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Series Circuits Parallel Circuits

Current is the same on each resistor Voltage is the same across all resistors
Resistance RT=R1+R2+R3+Rn 1
Current IT= V/RT Resistance R T =
1/R 1 + 1/R 2 + 1/R 3 + 1/R n
Voltage VT= V1+V2+V3+Vn(KVL)
RT for 2 resistors=(R1)(R2)/(R1+R2)
Voltage Drop VR=(IT)(R)
Current IT= I1+I2+I3+In(KCL)
Voltage Divider Vx=(Rx/RT)VT
Current Divider I1=((R2)/(R1+R2))IT
Power Total =(VS)(I) or (I2)(RT) or VS2/RT
For 3 or more R’s Ix=(RT/RX)IT
Power in a resistor = (Vx)(Ix)
Power Total= (V)(IT) or (IT2)(RT) or V2/RT
Power is measured in WATTS (W)
Convert Voltage Source to Current Source Convert Current Source to Voltage Source
IS=VS/RS VS=(IS)(RS)

Terminal Equivalency ILOAD=VS/(RS+RL)


Thevenin Equivalent
VTH use voltage divider rule
RTH use total resistance
Color Code 6=Blue 4 bands= 1&2 are values Pico (p) -12 nano (n) -9 micro (µ) -6
0=Black 7=Violet 3 is the multiplier Milli (m) -3 Kilo (k) 3 Mega (M) 6
1=Brown 8=Gray 4 is tolerance Giga (G) 9 Tera (T) 12
2=Red 9=White 5 band= 1,2,&3 are values
3=Orange +/-5%=gold 4 is the multiplier
4=Yellow +/-10%=silver 5 is the tolerance
5=Green

Ohms Law I=V/R V=(I)(R) R=V/I Efficiency = Pout/Pin


Pout= Pin-Ploss
CHARGE(Q)= #of electrons/6.25x 1018electrons/C Sine wave
V=W/Q f= 1/T
I=Q/t T=1/f
P=W/t Vpp= 2Vp peak to peak
W=(P)(t) Ipp= 2Ip
Vrms= (0.707)(Vp)
Irms= (0.707)(Ip)
Degrees to Rad= (πrad/180)xdegrees
Rad to Degrees= (180/πrad)xRad
Sine wave Instantaneous value at 90 ref point=
v=Vpsinθ
percent duty cycle= (tw/T)100%

Capacitors Total Impediance Z= R 2 + X 2


Total Series Capacitance Ct=1/((1/C1)+(1/C2)….) θ= -tan-1(Xc/R)
Capacitor Voltage Vx=(Ct/Cx)Vt Xc= 1/ 2πfC
Total Parallel Cap Ct=C1+C2+C3…. Xc= Vc/I
Time constant τ=RC
Vc= Vs − Vr
Time Constant %ages
1= 63% 2= 86% I=Vr/R
3= 95% 4= 98% CURRENT in a capacitor leads VOLTAGE ICE
5= 100% CURRENT is in phase with VOLTAGE in resistors

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