Z JJJ ( b i j b i j Ó ( b i i ) )

2 (10-22)

1

and I 3 Z JJJ e i jk e p q r b i p b jq b k r Z det ( b i j )

6

It is noted that either Equation (10-15) or Equation (10-22) gives the same strain energy since it is scalar

and invariant. Also, to account for the incompressibility condition, in both formulations, the strain energy

is split into deviatoric and volumertic parts as:

Mooney-Rivlin Model

The generalized Mooney-Rivlin model for nearly-incompressible elastomeric materials is written as:

N N

gmr m n

Wd e v i a t o r i c Z ∑ ∑ Cm n ( I1 Ó 3 ) ( I2 Ó 3 ) (10-24)

m Z 1 n Z 1

Jamus-Green-Simpson Model

A particular form of the generalized Mooney-Rivlin model, namely the third order deformation (tod)

model, is implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). This is one of the few places

where the formulation for SOLs 106 and 129 may be more appropriate because they can use up to fifth

order terms. However, the Ogden formulation (below) is usually better for large strain behavior than even

the fifth order Mooney-Rivlin.

tod 3

W devratoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H C 01 ( I 2 Ó 3 ) H C 11 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) ( I 2 Ó 3 ) H C 20 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) 2 H C 30 ( I 1 Ó 3 )

(10-25)

CHAPTER 10 283

Materials

tod

where W deviatoric is the deviatoric third order deformation form strain energy function,

C 10, C 01, C 11, C 20, C 30 are material constants obtained from experimental data.

Simpler and popular forms of the above strain energy function are obtained as:

nh

W deviatoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) Neo-Hookean

mr

W deviatoric Z C 10 ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H C 01 ( I 2 Ó 3 ) Mooney-Rivlin

(10-26)

Ogden Model

The form of strain energy for the Ogden model in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is,

N

µ α α α

JJJJJkJ λ 1 H λ 2 H λ 3 Ó 3

ogden k k k

Wd e v i a t o r i c Z ∑ αk

(10-27)

k Z 1

αk

αk Ó JJJJJJJ α

3 k

where λ i Z J λi are the deviatoric stretch ratios while C mn , µ k , and α k are the

material constants obtained from the curve fitting of experimental data.

The Ogden model is usually applied to slightly compressible materials. If no bulk modulus is given, it is

taken to be virtually incompressible. This model is different from the Mooney model in several respects.

The Mooney material model is with respect to the invariants of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain

tensor and implicitly assumes that the material is incompressible. The Ogden formulation is with respect

to the eigenvalues of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain, and the presence of the bulk modulus implies

some compressibility. Using a two-term series results in identical behavior as the Mooney mode if:

µ 1 Z 2C 10 , α 1 Z 2 , µ 2 Z Ó 2C 01 , and α 2 Z Ó 2

Arruda-Boyce Model

In the Arruda-Boyce strain energy model, the underlying molecular structure of elastomer is represented

by an eight-chain model to simulate the non-Gaussian behavior of individual chains in the network. The

two parameters, nkΘ and N ( n is the chain density, k is the Botzmann constant, Θ is the temperature,

and N is the number of statistical links of length l in the chain between chemical crosslinks) representing

initial modules and limiting chain extensibility and are related to the molecular chain orientation thus

representing the physics of network deformation.

As evident in most models describing rubber deformation, the strain energy function constructed by

fitting experiment data obtained from one state of deformation to another fails to accurately describe that

deformation mode. The Arruda-Boyce model ameliorates this defect and is unique since the standard

tensile test data provides sufficient accuracy for multiple modes of deformation.

284 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

λ2 α 0

C1

λ3 α 0

λ1 α 0

k

Consider a cube of dimension α 0 with an unstretched network including eight chains of length

r0 Z Nl , where the fully extended chain has an approximate length of Nl. A chain vector from the

center of the cube to a corner can be expressed as:

α0 α0 α0

C 1 Z JJJJJJ λ 1 i H JJJJJJ λ 2 j H JJJJJJ λ 3 k (10-28)

2 2 2

Using geometrical considerations, the chain vector length can be written as:

1 1⁄2

r chain Z JJJJJJJ Nl ( λ 12 H λ 22 H λ 32 ) (10-29)

3

and

r chain 1 1⁄2

J Z JJJJJJJ ( I 1 )

λ chain Z JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-30)

r0 3

Using statistical mechanics considerations, the work of deformation is proportional to the entropy change

on stretching the chains from the unstretched state and may be written in terms of the chain length as:

r chain β

W Z nkΘN JJJJJJJJJJJJ β H ln JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó ΘC¾ (10-31)

Nl sinh β

where n is the chain density and C¾ is a constant. β is an inverse Langevin function correctly accounts

for the limiting chain extensibility and is defined as:

r chain

β Z L Ó 1 JJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-32)

Nl

CHAPTER 10 285

Materials

β

With Equation (10-30) through Equation (10-33), the Arruda-Boyce model can be written

Arruda-Boyce 1 1 11

W dev Z nkΘ JJJ ( I 1 Ó 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJ ( I 12 Ó 9 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 13 Ó 27 )

2 20N 1050N

2

(10-34)

19 519

H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 14 Ó 81 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( I 15 Ó 243 ) ]

3 4

7000N 673750N

Gent Model

Also, using the notion of limiting chain extensibility, Gent proposed the following constitutive relation:

Gent Ó EI m Im

W dev Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJ log JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-35)

6 I m Ó I 1*

where

I 1* Z I 1 Ó 3 (10-36)

The constant EI m is independent of molecular length and, hence, of degree of crosslinking. The model

is attractive due to its simplicity, but yet captures the main behavior of a network of extensible molecules

over the entire range of possible strains.

The volumetric part of the strain energy is for all the rubber models in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear is:

1 2

JJJ

9K 3

W volumetric Z JJJJJJJ J Ó 1 (10-37)

2

when K is the bulk modulus. It can be noted that the particular form of volumetric strain energy is chosen

such that:

1. The constraint condition is satisfied for incompressible deformations only; for example:

> 0 if I 3 > 0

f ( I 3 ) Z 0 if I 3 Z 1 (10-38)

< 0 if I 3 < 0

286 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This yields the constraint function as:

1

JJ6J

f ( I 3 ) Z 3 I Ó 1 (10-39)

3

upon substitution of Equation (10-39) in Equation (10-35) and taking the first variation of the variational

principle, you obtain the pressure variable as:

1

JJ3J

p Z 3K J Ó 1 (10-40)

The equation has a physical significance in that for small deformations, the pressure is linearly related to

the volumetric strains by the bulk modulus K .

The discontinuous or continuous damage models discussed in the models section on damage can be

included with the generalized Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Gent models to simulate

Mullins effect or fatigue of elastomers when using the updated Lagrangian approach. In the total

Lagrangian framework however, this is available for the Ogden model only.

Foam Model

Sometimes elastomeric materials show large volumetric deformations. For this type of behavior, the

models discussed above are not appropriate. Instead, the foam model expressed by:

N N

µ αn αn αn µn βn

W Z ∑ JJJJJnJ λ 1 H λ 2 H λ 3 Ó 3 H ∑ JJJJJJ 1 Ó J (10-41)

αn βn

n Z 1 n Z 1

should be used. In contrast to the Ogden model, the first part of the foam strain energy function is not

purely deviatoric. The material constants βn provide additional flexibility to describe the material

behavior also for a large amount of compressibility.

The Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Foam models may be used either in the total

Lagrange or updated Lagrange framework. This is selected using the PARAM,MARUPDAT. For plane

stress analysis the total Lagrange procedure will always be used.

The updated Lagrangian rubber elasticity capability can be used in conjunction with both continuous as

well as discontinuous damage models. Thermal, as well as viscoelastic, effects can be modeled with the

current formulation. While the Mooney model can account for the temperature dependent material

properties, the Ogden model does not support the temperature dependence at this time. The singularity

ratio of the system is inversely proportional to the order of bulk modulus of the material due to the

condensation procedure.

CHAPTER 10 287

Materials

A consistent linearization has been carried out to obtain the tangent modulus. The singularity for the case

of two- or three-equal stretch ratios is analytically removed by application of L’Hospital’s rule. The

current framework with an exact implementation of the finite strain kinematics along with the split of

strain energy to handle compressible and nearly incompressible response is eminently suitable for

implementation of any nonlinear elastic as well as inelastic material models. In fact, the finite

e θ p

deformation plasticity model based on the multiplicative decomposition, F Z F F F is implemented

in the same framework.

To simulate elastomeric materials, incompressible element(s) are used for plane strain, axisymmetric,

and three-dimensional problems for elasticity in total Lagrangian framework. These elements can be

used with each other or in combination with other elements. For plane stress, beam, plate or shell

analysis, conventional elements can be used. For updated Lagrangian elasticity, both conventional

elements (as well as Herrmann elements) can be used for plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-

dimensional problems.

In order to determine the material parameters to be used, like Mooney coefficients, Ogden moduli,

relaxation times, etc., experiments must be carried out. In this section, the laboratory tests of which data

can be used to fit the material parameters will be described. Once the test data is available the

Experimental Data Fitting module in MSC.Patran can be used to calculate appropriate coefficient values.

For a homogeneous material, homogeneous deformation modes suffice to characterize the material

constants. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear accepts test data from the following deformation modes:

• Uniaxial tension and compression.

• Biaxial tension and compression.

• Planar tension and compression (also known as pure shear).

• Simple Shear

• Volumetric tension and compression

288 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1 3

2

1 3

2

1 3

2

1 3

2

Uniaxial Test

Probably the most popular test is the uniaxial test (see Figure 10-6). This test can be used in tension as

well as in compression, both for incompressible and (slightly) compressible elastomeric materials. The

CHAPTER 10 289

Materials

shape of the specimen used in compression will usually be less slender than the shape used in tension.

Within the region indicated by the dashed line, the state of deformation will be homogeneous, where the

deformation can be described by:

λ 1 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 , λ 2 Z λ 3 Z J⁄λ (10-42)

FJ , σ

σ 11 Z σ Z JJJJJJ Z σ 33 Z 0 (10-43)

A 0 22

in which F is the applied force and A 0 is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the

F F

E2

E3 E1

Figure 10-6 Uniaxial (Tensile) Test

Necessary input for the curve fitting program in MSC.Patran consists of at least engineering strain ( e 11 )

versus engineering stress ( σ 11 ) data points. In case of (slightly) compressible materials, information

about the volume changes is also needed. This data can be given either in terms of the area ratio or the

volume ratio. The area ratio is defined by the current cross sectional area A over the original cross

sectional area A 0 . Similarly, the volume ratio is defined by the current volume V over the undeformed

volume V 0 . Notice that the volume ratio and the area ratio are related by:

V A

JJJJJJJ Z J Z JJJJJJJ ( 1 H e 11 )

V0 A0

If, for a particular elastomeric material, both a tensile and a compression test have been performed, all

the data points should be collected into one data file. The layout of a data file containing uniaxial test

data is given in the figure below. The columns may be separated by either spaces or commas. For (nearly)

incompressible material behavior, the third column can be omitted.

290 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

e 11 σ 11 A ⁄ A0 e 11 σ 11 V ⁄ V0

or

Equi-Biaxial Test

The equi-biaxial tensile test outlined in Figure 10-8 can be used to obtain, within the region indicated by

the dashed line, a homogeneous state of deformation defined by:

F F

E2

E3 E1

F

Figure 10-8 Equi-biaxial (Tensile) Test

2

λ 1 Z λ 2 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 Z 1 H e 22 , λ 3 Z J ⁄ λ (10-44)

F

σ 11 Z σ 22 Z σ Z JJJJJJJ , σ 33 Z 0 (10-45)

A0

CHAPTER 10 291

Materials

with A 0 being the original cross sectional area of the elastomeric sheet in the direction perpendicular to

the applied forces, which is assumed to be the same in the E 1 - E 3 -plane and the E 2 - E 3 -plane.

For compressible elastomers, volumetric information is needed. For the equi-biaxial test, this can be

given in terms of a thickness ratio or, similar to the uniaxial test, a volume ratio. The thickness ratio is

defined as the current sheet thickness t over the original sheet thickness t 0 . The relation between the

thickness ratio and the volume ratio is:

V t 2

JJJJJJJ Z J Z JJJJ ( 1 H e 11 ) (10-46)

V0 t0

The layout of a data file for an equi-biaxial tensile test is given in Figure 10-8.

A state of planar shear, also sometimes called pure shear, can be obtained by clamping and stretching an

elastomeric rectangular sheet of material, as indicated in Figure 10-9.

F F

E2

E3 E1

Figure 10-9 Planar Shear Test

Except for the vicinity of the free edges and the clamps, the state of strain can be found to be substantially

uniform, according to:

J

λ 1 Z λ Z 1 H e 11 , λ 2 Z 1 , λ 3 Z JJJ (10-47)

λ

where the known stress components are given by:

FJ , σ

σ 11 Z σ Z JJJJJJ Z 0 (10-48)

A 0 33

292 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

in which A 0 is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the E 1 - E 3 -plane. Notice that the

engineering strain e 22 is zero, but that the corresponding engineering stress σ 22 depends on the material

behavior.

δU Z T S δλ S (10-49)

∂ Ó 3 ∂U ∂U

TS Z U Z 2 λS Ó λS H (10-50)

∂ λS ∂I ∂

1 I 2

A test which, compared to the above mentioned tests, leads to a more complex kinematic description, is

the simple shear test (see Figure 10-10).Upon introducing the shear strain γ , the coordinates in the

deformed configuration are given by:

x 1 Z X 1 H γX 2 , x 2 Z X 2 , x 3 Z X 3 (10-51)

1 γ 0

F Z 0 1 0 (10-52)

0 0 1

2F

E2 atan γ

E3 E1

Figure 10-10 Simple Shear Test

Notice that det ( F ) Z 1 , irrespective of the value of γ , from which it can be concluded that a simple

shear test is a constant volume test.

CHAPTER 10 293

Materials

Based on Equation (10-51), Equation (10-52) and Figure 10-10, the engineering strain tensor and the right

Cauchy-Green strain tensor can be evaluated as:

0 γ⁄2 0

e Z γ⁄2 0 0 (10-53)

0 0 0

1 γ 0

C Z γ 1Hγ 0

2 (10-54)

0 0 1

According to Equation (10-54), the principal stretch ratios follow from the principal values of C

and read:

2 2

γ γ

λ 1, 2 Z 1 H JJJJJ ± γ 1 H JJJJJ , λ 3 Z 1 (10-55)

2 4

It can easily be verified that λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 Z 1 , which again shows that the simple shear test is a constant

volume test. The relevant engineering stress is given by:

FJ

σ 12 Z JJJJJJ (10-56)

A0

with A 0 being the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the E 1 - E 3 -plane.

The layout of a data file containing measurements of a simple shear test is given in Figure 10-11.

2e 12 Z γ σ 12

Volumetric Test

Although a uniaxial, equi-biaxial and planar shear test can be used to obtain information about the

volumetric behavior, for compressible materials an additional volumetric test may be preferable. This is

especially true for slightly compressible materials, since volumetric data from other tests other than a

volumetric one may easily be inaccurate (because most of the deformation is deviatoric). Two commonly

294 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

used volumetric tests are outlined in Figure 10-12. In Figure 10-12a, a cylindrical specimen is

compressed in a cylindrical hole. This test can be successfully applied for slightly compressible

materials. In Figure 10-12b, a specimen is deformed by compressing the surrounding fluid. This

volumetric test can also be used for highly compressible materials.

E1

(a) (b)

F

E3 E2

Figure 10-12 Volumetric Tests

For a volumetric test, the direct true stress components are assumed to be equal to the hydrostatic pressure

p and given by:

F

T 11 Z T 22 Z T 33 Z JJJJJJ

J (10-57)

p

A

p

in which A denotes the area of the piston in the E 2 - E 3 -plane. The deformation can be expressed in

terms of an engineering strain e and corresponding stretch ratio λ , which can be determined from the

measured volume change according to:

V

e Z λÓ1 Z 3 JJJJJJJ Ó 1 Z 3 JÓ1 (10-58)

V0

2

σ Z T 11 λ (10-59)

Notice that only in the case of Figure 10-12b the engineering strain e and the engineering stress σ are

equal to the direct components of the engineering strain and the engineering stress tensor.

The layout of the data file corresponding to a volumetric test is given in Figure 10-13. Notice that because

of Figure 10-12b, the entries of the first and the third column are not independent.

CHAPTER 10 295

Materials

e σ V ⁄ V0

Relaxation Test

The basic feature of a relaxation test is that the force or stress response to a prescribed fixed displacement

or deformation is measured as a function of time. A relaxation test for a large strain elastomeric material

is indicated in Figure 10-14. By measuring the force needed for a displacement ∆u at different time

intervals, the decay of the strain energy as a function of time can be determined. For linear elastic

isotropic material, similar tests can be performed to get information about the shear modulus and/or the

bulk modulus as a function of time. In order to properly measure the instantaneous values, application

of the prescribed displacement should occur sufficiently fast. It should be noted, due to the assumption

introduced in equation Equation (10-94), that for large strain visco-elastic materials the magnitude of (the

instantaneous value of) the strain energy is not important, since every energy term in the Prony series

expansion is related to the instantaneous strain energy using a scalar multiplier. The data does not need

to be equispaced in time. Usually, at the beginning of the relaxation experiment the measurements are

done at smaller time intervals than at the end of the experiment.

∆u

If, for linear visco-elastic materials, instead of a relaxation test only a creep test can be performed, the

creep data must be transformed into relaxation data. Converting creep data into relaxation data can be

done using a numerical integration scheme, but is not part of MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

296 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Elastomeric foams are cellular solids that have the following primary mechanical characteristics:

• They can deform elastically up to large strain: up to 90% strain in compression. In most

applications, this is the dominant mode of deformation.

• Their porosity permits very large volumetric changes. This is in contrast to solid rubbers, which

are approximately incompressible.

• Cellular solids are made up of interconnected networks of solid struts or plates which form the

edges and faces of cells. Foams are made up of polyhedral cells that pack in three dimensions.

The foam cells can either be open (e.g., sponge) or closed (e.g., flotation foam). Common

examples of elastomeric foam materials are cellular polymers such as cushions, padding, and

packaging materials which utilize the excellent energy absorption properties of foams - for a

certain stress level, the energy absorbed by foams is substantially greater than by ordinary stiff

elastic materials.

The figure below shows a typical compressive stress-strain curve for elastomeric foam.

Densification

STRESS

of cell walls

STRAIN

At small strains (< 5%) the foam deforms in a linear elastic manner, due to cell wall bending.

This is followed by a plateau of deformation at almost constant stress, caused by the elastic buckling of

the columns or plates which make up the cell edges or walls. In closed cells, the enclosed gas pressure

and membrane stretching increase the level and slope of the plateau.

Finally, a region of densification occurs, where the cell walls crush together, resulting in a rapid increase

of compressive stress. Ultimate compressive nominal strains of 0.7 to 0.9 are typical.

The tensile deformation mechanisms for small strains are similar to the compression mechanisms but

differ for large strains. The figure shows a typical tensile stress-strain curve.

CHAPTER 10 297

Materials

STRESS

STRAIN

At small strains the foam deforms in a linear, elastic manner, due to cell wall bending, similar to that

in compression.

The cell walls rotate and align, resulting in rising stiffness. The walls are substantially aligned at a tensile

strain of about 1/3. Further stretching results in increased axial strains in the walls.

At small strains for both compression and tension, the average experimentally observed Poisson's ratio,

ν, of foams is 1/3. At larger strains it is commonly observed that Poisson's ratio is effectively zero during

compression - the buckling of the cell walls does not result in any significant lateral deformation.

However, during tension, ν is nonzero, which is a result of the alignment and stretching of the cell walls.

The manufacture of foams often results in cells with different principal dimensions. This shape

anisotropy results in different loading responses in different directions. However, the foam model does

not take this kind of initial anisotropy into account.

The response of the material is defined by the parameters in the strain energy function, U, so that it is

necessary to determine these parameters to use the foam model. MSC.Patran contains a capability

for obtaining the µi, αi and βi for the foam model with up to six terms (N=6) directly from test data. It

is usually best to obtain data from several experiments involving different kinds of deformation, over

the range of strains of interest in the actual application, and to use all of these data to determine

the parameters.

Since the properties of foam materials can vary significantly from one batch to another, all of the

experiments should be performed on specimens taken from the same batch of material or to use

MSC.Stocastics in combination with SOL 600.

298 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The deformation modes are characterized in terms of the principal stretches, λi, and the volume ratio, J.

The elastomeric foams are not incompressible, so that J = λ1λ2λ3 != 1. The transverse stretches, λ2 and/or

λ3, are independently specified in the test data either as individual values from the measured lateral

deformations or through the definition of an effective Poisson’s ratio.

The three deformation modes above use a single form of the nominal stress-stretch relation,

N

µi αi Ó α i βi

∂U 2

JJJJJ λ Ó J

TL Z Z JJJJJJJ ∑ (10-60)

∂ λL λL αi L

i Z 1

where TL is the nominal stress and LL is the stretch in the direction of loading. Because of the

compressible behavior, the planar mode does not result in a state of pure shear. In fact, if the effective

Poisson’s ratio is zero, planar deformation is identical to uniaxial deformation.

Simple shear is described by the deformation gradient

1 γ 0

F Z 0 1 0 (10-61)

0 0 1

where γ is the shear strain. For this deformation, J=det F =1. A schematic illustration of simple shear

deformation is shown in Figure 10-17.

The nominal shear stress TS is:

2 N

µi αi

∂U 2γ

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJ

J λ Ó 1

TS Z

∂γ

Z ∑ 2 ∑ α j

(10-62)

2 λ Ó 1 Ó γ 2 i

j Z 1 j i Z 1

where λj= are the principal stretches in the plane of shearing, related to the shear strain, γ, by:

2 2

γ γ

λ 1, 2 Z 1 H JJJJJ ± γ 1 H JJJJJ (10-63)

2 4

CHAPTER 10 299

Materials

2F

E2 atan γ

E3 E1

The stretch in the direction perpendicular to the shear plane is L3=1. The transverse (tensile) stress, TT,

developed during simple shear deformation due to the Poynting effect, is

2

2 2 λ j Ó 1 N

µi αi

∂U λ Ó 1

TT Z Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

∑ 4 2 2 J JJJJ

∑ α j J

(10-64)

∂ε 2λ Ó λ ( γ H 2 ) i

j Z 1 j j i Z 1

Volumetric Deformation

The volumetric deformation mode consists of all principal stretches being equal,

λ1=λ2=λ3=λV, J=λV3.

α

Ji

µ i JJJJ

N Ó α i βi

∂U 2 3

Óp Z Z JJJ ∑ JJJJ

JJ Ó J (10-65)

∂J J αi

i Z 1

The pressure exerted on the foam specimen is the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid and the decrease in

the specimen volume is equal to the additional fluid entering the pressure chamber. The specimen is

sealed against fluid penetration.

300 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

E1

(a) (b)

F

E3 E2

Figure 10-18 Volumetric Compression Test Setup

For small strains (< 5%), foams behave similarly for both compression and tension. However, we have

seen that at large strains, the deformation mechanisms differ for compression (buckling and crushing) and

tension (alignment and stretching). Accurate modeling with the FOAM option therefore requires that the

experimental data used to define the material parameters correspond to the dominant deformation modes

of the actual problem being analyzed.

If compression dominates in the problem, the pertinent tests are:

• Uniaxial compression.

• Simple shear.

• Planar compression (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

• Volumetric compression (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

• Uniaxial tension.

• Simple shear.

• Biaxial tension (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

• Planar tension (if Poisson’s ratio ν ≠ 0 ).

Lateral strain data can also be used to define the compressibility of the foam. Measurement of the lateral

strains may make other tests redundant, e.g., providing lateral strains for a uniaxial test eliminates the

need for a volumetric test. The foam model may not accurately fit Poisson's ratio if it varies significantly

between compression and tension.

CHAPTER 10 301

Materials

The equations derived above for TU, TB, and TS, with the assumption of material incompressibility,

allow the material parameters Cij and µi, αi to be determined from the experimentally measured stress-

strain relationships in the uniaxial, equibiaxial, and planar loading tests. A least squares fit, which

minimizes the relative error in stress, is used for this purpose. The equation for TS alone will not

determine the constants uniquely. The planar test data input must be augmented by either or both of the

other two types of test data to determine the material parameters.

The Ogden potential is linear in the coefficients µi but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents αi,

thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the nominal stress-nominal strain data

pairs, the error measure, E, is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-Tith/Titest2), where Titest is a stress value

from the test data and Tith comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.

The foam parameters µi, αi, βi are determined from the experimentally measured stress-strain

relationships in the various loading tests described above. A least squares fit, which minimizes the

relative error in stress, is used for this purpose.

The foam potential is linear in the coefficients µi but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents αi and

βi thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the n nominal stress-nominal strain

data pairs, the error measure E is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-Tith/Titest2, where Titest is a stress

value from the test data and Tith comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.

Minimizing the relative error in stress implies that the error in slope (modulus) is minimized;

minimization of the absolute error would decrease the error at larger strains, at the expense of the

accuracy at small strains.

Since the polynomial form with N=1 is very commonly used for cases where the nominal strain is not

too large, an alternative method of finding the material constants, assuming incompressibility, is to use

the uniaxial test data as follows. The nominal strain in the direction of loading in the uniaxial test is

εU=λU-1. Expanding the equation for TB in terms of εU, using the Mooney-Rivlin form, and neglecting

terms of higher than second-order in εU, gives

TU=6εU(C10+C01 -(C10+2C01)εU).

This is a parabola: the slope of this curve at the origin (the effective Young’s modulus at zero strain) is

6(C10+C01); this slope, together with the second-order term -6(C10+2C01)εU2, defines the constants C10

and C01.

If compressibility should be modeled, then, under pure pressure loading, the compressible model with

N=1 gives, to first-order in the volumetric strain εV=3ε11,

302 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

p=-(2 / D1)εV,

K=(2 / D1)

Various options are provided for defining the material properties. The first (available in both MSC.Patran

and MSC.Nastran) is to give the parameters of the polynomial form N, A i j and D i , or the parameters of

the Ogden form N, µ i, α i and D i as functions of the temperature. The second is to give the value of N,

and give experimental stress-data for up to four simple tests: uniaxial, equilibrium, planar and, if the

material is compressible for volumetric compression test. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will then

compute the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] and the D i . This method is available for N = 1 and N=2 for the polynomial

form and up to N = 6 for the Ogden form, and does not allow the properties to be temperature dependent.

In either case, you should be careful about defining the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] : especially when N > 1, the

behavior at higher strains is strongly sensitive to the values of the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] , and unstable material

behavior may result if these values are not correctly defined. When some of the coefficients are strongly

negative, instability at higher strain levels is likely to occur.

Because the properties of rubber-like materials can vary significantly from one sample to another, it is

important that test data are taken from experiments on the same sample (or samples cut from the same

sheet), regardless whether the A i j or [ µ i, α i ] are computed by the user or by the built-in method.

This material option can be used by itself, or can be combined with viscoelasticity to define time

dependent hyperelastic behavior. It cannot be combined with other material options such as plasticity or

creep. It may be used with the pure displacement formulation elements or with the “hybrid” (mixed

formulation) elements. Because elastomeric materials are usually almost completely incompressible,

fully integrated pure displacement method elements are not recommended for use with this material,

except for plane stress cases. If fully or selectively reduced integration displacement method elements

are used with the almost incompressible form of this material model in anything except plane stress

analysis, a penalty method is used to impose the incompressibility constraint. This can sometimes lead

to numerical difficulties, and the fully or selectively reduced integrated “hybrid” formulation elements

are therefore recommended.

Nonlinear hyperelastic materials are characterized in MSC.Nastran with the following Bulk Data entries:

.

Entry Description

MATHP Specifies material properties for use in fully nonlinear (i.e., large strain and

large rotation) hyperelastic analysis of rubber-like materials (elastomers).

MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large

strain and large rotation) analysis in (SOL 600) only.

CHAPTER 10 303

Materials

References

• MATHP, 1569 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• MATHE (SOL 600) (p. 1559) in the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a hyperelastic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to

Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties..., and select Hyperelastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.

3. Select Test Data or Coefficients as the Data Type.

4. From the Strain Energy Potential pull-down menu, select a model and enter properties as

described below.

Hyperelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the

Materials Application form.

Hyperelastic -Mooney/ James Description

Strain Energy Function, C10, Strain energy densities as a function of the strain invariants in the

C01, C11, C20, C30 material. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.

This option consolidates several of the MSC.Marc hyperelastic

material models.

Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This

Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field.

Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.

Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal

expansion coefficient.

Ogden

Hyperelastic-Ogden Description

Bulk Modulus K Defines the Bulk Modulus.

Density Defines the material mass density.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This

Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field

304 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Hyperelastic-Ogden Description

Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal expansion

coefficient.

Modulus k µ k in the Ogden equation.

Foam

Hyperelastic-Foam Description

Density Defines the material mass density.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This

Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field

Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal

expansion coefficient.

Modulus n u n in the Foam equation.

Arruda-Boyce

Hyperelastic-Arruda- Boyce Description

NKT Chain density times Boltzmann constant times temperature.

Chain Length Average chemical chain cross length.

Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.

Density This defines the material mass density.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This

Expansion property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined

material field

Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal

expansion coefficient.

CHAPTER 10 305

Materials

Gent

Hyperelastic-Gent Description

Tensile Modulus Defines standard tension modulus (E).

I 1* Maximum 1st Invariant *

Defines I 1 Z I 1 Ó 3 .

Density This defines the material mass density.

Coefficient of Thermal Defines the coefficient of thermal expansion.

Expansion

Reference Temperature Defines the reference temperature for the thermal

expansion coefficient.

Viscoelastic

The material models discussed in previous sections are considered to be time independent. However,

rubber materials often show a rate-dependent behavior and can be modeled as viscoelastic materials.

Viscoelasticity can be applied:

• To determine the current state of deformation based on the entire time history of loading.

• To characterize small strain and large strain problems.

• With other material options for linear elastic response (small strain) and hyperelastic response

(large strain).

• To include temperature dependencies.

• For isotropic, anisotropic, and incompressible materials.

In the stress relaxation form, the constitutive relation can be written as a hereditary integral formulation

t

dε kl ( τ )

σ ij ( t ) Z ∫ G ijkl ( t Ó τ ) JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

dτ

J dτ H G

ijkl ( t )ε kl ( 0 ) (10-66)

0

The functions G i jk l are called stress relaxation functions. They represent the response to a unit applied

strain and have characteristic relaxation times associated with them. The relaxation functions for

materials with a fading memory can be expressed in terms of Prony or exponential series.

N

∞ n n

G ijkl ( t ) Z G ijkl H ∑ G ijkl exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ ) (10-67)

n Z 1

306 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

n n

in which G i jk l is a tensor of amplitudes and λ is a positive time constant (relaxation time). In the

∞

current implementation, it is assumed that the time constant is isotropic. In Equation (10-67), G i jk l

represents the long term modulus of the material.

The short term moduli (describing the instantaneous elastic effect) are then given by

N

0 ∞ n

G ijkl Z G ijkl ( 0 ) Z G ijkl H ∑ G ijkl (10-68)

n Z 1

The stress can now be considered as the summation of the stresses in a generalized Maxwell model

(Figure 10-19)

N

∞ n

σ ij ( t ) Z σ ij ( t ) H ∑ σ ij ( t ) (10-69)

n Z 1

where

∞ ∞

σ ij Z G ijkl ε kl ( t ) (10-70)

t

n n n dε kl ( τ )

σ ij Z ∫ G ijkl exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ ] JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ dτ (10-71)

dτ

0

η1 η2 ηi

ε

q1 q2 qi

ηE E1

E2 Ei

E0

τi = ηi/Ei

For integration of the constitutive equation, the total time interval is subdivided into a number of

subintervals ( t m Ó 1, t m ) with time-step h Z t m Ó t m Ó 1 . A recursive relation can now be derived

expressing the stress increment in terms of the values of the internal stresses σ inj at the start of the

interval. With the assumption that the strain varies linearly during the time interval h, we obtain the

increment stress-strain relation as

CHAPTER 10 307

Materials

N N

∞ n n n n

∆σ ij ( t m ) Z G ijkl H ∑ β ( h )G ijkl ∆ε kl Ó ∑ α ( h )σ ij ( t m Ó h ) (10-72)

n Z 1 n Z 1

where

n

α n ( h ) Z 1 Ó exp ( Ó h ⁄ λ ) (10-73)

and

n n n

β ( h ) Z α ( h )λ ⁄ h (10-74)

In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the incremental equation for the total stress is expressed in terms of

the short term moduli (See Equation (10-68)).

N N

0 n n n n

∆σ ij ( t m ) Z G ijkl Ó ∑ { 1 Ó β ( h ) }G ijkl ∆ε kl ( t m ) Ó ∑ α ( h )σ ij ( t m Ó h ) (10-75)

n Z 1 n Z 1

Note that the set of equations given by Equation (10-75) can directly be used for both anisotropic and

isotropic materials.

For an isotropic viscoelastic material, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that the deviatoric and

volumetric behavior are fully uncoupled and that the behavior can be described by a time dependent

shear and bulk modules. The bulk moduli is generally assumed to be time independent; however, this is

an unnecessary restriction of the general theory.

Both the shear and bulk moduli can be expressed in a series

N

∞ n n

G( t) Z G H ∑ G exp Ó t ⁄ λ d (10-76)

n Z 1

N

∞ n n

K( t) Z K H ∑ K exp Ó t ⁄ λ v (10-77)

n Z 1

with short term values given by

N

G0 Z G∞ H ∑ Gn (10-78)

n Z 1

308 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

N

K0 Z K∞ H ∑ Kn (10-79)

n Z 1

Let the deviatoric and volumetric component matrices π d and π v be given by

4 ⁄ 3 Ó2 ⁄ 3 Ó2 ⁄ 3 0 0 0

Ó2 ⁄ 3 4 ⁄ 3 Ó 2 ⁄ 3 0 0 0

πd Z Ó2 ⁄ 3 Ó 2 ⁄ 3 4 ⁄ 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

πv Z 1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

Nd

0 n n

∆σ ( t m ) Z G Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó βd ( h ) ]G π d ∆ε ( t m )

n Z 1

Nv

0 n n (10-80)

K Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β v ( h ) ]K π v ∆ε ( t m )

n Z 1

Nd Nv

n n n n

Ó ∑ α d ( h )σ d ( t m Ó h ) Ó ∑ α v ( h )σ v ( t m Ó h )

n Z 1 n Z 1

and

n n n n n

∆σ d ( t m ) Z βd ( h )G π d ∆ε ( t m ) Ó α d ( h )σ d ( t m Ó h )

(10-81)

n n n n n

∆σ v ( t m ) Z βv ( h )K π v ∆ε ( t m ) Ó α v ( h )σ v ( t m Ó h )

Note that the deviatoric and volumetric response are fully decoupled.

CHAPTER 10 309

Materials

Note that the algorithm is exact for linear variations of the strain during the increment. The algorithm is

implicit; hence, for each change in time-step, a new assembly of the stiffness matrix is required.

Equation (10-75) can be used for the analysis of anisotropic viscoelastic materials.

Also, a complete set of moduli (21 components) can be specified in the HOOKVI user subroutine.

Referencing a local coordinate system or use of the ORIENT user subroutine can be used to define a

0 n

preferred orientation both for the short time moduli G i jk l and the amplitude functions G i jk l .

Incompressible elements in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allow the analysis of incompressible and

nearly incompressible materials in plane strain, axisymmetric and three-dimensional problems. The

incompressibility of the element is simulated through the use of an perturbed Lagrangian variational

principle based on the Herrmann formulation.

The constitutive equation for a material with no time dependence in the volumetric behavior can be

expressed as

N

0 n n 1

∆σ ij ( t m ) Z 2 G ijkl Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β ( h ) ]G ijkl ∆ε kl ( t m ) Ó JJJ ∆ε pp ( t m )δ kl

3

n Z 1 (10-82)

N

n n 1

Ó ∑ α ( h ) ( σ′ij ) ( t m ) H JJJ σ kk δ ij

3

n Z 1

0

∆σ pp ( t m ) Z 3K ∆ε pp ( t m ) (10-83)

The hydrostatic pressure term is used as an independent variable in the variational principle. The

Herrmann pressure variable is now defined in the same way as in the formulation for time independent

elastic materials.

σ

pp

H Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-84)

2G 0 ( 1 H ν 0 )

The constitutive Equation (10-82) and Equation (10-83) can then be rewritten

N

e n

∆σ ij ( t m ) Z 2G ( ∆ε ij H ν∗ Hδ ij ) Ó ∑ α n ( h ) ( σ′ ij ) ( t m Ó h ) (10-85)

n Z 1

310 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

where

N

Ge Z G0 Ó ∑ [ 1 Ó β n ( h )G n ] (10-86)

n Z 1

0 0 e 0

G ( 1 H ν ) Ó G ( 1 Ó 2ν )

ν∗ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-87)

e

3G

For an elastomeric time independent material, the constitutive equation is expressed in terms of an energy

function W . For a large strain viscoelastic material, Simo generalized the small strain viscoelasticity

material behavior to a large strain viscoelastic material. The energy functional then becomes

N N

n 0 n n n

ψ ( Ei j Qi j ) Z ψ ( Ei j ) Ó ∑ Qi j Ei j H ∑ ψI ( Qi j ) (10-88)

n Z 1 n Z 1

n 0

where E i j are the components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, Q i j internal variables and ψ the

elastic strain energy density for instantaneous deformations. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, it is

0

assumed that ψ Z W , meaning that the energy density for instantaneous deformations is given by the

third order James Green and Simpson form or the Ogden form.

The components of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress then follow from

N

∂ψ Z ∂ψ 0 Ó n

Si j Z JJJJJJJJJ

∂E i j

J JJJJJJJJJJ

∂E i j ∑ Qi j (10-89)

n Z 1

The energy function can also be written in terms of the long term moduli resulting in a different set of

n

internal variables T i j

N

n n

ψ ( E i j, T i j ) Z ψ ∞ ( E i j ) H ∑ Ti j E i j (10-90)

n Z 1

∞

where ψ is the elastic strain energy for long term deformations. Using this energy definition, the

stresses are obtained from

N

∞( E)

Z ∂ψ

n

Si j JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ H

∂E i j ∑ Ti j (10-91)

n Z 1

CHAPTER 10 311

Materials

Observing the similarity with the equations for small strain viscoelasticity the internal variables can be

obtained from a convolution expression

n t n

∫0 Š i j ( τ )exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ

n

Ti j Z ]dτ (10-92)

n

where S i j are internal stresses obtained from energy functions.

n ∂ψ n

S i j Z JJJJJJJJJJ (10-93)

∂E i j

N

∞

ψ Z ψ H ∑ ψ n exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ n ) (10-94)

n Z 1

If, in the energy function, each term in the series expansion has a similar form, Equation (10-94) can

be rewritten

N

∞

ψ Z ψ H ∑ δ n ψ 0 exp ( Ó t ⁄ λ n ) (10-95)

n Z 1

n

where δ is a scalar multiplier for the energy function based on the short term values.

N

∞ n

Si j ( t ) Z Si j ( t ) H ∑ Ti j ( t ) (10-96)

n Z 1

N

∂ψ ∞ ∂ψ 0

S i j Z JJJJJJJJJJJ Z 1 Ó n JJJJJJJJJ

∑ ∂E iJj

δ (10-97)

∂E i j

n Z 1

t

n n 0 n

Ti j Z ∫δ S i j ( t )exp [ Ó ( t Ó τ ) ⁄ λ ]dτ (10-98)

0

Analogue to the derivation for small strain viscoelasticity, a recursive relation can be derived expressing

the stress increment in terms of values of the internal stresses at the start of the increment.

312 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

The equations are reformulated in terms of the short time values of the energy function

N

∆S i j ( t m ) Z 1 Ó ∑ 1 Ó β n ( h ) δ n { S i j ( t m ) Ó S i j ( t m Ó h ) }

0 0

nZ1

N (10-99)

n

Ó ∑ α n Si j ( tm Ó h)

n Z 1

0 n n

∆S i j ( t m ) Z β n ( h )δ n [ S i j ( t m ) Ó S i j ( t m Ó h ) ] Ó α n ( h )S i j ( t m Ó h ) (10-100)

It is assumed that the viscoelastic behavior in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear acts only on the

deviatoric behavior.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has two models that represent viscoelastic materials. The first can be

defined as a Kelvin-Voigt model. The latter is a general hereditary integral approach.

Kelvin-Voigt Model

The Kelvin model allows the rate of change of the inelastic strain to be a function of the total stress and

previous strain.

k

The Kelvin material behavior (viscoelasticity) is modeled by assuming an additional creep strain ε ,

ij

governed by

d

JJJJJ ε k Z A i j k l σ′ Ó B i jk l ε k (10-101)

dt i j kl kl

where A and B may be defined in the user subroutine CRPVIS and the total strain is

ε icj Z creep strains defined via the CRPLAW and VSWELL user subroutines (10-106)

CHAPTER 10 313

Materials

The CRPVIS user subroutine is called at each integration point of each element when the Kelvin model

is used.

Use the NLPARM option and set a nonzero time increment to define the time step and to set the tolerance

control for the maximum strain in any increment.

This option allows Maxwell models to be included in series with the Kelvin model.

The stress-strain equations in viscoelasticity are not only dependent on the current stress and strain state

(as represented in the Kelvin model), but also on the entire history of development of these states. This

constitutive behavior is most readily expressed in terms of hereditary or Duhamel integrals. These

integrals are formed by considering the stress or strain build-up at successive times. Two equivalent

integral forms exist: the stress relaxation form and the creep function form. In MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear, the stress relaxation form is used.

The viscoelasticity option in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear can be used for both the small strain and

large strain Mooney, Ogden, Arruda Boyce, and Gent material stress-relaxation problems. A description

of these models is as follows:

The free energy function versus time data being used for large strain viscoelasticity can be generated by

fitting experimental data provided the following two tests are done:

1. Standard quasi-static tests (tensile, planar-shear, simple-shear, equi-biaxial tension, volumertic)

0

to determine the elastomer free energy W constants.

2. Standard relaxation tests to obtain stress versus time.

The rate processes in many viscoelastic materials is known to be highly sensitive to temperature changes.

Such temperature-dependent properties cannot be neglected in the presence of any appreciable

temperature variation. For example, there is a large class of polymers which are adequately represented

by linear viscoelastic laws at uniform temperature. These polymers exhibit an approximate translational

shift of all the characteristic response functions with a change of temperature, along a logarithmic time

axis. This shift occurs without a change of shape. These temperature-sensitive viscoelastic materials are

characterized as Thermo-Rheologically Simple.

A “reduced” or “pseudo” time can be defined for the materials of this type and for a given temperature

field. This new parameter is a function of both time and space variables. The viscoelastic law has the

same form as one at constant temperature in real time. If the shifted time is used, however, the

transformed viscoelastic equilibrium and compatibility equations are not equivalent to the corresponding

elastic equations.

In the case where the temperature varies with time, the extended constitutive law implies a nonlinear

dependence of the instantaneous stress state at each material point of the body upon the entire local

314 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

temperature history. In other words, the functionals are linear in the strains but nonlinear in

the temperature.

The time scale of experimental data is extended for Thermo-Rheologically Simple materials. All

characteristic functions of the material must obey the same property. The shift function is a basic property

of the material and must be determined experimentally. As a consequence of the shifting of the

mechanical properties data parallel to the time axis, the values of the zero and infinite frequency complex

moduli do not change due to shifting. Hence, elastic materials with temperature-dependent

characteristics neither belong to nor are consistent with the above hypothesis for the class of

Thermo-Rheologically Simple viscoelastic solids.

In addition to the Thermo-Rheologically Simple material behavior variations of initial stress-strain

0

moduli G i jk l , the temperature of the other mechanical properties (coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.)

due to changes in temperature can be specified.

Note, however, that only the instantaneous moduli are effected. Hence, the long term moduli given by

N

∞ 0 n

G i jk l Z G i jk l ( t ) Ó ∑ G i jk l (10-108)

n Z 1

can easily become negative if the temperature effects are not defined properly.

The effect of temperature, θ, on the material behavior is introduced through the dependence of the elastic

modulus, G, on temperature, and through a reduced time concept:

t

τ Z G γ H ∫ g ( ξ ( t ) Ó ξ ( s ) ) γ̌ ( s ) ds

(10-109)

0

t

ds

ξ(t) Z ∫ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

A( θ( s) )

(10-110)

0

where A(θ(t)) is the shift function at time t. Often the shift function is approximated by the Williams

Landell Ferry (WLF) form:

C1 ( θ Ó θ0 )

log ( A ) Z Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-111)

C2 H ( θ Ó θ0 )

where C1, C2 and θ0 are constants (θ0 is the “glassy transition” temperature).

CHAPTER 10 315

Materials

Narayanaswamy Model

The annealing of flat glass requires that the residual stresses be of an acceptable magnitude, while the

specification for optical glass components usually includes a homogenous refractive index. The design

of heat treated processes can be accomplished using the Narayanaswamy model. This allows you to

study the time dependence of physical properties (for example, volumes) of glass subjected to a change

in temperature.

For more information pertaining to the Narayanaswamy Model, see MSC.Marc Volume A: Theory and

User Information, Chapter 7 Material Library.

The viscoelastic MATVE and MATTVE material options are provided for cases where dissipative losses

caused by “viscous” (internal friction) effects in materials must be modeled. For time domain analysis,

this option is used with an elastic model to define classical linear, small strain, viscoelastic behavior, or

with hyperelastic or foam models to define finite linear, large deformation, viscoelastic behavior. As

described in the previous section, viscoelastic relaxation data can be fit using the experimental data

fitting (EDF) capability available in MSC.Patran. See Experimental Data Fitting, 382.

Entry Description

MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties to be used for quasi-static

or dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of

Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior to be used for quasi-static or transient

dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

References

• MATVE (SOL 600), 1608 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• MATTVE (SOL 600), 1604 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a viscoelastic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to

Create>Isotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties..., and select Viscoelastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.

This input data creates the viscoelastic options. All inputs must have the same number of time points (at

the same times) in the referenced fields. The following equations may be useful when creating the Prony

series for the bulk and shear moduli: K Z E ⁄ ( 3 ( 1 Ó 2 v ) ) G Z E ⁄ (2 (1 H v )) .

316 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Viscoelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the

Materials Application form.

Isotropic Description

Shear Constant If a material field of time vs. value is supplied, will create a

MATVE option. This is valid when MAT1/MATS1 are used.

Energy Function Multiplier Defines the duration effect on the hyperelastic model as a

multiplier to the strain energy density function. This is valid when

a Hyperelastic constitutive model for Neo-Hookean,

Mooney-Rivlin, Jamus-Green-Simpson, Arruda-Boyce, or

Gent is present.

Deviatoric Multiplier If a material field of time vs. value is supplied, will create a

MATVE option.

Dilatational Multiplier Creates a dilatational multiplier.

Solid Coeff. of Thermal Creates coefficient of thermal expansion for solids.

Exp

Liquid Coeff of Thermal Exp Creates coefficient of thermal expansion for liquids.

Orthotropic Description

Young’s Modulus, E11/E22/E33 Defines the duration effects on the elastic moduli. This

information is optional. This is only valid when an elastic and/or

plastic constitutive model is present.

Poissons Ratio 12/23/31 Defines the duration effects on the Poisson’s ratios. This

information is optional.

Shear Modulus G12/G23/G31 Defines the duration effects on the shear moduli. This information

is optional.

Solid Coeff of Thermal Same as for Isotropic

Exp

Liquid Coeff of Thermal Exp Same as for Isotropic

CHAPTER 10 317

Materials

Inelastic

Most materials of engineering interest initially respond elastically. Elastic behavior means that the

deformation is fully recoverable, so that, when the load is removed, the specimen returns to its original

shape. If the load exceeds some limit (the “yield load”), the deformation is no longer fully recoverable.

Some parts of the deformation will remain when the load is removed as, for example, when a paper clip

is bent too much, or when a billet of metal is rolled or forged in a manufacturing process. Plasticity

theories model the material’s mechanical response as it undergoes such nonrecoverable deformation in

a ductile fashion. The theories have been developed most intensively for metals, but they are applied to

soils, concrete, rock, ice, and so on. These materials behave in very different ways (for example, even

large values of pure hydrostatic pressure cause very little inelastic deformation in metals, but quite small

hydrostatic pressure may cause a significant, non-recoverable volume change in a soil sample), but the

fundamental concepts of plasticity theories are sufficiently general that models based on these concepts

have been successfully developed for a wide range of materials. A number of these plasticity modes are

available in the MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear material library.

In nonlinear material behavior, the material parameters depend on the state of stress. Up to the

proportional limit, i.e., the point at which linearity in material behavior ceases, the linear elastic

formulation for the behavior can be used. Beyond that point, and especially after the onset of

yield, nonlinear formulations are required. In general, two ingredients are required to ascertain

material behavior:

1. an initial yield criterion to determine the state of stress at which yielding is considered to begin

2. mathematical rules to explain the post-yielding behavior.

There are two major theories of plastic behavior that address these criterion differently. In the first, called

deformation theory, the plastic strains are uniquely defined by the state of stress. The second theory,

called flow or incremental theory, expresses the increments of plastic strain (irrecoverable strains) as

functions of the current stress, the strain increments, and the stress increments. Incremental theory is

more general and can be adapted in its particulars to fit a variety of material behaviors. The plasticity

models in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are “incremental” theories, in which the mechanical strain

rate is decomposed into an elastic part and a plastic (inelastic) part through various assumed flow rules.

The incremental plasticity models are formulated in terms of:

• A yield surface, which generalizes the concept of “yield load” into a test function which can be

used to determine if the material will respond purely elastically at a particular state of stress,

temperature, etc.;

• A flow rule that defines the inelastic deformation that must occur if the material point is no

longer responding purely elastically;

• and some evolution laws that define the hardening - the way in which the yield and/or flow

definitions change as inelastic deformation occurs.

The models also need an elasticity definition, to deal with the recoverable part of the strain models divide

into those that are rate-dependent and those that are rate-independent.

318 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

• Metal Plasticity (von Mises or Hill)

• ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) - characterizes creep behavior and cyclic loading

effects on stainless steel materials.

• Porous Metal Plasticity (Gurson) - includes effects of hydrostatic pressure and failure processes

in ductile materials.

• Pressure-Dependent models - models the behavior of granular (soil and rock) materials or

polymers, in which the yield behavior depends on the equivalent pressure stress.

• Linear Mohr-Coulomb

• Parabolic Morh-Coulomb

• Buyukozturk Concrete

Yield Conditions

The yield stress of a material is a measured stress level that separates the elastic and inelastic behavior of

the material. The magnitude of the yield stress is generally obtained from a uniaxial test. However, the

stresses in a structure are usually multiaxial. A measurement of yielding for the multiaxial state of stress

is called the yield condition. Depending on how the multiaxial state of stress is represented, there can be

many forms of yield conditions. For example, the yield condition can be dependent on all stress

components, on shear components only, or on hydrostatic stress. A number of yield conditions are

available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, and are discussed in this section.

Metal Plasticity

The von Mises yield surface is widely used for plasticity in isotropic metals. It is assumed that the yield

and plastic flow describe isotropic metals at low temperatures where creep effects can be ignored.

Anisotropic metals and composite materials, can be treated by extensions of von Mises yield function, as

described in Hill’s yield function.

von Mises

The success of the von Mises criterion is due to the continuous nature of the function that defines this

criterion and its agreement with observed behavior for the commonly encountered ductile materials.

The von Mises criterion states that yield occurs when the effective (or equivalent) stress (σ) equals

the yield stress (σy) as measured in a uniaxial test. Figure 10-20 shows the von Mises yield surface in

two-dimensional and three-dimensional stress space.

CHAPTER 10 319

Materials

σ2 σ′3

Yield

Surface

Yield

Surface

Elastic

Region

σ1

Region

Figure 10-20 von Mises Yield Surface

σ Z [ ( σ 1 Ó σ 2 ) 2 H ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) 2 H ( σ 3 Ó σ 1 ) 2 ]1 ⁄ 2 ⁄ 2 (10-112)

The yield condition can also be expressed in terms of the deviatoric stresses as:

3

σ Z JJJ σ′ σ′ (10-114)

2 ij ij

ij

1

σ′ Z σ i j Ó JJJ σ k k δ i j (10-115)

ij 3

For isotropic material, the von Mises yield condition is the default condition in MSC.Nastran

Implicit Nonlinear.

320 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Hill’s yield surface has been widely used both as a yield surface and as a failure surface for anisotropic

and composite materials. Hill’s yield function is a generalization of von Mises as expressed below.

σx x 2 σy y 2 σz z 2

JJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJ

J

Fx Fy Fz

1 1J σ σ

1J Ó JJJJJ

Ó JJJJJ

J H JJJJJ xx yy

F 2

Fy Fz

2 2

x

1 1 1

Ó JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ σ x x σ z z (10-116)

F 2 F 2 F 2

x y z

1 1 1

Ó Ó JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ H JJJJJJ σ y y σ z z

F 2 F 2 F 2

x y z

τxy 2 τy z 2 τzx 2

+ JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ Z 1

F x y F y z F z x

1. It degenerates into von Mises surface when all three direct yield stresses are equal

(Fx = Fy = Fz) and all three shear yield stresses are equal.

2. It is invariant with respect to hydrostatic stress, as is von Mises.

3. Hill's surface, unlike von Mises, is not always an ellipsoid in stress space. When it is not an

ellipsoid, it is not appropriate for use as a yield function (since it does not have an inside and an

outside, thereby dividing stress space into elastic and plastic regions).

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear includes options for elastic-plastic behavior based on a yield surface

that exhibits hydrostatic stress dependence. Such behavior is observed in a wide class of soil and

rock-like materials. These materials are generally classified as Mohr-Coulomb materials (generalized

von Mises materials). Ice is also thought to be a Mohr-Coulomb material. The generalized

Mohr-Coulomb model developed by Drucker and Prager is implemented in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear. There are two types of Mohr-Coulomb materials: linear and parabolic. Each is discussed on

the following pages.

CHAPTER 10 321

Materials

The deviatoric yield function, as shown in Figure 10-21, is assumed to be a linear function of the

hydrostatic stress.

σ

f Z αJ 1 H J 21 ⁄ 2 Ó JJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-117)

3

where

J1 Z σi i (10-118)

1

J 2 Z JJJ σ′ σ′ (10-119)

2 ij ij

σ 3α

c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ X JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Z sin φ (10-120)

1⁄2 ( 1 Ó 3α 2 ) 1 ⁄ 2

[ 3 ( 1 Ó 12α 2 ) ]

τ

Yield Envelope

R

c φ

σ

σx + σy

2

The hydrostatic dependence is generalized to give a yield envelope which is parabolic in the case of plane

strain (see Figure 10-22).

f Z ( 3J 2 H 3βσJ 1 ) 1 ⁄ 2 Ó σ Z 0 (10-121)

322 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2 α

2 α

Z 3 c Ó JJJJJJ β Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

2 (10-122)

σ

3 ( 3 ( 3c 2 Ó α 2 ) ) 1 ⁄ 2

τ

R c

σ

σx + σy c2

2 α

Figure 10-22 Resultant Yield Condition of Plane Strain (Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb Material

The Buyukozturk concrete plasticity model is a particular form of the generalized Drucker-Prager

plasticity model, which is developed specifically for plane stress cases by Buyukozturk. This yield

criterion, which originally has been proposed as a failure criterion, has the general form:

2 2

f Z β 3σJ 1 H γJ 1 H 3J 2 Ó σ (10-123)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a large number of creep tests on stainless and

other alloy steels. It has also set certain rules that characterize creep behavior for application in the

nuclear structures. A summary of the ORNL rules on creep is discussed in MSC.Marc Volume A, Theory

and User Information. In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the ORNL options are based on the

definitions of ORNL-TM- 3602 [1] for stainless steels and ORNL recommendations [2] for 2 1/4 Cr-1

Mo steel.

The initial yield stress should be used for the initial inelastic loading calculations for both the stainless

steels and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. The 10th-cycle yield stress should be used for the hardened material. The

100th-cycle yield stress must be used in the following circumstances:

1. To accommodate cyclic softening of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel after many load cycles.

2. After a long period of high temperature exposure.

3. After the occurrence of creep strain.

CHAPTER 10 323

Materials

The work-hardening rule defines the way the yield surface changes with plastic straining. A material is

said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an infinitesimal increase

in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear models all materials

as work hardening, and treats perfectly plastic materials as a special case. Because the tangent stiffness

method is used, no difficulties arise in setting the work hardening slope equal to zero. Besides perfect

plasticity, three possibilities are provided: isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening.

The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the

stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. This type of

hardening is appropriate when the straining is the same in all directions.

For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic

loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening

model represents the material better.

fëçíêçéáÅ=e~êÇÉåáåÖ háåÉã~íáÅ=e~êÇÉåáåÖ

e~êÇÉåÉÇ

lêáÖáå~ä

The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the

stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. The change of

the von Mises yield surface is plotted in Figure 10-23b.

A review of the load path of a uniaxial test that involves both the loading and unloading of a specimen

will assist in describing the isotropic workhardening rule. The specimen is first loaded from stress free

(point 0) to initial yield at point 1, as shown in Figure 10-23a. It is then continuously loaded to point 2.

Then, unloading from 2 to 3 following the elastic slope E (Young’s modulus) and then elastic reloading

from 3 to 2 takes place. Finally, the specimen is plastically loaded again from 2 to 4 and elastically

unloaded from 4 to 5. Reverse plastic loading occurs between 5 and 6.

It is obvious that the stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress σ y and stresses at points 2 and 4 are

larger than σ y , due to workhardening. During unloading, the stress state can remain elastic (for example,

point 3), or it can reach a subsequent (reversed) yield point (for example, point 5). The isotropic

workhardening rule states that the reverse yield occurs at current stress level in the reversed direction.

324 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ

4

2

1

σy

E

E +σ4

E

3

0

−σ4

6

(a) Loading Path

σ′3

5 6

0

3

2 1

4

σ′1 σ′2

Let σ 4 be the stress level at point 4. Then, the reverse yield can only take place at a stress level of Ó σ 4

(point 5).

For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic

loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening model

represents the material better.

CHAPTER 10 325

Materials

Kinematic Hardening

Under the kinematic hardening rule, the von Mises yield surface does not change in size or shape, but

the center of the yield surface can move in stress space. Figure 10-23d illustrates this condition. Ziegler’s

law is used to define the translation of the yield surface in the stress space.

The loading path of a uniaxial test is shown in Figure 10-23c. The specimen is loaded in the following

order: from stress free (point 0) to initial yield (point 1), 2 (loading), 3 (unloading), 2 (reloading), 4

(loading), 5 and 6 (unloading). As in isotropic hardening, stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress σ y ,

and stresses at 2 and 4 are higher than σ y , due to workhardening. Point 3 is elastic, and reverse yield

takes place at point 5. Under the kinematic hardening rule, the reverse yield occurs at the level of

σ 5 Z ( σ 4 Ó 2σ y ) , rather than at the stress level of Ó σ 4 . Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to a higher

stress level σ 7 (point 7), and then unloaded to the subsequent yield point 8, the stress at point 8 is

σ 8 Z ( σ 7 Ó 2σ y ) . If the specimen is unloaded from a (tensile) stress state (such as point 4 and 7), the

reverse yield can occur at a stress state in either the reverse (point 5) or the same (point 8) direction.

For many materials, the kinematic hardening model gives a better representation of loading/unloading

behavior than the isotropic hardening model. For cyclic loading, however, the kinematic hardening

model can represent neither cyclic hardening nor cyclic softening.

Combined Hardening

Figure 10-25 shows a material with highly nonlinear hardening. Here, the initial hardening is assumed to

be almost entirely isotropic, but after some plastic straining, the elastic range attains an essentially

constant value (that is, pure kinematic hardening). The basic assumption of the combined hardening

model is that such behavior is reasonably approximated by a classical constant kinematic hardening

constraint, with the superposition of initial isotropic hardening. The isotropic hardening rate eventually

decays to zero as a function of the equivalent plastic strain measured by

ˇp ˇp 2ˇp ˇp 1⁄2

ε Z ∫ε dt Z ∫ JJ3J ε i j εi j dt (10-124)

σ

fåáíá~ä `çãÄáåÉÇ cìääó=e~êÇÉåÉÇ

bä~ëíáÅ e~êÇÉåáåÖ mìêÉ=háåÉã~íáÅ

o~åÖÉ o~åÖÉ o~åÖÉ

píêÉëë

fåáíá~ä

váÉäÇ

låÉJÜ~äÑ=`ìêêÉåí

bä~ëíáÅ=o~åÖÉ

P Çα

háåÉã~íáÅ=päçéÉI

O Çεé

ε

píê~áå

Figure 10-24 Basic Uniaxial Tension Behavior of the Combined Hardening Model

326 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

This implies a constant shift of the center of the elastic domain, with a growth of elastic domain around

this center until pure kinematic hardening is attained. In this model, there is a variable proportion between

the isotropic and kinematic contributions that depends on the extent of plastic deformation (as measured

p

by ε ).

The workhardening data at small strains governs the isotropic behavior, and the data at large strains

( ε p > 1000 ) governs the kinematic hardening behavior. If the last workhardening slope is zero, the

behavior is the same as the isotropic hardening model.

In a uniaxial test, the workhardening slope is defined as the slope of the stress-plastic strain curve. The

workhardening slope relates the incremental stress to incremental plastic strain in the inelastic region and

dictates the conditions of subsequent yielding. A number of workhardening rules (isotropic, kinematic,

and combined) are available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. A description of these workhardening

rules is given below. The uniaxial stress-plastic strain curve can be represented by a piecewise linear

function or through the user subroutine WKSLP . This requires the use of MARCIN to specify the MARC

WORKHARD option.

Stress

∆σ3

∆σ2

∆σ1

σ

E E E E

Strain

p p p

∆ε1 ∆ε 2 ∆ε 3

CHAPTER 10 327

Materials

Slope Breakpoint

∆σ

JJJJJJJJJ1J 0.0

p

∆ε1

∆σ 2 p

JJJJJJJJJJ ∆ε1

p

∆ε 2

∆σ p p

JJJJJJJJJ3J ∆ε1 H ∆ε 2

p

∆ε 3

Note: The data points should be based on a plot of the stress versus plastic strain for a tensile test.

The elastic strain components should not be included.

The yield stress and the workhardening data must be compatible with the procedure used in the analysis.

For small strain analyses, the engineering stress and engineering strain are appropriate. If only

PARAM,LGDISP is used, the yield stress should be entered as the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and

the workhard data be given with respect to plastic Green-Lagrange strains. If PARAM,LGDISP,1 or 2

are used, the yield stress must be defined as a true or Cauchy stress, and the workhardening data with

respect to logarithmic plastic strains. Engineering stress and strain may be defined and Bulk Data

parameter MRTABLS1 used to provide the program with rules to convert to the proper stress and strain

measures. See MRTABLS1 (p. 755) in the .

Flow Rules

Yield stress and workhardening rules are two experimentally related phenomena that characterize plastic

material behavior. The flow rule is also essential in establishing the incremental stress-strain relations for

p

plastic material. The flow rule describes the differential changes in the plastic strain components dε as

a function of the current stress state. So long as a material point is elastic, Hooke’s law provides a

relationship between total stress and strain. After a material becomes plastic, however, there is no longer

a unique relationship between total stress and strain. The problem then is usually solved incrementally,

following the exact loading path.

For points which are plastic, a flow rule is used to relate increments of stress to plastic strain.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses an associated flow rule, which prescribes that increments of

plastic strain are computed as a constant times the gradient of the yield function.

In other words, considering the yield function as a surface in stress space, the plastic strain increment is

a vector in the direction of the outward normal to the surface at the point where it is touched by the

stresses on the loading path.

328 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

∂F

dε ipj Z λ JJJJJJJJJJ (10-125)

∂σ i j

∂F

dε xpx Z JJJJJJJJJJJ

J

∂σ x x

∂F

dε ypy Z JJJJJJJJJJJJ

∂σ y y

∂F

dε zpz Z JJJJJJJJJJJJ

∂σ z z

(10-126)

∂F

dε xpy Z JJJJJJJJJJJ

∂τ x y

∂F J

dε ypz Z JJJJJJJJJJ

∂τ y z

∂F

dε zpx Z JJJJJJJJJJ

J

∂τ x z

These stress vs. plastic strain equations are analogous to the stress vs. total strain equations of elasticity,

where elastic strains can be computed as the gradient of a strain energy potential function, namely;

∂U

dε i j Z JJJJJJJJJJ (10-127)

∂σ i j

Thus, the yield function F plays the role of a plastic potential. If a theory of plasticity uses something

other than the yield function as a plastic potential, a so-called nonassociated flow rule results.

Nonassociated flow rules are not available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

CHAPTER 10 329

Materials

For the von Mises and modified Hill yield functions programmed in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear,

the derivatives in the yield function are obtained simply by differentiating with respect to individual

components of stress. For example, for the modified Hill function, we have:

2σ x x σ y y σz z

dε xpx Z λ JJJJJJJJJJJ

J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ

J

Fx 2 Fx Fy Fx Fz

σx x 2σ y y σz z

dε ypy Z λ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJJJJ

J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ

J

Fx Fy Fy 2 F y Fz

σ xx σy y 2σ z z

dε zpz Z λ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ

J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJJJJ

J

Fx Fz Fy Fz F z2

σx y (10-128)

dε xpy Z λ JJJJJJJJJ

F x2y

σx z

dε y2z Z λ JJJJJJJJJ

F y2z

σy z

dε zpx Z λ JJJJJJJJJ

F z2x

The constant in these flow rule equations is evaluated automatically by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

on the basis of material stability during plastic flow (i.e., by the requirement that the stress state remain

on the yield surface during plastic straining).

The Prandtl-Reuss representation of the flow rule is available in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. In

conjunction with the von Mises yield function, this can be represented as:

p ∂σ

dε i j Z dε p JJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-129)

∂σ i′j

where dε p and σ are equivalent plastic strain increment and equivalent stress, respectively.

The significance of this representation is illustrated in Figure 10-26. This figure illustrates the

“stress-space” for the two-dimensional case. The solid curve gives the yield surface (locus of all stress

states causing yield) as defined by the von Mises criterion.

Equation (10-139) expresses the condition that the direction of inelastic straining is normal to the yield

surface. This condition is called either the normality condition or the associated flow rule.

If the von Mises yield surface is used, then the normal is equal to the deviatoric stress.

330 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ2

dεp p

dε2

dεp

1

σ1

Yield Surface

Figure 10-26 Yield Surface and Normality Criterion 2-D Stress Space

Strain rate effects cause the structural response of a body to change because they influence the material

properties of the body. These material changes lead to an instantaneous change in the strength of the

material. Strain rate effects become more pronounced for temperatures greater than half the melting

temperature ( T m ), but are sometimes present even at room temperature. The following discussion

explains the effect of strain rate on the size of the yield surface.

Using the von Mises yield condition and normality rule, we obtain an expression for the stress rate of

the form

ˇˇ p

σ̌ i j Z L i jk l ε̌ k l H r i j ε

∂σ ∂σ

L i jk l Z C i jk l Ó C i jm n JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJ C p q k l ⁄ D (10-130)

∂σ mn ∂σ p q

and

∂σ 2 ∂σ

r i j Z C i jmn JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJ σ JJJJJJJJ ⁄ D (10-131)

∂σ m n 3 ˇp

∂ε

where

4 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ

D Z JJJ σ 2 JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJ C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-132)

9 ∂ε p ∂σ ij ∂σ kl

CHAPTER 10 331

Materials

As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. The model provided in

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear for this purpose is

ˇ σ P

where: ε Z D JJJJJJ Ó 1 for α ≥ σ 0

σ

0

ε

pl the static yield stress (which may depend on the equivalent plastic strain,

σ0 ( ε , T ) = pl

ε , via isotropic hardening, or on the temperature, T .

are material parameters that may be functions of temperature. D and p are

D ( T ), p ( T ) = defined on the input forms. This model is effective in both static and

dynamic procedures.

Yield stress variation with strain rate is given using one of three options:

1. The breakpoints and slopes for a piecewise linear approximation to the yield stress strain rate

curve are given. The strain rate breakpoints should be in ascending order, or

2. The Cowper and Symonds model is used. The yield behavior is assumed to be completely

determined by one stress-strain curve and a scale factor depending on the strain rate.

Note: If multiple material models are used, they must all be expressed as piecewise linear, or as

Cowper and Symonds model.

Perfectly Plastic

A material is said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an

infinitesimal increase in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. The uniaxial stress-strain diagram

for an elastic-perfectly plastic material is shown in Figure 10-27. Some materials, such as mild steel,

behave in a manner which is close to perfectly plastic.

332 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σxx

.

YS

∋

xx

Metals

In uniaxial tension tests of most metals (and many other materials), the following phenomena can be

observed. If the stress in the specimen is below the yield stress of the material, the material behaves

elastically and the stress in the specimen is proportional to the strain. If the stress in the specimen is

greater than the yield stress, the material no longer exhibits elastic behavior, and the stress-strain

relationship becomes nonlinear. Figure 10-28 shows a typical uniaxial stress-strain curve. Both the elastic

and inelastic regions are indicated.

Stress Inelastic

Region

Yield

Stress

Strain

Elastic Region

Note: Stress and strain are total quantities.

CHAPTER 10 333

Materials

Within the elastic region, the stress-strain relationship is unique. As illustrated in , if the stress in the

specimen is increased (loading) from zero (point 0) to σ 1 (point 1), and then decreased (unloading) to

zero, the strain in the specimen is also increased from zero to ε 1 , and then returned to zero. The elastic

strain is completely recovered upon the release of stress in the specimen.

The loading-unloading situation in the inelastic region is different from the elastic behavior. If the

specimen is loaded beyond yield to point 2, where the stress in the specimen is σ 2 and the total strain is

e

ε 2 , upon release of the stress in the specimen the elastic strain, ε , is completely recovered. However,

2

p

the inelastic (plastic) strain, ε 2 , remains in the specimen. Figure 10-29 illustrates this relationship.

Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to point 3 and then unloaded to zero stress state, the plastic strain

p p p

ε 3 remains in the specimen. It is obvious that ε is not equal to ε . We can conclude that in the

2 3

inelastic region:

• Plastic strain permanently remains in the specimen upon removal of stress.

• The amount of plastic strain remaining in the specimen is dependent upon the stress level at

which the unloading starts (path-dependent behavior).

The uniaxial stress-strain curve is usually plotted for total quantities (total stress versus total strain). The

total stress-strain curve shown in Figure 10-29 can be replotted as a total stress versus plastic strain curve,

as shown in Figure 10-30. The slope of the total stress versus plastic strain curve is defined as the

workhardening slope (H) of the material. The workhardening slope is a function of plastic strain.

Stress

σ3 3

σ2 2

Yield Stress σy

σ1 1

0 Strain

ε1 ε2 ε3

p e

ε

p

ε 2e ε2 Z ε 2 H ε 2

2 p e

ε3 Z ε 3 H ε 3

p e

ε ε

3 3

334 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Total Stress

σ θ

Plastic Strain

εp

H = tan θ (Workhardening Slope)

= dσ/dεp

The stress-strain curve shown in Figure 10-29 is directly plotted from experimental data. It can be

simplified for the purpose of numerical modeling. A few simplifications are shown in Figure 10-31 and

are listed below:

1. Bilinear representation – constant workhardening slope.

2. Elastic perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening.

3. Perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening and no elastic response.

4. Piecewise linear representation – multiple constant workhardening slopes.

5. Strain-softening material – negative workhardening slope.

In addition to elastic material constants (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio), it is essential to include

yield stress and workhardening slopes when dealing with inelastic (plastic) material behavior. These

quantities can vary with parameters such as temperature and strain rate. Since the yield stress is generally

measured from uniaxial tests, and the stresses in real structures are usually multiaxial, the yield condition

of a multiaxial stress state must be considered. The conditions of subsequent yield (workhardening rules)

must also be studied.

CHAPTER 10 335

Materials

σ σ

ε ε

(1) Bilinear Representation (2) Elastic-Perfectly Plastic

σ σ

ε ε

(3) Perfectly Plastic (4) Piecewise Linear Representation

ε

(5) Strain Softening

Geological Materials

Data for geological materials are most commonly available from triaxial compression testing. In such a

test, the specimen is confined by pressure and an additional compression stress is superposed in one

direction. Thus, the principal stresses are all negative, with 0 ≥ σ 1 Z σ 2 ≥ σ 3 .

-σ3 -σ1

σ1=σ2>σ3 σ1>σ2=σ3

336 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

p=-{1/3}(2σ1+σ3)

q=σ1-σ3

r3=-(σ1-σ3)3

so that t=q=σ1-σ3

The triaxial results may thus be plotted in the t-p plane shown above. Fitting the best straight line through

the results then provides β and d.

Triaxial tension data are also needed to define K. Under triaxial tension, the specimen is again confined

by pressure, then the pressure in one direction is reduced. In this case, the principal stresses are

. σ1 ≥ σ2 Z σ3

p=-{1/3}(σ1+2σ3),

q=σ1-σ3,

r3=(σ1-σ3)3,

so that t={q/K}={1/K}(σ1-σ3)

K may thus be found by plotting these test results as q versus p and again fitting the best straight line.

The triaxial compression and tension lines must intercept the p-axis at the same point, and the ratio of

values of q for triaxial tension and compression at the same value of p then gives K as shown in

Figure 10-33.

q compression data

tension data

hc ht

d

β

p

CHAPTER 10 337

Materials

Sometimes, experimental data are not directly available. Instead, the user is provided with the friction

angle and cohesion values for the Mohr-Coulomb model. We, therefore, need to calculate values

for the parameters of the Drucker-Prager model to provide a reasonable match to the

Mohr-Coulomb parameters.

The Mohr-Coulomb failure model is based on plotting Mohr’s circle for states of stress at failure in the

plane of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The failure line is the best straight line that

touches these Mohr’s circles.

The Mohr-Coulomb model is thus

s+σmsinϕ-c cosϕ=0,

where s={1/2}(σ1-σ3)

is half of the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses (and is, therefore, the

maximum shear stress), and

σm={1/2}(σ1+σ3)

We see that the Mohr-Coulomb model assumes that failure is independent of the value of the

intermediate principal stress. The Drucker-Prager model does not. The failure of typical geotechnical

materials generally includes some small dependence on the intermediate principal stress.

One approach to matching Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager model parameters is to make the two

models provide the same failure definition in triaxial compression and tension. For this purpose, we can

rewrite the Mohr-Coulomb model in terms of principal stresses.

Using the results above (for the stress invariants p, q, and r), in triaxial compression and tension, allows

the Drucker-Prager model to be written for triaxial compression as

1

1 Ó JJJ tan β

tan β 3 0

σ 1 Ó σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 1 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ σ c Z 0 (10-134)

2 H 1 1

JJJ tan β 1 H JJJ tan β

3 6

338 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

1

1 Ó JJJ tan β

tan β 3 0

σ 1 Ó σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 1 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ σ c Z 0 (10-135)

1

JJJJ Ó JJJ tan β

2 1 JJJJ Ó 1JJJ tan β

K 3 K 6

We wish to make the equations for triaxial compression and biaxial tension identical to the general

Mohr-Coulomb equation for all values of (σ1,σ3).

Comparing the equations for triaxial compression and triaxial tension requires that:

1 1 Ó1

J JJJ tan β

1 H JJJ tan β Z JJJ (10-136)

6 K 6

so that

1

K Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-137)

1

1 H JJJ tan β

3

Comparing the coefficients of (σ1+σ3) in the equation for triaxial compression and that for triaxial

tension provides:

6 sin φ

tan β JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-138)

3 Ó sin φ

and hence, from the derived equation for K:

3 Ó sin φ

K Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-139)

3 H sin Φ

Finally, comparing the last terms in the general expression for the Mohr-Coulomb model and the equation

for triaxial compression and using the expression for tanβ provides:

0 2c cos ΦJ

σ c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-140)

1 Ó sin Φ

The expression for tanβ, K, and this last expression and thus provide Drucker-Prager parameters that

match the Mohr-Coulomb model in triaxial compression and tension.

The value of K in the Drucker-Prager model is restricted to K ≥ 0.778 for the yield surface to remain

convex. Rewriting the expression for K as:

1ÓK

sin Φ Z 3 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-141)

1 H k

shows that this implies φ ≤ 22° . Many real materials have a larger Mohr-Coulomb friction angle than

this value. In such circumstances, one approach is to choose K = 0.778 and then to use the expression for

0 0

tan β to define β and the expression for σ c to define σ c , ignoring the expression for K. This matches the

CHAPTER 10 339

Materials

models for triaxial compression only, while providing the closest approximation that the model can

provide to failure being independent of the intermediate principal stress. If ϕ is significantly larger than

22°, this approach may provide a poor Drucker-Prager match of the Mohr-Coulomb parameters.

MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses K=1 by default.

Plane strain problems are often encountered in geotechnical analysis: examples are long tunnels,

footings, and embankments. For this reason, the constitutive model parameters are often matched to

provide the same flow and failure response in plane strain.

The Drucker-Prager flow potential defines the plastic strain increment as:

∂

Z dε JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( t Ó p tan ψ )

pl pl 1

dε (10-142)

1 ∂σ

1 Ó JJJ tan ψ

3

pl

where dε is the equivalent plastic strain increment.

Since we only wish to match the behavior in one plane we can assume K=1, which implies that t=q. Then:

∂p

Z dε JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ∂ q Ó tan ψ

pl pl 1

dε (10-143)

1 ∂σ ∂ σ

1 Ó JJJ tan ψ

3

Writing this expression in terms of principal stresses provides:

dε 1 Z dε JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJ ( 2σ 1 Ó σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) H JJJ tan ψ

pl pl 1 1 1

(10-144)

1 2q 3

1 Ó JJJ tan ψ

3

pl pl

with similar expressions for dε 2 and dε 3 .

pl

Assume plane strain in the 1-direction. Then, at limit load, we must have dε 1 =0. From the above

expression, this provides the constraint:

1 1

JJJJJJ ( 2σ Ó σ Ó σ ) H JJJ tan ψ Z 0 (10-145)

2q 1 2 3 3

so that:

1 1

σ 1 Z JJJ ( σ 2 H σ 3 ) Ó JJJ tan ψq (10-146)

2 3

340 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Using this constraint, we can rewrite q and p in terms of the principal stresses in the plane of deformation,

3 3

q Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) (10-147)

2

2 9 Ó ( tan ψ )

and

1 tan ψ

p Z Ó JJJ ( σ 2 H σ 3 ) H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ 2 Ó σ 3 ) (10-148)

2 2

2 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

With these expressions, the Drucker-Prager yield surface can be written in terms of σ2 and σ3 as

9 Ó tan β tan ψ 1

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( σ Ó σ ) H JJJ tan β ( σ H σ ) Ó d Z 0 (10-149)

2 2 3 2 2 3

2 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

By comparison,

2

tan β 3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

sin ϕ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-151)

9 Ó tan β tan ψ

2

3 ( 9 Ó ( tan ψ ) )

c cos ϕ Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ d (10-152)

9 Ó tan β tan ψ

Now consider the two extreme cases of flow definition: associated flow, ψ=β, and nondilatant flow, when

ψ=0.

Assuming associated flow, the last two equations provide:

3 sin ϕ

tan β Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J (10-153)

1 2

1 H JJJ ( sin ϕ )

3

and

d Z 3 cos ϕ

JJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ (10-154)

c 1 2

1 H JJJ ( sin ϕ )

3

d

while for nondilatant flow they give tan β Z 3 sin ϕ and JJJ Z ϕ cos ϕ

c

CHAPTER 10 341

Materials

0

In either case, σ c is immediately available as:

0 1

σ c Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ d (10-155)

1

1 Ó JJJ tan β

3

The difference between these two approaches increases with the friction angle but, for typical friction

angles, the results are not very different, as illustrated in the table below.

Mohr-Coulomb

Friction Angle, Φ Associated Flow Nondilatant Flow

Drucker-Prager Drucker-Prager friction

friction angle, β d/c angle, β d/c

10 ° 16.7 ° 1.70 16.7 ° 1.70

20 ° 30.2 ° 1.60 30.6 ° 1.63

30 ° 39.8 ° 1.44 40.9 ° 1.50

40 ° 46.2 ° 1.24 48.1 ° 1.33

50 ° 50.5 ° 1.02 53.0 ° 1.11

As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. This effect often becomes

important when the strain rates are in the range of -0.1 to 1 per second, and can be very important if the

strain rates are in the range of 10 to 100 per second, as commonly occurs in high energy dynamic events

or in manufacturing processes.

Temperature-Dependent Behavior

This section discusses the effects of temperature-dependent plasticity on the constitutive relation.

The following constitutive relations for thermo-plasticity were developed by Naghdi. Temperature

effects are discussed using the isotropic hardening model and the von Mises yield condition.

The stress rate can be expressed in the form

ˇ ˇ ˇ

σ i j Z L i jk l ε k l H h i j T (10-156)

∂σ ∂σ

L i jk l Z C i jk l Ó C i jm n JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJ C p q k l ⁄ D (10-157)

∂σ mn ∂σ p q

342 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

L i jk l Z C i jk l (10-158)

The term that relates the stress increment to the increment of temperature for elastic-plastic behavior is

∂σ 2 ∂σ

h i j Z X i j Ó C i j k l α k l Ó C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ σ p q X p q Ó JJJ σ JJJJJJJ ⁄ D (10-159)

∂σ k l 3 ∂T

H i j Z X i j Ó C i jk l α k l (10-160)

where

4 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ

D Z JJJ σ 2 JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJ C i jk l JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-161)

9 ∂ε p ∂σ i j ∂σ k l

and

∂C i jk l e

X i j Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ε (10-162)

∂T k l

Starting in MSC.Nastran 2005, SOL 600 offers the capability of stress-strain curve dependence as a

function of temperature. The user specifies these stress strain curves at different temperatures and then

specifies the temperature to use for each subcase. Linear interpolation between the supplied curves is

used to determine the appropriate curve at the temperature specified for a particular subcase.

MSC.Marc’s AF-Flowmat capability is used for this capability; therefore, user subroutines do not have

to be supplied. This capability is best explained with an example (this example can be obtained from

MSC.Nastran development. The name of the file is mattep20.dat).

SOL 600,NLSTATIC path=1 stop=1

TIME 10000

CEND

ECHO = NONE

DISPLACEMENT(plot) = ALL

SPCFORCE(PLOT) = ALL

Stress(PLOT) = ALL

Strain(PLOT) = ALL

SPC = 1

NLPARM = 2

temp(init)=10

subcase 1

temp(load)=11

LOAD = 100

subcase 2

temp(load)=12

LOAD = 200

CHAPTER 10 343

Materials

subcase 3

temp(load)=13

LOAD = 300

BEGIN BULK

param,mrafflow,mymat0

param,mrtabls1,4

param,mrtabls2,1

NLPARM 2 10 AUTO 1 20 P

PARAM,LGDISP,1

tempd, 10, 70.

tempd, 11, 110.

tempd, 12, 700.

tempd, 13, 1100.

$LOAD, 20, 1.0, 2.0, 1, 1.0, 2

load, 100, 1., 1., 1

load, 200, 1., -.5, 1

load, 300, 1., 1.1, 1

PLOAD4 1 1 -15.

.

.

.

$ Constraint Set 1 : Untitled

SPC 1 1 123456 0.

SPC 1 8 123456 0.

SPC 1 15 123456 0.

SPC 1 22 123456 0.

SPC 1 29 123456 0.

$ Property 1 : Untitled

PSHELL 1 1 0.125 1 1 0.

$ Material 1 : AISI 4340 Steel

MATEP, 1,TABLE, 35000., 2,CAUCHY,ISOTROP,ADDMEAN

MAT1 1 2.9E+7 0.327.331E-4 6.6E-6 70. +MT 1

+MT 1 215000. 240000. 156000.

MAT4 14.861E-4 38.647.331E-4

$ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678

MATTEP 1 21

MATT1 1 7

TABLEM1 7

+ 70.0 6.6E-6 1000. 6.5E-6 1200. 6.4E-6 1500. 6.3E-6

+ 2000. 6.2E-6 ENDT

$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678

TABLEST 21

+ 70.0 31 1000. 32 1200. 33 1500. 34

+ 2000. 35 ENDT

TABLES1, 31

, 0., 15000., 1.0, 16000., 10., 25000., 100., 30000.,

, 99999., 40000., ENDT

TABLES1, 32

, 0., 13000., 1.0, 14000., 10., 23000., 100., 28000.,

, 99999., 28000., ENDT

TABLES1, 33

, 0., 11000., 1.0, 12000., 10., 21000., 100., 26000.,

, 99999., 25000., ENDT

TABLES1, 34

, 0., 9000., 1.0, 10000., 10., 19000., 100., 22000.,

, 99999., 24000., ENDT

TABLES1, 35

, 0., 5000., 1.0, 7000., 10., 9000., 100., 13000.,

, 99999., 15000., ENDT

344 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

GRID 1 0 0. 0. 0. 0

.

.

.

CQUAD4

.

.

.

ENDDATA

In this input, the stress strain curves are specified by TABLES1 entries. The collection of stress-strain

curves to be used is specified in the TABLEST entry and the corresponding temperatures at which they

apply is specified in the TABLEM1 entry. The TABLEM1 ID is called out in field 7 of the MATT1 entry

and the TABLEST ID is called out in field 5 of the MATTEP entry. TABLEST must list the stress strain

TABLES1 IDs in order of increasing temperature and the first ID must be at the lowest temperature

specified anywhere in the analysis. In this example, it is a temperature of 70 corresponding to

temp(init)=10 in the Case Control. Similarly, the temperatures in the TABLEM1 entry must be in

increasing order. The stress-strain curves should cover the entire range of temperatures for the analysis

so that no extrapolation is needed. The actual temperatures for each subcase are given by the temp(load)

specifications for each subcase.

There is one parameter that is critical to this analysis:

param,mrafflow,mymat0 Name of the file containing temperature dependent stress versus plastic

strain curves in MSC.Marc’s AF_flowmat format. This file can be

generated from the current MSC.Nastran run using TABLEST and

TABLES1 entries or a pre-existing file can be used depending on the

value of PARAM,MRAFFLOR. The extension “.mat” will be added

to Name. If this is a new file, it will be saved in the directory from

which the MSC.Nastran execution is submitted. If a pre-existing file

is to be used, it can either be located in the directory where the

MSC.Nastran execution is submitted and run or in the MSC.Marc

AF_flowmat directory.

Each of the elastoplastic models described in this section can be selected with the MATEP bulk

data entry.

Entry Description

MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties to be used for large

deformation analysis.

MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties to be used

for static, quasi-static, or transient dynamic analysis.

References

• MATEP (SOL 600), 1539 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

• MATTEP (SOL 600), 1596 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

CHAPTER 10 345

Materials

To define an inelastic material in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to

Create>Isotropic-or-Orthotropic-or-Anisotropic>Manual Input.

2. Click Input Properties..., and select Elastoplastic from the Constitutive Model pull-down

menu.

The required properties for describing elasticplastic behavior vary based on material type, dimension,

type of nonlinear data input, hardening rule, yield criteria, strain rate method, and thermal dependencies.

The table below shows the various input options and criteria available to you for defining

elastoplastic behavior.

Constitutive Nonlinear Data Hardening Strain Rate

Model Input Rule Yield Criteria Method

• Plastic • Stress/Strain • Isotropic • von Mises • Piecewise

Curve • Kinematic • Tresca Linear

Symonds

• Drucker-Prager

• Parabolic Mohr-

Coulomb

• Buyukozturk Concrete

• Oak Ridge National

Lab

• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL

• Reversed Plasticity

ORNL

• Full Alpha Reset

ORNL

• Hardening Slope • Isotropic • von Mises • None

• Kinematic • Tresca

• Combined • Mohr-Coulomb

• Drucker-Prager

346 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

Constitutive Hardening Strain Rate

Model Type Rule Yield Criteria Method

• Plastic • Perfectly Plastic • None • von Mises • Piecewise

• Linear Mohr-Coulomb Linear

Coulomb Symonds

• Buyukozturk Concrete

• Oak Ridge National

Lab

• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL

• Reversed Plasticity

ORNL

• Full Alpha Reset

ORNL

• Power Law

• Rate Power Law

• Johnson-Cook

• Kumar

• Piecewise • None • Piecewise

Linear Linear

• Cowper-

Symonds

The type of nonlinear data input you choose to use to define elastoplastic material behavior determines

the input data required for the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.

• Stress/Strain Curve - All stress-strain curves are input as piecewise linear. MSC.Patran transfers

the stress-strain curve input on the material property field directly to the TABLES1 entry.

The number of linear segments used to define the stress-strain curve may be different from one

material to another. The same strain breakpoints need not be used for all of the different

material’s stress-strain curves. It is recommended to define the stress-strain curves throughout

the range of strains which the analysis is likely to predict. If the analysis predicts a plastic strain

greater than the last point defined by the user, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear continues the

analysis after shifting the last strain breakpoint on that curve to match the predicted value,

thereby changing (reducing) the work hardening slope for the last segment of the curve.

• Hardening Slope - The hardening slope and the yield point are required with this Nonlinear Data

Input option.

• Perfectly Plastic - Perfect plasticity is described by simply specifying the yield point.

CHAPTER 10 347

Materials

The tables below provide descriptions for the input data for each of the four types of nonlinear input.

All Yield Functions

Property Name Description

Stress /Strain Curve Defines the Cauchy stress vs. logarithmic strain (also called equivalent

tensile stress versus total equivalent strain) by reference to a tabular

or field. The field is selected from the Field Definition list. The field is

Yield Stress created using the Fields application. See Fields Create (Spatial, Tabular

Input) (p. 153) in the MSC Patran Reference Manual, Part 5:

Functional Assignments. For Perfectly Plastic models, only a Yield

Stress needs to be entered.

Linear. Accepts field of yield stress vs. strain rate.

10th Cycle Yield Stress vs. When set to ORNL, accepts field of 10th cycle yield stress vs. plastic

Plastic Strain strain. Can be temperature dependent also. For Perfectly Plastic

models, only a 10th Cycle Yield Stress needs to be entered.

or

10th Cycle Yield Stress

Coefficient C Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.

Inverse Exponent P Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.

Alpha When set to Linear Mohr-Coulomb, defines the slope of the yield

surface in square root J2 versus J1 space. This property is required.

Beta When set to Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb, defines the beta parameter in

the equation that defines the parabolic yield surface in square root J2

versus J1 space. This property is required.

Note: 2 1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL, Reversed Plasticity ORNL, Full Alpha Reset ORNL are the same as

Oak Ridge National Labs. Generalized Plasticity is the same as von Mises.

Perfectly Plastic is identical to Stress/Strain except that no hardening rules apply.

348 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

All Yield Functions

Description

Stress vs. Strain Same as description for Isotropic Elastic-Plastic. If Strain Rate Method

or is Piecewise Linear, accepts field of yield stress vs. strain rate.

Tensile Yield Stress Or defines an isotropic yield stress. It is a required property when the

plasticity type is Perfectly Plastic.

Stress 11/22/33 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of direct yield stresses to the isotropic yield stress in

the element’s coordinate system.

Stress 12/23/31 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of shear yield stresses to the isotropic shear yield

stress (yield divided by square root three) in the element’s

coordinate system.

Note: Perfectly Plastic is identical to Elastic-Plastic except that no hardening rules apply. Stress

vs Plastic Strain is replaced with Yield Stress data only as is 10th Cycle Yield vs. Strain

replaced with 10th Cycle Yield Stress data. Thus no tabular data is necessary.

Isotropic/Anisotropic/Orthotropic - Hardening Slope

Property Name Description

Hardening Slope Slope of the stress-strain curve once yielding has started.

Yield Point Defines the stress level at which plastic strain begins to develop.

Internal Friction Angle When yield function is set to Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager this

gives the parameter describing the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the

yield stress.

CHAPTER 10 349

Materials

One of the nonlinear features of a material's behavior is failure. When a certain criterion (failure

criterion) is met, the material fails and no longer sustains its loading and breaks. In a finite-element

method, this means that the element, where the material reaches the failure limit, cannot carry any

stresses anymore. The stress tensor is effectively zero. The element is flagged for failure, and, essentially,

is no longer part of the structure.

Failure criteria can be defined for a range of materials and element types. The failure models are

referenced from the material definition entries.

For isotropic, 2-D orthotropic, and 2-D anisotropic materials, you can implement one of five failure

models in MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Failure models are based on maximum stress

criteria, maximum strain criteria, or one of three composite stress/strain failure theories.

Maximum Stress Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic, 2-D Anisotropic

Maximum Strain 2-D Orthotropic

Hill Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic

Hoffman Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic

Tsai-Wu Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic

At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates six quantities:

σ 1

JJJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ1 > 0

X t

1. (10-163)

σ 1

Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ1 < 0

X c

σ 2

JJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ2 > 0

Yt

2. (10-164)

σ 2

Ó JJJJJJ ⁄ F if σ2 < 0

Y c

350 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ

JJJJJ3J ⁄ F if σ3 > 0

Zt

3.

(10-165)

Óσ

JJJJJ3J ⁄ F if σ3 < 0

Z

c

σ 1 2J ⁄ F

4. JJJJJJJJ (10-166)

S 12

σ 23J ⁄ F

5. JJJJJJJ (10-167)

S 23

σ 31J ⁄ F

6. JJJJJJJ (10-168)

S 31

where

X t, X c are the maximum allowable stresses in the 1-direction in tension and compression.

At each integration point, calculates six quantities:

ε1

JJJJJJ

J ⁄ F if ε1 > 0

e 1 t

1. (10-169)

ε1

Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε1 < 0

e

1c

CHAPTER 10 351

Materials

ε2

JJJJJJ

J ⁄ F if ε2 > 0

e 2 t

2. (10-170)

ε2

Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε2 < 0

e

2c

ε3

JJJJJJ

J ⁄ F if ε3 > 0

e 3 t

3. (10-171)

ε3

Ó JJJJJJJ ⁄F if ε3 < 0

e

3c

γ 12J ⁄ F

4. JJJJJJJ (10-172)

g 12

γ 2 3J ⁄ F

5. JJJJJJJ (10-173)

g 23

γ 31J ⁄ F

6. JJJJJJJ (10-174)

g 31

where

e 1 t, e 1 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 1 direction in tension and compression.

e 2 t, e 2 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 2 direction in tension and compression.

e 3 t, e 3 c are the maximum allowable strains in the 3 direction in tension and compression.

g 23 is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 23 plane.

g 31 is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 31 plane.

Assumptions:

• Orthotropic materials only

• Incompressibility during plastic deformation

• Tensile and compressive behavior are identical

352 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

σ2 σ2 σ2

JJJJJJ1J H JJJJJJ2J H JJJJJ3J Ó JJJJJJ

1

J H JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 σ 2 Ó JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJ σ 1 σ 3

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

X Y Z X Y Z X Z Y

σ 23 (10-175)

σ 122 σ 132 2

Ó JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJ σ 2 σ 3 H JJJJJJJJ

1 1 1

J H JJJJJJJJJ ⁄ F

J H JJJJJJJJ

2 2 2 S 122 S 132 S 232

Y Z X

2 2 2

σ 1 σ 1 σ 2 σ 2 σ 12

JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJ ⁄ F (10-176)

X2 X2 Y 2 S 12 2

where

Note: Hoffman criterion is essentially Hill criterion modified to allow unequal maximum

allowable stresses in tension and compression.

2 2 2

[ C1 ( σ2 Ó σ3 ) H C2 ( σ3 Ó σ1 ) H C3 ( σ1 Ó σ2 ) H C4 σ1 H C5 σ2

(10-177)

H C 6 σ 3 H C 7 σ 23

2 H C σ2 H C σ2 ] ⁄ F

8 13 9 12

with

CHAPTER 10 353

Materials

C 1 Z JJJ JJJJJJJJJJJ 1 Ó 1

1 1

H JJJJJJJJJJJJ

J JJJJJJJJJJJJJ

2 Z t Z c Y t Y c X t X c

1 1 1 1

2 X t X c Z t Z c Y t Y c

1 1 1 1

2 Xt Xc Yt Yc Zt Zc

1 1

C 4 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ

Xt Xc

1 1

C 5 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ (10-178)

Yt Yc

1 1

C 6 Z JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ

Zt Zc

1

C 7 Z JJJJJJJJ

S 232

1

C 8 Z JJJJJJJJ

S 132

1

C 9 Z JJJJJJJ

J

S 122

2 2 2

1 1 1 1 σ1 σ2 σ 12 σ 1 σ 2

2

J Ó JJJJJJJJJJJJJ ⁄ F

JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ (10-179)

Xt Xc Yt Yc X t X c Y t Y c S 12 Xt Xc

σ1

For small ratios of, for example, JJJJJJ , the Hoffman criteria can become negative due to the

Note: Xt

presence of the linear terms.

Tsai-Wu is a tensor polynomial failure criterion. At each integration point, MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear calculates:

354 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

JJJJJ σ 12 σ 22 σ 32

Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 3 H JJJJJJJJJJJJ

1 1 1 1 1 1

J H JJJJJJJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJJJJ

X X Y Y Z Z Xt Xc Yt Yc Zt Zc

t c t c t c

(10-180)

τ 122 τ 232 τ 132

H JJJJJJJ

J H JJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJ H 2F 12 σ 1 σ 2 H 2F 23 σ 2 σ 3 H 2F 13 σ 1 σ 3 ] ⁄ F

S 122 S 232 S 132

2 2 2

1 1 1 1 σ1 σ2 σ1 2

JJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 1 H JJJJJJJ Ó JJJJJJ σ 2 H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJ H 2F 12 σ 1 σ 2 ⁄ F (10-181)

Xt Xc Y2 Yc X t X c Y t Y c S 12

1

2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ 1 1 1 1 1

F 12 J • JJJJJJJJJJJJJ 2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ

F 23 J • JJJJJJJJJJJ 2 < JJJJJJJJJJJJ

F 31 J • JJJJJJJJJJJ

Xt Xc Yt Yc Yt Yc Zt Zc Xt Xc Zt Zc

See Wu, R.Y. and Stachurski, 2, “Evaluation of the Normal Stress Interaction Parameter in the Tensor

Polynomial Strength Theory for Anisotropic Materials”, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 18, Sept.

1984, pp. 456-463.

Calculation of interlaminar shear stress (a parabolic distribution through the thickness direction) for thick

shells and beams is available. These interlaminar shears are printed in the local coordinate system above

and below each layer selected for printing. These values are also available for postprocessing.

PARAM,MRTSHEAR,1 must be used for activating the parabolic shear distribution calculations.

In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the distribution of transverse shear strains through the thickness for

thick shell and beam elements was assumed to be constant. From basic strength of materials and the

equilibrium of a beam cross section, it is known that the actual distribution is more parabolic in nature.

As an additional option, the formulations for certain beam and shell elements have been modified to

include a parabolic distribution of transverse shear strain. The formulation is exact for MSC.Marc beam

element 45, but is approximate for MSC.Marc thick shell elements 22, 75, and 140. Nevertheless, the

CHAPTER 10 355

Materials

approximation is expected to give improved results from the previous constant shear distribution.

Furthermore, interlaminar shear stresses for composite beams and shells can be easily calculated.

1 2

With the assumption that the stresses in the V and V direction are uncoupled, the equilibrium

condition through the thickness is given by

∂τ ( z ) ∂σ ( z )

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-182)

∂z ∂x

where σ ( z ) is the layer axial stress; τ ( t ) is the layer shear stress. From beam theory, we have

∂M

V H JJJJJJJJ Z 0 (10-183)

∂x

where M is the section bending moment and V is the shear force. Assuming that

σ ( z ) Z f ( z )M (10-184)

by taking the derivative of Equation (10-184) with respect to x, substituting the result into

Equation (10-182), using Equation (10-183) and integrating, we obtain

z

E0 ( z )

f ( z ) Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( z Ó z ) (10-186)

EI

where E 0 ( z ) is the layer initial Young’s modulus, z is the location of the neutral axis and EI is the

section bending moment of inertia. Equation (10-186) and Equation (10-184) express

the usual bending relation

Mz

σ ( z ) Z Ó JJJJJJJJ (10-187)

I

except that these two equations are written so that the z Z 0 axis is not necessarily the neutral axis of

bending. With respect to this axis, membrane and bending action is, in general, coupled. Note that

∫ zE ( z )dz

z Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

z J (10-188)

∫ E ( z )dz

z

356 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

In MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the interlaminar shear and normal stresses are calculated by

averaging the stresses in the stacked layers. The stresses are transformed into a component tangent to the

interface and a component normal to the interface. The two components, considered as shear stress and

normal stress, respectively, are printed out in the output file.

A model has been put into MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to allow the progressive failure of certain

types of composite materials. The aspects of this model are defined below:

1. Failure occurs when any one of the failure criteria is satisfied.

2. The behavior up to the failure point is linear elastic.

3. Upon failure, the material moduli for orthotropic materials at the integration points are changed

such that all of the moduli have the lowest moduli entered.

4. Upon failure, for isotropic materials, the failed moduli are taken as 10% of the original moduli.

5. If there is only one modulus, such as in a beam or truss problem, the failed modulus is taken as

10% of the original one.

6. There is no healing of the material.

Any of the failure models described above can be selected with the MATF Bulk Data entry.

Entry Description

MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials to be used for

static, quasi static or transient dynamic analysis in MSC.Nastran Implicit

Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.

References

• MATF (SOL 600), 1551 of the MSC.Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

To define a Failure Model in MSC.Patran:

1. From the Materials Application form, set the Action>Object>Method combination to one of the

following:

• Create>Isotropic>Manual Input

• Create>2D Orthotropic>Manual Input

• Create>2D Anisotropic>Manual Input

2. Click on Input Properties.... , and choose Failure from the Constitutive Model pull-down menu.

3. If the failure model applies to a 2-D orthotropic material, you can select Stress or Strain from the

Failure Limit pull-down menu.

CHAPTER 10 357

Materials

Isotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the

Materials Application form.

Property Name Description

Tension Stress Limit Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in the element’s

coordinate system.

Compression Stress Limit Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in the element’s

coordinate system. Absolute values are used.

Shear Stress Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.

358 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

2-D orthotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the

Materials Application form.

Property Name Description

Tension Stress (Strain) Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in direction 1 of the

Limit 11 element’s coordinate system.

Tension Stress (Strain) Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in direction 2 of the

Limit 22 element’s coordinate system.

Compression Stress (Strain) Limit 11 Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in direction 1

of the element’s coordinate system. Absolute values are used.

Compression Stress (Strain) Limit 22 Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in direction 2

of the element’s coordinate system. Absolute values are used.

Shear Stress (Strain) Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.

Interaction Term Defines the stress interaction parameter.

2-D anisotropic materials require the following failure model data via the Input Options subform on the

Materials Application form.

Property Name Description

Tension Stress Limit Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in the element’s

coordinate system.

Compression Stress Limit Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in the element’s

coordinate system. Absolute values are used.

Shear Stress Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.

Damage Models

In many structural applications, the finite element method is used to predict failure. This is often

performed by comparing the calculated solution to some failure criteria, or by using classical

fracture mechanics.

Ductile Metals

In ductile materials given the appropriate loading conditions, voids will form in the material, grow, then

coalesce, leading to crack formation and potentially, failure. Experimental studies have shown that these

processes are strongly influenced by hydrostatic stress. Gurson studied microscopic voids in materials

and derived a set of modified constitutive equations for elastic-plastic materials. Tvergaard and

CHAPTER 10 359

Materials

Needleman modified the model with respect to the behavior for small void volume fractions and for

void coalescence.

In the modified Gurson model, the amount of damage is indicated with a scalar parameter called the

void volume fraction f. The yield criterion for the macroscopic assembly of voids and matrix material is

given by:

σ 2 q 2 σ k k

F Z JJJJJJ H 2q 1 f∗ cosh JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ Ó [ 1 H ( q 1 f∗ ) 2 ] Z 0 (10-189)

σ y 2σ y

σe ⁄ σM

1.0

f* Z 0

0.5 f * ⁄ f u* = 0.01

0.1

0.3

0.6

0.9

0

0 1 2 3 4 σ k k ⁄ 3σ M

The parameter q 1 was introduced by Tvergaard to improve the Gurson model at small values of the void

volume fraction. For solids with periodically spaced voids, numerical studies [10] showed that the values

of q 1 Z 1.5 and q 2 Z 1 were quite accurate.

The evolution of damage as measured by the void volume fraction is due to void nucleation and growth.

Void nucleation occurs by debonding of second phase particles. The strain for nucleation depends on the

particle sizes. Assuming a normal distribution of particle sizes, the nucleation of voids is itself modeled

as a normal distribution in the strains, if nucleation is strain controlled. If void nucleation is assumed to

be stress controlled in the matrix, a normal distribution is assumed in the stresses. The original Gurson

model predicts that ultimate failure occurs when the void volume fraction f, reaches unity. This is too

high a value and, hence, the void volume fraction f is replaced by the modified void volume fraction f∗

in the yield function.

The parameter f∗ is introduced to model the rapid decrease in load carrying capacity if void

coalescence occurs.

360 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

f∗ Z f if f ≤ Ñc

f u* Ó f c (10-190)

f∗ Z f c H JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ( f Ó f c ) if f > fc

f F Ó f c

where fc is the critical void volume fraction, and f F is the void volume at failure, and f u* Z 1 ⁄ q 1 . A

safe choice for f F would be a value greater than ( 1 ⁄ q 1 ) namely, f F Z 1.1 ⁄ q 1 . Hence, you can control

the void volume fraction, f F , at which the solid loses all stress carrying capability.

Numerical studies show that plasticity starts to localize between voids at void volume fractions as low as

0.1 to 0.2. You can control the void volume fraction f c , beyond which void-void interaction is modeled

by MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. Based on the classical studies, a value of f c Z 0.2 can be chosen.

The existing value of the void volume fraction changes due to the growth of existing voids and due to the

nucleation of new voids.

ˇ ˇ ˇ

f Z fg r o w t h H fn u c l e a t i o n (10-191)

The growth of voids can be determined based upon compressibility of the matrix material surrounding

the void.

ˇ ˇp

f g r o w t h Z ( 1 Ó f ) εk k (10-192)

As mentioned earlier, the nucleation of new voids can be defined as either strain or stress controlled. Both

follow a normal distribution about a mean value.

In the case of strain controlled nucleation, this is given by

ˇ 1 ε m Ó εn

fN p 2

ˇp

f n u c l e a t i o n Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ exp Ó JJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ ε m (10-193)

S 2π 2 S

where f N is the volume fraction of void forming particles, ε n the mean strain for void nucleation and S

the standard deviation.

In the case of stress controlled nucleation, the rate of nucleation is given by:

1 2

ˇ fN σ H JJJ σ k k Ó σ n ˇ 1ˇ

f n u c l e a t i o n Z JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ exp Ó JJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ * σ H JJJ σ k k

1 3

(10-194)

S 2π 2 S 3

If the second phase particle sizes in the solid are widely varied in size, the standard deviation would be

larger than in the case when the particle sizes are more uniform. The MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear

CHAPTER 10 361

Materials

user can also input the volume fraction of the nucleating second phase void nucleating particles in the

input deck, as the variable f N .

A typical set of values for an engineering alloy is given by Tvergaard for strain controlled nucleation as

It must be remarked that the determination of the three above constants from experiments is extremely

difficult. The modeling of the debonding process must itself be studied including the effect of differing

particle sizes in a matrix. It is safe to say that such an experimental study is not possible. The above three

constants must necessarily be obtained by intuition keeping in mind the meaning of the terms.

When the material reaches 90 percent of f F , the material is considered to be failed. At this point, the

stiffness and the stress at this element are reduced to zero.

Elastomers

Under repeated application of loads, elastomers undergo damage by mechanisms involving chain

breakage, multi-chain damage, micro-void formation, and micro-structural degradation due to

detachment of filler particles from the network entanglement. Two types of phenomenological models

namely, discontinuous and continuous, exists to simulate the phenomenon of damage.

Discontinuous Damage

The discontinuous damage model simulates the “Mullins’ effect” as shown in Figure 10-35.

This involves a loss of stiffness below the previously attained maximum strain. The higher the maximum

attained strain, the larger is the loss of stiffness. Upon reloading, the uniaxial stress-strain curve remains

insensitive to prior behavior at strains above the previously attained maximum in a cyclic test. Hence,

there is a progressive stiffness loss with increasing maximum strain amplitude. Also, most of the stiffness

loss takes place in the few earliest cycles provided the maximum strain level is not increased. This

362 MSC.Nastran 2007 r1 Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) User’s Guide

phenomenon is found in both filled as well as natural rubber although the higher levels of carbon black

particles increase the hysteresis and the loss of stiffness. The free energy, W, can be written as:

0

W Z K ( α, β )W (10-196)

0

where W is the nominal strain energy function, and

0

α Z max ( W ) (10-197)

determines the evolution of the discontinuous damage. The reduced form of Clausius-Duhem dissipation

inequality yields the stress as:

0

∂W

S Z 2K ( α Iβ ) JJJJJJJJJJJ (10-198)

∂C

Mathematically, the discontinuous damage model has a structure very similar to that of strain space