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Белгородский государственный университет

Кафедра делового иностранного языка

Let’s Talk and Write English

Пособие по обучению практике устной


и письменной речи (начальный этап)
на английском языке

Под ред. О.В. Серкиной

Белгород 2007
ББК 81.2 Англ. яз.

Печатается по решению Редакционно-издательского совета


Белгородского государственного университета

Авторы составители:
Серкина О.В., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры делового иностранного языка
(отв. редактор),
Камышанченко Е.А., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры делового иностранного
языка,
Зайцева С.Н., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Колоколова И.В., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Малахова В.Л., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Бутылева Е.П., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Степаненко С.Н., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Тимофеева Т.Н., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Фирсова Ю.В., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Федотова О.В., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка,
Чернякина Е.В., ассистент кафедры делового иностранного языка.

Рецензенты:
Позднякова Е.М., д.ф.н., профессор, зав. каф. международной бизнес-
коммуникации ТГУ им. Г.Р. Державина,
Емельянова О.В., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры английского языка РГПУ
им. А.И.Герцена.

Let’s Talk and Write English. Пособие по обучению практике устной и


письменной речи (начальный этап) на английском языке. // Под ред.
Серкиной О.В. – Белгород: Изд-во БелГУ, 2006. – 411 с.

Пособие предназначено для развития коммуникативных навыков


высказывания на английском языке в рамках общей тематики для студентов
1-2 курсов, изучающих английский язык в качестве основного иностранного
языка в высших учебных заведениях.
В пособии использованы аутентичные тексты, диалоги и развивающие
задания на коммуникативной основе.
Данное пособие может использоваться на занятиях по устной речи, а
также для обучения основным навыкам письма, в том числе основам
делового письма.

БК 81.2 Англ. Яз.

© Коллектив авторов, 2007


© Изд-во БелГУ, 200
Оглавление
Предисловие ………………………………………………………… 4
PART I. PEOPLE AROUND ME……………………………………… 5
Unit 1. WHO AM I? MY NAME.……………………………………………. 5
Unit 2. PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY FAMILY AND MYSELF.………………… 27
Unit 3. PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY FRIENDS AND MYSELF………………… 48
UNIT 4. PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY COUNTRYMEN AND MYSELF. …..……... 65
PART II. THE PLACE I LIVE IN…………………………………. 92
Unit 1. T HE P LACE I L IVE I N . M Y F LAT O R M Y H OUSE . …………… 92
U NIT 2. T HE PLACE I LIVE I N . M Y C ITY AND M Y V ILLAGE ……………
130
Unit 3. T HE P LACE I LIVE IN . M Y C OUNTRY . ………………………… 162
PART III. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE ……………… 185
Unit 1. T HE T HINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . M Y F OOD . ….…………......
185
Unit 2. T HE THINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . M Y S HOPPING ……………
226
Unit 3. T HE THINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . M Y T RAVELLING …………
259
Unit 4. T HE THINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . M Y H EALTH AND F ITNESS ..
296
Unit 5. T HE THINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . P ROBLEMS OF M Y
E NVIRONMENT …………………………………………………………………
…… 324
Unit 6. T HE THINGS I LIKE AND D ISLIKE . M Y O CCUPATION ………. 347
APPENDICES………………………………………………………… 389
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………… 408
Предисловие

Данное учебное пособие подготовлено на кафедре делового


иностранного языка факультета романо-германской филологии Белгородского
государственного университета. Данное пособие подготовлено на кафедре
делового иностранного языка факультета романо-германской филологии
Белгородского государственного университета. Оно является второй частью
серии пособий по домашнему чтению «Let’s Read and Talk on the Story» и
ориентировано на студентов экономического факультета (специальности
«Мировая экономика», «Экономика и управление на предприятии (туризм и
гостиничное хозяйство)»), а также студентов физико-математического
факультета (специальность «Информатика с дополнительной специальностью
иностранный язык»), изучающих английский как основной иностранный
язык.
Пособие соответствует основным программным требованиям,
утверждённым учебно-методическим объединением по вышеперечисленным
специальностям (См.: Каталог учебных программ. – Часть 4. – М.: ФА при
Правительстве РФ, 1999).
Цель данного пособия – способствовать формированию у студентов
коммуникативных навыков иноязычного общения на основе аутентичного
языкового и речевого материала. Благодаря наличию большого количества
информации культурологического плана, пособие будет способствовать
расширению страноведческого кругозора студентов.
Основываясь на принципе антропоцентризма – ставя во главу угла
студента с его сформировавшейся системой ценностей – пособие логично
представлено в виде трех блоков, каждый из которых включает в себя
разделы, последовательно развивающие главную тему блока: People Around
Me (куда вошли разделы: Who Am I? My Name; My Family and Myself; My
Friends and Myself; My Countrymen and Myself); The Place I Live In; (разделы:
My Flat or My House; My City and My Village; My Country); The Things
I Like and Dislike (разделы: My Food; My Shopping; My Travelling; My
Health and Fitness; Problems of My Environment; My Occupation).
Каждый их разделов включает в себя непосредственно задания по
развитию лексических навыков (Building-up Your Vocabulary), навыков
устного общения (Acquiring Communication Skills) и навыков письма
(Writing). Пособие снабжено приложениями, которые можно успешно
использовать как непосредственно на занятиях по английскому языку, так и
для организации самостоятельной работы студентов.
Последний раздел разработан с учетом последующего перехода
студентов к изучению профессионального английского языка.
Пособие может быть также использовано на занятиях по английскому
языку со студентами других неязыковых факультетов, изучающими
иностранный язык по расширенной сетке часов, и со студентами младших
курсов языковых вузов.
PART I. PEOPLE AROUND ME
Unit 1. WHO AM I? MY NAME.
What’s in a name? That
Which we call a rose
By any other name
Would smell as sweet.
W. Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet

Recommended grammar:
Pronouns. Numerals. Verbs ”to be, to have”. Present Simple. Types of questions.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

1.1. Read the passage about using names in English-speaking countries,


paying attention to how their traditions are different from those in Russia.

The following table presents different variants of the English equivalents for the Russian:
имя name, first name, given name, Christian name
отчество patronymic name
фамилия surname, family name, last name
гражданство citizenship
While answering the question What is your name? one is expected to give his
name in full.
e.g. What is your name? – John D. Barter (D. here stands for the so-called
middle name.)
The two or more initials1 standing before a foreign name do not at all denote the
name and patronymic name as in Russian. In Western Europe and America,
children may be given more than one name and the number may vary. As a rule,
the first of these names is chosen from among the numerous generally recognized
names such as John, Mary, etc.; the second name (known as the middle name) is
not actually a name from the point of view of the Russian language. The middle
name may not only be a traditional name, but the mother’s maiden name, or the
surname of any person honoured in the family or the godparent of the child. The
middle name may also be any words, even the combination of sounds having no
meaning whatsoever, but which, for some reason, appealed to the parents. In the
US, as a rule, the Christian name is written in full, while the middle name is
abbreviated or not written at all. Therefore, when making a person’s acquaintance
one might ask, “What is your middle name?”
The last link in the chain of names is the surname or last name.
Examples:
(a) simplest variant without a middle name:
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All bold-faced words and expressions make up Active Vocabulary of the Unit and are to be learnt by heart.
Michael Faraday, John Galsworthy
(b) middle name is taken from the category of Christian names:
Herbert George Wells, Robert Luis Stevenson
(c) first name and middle name represent the name and surname of the
person in whose honour the child is named:
Andrew Jackson Tozer
(d) no conventional Christian name at all, the first name is a recognized
surname:
Washington Irving
(e) any word is used as a middle name:
William Makepeace Thackeray
(f)the name can be the name of the place where the parents met:
Rudyard Kipling
(g) Christian names are grouped together:
Cecil Eric George Reyford
(h) middle name is the Christian name and the surname of a person held in
respect in the family:
Henry George Washington Clinton

Sometimes, you can see the abbreviations after the name of a man: Donald
McGee, Jr. This abbreviation is used after the name if a man has the same name as
his father. The abbreviation Sr. stands for Senior and is used after the name of the
father if he has the same name as his son, George Bush, Sr.
If Sr. goes before the name, it means Sister and used with the names of nuns:
Sr.Bernadette.
The abbreviation the Rev. stands for the title Reverend which is a title of respect
used before the name of a minister of a Christian church: the Rev. Jesse Jackson.

1.2. a) Read the text on some different uses of names and nicknames,
paying attention to the bold-faced words and expressions.
b) Write 5-7 questions based on the text.
c) Summarize the text and present it to class.

Just like Russians and other nations, the British use different kinds of names and
titles for establishing and maintaining social relations. There are a lot of different
reasons for choosing an adequate name or a title.
The main reasons are as follows:
1) the relationship of the speaker with the other person;
2) the degree of formality;
3) the degree of politeness and friendliness and the like.

For example, if Mr., James Smith is checking in at a hotel where he has made
advance reservations, he says: My name is James Smith, because he knows that this
is the name the receptionist must look up. If he is introducing himself to a new
neighbour and wishes to allow the neighbour to determine the level of friendship

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they can expect of each other, he says: I’m Jim Smith. If he is introducing himself
to a small child, indicating an address form for him, he says: I’m Mr. Smith. If he is
introducing himself in one of those modern settings which call for intimacy but not
familiarity, he says: I’m Jim.
In some cultures it is common to use titles when talking to people who are not
family or friends. Sometimes these titles show the person’s profession. Or they tell
us that he or she is older and should be honoured (=treated with respect). In
general, North Americans are not very formal; they are casual. That is true with
titles, too. In everyday life, titles are not used, except for Doctor (Dr.) for a medical
doctor, and sometimes Professor (Prof.) for a university professor.
Naturally, Mr. and Mrs., Miss, and the newer form Ms. (pronounced [miz] and
used for any woman, married or not) are used, for example on the outside of the
envelope when sending letters. However, the title Ms. is not a neutral word. To
avoid using the wrong title, people in the U.S. usually politely ask which title to
use, as they are being introduced. For instance, take the following conversation:
Mr. Smith: Mr. Kershaw, I’d like to introduce you to Carol Duke.
Mr. Kershaw: (as they shake hands) I am very pleased to meet you. Is it “Ms.
Duke”?
Mrs. Duke: “Mrs.” It’s my pleasure.
It is not polite to use any of the above titles alone without the surname. So you
say: Mr. Smith or Mrs. Jones. The only exception is “Miss”, which is widely used
as a form of address to a woman-teacher by primary schoolchildren.
The title ‘Dr.’ (Doctor) is used in academic or medical settings as title for
those who received this highest degree from a university (Ph.D.=Doctor of
Philosophy or M.D.= Doctor of Medicine, respectively).
In most English-speaking countries, when introductions are made in a formal
or professional setting, titles are generally used. In informal situations, people are
often introduced on a first-name basis. And they often use first names right away
(=immediately) after meeting. In fact, many times even a boss or older person will
ask you to use his or her first name or even a nickname.
Many North American names have nicknames. These are sometimes used by
family and friends to show affection. Liz, Beth, and Betty are all common
nicknames for the same name: Elizabeth.
Often nicknames are shorter than full names, such as Hank for Henry, or Sue
for Susan. Some people use their nicknames only with family and friends. Others
use their nickname most of the time. Bill Clinton is never called William (his full
name is William J. Clinton).
Titles can be used more generally to mark the speaker’s relation to the person
addressed. For example, Sir and Madam are vocatives (=a form of address to a
person when speaking or writing), which mark respect or distance to a stranger.
These are used to men and women by people performing a service for the public,
e.g. some shopkeepers, policemen, a ticket collector, etc. But you’ll sound
ridiculous if you use any of these vocatives yourself. However, don’t be surprised
if someone uses one of them to you when you are on a stay in Britain. Other titles
of respect and some professional titles can be used as vocatives:

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Ladies and gentlemen – formal opening of a speech
My lord! – to a peer, a bishop, a British judge, etc.
Your Excellency – to an ambassador, a minister or any senior official
Mr. President – to a president
Prime Minister – to the leader of the government
Officer – to a policeman of any rank by everybody
Father – to a priest
Professor – to a university teacher at the highest level holding a chair of some
branch of learning
Waiter/waitress/ server/ porter/ nurse – to people who give you a service (the
address “server” is more often used in the US now, instead of ‘waiter’ or
‘waitress’, as being more politically correct.)
As for the forms of address to strangers, it should be said that they are
restricted in English. “Sir” and especially “Madam” are too formal to be used in
most situations, unless you are the person providing public services. Thus, to get
the attention of a stranger you may often have to rely on “Excuse me?” or in
American English (further - AmE) “Pardon?”
Apart from that, in contrast there are some forms of familiar use of vocatives,
such as: Daddy (dad), old man, you guys (very informal AmE), My dear,
darling, love, sweetheart, etc.
In Britain you may also hear love and dear used to anybody by shopkeepers in a
very informal friendly way. People of older generations in modern Britain like to
address younger people with ‘love’, which sounds unusual at first but sweet when
you get used to it.

1.3. a) Explain the difference between these …


i) a nickname ii) a pseudonym (=assumed name)
iii) a maiden name iv) a stage name
b) Think of any examples of using nicknames, pseudonyms, stage
names or maiden names in Russia or other countries.
c) Which four of these names are real names?

Yves Saint-Laurent Meg Ryan


Freddie Mercury Winona Ryder
Sean Connery Claudia Schiffer
Brad Pitt Gwyneth Paltrow

1.4. a) Read the text quickly, paying attention to the bold-faced words and
expressions. Which statement (1-3) best describes what the text is about?
b) Are you happy with your name? Explain why.

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1. How parents choose names for their children.
2. The effect your name can have on your life.
3. Why some names are more attractive than others.

The ‘Name Game” Winners


“What’s in a name?” asked Shakespeare’s Juliet. “A rose by any other name
would smell as sweet”, she concluded; in other words, the name of a person is
irrelevant. However, research by psychologists suggests that our name can have a
direct effect on our personal happiness.
Having a popular name, it seems, can make other people think you are intelligent
and attractive even before they have met you. This is because, according to
psychologist Dr. Philip Erwin, people associate a particular name with a
stereotyped image. However, having an unpopular name can have the opposite
effect. “It can even affect your employment prospects,” says Dr. Erwin. “
Employers usually make up their mind within two minutes of a job interview.
Part of that process is reading an applicant’s name on the CV (=curriculum vitae
[BrE kә'rikjulәm 'vi:tai, AmE kә'rikjulәm 'vitә, 'viti, 'vaiti]), which may
immediately create a negative stereotype in the employer’s mind.”
As a result, according to Dr. Erwin, people with less attractive names tend to
work harder to get on (=to succeed) in life. As part of his research, he rated the
first names of 68 psychology students for attractiveness, and then compared their
exam marks. He found that students with unpopular, old-fashioned names did
significantly better (an average of more than 3% higher marks). This suggested that
they were aware that they had unattractive names, and were working harder to
overcome negative attitudes towards their names.
Names considered to be ‘less attractive” were, for example, Norman,
Ronald, and Albert for men, and Gillian, Pauline, and Agnes for women. ‘More
attractive names’ were Stephen, David, Emma, and Charlotte. Actors and pop stars
certainly seem to take this into account and it is quite common for them to change
their name they were born with to a more “glamorous” one, for example, Cary
Grant (born Archibald Pearce), and Bo Derek (born Mary Collins).
In the last ten years there has been a definite tendency among British
parents to choose unusual or famous names. In 2000 the most popular name for
girls was Chloe, probably because of the character in the Australian soap opera
Home and Away, and Phoebe ['fi:bi] entered the top 50 for the first time, almost
certainly as a result of the hit US TV series Friends. The top boy’s name, Jack,
which had previously been considered an unattractive, old-fashioned name,
became dramatically more popular because of Leonardo DiCaprio’s Titanic hero,
Jack Dawson.
But the question is if these name will still be considered attractive when their
owners grow up “When I was at school there was no one in my class with the same
name as me,” says 24-year-old Farrah Stephens, who was named after the TV
actress Farrah Fawcett-Majors. “By the time I was 15, everybody had forgotten
about her, and I was left with this really stupid name. In the end I decided to use
my middle name, Diana.” Clearly, the choice of a name for a child is a difficult

9
decision to take. Dr. Erwin gives some practical advice: “Choose names for your
children which they will be happy with in twenty years’ time, and choose a second
name in case your child doesn’t like the first one.”

1.5. Read the text “The ‘Name Game’ Winners” again more slowly. Then
decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

___ 1. Your name doesn’t have any influence on how happy you are.
___ 2. Your name could prevent you from getting a job.
___ 3. People with unattractive names don’t normally work as hard as people
with attractive ones.
___ 4. An actress called Agnes might want to change her name.
___ 5. British parents today tend to call their children after film or TV characters.
___ 6. Parents shouldn’t give children two names.

1.6. a) Scan the text and pick up all the reasons the parents have to bear in
mind when choosing a name for their child.
b) Do Russian parents face any of the problems mentioned in the text?
c) Do Russian names have any stereotypes? Think of examples.

!!! Types of reading !!!


To skim, read the whole text quickly. Move your eyes back and forth
over all the sentences, usually for getting the main idea of the text.
When you skim, you move through the whole reading. Don’t stop at
difficult words! Skip them.
You scan for small bits of information, like facts and details, and stop
when you find them.

From Adam to Zara


Personal names serve to distinguish one individual from another. Since man first
began walking the earth, each individual has had a distinctive name. Creating a
totally original name for a child is traditional in many cultures; however, in the
American culture the normal practice is to choose a pre-existing name.
Any mother or father can say that selecting the right name is not an easy task.
There are many factors to consider before naming a child. They include

10
namesakes, ethnic origins, gender, popularity, sounds/rhythms, pronunciation,
religion, spelling, stereotypes, meaning, and initials.
Namesakes can lead to confusion even when followed by a Jr. or III. This is a
result of taking the name of a parent and choosing to give a child the exact name.
Parents often vary the middle name of a son who carries his father's first name and
call the son by a middle name, but the potential for confusion still exists.
Namesakes can often lead to unhappy choices for children's names. For example,
Mildred is an appropriate name for great-aunt Mildred, but for some reason it does
not seem fitting for a young child. It is wiser to name a child a name that you
would choose on its own merits and not just to compliment a loved one.
Many parents today are beginning to name children names that are popular in
other parts of the world. When choosing a name that is of a different ethnic
background or that is foreign-sounding, the parent should consider whether the
name will be a burden on the child because it may be frequently mispronounced
or misspelled. It is always wise to stay away from names with accent marks (`)
because the child may constantly be asked to explain it.
Some parents today find it important to keep with religious traditions, naming
their children as the church wishes. Roman Catholics traditionally choose saints'
names, sometimes using Mary as a first name for each daughter and pairing it with
different middle names, like Mary Catherine and Mary Margaret.
It is a common practice for Jewish families to name their children after
deceased family members.
It is not uncommon to find children with names suitable for either gender. Many
parents are disregarding the sex of their baby and choosing unisex names such as
Robin, Pat, Chris, Lee, and Erin.
When choosing names, parents often consider how a name will sound and its
rhythm. Alliteration, as in Tina Turner or Pat Paulson, is fine, but rhymes, like Jack
Black or Wanda Fonda, invite teasing.
It is also best to stay away from unconventional spellings because that tends
to confuse people. For example, consider the effect of changing the last few letters
of a name: Cathy, Cathie, Cathey, or Cathee.
Most names carry with them a general idea of what the person with that name
should be like. In other words, they create stereotypes. Many names call to mind
physical or personality traits that often stem from a well-known namesake, real or
fictional. For example, Abe is often referred to as someone who is honest, while
Adolph refers to someone who is cruel. Rachel generally brings to mind someone
who is beautiful, while Albert usually is thought of as someone who is fat. An
image of a name will often affect its owner's self-image, as well as the way he or
she is perceived by others.
Names have literal meanings. When searching for a name, many people
choose names that mean something significant to them. For example, David means
"beloved," while Jennifer means "white" or "fair."
Before settling on a name for a child, one should consider the initials. Adam
Scott Smith is a nice name, but it would be a little embarrassing to have ASS

11
stamped on luggage. One should consider the child before deciding on a name
which the child has to live with for a lifetime.
From Adam ("man of red earth") to Zara ("brightness of dawn"), a name can
reflect roots, tradition, originality, stereotyping, association, astrology, and many
other factors. There are over 13,000 names, nicknames, and variations to choose
from, but, in the end, we are who we are, and a name is just that. A name.

1.7. a) Some common names appear in idiomatic expressions. Put each of


the following items in its correct place in the sentences below.
b) Think of the Russian equivalents to these expressions. Do you know
any other ‘name-related’ expressions in Russian?
peeping Tom smart Alec Jack of all trades
doubting Thomas bobby Tom, Dick or Harry
keeping up with the Joneses robbing Peter to pay Paul
I don't know him from Adam before you could say Jack Robinson

(a) A British policeman is sometimes called a ‘______’. The name comes from
Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the first London police force.
(b) It is often said of someone who can do many different things that he is
a____.
(c) Someone who spies on other people, especially by looking through their
windows, is called a______.
(d) Oh, don’t take any notice of him. He thinks he knows everything. He’s just a____.
(e) He’s a real snob. He’s only interested in people who are rich or famous. He
won’t talk to any______.
(f) When the Wright brothers invented the first aeroplane which actually flew,
there was many a ______ who said that air-travel would never be commercially
successful.
(g) No, I’m sure I’ve never met him. He’s a complete stranger. Really,______.
(h) The couple next door is very conscious of their social position. They've got
a new car, a modern kitchen, and trendy new clothes. They don’t really need them.
They’re just______.
(i) It’s ridiculous to borrow from your uncle to settle your debt to your cousin.
That’s just______.
(j) One man insulted another and suddenly,______, they were involved in a
violent fight.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS


1.8. Complete the spoken phrases at the end of each sentence below with a
word or phrase from the following list. In some cases two or more
items could be used. If no particular form of address is normally used,
write nothing. Some words from the list are used more than once, and
some are not used in any of the phrases.

12
EXAMPLE:
1. Department store assistant to a woman customer:
- Can I help you, ... ?
ANSWER: madam

2. A parent to their child: What are you doing, ......?


ANSWER: honey, dear, love, darling.

The words to be used:


grandma, officer, viewers, gentleman, Ladies and gentlemen, Sir, caller,
Your Majesty, madam, men, listeners, men and women, Mister, my friend,
Granny, daddy, granddad, dear, darling, love, dad, mate, grandpa,
mummy

a) Child to his mother: Can I go out, ...?


b) Telephone operator: Please, hold the line, ... .
c) Television presenter to people watching at home: Welcome to the Saturday
Night Show, ... .
d) Child to his grandfather: Thank you for the present, ... .
e) Someone to a bank clerk or librarian: Can you help me, ... ?
f) Someone making a formal speech to the audience: I'll try to be brief, ... .
g) Polite shop-assistant to a male customer: Can I help you, ...?
h) Someone to the Queen: Good evening, ... .
i) Customer to a shop-assistant: Can I try on this coat, ...?
j) Wife to her husband: You look tired, ... .
k) Radio presenter to people at home: Now we have a surprise for you, ... .
l) Workman to a man passing by: What's the time, ... ?
m) Policeman to a man who asks for help: Yes, ... .
n) Policeman to a woman who asks for help: Yes, ... .
o) Someone to a policeman: Excuse me, ... .
p) Child to his grandmother: Here are your glasses, ... .
q) Woman shop-keeper in a small, friendly shop to a customer: What would you
like, ...?
r) Soldier to his commanding officer: Can I go, ... ?
s) Commanding officer to his soldiers: I want more effort, ... .
t) Child to his father: Goodnight, ... .
u) Someone to a stranger in the street: Excuse me, … .

1.9. You are visiting Britain on an exchange programme. Say how you
would address each of the following. Make up short dialogues with a
partner to illustrate each case.

13
1. an old man you don’t know;
2. a policeman;
3. your foreign colleague, whose name is Sam Jones. He is 45.
4. his wife, whose name is June. She is 38.
5. their daughter Ella, who is not married;
6. their daughter Sue, who is married to Dr. Robert Rice;
7. Sue’s husband;
8. your friend’s professor, Bruce Walker;
9. Bill Brown whom you met in Britain and became friends with;
10. Bill Brown’s mother, Bertha, who is a widow;
11. the lady next door, who is divorced; her name is May Bronx;
12. Lily Lewis, whose marital status you don’t know. She is in her early thirties.

1.10. Discuss the following with a partner. Share your ideas with the class.

1. What are the main forms of address in the Russian language?


2. Are the Russians sensitive about titles and names? What titles are used
in Russia? What do the forms of address a person uses depend on in Russia?
3. When do people in Russia use first names? Is this common between a
boss and an employee? Do the Russians quickly shift to a first-name basis?
4. Are there nicknames in Russia? Are they just for children? Are they
used only by friends and family? Are there any other ways of giving
nicknames to people in Russia? What are they?
5. What is the difference between Miss and Mrs.? Is it similar in
Russian?
6. What differences are there in the way the British address strangers and
the way the Russians do it?
7. How are the forms of address used by the Russians in official
situations different from those used when speaking to friends?
8. Why do you think some women use the title Ms. now?
9. Are there any occupational vocatives in Russian? What are they?
10. Are the forms of address used by older people the same as those used
by the younger generation?
11. Are there any English names that sound similar to Russian names?
12. Some English names have songs about them: Michelle; Hey Jude;
Angie, etc. What Russian names have songs about them?
13. Which English names do you like best for men? For women?
14. In some African cultures, some children are believed to be spirits who
quickly enter and leave this world. Such infants are given “born-to-die’ names
in an attempt to keep them. Kaya, a common name in Ghana, means “Stay and
don’t go back.” What do you think about such a tradition? Are there lucky
names and unlucky names in Russia?

14
1.11. In the chart below you will find the most popular names in North
America in the 1950s, the 1990s and the 2000s.
a) First, listen to your teacher pronounce them. Notice which syllable is
stressed in each word. Repeat the names aloud.
b) Scan the chart for the information below.

1. The number of boys’ names that begin with R.


2. The number of girls’ names that begin with L.
3. The longest name on the chart (11 letters).
4. The number of the four-letter names on the chart.
5. The most traditional names (which appear on two or three lists).

for girls for boys


1950s 1990s 2000-2006 1950s 1990s 2000-2006

1. Mary Jessica Emily John Michael Jacob


2. Elizabeth Ashley Madison William Christopher Michael
3. Barbara Amanda Emma Charles Matthew Joshua
4. Dorothy Jennifer Hannah James David Matthew
5. Helen Sarah Abigail George Daniel Andrew
6. Margaret Stephanie Olivia Robert Joshua
Christopher
7. Ruth Nicole Ashley Thomas Andrew Daniel
8. Virginia Brittany Henry James Joseph
Samantha
9. Jean Heather Alexis Joseph Robert Ethan
10. Frances Melissa Sarah Edward Ryan Nicholas
11. Nancy Megan Samuel John William
Elizabeth
12. Patricia Elizabeth Isabella Frank Joseph Anthony
13. Jane Amber Alyssa Richard Brandon David
14. Alice Lauren Grace Harry Jason Ryan
15. Joan Danielle Lauren Francis Justin Tyler
16. Betty Michelle Taylor Frederick Jonathan
Alexander
17. Dolores Christina Jessica Walter Nicholas John
18. Eleanor Crystal Brianna David Anthony James
19. Anne Laura Kayla Arthur William Brandon
20. Florence Kimberly Sophia Albert Eric Zachary

15
1.12. Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F).

1.___ There are more girls’ names of one syllable than boys names of one
syllable.
2.___ Names of one syllable were more common in the 1950s than in 1990s.
3.___ Two names of four syllables are on the chart.
4.___ There are two girls’ names with the stress on the second syllable.
5.___ More boys’ names have stayed popular than girls’ names.
6.___ No name on the chart begins with I or P.
7.___ The most common letter to begin a name is A.
8.___ Most popular names in 2000-2006 start with the letters from the first part
of
the alphabet.
1.13. a) Read the abstract from the play by O.Wilde “The Importance of Being
Earnest”.
b) What is the relation between Gwendolyn and Mr. Worthing? What do
you think about the importance of names in a relationship? Do you have
any preferences for the names of your partners?
c) Practice reading the dialogue. Learn it by heart and act it out in class.

Jack: Charming day it has been, Miss Fairfax.


Gwendolen: Pray, don’t talk to me about the weather, Mr.Worthing. Whenever
people talk to me about the weather, I always feel quite certain that they mean
something else. And that makes me so nervous.
Jack: I do mean something else.
Gwendolen: I thought so. In fact, I’m never wrong.
Jack: And I’d like to be allowed to take advantage of Lady Bracknell’s
temporary absence …
Gwendolen: I would certainly advise you to do so. Mamma has a way of coming
back suddenly into a room that I have often had to speak to her about.
Jack: [Nervously] Miss Fairfax, ever since I met you, I have admired you more
than any girl … I have ever met since … I met you.
Gwendolen: Yes, I’m quite well aware of the fact. And I often wish that in
public, at any rate, you had been more demonstrative. For me you have always had
an irresistible fascination. Even before I met you, I was far from indifferent to you.
[Jack looks at her in amazement.] We live, as I hope you know, Mr. Worthing, in
an age of ideals. The fact is constantly mentioned in the more expensive monthly
magazines, and has reached the provincial pulpits, I’m told; and my ideal has
always been to love someone of the name of Ernest. There is something in that
name that inspires absolute confidence. The moment Algernon first mentioned to
me that he had a friend called Ernest, I knew I was destined to love you.
Jack: You really love me, Gwendolen?
Gwendolen: Passionately!

16
Jack: Darling, you don’t know how happy you’ve made me.
Gwendolen: My own, Ernest!
Jack: But you don’t really mean to say you couldn’t love me if my name wasn’t
Ernest?
Gwendolen: But your name is Ernest!
Jack: Yes, I know it is. But supposing it was something else? Do you mean to
say that you couldn’t love me then?
Gwendolen: [Glibly] Ah! That is clearly metaphysical speculation and like most
metaphysical speculations has very little reference at all to the actual fact of real
life as we know them.
Jack: Personally, darling, to speak quite candidly I don’t much care about the
name of Ernest … I don’t think the name suits me at all.
Gwendolen: It suits you perfectly. It’s a divine name. It has a music of its own. It
produces vibrations.
Jack: Well, really, Gwendolen, I must say that I think there are lots of other much
nicer names. I think, Jack, for instance, a charming name.
Gwendolen: Jack? … No! There is very little music in the name of Jack, if any at
all, indeed. It doesn’t thrill. It produces absolutely no vibrations… I have known
several Jacks, and they all, without exceptions, were more than usually plain.
Besides, Jack is a notorious domesticity for John! And I pity any woman who is
married to a man called John. She would probably never be allowed to know the
entertaining pleasure of a single moment’s solitude. The only really safe name is
Ernest.
Jack: Gwendolen, I must get christened at once - I mean we must get married at
once. There is no time to be lost.

1.14. Read the information on the ways of introducing people. With a partner,
make up two dialogues of introduction - in formal and informal settings.

Just as with greetings, the language of introduction is different in different


situations, too.
In official situations you should use the following expressions:
Let me introduce Mr. Brown/ Kate/ myself, etc.
May I introduce Mr. Brown/ Kate/myself, etc.?
The usual response to an introduction is How do you do?, which is in fact a sort
of greeting. And in reply the other person says: How do you do?
Host: Mr. Brown, let me introduce you to Mr. White. He is an expert in
finance.
Mr. White: How do you do?
Mr. Brown: How do you do?
Mr. White: Pleased to meet you.
Mr. Brown: So am I.
However, when introducing friends or people of the same age you should use the
following expressions: This is …, Meet … .
Hostess: Helen, meet my friend Kate.

17
Helen: Hello, Kate. Pleased to meet you.
Kate: Hello, Helen. So am I.
If you have some knowledge of the person you are being introduced to, you may
add: “Hello, Kate. I’ve heard a lot about you.” If you have already met Kate at
some time, you may say: “How are you, Kate?” In reply Kate may say: “Fine/
well/ pretty well, thanks. And how are you?”
Nowadays people who know each other well can greet each other with: How’s
life? How is it going? What’s up? The reply might be: It’s going fine. Great, etc.
Don’t forget that men are introduced to women unless they are much older and
more senior. Young men are introduced to older men and young girls to older
women.

1.15. Read the dialogue, paying attention to the way of spelling names in
English on the phone. Practice the dialogue with a partner.

Woman: What’s your name? Family name first.


Man: Weatherspoon, Richard.
Woman: W-H-E-T-H-E-R-S-P-O-O-N?
Man: No, W-E-A-T-H-E-R-S-P-O-O-N.
Woman: Oh, OK! And your address, Richard?
Man: Well, perhaps you could e-mail it to me.
Woman: Right. What’s your e-mail address?
Man: It’s ricky65 – that’s one word R-I-C-K-Y-6-5, at hotmail dot com.

1.16. When you feel that spelling the name on the phone might not help, you
can use the International system of guide words (in some cases the
British words differ from those internationally accepted – they are
shown in brackets). Look at this system below, practice saying your
name using it, and then act out a dialogue according to the pattern
above.
A-Alfa B-Bravo C-Charlie
D-Delta (David) E-Echo (Edward) F-Foxtrot (Freddy)
G-Golf H-Hotel (Harry) I-India
J-Juliet (Jack) K-Kilo (King) L-Lima (London)
M-Mike (Mary) N-November (Nancy) O-Oscar (Oliver)
P-Papa (Peter) Q-Quebec (Queen) R-Romeo (Robert)
S-Sierra T-Tango (Tom) U-Uniform
V-Victor W-Whiskey X-X-ray
Y-Yankee Z-Zulu (Zebra)
Foreign vowels:
Ä – an „a“ with two dots
Õ – an „o“ with a wavy line

1.17. Read the following conversations. Take turns reading them with a
partner. Spell out your name, letter by letter, using the guide words.
Your partner should write down your name. (You can invent a name
for yourself.) 18
Dialogue 1.
Secretary: Megathon Incorporated. May I help you?
Caller: Hello. Yes, I would like to speak with Mr. Howard Townsend, please.
Secretary: Mr. Townsend is not in right now. Do you want to leave a message?
Caller: Yes, please. Tell him that Mr. Koi Phong called.
Secretary: Excuse me?
Caller: Mr. Koi Phong.
Secretary: Mr. Chung?
Caller: Let me spell it for you. Koi. K as in Kevin, O as in old, I as in ice cream,
That’s the first name. The last name is Phong. P as in Peter, H as in Henry, O as in
old, N as in no, G as in good. Koi Phong.
Secretary: I’ll repeat. K-O-I Koi, P-H-O-N-G Phong.
Caller: That’s right.
Secretary: Very good, Mr. Phong. I’ll tell Mr. Townsend you called.
Caller: Thank you. Good-bye.
Secretary: Good-bye.

Dialogue 2.
A: Hello, I’d like to make an appointment to see Dr. McGuire.
B: Sorry, you have the wrong number.
A: I do?
B: Yes. What number did you dial?
A: 239 8063.
B: This is 8064. Try it again.
A: I am sorry to have troubled you.
B: That’s OK. Good bye.

C: Good morning. Dr. McGuire’s office.
A: Hello. I’d like to make an appointment.
C: Yes. What name is it, please?
A: Elise Eisenburg.
C: Could you spell it for me, please?
A: E-L-I-S-E E-I-S-E-N-B-U-R-G.
C: Yes. Tuesday at three, Ms Eisenburg?
A: Three o’clock’s difficult. I am working until five. Could it be later?
C: Five thirty?
A: Yes, that’s OK. Five thirty on Tuesday then. Thank you very much. Good bye.
C: Good bye.

1.18. Role-play with a partner. Call the operator and ask for the number of
one of the people on the list below. (All of them live in Toronto.)
Write down the number s/he gives you. Then reverse roles. Now you
are the operator and your partner calls you. Use the conversation
below as a model.
19
Operator: Directory Assistance. What city, please?
Caller: Toronto. I’d like the number of Ms. Amanda Rhodes.
Operator: How do you spell the last name, please?
Caller: It’s R-H-O-D-E-S
Operator: Thank you. And could I have the address?
Caller: It’s 418 Kingston Road.
Operator: The number is 987-0248
Caller: 987-0248. Thank you very much.
Operator: You are welcome.

Caller Operator
Look at this side only!!! Look at this side only!!!

Name: Debbie Abel Abel, David, 724 Eastern Ave .....867-5304


Address: 9 Woodgate Road. Abel, Debbie, 9 Woodgate Rd ….455-4433

Name: Kate Bingham Bingham, Kate 784 Kingston Rd..767-1690


Address: 784 Kingston Road Bingam, Sue, 621 Landmark Dr..321-5090

Name: Carolyn Bryans Bryans, Carolyn, 12 Lakeside Place…896-3427


Address: 12 Lakeside Place Moore, Alex, 845 Cherry St. …. . 211-3952

Name: Carl Watson Watson, Carl, 1989 River St. …...227-5486


Address: 1989 River St. Watson, Robert, 18 Palmgrove
Blvd…..
987-2718

1.19. a) Sometimes we read to answer a question. In this case the title is a


question. Before you read, think about what you already know
regarding this question. That way you prepare your mind to receive new
facts. Look at the common North American names below. What do you
think they mean? Make a guess about each name. Then read the essay
to see if you are right.
MacDonald Robertson Long Baker
O’Bryan Clark Cooper Hill
b) After reading the text, think of the Russian names of the origins
similar to those mentioned in the text. Discuss them in class.
What is the Meaning of North American Last Names?
By B.Dominski

20
Everyone in the United Stated and Canada has a last name. There are over one
and a half million last names just in the United States. Where do these names come
from? A large number of last names come from Great Britain. They are of English,
Scottish, Welsh, or Irish origin. Many derive from the occupations of ancestors,
like Carpenter, Cook, Clark (clerk or scholar), and Fletcher (maker of arrows). The
most common surname in North America is Smith. Smith derives from
‘blacksmith”, the worker who used to make iron shoes for horses. Smiths also
made swards for soldiers, and metal implements. Cooper means “barrel maker”,
important work in olden (=old) times when wooden barrels were means of
packaging.
Some family names derive from the custom of naming a man by referring to
his father. Johnson and Peterson mean “son of John”, “son of Peter”, Mac and Fitz
also mean ‘son of” as in Fitzgerald or MacDonald. The O’ in many Irish surnames,
like O’Hara or O’Grady, means ‘grandson of.”
Some last names refer to a place or object connected with an ancestor’s
home, such as Hill, Field, Church, or Street. Others derive from nicknames
describing personal appearance or qualities, such as Short, Big, Smart, Strong, or
Longfellow.
Long ago there were no surnames. People used to talk about their
neighbours. Sometimes they were confused. “Do you mean David from the river?”
“No, I mean David, the strong one.” “Oh, David, Erick’s son.” “No, not David,
Erick’s son. David, John’s son!” With time the descriptions became last names:
River, Strong, Erickson, Johnson.
The United States and Canada are countries of immigrants, so many last
names are not British. Their origins are Arabic, Chinese, Filipino, French, German,
Hungarian, Indonesian, Israeli, Japanese, Polish, Serbian, Spanish, and Swiss, to
name just a few. Many of these surnames also have meanings, like the Spanish
Rodriguez (‘son of Rodrigo’) and the French Dupont (‘from the bridge’).
The ancestors of most Black Americans were brought from Africa and
forced to work as slaves. They lost their African names. American slaves became
free in 1865. Many chose their new names, like Jones or Lincoln. Some took
African names such as Cudjo for a boy or Juba for a girl, both meaning “born on
Tuesday.”
Often people do not know the meaning of their names. Sometimes
immigrants came from Canada and the United States, and the officials at the border
could not understand their names. So they had to invent new names to put on the
documents. Nowadays this seems wrong. In North America today there is more
respect for the diversity of cultures.

1.20. Answer the questions about the text in the previous activity and do the
assignments.
1. What last names mean son of someone? grandson of someone?
2. What other meanings do surnames have?
3. Why did people start using surnames?

21
4. When did some ancestors of Black Americans choose their names? What
names did they choose? Why?
5. What happened at the border to the names of many immigrants in the past?
What do Americans and Canadians think of this today?
6. Try to explain the origin of the following surnames:
Robinson MacGregor Hunter Armstrong
Martínes Lightfoot Stone O’Donnell
7. What diverse groups of people live in Russia? Can you explain the origin of
some of their surnames?

1.21. Read the text and be ready to discuss it with your peers later. Pay
attention to the bold-faced words and expressions, explain their
meaning in English.

Ask yourself: “Who am I?” You think of your name. Your name is part of your
identity. Its sound and meaning come from your family, language and culture.
Sometimes people keep their names when they come to study or work in a new
culture. Sometimes they change their names, or simply pronounce them differently.
Read about the following people who came to study or work in the United State
and Canada.

Situation 1.
My name is Loi Nguen, and I’m from Viet Nam. Some people tell me to
anglicize my name. They tell me to call myself Larry or Lance. But I don’t want
to. My family gave me my name. I am the same person wherever I go. When I
meet someone new, I say my name slowly and clearly. I repeat it several times until
people understand. Some of my classmates have made a joke about my name. I
study law, so they say I’m going to be a loiyer. I don’t care. Let them laugh.
Situation 2.
I’m Jacqueline Matahnbat from Thailand, and I am a student in microbiology.
Jacqueline is the name I use here in North America. I always liked that name and
enjoy using it. I use my real name, Molvipah, with my family and people from my
culture. It is hard for people to say it in English. So I decided to change it. I didn’t
like the way people looked at me during introductions. They made faces when
they tried to pronounce my name. They never said it right. In English I am
Jacqueline.
Situation 3.
Hi, I am Jesús Jiménes García from Nicaragua. With my English friends, I am
‘Joe’. I never chose to change my name. It just happened. For my friends it was
difficult to say Jesús. They said it was like swearing. In English it sounds
disrespectful to say “Jesus”. That is not true in my culture. But now I call myself

22
Joe, and I use only last name, Jiménes, the one from my father. I think it will be
easier to get a job with that name.
Situation 4.
My name is Malika and I am from India. In the region I come from, we have
only one name. We do not need a first and a last name. This caused problems here
at first because North Americans think everyone must have a first and last name.
So I invented a new name for myself: V. Malika. The “V” stands for Victory, one of
my favourite English words. I sign that for official names. With most people here, I
say I am Vicki. My real friends and family call me Malika.

Situation 5.
I’m Hans Warren, a Swiss professor working in the United States. I work at a
university laboratory. This work is interesting, but I have trouble with the casual
American ways. The technicians do not treat me with respect. They call me Hans
all the time, often in front of the students. Even some students don’t call me Mr.
Warren, much less Doctor or Professor! I spoke up one day at a lab meeting. I
explained about the importance of respect in the workplace. But nobody got the
point. Afterwards, I asked another professor about it. She said: “Oh, we know you
like to be formal, but we take that with a grain of salt!”

1.22. Answer the questions using the texts from the previous activity.

1. How many of the students use their real names in an English-speaking


country? How many use a different name?
2. Who chose to change to a different name? Why?
3. What do you think of this decision?
4. Who uses a different name because it “just happened”?
5. Who had only one name before coming to North America? Why?
6. Why is Hans unhappy at work? In your opinion, what should Hans do to
improve his communication with Americans? Does the similar problem exist in
Russia?
7. How many names do you have?
8. Do you know any North American names that seem difficult or strange to
people in your culture? Any Russian names with similar stories? Which ones?
Why?
9. Choose the statement you agree with and explain why:
a) We should not change our names. It is best to use the name given to us
by our family.
b) We should change our names in a new culture because it will help us
to be accepted.
c) There is no right or wrong answer about changing names. It depends
on the situation.

23
1.23. Read the text about some issues with using names. Discuss the text in
the
form of a dialogue with a partner. Compare the traditions described for
other cultures with the tradition of addressing people in Russia:
Use the following expressions:
In my opinion, From my point of view,
If you ask me As far as I am able to judge
I don’t think That’s not a good/ bad idea that

The first transaction between even ordinary citizens – and the first chance to
make an impression for better or worse - is, of course, an exchange of names. In
America there usually is not very much to get wrong. And even if you do, so what?
Not so elsewhere. Especially in the Eastern Hemisphere, where name
frequently denotes social rank or family status, a mistake can be an outright insult.
So can switching to a given name without the other person’s permission, even
when you think the situation calls for it.
“What would you like me to call you?” is always the opening line of one
overseas deputy director for an international telecommunications corporation.
“Better to ask several times,” he advises, “than to get it wrong. Even then, I err on
the side of formality until asked to “Call me Joe”.” Another frequent traveler
insists his company provide him with a list of key people he will meet, country by
country, surnames underlined, to be memorized on the flight over.
Just when you think you have broken the international name code, they
switch the rules on you. Take Latin America. Most people’s names are a
combination of the father’s and mother’s names with only the father’s name used
in conversation. In the Spanish-speaking countries the father’s name comes first.
Hence, Carlos Mendoza-Miller is called Mr. Mendoza. But in Portuguese-speaking
Brazil it is the other way round, with the mother’s name first.
In the Orient the Chinese system of putting a surname first, a given name
last does not always apply. The Taiwanese, many of whom were educated in
missionary schools, often have a Christian first name, which comes before any of
the others – as in Tommy Ho Chin, who should be called Mr. Ho or, to his friends,
Tommy Ho. Also, given names are often officially changed to initials, and Y.Y.
Lang is Y.Y.; never mind what is stands for. In Korea, which of a man’s names
takes a Mr. is determined by whether he is his father’s first or second son.
Although in Thailand names run backwards, in Chinese style, the Mr. is put with
the given name, and to a Thai it is just as important to be called by his given name
as it is for a Japanese to be addressed by his surname. With the latter, incidentally,
you can in a very friendly relationship respond to his using your first name by
dropping the Mr. and adding san to his last name, as in Ishikawa-san.
But the safest course remains: ask.

24
1.24. Read the poem, translate it and express your opinion about it. Learn the poem
by heart. Have you heard about Emily Dickinson before? Try to find out some
information about her and present it to class.

I’m Nobody.
Who Are You?
I’m Nobody. Who are you?
Are you Nobody too?
Then there’s a pair of us!
Don’t tell. They’d banish us – you know. - send (us) away

How dreary to be Somebody. - dull, depressing


How public, like a frog,
Who tells his name the livelong day
To an admiring bog! - wet, marshy place
WRITING
1.25. Look at the chart and guess the full names for these common English
nicknames and write them down.
1. Joe ___________ 7. Ginny _______________
2. Dot (Dottie) ____ 8. Barbie _______________
3. Tony __________ 9. Bob _________________
4. Chris __________ 10. Chuck ______________
5. Mike __________ 11. Jess ________________
6. Nick __________ 12. Dick ________________

1.26. What nicknames are used for these names? Can you guess?

1. Edward _______________ 6. Frederick ______________


2. Patricia _______________ 7. Samuel ________________
3. Ann __________________ 8. Jennifer ________________
4. Stephen _______________ 9. Matthew _______________
5. Nickolas ______________ 10. Megan ________________

1.27. Write five or more sentences about your name in Russian. Is the last
name written first? Do you have a nickname? What is the origin of your
name? Does your name have a religious meaning? Does it refer to a
place, an animal, or an occupation? Your class may decide to combine
all the papers into a class name list.
1.28. What do you think about women keeping their maiden names after
marriage? Write your opinion in five-ten sentences. Compare your
opinions with those of your partners and discuss them as a class.

1.29. a) Match the words with the parts of the business card.
b) Make up your business card. You can invent your job and the
company you work for.

25
Address ___ telephone number ___
Company name ____ fax number _________
Zip code (BrE postcode) ____ job title ____________
e-mail address ____________ web site ____________
Area code ________________

HOLDER (3)
20344 Mack Avenue
(1)
ENTERPRISES Grosse Point
Michigan 48236 (4)
(5)
(313) 278-1351 (6)

Howard Skyring (313) 278-(7)1355 (fax)


(2)
IT Consultant skyring@holder.com(8)
www.holdernet.com(9)

26
27
Unit 2.
PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY FAMILY AND MYSELF.

The we of me.
Carson McCullers

Recommended grammar:
Possessives. Adjectives and Adverbs. Prepositions of time and place. Auxiliaries.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY


2.1. a) Study the nouns denoting the most important relatives.
b) Make up a story, explaining the meanings of all the words from the
chart. You can start the story like in the model below.
When two persons are married, the man is called the husband, the woman
becomes his wife. When a child is born in the family, the father and the mother of
the child are called parents. A family usually consists of a father, a mother and
children – sons and daughters or both …
male female
your parents’ parents grandfather grandmother
your grandparents’ parents great- great-
grandfather grandmother
your parents’ brother and sister uncle aunt
your aunt’s/uncle’s children cousin cousin
your parents’ cousins’ children second cousin second cousin
the father and mother of the person you father-in-law mother-in-law
marry
the brother and sister of the person you brother-in-law sister-in-law
marry
your brother’s /sister’s child nephew niece
the person you marry dies, so you are a widower widow

your mother or father remarries, so you step-father step-mother
have a …
a husband or a wife spouse spouse
if both parents die, an orphan foster father foster mother
(=parentless child) may be adopted by a

your sister or brother sibling sibling
a person you are descended from, forefather -
especially one who lived a long ago

2.2. Complete the sentences with the correct word or word combination.
1. My ________’s name is Carol.
a) father b) mother c) brother
2. She was married to my ______________.
a) father b) grandmother c) husband
3. My mother and father like flowers; my _____________ like
flowers.
a) families b) parents c) siblings
4. My mother married again. Her new husband, Tom, is my
________.
a) spouse b) father-in-law c) step-father
5. My mother has a daughter; she is my _____________.
a) niece b) cousin c) sister
6. She is twenty years old and I am twelve. She is my _________
sister.
a) elder b) aged c) older
7. My mother’s son is only ten years old. He is my
________________.
a) younger sibling b) youngest c) younger brother
8. My mother’s new husband Tom has a daughter who is five. She is
my ____.
a) sister-in-law b) step-sister c) younger sister
9. My mother’s parents and my father’s parents are my
______________.
a) grandparents b) great-grandparents c) forefathers
10. My grandparents’ parents are my _____________________.
a) grand-grandparents b) great-grandparents c) greatparents
11. My mother has a sister, Azza. She is my ______________.
a) grandsister b) niece c) aunt
12. Azza’s husband is my ___________.
a) grandbrother b) uncle c) aunt
13. Their daughter is my _____________.
a) niece b) nephew c) cousin
14. My elder sister has two children. Her little boy is my _______.
a) niece b) nephew c) cousin
15. My sister’s daughter is my _______.
a) cousin b) niece c) grandsister
16. The son of my mother is the ________ of my grandparents.
a) grandson b) uncle c) nephew
17. My grandfather’s sister’s son is my mother’s ______________.
a) uncle b) nephew c) cousin

29
18. My sister is married. Her husband is my ___________.
a) brother-in-law b) step-father c) uncle
19. The father of my sister’s husband is her ___________.
a) uncle b) step-father c) father-in-law
20. The daughter of my father is the ________ of his parents.
a) step-daughter b) niece c) granddaughter

2.3. Fill out these charts in English.

РОДСТВЕННИКИ

ДЛЯ ЖЕНЫ ДЛЯ МУЖА

свёкор отец мужа тёща мать жены

свекровь мать мужа тесть отец жены

деверь брат мужа свояченица сестра жены

золовка сестра мужа шурин брат жены

свояк муж золовки свояченица жена шурина

своячениц жениной сестры


жена деверя свояк
а муж

ДЛЯ РОДИТЕЛЕЙ, СЕСТРЫ, БРАТА

невестка жена сына, жена брата

зять муж дочери, муж сестры

отец невесты/ки, отец зятя,


сват
жениха

сваха мать зятя, мать невестки

2.4. In English there are special words to describe different stages of human
life. Find the Russian equivalent to each stage and think of a relative or
friend to match each stage.

Age Stage
0-1 approximately a baby
1-2 a toddler
2-12 approximately a child – this period is your childhood
13-17 approximately a teenager (14=early teens)
18+ an adult (a person comes of age)
20-30 in your twenties (24-26= mid-twenties)

30
30-40 in your thirties (38= late thirties)
40+ people are middle-aged; in middle age
60 or 65
retirement (= when people stop work;
they are retired)
75+
old age (you can also say elderly)

Note: For boys, the period between 14-17 approximately (slightly younger for
girls) is called adolescence, i.e. you are an adolescent. In law you are an adult at
the age of 18, but many people think of you as an adult when you leave school.

2.5. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage below.
date approve mature attracted romantic
keen break off go out relationship drift apart
Ann was a very (a)________ girl who often dreamed of love and marriage. She
was especially (b) ______ to a young man called Michael, who worked in the same
office as she did, and he was very (c) ______ on her too. They became friendly and
one day Michael asked her to go out with him. Their first (d) _________ was a
visit to the cinema, and they both enjoyed the evening so much that they decided to
(e) __________ together regularly. Michael was a bit untidy and rather young, and
Ann’s parents didn’t (f) ______ of him at first, but Ann was a sensible, (g) ______
girl and they had a lot of confidence in her. For a year or so everything went well,
but then somehow they slowly began to (h) ____________, until finally they
decided to (i) _____________ their (j) ___________.

2.6. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage
below.
bride engaged bridegroom consent
wedding
civil reception honeymoon propose toast
One evening, although he was nervous, Joe decided to (a) _____ to his girlfriend,
Linda. She accepted his proposal, they became (b) ___________ and he gave her a
ring. After a year they had saved enough money to get married (they were both
over 18 so they did not need their parents’ (c) __________. Some people have a
religious ceremony with a priest, but Joe and Linda decided on a (d) ___________
ceremony in a registry office. On the day of the (e) ______ Linda, the (f) _______,
was very calm, but Joe, the (g) ________, was nervous. Afterwards, at the (h)
__________, speeches were made and the guests drank a (i) _______ to the happy
couple, who finally left for a (j) ____________ in Spain.

31
2.7. Explain the difference between the following:
(a) to be fond of – to be in love with
(b) separated – divorced
(c) a fiancé – a fiancée
(d) mother – mother-in-law

2.8. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage
below.
in with out to of
1. Bob and Leanne are going _____ together.
2. Bob is going ______ ______ Leanne.
3. He was too nervous to ask her _____.
4. She’s very fond ___ him.
5. We drank a toast ___ their future happiness.
6. He fell ____ love _____ her at once.
7. He’s getting married _____ Liz next month.
8. She’s engaged ______ a policeman.
9. His parents don’t approve ____ her.
10. Have confidence ____ me!

2.9. a) Read the text, paying attention to the bold-faced words and
expressions.
b) When can a young person get married in Britain? Is the age of
getting married different from that in Russia? What are the main steps
a young person should make from getting engaged to getting married
in England? In Russia?
At the age of 21, persons of both sexes in England come of age. Boys and girls
are permitted to become “engaged” or betrothed when still in their ‘teens’. A boy
can, with his parents’ consent, propose to a girl and then marry her before he is
twenty-one years of age. As a pledge of good faith he presents his bride-elect
with an engagement ring, which is worn on the third finger of the left hand.
In ordinary speech, a man who is engaged but not yet married to a lady,
when speaking of her, will say: “My intended,” or “My fiancée”. The young lady,
on a similar occasion, will say almost the same “My fiancé.”
Generally, English girls receive no marriage portion (wedding dower) on
marrying, as a man is obliged to maintain his wife and children himself.
On the day of the wedding, the bridegroom and the bride with the best-
men and bridesmaids, family and friends, go to church for the wedding service.
There they are joined in matrimony by the clergyman. After both have said
individual vows like “I, (Bride/Groom), take you (Groom/Bride), to be my (wife /
husband), to have and to hold from this day forward, for better or for worse, for

32
richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish; from this day
forward until death do us part.”, they may wish to say something in unison such as:
“Entreat me not to leave you, or to return from following after you, For where you
go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people, and
your God will be my God. And where you die, I will die and there I will be buried.
May the Lord do with me and more if anything but death parts you from me.” Then
they exchange wedding-rings, slipping them on each other’s ring-finger. These
rings are to be worn for the rest of their life.
When the ceremony is over, all go back to the house, where the lady has
been living, to the wedding breakfast. The prominent feature of the wedding
breakfast is a highly-decorated “wedding-cake” (in some places of the US you can
‘rent’ a wedding cake now!). After the guests have drunk the bride’s and
bridegroom’s healths, the happy newly-married couple (newly-weds) take leave
and depart on their honeymoon or to their new home.
According to an old English custom, they get pelted at the moment of
leaving the room with handfuls of rice or with old shoes and slippers which is
supposed to bring them good luck.

2.10. a) Read the introduction to a magazine article about how your position
in the family affects your personality. Then read the paragraphs.
b) Write all the adjectives of personality from the text in the chart after
the text.

Family Fortunes
Scientists and psychologists agree that although many factors
contribute to forming your personality, for example, your sex,
class, culture, or lifestyle, one of the most important is your
position in the family. So how have you been affected?
Are you a first child, a middle child, the youngest, or an only
child?

First-born children. If you are a ambitious, and good at


first-born child, you are probably self- communicating, because you learned
confident and a good leader – you to speak from your parents, not from
came first, after all. You may also be your brothers and sisters. On the other
bossy and even aggressive if you hand, you are the oldest and so you
don’t get what you want. You are have to be the most responsible, and

33
this can make you the kind of person because when you arrived, your
who worries a lot. parents were more relaxed
themselves. But you are often not
Middle children are usually very independent, as you always had
independent and competitive. You had so many people to help you. This
to fight with your brothers and sisters makes it hard for you to take
to get what you wanted. You are also decisions. And you may be lazy,
co-operative as you always had to because your parents probably pushed
negotiate with either your elder or you less and were less strict with you
your younger brothers and sisters. You than with your elder brothers and
are sociable, as you always had sisters.
someone to play with. On the other Only children are often quite
hand, you may be jealous and selfish. You had the wonderful luxury
insecure or moody if you felt that of not having to share your parents’
your parents preferred your elder attention with anybody else. In fact,
brother or sister. you received so much attention as a
child that you find it difficult to be
Youngest children are often very interested in other people. On the
charming. You learned very quickly other hand, you are usually organized
that you could get exactly what you and responsible, and quite
want by being charming – and this imaginative. But you may find it
can make you manipulative. You are difficult to communicate with others,
usually affectionate and relaxed and are very sensitive to criticism.

first-born middle youngest only


children children children children
positive
adjectives
negative
adjectives
positive or
negative
adjectives

2.11. a) Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. Try to explain
the meaning of the bold-faced words without consulting a dictionary.
b) Answer the questions after the text.
China: The Changing Family
Looking at the People’s Republic of China before 1949, when the
Communist Party under Chairman Mao took control of the country, and today, we
see vast changes in the family, especially in the cities. Traditionally the desirable
family was a big extended one, the ideal family having five generations and as
many as one hundred people under one roof. Although rich landowners, merchants,
and government officials could afford to support such a large family, the common

34
people lived in much smaller units in either a nuclear or limited extended pattern.
Only men were expected to work outside the home, and the eldest male had
complete authority over the household. Marriages were most often arranged by the
parents.
Today the family unit is a smaller one although there may often still be a
grandparent present. The government’s attention to family planning, including the
campaign launched in 1979 for the one-child family, has naturally reduced the size
of the family. The Communist government encourages women to contribute
politically, socially, and professionally, so women are no longer expected to stay at
home. Indeed, almost all adults in China have a job. Relations between parents and
children are more democratic than in the past, and children, especially in the cities,
are more likely to marry the person of their choice, but probably after consulting
their parents. Change is normal in any society, but these changes in the Chinese
family are noteworthy for how quickly they have occurred since the revolution.

Questions:
1. Why are the changes in the Chinese family amazing?
2. What two time periods are compared?
3. How has the size of the family changed?
4. In what way has the role of women changed?
5. How have parent-child relations changed?
2.12. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression. Consult
a dictionary if necessary.
1. Mr. and Mrs. Smith live at home with their two children. They are a typical
example of a modern __________ family.
a. extended b. nuclear c. compact

2. Mr. and Mrs. Popayan live at home with their aged parents, children and
grandchildren. They are a typical example of a traditional __________ family.
a. nuclear b. enlarged c. extended

2. Mrs. Jones lives on her own and has to look after her two children.
There are a lot of ________ families like hers.
a. single-parent b. mother-only c. mono-parent

3. Some parents need to ______ their children more strictly.


a. bring down b. bring about c. bring up

4. When I was a child, I had a very turbulent _______________.


a. upbringing b. upraising c. uplifting

5. Mrs. Kelly is ________ and finds it difficult to look after her children
on her own.
a. divorced b. divided c. diverged

35
6. Many men believe that _________ is the responsibility of women.
a. childhelp b. childcare c. childaid

7. _________ is a particularly difficult time of life for a child.


a. convalescence b. adolescence c. convergence

8. A person’s behaviour can sometimes be traced back to her/his


___________
a. creative years b. formulating years c. formative years

9. The country has seen a sharp drop in the ________ in the last few
years.
a. birth rate b. baby rate c. born rate

10. She has five _______ who rely on her to look after them
a. dependants b. dependers c. dependents

11. _________ is on the rise, with over 20% of serious crimes being
committed by children under the age of seventeen.
a. junior crime b. juvenile delinquency b. minor crime

2.13. Match sentence 1-12 with a second sentence A-L.

1. Mr. and Mrs. White are very authoritarian parents.


2. Mr. Bowlers is considered to be too lenient.
3. Mr. and Mrs. Harris lead separate lives.
4. Billy is a well-adjusted kid.
5. The Mannings are not very responsible parents.
6. My parents are separated.
7. Parents must look after their children, but they shouldn’t be very over-
protective.
8. Professor Maynard has made a study of the cognitive processes of young
children.
9. I’m afraid my youngest son is running wild.
10. She looks quite different from her siblings.
11. There are several different and distinct stages in development in a child’s life.
12. Tony was raised by a foster family when his own parents died.

A. They don’t look after their children very well.


B. He is fascinated by the way they learn new things.
C. He very rarely punishes his children.
D. I live with my mother and visit my father at weekends.

36
E. He never listens to a word I say, and is always playing truant
from school.
F. Brothers and sisters usually bear some resemblance to one
another.
G. Although they are married and live together, they rarely speak
to each other.
H. They are very strict with their children.
I. Of all of these, the teenage years are the most difficult.
J. Children need the freedom to get out and experience the worlds
around them.
K. He’s happy at home and is doing well at school.
L. Foster families take in children who are not their own.
2.14. Fill in the gaps with a suitable word. In some cases, more than one
answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.

Bob’s problems began during his (1)_______years. His parents got (2)
_________ when he was young, and neither of his parents wanted to raise him or
his brother and sister, so he was (3) ___________ by a (4) ___________ chosen by
his parents’ social worker. Unfortunately, his foster father was a strict (5)
_________ and often beat him. Bob rebelled against this strict (6) ____________,
and by the time he was eight, he was already (7) ______________, stealing from
shops and playing truant. By the time he reached (8) ___________________,
sometime around his thirteenth birthday, he had already appeared in court several
times, charged with (9) ___________. The judge blamed his foster parents,
explaining that children needed (10) ___________ parents and guardians who
would look after them properly. The foster father objected to this, pointing out that
Bob’s (11) _________ - his two brothers and sister – were (12) ____________
children who behaved at home and worked well at school.
This has raised some interesting questions about the modern family system.
While it is true that parents should not be too (13) __________ with children by
letting them do what they want when they want, or be too (14) _____________ by
sheltering them from the realities of life, it is also true that they should not be too
strict. It has also highlighted the disadvantages of the modern (15) ___________
family, in which the child has only its mother and father to rely on (or the (16)
___________ family, in which the mother or father has to struggle particularly
hard to support their (17) ___________________). In fact, many believe that we
should return to traditional family values and the (18) _______________ family:
extensive research has shown that children from these families are generally better
behaved and have a better chance of success in later life.

2.15. a) Read the texts and retell them, using the boldfaced expressions.
b) Describe your family, using as many boldfaced expressions from the
texts as possible.

37
Text 1
My family is very special. It is neither big nor small. We are six in all: my
mommy, my daddy, my Auntie Lucy, my younger sister Ann, my pet Jack and me.
Jack is a dog. It is very pretty and funny. I like to play with Jack all day long. But
my Auntie Lucy thinks we are terribly noisy. Well, she is a bore. She always finds
faults with Jack and teaches me manners. She is constantly complaining about
two things: either about nasty weather or naughty girls and animals. Nothing can
be done. We don't care and that's why she looks down on us.
My sister Ann is 12. But she doesn't think I am very much older. She never
obeys me and sometimes Ann gets out of hand completely. She is plump, short
and very clumsy. But after all, that's her awkward age. She is very bossy and
always is up to mischief. But she is my only sister. I try to supervise and help her.
That seldom works. And we quarrel over trifles. My mommy thinks we fight like
cat and dog. Well, we have our ups and downs.
My dear mother is a hair-dresser. She has style and always looks chic. We
get on well. She is very understanding and she is always ready to give me a hand
when I am in trouble.
As for me, I really don't know what to say. I am quite common, neither
very smart nor very silly. I love cooking very much, but dishes slip out of my
hands. People call us butterfingers. But mommy is so much supportive and
doesn't mind broken dishes. We like cooking together.
Now I am training to be a shop-assistant. That's very gripping and I am
really enjoying every minute of my classes.
I have a boy friend, a serious one. I am in love with him. But my daddy
thinks we are too young to start a family and live separately. Well, we don't really
mind.
My father is a Math teacher. He is always very busy. Teachers always pay
too much attention to their pupils and too little to their own families. But we all
have our weak points. After all, we are all human beings.
Still I love my family very much. It is very important now to have dear
people around, to love them and to know they love you.

Text 2
My family is not very large. There are only four people in it: my parents,
my brother Nick and me.
My parents are rather young. They never quarrel and always get on well. I
think they match each other perfectly.
My mommy is a manager. She is very bright, smart, well-educated,
business-like and independent, a real lady. She looks young for her age. My
mother is always quite trendy and very up-to-date. She speaks three foreign
languages: English, French, and Spanish. She drives a car. She is a shining
example for me.
My father works as a real estate salesman. He's always as busy as a bee.
He knows how to find a client and spends every evening glued to the phone. That's
why we don't go out together often. He never takes us out to some fancy restaurant

38
as other fathers do. We don't have picnics in the country with tasty barbecue and
juicy sandwiches with hot steamy coffee. That's a pity.
My brother Nick is a student of Economy. But he is not doing very well as
he works by fits and starts. I really doubt he will make an experienced economist.
You see he spends money like water. A real spendthrift. He is surely a social
climber and likes to be in the centre of every group he is in. But I respect him. He
is my elder brother and I am proud of him. He keeps my secrets and supports me
if things go wrong and I am in trouble.
All in all, I love my family very much. We are all awfully nice. I care
about my family very much.

2.16. Start making up a list of words and expressions from the texts and the
dialogues that you can use when describing somebody’s appearance or
character. You will continue this list when you work on Unit 3.

2.17. a) Look at the words and expressions in the box and put them into two
columns – those having positive connotations (synonymous to “to like”) and
the ones with negative connotations (synonymous to “to dislike”). Consult a
dictionary if necessary.
b) Use each word or expression to describe your personal likings and
dislikings.

loathe ¤ yearn for ¤ be passionate about ¤ be fond of ¤ fancy


be captivated by ¤ be keen on ¤ look forward to ¤ dread ¤ long
for
appeal for ¤ detest ¤ cannot stand ¤ repel ¤ be attracted to
be fascinated by ¤ be tempted by ¤ disgust ¤ revolt ¤ cannot bear

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

2.18. Draw your family tree and tell your partner who the people you have
put on it are.

2.19. Read the dialogues and act them out with a partner. Make up one big
dialogue using as many boldfaced expressions as possible.

A: How old are you?


B: I am 20.
A: Do you have a brother or a sister/ any siblings?
B: Yes, I do. Look over there. Do you see a blonde in red?
A: Do you mean that pretty girl is your sister?
B: Yes, I do. No wonder, you are so surprised. We differ like cheese and chalk
in looks and temper.

39
* * * * * *
A: Do you have a brother, Ann?
B: Yes, I do. And why?
A: I know a guy. He looks like you. The very picture. Very amusing.
B: Really? What does he look like?
A: Well, rather tall, broad-shouldered, dark-haired, handsome. What else? Right
sort of age.
B: What do you mean?
A: Oh, to be honest I fell for him. My type.
B: Still, I don't know whom you are talking about. Anything special about him?
A: Hey, look, over there. That's him.
B: That skinny guy talking to Jane? Jesus Christ!
A: What's wrong? Do you know him? Isn't he sweet?
B: Yes, he is. Actually that's Michael, my boy-friend. We go out together.
A: Whoops...I see. Well, lucky you are.
B: Hi, Michael. Let me introduce Kate to you.
A: Hi, Michael. Great to meet you.

* * * * * *
A: I hate Ann. She is so confident and pushy.
B: Yes, but what is worse is she is very aggressive and arrogant.
A: Yeah. I tried to talk to her at the party but got a cold response.
B: Right. She is hard to deal with.
A: Assertive lady. A very challenging gaze. She's always picking up quarrels
with other people.
B: No wonder, she is so naughty. She was the only child in the family and step
by step she got out of hand completely.
A: A very nasty person, always finding faults with other people.
B: And putting them to pieces. A gossip.
C: Hi, girls. How’s it going? Who are you talking about? Who is a gossip?
A: Oh, Ann... Mmm. That's awfully nice to see you. What a nice hat you are
wearing today. I am just telling Helen that you have style. So trendy. Nice haircut,
too.
C: Do you really like it?
B: Cool.
C: Thanks. You are charming too. Do you care for a drink?
A: With pleasure, sweet darling.
C: Come on, girls. Let's have fun.

* * * * * *
A: How do you find Kate's brother? What is he like?
B: Smart and bright. Very witty. Sharp-tongued. Really my type.
A: And what does he look like?
B: About 25. He's tall, attractive. Good looks. Intelligent.

40
A: Do you like him?
B: Yes. We usually have fun together. We seldom quarrel and get on well.
A: Do you go out with him?
B: No. We are just great friends. He's Kate's brother and I'm her friend.

* * * * * *
A: Is your family large?
B: Rather. Do you know that my parents have 3 more children. Have a look at
that red-haired boy over there.
A: That naughty boy? Messy and untidy?
B: Exactly. That’s my younger brother, Nick.
A: I see. But he's handsome. Really very nice and friendly.
B: Nice and friendly? Never. He is a real trouble-maker. Always up to mischief.
A: You are joking. Though... Look. I'm afraid he is going to get in a fight.
B: He always does. So bossy and aggressive.
A: Do you often quarrel with him?
B: We fight like cat and dog.
A: Oh, you poor thing.

* * * * * *
A: Do you know my mother?
B: No, once you promised to introduce me to her, but you never keep your
word. That's you all over.
A: I’m sorry. But do you see a tall woman over there?
B: I do. Do you mean to say that’s your mother? But she looks more like your
sister. So young.
A: She does. She looks young for her age.
B: Fantastic. I envy her. She’s got the looks. So long-legged and slim. Quite
gorgeous. Beautiful eyes and a kind smile. Looks like she has a sense of humour
but trying to look serious.
A: She does a lot to keep fit. Shaping and dancing, you know.
B: But it’s worthwhile. She is stunning. A real lady.

2.20. Express your agreement with the statements below using the structures
So /Neither do/am I. You can speak about your friends or relatives.
1. Your brother is a frank and honest boy. He always says what's on his mind.
2. Your group mate Peter is hard to deal with.
3. Nelly is very reliable.
4. Gus looks a bit tired, weary and depressed.
5. Nick has a way with people. He is easy to deal with.
6. Katy is the very picture of her mother. Actually, she is the very image of her.
7. Kelly is good to look at: expressive eyes, a broad grin, nice-shaped lips. She is
very trendy and chic.
8. Tom never keeps his word.

41
9. Your friend is nice and sweet. But he is not handsome.
10. These two brothers are so very much alike. You can not tell one from the
other.
11. That chap is a bore. He's a bookworm.
12. My sister looks genuinely happy, joyful, and spontaneous.
13. My friend is always so pale, listless and depressed.
14. She is bright, but lazy and messy. She isn't doing well.
15. They are a perfect match. They never quarrel and are madly in love with
each other.

2.21. Answer the following questions, following the model below.


Model: What does your brother look like? - Jimmy is a tall, thin,
young man in his twenties. He is dark-haired, hazel-eyed and dark-
skinned.
1. Do you like the way she wears her hair?
2. What sort of man is your teacher?
3. What kind of people do you like to deal with?
4. What kind of people do you like to travel with?
5. What kind of people do you like to work with?
6. What kind of people do you prefer to have a good time and to relax?
7. What does you sister/brother look like? Are you alike?
8. Why does John always complain about his life?
9. Do you approve of Richard’s way of behaviour?
10. How do you find my room-mate?
11. Who is your sister/brother like?
12. Who does your brother/sister look like?
13. What is your boyfriend/girlfriend like?

2.22. a) Social attitudes have changed not only in public but in the home as
well. The following is an extract from an interview with a 22-year-old
English girl who left home disillusioned with conventional family life
and went to live in a commune. Read the text.
b) Have you any sympathy with Mary’s views? What do you think a
‘conventional family” is like? Would you like to live in a commune?
Discuss these questions in the class.
Interviewer: What made you unhappy with conventional family life?
Mary: Well, my parents got divorced when I was in my
teens, so I didn’t have a very happy childhood. They always
seemed to be fighting over money and trying to force each other to
do things all the time. If one of them wanted a holiday, then there
was no peace at home until we had a holiday, even if we couldn’t
really afford one. Eventually they just went their own ways.

42
Interviewer: So you went into a commune?
Mary: Yes, here things are completely different.
No one has to worry about anyone else. You can come and go as
you please. You don’t feel any pressure on you to do things. You
do things for each other because you want to, not because you
have to. We share everything.
Interviewer: Everything?
Mary: Yes. No one has his or her own belongings. If I
like the skirt one of my friends is wearing, then I can wear it the
next day. We all wear each other’s clothes, and the food is shared
by everyone. We all take it in turns to do the cleaning and the
washing up, and to look after the children.
Interviewer: Why don’t the parents look after the children
themselves?
Mary: Children are the responsibility of the commune as
a whole. They are too important to be left to individual parents to
look after. That’s why so many people have problems nowadays.
Look at my parents for instance!

2.23. Read the situation and follow the steps below. Work with a group. Then
work with a partner.
Mark and Ellen are married. Michael is 30 years old. He works full-time. Ellen is
31 and works part-time. They have a three-year-old son named Sam. Michael
wants to have another child. Ellen isn’t sure. They live in a small apartment in a
big city. They pay a lot of money for rent.
Prepare: Group 1: You are Michael. Make a list of reasons why you may want
to
have another child.
Group 2: You are Ellen. Make a list of reasons why you may not want to
have another child.
Role-play: Work with a partner from the other group. Role-play a conversation
between Michael and Ellen. Use the reasons on your lists. Try to make a
decision about having another child.
Discuss: Share your decisions with the class. How many pairs decided to have
another child? How many decided not to?

2.24. Interview a friend, a neighbour, or a teacher. Ask the questions


below. Take notes. You can begin with this:
“May I ask you some questions about your family?”
or
“Do you mind if I ask you some questions about your family?”

43
Questions:
1. Do you have any brothers or sisters?

If the answer is no … If the answer is yes …


2. Did you like being an only child 2. How many siblings do you have? What
when you were younger? Do you are their names?
like it now? Why or why not?
3. Are you the oldest, the
youngest, or a
3. What’s the best thing about being middle child?
an only child? What’s the worst
thing? 4. When you were a child, did you like
being the oldest? The youngest?
4. Why did your parents decide to A middle child? Why or why not?
have only one child? Do you know
their reason? 5. What was the best thing about
being
the oldest? The youngest? A middle
5. Did you ever feel lonely as a child? child? What was the worst thing about
it?
6. Who did you play with?
6. Did you have a good relationship with
7. (your decision) _______________

your siblings when you were


children? How about now?
7. (your decision) __________________

2.25. Describe the Russian or some other national wedding traditions. How
are the English wedding traditions different from those in Russia?

2.26. a) Attitudes to the family and to behaviour have changed greatly in


recent years – or at least people say they have. But is it really true?
Answer the questions below.

1. If you had a ten-year-old son/daughter, at what time would you expect


him/her be in at night time?
2. If your son or daughter started smoking, would you try to dissuade
(=make somebody decide not to do something) him or her at the age of 10?
15? 18?

44
3. Would you allow your teenage child to go on holiday alone with a friend
of an opposite sex?
4. If you were having a glass of wine at home with a meal, at what age
would you allow your child to have one?
5. Would you be upset if your son or daughter wanted to move out and live
with a boyfriend or girlfriend without getting married, or would you simply
regard it as “the modern thing to do”?

b) Do some research in order to find out how the Russian family traditions
and the way of life have changed over the last 50 years or so. Interview your
older relatives on the issues listed below.

a. behaviour of children
b. head of the family
c. age of getting married
d. age of having the first child
e. manner and ways of addressing people
(including the family members)
f. living with parents and grandparent

2.27. How do you say that you like or dislike something? Look at these pairs
of sentences and decide which ones are correct and natural.
Sometimes both sentences are correct and natural, sometimes one of
them is wrong or it does not sound natural.
S ss
1. A. It was well-known that he was loathed by other teachers.
B. It was well-known that the other teachers loathed him.

2. A. Sometimes I yearn for more time on my own.


B. Sometimes some time on my own is yearned for.

3. A. Sport is passionate about by a lot of people.


B. A lot of people are passionate about sports.

4. A. The first time I visited Venice, I was captivated by the city.


B. The first time I visited Venice, the city captivated me.

5. A. Animals are quite fond of by British people.


B. British people are quite fond of animals.

6. A. Going to the cinema tonight is fancied by me.


B. I fancy going to the cinema tonight.

45
7. A. From a young age, the idea of traveling was keen on me.
B. From a young age I was keen on the idea of traveling.

8. A. I look forward to hearing from you soon.


B. To hearing from you soon I look forward.

9. A. It is a well-known fact that students dread exams.


B. It is a well-known fact that exams are dreaded by students.

2.28. Discuss with a partner what you like and dislike in people’s character,
clothes, theatre, weather, fine arts, books, occupations, etc. Think of as
many aspects of human life as possible.

2.29. Look at the epigraph to this unit and say how you understand it. Read
some more definitions of a family and choose one you most agree with
and one you most disagree with. Explain your choice.

1. [A family is] the school of duties … founded on love. (Felix


Adler)
2. [A family is] bills of charges. (Francis Bacon)
3. [A family is] a manufacture very little above the building of a
house of cards. Time and accidents are sure to furnish a blast to blow
them down. (Lord Halifax)
4. [A family is] a society limited in numbers, but nevertheless a true
society, anterior to every state or nation, with right and duties of its
own, wholly independent of the commonwealth. (Pope Leo XIII)
5. If well ordered … they [families] are the springs from which go
forth the streams of national greatness and prosperity – of civil order
and public happiness. (William Thayer)

WRITING

2.30. Write three short paragraphs describing a relative.


Paragraph 1 What does s/he look like?
Paragraph 2 What is s/he like?
Paragraph 3 What does s/he like doing?

46
2.31. Write a description of your family of 250 words (be sure to include both
the description of the character and the appearance of each member).

2.32. Write three short paragraphs about one of the topics below. The
expressions below can help you structure your essay better.
TOPICS:
Having a lot of brothers and sisters
Being an only child
Having an older relative living with you
Both of your parents working

Paragraph 1 Advantages (Firstly, … Secondly, … Above all, …)


Paragraph 2 Disadvantages (On the other hand, For instance/ For example, …,
Also … But the biggest disadvantage is …)
Paragraph 3 Your conclusion/own opinion (To sum up/ In conclusion …)

Other useful expressions:


One advantage/disadvantage is that …
On the one/ on the other hand …
That’s true, but …
I agree/ disagree because …

2.33. Describe a wedding ceremony in Russia. It can be a description of a


common tradition or of some ceremony that you’ve ever attended

2.34. Write a letter to your new pen friend, describing your major likes and
dislikes in life.

2.35. Render the text in English. Express your opinion about the ceremonies in
writing.
Интересные факты свадебной церемонии

47
Вы когда-нибудь задумывались, откуда пошла традиция "подружек
невесты и свидетелей жениха" и почему их наряды практически не
отличаются от одежды жениха и невесты?
Эта традиция сохранилась с Древних времен. Римский закон требовал,
чтобы десять свидетелей присутствовали на свадебной церемонии.
Некоторые из этих свидетелей наряжались как жених и невеста и тем самым
путали злых духов, которые могли навредить молодым. В Средние века
Европейцы также следовали этой традиции, но более поздние "подружки
невесты и свидетели жениха" защищали счастливую пару уже от реальных
разбойников.
Обменяйтесь душами в свадебном поцелуе.
Да, именно поцелуй символизирует обмен душами между новобрачными. В
древние времена римляне целовались при заключении крупных сделок.
Именно поцелуй придавал сделке юридическую силу. Хорошо, что в
современном мире достаточно рукопожатия! Поскольку, невеста, выходившая
замуж в английской церкви, должна была сначала поцеловать министра
(священника) прежде, чем она целовала жениха.
Вы когда-нибудь задавались вопросом, почему
американцы носят обручальное кольцо на среднем
пальце левой руки?
Древние греки верили, что вена в этом пальце бежит
непосредственно к сердцу. Сам обряд обручения дошел
до наших дней благодаря Папе Римскому Иннокентию
III, который в XIII веке ввел период ожидания между
обручением и браком, и также обязал молодых использовать обручальные
кольца на свадебной церемонии.
Почему "тост"?
Слово "тост", т.е. когда пьют за кого-то - пришло к нам из старой
французской традиции, в которой кусок поджаренного хлеба (тост) клали в
чашу с вином для аромата. Гости передавали чашу, и каждый пробовал вино с
тостом. Вся эта традиция кажется довольно антисанитарной, но что-то
волнующее в ней определенно есть.
Брошенная подвязка.
В День свадьбы невеста обязательно бросает в воздух какую-нибудь вещь
на удачу: щепотку риса, букет цветов или подвязку. Традиция бросать
подвязку появилась в старые добрые времена, до того, как подвенечные
платья стали стоить почти как маленькие автомобили. Незамужние девушки
отрывали кусочки от свадебных платьев для того, чтобы привлечь удачу и
выйти замуж.
В Англии существовала еще более странная традиция. Мужчины кидали
свои носки в жениха, и первый, кто попадет ему в нос, женится следующим.
Почему во время свадебной церемонии невеста традиционно
стоит слева, а жених справа.
Эта традиция уходит корнями в далекие темные времена, когда каждый
настоящим мужчина носил при себе меч, чтобы защитить себя и свою

48
невесту. Его правая рука всегда должна была быть свободной, чтобы он мог с
легкостью обнажить меч в случае опасности.
Свеча Единства.
Вероятно самая яркая свадебная традиция американцев - это зажигание
свечи единства - когда два огонька превращаются в одно единое пламя.
Хинди.
На традиционной индусской свадьбе нет белых платьев. Невеста здесь
носит сари. Причем на Свадьбу невеста приходит в сари, приготовленном ее
родителями, а уходит, в сари, подаренном ей женихом.
Ислам.
Это старая Исламская традиция - красить руки молодых хной в ночь перед
Свадьбой - к сожалению, не часто используется теперь. Мало того, что
украшенные руки выглядят очень красиво и помогают новобрачным узнавать
друг друга, так еще эти украшения (menhdi) позволяют определить, кто в
семье главный. Если жених не сможет прочитать свое имя на ладони у
невесты, значит, она будет главой в их семье.

49
Unit 3.
PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY FRIENDS AND MYSELF

A life without a friend is a life without a sun.


German proverb
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
English proverb

Recommended grammar:
Determiners. Articles and nouns. Be worth doing. Present tenses. Word order.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY


3.1. a) Read the text, then read the descriptions of some people and decide
which of them you would call a friend? Which one do you think many
North Americans would call a friend? How do you call these people in
Russian?
b) Do the assignment after the text.
Who is a Friend?
Some have a lot of friends and some have just a few. Some meet and talk with
their friends almost every day. Others see them just once a month. There are
friendships that end because a person moves away, and there are friendships that
last across long distances and over many years until the end of life.
And who is your friend? Americans and Canadians have special relationship
with people they consider their good friends. But they often use the simple word
friend loosely. (That is why some visitors sometimes get the false impression that
North Americans do not have deep friendships.) North Americans call many people
their friends – even people they’ve known for a short time or people they see once
in a blue moon (=very rarely, not frequently). In fact, they sometimes refer to any
person they get along with (do not fight with) as a friend.

Which of the following people would you call a friend?


1. Someone you met about five years ago. The two of you get along well.
You spend time together whenever you can. You talk a lot about different
things: work, studies, hopes, and problems.
2. Someone you met about three months ago. You work in the same
office, and once or twice a month you play badminton (or some other sport)
together. You usually talk about work and activities.
3. Someone you’ve known from childhood. You went to school together,
but you rarely see each other. You send each other a card on birthdays or at
Christmas. When you do see each other, you usually talk about the past.

3.2. Besides friends, there are many other forms of people’s relationships.
Match the words describing such relationships a-e with the definitions 1-5.
a. acquaintances b. classmates c. co-workers
d. colleagues e. neighbours

1. Mary and Kate live in the same block of flats. They are both married
and have children who play together.
2. Mary and Bruce often see each other at political meetings. They were
introduced at a meeting about two months ago, and they usually talk for a
few minutes before or after the meetings.
3. Bruce and Lang both work part-time at the same store. Sometimes
they have the same work schedule.
4. Lang is taking an evening class at the university. In his class, he often
talks to Kate, who is also taking the class.
5. Kate goes to school at night, but during the day she runs a medical lab.
Right now she is working closely with Barb (who works at a different lab)
on an important new project.

3.3. a) Explain the meaning of each word in the box in English. Consult a
dictionary if necessary.
b) Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Some words must
be used more than once.
c) For each word from the list find an example from among your friends
and the people you know.

acquaintance compatriot confidant colleague foe partner


mate
rival associate bosom pal companion old flame pen pal
fair weather friend

1. She comes from the same country as me. She’s my ... .


2. We carried on our friendship through letters. He was my ... .
3. I’d rather not make the journey alone. I need a traveling ... .
4. He and I own this business together. He is my ... .
5. She didn’t know what the homework was, so she asked her class-... .
6. I’ve known George for ages. We are really good old friends who spend a lot of
time together. He is my ... .
7. Henry wants the manager’s job and so do I. He is my ... .
8. Wanted: sensible, well-mannered girl to act as an old lady’s ... .
9. She used to be John’s girl-friend. She is his ... .
10. The assistant to a plumber, electrician or lorry driver is known as his ... .
11. In the darkness the soldier couldn’t see whether the approaching figure was a
friend or ... .
12. She teaches in the same school as I do. She is my ... .
13. He seems a good friend when things are going well, but when I’m in trouble
he’s nowhere to be seen. I’m afraid he’s a ... .
14. He’s the person to whom I tell my most personal thoughts, problems and
fears. He’s my ... .
15. If you can’t afford to live on your own, you’ll have to find a flat ... .
16. I don’t really know him very well. He’s just my ... .
17. I just meet him occasionally when his firm and my firm work together. He’s
just a business ... .

3.4. Explain the difference.

1. to know someone/ to meet someone


2. a friend/ a colleague
3. a friend/ a girlfriend
4. a girlfriend/ a female friend
5. a partner/ a couple
6. a close friend/ a best friend
7. a friendship/ a relationship

3.5. a) Put these adjectives of personality in the chart below.


intelligent stupid tense even-tempered crafty
optimistic bright envious introverted clever
foolish able sensitive easy-going sincere
smart half-witted dumb sociable ill-mannered
cunning shrewd simple honest discourteous
silly relaxed sensible brainless
pessimistic
cruel trustworthy gifted daft gregarious
talented reliable jealous brainy dim
argumentative sly extroverted quarrelsome

intellectual ability attitudes towards life attitudes towards other


people

b) Make up groups of synonyms and antonyms from the list of the adjectives
above.
3.6. Decide if these adjectives of personality apply more to men or women.
Form their opposites and put them in the chart. Which adjectives don’t
have exact opposite?
ambitious bossy communicative faithful honest
imaginative jealous logical mature
organized
patient possessive reasonable responsible selfish
sensitive sociable tidy vain
un- im- in- ir- il- dis-

3.7. Some characteristics can be either positive or negative depending on your


point of view. The words in the right-hand column mean roughly the same
as the words in the left-hand column except that they have negative rather
than positive connotations. Think of people you know who can be
characterized using either positive or negative characteristics.
determined - obstinate, stubborn, pig-headed
thrifty/ economical - miserly, mean, tight-fisted
self-assured - self-important, arrogant, full of oneself
assertive - aggressive, bossy
original - peculiar, weird, eccentric, odd
frank/direct/open - blunt, abrupt, brusque, curt
broad-minded - unprincipled, permissive
generous - extravagant
innocent - naïve/naïve [na:'i:v]
ambitious - pushy

3.8. a) Match up the definitions on the left (1-25) with the correct idiom on
the right (a-y).
b) Draw your own illustration of one of the descriptive words or phrases
from the chart. Then explain why you would (or wouldn’t) like to have
a person with this quality as a friend.

1. clever, intelligent a. all thumbs


2. inquisitive, very curious b. bedridden
3. rich, wealthy c. pigheaded
4. cruel d. black and blue all over
5. stupid, unintelligent e. brainy
6. young, inexperienced f. hair-rising
7. old (of a person) g. cheeky
8. very clumsy, awkward h. heartless
9. impudent i. keyed up
10. stubborn j. long in the tooth
11. too weak to leave one’s bed k. nosy
12. terrifying l. off colour
13. conceited, vain, boastful m. overbearing
14. tense, excited n. thick
15. ill, not well o. well off
16. covered with bruises p. wet behind the ears
17. reading all the time q. a bookworm
18. very nervous r. a doormat
19. too careful with money s. down to earth
20. kind and generous t. pushy
21. feeling superior to everyone else u. standoffish
22. too aggressive v. a tightwad
23. easily controlled by others w. uppity
24. unsociable x. uptight
25. direct and practical, with no y. warm-hearted
pretensions

3.9. a) The following is a list of colloquial names for various social types of
people you can meet at a party or elsewhere. Use the most suitable word
from below to complete each of the description below.
b) Think of your own examples to fit each social type.

Social types:
wet blanket Don Juan ['don'd3u:әn] gate crasher
wall flower social climber good mixer
gossip chatterbox femme
fatale
life and soul of the party

A. He’s very lively and the centre of any group he is in. People always have a
good time with him. He is the ... .
B. She is confident and interested in other people. She likes to meet different
kinds of people. She is a ... .
C. She is so negative and boring. She has a depressing effect on any group of
people she is in. She is a ... .
D. He goes to parties and other occasions without an invitation. He just walks in.
He is a ... .
E. Unfortunately, nobody asks her to dance. She just stands there hoping. She is a
..
F. She just can not stop talking. She goes on and on excitedly, about totally
unimportant things. She is a ... .
G. She loves to discuss and pass on news or rumours about people’s private lives.
She is a … .
H. She is dangerously attractive to men. Half the men she meets fall in love with
her. But she never falls in love with anyone. She is a ... .
I. He knows he is attractive to women. They always fall for him. He has a lot of
girl friends. He is a ... .
J. She is very conscious of her social position. She is always trying to improve it
by meeting ‘upper-class’ people. She is a ... .

3.10. a) In Thailand, friends of the same sex often walk down the street, arm in
arm, but friends of the opposite sex never touch each other in public. This
is the opposite of North American customs. Read the selection to learn
more about the Thai idea of friendship.
b) Express your ideas about the title of the text. Can you classify your
friends as “die” and “eating” friends?
c) Scan the text to find the information to do the assignment below.

1. A word that begins with p and means the opposite of public:_____


2. A verb that begins with s and means ‘give something away’:_____
3. Another way of saying older:_________
4. A synonym for meet: _______
5. A two-word phrase that means without planning to: __________
6. A synonym for similar that starts with a: _______________
7. A synonym for confused that starts with p: _____________

“Die Friends” and “Eating Friends”


by David C.Cooke
The Thais do not usually ask questions of a personal nature, though in
some Asian countries this is considered not only quite proper but polite. The Thais
feel, instead, that if anyone wishes to tell them anything about his private life, he
will do so without being questioned. This sometimes strikes Westerners as a lack of
interest, but to the Thais it is only proper courtesy.
One day I was out with Manoon Wongkomolshet and we met a friend of
his. The two men talked for a few minutes before saying good-bye. When Manoon
and I were alone again, he told me he had gone to school with the other man and
had known him for many years.
I asked “Does he have many children?”
“I don’t know”, Manoon replied. “He never told me, and I never asked.”
Friendships play an important role in the life of the Thai people. Among
men, friends are often described as ‘die friends’ or ‘eating friends’. The ‘die
friendship’ is an ideal that is not often realized today, however, for it requires a
willingness to sacrifice for the sake of the friend. Instead of using each others’
names, men often refer to each other as Pee or Nong. Pee means Younger Brother.
There is also a similar friendship between girls.
One night at a party I was introduced to a young lady who had come in
with another girl. The one I was talking with was named Kanjan, and I found out
later that the other girl was named Soy.
As Kanjan and I talked, I asked her about Soy, and she said, “She is my
sister. We came to Bangkok from the north, and we are living together here.”
Several days later I encountered Kanjan again, by accident, in a store. She
was alone, and I asked her about her sister.
“My sister is fine,” she said. “But she could not come shopping with me.
She had something else to do.”
After a while I said, “You know, I would never have taken you two for
sisters. You really don’t look anything alike. I don’t see any similarity at all.”
“We don’t have the same mother and father,” Kanjan said. “That is the
reason.”
“But you said you were sisters,” I replied, puzzled. “How can that be?”
“Because all Thai people consider all other Thai people to be their brothers
and sisters,” she said. “Soy and I would do anything for each other. We may not
have had the same mother and father, but that does not matter. We are as close as
true blood sisters could ever be.”

3.11. a) Read the text and match the italicized words with the meanings below.
b) Ask 5 questions about the text.
1. We began to speak angrily to each other. _______________
2. A lot of things about us are the same. __________________
3. When you know her better. __________________________
4. We like the same kinds of things. _____________________
5. We laugh at the same things. _________________________
6. We have a good relationship. ________________________
7. I can depend on her. _______________________________
8. We contact each other regularly. _____________________
9. We stopped going out together. _______________________

Just Good Friends?


I’ll never forget our first meeting because it was quite romantic. I had two
tickets for a concert in London, but at the last moment the girl who was going to go
with me couldn’t come. So I went to the concert hall early to get my money back
for one of the tickets. Paulina was standing in the queue. We started talking, and I
found out that she was there for the same reason. My tickets were better than hers
so I suggested that we sat in my seats and we gave her tickets back. After the
concert we went for a drink and we’ve been friends ever since then.
We’ve known each other for two years. After the first meeting we started
going out together and we fell in love. Everything went really well at first, but after
six months we started to argue a lot and finally we broke up, but we stayed close
friends, which isn’t always easy.
I think we get on well mainly because we’ve got the same sense of humour.
We’ve got a lot in common – we like and dislike the same people and things, and
we’ve got the same tastes in music. Our personalities are quite similar, too. Paulina
seems quite shy when you first meet her, but when you get to know her, she’s really
extrovert and funny.
I think I call her my ‘best friend’ because she’s a person I can talk to about
anything and I know I can trust her. Our friendship is very important to me.
Nowadays, we only see each other about once a month because she’s
studying at university and I’m working in London, but we keep in touch by e-mail
all the time. Some people are surprised when I say that my best friend is a woman,
especially my ex-girlfriend. But I think it’s perfectly possible for us to be ‘just
good friends’, although maybe when one of us finds a new partner, it’ll be more
difficult. I hope not.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

3.12. Complete the following statements, making use of the words given in
brackets. Explain your choice.
1. It's easy to deal with people who are ... .
(cheerful, honest, polite, frank, fussy, efficient, rude, impatient, suspicious,
foolish, cruel, obliging, unfair, stubborn, selfish)

2. I hate it when people ... .


(have good manners, have bad manners, interrupt others, are not punctual, are
too curious, don’t respect their elders, interfere with other people’s affairs, are
always joking)

3. I think he is the right man for the job because he is ... .


(lazy, efficient, hard-working, disciplined, absent-minded, capable, careless,
attentive, impatient, smart, well-read, well-educated, well-traveled, stubborn,
sociable)

4. When you get to know him better, you’ll see he’s … .


(intelligent, selfish, naive, good for nothing, tight-fisted, hot tempered, forgetful,
fussy, stubborn, pompous)

5. He ... and I like it about him.


(has a subtle sense of humour, is a Don Juan, is a chatterbox, is the life and soul
of the party, is understanding, always does what he promises, never lies, is a man
of his word)

6. She ... and I don't like it about her.


(pokes her nose in other people’s affairs, takes advantage of other people, likes
to show off, thinks too much of herself, is always up to mischief, is too careless,
stops at nothing when she wants to get something, thinks she is a femme fatale, is
very self-confident)

7. You overestimate him. He's not so … as you think.


(clever, bright, hard working, polite )

8. I don't like the way she ... .


(treats her friends, speaks to me, sings, dances, speaks English)

3.13. Below are some very short dialogues about human nature. Work with a
partner to enlarge them by adding more details or examples from your
own experience. Learn the enlarged dialogues by heart.
A:
- What do you think of your new colleague? What is he like?
- The right man for the job: experienced and pleasant to deal with.

B:
-Why don't you like to work with young Donaldson?
- He is incompetent and inefficient and has no experience at all. He does
everything in the wrong way. Besides he is very fussy and messy.
- In this case, please, help me to find someone else.
- With pleasure.

C:
- Do you want to work with old Brown? I think, he is very supportive,
understanding and he always gives you a hand when things go wrong.
- That's just great. Unlike my assistant, he is competent and efficient. The right
man for the job and a pleasant companion.

D:
- Peter is late.
- Really? I don't believe my ears.
- That's certainly unlike him.
- Yes, he is so punctual.

E:
- Barbara is late.
- That's she all over. It's like her.
- Yes, she always keeps people waiting.
F:
- Every nation has a reputation of some kind. For instance, everybody believes
that the French are light-minded and the Germans are punctual.
- What kind of people are the English?
- They are unlike the Americans. Snobs, cold, reserved and conservatives.
- But that's not true.
- Of course, not. But we are talking about their reputation.

3.14. a) Read the following list of qualities of a friend and rank them in order of
importance. Be ready to discuss your choice in class.
frank keeps confidence loyal
warm and affectionate intelligent supportive
has a sense of humour willing to make time for me
is a good conversationalist independent

b) Think about a close friend. Make quick notes in the chart. Add more
questions to the chart you’d like to ask your group mates about their best
friends.

questions notes
Who is your best friend?
How long have you known each
other?
How did you meet?
Why is s/he your best friend?
Why do you get on well?
Do you ever argue? What about? Who
is usually the first to make it up?
How often do you see each other?
How do you keep in touch?

3.15. Read the Six Rules that can help us win friends and influence people,
defined by Dale Carnegie (1936). Do you think these rules are still relevant
today? Can you add any new rules to the list or would you like to remove
some rules from it?
Rule 1: Become genuinely interested in people.
Rule 2: Smile.
Rule 3: Remember that a man’s name is to him the sweetest and most important
sound in any language.
Rule 4: Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves.
Rule 5: Talk in terms of other man’s interests.
Rule 6: Make the other person feel important – and do it sincerely.

3.16. a) Do the quiz to see whether you are a good socializer.


b) Work with a partner and discuss any of the questions below which
may prove interesting.

Are you a Good Socializer


Answer these questions.
1. When you are introduced to a stranger, do you normally become
tense?
2. Do you try to be the centre of attention of groups?
3. Do you consider yourself a successful person, socially speaking?
4. Do you find it difficult to demonstrate in public some of your personal
skills (such as telling jokes, dancing, singing ...)?
5. Do you have problems when speaking in public?
6. Are you happy/satisfied with your own image?
7. Would you eat alone in a crowded restaurant?
8. Do you feel quite skilled at socializing?
9. Do you accept praise gracefully and naturally?
10. During meetings/encounters with strangers, do you listen more than
speak?
11. Do you show your feelings to friends you don't know very well yet?
12. Do you go red when someone shouts at you in public?
13. Do you feel inferior when introduced to an important person?
14. Do you often think that your contributions to a debate can be relevant?
15. When you are going to be presented in public, do you sweat, shake a
bit, and feel insecure ?
16. Would you be able to imitate a famous person?

Calculate your score.


 If you said YES to questions 1, 5, 10, 12, 13 and 15, give yourself a
point for each YES.
 If you said NO to questions 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14 and 16, give
yourself a point for each NO.
Interpretation of the score:
 If you scored less than 6, your ability to make friends is acceptable.
 Between 6 and 10, you have/have had difficulty relating to other
people socially.
 More than 10 points, new situations and getting to know new people is
hard for you.
3.17. a) Read the text and think of a title for it.
b) What are the main aspects of friendship discussed in the text?
c) Sum up the contents of the text in 5 sentences and present them to class.
d) Answer the questions after the text.
There is nothing in the whole world, Lord, like having one true, enjoyable,
understanding friend. No one is ever so lonely when he doesn’t have a friend. To
find one, all you have to do is to go out and help somebody. Now and then say to a
friend, “I love you”. Those words weren’t meant only fro sweethearts. They are
just as significant, beautiful and life-enhancing when said to a dear friend. A true
test of friendship: If you died, which of your friends would you trust to clean out
your drawers? When I talk, my friend listens. When my friend talks, I listen. That’s
one of the reasons we’re friends. Friends are like bracelets charms. If you truly
love and enjoy your friends, they are part of the golden circle that makes life good.
If you want more friends, smile more! I’ve never known anyone who smiled a lot
who didn’t have a lot of friends. Friends are too precious to lose – even when they
disappoint us. Lord, help me to forgive this friend – it is only because I need and
love her. (And because I’d want her to forgive me!) Friends are worth forgiving.
The heart has many doors, of which friendship is but one. Don’t be too quick to
bolt them.

Questions:
1. What ways of making friends do you know? Are they different from
those described in the text? How often do you say “I love you” to your
friends?
2. Think of the test of friendship mentioned in the text. Would any of your
friends stand the test? Describe his/her qualities.
3. Are friends really worth forgiving? Do you forgive your friends? Are
there any reasons why you may never forgive your friend?

3.18. a) What would you sacrifice for a friend? Read the list below and make
your choice.
b) Add more items to your list. Compare your answers with your
group-mates.
Would you …
 Drive him/her to work every day
 Take care of his/her children
 Lend him/her a large sum of money
 Give up your job for him/her
 Forgive him/her for doing something very mean to you
 Die for him/her
3.19. a) Read the following citations and comment on each. Which one do you
like best? Why? Use the phases to express your opinion about the
quotations below. Be ready to discuss your group-mates’ choices.
How to give an opinion:
Personally I think …
In my opinion …
From my point of view …
My view is that …
If you ask me / If you want my opinion/ As I see it …
I am not really sure if …
I wouldn’t agree. (direct way)
You can’t be serious! (informal)

How to agree with an opinion:


I take your point. (informal)
I couldn’t agree more. (direct)
I’m with you on that. (informal)
Yes, I entirely/quite agree with you there/ on that. (formal)
Yes, that’s how I feel/ how I see it. (formal)

Citations about friends and friendship


1. Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing. (Benjamin Franklin)
2. Friendship needs feeding. (John Garner)
3. [Friendship is] forgetting what one gives, and remembering what one receives.
(Alexander Dumas)
4. Friendship is but a word. (Philip Massinger)
5. There is no such thing on earth; the best we can hope for here is faint
neutrality. (Adapted from Samuel Tuke)

b) Friendship is often compared to different things. Read the following


comparisons and pick up some you like best. Explain your choice.
Friendship is …
1. … a ship big enough to carry two in fair weather, but only one in foul.
(Ambrose Bierce)
2. … like money, easier made than kept. (Samuel Butler)
3. … a sheltering tree. (Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
4. … a holy tie. (John Dryden)
5. … the gift of the gods, and the most precious boon to man. (Benjamin
Disraeli)
6. … the wine of life. (Edward Young)
7. … like wine, raw when new, ripened with age, the true old man’s milk and
restorative cordial. (Thomas Jefferson)
8. … the only cement that will ever hold the world together. (Woodrow Wilson)
9. … one heart in two bodies. (Joseph Zabara)
10. … two clocks keeping time. (Anonymous)
11. … a plant of slow growth… (George Washington)
12. … among women only a suspension of hostilities. (Comte de Rivarol)

3.20. Read the text below and discuss with the class the relation between love
and friendship. What is your definition of love? Of friendship?
Whether we are drawn to people by familiarity, similarity, beauty, or some other
quality, mutual attraction sometimes progresses from friendship to the more
intense, complex, and mysterious feeling of love. There is a great similarity
between love relationship and good-friend relationships. In both there are high
levels of trust, mutual respect, and acceptance. Nonetheless, the love relationship,
with its greater depth of caring and exclusiveness, typically generates greater
emotion and power.
What is love? This is a question people have been asking for years. Mass media,
romantic novels, soap operas, and song, have all been attempting to answer this
question.
Love is a many splendored thing.
All the world needs is love.
Love makes the world go round.
I can’t live without love.
How do I love thee, let me count the ways.
Love means never having to say you’re sorry.
Our lives seem to evolve around this subject. But does anyone know what love
is? People seem to have their own definitions of love. When your date says that he
or she loves you, what does your date mean? Is it the same as when your mother or
father says it to you?

3.21. Order the verbs below to describe development of a typical relationship.


Think of some real story to illustrate it. Be ready to share your ideas with
the class.
argue break up fall in love get on well meet
get to know each other keep in touch go out together stay friends

WRITING
3.22. a) Work in a group of three or four students to write five sentences that
start with:
A true friend is someone who …
b) Try to find the best ways of describing what you think a friend really
is. Pool (put together) your ideas. Finish the sentences in a positive or
negative way. Here is an example of each. You may agree with them or
you may not.
Examples: A true friend is someone who laughs at your jokes.
A true friend is someone who never asks you for money.
c) After you finish, compare your definitions with other groups.
3.23. If a plant is not watered, it will die. If friendship is not nurtured through
special attention, it can also die. One way to keep friendships alive over a
long distances and periods of time is to write letters. Look at the model for
writing a friendly letter in English. Then write a letter to a friend (or a
relative you think of as a friend), following the model.

Name of city or town


Date (Day, Month, Year)
Dear Joe (or Jill, etc.),
How are you? I hope you and your family are fine. (Then write a few lines
asking about different family members or friends if you want to. Or go right into
the next part, telling briefly how you are and your family and mutual friends are
doing.)

I want to tell you about … (Tell your friend something about your life, ideas,
work, problems, or activities. Or if you like to share your private life, tell him/her
about your thoughts, emotions, and dreams.)

Well, it’s time to bring this letter to a close. (Or you can say, “I guess that’s
about all for now.”) Hope to hear from you soon!

Love (or Fondly/ With affection),


Ann (or Mark, etc.).
P.S. My travel plans have been changed. I’m now going to … (and so on, with
the message you almost forgot to include).

Some other typical first sentences:


It was nice/ great/ lovely to hear from you …
I hope you’re well …
Sorry I haven’t written for so long …
Thanks for your letter …
How are you? I’m fine.

Some other typical last sentences:


Write soon.
I’ll be in touch soon.
Give my regards/ love to your family.
Say ‘hi’ to your mom.
3.24. The arbitrary names below are supposedly the main types of character
on the planet Earth.
a) Write a definition to each one.
b) Add one or two more names to the list and write their definitions.
c) Pick up a name (or a mix of names) from the list for your best friend
and describe in short his/her personality.
/

 The star
 The prankster
 The complainer
 The pedant
 The shy boy (+girl)
 The flatterer
 The serious person
 The cultured person

3.25. Render the text in English.

Друзья и дружба
Дружба — бесспорная ценность, освященная традициями российской
культуры, и значимая составляющая жизненного мира большинства людей.
Что такое дружба, в чем специфика этого типа социальной связи, где
проходит грань между дружбой и обычными приятельскими отношениями?
Участникам опроса задали открытый вопрос о том, какое содержание они
вкладывают в слово «дружить». Как видно из ответов, среди респондентов
ощутимо преобладают возвышенные представления о дружеском союзе —
определенно отделяющие такой союз от поверхностного знакомства.
В 40% случаев люди связывали дружбу с преданностью и верностью,
безусловной и самоотверженной поддержкой друг друга.
Многие понимают дружбу как полное доверие и откровенность
в отношениях (30% ответов). Достаточно часто (в 15% случаев), характеризуя
дружбу, респонденты говорили о взаимопонимании, общности взглядов,
интересов, жизненной позиции.
Совместное времяпрепровождение в качестве критерия дружбы называлось
реже (в 9% случаев).
Описания дружбы, данные мужчинами и женщинами, практически
не различаются. Между тем, существует устойчивое представление, что
мужчины и женщины дружат по-разному — его разделяет половина
опрошенных (50%). Не согласны с ним — полагают, что мужская дружба
не отличается от женской — 37% (остальные не имеют определенного
мнения на этот счет). Точку зрения, согласно которой мужская дружба
отличается от женской, чаще разделяют молодые респонденты, нежели
пожилые (58% и 39% соответственно). Занимающих эту позицию попросили
описать как мужскую, так и женскую дружбу.
В восприятии респондентов женская дружба ассоциируется прежде всего
с душевной близостью, доверительностью, эмоциональной
поддержкой (13% ответов такого рода).
В мужской дружбе, на взгляд опрошенных, более значим не эмоциональный
контакт, а акцент на реальное дело, поступок, в котором эта дружба находит
наиболее полное выражение (10%). По-видимому, именно с подобным
восприятием мужской дружбы связана и оценка ее как более крепкой,
надежной (8%).
Данные опроса дают представление о степени распространенности
дружеских отношений в российском обществе. Совсем не имеют друзей,
по их словам, 16% опрошенных. Чаще это люди пожилые, нежели
молодые (26% и 8% соответственно), что понятно и не требует комментариев.
Любопытно, что жители мегаполисов говорили об отсутствии друзей в два
с лишним раза реже, чем жители сел: 10% и 22% соответственно.
Что касается количества друзей, то чаще всего респонденты говорили, что
могли бы назвать таковыми двоих-троих человек (37% опрошенных).
16% опрошенных заявили, что у них лишь один друг. У 13% респондентов —
по четыре-пять друзей.
Дружеские отношения по преимуществу складываются между людьми
одного поколения, близкими по социальному статусу. У большинства
респондентов, по их словам, нет друзей, которые сильно отличались бы
от них по возрасту, материальному положению или уровню
образования (от 58% до 65% из числа имеющих друзей). Любопытно, что те,
кто имеет опыт «неравной дружбы», чаще говорят, что у них есть старшие, а
не младшие друзья (20% и 7% соответственно — от числа имеющих друзей);
более богатые, а не более бедные (20% и 4%), более, а не менее
образованные, чем они сами (21% и 6%). Очевидно, высокий статус
дружеских отношений люди склонны присваивать, прежде всего,
отношениям с теми, кто прочнее «стоит на ногах», большего добился,
обладает более богатым жизненным опытом.
Unit 4.
PEOPLE AROUND ME. MY COUNTRYMEN AND MYSELF.

The sense of common identity, the sense of


a singularly important national ‘we’ which
is distinguished from all others who make
up an alien ‘they”.
Rupert Emerson
I … do not call the sod under my feet
my country. But language, religion, laws,
government, blood-identity of these makes
men of one country.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Recommended grammar:
Prepositions and conjunctions. Articles with geographical names. Enough, too +
Infinitive. Past tenses. Used to.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

4.1. Besides its territory and nature, any country is known for its population.
a) Read the text about the Russian people and society. Write down all the
figures from the text and be ready to comment on them without referring to
the text.
b) What major demographic indices are mentioned in the text? Do some
research to find out the most recent data.
Russia’s total population in 2006 was estimated at 142,8 ml, making the country
the sixth most populous, after China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and
Brazil. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 the number of
immigrants to Russia has exceeded the number of Russians leaving the country.
However, the rate of natural increase (=the number of births compared to the
number of deaths) has been negative since 1992. In 2006 the birth rate was 10.4
per 1,000, while the death rate was 15.2 per 1,000.
Russia is the only major industrialized country in which demographic indices
are worse than in earlier years, largely because illnesses have increased as the
quality and availability of health care have declined. Although it has increased
slightly since 1994, male life expectancy of 59 years in 2005 is still below the 64
years in 1990; female life expectancy during the same period dropped from 74
years to 72 years. Infant mortality rose from 17.4 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to
18.1 per 1,000 in 2000, and then started to decrease gradually, reaching the rate of
11 deaths per 1,000 in 2005.
The overall population density of Russia is about 9 persons per sq km (22 per
sq mile), but the population is unevenly distributed across the country. The
population density of a particular area generally reflects the land’s agricultural
potential, with localized population centers occurring at mining and industrial
centers. Most of the country’s people are concentrated in the so-called fertile
triangle, which has its base along the western border between the Baltic and Black
seas and tapers eastward across the southern Urals into southwestern Siberia.
Although the majority of the population remains concentrated in European Russia,
the country experienced substantial eastward migration before 1917 and after
World War II (1939-1945), especially to southern and far eastern Siberia. Such
migration was strongly encouraged by the government during the Soviet period. In
recent years, this migration has been reversed, with many Russian citizens leaving
northern Siberia and far eastern Russia for European Russia.
Throughout much of rural European Russia, the population density averages
about 25 persons per sq km (65 per sq mile). The heaviest population densities are
in sprawling urbanized areas such as Moscow Oblast. On the other hand, more
than one-third of the country’s territory has a population density of fewer than 1
person per sq km (3 per sq mile). This includes part of northern European Russia
and huge areas of Siberia.
From 1989 to 1996 nearly half of all urban settlements declined in population,
although several towns and cities increased dramatically in size during the same
period, especially those associated with oil and natural gas production in western
Siberia and the Volga-Urals regions. The population in several towns in the North
Caucasus area increased rapidly in the 1990s as a result of the inflow of refugees
from war-torn Chechnya.
During the Soviet period thousands of ethnic Russians migrated to other Soviet
republics. This trend began to reverse in the mid-1970s, and since the dissolution
of the USSR ethnic Russians have returned to the Russian Federation in even
larger numbers. Southwestern Russia (from the North Caucasus to southwestern
Siberia), Moscow, and Saint Petersburg have been the main destinations for
immigrants. Foreign nationals, such as Chinese, have immigrated to far eastern
Russia and large cities in European Russia in comparatively small numbers.

4.2. a) Read about the origin of the Russian people and write down all the
main tribes and peoples who inhabited the territory of the present Russian
Federation and the neighbouring territories at the troubled ancient time.
During the pre-Christian era the vast territory that became Russia was sparsely
inhabited by tribal peoples, many of whom were described by ancient Greek and
Roman writers. The largely unknown north, a region of extensive forests, was
inhabited by tribes later known collectively as Slavs. These Slavs were the
ancestors of the modern Russian people. Far more important to the ancient Greeks
and Romans were southern peoples in Scythia, an indeterminate region that
included the greater part of southeastern Europe and Central Asia. Portions of this
region were occupied by a succession of horse-riding nomadic peoples, including,
chronologically, the Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians. In these early times,
Greek traders and colonists established many trading posts and settlements,
particularly along the north coast of the Black Sea and in Crimea.
Large stretches of open plain facilitated the immigration of outside peoples. Such
migrations resulted in successive invasions, the establishment of settlements, and
the assimilation of people who spoke different languages. Thus, in the early
centuries of the Christian era, Germanic Goths displaced the Asian peoples of
Scythia and established an Ostrogothic (eastern Goth) kingdom on the Black Sea.
In the 4th century nomadic Huns invaded from Asia and conquered the
Ostrogoths. The Huns held the territory constituting the present-day Ukraine and
most of present-day Moldova until their defeat in Western Europe in the mid-5th
century. Later came the Mongolian Avars, followed by the nomadic Asian
Magyars, and then the Turkic Khazars, who remained influential until about the
mid-10th century.
Meanwhile, during this long period of successive invasions, the Slavic tribes in
the area northeast of the Carpathian Mountains had begun a series of migratory
movements. As these migrations took place, the western tribes in the region
eventually evolved as the Moravians, Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks; the southern
tribes as the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and a Slavic people who were conquered by
but soon assimilated the Turkic Bulgars; and the eastern tribes as a people who
later gave rise to the modern Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. The East
Slavs became renowned traders. The systems of rivers and waterways extending
through the territory from the Valday Hills facilitated the establishment of Slav
trading posts, notably the cities of Kyiv (Kiev), which is the present-day capital of
the Ukraine, and Novgorod, directly north of Kyiv. Along these waterways the
Slavs transported goods between the Baltic and Black seas.
Notes:
Scythia [`siӨiә] - Скифия (территория в Северном Причерноморье,
которую населяли древние племена скифов - Scythians)
Cimmerian [si`miәriәn] - киммериец, киммерийка (племена, обитавшие в
VIII -VII в.в. до н. э. в Северном Причерноморье)
Goth [goӨ] - гот (из древнегерманского племени готов (не существует с
VIII века н.э)
Ostrogothic [`ostrәugoӨik] - остготский
Magyars [`mægja:z] - мадьяры
Carpathian Mountains [ka:`peiӨjәn] – Карпатские горы
b) Complete the Slavic branch of the Indo-European family tree.

Slavic

West South East


___________ _________ ___________

c) Read the passage about the history of Russia and underline the main words
characterizing the long way of the country’s development. Discuss your
choice in the class.
The history of Russia dates back to the ancient times. It is unique and full
of paradoxes. Russia has always suffered from unexpected invasions from
the West, South, and East, internal problems connected with impostors constantly
trying to take advantage of Russia, its treasures and people. And, of course,
Russia itself was a bit backward, in some ways it was always deaf to the
civilization coming from the West. Red tape and stubborn officials tried to slow
down progress and culture. But, on the other hand, there were a lot of celebrities,
who enjoyed popularity and gained reputation as highly educated and gifted
people. Russia is proud of them: they are great musicians, scientists, poets and
many others.
It is worth mentioning, that millions of Russians gave their lives for the
liberation of Russia from numerous invaders: Chin-gis-han, Napoleon, and Hitler.
Their plans of enslavement of Russia were crushed and went to pieces. But the
country’s losses were irreplaceable, too. We’ve always paid too much for our
independence.
After the break-up of the USSR in 1991, Russia faced not only old
problems, but new and even unexpected ones, like ethnic clashes. It put the
country into a deep economic and political crisis, which lasted during the 90s.
During that period we lost a lot of doctors, scientists and musicians, who fled
Russia looking for a better life. At present you can meet our former countrymen in
almost any country in the world.
Life has changed greatly by now. We are trying to introduce a new way of
economy – capitalism with its free market. A great number of people still see this
way as alien to our mentality, which results in a lot of jobless people, living on the
dole and finding it difficult to make both ends meet. At the same time we witness
how our economy is gradually overcoming the economic and social deadlock.
And in spite of the current problems, we can't help hoping that our prosperity is a
matter of time, and in our lifetime Russia will become a great power, as it used to.
4.3. When describing the population of any country you may want to consider it
from the ethnic perspective. People belong to ethnic groups and regional
groups depending on the region where they live, e.g. Afro-Caribbeans,
Asians, Orientals and Latin Americans. Find the Russian equivalents to the
following world regions. Think of 1-2 countries that belong to each region.
What ethnic group do you belong to?
The Arctic The Far East
North America The Middle East
The Caribbean Asia
Latin (South) America The Pacific
The Atlantic North Africa
Scandinavia Central Africa
Europe Southern Africa
Australasia The Indian Ocean
The Antarctic

4.4. People in different regions speak different dialects as well as languages.


Everyone has a mother tongue (first language); many have second and
third languages. Some people are perfect in more than one language and
are bilingual or multilingual.
a) Read how adjective referring to countries and languages are formed.
Withb)–ish: British Irish Flemish Turkish Spanish
With –(i)an: Canadian Brazilian American Russian Australian
With –ese: Japanese Chinese Guyanese Burmese Maltese
Taiwanese
With –i: Iraqi Kuwaiti Pakistani Yemeni Bangladeshi
With –ic: ArabicIcelandic
Special forms: French Greek Swiss Dutch

b) Form the adjectives from these geographical names.


Scotland, Hungary, Argentine, Wales, Italy, Indonesia, Sweden, Norway, Finland,
Bulgaria, Poland, Ukraine, Mexico, Germany, Portugal, Congo

4.5. Do the following World quiz.


1. What are the main ethnic groups in Russia? The USA? Great Britain?
2. Which countries, strictly speaking, are located in Scandinavia?
3. What are the five countries with the highest population?
4. How many languages are there in the world?
5. Where is Kiribati?
6. Where do people speak Inuit?
7. What are the five most widely spoken languages?
4.6. Explain the difference between the two adjectives in each of the following pairs.
Think of nouns that can be described with each of the adjectives.
(a) Arab and Arabic
(b) Scottish and Scotch
(c) Oriental and Occidental

4.7. a) Scan the text to find the names of the ethnic groups and languages of the
Russian Federation.
Russia has one of the widest varieties of ethnic groups in the world (over 160
ethnic groups according to 2002 All-Russian Population Census), but ethnic
Russians form the vast majority of the population (79.8%). In 2002 the non-
Russian population constituted only 20% of the total, with the largest minority,
the Tatars, making up only 3.8%. Ukrainians (2%), the Chuvash (1.1%), and
Bashkirs (1.2%) are the only other minorities constituting more than 1% of the
population. Other minorities include Chechens, Armenians, Mordovians,
Belarusians, Germans, etc. Thirty-two ethnic groups have their own
administrative territories. Thousands of people have left ethnic administrative
territories in recent years. Although Birobijan (Jewish Autonomous Region) was
originally created for the Jewish people of the Soviet Union, it has never been a
major area of Jewish settlement; emigration in the post-Soviet era has caused its
Jewish population to become even smaller.
The Russian language is the country’s official language and it is the most
commonly spoken in business, government, and education. Ethnic Russians
speak their native tongue almost exclusively, though most Russians living in the
areas of other ethnic groups can speak the ethnic language as well. People
belonging to other nationalities and ethnic groups are bilingual. More than 100
languages are spoken in Russia. Some of the ethnic republics have declared
official regional languages, but millions of non-Russians have adopted Russian as
their mother tongue. Among the most bilingual are the Ingush people.
During the Soviet era the Soviet government helped many smaller ethnic
groups develop their own alphabets and vocabularies. At the same time the
USSR’s educational policies ensured widespread use of the Russian language.

b) Find the words and expressions in the text that mean the same.
most of the people or things; a group of people of a different race or religion
than most people in the country; language; an official count of all the people in a
country; able to speak two languages equally well; to start to use a particular
method, language, etc.
4.8. a) Edward Everett said once that “Education is a better safeguard of
liberty than a standing army”. What do you think about it?
b) Scan the text and make up a chart showing the structure of the Russian
educational system.
Russia inherited a well-developed, comprehensive system of education from
the Soviet period, with an extensive network of preschool, elementary,
secondary, and higher educational institutions. Enrollment in preschools,
which is optional, has dropped since the Soviet period, as tuition became more
expensive after 1991. Free, compulsory education begins at the age of 6, when
children enter primary school for an intensive course of study from grades one
to four. Intermediate education begins with grade five and continues through
grade nine. Children can then enter upper-level schools or vocational-technical
programs, which include on-the-job training. The majority of students are
instructed in the Russian language, and General Certificates of Secondary
Education as well as diplomas are granted only in Russian, Bashkir, and Tatar.
Other non-Russian languages are taught to various degrees, usually only for the
first few years of instruction.
Undergraduate training in higher educational institutions generally involves a
four- or five-year course of study, after which students may enroll in a one- to
three-year program of graduate training. In the mid-1990s about 4.5 million
students were enrolled in Russian institutions of higher education. Graduate
students who successfully complete their courses of study, comprehensive
examinations, and the defense of their dissertations receive candidate of science
degrees, which are roughly equivalent to doctoral degrees in the United States. A
higher degree, the doctor of sciences, is awarded to established scholars who have
made outstanding contributions to their disciplines.
Since 1991 the system of higher education has undergone considerable changes.
Private schools, some operated by religious organizations, have opened in large
numbers. Public institutions of higher education, once heavily supported by the
state, have had to cover a much larger share of their operating costs. In order to
attract support from potential sponsors, regional authorities upgraded more than
100 teacher-training colleges to universities or academies, which are more
prestigious. As a result, new teacher-training institutes were created to ensure that
Russia trains an adequate number of future educators.
The most prominent Russian universities are Moscow State University, Saint
Petersburg State University, Kazan’ State University, and Novosibirsk State
University. Other important universities are located in Rostov-na-Donu (Rostov-
on-Don), Nizhniy Novgorod, Tomsk, Vladivostok, and Voronezh. In addition to
universities and institutes, Russia has one of the world’s foremost organizations
devoted to scholarly research, the Russian Academy of Sciences.
4.9. Put each of the following words of phrases in its correct space in the
passage below.
state terms seminar degree co-educational
academic
private primary tutorial graduate nursery school fees
grant secondary lecture break up compulsory

When children are two or three years old, they sometimes go to a (a) ______,
where they learn simple songs and games. Their first real school is called a (b)
____ school. In Britain children start this school at the age of five. The (c) ____
year in Britain begins in September and is divided into three (d) _____. Schools
(e) _____ for the summer holiday in July. (f) ____ education begins at the age of
about eleven, and most schools at this level are (g) _____, which means boys and
girls study together in the same classes. In Britain education is (h) ____ from five
to sixteen years of age, but many children remain at school for another two or
three years after 16 to take higher exams. Most children go to (i) ____ schools,
which are maintained by the government or local education authorities, but some
children go to (j) ____ schools , which can be very expensive. University courses
normally last three years and then students (k) _____, which means they receive
their (l) ____. At university, teaching is by (m) _____ (= an individual lesson
between a teacher and one or two students), (n) ____ (= a class of students
discussing a subject with a teacher), (o) ____ (= when a teacher gives a prepared
talk to a number of students) and of course private study. Most people who
receive a university place are given a (p) ____ by the government to help pay
their (q) ___ and living expenses.

4.10. Explain the difference between the following.


(a) to sit an exam and to set an exam
(b) to take an exam and to pass an exam
(c) compulsory and voluntary
(d) to educate and to bring up
(e) a pupil and a student

4.11. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
up to of at by from in into

1. Which school do you go ______?


2. He left school _____ the age _____ 18.
3. The summer term ends _______ July.
4. She’s not at home, she’s _________ school.
5. She goes ________ Sussex University.
6. His lecture was divided _____ four parts.
7. School breaks ___ next Friday.
8. He is now _____ university.
9. She is _____ the same class as her brother.
10. Students usually receive a grant ____ the state.
11. They’re given a grant ____ the state.

4.12. Explain the difference between the following.


(a) pro- and anti-
(b) an election and a referendum

4.13. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage below to complete the text about elections.
election campaign support polling day opinion poll vote
polling station predict ballot box candidate

People sometimes try to (a)____the result of an election weeks before it takes


place. Several hundred people are asked which party they prefer, and their answers
are used to guess the result of the coming election. This is called an (b)_____.
Meanwhile each party conducts its (c)____with meetings, speeches, television
commercials and party members going from door to door encouraging people to
(d)____their party. In Britain everyone over 18 is eligible to (e)____. The place
where people go to vote in an election is called a (f)____and the day of the
election is often known as a (g)____. The voters put their votes in a (h)____and
later they are counted. The (i)____with the most votes is then declared the winner.

4.14. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage below to complete the text about the government.
cabinet alliance right-wing prime minister one-party states
coalition majority left-wing opposition split

In most countries, except (a)_____, there are several different political parties.
The one with the (b)_____of seats normally forms the government, and the parties
which are against the government are called the (c)____. Sometimes no single
party wins enough seats, and several parties must combine together in a (d)____ to
form a government. The principal ministers in the government form a group called
the (e)____. The leader of this group, and of the government, is the (f)____. Of
course, there are many different kinds of parties and governments.
A socialist or communist party is often described as (g)____. A conservative
party on the other hand, is usually said to be (h)______. Political situations are
always changing. Sometimes in a party or between two parties there is a big
argument or deep difference of opinion. This is called a (i)______. When, on the
other hand, two parties work together, this is sometimes called an (j)______.
4.15. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
with for against to in between

1. I voted ______ the Liberal candidate.


2. Put your voting papers ______ the ballot box.
3. He's very right-wing, so he's ______ the socialists.
4. She belongs ______ the Communist Party.
5. The Liberals formed an alliance ______ the Social Democrats.
6. There's a split ______ the two parties.
7. There's a split ______ the party.

4.16. a) One person once said that a holiday is “a time which promotes
the good feeling that men should have toward each other in their social
and political relations”. What is your definition of a holiday? What
holidays does your family celebrate?
b) Read the information below and make up a list of the holidays
celebrated in Russia. What holidays would you like to add to the list?

In general, there are three kinds of holidays in Russia. They can be national,
professional and religious. Some of them have long histories and some of them are
newly established or renamed old ones.
Official / national holidays
National or official holidays are called so because they have an official status of
days-off throughout the country and are celebrated very widely. Take any Russian
calendar and you will see all the official holidays printed in red. There are quite a
lot of national holidays in Russia when people all over the country do not work.
See the list of the official holidays below.
The official holidays in Russia when banks, government offices, libraries and
educational establishments are closed:
New Year's Holidays January, 1-5
Russian Orthodox Christmas January, 7
Day of the Defenders of the Motherland February, 23
Women's Day March, 8
Day of Spring and Labour May, 1
Victory Day May, 9
Independence Day June, 12
Day of People's Unity November, 4
Stores may be open for fewer hours on some of these days. Sometimes it can be
a little complicated, figuring out on which days the most businesses shut down. If
the holiday falls on Monday or Friday, then everything is simple — it's a day-off. If
it falls on a weekend, then Friday or Monday will also be a day-off. If it falls on
Tuesday or Thursday then the weekend will be shifted a day in the right direction
and Saturday or Sunday becomes a working day, with the three days-off being
Sunday-Monday-Tuesday or Thursday-Friday-Saturday. If the holiday falls on
Wednesday then there is no long weekend.
Religious holidays
Apart from the official holidays, many people in Russia, especially after the fall
of the USSR where any religious activities were restricted, celebrate religious
holidays. The origin of many holidays is not always Christian or Orthodox.
Russians can have holidays which are Christian and pagan at the same time.
Through years, Christianity has been converting ceremonies of paganism into
Christian ceremonies and traditions, but many religious holidays contain the
elements of paganism and are perceived as merry entertainment. Each Russian
holiday has its own peculiar ceremonies and traditions. Traditional Russian
celebrations of Kolyadki, Maslenitsa (Shrovetide/ Pancake week), Easter, Red Hill,
Ivan Kupala, Troitsa and Spas can be great things for tourists to see.
Professional holidays
Professional holidays are widely celebrated among the members of certain
professional groups: teachers, doctors, auditors, sales assistants, diplomats, etc.
There are really lots of professional holidays in Russia, but they are not public
holidays, so the banks, offices and schools are not supposed to close.
Other holidays
Though quite a number of holidays have already been described, we haven’t
mentioned all the occasions that Russians celebrate. There are some other holidays
which are quite important, though some of them are very unusual, to say the least.
Take ‘Old’ New Year, for example, which is celebrated on January 14. After Peter
the Great moved the date of New Year celebration in Russia from September to
January 1, in 1700, it became an official holiday. But in 1918 by a special decree of
the Bolshevik party, Russia adopted a new, European calendar, and had to add two
weeks to its chronology. So when the country started celebrating New Year on
January 1, in 1919, some people would continue celebrating it according to the old
calendar, which was on January 14. Due to this calendar change, now we celebrate
Christmas on January 7, not on December 25, as our ancestors used to.
Some people get into celebration of the Old New Year because they can not stop
after celebrating New Year and Christmas!
St. Valentine’s Day, which is on February 14, is quite a new, but popular and
well-accepted in Russia Catholic holiday. The holiday is celebrated in the same
manner as it is celebrated in Catholic countries.
April Fools’ Day is unofficially, but very widely celebrated on April 1. Jokes are
heard everywhere on this day. People play tricks on their colleagues, relatives and
friends. Even if one fools you, you are not supposed to show any signs of bad
temper. Otherwise, people will suspect you of the worst possible sin — the lack of
humour.
Apart from this, Russians also celebrate the Children’s Day (June, 1), Day of
Knowledge (September, 1), Mothers’ Day (last Sunday in November), Day of
Elderly People (October, 5), Students’ Day (January, 25) and some other holidays.
c) Answer the following questions.

1) What types of holidays are distinguished in Russia?


2) What is an “official” holiday?
3) What are the origins of religious holidays in Russia?
4) What is characteristic for Russian professional holidays?
5) What other holidays are celebrated in Russia?
4.17. a) Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage
below to complete the text about some British traditons.
b) Pick up the names of some major British holidays and festivals.

cottage cards meals exchanged breaks owes


warm holy hands pumpkins conservative scarlet
law houses cool

They say that the English are very (1) ______. They firmly stick to their
customs and traditions. Their theatres are closed on Sundays because of the law,
which has been in force since Shakespeare’s times. But cinemas are open because
there were no cinemas when the (2) _____ was passed.
An English family prefers a small house with a garden to a flat in a block of flats.
However, not all working people can afford a (3) ______. Nevertheless both the
rich and the poor have a fire-place by all means. This is their tradition.
All over the country it is the custom to have (4) ________ at regular hours.
Usually they have breakfast between 8 and 10 o'clock. Between 12 and 1 o'clock
they have lunch. The third meal of the day is 5 o'clock tea. The English know how
to make good tea. Seven cups of it in the morning will wake you up; nine cups will
put you to sleep at night. If you are hot, tea will (5) ______ you off, and if you are
cold, it will (6) ________ you up. They have dinner at 7 o'clock.
There are very beautiful and colourful ceremonies in Great Britain. They are also
traditional. The most stirring of all London ceremonies is the Changing of the
Guard. The ceremony takes place at Buckingham Palace - the Royal residence. It
starts at 11.30 a.m. and lasts about 30 and 40 minutes. It is performed by the
Guards who are dressed in their full ceremonial costumes of (7) ______ tunics and
bearskin tall hats.
Holidays, festivals and celebrations in Great Britain are also connected with
some colourful traditions. So, on Christmas Day in Britain the (8) _____ are
decorated with holy and bunches of mistletoe. Christmas (9) ______ are arranged
on mantelpieces, shelves, tables, and walls.
Halloween takes place on 31st October and means a “(10) _____ evening”. It is
particularly connected with witches and ghosts. At parties people dress up in
strange costumes and pretend they are witches. They cut horrible faces in (11)
_____ and put a candle inside, which shines through the eyes. People may play
different games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using
their (12) _______.
The Christian religion gave the world such a wonderful holiday as Easter. But the
celebration (13) _____ its name and many of its customs and symbols to a pagan
festival called Eostre. The egg, for instance, was a fertility symbol long before the
Christian era. The ancient Persians, Greeks, and Chinese (14) ________ eggs at
their spring festivals. In Christian times the egg took on a new meaning
symbolizing the tomb from which Christ rose. The ancient custom of dying eggs at
Easter time is still very popular.
There are a lot of customs and traditions at some colleges of Oxford and
Cambridge. If a "fresher" comes late to dinner or (15) ________ one of the
unwritten laws of behaviour, a senior student may order him to drink a large silver
cup filled with beer. He must drink it in one attempt. If he succeeds, the senior
student pays for it. If not, the cup is passed round the table at the expense of the
"fresher".
As a rule, the English love and respect their customs and traditions.

c) Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. ___ The English don’t respect their traditions.


2. ___ An English family prefers a small house without a garden to a flat in a
block of flats.
3. ___ All over the country it is the custom to have meals at regular hours.
4. ___ Usually they have breakfast in England between 10 and 12 o'clock.
5. ___ There are no beautiful ceremonies in Great Britain.
6. ___ The ceremony of Changing of the Guard takes place at Buckingham
Palace.
7. ___ Halloween takes place on 1st of October.
8. ___ The egg was a symbol of life.
9. ___ The ancient custom of dying eggs at Easter time is still very popular.
10. __ If a "fresher" comes late to dinner or breaks one of the unwritten laws of
behaviour, a senior student may order him to sing a song.
4.18. a) Think of a Russian equivalent to the English “bank holiday”.
b) Scan the text for the names of British holidays. Do we celebrate
similar holidays?
c) Read the text and translate it into Russian.
Speaking about British traditions, we should distinguish bank or public holidays,
annual festivals, celebrations and pageant ceremonies.
The term «bank» holiday dates back to the 19 th century when the Bank Holiday
Acts of 1871 and 1875 declared certain days to be bank holidays, that is days on
which banks were to be closed. Today, their observance is no longer limited to
banks only. Post offices, most factories, and shops are closed too. There are eight
bank holidays in Britain. They are: New Year's Day, Good Friday (= Friday before
Easter), Easter Monday, May Bank Holiday, Spring Bank Holiday, August (or
Summer) Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, and Boxing Day. All public holidays,
except New Year's Day, Christmas Day and Boxing Day are movable, that is they
do not fall on the same day each year.
Most of bank holidays are of religious meaning. But for the greater part of the
population they have long lost their religious significance and are simply days, on
which people relax, eat, drink, and make merry.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

4.19. Read the info on some world demographic indices. Compare them with
those of the Russian Federation. Present your research to the class.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS Birth rates 1955-2025 Death rates 1955-2025


Birth rates are affected by such factors as per thousand population
nutrition, the availability of contraception and, to black line - Developing world
a certain extent, culture. Death rates tend to fall grey line -Developed world
with improved healthcare and nutrition. There is
a significant difference in the birth and death
rates between the developed and the developing
worlds. The graphs below show that birth and
death rates for developing countries took set to
continue rising into the 21st century. In
developed countries, the rise in birth rate should
slow down, and the death rate could remain
static.
LIFE EXPECTANCY
People in developed countries have a longer life expectancy on average, with women living
longer than men. In the developing world people have a shorter life expectancy. In the graph: 1-
Sweden, 2 - Japan, 3 - USA, 4 - UK, 5 - Former
USSR, 6– Bolivia, 7 – India, 8 - Burkina-Faso

URBAN AND RURAL POPULATIONS


In many parts of the world, people are packed into cities. Growing urban populations bring
problems, including poor sanitation, poverty, and lack of healthcare. Growing cities also mean
encroachment on land previously used for agriculture. While the trend is toward living in cities,
there is still a significant proportion of the population living in the countryside, especially in the
less-developed countries.

4.20. Compare the educational systems in Russia and the US.


Characteristics of the US Higher Education System
Colleges and Universities
The major difference between colleges and universities is that colleges are four-
year institutions, and universities offer longer courses of study. The term "college"
is generally used to describe either an independent four-year institution that offers
only the bachelor's degree, or a division of a university that offers courses and
awards degrees in a specialized course of study. The curriculum in colleges
usually emphasizes arts and sciences or liberal arts, a combination of natural and
social sciences and the humanities. Academic work at a college leads to a four-year
bachelor of arts (B.A.) or bachelor of science (B.S.) degree. Some colleges also
have graduate programs.
Universities are usually composed of several undergraduate colleges and offer
graduate (Master of Arts or M.A., Master of Science or M.S.) and post-graduate
degrees (Doctor of Philosophy or, Ph.D., Doctor of Education or, Ed.D).
Private and Public Institutions
According to the U.S. Department of Education, there are more than 1,400
private and over 500 public institutions that offer either four years or two years of
undergraduate education. Private institutions are those which depend primarily on
non-government funding sources and student fees for financial support. Public
institutions depend primarily on state funds for their support. Most of the large
universities in the U.S. are state-supported.
Major
A major is the primary area of concentration (for instance, English literature,
Biology, Political Science, etc.). Students are often required to take the majority of
their courses in their declared major. There may also be some other courses related
to the major which are required by institutions of higher education for the
completion of a degree. A student can also have one or two minors.
General Education Courses
Many institutions of higher education require students to take courses in several
general areas, such as English, Mathematics, and Social Science. The purpose of
these general education requirements is to give students a more balanced
education.

4.21. Do some research on the educational system in Great Britain. Compare


it with that of Russia and the USA. Present the result of your research to
the class.

4.22. a) Scan the text and draw a chart of the power branches in Russia. Give
a short presentation on it to class.
The Russian Federation became an independent state in December 1991 as a
result of the collapse of the USSR. During the Communist era the Russian Soviet
Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) was the largest of the USSR’s 15 republics.
The present Russian Federation occupies the same territory as the former RSFSR.
Since independence, Russia has adopted a new constitution and a system of
government.
Russia is a federal and presidential republic governed under a constitution
that took effect in 1993, replacing the 1978 constitution of the RSFSR. The central
government is composed of three independent branches:
- Executive Power is concentrated in the executive branch, which is headed by
a president. He or she is directly elected by the people to a four-year term and
cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. The president serves as the
commander in chief of the armed forces and chairs the Security Council, which
is the central decision-making body for matters of defense. With the defense
minister, the president has control over Russia’s nuclear weapons. The president
appoints the prime minister, who is second in command. The appointment is
subject to ratification by the State Duma, the lower house of parliament; if the
State Duma rejects the candidate for prime minister three times, the president can
dissolve the legislature and call for new elections.
- The legislative branch is represented by the Federal Assembly, which is
Russia’s bicameral national legislature. It is composed of an upper house, called
the Council of the Federation, and a lower house, the State Duma. The Council
of the Federation includes two representatives from each of the administrative
units that make up the Russian Federation. The State Duma has 450 members.
Voters elect half of the Duma members by casting a vote for a specific party listed
on the ballot; these 225 seats are divided among the qualifying parties by
proportional representation. The other 225 Duma members are elected individually
from electoral districts throughout the country.
- The highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court, composed of 19 judges
who are appointed by the president and approved by the Council of the Federation.
Below the Constitutional Court are the Supreme Court and the Supreme
Arbitration Court. The Supreme Court rules on civil, criminal, and administrative
law, and the Supreme Arbitration Court handles economic suits.
The government is responsible to the president, and the executive branch is
considerably more powerful than the other two branches. To some extent,
presidential decrees can take the place of laws, thereby evading legislative
scrutiny. Furthermore, the legislature has only limited rights to investigate
government activity. Nevertheless, the legislature can reject the budget, draft
legislation, publicize government errors and malpractice, and, at the price of its
own dissolution and new parliamentary elections, bring down the government by
repeated votes of no confidence.
A new constitution, ratified by referendum in December 1993, greatly increased
the power of the presidency, it also established basic democratic guidelines, such
as fixed terms of office, electoral procedures, and universal suffrage for all
citizens aged 18 or older. The constitution also guarantees civil rights and the rule
of law.

b) What articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation do you know?


Have your read the Russian Constitution? Is the constitution important for a
country? Why? What do you know about the constitutions of other countries?

4.23. a) What political parties in Russia do you know? What role do they play
in society? Are you a member of any political party? Why? Why not?
b) Read the text and be ready to discuss the development of parties in
Russia?
Since the late 1980s Russia has changed from a single-party, totalitarian state
led by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) to a multiparty
democracy. The CPSU has been replaced by a number of political groups,
factions, movements, and parties that span a wide political spectrum, from
monarchists to communists. The parties range in size from a few members to more
than half a million members. Some of the smaller political groups have lasted only
a brief time. Alliances between groups are generally unstable, and coalitions shift
frequently. Individual personalities influence political formations to a large degree,
and the political agendas of many parties are vague and poorly documented.
Russia’s political parties can be divided into four general categories: communist
parties; Russian nationalist parties; reformist, or pro-market democratic parties;
and centrist and special interest parties. In early 1996 the major groups were the
Communist Party of the Russian Federation, led by Gennady Zyuganov, which
emerged from the legislative elections of December 1995 with the largest
representation in parliament; the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia, led by Vladimir Zhirinovsky; and the Agrarian Party, which is dominated
by supporters of the collective farms system inherited from the Soviet era.
Legislative elections were held in the Russian Federation on December 7, 2003.
At stake were the 450 seats in the State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), the
lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia.
As expected, the United Russia pro-Vladimir Putin party won the largest number
of votes (38%) and seats, reducing most other parties to minor status. Even the
formal figure of 221 seats for United Russia is an underestimate, because most of
the minor party and "independent" members are in fact clients or supporters of
President Putin. The elections have thus given Putin complete control of the
legislature.
Of the other parties, the Communist Party (12.8%) is still the largest, though
much reduced in strength. Liberal Democratic Party (11.7 %) came in third and
improved its position by a few delegates. The liberal Yabloko (4.4 %) party and the
liberal-conservative Union of Right Forces (SPS) (4 %) lost most of its seats. The
only other significant party is socialist Homeland Union (Rodina)(9.2 %).

4.24. a) Scan the text and pick up the names of the Russian holidays described
in it along with their main features.
b) Ask 5-7 questions about the text.
Like any other nation the Russians are famous for their own peculiar customs
and traditions kept through the centuries.
Peter the Great, an outstanding Russian monarch, introduced many changes to
the life of Russia and the Russian calendar. For instance, he brought in European
chronology in Russia, which started with the birth of Christ.
The New Year is first on the calendar and in popularity. Many celebrate it twice,
on January 1 and 14, which corresponds to January 1 in the Julian calendar used in
Russia before 1918.
Church holidays have been recently reborn. Christmas, one of the main
Christian holidays in Russia, is celebrated on the 7th of January
in compliance with the Russian Orthodox calendar. The
festive and merry days of Christmas are called Christmas-tide
in Russia. There is no any other holiday celebrated in
compliance with so many traditions, ceremonies, etc.
One of the ceremonies is called "Kolyadki". The ceremony
includes wishing of wealth and happiness to everybody.
During
the ceremony a snow-lady is made with a carrot nose, eyes of prunes and teeth
of green beans.
Lady Kolyada comes to the holiday to congratulate people and enjoy merry
games and fun. Lady Kolyada is accompanied by some people bearing stars. They
sing and dance in a ring on the snow with fired torches and push the festive
wheel.
At the end of winter Shrovetide (a pancake week) comes. In Russia Pancake
week is called "Maslyanitsa". Shrovetide is an ancient festival dating from pagan
times. The Christian historians say that those were really "mad" days in the past.
People wore funny masks and costumes, sometimes, men wore women's clothing
and vice versa. Such masquerade anticipated a merry festival, when delicious
food and a lot of wine were consumed. At first it was a festival that celebrated the
arrival of spring and the start of work on the land. It included many rituals
(burning a man of straw symbolizing winter, lighting fires, leaving festival food on
the ancestors' graves) and feasts, the main food at which were ‘bliny’ (pancakes
and crepes). The feast fighting was one more great fun that helped to get warm on
cold winter days. Later, the Orthodox Church included Shrovetide among its
festivals. Shrovetide has lost its ritual significance and has become a symbolic
festival of saying good-bye to winter and welcoming spring. At present special
performances are held during Pancake week. Throughout the whole week people
cook pancakes. Each day of this week has its name: Monday – ‘The Greeting’,
Tuesday – ‘Zaigryshi’ (entertainment day), Wednesday – ‘The Sweet Tooth’s Day’,
Thursday – ‘The Lavish Day’, Friday – ‘Good Mother’s Evenings’, Saturday –
‘Good Daughter’s Parties’. Sunday is the last day of the Pancake week, and it is a
culmination of the holiday. In ancient times the Scarecrow (Maslenitsa Dummy)
was burned in fire and its ashes would be swept across the fields ‘for a heavy
crop’. Sunday is known as ‘Sunday of Forgiveness’.
Easter (in Russian "Paskha") is celebrated in all Christian countries and in
Russia as well. In Russia it follows a 7-week Lent. Special round-shaped sweet
breads (Easter cakes) are baked. Moreover, eggs are painted in different bright
colours. The coloured egg, most often red, is the main symbol of Russian Easter. It
symbolizes eternal life, birth and perpetual renewal.
The next Sunday, which comes right after Easter, is called the Red Hill holiday.
This day is considered the best for wedding ceremonies.
The folk holiday called Troitsa (Green Yule-tide, or Whitsunday) is also
celebrated in Russia. In old times houses were decorated with green branches.
Young birch-trees were covered with girlish clothes. People sang songs and danced
round the birch-trees. The garlands made of birch branches and flowers were put
into water for fortune telling.
Traditionally, Russians love to celebrate. No wonder Russia has a huge variety of
different holidays, some of which are very publicly and widely celebrated.
Many people are surprised to know how many holidays Russians have to
celebrate! Don’t worry - it is an individual choice whether to celebrate all or only
some of them. If you don’t want – you don’t celebrate. Just do not stay with those
who are celebrating — it’s catching! Russian culture combines different religious
traditions, including Roman Catholic, Orthodox and pagan, which are reflected in
the amazing sequence of the holidays. Visit Russia and see this perfect
combination yourself!

c) Read the text again and say whether the following statements are true (T) or
false (F).
1. ___ There are no special customs and traditions in Russia.
2. ___ It was Peter the Great who introduced a lot of changes to the life
of Russia and the Russian calendar.
3. ___ "Kolyadki" is one of the ceremonies which includes making a
snow-lady with an ugly face without a nose, with green eyes and black teeth.
4. ___ Shrovetide is an ancient festival dating from pagan times.
5. ___ Shrovetide has lost its ritual significance and has become a
symbolic festival of saying good-bye to winter and welcoming spring.
6. ___ Easter is not celebrated in Christian countries. It is celebrated only
in Russia.
7. ___ A pan-cake symbolizes eternal life, birth, and perpetual renewal.
8. ___ The next Sunday, which comes right after Easter is called the
Green Hill holiday.
9. ___ On the folk holiday called Troitsa houses were decorated with
green branches and young birch-trees were covered with girlish clothes.
10. ___ Russian culture combines different religious traditions, including
Roman Catholic, Orthodox and pagan.

4.25. Our perception of other people is often influenced by stereotypes (a


stereotype is an idea of what a particular group of people is like that
many people have). However funny they might seem at first,
stereotypes turn out to be quite harmful, especially when we try to
communicate with foreigners basing on such biased ideas. Most
nations have stereotypes about themselves, though.
a) Think of the most famous Russian stereotypes about other nations
(especially, British and American). Can you prove that they are unfair
or wrong?
b) Think of the most famous stereotypes that the Russians have about
themselves and that foreigners have about the Russians. How
different are they? Why?
c) Read the passage below about the way the British and the
Americans stereotype each other. Compare them with the Russian
stereotypes and comment on them.

British stereotypes of Americans: Americans are illiterate, have no culture, are


immodest and gauche, have a throw away culture (e.g. automobiles) and
everything has a price. Churchill called Americans a nation of shopkeepers.
Napoleon said the same of the English, L'angleterre est une nation de boutiquiers.
When Clive James visited California in the late 1970s, he reported that restaurants
look like car washes, car washes look like art galleries, art galleries look like war
memorials, war memorials look like fire stations, fire stations look like churches,
and churches look like restaurants.
Americans' stereotypes of themselves: they think they are culture-free, think
other countries don’t like them, think they are the world (international news are
virtually absent from major news broadcasts and newspapers unless American
interests are involved), and are born to shop (for trinkets to show off to each other).
Americans are patriotic, direct and open in conversation, globally naïve, experts
at marketing, welcome you into their stores, have more shopping malls, and don’t
have a class structure.
American stereotypes of the British: they are bad lovers, terrible cooks, snotty,
pompous, insular, cold, traditional, do things in their own fashion, make the best
‘bad guys’ in movies, and speak English correctly. One American at an English
college complained, ‘The English girls never got my jokes, the Brussels sprouts
were gray, the drizzle was relentless, and the toilet paper was waxy’.
British stereotypes of themselves: none.
The British despise their own country, pity anyone not British, despise
foreigners, talk to themselves (but only after years of acquaintance—Punch
Magazine), have a class structure (upper middle class, middle class, and lower
middle class), and look upon you as you enter their shops as a trespasser.

4.26. Read some myths about life in the US and comment on them. Have you
heard any myths about life in Russia from your foreign friends? What
do you think about such myths? See Appendix for some real information
about life in the USA.

MYTH: Life is easy in the United States.


MYTH: America is “the land of the free,” so I can do whatever I want there.
MYTH: Americans are racists. /Americans are tolerant.
MYTH: The United States is a classless society.
MYTH: Americans are rude and loud.
MYTH: All Americans are rich and drive fast cars.
MYTH: American students are less prepared academically than students from my
country.
MYTH: American professors are casual, sometimes even asking students to
address them by their first names.
MYTH: American students use illegal drugs.
4.27. a) Fill in the following questionnaire on your own and later discuss it in
class. You may use: A= I agree B= I'm not sure C= I disagree.
b) What is, in your opinion, the best way to challenge a stereotype?
 National stereotypes are dangerous because they may provoke racial
prejudice.
 Stereotypes contain a certain amount of truth.
 There is no such thing as national character and therefore the idea of
national stereotypes is rubbish.
 The reason stereotypes exist is because people are afraid of diversity,
change, and what is unknown. They prefer to cling to simple classifications,
which maintain an old, familiar and established order.
 Stereotypes are simply harmless sorts of jokes we tell about other
nationalities or groups of people.

4.28. Complete the following dialogues. Read them with a partner and make
up your own dialogue basing on the model dialogues.
1.
A: What’s your favourite holiday?
B: Well, that depends. I like (1) ____ that (2) _____ me a long vacation (3)
_____ school.
(1) a. any b. such c. this
(2) a. does b. makes c. gives
(3) a. from b. to c. since

A: The (4) _______ break is in summer, but that doesn’t (5) ___________
because it’s not for a holiday. But really, which holiday do you (6) ______?
(4) a. longer b. longest c. lonely
(5) a. number b. count c. add
(6) a. like best b. best like c. most best like

B: I (5) _______ Easter is my favourite, because I really like doing the Easter
egg (6) _______ . My (7) _______ family makes Easter eggs and hides (8)
________, then (9) _______ the children look _______(10) them.
(5) a. prefer b. wonder c. guess
(6) a. look b. hunt c. find
(7) a. every b. all c. whole
(8) a. this b. these c. them
(9) a. entire b. all c. many
(10) a. for b. at c. to

A: That sounds fun. (11) ______ I prefer New Year’s Eve.


(11) a. Also b. But c. True

B: That’s’ a strange (12) __________!


(12) a. choice b. choose c. choosing

A: I know but I love staying (13) _______ late and watching one year (14)
_____ into the (15)___________. And I don’t (16) __________ drinking
champagne.
(13) a. up b. very c. high
(14) a. travel b. make c. change
(15) a. forward b. next c. further
(16) a. prefer b. mind c. care

2.
A: Where are you going (1) ______ Christmas (2) _______?
(1) a. in b. during c. time of
(2) a. day b. situation c. break

B: (3) ___a complicated question. My mother wants (4) __________ to Austria,


but my father (5)_____ Italy. My brother (6)__________ to ski, so (7)__________
on my mother’s side. My sister is crazy about museums – she really (8)___ them.
(9)_____ she (10)____ my father.
(3) a. It’s b. this c. so
(4) a. going b. go c. to go
(5) a. prefers b. liking c. very more
(6) a. is loving b. love c. loves
(7) a. he was b. he’s c. his
(8) a. do love b. loves c. hates
(9) a. Obviously b. Perfectly c. Nobody
(10) a. supporting b. support c. supports

A: So really it’s up to you (11) __________.


(11) a. to decide b. deciding c. decide

B: Yes. (12) ______considering the situation (13) ________. (14)__________


my mother (15) __________better choices. But my father is a (16) ________
person to travel (17) ____________.
(12) a. I will b. I’m c. I
(13) a. carelessly b. careful c. carefully
(14) a. Usually b. Normal c. Every
(15) a. making b. makes c. make
(16) a. more good b. gooder c. better
(17) a. to b. with c. for

A: It’s none of my business, but I (18) ____ think your problem is very big.
(18) a. don’t b. didn’t c. aren’t
4.29. Imagine it’s New Year’s Day. Make up five resolutions, using the words
‘ will’ and ‘ won’t’. Compare your resolutions with those of your
group mates. What is the most common resolution? Which is the most
unusual? Do you think everyone will keep these resolutions? Why do
people keep on making these resolutions if few of them ever manage to
stick to them in the end?

4.30. Read the following citations and comment on each. Which one do you like
best? Why? Express your opinion to class.
Citations about the nation and patriotism:
1. The country of every man is that one where he lives best. (Aristophanes)
2. I … do not call the sod under my feet my country. But language, religion,
laws, government, blood – identity of these makes men of one country. (Samuel
Taylor Coleridge)
3. [Education is] something which makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to
drive; easy to govern, but impossible to enslave. (Lord Brougham)
4. [Government] is to have one party govern the other party watch. (Thomas
Reed)
5. [A nation is] a group of men who speak one language and read the same
newspapers. (Friedrich W. Nietzsche)
6. [A nation is] two classes – the nations in which the government fears the
people, and the nations in which the people fear the government. (Amos R.Pinchot)
7. [Patriotism is] your conviction that this country is superior to all other
countries because you were born in it. (George Bernard Shaw)
8. [Patriotism is] the passion of fools and the most foolish of passions. (Arthur
Schopenhauer)
9. [Patriotism is] a bad and harmful feeling … a stupid doctrine. (Leo Tolstoy)
10. [Patriotism is] our country, right or wrong. When right, to be kept right; when
wrong, to be put right. (Carl Schurz)
11. [Patriotism is] one person’s meat is another person’s poison. (Proverb)

4.31. Make up a role-play. Imagine that you are members of a State Committee
on Pubic Holidays. On your agenda you have one issue. You have to
eliminate one holiday from the official holiday list and add a new one.
Discuss in details what holidays might be considered in this connection
and why. Do all the preparations for your meeting (make up a
questionnaire to conduct a survey among your friends and relatives, look
into history, etc.).
WRITING

4.32. Make up a ‘visiting card’ for Russia, showing the major parameters of its
social and political life. Be ready to present it to class.

4.33. Take a trip in your imagination backwards in time. Think about a holiday
celebration when you were a child. Try to see in your ‘mind’s eye’. Did
you believe in any magical figures or happenings (Baba Yaga, Father
Frost, Santa Claus, etc.)? What emotions did you feel? How have your
beliefs and feelings changed? How old were you at the time? How old were
your parents, relatives, and friends? Write a 250-word essay about the
holiday, your beliefs and your emotions.
Name of celebration, traditional food,

4.34. Describe some celebration in Russia or any other country, using the list of
celebration descriptions below.
meaning of name, traditional dances,
history, date, music and songs,
preparation for celebration, traditional clothes,
gift giving, typical activities

4.35. Make up a list of five nations, mostly stereotyped by the Russians.


Describe each in short (national character, time perception, gift giving,
their preferences in food, clothes, life style, etc.).

4.36. George B. Shaw once wrote about patriotism “[It is] your conviction that
this country is superior to all other countries because your were born in
it”. Write a 250-300 word essay about Russia, using the above words as
an epigraph.

4.37. Many of these sentences have some errors. Add an article or make a
noun plural to correct these mistakes. Some sentences may be correct.
Rewrite the text, making the necessary changes.

The New Year holiday is the most common celebration around the world. Every
culture has interesting New Year’s tradition. In many countries, custom focus on
good luck for the new year and saying good-bye to the past. In Peru and many
South American country, people put on yellow underwear. No one knows where
the custom comes from. However, yellow has been the colour of good luck for
many generations. Second Peruvian tradition is to eat twelve grape at midnight.
The grapes represent the twelve month of the year. Some people say you must eat
grape under table or without chewing them. If you want to take trip in the new
year, you must run around the block with packed suitcase. Another interesting
custom is to throw away old calendar. In fact, if you are in Lima on December 31,
at noon you will see calendar flying out of the windows!

4.38. Render the text in English.


Новый год (1 января)
Новый год в Англии отмечают без подарков и не обязательно в кругу семьи.
Традиционных блюд для этого торжества нет. Обычно английские хозяйки
готовят яблочный пирог. В Шотландии встреча Нового года считается более
важным праздником, чем Рождество. Новый год по-шотландски – это, в первую
очередь, генеральная уборка. Ни одно дело не должно остаться незавершенным.
С первым ударом часов глава дома распахивает дверь и держит ее до последнего
удара, так он выпускает старый год из дома, а новый впускает.
Также в Шотландии считается, что первый человек, который зайдет в дом
после наступления Нового года, значительно повлияет на финансовое состояние.
В зависимости от региона, удачу приносит светловолосый или темноволосый
чужак. В Англии удачу приносит человек, принесший в дом кусок угля и стакан
чистой воды.
1 января, с началом нового года, британцы всегда принимают какие–то важные
решения, которые должны улучшить их жизнь (бросить курить, заняться спортом
и другие).
День святого Валентина (14 февраля)
В Англии и Шотландии день Святого Валентина сопровождается тайным
вручением подарков и открыток – "валентинок". В старину вечером 13 февраля
богатые и бедные воздыхатели клали свои дары на ступеньки заветной двери,
звонили и убегали. Кстати, поздравительная открытка как таковая появилась
именно в связи с днем Валентина, и родина ее - Англия. Первым открытку
отправил Чарльз, Герцог Орлеанский (Duke of Orleans). Полагают, что традицию
дарить в день Валентина красные розы положил Людовик XVIII, именно красные
розы он преподнес в этот день Марии-Антуанетте (Marie Antoinette).
В последнее время 14-го февраля стало популярным не только посылать
открытки, но и дарить своим любимым сладости в виде сердечек, мягкие
игрушки, особенно столь популярных в Британии медвежат Teddy.
Хеллоуин (31 октября)
Хеллоуин – вечер перед Днем всех святых. Истоки этот противоречивый
праздник берет из кельтской культуры. Хэллоуин имел огромное значение, в это
время с помощью ритуалов прощались со старым, плохим, ненужным и
встречали новое. Древние англичане в дар богам природы приносили яблоки,
осенние овощи, цветы, оставляли их под деревьями или зарывали в землю с
просьбой о помощи и поддержке. Ночью 31 октября было принято выставлять
тарелку с фруктами на улицу - для мертвых душ, чтобы те могли прийти на
помощь живым.
Сейчас праздник возвращается в Европу. Дети наряжаются в костюмы чудовищ
и ходят по соседским домам, требуя сладостей. Этот обычай назван trick-or-treat -
"угости, а то напакощу". Также устраивают маскарады и выставляют в окно
полую тыкву с вырезанными глазами и ртом и свечкой внутри, чтобы отпугнуть
духов. Кстати тыква – изобретение американцев. А до этого американского
изобретения в Ирландии и Шотландии страшные рожи, в которые потом
вставляли свечки, вырезали из реп и картофелин, в Англии - из свеклы.
Рождество (24-25 декабря)
Жители Англии и Уэльса считают Рождество более важным праздником, чем
Новый год. На рождественский вечер 25 декабря собирается, как правило, вся
семья. Рождественский обед включает такие традиционные блюда как
фаршированная индейка у англичан или жареный гусь в Уэльсе и Ирландии.
Подарки британцы открывают утром 25 декабря, обязательно в присутствии
всей семьи. Кстати обычай вешать носки для подарков пришел из Англии. Есть
легенда о том, что Санта Клаус (Santa Claus) однажды уронил несколько золотых
монет, когда спускался вниз по дымоходу. Монеты попали в носок, повешенный
для просушки. С тех пор дети вешают носки на камин в надежде найти их
полными подарков. Письма Санте не отправляют по почте, а сжигают. В
Британии считается, что Санта Клаус читает пожелания детей по дыму.
Дом британцы украшают хвойными ветками и лесными ягодами. Над головой,
где-нибудь в дверном проеме, вывешиваются веточки омелы. Если под ними
встретились мужчина и женщина, то по традиции они обязательно должны
поцеловаться.
Рождественскую ель в Англии стали украшать после 1841 года, когда принц
Альберт (Albert) приказал принести и украсить елку в Виндзорском (Windsor
Castle) замке для его жены Виктории (Victoria) и их детей. А с XIX в. вошло в
обычай обмениваться поздравительными открытками. В 1843 году
англичанин Хорслей (Horsley) нарисовал первую рождественскую открытку.
1000 экземпляров открытки были тогда проданы в Лондоне.
PART II. THE PLACE I LIVE IN
Unit 1. THE PLACE I LIVE IN. MY FLAT OR MY HOUSE.

Houses are like the human


beings that inhabit them.
Victor Hugo

Recommended grammar:
Structures “12-foot ceiling, 2-car garage, etc.” Future tenses.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

1.1. Read the information below and say whether accommodation in Britain is
similar to accommodation in Russia.
As is known the place where we live plays a very important role in our lives. It
makes us feel secure and helps us know our true selves. It is the only place where
we can feel real masters of our lives. One person said that home is a shelter from
all terror, doubt, and division. But sometimes for different reasons we may decide
to change the place where we have lived for a while and start looking for a new
suitable place. Every person is assumed to move house at least once in his or her
life. This process may take much time, but it is worth it. We should be very
considerate and very peculiar about choosing a new house or a flat. Choosing a
place to live in is like choosing a spouse to live with. Mishna once said “Home
means wife”. Our ancestors must have also understood it, though in their own
way. They thought that each house had its own spirit and you were supposed to
win it over before moving house. People tried to do their best to make house
spirits their friends; they prepared different tasty dishes and performed different
rituals as if a house were a living creature. In the end, moving house became a
ritual of its own and got a very nice name – housewarming.
In good old days most people would build their dwellings by themselves. Now
the situation has changed. Some people buy a flat or a house (they own it, or it
belongs to them). When they do this in Britain, people usually borrow money
from a bank or an organization called a building society. This money, which is
called mortgage, is often paid back over 25 years, plus some interest (=money
you have to use for borrowing money). Other people prefer to rent a house or a
flat, it means that they (tenants) have to pay money every week or month to the
person who owns the house/flat. When they do this, the money they pay is called
the rent, and the person who owns the house or the flat is the landlord or
landlady.
Most of London's suburban houses consist of two floors: the ground floor and
the first floor. All in all there are six or seven rooms in the house. The rooms are
usually tiny, in British houses there are no enormous rooms.
On the ground (AmE first) floor there's usually a dining-room, a sitting-room, a
kitchen and a hall. In the hall you can see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas.
The rooms on the ground floor are usually quite dark because they don’t get very
much sun. They are also quite noisy because they are near the roads and the
traffic. Another negative thing is that the rooms might be draughty. This means it
is expensive to heat the rooms.
A staircase leads from the hall to the landing on the first floor (AmE second
floor). On this floor there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory. On top of
the roof there are usually three chimneys.
In front of the house they have a small garden, in which they grow flowers:
roses, tulips and so on. At the back of the house there's a much larger garden with
a lawn and some fruit trees. There's also a vegetable garden where they may
grow some kinds of vegetables, such as potatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, onions
and tomatoes.
At the side of the house there is a garage, where they can keep their car. The
garden is enclosed by a fence, with a gate in it.

1.2. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct position in the
passages below.
Renting a flat
deposit fee flat block
rent landlord references
advertisements
accommodation agency self-contained

The first thing I had to do in Belfast was to find somewhere to live, if possible a
small, one-bedroomed (a) ______. I didn’t want to share a kitchen or toilet; I
wanted to be independent in my own (b) ____ place. I decided I could pay a (c)
_____ of $50 a week. I couldn’t find what I wanted in the newspaper (d)
________ so I went to an (e) ________. They offered me a nice place. It was in a
modern (f) ________ on the third floor. I had to pay the agency a (g) ________,
and the (h) ________ wanted a big (i) _______ and (j) _______ from my
employer and bank manager.

Buying a house
condition detached removals cramped semi-detached
builder
spacious surveyor architect terraced estate-agent
Tony and Sheila’s first home was a (a) ___ house, one of a line of houses all
connected. But several years later when they had a small child they found it rather
(b) ______ for three people. They wanted something more (c) ________ and so
decided to move. They went to an (d) _______ and looked at details of the houses
he had to offer. They looked at a (e) ______ house (=one of a pair attached to
each other), liked it, and asked a (f) ______ to inspect it for them. He said that it
was in good (g) ________, and they therefore decided to buy it. Luckily they sold
their house quickly and soon a (h) _________ firm was taking all their furniture
and other possessions to their new home. But already, after a couple of years, they
are hoping to move again. Tony’s business is doing well and they want to get an
(i) ________ to design a modern, (j) _____ house for them, and a (k) ________ to
build it.

1.3. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
for at in on of into with
1. She wanted a place ___ her own.
2. He’ll move ____ tomorrow.
3. He’ll move _____ his flat tomorrow.
4. I share the kitchen ____ three other people.
5. The landlord asked the tenant ____ more rent.
6. My flat is ____ the top floor.
7. My flat is ___ a modern block.
8. The house is ____ good condition.
9. I looked ______ advertisements ___ the newspaper.
10. She pays a rent _____ $90 a week.

1.4. a) Look at the pictures of some of accommodation types and read their
descriptions.

Best choice: a detached house


A detached house has land all round it. More and
more modern homes are detached, although in areas
where building land is expensive, the houses may be
very close to each other. This is the most desirable
house. Notice its main characteristics:
 The traditional building materials of brick
(the walls) and slate (the roof);
 the irregular, 'non-classical', shape, with all those little corners, making the
house feel 'cosy (cozy)';
 the suggestion of a large front garden with a tree and bushes, evoking not
only the countryside but also giving greater privacy;
 that the garage (on the left) is hidden discretely away, so that it is not too
obvious and doesn't spoil the rural feeling;
 that the front door is not even in the picture (the privacy criterion at work
again).

1Second best: a semi-detached


These houses share a central wall. Unless they are
located in the remotest parts of the country, detached
houses are too expensive for most people. So this is
what a very large proportion of people live in: one
building with two separate households. Each house is the mirror of the other,
inside and out. These houses can be found, street after street, in the suburbs of
cities and the outskirts of towns all over Britain. There is usually a separate front
garden for each house. At the sides, there is access to the back, where there will
also be two gardens. The most common building material is brick. The typical
semi-detached has two floors and three bedrooms.

Less desirable: a terraced house (AmE. a row house)


Terraced houses are attached to each other in a long
row.
This kind of house usually has no way through to the
back except through the house itself. Each house in the
row is joined to the next one. (Houses at the end of the
row are a bit more desirable - they are the most like
semi-detached). They usually have two (sometimes
three or four) floors, with two bedrooms upstairs.
Some have gardens at the back and front, others only -
at the back and others no garden at all. Before the 1960s, Britain had millions of
terraced houses, most with no inside toilet or bathroom. Many of these were then
knocked down, but in some areas those that have survived have become quite
desirable - after repairs and building work have been carried out.

An exception: a town house (AmE. a brownstone)

These houses, which can be found in the


inner areas of most cities, are an exception to
the general pattern. There is a great variety
regarding both design and use. They often have
three or more floors, perhaps including a
basement or semi-basement. Although they are
usually terraced, those that are well-preserved
and in a 'good' area may be thought highly
desirable. Many have been broken up into flats or rooms for rent. Most of the
comparatively small number of people who rent from private owners live in flats
of this kind. Sometimes, these are 'self-contained' flats (they have washing and
cooking facilities and it is not necessary to walk through anybody else's flat to get
to your own); sometimes, they are 'bedsits' (i.e. bed-sitting rooms; residents have
one room to themselves and share washing and cooking facilities with other
residents).

The least desirable: a flat in a block of flats (AmE. an apartment complex)


A block of flats is a large building divided into
separate parts (especially flats or offices).
Not having a separate entrance to the outside world
does not suit British tastes. Although it is densely popu-
lated, Britain has the second lowest proportion of flat-
dwellers in the European Union (the lowest of all is in
Ireland).

Other choices: a country cottage


Country cottages are often stone buildings which were
part of a farm. Some country cottages are very old and they
may have a thatched or tiled roof. Today many people
who work in the cities buy cottages, so that they have a
place to go to for the weekend.

Other choices: a bungalow


A bungalow is a house where all the rooms are on the
ground floor. As there are no stairs, many older people
dream of going to live in a bungalow when they retire.

Other choices: a mobile home


It is a type of house made of metal that can be pulled
by a large vehicle and moved to another place.

b) Study the following home styles and think how often they can be found in
Russia.
A squat is an empty building where people start living without the owner’s
permission.
A hovel is a very poor, dirty house or flat in a bad condition.
A pied à terre [pi'eid ә 'ter] is a small flat or house in a city owned or rented by
people in addition to their main home and used when they are visiting the city.
A penthouse is a luxury flat at the top of a building.
Council housing is provided by the state for people who cannot afford to buy
their own homes.
High-rise flats are flats in a tall, modern building with a lot of floors.
A granny flat is a set of rooms for an elderly person, connected to a relative’s
house.
Today many people want to get out of the rat race (=unpleasant way in which
people struggle competitively for wealth or power) and live a less stressful or less
conventional lifestyle. They choose from a range of modern lifestyles: Feng Shui,
minimalism, post-modernism or New Age.
Feng Shui is a Chinese philosophy which states that the position of buildings
and the arrangement of objects in the home affects the health and well-being of
people living there.
Minimalism is a style which involves using the smallest possible range of
materials, colours, etc. and only the most simple shapes or designs.
Post-modernism is a style of architecture, the arts, etc. popular in the 1980s
and 1990s, which includes features from several different periods.
New Age is a way of life and thinking which developed in the late 1980s and
includes a wide range of beliefs and activities, e.g. astrology, alternative medicine,
that are not accepted by most people and a reaction against modern scientific and
economic developments.
Subsistence farming is where people live by growing just enough food for their
own family.

c) Study the vocabulary used to describe a house. Learn the vocabulary.


Things you can find in and around the house:
roof, chimney, chimneypot, aerial/ antenna, skylight, drainpipe/ drain, gutter,
porch, front door, garage, drive/ driveway, letter-box/ mail box, phone box, fence,
gate, lamppost, street lamp, dustbin, path, road, curb, flowerbed, bush, clothes
line, stair/ staircase, swing, hammock;

House equipment and conveniences:


running water, tap (AmE. faucet), central heating, plumbing, lift (AmE.
elevator), air conditioning, electricity, current, live, mains switch, wire/ wiring,
switch, socket, plug, cable TV, gas, entryphone system, yale lock, fire-place, wall
lamp, chandelier, upper lights, floor lamp, sink, wash-basin;

Household activities and the tools you might need:


housewarming, to keep/to run the house, to do the housework, to help around
the house, to iron, to remove spots, to lay the table, to answer the bell, to screw in
a bulb, to turn out a burnt-out bulb, fuse, bulb, blade, chisel, file, hammer, nail,
nut, pincers, pliers, plug, saw, scissors, screw, vice;
Materials and their qualities:
oil, paper, water, paint, cement, concrete, gravel, stone, petrol, brick, flexible,
tough, rough, solid, liquid, fragile.

1.5. Look at the pictures and study the vocabulary used for describing each room
or the house. Learn the vocabulary.

utility room – used for a washing machine, freezer, etc.


shed – small building separated from the house usually for storing garden
tools.
attic – room in the roof space of a house (could be lived in)
loft – space in the roof of a house usually used only for storage
cellar – room below the ground level, has no windows, used for storage
basement – room below the ground level, has windows, for living/ working
landing – flat area at the top of a staircase
hall – open area as you come into a house
porch – covered area before an entrance-door
pantry/ larder – large cupboard (usually big enough to walk into) for storing
food
terrace/ patio – paved area between house and garden for sitting or eating.
study – room for reading/ wring/ studying in
bedsit – bedroom and living room all in one
efficiency – small apartment usually with only one room, that is meant to be
easy to take care of

Kitchen
1. can opener
2. coffeepot
3. cup
4. cupboard
(kitchen cabinet)
5. dish towel
6. dishwasher
7. electric light
8. electric plug
9. faucet
10. frying pan
11. glass
12. handle
13. kettle
14. kitchen scales
15. lid
16. matchbox
17. oven
18. pan or saucepan
19. plate
20. refrigerator/ fridge
21. saucer 22. shelf 23. sink 24. steam
25. stove /cooker 26. teapot 27. toaster

Other appliances and utensils that can be found in the kitchen


juice extractor, pressure cooker, cake tin, basket, thermos /vacuum bottle, coffee
grinder, mincer/ mincing machine (AmE. meat grinder), microwave oven, spice
jars, grater, rolling pin, plate/ dish rack, cooker hood, pot holder, salt cellar, cruet,
pepper box, mustard pot, corkscrew, knife, fork, spoon, whisk, washing machine,
dust pan, bucket/ pail, broom

Living Room
1. armchair 7. clock 13. (loud) speaker 19. rug
2. bookcase 8. cushion 14. picture 20. sofa
3. bookshelf 9. fire 15. radio 21. telephone
4. carpet 10. fireplace 16. record 22. television
5. ceiling 11. floor 17. record player
6. chair 12. lamp 18. rocker/ rocking chair

In the living room you can


also find or use the following
things:
suite (of furniture), display
cabinet unit, settee / couch/
sofa, carpet brush, floor
cloth/cleaning rag, carpet
sweeper, vacuum cleaner,
electric iron, ironing table,
Note: settees are found in
‘lounges’ or ‘living rooms’
(these words are used by
people of no higher that
middle-middle class); sofas
can be found in ‘sitting
rooms’ or ‘drawing rooms’
(these words are used by
people from upper-middle
class or above).
Bedroom

1. bed
2. blanket
3. chest of drawers
4. closet
5. curtain
6. door
7. drawer
8. lamp
9. mattress
10.mirror
11. pajamas
12.photo
13.pillow
14.plant
15.sheet
16.slippers
17.window

In the bedroom you might also need the following things:


duvet, bolster, pillowcase / pillowslip, bedspread, double bed, sconce, bedside
table, wardrobe, king size bed

Bathroom

1. bandages
2. bathtub
3. bath mat
4. bathroom scales
5. comb
6. face cream
7. faucet
8. lipstick
9. mirror
10. plug (on razor)
11. electric razor
12. shower
13. shower curtain
14. wash basin/ wash bowl
15. soap /liquid soap
16. thermometer
17. toilet (to flush the toilet)
18. toothbrush
19. toothpaste 20. towel 21. washcloth

In the bathroom you may also find the following things:


shampoo, sponge, linen bin, pumice, towel rail, toilet roll holder, toilet paper
(AmE. bathroom tissue), toilet lid, toilet seat, cistern, flushing lever, stepladder,
toilet articles

1.6. Write the words for each unit in the pictures without looking back at
the pictures in the previous activities.

Picture A Picture B

Picture A Picture B
A L
B M
C N
D O
E P
F Q
G R
H S
I T
J U
K V
W
X

1.7. a) Read the text about the housewarming.


b) Pick up from the text all the facts about the old Russian rites
connected with housewarming. Do the Russians still observe these
traditions?
Housewarming
Housewarming is a joyous holiday. The establishment of a new house and
hopes for a new life, therefore a housewarming, especially in old Russian life, has
always been accompanied by solemn rites.
In the good old days everyone had their own house. And if they built a new
house and went to live in it, first they would call a priest, who would sanctify the
place. Only then would they invite friends and relations to look around, give
advice and share the host’s happiness.
Guests always came to a housewarming with bread and salt. This symbolized
abundance and good fortune in the house and family.
Some of the old rites have been preserved to this day, for example, letting a
cat into the new house, nobody crosses the threshold until the cat has wandered
through all the rooms, found a place it likes and sat down. In this very place the
hostess would put her bed. And when a child was born into the family, this place
was cleared to make room for a cradle. It was thought to be the healthiest place in
the whole house. It has now been demonstrated by scientists that this is true.
In the old days guests would take a kneading-trough to a housewarming and
roll three loaves of bread, then they would see how those loaves would lie, and
thus determined how they should sit in the house.
But above all, it was necessary to know how to choose a site to build a
house. For this, too, many methods of divination were used. For example, to
determine the quality of the soil in the place where they planned to build the
house, oak-bark would be laid on the ground for 3 days. On the forth day they
would pick it up and see what was under it. If they found a spider or an ant, the
place was considered bad for building a house on it. But if they found worms,
they could confidently get on with the construction.
These old signs were probably based on something if they didn’t die out
over the course of centuries and were used by professional builders.
Three baked loaves were also used to determine the place. People would
drop them as if by chance onto the earth and see how they lay. If all three lay with
their crust uppermost, the place was good for building, be it a simple wooden hut
or a stone mansion. But if the bread fell crust downwards, there could be no
question of building anything. This place became a vacant plot and nobody
wanted it.
When the house was built and the guests invited after the priest had blessed
the corners of the house, a feast would begin. During the feast the floor of the new
house would be spread with grass or hay so that it wouldn’t be bare, so that the
couple would be prosperous and have many children.
The banquet table would be covered with a big tablecloth on which before
all the food and drink would be placed the bread and the salt that the guests had
brought.
And after the feast each guest had to give the host a present. What kind of
present to give wasn’t prescribed, but it had to be something really necessary for
the household, and not a knick-knack.
c) Find synonyms in the text for the words below.
so, merry, to keep, fortunetelling, to continue, accidentally, to sanctify;

d) Explain the meaning of the words below.


to look around, abundance, uppermost, downwards, feast, prosperous, knick-
knack.

1.8. Study the following metaphors and idioms relating to homes and
lifestyles (a) and gardening (b). Think of any Russian idioms or
proverbs with the word “house” or “home”. Explain their meaning in
English.

a) Home and Lifestyle Metaphors


Expression Meaning Example
a household something everyone knows Kate has become a
word/ name household name.
on the house paid by the provider The car-hire firm
offered us a car for a
week on the house as
compensation for our
ruined holiday.
a home truth a plain statement of It’s time someone told
something which is unpleasant him a few home truths
but true said directly to the about how to behave in
person public.
nothing to write not very exciting, important The concert was
home about nothing to write home
about
hit home become fully understood or The whole situation is
fully felt hitting home now.
have the time of enjoy oneself very much, They are having the
one’s life have a wonderful life time of their lives in
London.
get a new lease become more energetic and After an operation to
of life active than before replace a valve in his
heart, he got a new lease
of life.
a dog’s life a very unhappy and difficult Nick said he led a
life dog’s life in the jail.
do one’s prepare for a meeting by The Home Secretary
homework making sure one knows all the has tried to impress us
relevant figures, fact, etc. by quoting a lot of
statistics, but those of us
who have done out
homework know that the
facts are wrong.
feel at home feel as relaxed as one does in I always feel at home
one’s own home or in a place or in France when I go
situation one knows well there on holiday.
make oneself at make oneself as comfortable Make yourself at home
home as one would be at home while you’re waiting.
home and dry having succeeded in what one I wasn’t sure that I
wanted to do could put this clock back
together, but if I can fit
this last wheel back in, I
think I’ll be home and
dry.
like a house on 1. very well 1. Two children got on
fire 2. very quickly like a house on fire.
2. I’m getting through
this job like a house on
fire.
house-proud very concerned about the She is very house-
appearance of one’s house proud and makes her
guests put on slippers
before they walk on her
carpets.
eat smb. out of be so expensive to feed and His wife’s huge dog is
house and home keep that the person who is eating him out of house
paying cannot afford it and home.
touch home to mention a subject that Your comment about
makes someone feel upset or his mom really touched
angry home.
bring the house have success with the His new play has
down audience brought the house down.
b) Gardening Metaphors
The new boss is planning to weed out (=get rid of) older or less experienced
staff.
The government will probably have to prune back (=cut/limit) its proposals.
At last she is reaping the reward of (=is getting results from) all her years of
study.
The journalists have dug up (=have discovered) some interesting facts.
The idea was germinating (=was beginning to develop) while we were on
holiday.
Out-of-town shopping centres have been sprouting (=appearing quickly in large
numbers) all over the country.
Our business is flourishing (=doing very well).
A deciduous tree sheds (=loses) its leaves.
People can shed employees/traditions/worries/inhibitions/weight.
Plants fade, wither, shrivel and wilt when they die. These verbs can all be used
metaphorically:
Hopes of finding survivors are fading (=becoming smaller).
High inflation means that our savings are shriveling (=becoming less).
It was so hot in the classroom that the students were starting to wilt (=lose
energy).
A glance/look/remark can wither or be withering (=make the recipient feel
scorned).
1.9. a) Wherever we live – in our own or rented flat or house – we all
perform various household activities throughout the day, some of
which might not be quite successful. If there is a problem with a
machine or thing that we use, e.g. TV, light, washing machine,
computer, food mixer, etc., we often use expressions from the list below.

There’s something wrong with the TV. (= there is a problem with it.)
The light isn’t working. (= not functioning/ there is no light)
The shower’s not working properly. (= it is functioning but not very well)
The telephone is out of order. (= not in use/ not functioning)- this phrase is
mostly used when a public machine is not working.

b) Read the summary of Paul’s Monday. Translate the bold-faced words


and be ready to describe your day of misfortunes.
Yesterday morning Paul had a lot of problems. First, he dropped a cup and it
broke. It was his girl-friend’s favourite cup. He got another cup, made coffee, and
then spilt it. It ruined his T-shirt because there was a large coffee stain on it.
He decided to make some toast, but he burnt the first piece, then he realized that
he’d run out of bread. He didn’t leave home in a good mood, moreover he was
hungry.
After Paul went out, things got worse. He left home with a ten-pound note in his
pocket, and walked to a bus stop. Unfortunately, he was a bit late and the bus was
a bit early, so he missed the bus. While he was waiting for the next one, he got
out his walkman, but the batteries had run out. When the bus arrived, he got on
and put his hand in his pocket – no ten-pound note – he had lost his money. The
driver told him to get off. He didn’t want to be late for school, so he started
running. Moments later, he saw a dog, but not its lead – he tripped over the lead.
He got to his feet, carried on to school, then he realized he had left his bag on
the bus. And he was late for school in the end.

(We should use the word “leave”, not “forget” when we say where something it:
I left my umbrella at home. But: I’ve forgotten my umbrella today.)

1.10. a) Match each of the following tools with the correct picture below.
b) Complete each of the sentences below with the correct tool from the list.
spanner hammer axe saw screwdriver
spade penknife chisel fork drill
scissors mallet jack rake

(a) We cut paper or cloth with a pair of______.


(b) We put in and take out screws with a______.
(c) We dig holes in the ground with a______.
(d) We make holes in wood, metal or stone with a______.
(e) We raise a car to change a wheel with a______.
(f) We knock nails into wood with a______.
(g) We cut down trees with an______.
(h) We carve wood or stone with a______.
(i) We hit a chisel with a______.
(j) We collect dry leaves and make earth level with a______.
(k) To cut a string and other things, we carry in our pocket a folding______.
(l) We turn the earth over in the garden with a spade or______.
(m) We saw wood with a______.
(n) We tighten or loosen nuts and bolts with a______.

1.11. a) Match each of the following connectors with the correct picture below.
b) Complete each of the following sentences with the correct
connector from the list, making it plural if necessary
nail nut pin screw bolt safety pin rubber
band
rope string chain thread needle drawing pin paper clip

(a)________________We sew cloth with a_____and .


(b)_________________We tie up a parcel with ____ .
(c)______________Mountaineers use____ to keep together and avoid falling.
(d)___________________________To keep a baby's nappy in place we use
_____.
(e)_____________________We use a hammer to knock a ____ into wood.
(f)_____________________________To pin a notice to a notice board we use
a ____.
(g)_____________________________________To keep pieces of cloth
together in dressmaking we use ____.
(h)___________________________________We keep pieces of paper together
firmly with a _____.
(i) Different parts of a bicycle and other machines are kept together with ___and
___.
(j) We use a screwdriver to put in or take out _____.
(k) Large ships in port are kept in place with heavy iron _____ .
(l) The postman keeps all the letters for one street together with a ____ made of
elastic.

1.12. a) Put each of the following verbs in the correct space in the passage.
b) How often do you borrow from your friends and relatives?
pay back spend save open lend
borrow earn afford owe pay
Joy: Pam, I'm in trouble. I (a)______£200 a week from my job, but I need to
(b)______about £250 a week just on basic things like food, rent and fares.
I can't make ends meet on £200. I've got to (c)______some money. Can
you help?
Pam: Yes, OK. I'm quite well-off at the moment. I can (d)______you £100.
Here
you are. But why don't you (e)______a bank account? It's very simple.
Then you can (f)______a little bit every week, and you won't be so hard-
up.
Joy: Pam, I haven't got enough money to put in a bank account! I can't
(g)_____
my gas and electricity bills. I can't (h)____ to go on holiday. I'm not just a
bit hard-up. I've got no money at all. I'm broke! Anyway, thanks for your
help. I promise to (i)______the £100 next month. I don't like to be in debt.
I won't forget. I now (j)______you £100.
1.13. a) Put each of the following words or phrases in the correct space in
the sentences below.
b) How would you define your present financial situation?
1.
broke hard-up in debt well-off make ends meet
(a) She earns a lot of money. She's very______.
(b) He never has a lot of money. He can't afford luxuries. He's always______.
(c) I'll have to get an extra job in the evenings. I can't ______on my salary.
(d) I'm sorry I can't lend you any money. I haven't got any. I'm absolutely
____.
(e) He's______. He owes money to me and to the bank, too.
2.
in from on
(a) He earns £150______his evening job.
(b) I spend £8 a week ______ fares.
(c) She has to make ends meet______£500 a month.
(d) I put some money ______ my bank account.
1.14. a) First match each item on the left below with its meaning on the
right. Then divide the words into two groups under the headings
'Income' (money you receive) and 'Expenditure' (money you spend).
b) Can you think of any more items of income or expenditure?
(a) taxes (1) cinema, theatre, restaurant meals, etc.
(b) pocket-money (2) money for transport, e.g. bus, train, taxi
(c) salary (3) part of income paid to government
(d) entertainment (4) money parents give children every week
(e) rent (5) money from work, usually hourly or weekly
(f) interest (6) money for lighting, heating in your house
(g) wages (7) money from work, usually monthly or annually
(h) pension (8) e.g. 6% a year from your money in the bank
(i) fares (9) money for people who stop work at the age of about
60
(j) gas and electricity (10) weekly or monthly payments for your room, flat or
bills house

1.15. Answer the following questions using complete sentences.


1. What do you spend your money on?
2. How much does a doctor earn in your country?
3. Do you save any money? If so, how (bank, cash)?
4. Is it easy to open a bank account in your country? How much do you
need to start?
5. Do you owe money? Who to? When will you pay back the money?
6. Is there something you want to do or buy but can't afford to?
7. Do you often lend money? Who do you lend it to?
8. Do you often borrow money? Who do you borrow it from?
9. Do people in Russia receive a state pension when they are old? How
old are they when they begin to receive it?
10. What bills do you have to pay?
11.How much pocket-money did you receive when you were 12 years
old?
12. In Russia, what percentage of a person's income is taken in
taxes?

ACQUIRING COMMUNICAITON SKILLS


1.16. a) Read the following dialogues, paying attention to the words in bold,
which are used to keep the conversation going.
b) Say what your idea of an ideal dwelling is.
c) Make up a dialogue on ‘house hunting’ with a partner.
1.
A: What’s your idea of the perfect flat?
B: What a question! My perfect flat would be impossible.
A: Tell me anyway.
B: Okay. My perfect flat would be big, with high ceilings. It would have a
round living room. The living room would be almost all windows and there would
be a round balcony outside. But of course, nobody could look into my flat.
A: Why not?
B: Because this is a dream. The kitchen would be very big, with a big table in
the middle. There would also be a sofa in the kitchen, and maybe some
comfortable chairs, so that you can hang out there. In the bathroom there would
be both a shower and a bathtub. The bathtub would be deep enough to sit in up to
your neck.
A: What else?
B: Bedrooms. One for me, one for my best friend, one for my boyfriends, and
one for visitors.
A: That sounds wonderful, one for my best friends, one for my boyfriends, and
one for visitors. But it probably is impossible.

2. A Real Bargain
Mr. Palmer is looking for a new house. He's tired of living in the city and he
wants to live in a quiet village. He's with the estate agent now.
Estate Agent: Well, Mr. Palmer. This is the semi-detached house that I told you
about... Number 26, Richmond Road. The owners are away, but I've got a key.
Mr. Palmer: Hmm... when was it built?
A.: It was built in 1928.
P.: Who built it?
A.: I'm not really sure. Is it important?
P.: No, not really. Is that a new roof? It looks new.
A.: It is really new. It was put on last year. You can see that it's in very good
condition. The previous owner was a builder.
P.: It's quite an old house. I'm worried about the electrical wiring. Has it been
rewired?
A.: Yes, it has.
P.: Oh, when was it done?
A.: Five years ago. Also, it's been redecorated. Central heating has been put in,
and a new garage has been built.
P.: Oh, when was it done?
A.: Last year... I think. It's a very solid house. It's built with a tiled roof ...
P.: It's a long way from a big town. What are the services like?
A: Hold on... I've got the details here. Yes ... let me see ... the dustbins are
emptied every Thursday.
P.: It's important for me to see the post before I go to work. When is it
delivered?
A.: It's usually delivered at about 7.30. The milk is delivered about six o'clock ...
so you'll have fresh milk for breakfast.
P.: It's certainly very cheap. I've seen a lot of similar houses ... and they're more
expensive.
A: Ah, yes ... it's a real bargain.
P.: Are there any plans for the area?
A.: Pardon? Plans ... well, a new school is going to be built in the village next
year...
P.: Anything else?
A: ... and a new road, a motorway actually, will be built next year, too. You'll be
able to get to London easily.
P.: Where exactly will the motorway be built?
A.: Well, actually, it'll be built behind the house. A bridge will be constructed
over the house. It'll be very interesting. You'll be able to watch the traffic ...

3.
Marylin: Where should we look for a house, Mrs. Martinelli?
Virginia: Well, we have an office in Mount Kisko. It's a lovely area, and it's
only about an hour's drive from here. (She takes out a book of photos). Here I
have a book with photos of some homes in that area. Now, let's see here. This is a
lovely two-bedroom house in your price range.
M.: It's pretty, but I prefer a two-storey home.
Richard: I do, too. I don't care for a ranch type.
V.: OK. (She turns the pages of the real-estate book.) Oh, this is a wonderful
house. I know it well. I sold it to the present owners.
R.: It looks wonderful.
V.: This is a two-bedroom, two-bathroom house. It has a full basement, and it is
on a half-acre lot. You can probably afford this one.
M.: I like this house.
R.: So do I.
V.: And the price is right. Would you like to go to see it?
R.: Yes. We're planning to talk to someone at the bank next week. Perhaps we
could see the house this weekend.
V.: If someone doesn't buy it before then. But let's keep looking, just to get an
idea of some other possibilities.
R.: This is very helpful, Mrs. Martinelli.
V.: Here. This is a wonderful example of Spanish-style architecture.
R.: Oh, I love the roof tiles on a Spanish-style house.
M.: It looks like the houses in Hollywood.
V.: It's interesting. A house like this in Riverdale costs double the price. (She
turns the pages of the book.) Oh, my! Here's a real buy. It's a bargain. This house
just came on the market.
M.: It's quite lovely. Is it a two-bedroom house?
V.: No, it has three bedrooms and three baths. I know the house. It has a brand
new kitchen. And a living room with a 12-foot ceiling. And there's a 2-car garage.
R.: Then why don't we go to look at the house, too?
V.: It's a good investment.
R.: Thank you, Mrs. Martinelli.
M.: Thanks so much.
V.: My pleasure. Give my best regards to your parents.

4.
A: I hear you have moved to a new apartment, Steve. Is it true?
B: Yes, it is. One of these days we'll arrange a housewarming party. And I want
you and your wife Carol to be present.
A: Thank you for the invitation. How do you like your new apartment?
B: It is very comfortable. It is a three-bedroom apartment with modern
conveniences: electric stove and a lot of built-in cupboards.
A: On what floor is it?
B: Our apartment is on the tenth floor of a high-rise dwelling house. We've got
two elevators which work round o'clock.
A: Is it far from the centre of the city?
B: Rather. It takes me about an hour to get to the centre by bus and by
underground. If I drive a car, it takes me thirty minutes.
A: I see. Have you bought any new furniture?
B: We've bought wall units, two armchairs and a new ice-box. We are planning
to buy two carpets and a dining-set these days.
A: Good luck!
B: Thanks. Are you going to move to a new apartment?
A: No, we are not. We have been living in our two-room apartment for about
eight years and we don't want to move anymore.
B: Your apartment is comfortable, isn't it?
A: Yes, quite. My wife arranged everything very nicely and I like it very much.
We don't have much furniture, but we have got everything we need.
B: I'm glad to hear it. See you at the party then.
A: See you. Bye.

1.17. a) You are going to buy a new house. Look at the list of priorities, rank
them according to your preferences (1- the least important, 9- the most
important), add some more. Explain your choice.
___ It must face South.
___ It must have a lot of natural light.
___ It must have nice views/ nice location.
___ It must be near the countryside.
___ I prefer a house to a flat.
___ It must have amenities nearby (parks, mountains, culture or sports centres,
etc.).
___ I want my privacy.
___ I would not live in a tough area (=with a high level of criminal activities).
___ My flat has to be in the city centre.

b) Would there be any difference in your priorities if you had children /


an elderly person in your family?

1.18. Finish the sentences making them true for you. Explain your choice.
1) Inside the house, the most important thing for me is ... because …
2) The main thing I hate/ love about my house/ flat is … because …
3) My favoutite gadget is … because …
4) Home is …
5) The amenities I cannot imagine my life without are … because …
6) We mostly need a house to …
7) The things I would do at home and not elsewhere are …
8) My favourite place at home is … because …

1.19. Work with a partner, ask and answer the following questions. Be ready to
report to class about your partner’s living conditions.
1. Where do you live?
2. Do you live in a detached house or in a block of flats? If you live in a block
of flats – is it made of brick, panel, or cast?
3. Is there a garden in front of your house?
4. What is there next to your house?
5. Is your house far from a bus stop/ underground ?
6. What floor is your flat on?
7. What modern conveniences are there in your flat/ house?
8. Is your flat/ house large or small?
9. How many rooms are there in your flat/ house? What are they?
10. Which is the biggest room in your flat/ house?
11. How is your living room furnished?
12. Do you often get together in your living-room?
13. In what room do you receive guests?
14. Where do you keep your clothes?
15. Where do you keep your books?
16. Where do you usually have meals?
17. Are you happy with your flat/ house?

1.20. a) Read the text and compare the living conditions described in the text with
your own dwelling. Whose conditions are better? Why?
b) Draw the plan of the flat described in the text.
I live in a new nine-storeyed block of flats in Pushkin Street. Our house is of
modern design. There's a big grocery on the ground floor and it's very convenient
to do everyday shopping. In front of the house there is a children's playground and
a small garden. We like to spend time there.
Our flat is on the third floor. It is very comfortable. We have all modern
conveniences, such as central heating, air conditioning, electricity, gas, cold and
hot running water and a telephone. There are three rooms in our flat: a living
room and two bedrooms. We also have a kitchen, a bathroom, a small entrance
hall and two balconies (the second floor hasn't got any).
Our living room is the largest in the flat. It is nicely furnished. Against the wall
you can see a nice sideboard. In the corner there is a colour TV set. In the
opposite corner there is a sofa and two armchairs. The piano is on the right. There
are two pictures above the piano. Near it there is a bookcase. We are fond of
books and have plenty of them at home. On the floor we have a nice thick carpet.
The curtains on the window match the walls. All this makes the room cosy.
Our bedrooms are also very nice and cosy. The parents' bedroom is larger than
the children's. There are two beds, a bedside table, some chairs and a wardrobe in
it. There is a lovely carpet on the floor between the beds.
The children's bedroom is just across the corridor on the right. Here you can see
two sofa-beds where my sister and I sleep at night and have a rest in the day-time.
There is also a writing-table, two chairs and some bookshelves here. We use our
bedroom as a study where we do our homework. In the corner of the room there is
a small table with a tape-recorder on it. We all enjoy listening to music.
Our kitchen is rather large. There is a gas-stove, a microwave oven, four stools,
a refrigerator and a cupboard in which we keep cups, plates and all our dishes.
The kitchen serves us as a dining-room. But when we receive guests or have our
family celebrations we have the meals in the living-room.
The bathroom is near the kitchen. Here we keep our toilet articles, have a bath
and a shower.
The entrance hall is small. There is a hall-stand and a mirror on the wall. A
telephone is on a special table under the mirror.
We are happy to have such a nice flat and try to keep it clean.

1.21. a) Scan the article from a British newspaper and say what are the major
types of dwelling in Great Britain? What is the most favourite one? Why?
Are there any age-related preferences among the public?
b) Divide the text into several logical parts describing a certain aspect of life.
c) Read the text again and explain what makes the Russian idea of “dom”
(house/home) different from the British idea of ‘house’ and ‘home’?
d) How different or similar are the Russian and British lifestyles? What
household problems can the British run into on a daily basis? Do the
Russians have similar problems?
e) What household services can Russian people get in their area? How are
they different from those provided in Britain?
Houses and Homes
The English are distinctive in their aversion to flats and their devotion to rows
of small brick houses. Travel from Western France across Europe to the Urals and
you will see cities surrounded by modern blocks of high-rise flats. The details of
architecture will vary, but all countries have found that the obvious solution to
cheap new housing to accommodate families moving in from the countryside or
demanding improved conditions within the towns is to build blocks of flats.
Of course some English people enjoy flat-life, but for the vast majority of them,
the basic idea of a home is a brick house with rooms upstairs and downstairs.
Here lies a confusion of terms in translating them to and from Russian. The
English use the word 'house' for a dwelling intended for one family. They would
never say of a 'block of flats' that it is a 'house', and hence 'DOM' has no exact
equivalent in English. The English always distinguish 'flat' from 'house', not
because a house is grander (it may be a tiny section of a row of dwellings) but
because a flat is still unusual, except in city centers, where it is unusual to live
anyway. The word 'home' is much more personal, much warmer: Russian 'home'
is the place where people live which they have created — its furnishings but also
its atmosphere, their sense of other people who live in it, their feelings about its
past as well as its present. Something of the Russian feeling about the privacy of
kitchens is found in the English word 'home'.
Some of the grandest of all houses are found in the country. These are large
country houses or stately homes, which in some cases are still occupied by
members of the land-owning families who originally built them. Many such
houses are of historical and architectural importance, and stand in extensive
grounds. Old or architecturally interesting houses may be designated as listed
buildings by the government.
Flats are found mainly in towns, although they may also be self-contained units
in converted country houses or hotels, etc. Modern flats are often "purpose-built"
in the form of large apartment blocks or tower blocks, but many large houses in
towns have also been converted into flats. Flats may be owned by the people who
live in them, or rented from a private landlord or some local authority. Local
authorities are the main providers of rented accommodation.
The brick house is a legacy of the industrial revolution. Employers had to build
accommodation for the millions of workers pouring into the cities and at that time
the cheapest solution was to build rows (terraces) of small houses, each with two
small rooms downstairs and two small rooms upstairs. Lavatories were common to
several houses and out in the back yard. The rooms were small because they
were heated by open fires, not by stoves, and families tended to huddle in one
room, usually the kitchen. Bedrooms were unheated, and to this day many
English people find it impossible to sleep except in a cold room with the windows
wide open.
As equipment improved, houses became more compact. Today houses are being
built all over southern England which are brilliantly designed but tiny — four
rooms, kitchen, bathroom and lavatory covering less area than many former Soviet
three-roomed flats. That is the small type, and of course many houses are much
bigger, with larger rooms and more of them. But essentially such houses are of the
same pattern.
Today, with central heating built into all new homes, the 'two downstairs rooms'
have often been knocked into one (though in large houses there may be additional
small rooms downstairs). Often the kitchen area is open to this large room. The
English have small halls (the climate means that people rarely wear heavy winter
coats and in any case they do not wrap themselves up as the Russians do so they
don't need much cloakroom space) and they often have a bathroom and lavatory
together upstairs, but a separate lavatory downstairs.
Almost all such houses will have their own back garden. However tiny, this is
much preferred to communal land. The English like to have their own fences,
their own little garden shed, and, preferably, their own strip of land outside their
front door. The British nation is known as a nation of gardeners.
In the 1960s, architects pulled down many rows of old Victorian houses with no
bathrooms and minimal facilities and put up new shining blocks of flats. Within a
few years many of these blocks had become slums, hated by the people who had
been moved from the terraces. Many of them have since been demolished, and
few blocks have been built since. Architects have gone to semi-detached and
terraced houses, each one neat, tidy and private.

Russian people have a habit of describing anything built before or about 1955 as
'old'. In England a house does not qualify as old unless it was built at least a
hundred years ago.
If you consider homes of a British and a Russian family, it seems that there are
far more interesting contrasts between Russian flat life and British house life. Most
of the advantages are to the British, but not all. If in Russia you have hot water
at all, you have endless supplies of it. (Many British people still find it shocking,
washing up dishes under running hot water! A life time has taught them that they
have to pour a rationed amount of water into a bowl and
wash up in that. Even if with modern central water heating it is
not so necessary. Often they don’t rinse the dishes after washing
them up in the foamy water.) Even modern Russian flats often
have good wooden parquet ['pa:kei] floors, a luxury in
England which has for long lacked wooden supplies. Besides
Russian people have discovered the art of making extremely
comfortable simple beds.
British homes have similar basic furniture - beds (double
beds for married couples), tables, chairs, armchairs, cupboards,
shelves (now British families are less fond than they used to be British milkman, 19century

of glass-fronted shelves), lamps, radio, television, stereo, record players and, of


course, DVD or CD players. People in Britain can choose their styles and
materials; they can select their favourite patterns and shapes for lamps, crockery,
cutlery, towels, linen, chairs and their furnishings, curtains, and materials.
Floors in English dwellings are generally carpeted with modern synthetic
carpets. Kitchen floors are covered with vinyl ['vainil] or tiles. Their kitchens and
bathrooms are full of useful consumer goods and useless gadgets.
Fridges are smaller than in Russia, but many families have freezers where they
can keep prepared frozen food or freeze their own home-grown food. (Hence
there is far less jam-making and home-preserving than in Russia.) The English
usually can buy excellent kitchen knives and other tools, expensive but good-
quality pans and saucepans, and all sorts of plastic contrivances where the
Russians have wooden ones. Washing machines are almost universal for family
homes; individuals can take their dirty clothes to a launderette. Tumble driers,
which dry the clothes but leave them unfresh are common in America but not in
Britain.
For cleaning their homes English people have vacuum cleaners, as well as
brooms, brushes, dusters and all kinds of polishes and creams for dirty windows,
damp, filthy baths and so on. As usual the British may not run out of detergent or
toilet paper, and they may have all sorts of electrical gadgets (which sometimes
don't work), but daily life has many similarities with that in Russia: sinks do get
blocked, damp walls grow mould, children spill sticky food onto carpets and
telephones mysteriously refuse to make connections.
Besides the above mentioned technologies and stuff used inside the house,
British people can get certain outside services in their area. In Britain many
households receive daily deliveries of post, milk and a newspaper, usually in time
for breakfast. A milkman does a milk round, visiting a number of houses in an
area. In towns, electrically operated milk floats are used and other goods, such as
potatoes, eggs, fruit juice, etc. can also be supplied by the milkman. There is a
daily postal delivery to every house, however remote. In towns, older
schoolchildren can earn pocket money by delivering newspapers (called doing a
paper round) before they go to school.
Older children and students also earn money by doing the baby-sitting. This and
other services are often advertised on a display board in the window of a
newsagent's or any small local shop. Repair men, also called odd job men,
electricians, gardeners, window cleaners, painters and decorators, plumbers,
domestic cleaners (called daily helps) and child minders (= women who look after
children during the day while the parents are at work) also often advertise their
services in this way. Services are also advertised in the "classified ads" section of
local newspapers.
Many services can be ordered by telephone and a special telephone directory, the
Yellow Pages, lists firms according to the services they provide. You can order a cooked
meal to be delivered from a Chinese restaurant or a pizza restaurant. If you want to send a
present to someone, you can arrange for chocolates, flowers, etc. to be delivered. Many
of these delivery services use motorcycles.
Shops and offices in town centers provide services such as dry cleaning, shoe
repairs, photocopying and the use of fax machines. In launderettes you can wash
and dry clothes in coin-operated machines.

1.22. a) Do people in Russia usually own or rent their dwellings? Read the
passage below about Britain and answer the question above for Britain.
What is the major reason that prevents people from owning a flat/ house?
What would you choose – a rented or owned housing? Give your reasons.
b) Calculate the housing expenses for your family.
c) Discuss the problem of the homeless in Russia. Compare it with the
British problem.
Most people given the choice would prefer to own their houses rather than to rent
them. Consequently renting is usually left to the young (from private landlords)
and the poor (from local authorities). But private housing means a market
economy, which means an ability to pay. If you can pay, you can have; if you can't
pay, you can't have. Obviously a lot of people cannot afford to hand over the full
price of a house (an average, not-very-special house will cost about five to seven
times an entire annual salary before tax.) So such people have to live in council
estates (= groups of council houses laid out some way from the town centre). A
typical council house is either semi-detached or terraced.
Council flats and houses are built and owned by the local council. After the
Second World War, a lot of high-rise council flats, known as tower blocks, were
constructed. Some were as high as 20 storeys and so badly built that they had to be
pulled down only thirty years later. Modern council housing estates are built
differently. There might be a mixture of two-storey terraced houses, together with a
four-storey block of flats. There are play areas for children and there is often a
community centre where people who live on the estate can meet. A recent
development has been the growth of sheltered housing. This consists of blocks of
modern flats or groups of small houses specially designed for elderly people. They
are usually situated near the centre of a town, close to shops and other amenities,
and have a resident warden. As with council houses, the residents rent their
homes from the local council. Since the 1980s, council tenants have been able to
buy their own homes very cheaply if they have lived in them for over two years.
By 1993, 1.5 million council houses had been sold, but only 5,000 council houses
or flats were built to replace them. This means that it is now very difficult to find
cheap housing for rent — a real problem for the poor and unemployed. Most
homeowners have bought their house by means of a mortgage loan through a
building society or a bank. Houses are usually bought and sold in Britain through
an estate agent, using the legal services of a solicitor.
First-time buyers (= people such as young married couples setting up home for
the first time) almost always buy their houses this way. A typical loan is for up to
90 per cent of the price of house, repaid over 20 or 25 years in monthly
installments. Take this sample family:
If spouses are both earning full-time, their joint income might be £26,000
before tax. Tax would reduce that to about £18,500. Then they will pay for gas and
electricity, perhaps £1,300 a year, £650 for television, £350 for insurance and water
rates. Total spent on the house which is covered by a standard Russian rent would
be £8,300 a year, getting on for half their disposable income. That is fine if they
can use the other half of the income for living, but a great burden if, say, the girl
wants to give up work for a time and have a family. If they move into a bigger
house, they can take with them both the money from selling the flat and the debt.
In practice this means simply paying a larger mortgage for a larger house. For
older people, as the debt gets paid off, financial worries improve steadily, but for
young people house-buying is an exciting but burdensome commitment. Why not
then rent a house? Unfortunately there is always an enormous queue for housing
subsidized by local authorities and councils try to allot homes to those most in
need — which do not include the young. So the alternative is private renting, and
in this housing sector, rents are enormous. So you are paying minimum £5,000 a
year anyway, and if you leave for somewhere else, you have gained nothing from
all that expenditure. Better at least to have a twenty-year loan and your own house
at the end of it all.
So as you can see the major problem for English people is not the cost or
availability of basic consumer goods — on the whole these are cheap and getting
cheaper — but the cost of housing. Since the British pay such an enormous
proportion of their income for the roof over their heads, other parts of other choices
in their lives, such as where they live and what they work at are immediately
affected by the decisions they take about housing. That is why some people choose
to live in a mobile home on a caravan site (usually called a home park).
Many people in Britain have no home at all, with the number of the homeless
increasing. This increase is mainly due to changes in the way social security
benefits are paid, periods of rapid increase in house prices, and a sharp decline in
the number of council houses being built. Local authorities have an obligation to
provide accommodation for homeless families in their area and many families are
housed in bed-and-breakfast accommodation until permanent housing for them can
be found. The homeless also include young people who have run away from home
or a children's home, elderly people who have no family, and the mentally dis-
turbed, all forced to live wherever they can. This often means "living rough",
begging or travelling by day and sleeping in the open or in doorways at night. The
big cities, especially London, have a large number of such homeless people. One
part of London's South Bank area has come to be called "Cardboard City" because
of the many people living there in huts made from cardboard boxes.
There are some free hostels for the young homeless, but these are for short stays.
The charity Shelter works on behalf of the homeless, and the Salvation Army, a
religious charity, offers them food and shelter.

1.23. a) Read the text and tell the difference between ‘house’ and ‘home’.
b) Comment on the following sayings:
“A home without a cat is just a house” (Anon.).
“The difference between a house and a home is this: a house may fall
down, but a home is boken up.” (Elbert Hubbard)

House vs. Home


A person's home is as much a reflection of his personality as the clothes he
wears, the food he eats and the friends with whom he spends his time. Depending
on personality, how people see themselves and how they allow others to see them,
most have in mind an "ideal home". But in general, and especially for the students
or new wage earners, there are practical limitations of cash and location on the
way of achieving that idea.
Cash shortage, in fact, often means that the only way of getting along when you
leave school is to stay at home for a while until things improve financially. There
are obvious advantages to living at home: personal laundry is usually done along
with the family wash, meals are provided and you pay minimum rent for it if any at
all.
On the other hand, much depends on how a family gets on. Do you parents like
your friends? Are you prepared to be tolerant when your parents ask where you are
going in the evening and what time you expect to be back?
If you don't like the idea of living with the family, the possibilities are well-
known to you already. You can find a good landlady and rent a room till you make
enough money to buy a flat or a house of your own.
Most families in Britain live in their own houses, rather than in flats or
apartments. The houses are not always very big, and they are often built very close
together. The saying ‘An Englishman’s home is his castle’ is well-known. It
illustrates the desire for privacy and the importance attached to ownership which
seems to be at the heart of the British attitude to housing.
But British people have little deep-rooted attachment to their house as an
object, or to the land on which it stands. It is the abstract idea of ‘home’ which is
important, not the building. This will be sold when the time and price are right and
its occupiers will move into some other house which they will turn into ‘home’ – a
home which they will love just as much as they did the previous one.
The houses themselves are just investments. An illustration of this lack of
attachment to mere houses (as opposed to homes) is that two thirds of all inherited
houses are immediately sold by the people who inherit them, even if these people
have lived there themselves at some time in their lives. Another is the fact that it is
extremely rare for people to commission the building of their own houses. Most
houses are commissioned either by local government authorities - for poorer
people to live in – or, more frequently, by private companies as ‘property
developers’ who sell them on the open market.
There is one exception to the rule that ‘homes’ are more important than ‘houses’.
This is among the aristocracy. Many of these families own fine old country houses,
often with a great deal of land attached, in which they have lived for hundreds of
years. They have a very great emotional investment in their houses – and are
prepared to try very hard to stay in them. This can be very difficult in modern
times, partly because of death duties (= very high taxes which the inheritor of a
large property has to pay).
So, in order to stay in their houses, many aristocrats live lives which are less
physically comfortable than those of most people (they may not, for example, have
central heating). Many have also turned their houses into tourist attractions. These
are popular not only with foreign tourists. British visitors are also happy to be able
to walk around in rural surroundings as they inspect a part of their country’s
history.

1.24. a) List all the household chores people do. Which do you like/ hate?
b) Answer the following questions.
1. What is the most hated chore? Why? How often do you do it? Who usually
does it?
2. Who does most of the chores in your house?
3. How do you typically avoid doing chores? What are your regular excuses:
studying? Going out? It is not your turn?
4. Do you recycle your rubbish? What do you do if the container is full?
5. Who does the odd jobs around your house – electrical, hammering, painting?
6. Who does the shopping?
7. Who cuts the grass (if you live in a house)? Who waters the houseplants?
8. Who washes the dishes?
9. Who cooks?
10. Who makes sure the bills are paid?
11. Who is usually first to answer the door/the phone?
1.25. a) Many people today in Britain and Russia have got their own gardens
and kitchen gardens which demand much work. Do you think working
in
the garden is really worthwhile? Why? Why not?
b) Read the passage below and comment on the role of gardening in the
British lifestyle.
c) Compare
Britain's temperategardening in Britain
climate, with rainfalland Russia. the year, makes it possible to
throughout
grow a great variety of plants and shrubs, and for many people gardening is a
creative and satisfying pastime. Even for those living in towns and cities it is an
opportunity to create a small piece of countryside beside their homes.
Most British houses, even in towns, have a garden. Often there is a small flower
garden at the front of the house and a larger garden at the rear, where flowers or
vegetables are grown. Both front and back gardens often have a lawn.
Not all gardens are purely decorative: some are cultivated to provide homegrown
vegetables and fruit, especially in summer. For families with young children or
pets, a garden is considered almost a necessity. Many houses have a patio at the
rear, a paved area between house and garden where people can sit and have meals
in the summer. The edge of a garden is usually marked by a fence, hedge or wall,
and neighbours often chat to each other “over the garden fence”. Flowers grown in
the garden are often used to decorate the house.
Many homeowners spend a large part of their spare time gardening. Most
gardens are laid out fairly formally, with flowerbeds arranged around a lawn, or
vegetable beds running at right angles from a central path. Apple, plum and other
fruit trees are frequently found in back gardens and there may also be decorative
trees such as firs, birches or willows. Owners of large gardens sometimes have a
tennis court or swimming pool in their gardens. Ornamental features may include a
fish pond or a bird bath. Brightly coloured models of gnomes are sometimes used
as a rather eccentric way of decorating front gardens.
People often specialize in growing particular types of plants or vegetables. Many
enter these in competitions at local shows, where prizes are awarded for the finest
flowers and the largest vegetables. The worldwide known gardening show takes
place every year at Chelsea and is visited by the members of the Royal family.
Keen gardeners usually have a greenhouse for their plants. Town-dwellers who
only have a small garden may grow vegetables in an allotment, one of the small
plots of land let to individuals by local authorities. Most towns have a garden
centre, selling both plants and gardening equipment and furniture.
1.26. Read the dialogue and pick up all the gardening activities and
instruments
mentioned in it. First, read it out, and then make up a similar dialogue
with a partner. A Bit of Gardening
Nora: What are you going to do on this beautiful warm Sunday, Harry?
Harry: I think I shall do a bit of gardening. Will you help me, Nora?
N.: Of course I will. Shall I put on my gardening boots?
H.: Yes, do - and so will I. I'm going to dig up that dead tree at the bottom of the
garden.
N.: Shall I be able to help you?
H.: No, I don't think you will. You can be cutting off the tops of the dead
flowers by the wall, or you can pull up the roots. We want the ground to be quite
clean before the winter, don’t we? You will see when I have finished - or I'll see
when you have - and then we'll think of something we can do together.
N.: Oh, Harry - will you please paint the roof of the shed? That really does
make the garden look untidy.
H.: It shall be painted! But not till next weekend.
N.: And you shall have a glass of beer when the tree is dug up. I'll bring it out to
you.
H.: That'll be very nice - I shall certainly be ready for it.
N.: Are you going to water those new fruit-trees?
H.: No, I shan't do that, because I think it will rain tomorrow. But I'm to cut the
grass.
N.: I'll cut it if you like.
H.: No, you just clear the flower beds and then we'll see. Now, what tools shall
we need?
N.: You will want the spade and fork, and I shall want the trowel.
H.: I say, how black those clouds are getting: I think it's going to rain.
N.: Then we shall have to put off our gardening until this afternoon.
H.: I hope I can still have my glass of beer!

1.27. The expression "domestic accidents" does not normally evoke feelings
of
fear or tragedy, since most people only think about the concept on a
superficial level: a slip here, a slight burn there, a fall from a ladder
which may even provoke a moment of mirth for the on-looking partner,
etc. Millions of such banal-sounding mishaps occur every year, however,
and the majority involves children and old folk and are not that
harmless.
- ...a pan on fire
- ...an open tap flooding the bathroom
- ...a child drinking a chemical product
- ...cutting your finger while preparing a vegetable stew

b) What are focal points of danger in the home? Make up a list. Discuss with
a partner which of them are the most common and why?
c) Read this real story told by one of the students in the Basque country
(Spain). Finish the story. Has anything of the kind ever happened in your life
or in life of your friends/ relatives? Be ready to tell class about them.
“My mother was speaking on the phone while a piece of meat was cooking on a
pan in the kitchen. As my mother spoke, the meat got hotter and hotter, until it
caught fire. She went on speaking, and the flames coming from the meat got taller
and taller. A neighbour who happened to look out his window saw the flames and
ran to the door of my mother's flat. My mother was still on the phone. The
neighbour banged on the door and alerted the son of the speaking mother, he was
watching TV at that time. It must have been a very interesting programme
because the son had not smelled anything or seen any smoke, only the neighbour.
Anyway, the son filled a bucket with water and ... yes!, threw it on the burning
mass!!! The whole kitchen was black, the mother shocked and crying, the TV
deserted; the person at the end of the line ... “

1.28. a) Do you know how to use housekeeping money? Read the dialogue and be
ready to discuss with a partner the problems raised in it.
b) Explain the difference between ‘economic’ and ‘economical’. What
economical things or appliances can we use to reduce the housing
expenses? Have you ever tried to live economically? Share your experience
with class.
Nora: Harry, can we talk about money for a minute?
Harry: Of course, Nora. What's worrying you?
N.: Well, the point is that I'm afraid I’ll have spent my month's housekeeping
money by Saturday.
H.: But it's only the middle of the month!
N.: I know. But then there were all the expenses of Peter's party. Besides, this
house is getting more expensive to run every month.
H.: So you think the house isn't economical.
N.: I'm sure it isn't. It's too large, and it costs us far too much. Besides, I think I
want a change. Do you know, in July we shall have been living here for fourteen
years?
H.: Shall we really? That is a long time. But I like it here; I don't like moving
about.
N.: Suppose we found a slightly smaller house - we could sell this one easily,
couldn't we?
H.: Yes, of course; we shall have finished paying off the loan by then.
N.: But let's think about it.
H.: All right - but let's not do anything hasty. Now, this seeping money. Will ten
pounds be enough? That will cover the household expenses.
N.: Yes, but …
H.: Something else?
N.: Harry, look at this hat. There. What a sight am I?
H.: Nonsense, you look very pretty even without it.
N.: Do you realize that in exactly one week from now I shall have been wearing
this hat for a whole year?
H.: Nora, I give in. You shall have a new one tomorrow.
N.: Well, as a matter of fact …
H.: I know. You … (think what Harry might have said here; discuss possible
finishing with a partner.)

c) Read the words that Harry actually said: I know. You bought a new one today.
Oh well...
Was your guess correct?

1.29. Read the following citations about houses and homes and comment on
each. Which one do you like best? Why? Share your opinion with class,
trying to persuade your peers to accept your point of view. Use the
phrases below.

This is the way I look at it.


You must see it from my point of you
As I see it, the facts are these …
I’d like to talk about …
I’m not talking about …
I’d like to make some brief comments about …
I’d like to call your attention to …
One of the problems I have in mind is whether …
I’d like to ask about …
I’m always wondering whether …
In answer to your question I’d like to say …

Citations about houses and homes:


1. [A house is] a place where you can scratch any place you itch. (Henry
Ainsley)
2. [A house is] the great object of life. (Josiah G. Holland)
3. Where we love is home. (Oliver Wendell Holmes)
4. [A house is] a place we go to change our clothes so as to go somewhere else.
(Elbert Hubbard)
5. That’s the part of the world where people know when you’re sick, miss you
when you die, and love you while you live. (Samuel Johnson)
6. Home is where you go when other places close. (Joseph Laurie)
7. Home means wife. (Mishna: Yoma)
8. [Home is] not where you live but where they understand you. (Christian
Morgenstern)
9. [A house is] the girl’s prison and the woman’s workhouse. (George Bernard
Shaw)
10. [A house is] a rendezvous for burglars. (Elbert Hubbard)
11. [Home is] a place where the great are small and the small are great.
(Anonymous)
12. [Home is] the strength of a nation. (Lydia H. Sigourney)
13. [Home is] a great source of happiness. It ranks immediately after health and
a good conscience. (Sidney Smith)
14. [A house is] the thing that keeps a man running to the hardware store.
(Robert Zwickey)

WRITING

1.30. Describe your flat/ house in a 250-word essay. Draw a lay-out of it.

1.31. If you could design an ideal dwelling, what would it be? Write an essay
“My Ideal Dwelling” of about 250 words.

A 3 bed village house in good condition in Magalas


This is a lovely house on four levels in this charming medieval village. You
1.32. Find a picture of any house or flat and prepare your description of it as if
it is meant for sale. Use the following description as a model.

enter the house on the ground floor via a porch. On the first floor there is an
equipped kitchen, a living room, a bathroom and a hallway. On the second floor
there are 2 bedrooms, a WC and a shower room of a small landing. On the third
floor there is a bedroom with a shower and a separate WC. The house has new
wiring and tiling and has been recently painted. There is a car park 15 metres
1.33. Comment on any of the proverbs below in a 300-word essay.
from the house. Magalas is a village with shops, cafes and restaurants, primary
and secondary schools and a railway station just 15 minutes from Béziers and the
autoroutes and 25 minutes from the beaches.
1. My house is my castle.
2. There is no place like home.
3. Men make houses, women make homes.
1.34. a) Read the Rules and Regulations for Park *** Place Apartments and
write your opinion on them: what rules you consider important and what
rules might have been ommited from/ added to the document.
b) Translte the text in Russian.
~Park *** Place Apartments - Rules and Regulations ~
(Read carefully before signing. This is a legal document and is part of the TAA
lease attached)
1. Controlled Access NEVER PROP ANY DOORS OPEN UNLESS YOU
ARE IN THE PROCESS OF MOVING IN OR OUT!!! Although we are trying to
prevent the theft and destruction of both your belongings and our property, we are
first and foremost trying to prevent harm to any of our residents. Medeco keys are
provided to residents and are for residents’ use only. Visitors must use the call box
phone at the front to call you and have you open the door. It is the responsibility
of the tenant to provide management with his/her current and correct telephone
number so that it can be programmed into the call box. If you see anyone roaming
the halls or persons who look like they are not residents, immediately notify the
management or the Austin Police Department if the Manager is not available.
2. Security. Stealing of company property or property of other tenants will be
cause for automatic eviction and will be reported to the proper authorities. There
will be no seven-day waiting period for processing, and parents/guarantor will be
notified with no refund of deposit.
3. Parking. As long as there is space available, parking is provided free of
charge to residents. If a tenant requests covered parking and if it is available, a
fee of $45 per month will be assessed. Please park responsibly and stay within
the lines. No particular spots are assigned. Residents who wish to park their car on
the premises must obtain a current parking permit form the Manager. They only
will be issued after the proper vehicle registration form is filled out and provided
to us. Your automobile must be in your or your parents’ name. After all
available permits are distributed, Park *** Place cannot provide parking to
remaining residents. Those without a permit must park on the street. We will keep
a waiting list for those needing parking permits and will distribute them as spaces
come available. Visitors must park off premises due to limited spaces. Park ***
Place management will not be responsible for any car towed that does not have a
valid parking permit. Abandoned or inoperable vehicles will be towed from the
property at the vehicle owner's expense.
4. Quiet and Respect. Please respect your fellow residents. Keep noise to a
minimum, especially late at night. If someone is disturbing you, you have the
right to ask him or her to lower the noise level. If you are asked by another
resident to lower the noise level, please do so. Quiet hours are from 10:00 PM
to 9:00 AM; loud noise is prohibited at this time.
5. Facilities The responsible use of all facilities is available to all residents. All
hallways, stairs, and common areas are to be kept free of obstruction at all times.
6. Lobby. The lobby and other common areas are to be kept free of trash and
clutter. Loud noise and partying in the lobby is prohibited.
7. Smoking. Smoking is prohibited in the building, including the lobby,
laundry room, kitchen, and halls. You may smoke out on the patio and porch, but
please take an ashtray with you (and bring it back). Please do not throw your
cigarette butts on the grounds besides the entrances.
8. Guests. Residents are responsible for the actions of their guests.
9. Pets. Pets are NOT permitted at Park *** Place Apartments.
10. Cleaning. It is the responsibility of residents to discuss and set up a
schedule for the cleaning of the shared bathrooms. A cleaning fee will be
assessed if the bathroom is not kept clean.
11. Lamps. Residents must furnish their own lamps.
12. Fire and Trash. No BBQ pits or hibachis (= a small piece of equipment for
cooking food outdoors, over burning charcoal) are allowed within 15 feet of the
property. There is a $1,000 fine by the Fire Department. Trash should not be left
near your door. It should be taken to the Dumpster. Also, please store recycling
materials and containers so they are not visible.
13. Lockout Procedure. During regular office hours (to be posted), you may
ask the on-site Manager to unlock your door. Outside these hours, it is the tenant's
responsibility to call a locksmith. If the manager does come after hours, you may
be charged a minimum of $35.00, possibly more, at the discretion of the Manager.
The best thing is to have a spare key.
14. Garbage Disposal (= a small machine in the kitchen sink that cuts food
waste into small pieces so that it can be washed down the drain of the sink). Be
careful about what enters the disposal. Certain items cannot be handled and will
often clog the pipes or overwork the disposal. If the garbage disposal ever
malfunctions, first attempt to clear the contents of the disposal. This can be
accomplished by inserting a broom handle or similar blunt instrument and
twisting it around to clear any items. Another possible remedy is to press the reset
button underneath the disposal.
15. Toilets and Drains. If the toilet continues to run or is leaking, check to see
if the chain inside the tank has come loose. Check to see if the flapper valve has
closed properly. Do not use cleaners that are inserted in the tank because they can
damage the flapper valves. The new water saver toilets have a tendency to
become stopped up more often. If this occurs, the best solution is to use a plunger.
If there is ever a leak that you cannot find, please turn off the water supply at the
valves at the base of the commode (same applies to sinks, lavatories, etc.). To
prevent drains from stopping-up, please clean out the hair in your showers and
sinks regularly. Also, please take the time to clean your shower so that mildew
does not build up. Never put any type of paper besides toilet paper in the
commode.
16. Appliances. Microwaves, Refrigerators and Ranges (= ovens). Tenants are
responsible for all repairs and maintenance of refrigerators and microwaves due to
negligence, misuse or abuse. The complex Insurance carrier does not permit
ranges or hot plates. If yon decide to purchase one, you must assume all the
liability and responsibility caused by your neglect.
17. Unauthorized Repairs. No repairs are to be performed by the tenant
without prior approval. All repair requests must be put in writing. Repairs done
without prior approval will not be reimbursed unless it was an emergency
situation (where serious threat of damage or harm to people or property exists). If
there is ever a problem or emergency, always contact the on-site manger first or
the answering service.
18. Storage and Baggage. Park *** Place Apartments is not responsible for any
personal property, which may be lost, damaged, mislaid, or missing. Any
belongings not claimed after 30 days will be disposed of. Each resident is
responsible for his/her personal property.
19. Valuables. Anything of value should be fully insured. Park *** Place
assumes no liability.
20. Contraband. Possession of firearms, ammunition, flammable liquids,
explosives, fireworks, deadly weapons, or illegal drugs is prohibited and is
grounds for eviction. No commercial endeavor is permitted on the premises
without the Owner's written permission.
21. Lights. Turn out the lights in your room and common areas when no one is
in the room using them. Light switches can be found by the doors. Your efforts
will be appreciated.
22. Electrical Equipment. Residents are encouraged to use surge protectors.
Please be careful not to overload the circuits. Keep hair dryers and curling irons
away from the sink and unplugged when not in use.
23. Freeze Protection. Extremely cold weather is often the cause of frozen
pipes. When there is a freeze warning, it is a good idea to leave a faucet dripping
in all the sinks and shower, especially if you are planning to be away for a long
time. Cabinet doors should be left open so that the pipes are exposed to heat.
24. Pest Control. Park *** Place does not provide pest control. It is the tenant's
responsibility to prevent any of such problems. Taking out the trash regularly and
grinding leftover food thoroughly in the garbage disposal are always good ideas.
25. Bedding. Tenants must use a protective mattress cover for the bed or tenant
will be charged for a replacement mattress.
I (we) _______________________________________________, residents
of unit # ____________________ acknowledge receipt and accept the Rules
and Regulations of Park *** Place Apartments on this ___ day of ______ 200__.
Signature (s)
______________________

1.35. Imagine that you are renting a flat. Write to your landlord describing
some problems with your flat (or appliances) and ask him to see to it.
Unit 2.
THE PLACE I LIVE IN. MY CITY AND MY VILLAGE.
The people are the city.
William Shakespeare
A place where nobody is too many.
Anonymous.

Recommended grammar:
Passive Voice.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

2.1. Read the passage and insert the suitable words to complete the general
information about a city. Sometimes more than one word is possible.
A town is a large number of houses, schools, hospitals, theatres, factories,
_____ and other buildings built near each other. All these buildings are divided into
_____ of streets. Short narrow streets that join larger ones together called lanes. On
one side of the streets the buildings have ____ numbers, on the other – _____
numbers. The main streets are usually paved with stone or asphalt. Along the
streets run carts, cars, _____ and trolley-buses. In large towns tramways are laid
down wider streets, along which tramcars rattle with great noise. On both sides of
the streets there are raised _____ on which people walk.
In very large towns, which are generally called ______, countless pedestrians
walk along foot-pavements forming two smoothly-flowing ceaseless currents. In
England walkers keep to the right, while vehicles on the road keep to the ____.
People usually cross the streets at special places, called _____ . When the
traffic is very heavy, the policeman, who regulates the movement of the cars and
buses, has to stop the never-ending stream by raising one hand, thus affording the
pedestrians a chance of crossing the street. On the foot-paths, close to the gutter,
there are dust-bins, into which refuse is put.
The ground floors and the first storeys of the houses, that line the principal
streets, usually consist of _____. These shops present most attractive features. The
windows are very large and beautifully decorated. It is interesting to look at the
shop-windows where the articles on sale are displayed.
In the centre and in important parts of a large town, there are squares, gardens
and market places.
A town is generally situated near or on a river across which ______ are built. In
almost all towns there are places of interest, which a stranger would be invited to
see – monuments, cathedrals, museums and ________.
A town is governed by a council, the head of which is called ______.

2.2. Study the facilities and vehicles that you can find in the town and add a
couple of new ones to the list. Which of them can be found in your town/
village?
General places in town:
town centre/downtown (AmE), healthcare centre, law courts, registry office,
citizen’s advice bureau, (tourist) information centre, job centre (employment
bureau), chemist’s/drugstore (AmE), garden centre, police station, post office,
bank, Town/ City Hall, suburbs/outskirts, shopping centre/ emporium/ mall (AmE),
department store, bookstall/news-stand (AmE), telephone box, estate agency,
housing estate;
General constructions:
bridge, square, apartment block/apartment house (AmE), tower block/
skyscraper (AmE);
Sports ventures:
swimming pool, sports centre, golf course, tennis court, football pitch, skating
rink;
Cultural places:
theatre, opera house, concert hall, radio station, art gallery, convention centre;
Religious places:
church (Baptist, Catholic, Lutheran, Orthodox, Presbyterian), synagogue,
mosque, chapel, cathedral, cemetery;
Educational places:
school, college, university, library, adult educational centre, museum (of modern
art, of folk art, of primitive art, of fine arts, of applied art);
Places providing catering, accommodation and night-life:
(fast-food) restaurant, nightclub, disco, café, food court, hotel, B&B (bed and
breakfast), youth hostel;
Transport:
railway station, bus station, bus stop, underground/subway (AmE)/ Tube
(London) station, taxi rank/ taxi stand (AmE), car hire, car park/ parking lot (AmE),
parking meters, petrol station/gas station (AmE), garage, airport, seaport,
pavement/sidewalk (AmE), (pedestrian) crossing/crosswalk (AmE), pelican
crossing, zebra crossing, crossroads/intersection, junction, T-junction,
roundabout/rotary (AmE), flyover, fork, cycle path, motorway/expressway (AmE),
subway/underpass (AmE), by-road/by-way (AmE), by-pass/ detour, ring road,
traffic lights, traffic jam;
Vehicles:
bus, coach, tram/streetcar/trolley (AmE), trolley-bus, taxi/cab, saloon car/sedan,
estate car/station wagon, sport utility vehicle (SUV), lorry/truck (AmE), van,
ambulance, fire engine, motor bike, scooter, bicycle, train, plane, airliner, ship,
ocean liner, ferry, boat, motor boat, rowing boat, canoe, yacht, hydrofoil/
hovercraft;
Others:
litter, bottle bank, litter bin/ trash bin (AmE), street cleaner/ janitor (AmE), bench,
lamp post.

2.3. a) Suggest three words which would collocate well with each of the
nouns below, as in the examples.
b) Use the words from the box in your own sentences.

___________ ___________
1. ___________ museum 4. ___________ court
___________ ___________

__leisure___ ___night____
2. __________ center 5. ___________ club
__________ ___________

___________ ___________
3. ___________ college 6. ___________ agency
___________ ___________

2.4. To describe your location in town you need prepositional phrases.


Study the phrases below and be ready to use them in your own
sentences.
Where in Town?
in the middle of a park on the other side of town
across the street past the crossing
round the corner at/on (AmE) the corner of the street
at the traffic lights opposite the hotel
in front of the railway station near the airport
by/next to/beside the seaport in/on(AmE) the high street/main
street(AmE)
in the same street as the post-office behind the tower block
through the subway/underpass under the bridge
2.5. a) Robert Holliday once said: “An automobile is a walking stick; and
one of the finest things in life is going on a journey with it”. The car
has long become a necessity of modern life. But how do we behave
when we drive? Somebody once said: “An automobile is a man’s
greatest invention – until he got into the driver’s seat”. Does it mean
that while behind the wheel, a person tends to forget about the rules of
social conduct in the city?
b) Read the passages below about the main problems and accidents a
driver should be aware of. Do you have a driving license? What
offences
are the gravest, to your mind? Which ones are the most common for
Russia?
Text 1. On the Road
 You must give way at a give-way sign. On the roundabout, traffic coming
from your right has the right of way (= is allowed to go before other traffic).
Sounding/ horning/tooting your horn is prohibited except in emergencies.
Jumping (=not stopping at) a red signal light is a serious offence. Reckless
driving (=very dangerous driving, without any care for others) is also a very
serious offence.
 Drink-driving may result in a heavy fine or imprisonment. You may be
asked to take a breathalyzer (=instrument you breathe into to measure an alcohol
level) test. Hit-and-run (=running over or into someone and not stopping)
accidents are extremely serious and could result in ban (=removal of one’s
driving license) for several years and/or imprisonment. Less serious offences may
result in penalty points (=negative points on your license which are added up
over time). On-the-spot fines (=given at the scene of the offence) may be issued
for careless driving and other offences.
 Exhaust emissions (=waste gases produced by the vehicle) must meet
government standards, and the car must be roadworthy (=in a condition that it
can be driven safely), which includes a minimum depth of tyre/tire tread (=the
depth of the grooves in the tyre/tire rubber).

Text 2. Traffic problems


1) It was rush hour, and there was a long tailback (=a line of slow or stopped
traffic) on the motorway.
2) There was a pile-up (=crash between several or many cars) involving ten
cars, because of the fog, so the road was closed and we were diverted (=directed
away from our road) onto a narrow country lane.
3) I had stupidly parked in a tow away zone (=area where your car may be
taken away if you park illegally) and came back to find my car had gone!
4) I just parked for a few minutes outside the station, but when I came out, my
car had been clamped (=fitted with a metal device on the wheel to prevent it
from moving).
5) I saw two men fighting next to their cars. I think it was a case of road rage.
(=anger or violence between drivers because of difficult driving conditions)
6) The road was wet and I skidded (=lost control of the steering) on the bend
and almost crashed.
7) There was a head-on collision (=two vehicles hitting each other directly in
the front) on the main road between here and the next village last night. Luckily,
both cars had air bags and the drivers survived.

2.6. Complete the sentences with the correct word or word combination
from the previous activity.
1. We can’t park here; it’s a __________ zone.
2. There was a five-mile _______ on the motorway because of
road works.
3. Fog caused a number of _______, one of which involved 15
cars.
4. If it’s a _________ sign, you don’t have to stop if the road is
clear, but if it’s a stop sign, then you must always stop.
5. Who has the __________ at the corner in your country? Cars or
pedestrians?
6. It was a ________ accident, but the police have a description of
the car.
7. The permitted level of __________ is to be lowered in an
attempt to reduce air pollution in big cities.
8. He was given a __________ test and it was discovered he had
consumed a huge amount of alcohol. He was charged with ________ and
fined £500.
9. In some countries drivers _________ their _________ just
because they get frustrated. As a result, the city streets are incredibly
noisy.

2.7. a) Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage.
b) What kinds of transport are common in your city/village? In Russia?
Which of them do you prefer? Why?

sliding doors platform conductor fare crew cab


double-decker bus stop rush hour tube metro lift
destination inspector subway hail check tip
single-decker taxi-rank driver coach mind
meter rack escalator

A taxi, sometimes called a (a)______, is the most comfortable way to travel. You
simply (b) ______ the taxi in the street or go to a (c) ______, where there are
several taxis waiting, for example at a station. At the end of your journey, you
can
see how much the (d)______ is by looking at the (e)______. You add a (f)
______ to this, and that's it. Very simple. But expensive!

What about taking a bus? If it has two floors, it's called a (g) ______and you can
get a good view from the top. If it has only one floor, it's called a (h) ______.
Most
buses have a two-person (i) ______: the (j) ______, who drives, of course, and
the
(k) ______, who takes your money. Keep your ticket because an (l) ______might
want to (m) ______it. You catch a bus by waiting at a (n) ______. You can see
where a bus is going because the (o) ______is written on the front. But try to
avoid the (p)______.
Quicker than the bus is the underground (called the (q) ______ in London, the
(r) ______ in New York and the (s) ______in Paris and many other cities). You
buy your ticket at the ticket-office. Go down to the (t) ______ on the (u) ______ or
in the (v) ______. The train comes. The (w) ______ open. You get on. You look at
the map of the underground system. Very simple. When you hear “(x) _____ the
doors!” it signals that the train is about to depart. So be careful.

For longer distances take a train or a long distance bus, usually called a (y)
______,
which is slower but cheaper. The train is very fast. Put your luggage on the (z)
______ and sit and wait till you arrive.

2.8. Explain the difference between the following.

(a) a carriage and a compartment


(b) a season ticket and a return ticket
(c) a bus driver and a bus conductor
(d) a train driver and a guard

2.9. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.

for off at in on from

1. We went down ______ the lift.


2. We met ______ the station.
3. I waited 20 minutes ______ a bus.
4. She had to queue (AmE to line)______ a bus.
5. We must wait ______ the bus stop.
6. She waited ______ the platform.
7. The tube stops ______ every station.
8. The conductor asked ______ our fares.
9. We finally got ______ the bus ______ our destination.
10. I'll meet you ______ the ticket office.
11. Get your ticket ______ the machine.

2.10. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage.
cosmopolitan pollution congestion to breed crime
metropolis urban cost of living irresistible lure
stimulation commuter city-dwellers anonymity

Most people in developed countries are (a) ___, many drawn by the (b) ______
of the (c) ___. The attractions of the city are many: the (d) ________ atmosphere
(foreign restaurants, different languages, international companies), the (e) _______
of cultural events or the simple hope of finding work. All too many find, however,
that the glamorous façade is false. One can be very alone in the city and the (f)
________ which at first seems to give freedom and protection later leaves just
loneliness. There is a lot to do but everything is expensive. The (g) _______ is
high. There is (h) _____ not only of the physical but also of the moral environment
and the various pressures of (i) ___________ life cause cities (j) ________. Above
all, perhaps, it is the daily stresses and strains of the city which make life there a
matter of survival rather than of enjoyment. Many a (k) _______ struggling to
work through the rush hour (l) _____ asks, “Is it worth it?”

2.11. Look at the adjectives which can be used to describe a city/ town and
say which of them are negative and positive. Add two more positive
and two more negative adjectives to the list. Use them to describe any
town/ city.
picturesque, historic, spacious, elegant, magnificent, amazing, superb,
wonderful,
atmospheric, quaint, lively, hectic, deserted, bustling, crowded, packed, filthy,
run-down, shabby
2.12. Match the words on the right (1-8) with their definitions on the left
a-h.

a) rather dirty 1. awe-inspiring


b) full of people who are very busy or lively 2. haphazard
(especially 3. tacky
a place) 4. grubby
c) not organised, not arranged according to the plan 5. clogged
d) very tall and high in the sky (especially buildings or 6. bustling
trees) 7. soaring
e) so loud, big or noticeable that you just can’t ignore 8. in-your-face
it
f) cheap and badly made or vulgar
g) giving a feeling of respect and amazement
h) blocked so that nothing can pass through
(especially a
place)
2.13. a) Match each verb on the left with an appropriate phrase from the
list on the right. Translate them.
b) Complete the sentences below using the phrases from the previous
activity.

a)
to make a finger on (something)
to work prey to something
to get on top of one another
to fall its magic
to live your bearings
to put way for the new

b)
a) No matter how stressed you feel, once you let the beauty of the beach
and warmth of the sun ____ on you, you will begin to wind down and relax.
b) The old town is built on the edge of a cliff overlooking the gorge,
using up every bit of spare space. Some houses are even built into the cliff
face and people _____ in warrens of narrow cobbled streets.
a) The medieval clock tower offers a landmark which is visible wherever
you are in the town, making it very easy ____.
b) It is difficult ____ exactly what makes this grey, industrial town such
popular tourist destination.
c) It’s very easy ____ the charm of the market stall holders and people
often end up spending much more than they’d expected to.
d) Far too often historic town centres are carved up and charming old
buildings are torn down ____.

2.14. Match the sentences (1-14) with the most appropriate sentences (a-n).
Use the words in bold to help you.
1. London is a truly cosmopolitan city.
2. A modern metropolis needs a good integrated transport system.
3. London suffers a lot from traffic congestion.
4. Poverty in the inner-city areas can breed crime.
5. Cities around the world have seen a huge population explosion.
6. Birmingham has plenty of amenities.
7. A lot of people visit Paris for its cultural events.
8. Cities in poorer countries often lack basic infrastructures.
9. The pressures of modem city life can be difficult to deal with.
10. The cost of living in some places can be very high.
11. A lot of people appreciate the anonymity of living in a large city.
12. I love the urban lifestyle I lead.
13. In Singapore, private cars are banned from the Central Business District at
peak periods.
14. Urban sprawl is prevalent in most cities.

a. Drug abuse is also a big problem.


b. Shops, libraries, hospitals and entertainment complexes are just a few of
them.
c. Chief among these are concerts and exhibitions.
d. In particular, I enjoy the atmosphere that is unique to the city.
e. Prices in London are particularly exorbitant.
f. Without them, they are unable to function properly as cities.
g. It is especially bad during the rush hour, when thousands of commuters
try to enter or leave the city.
h. Stress-related illnesses are very common in cities like New York.
i. Nowadays there are more city dwellers than ever before.
j. Everywhere you go there are building sites, pedestrian precincts, blocks of
flats
and housing estates spreading into the countryside.
k. They like to feel that they can do something without everybody knowing
about it.
l. Most people use buses and the underground to get to the banks and
offices where they work.
m. Unfortunately, this is something that most large capital cities lack.
n. It's a melting pot for people from all parts of the world.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

2.15. Work with a partner. Respond to these comments as in the model, so


that your response could explain the meaning of the underlined word
combinations. (You can revise the expressions in Ex. 2.5.)
Model: A: I came out of a shop and saw a big metal thing on my wheels.
B: Oh, so your wheels had been clamped!
A: Yes I had to pay £100.
1. A: As I drove round the corner there was some ice on the road and I lost
control of the steering.
B: Oh, so ...
2. A: The two women were obviously having an argument about the way one of
them had driven. Then suddenly they started hitting each other.
B: Oh, I guess it was a case of …
A: Yes. It’s happening more and more often these days.
3. A: The policeman looked at my tyres and said they were illegal.
B: Oh, so you didn’t have the minimum depth of …?
4. A: The road was closed. Two lorries had come straight at each other and
crashed.
B: Oh, so it was a …
5. A: The policeman fined me £100 there and then. I have to pay it within seven
days.
B: Oh, really? I didn’t know they could give …
A: Yes. You have no choice. They just give it to you and you can’t dispute it at
the time.
6. A: The man at the garage said my car wasn’t in a fit condition to be driven
legally.
B: Oh, so it’s not …

2.16. Decide where these people are in the following situations.


1. - Fourth floor, please.
- I want that floor, too.
2. - Don't throw that away in the street.
- OK. I'll throw it in here.
3. - When do you think the number 3 will come?
- In about five minutes.
4. - Let me call Mom and tell her I'll be late.
- OK. I'll wait.
5. - Taxi! We'd like to go to the Ritz Hotel.
- All right.
6. - What can I do for you?
- Please check the oil!
7. - Let's go!
- No way. The lights are red.
8. - This road is too busy.
- Right you are. It's safer to go this way.
9. - Look both ways before you cross.
- OK.

2.17. Match the following phrases (1-7) with the appropriate situations (a-
d).
1. I'm sorry, I have no idea.
a. You are pointing these people in the
2. Turn right at the crossroads. right
direction.
It’ll be on your left. b. You don’t know the way.
3. I'm going that way - I'll show you. c. You
are going to take these people
4. Take the first on the right, it'll be where
they want to go.
right in front of you. d. You are explaining the route to these
5. I'm sorry, I'm a stranger here myself. people.
6. It's in that direction, but I'm not sure
where exactly.
7. Go along here and ask again.

2.18. a) Study the dialogues below and make up similar dialogues with a
partner using the hints after each dialogue.
b) Make up similar dialogues with a partner about getting around
your town.

Dialogue 1. Asking the Way in the Street.


A: Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the Town Hall?
B: Sure. Go straight ahead along this street, and then take the third on the left.
You'll see the Town Hall on your right.
A: Thanks a lot.
B: Any time.
Excuse me, where's the nearest …?/ I'm looking for Victoria Station, is it far from
here?
Carry straight on./ Keep straight on for about 500 metres. / Go straight ahead
along this street till you come to the traffic lights./ Take a number 3 bus. / Take a
bus/train/tube to London./ Take the right fork./ Take the Circle line. / Turn
left/right at the traffic lights./ Turn to Camden High Street./ It's round the comer to
the left./ It's the second (turning) on the right./ / It's not far, you can walk from
here. / It's on the other side of town, you'd better take a taxi./ It'll take you about
half an hour by bus.

Dialogue 2. Having Lost Your Way.


A: Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the railway station? I've lost my
way.
B: Yes. Go straight ahead till you come to the traffic lights. Turn left there and
it's the first turning on the right.
A: Straight ahead up to the traffic lights, left and then right.
B: That's it. It'll take you about five minutes.
A: Thank you very much.
B: You're welcome.
Take the first/second/third/next (turning) on the left/right. / First right, second
left./ Cross the street at the traffic lights./ Walk across the square. / Walk up to/as
far as the bus stop./ Go back one block. / Get on bus number 15. I'm going that
way. I'll show you.

Dialogue 3. Having No Idea How to Get to the Place


A: Excuse me, how do I get to the post office?
B: It's in that direction, but I'm not sure where exactly. Go along here and ask
again.
Is this the way to the Central park? - No, it isn't.
Is this the right way to the car park?- I'm sorry I don't know. I'm a stranger here
myself.
Dialogue 4. Being on the Wrong Bus
A: Sorry. Does this bus go to the airport?
B: No, I'm afraid you're on the wrong bus. You should take a 194.
A: Can you tell me where to get off?
B: At the next stop but one.
Excuse me, can you tell me where to get off to get to …? -
You're on the wrong bus. But you can go two stops and get off at the next stop/ at
the next stop but one and change to Bus 18.

Dialogue 5. Going by Underground


A: Excuse me. I'm a bit lost. Can you help me?
B: Certainly. Where are you trying to get to?
A: I'm looking for Victoria Station.
B: Victoria Station?
A: That's right.
B: Well, the best way to get there is to take the Tube. Take the Central line west-
bound as far as Oxford Circus. Then change to the Victoria line southbound and it's
two stops later. All right?
A: Yes, fine. Thanks a lot.
B: Not at all.
Excuse me, do I have to change? - Yes, you have to change at the fourth station
onto the Piccadilly line./ Which line should I take for the Opera House? - The
Circle line.

Dialogue 6. Asking the Way inside a Building


A: Excuse me, how do I get to Room 240?
B: Sure. Go to the end of this corridor and turn left. You'll see a lift.
A: Yes?
B: Take the lift to the second floor and turn right. Room 240 will be on your
left.
A: Thanks a lot.
B: Not at all.
Excuse me, where's the main entrance/ reception lobby/ corridor/hallway
(AmE)/ Accounting Department/ Personnel Office/ canteen/ lift/elevator (AmE)/
escalator?- Take the lift to the ground/first (AmE) floor, first/second (AmE) floor,
second/third (AmE) floor, top floor, basement./ Take the lift up/down.
Go straight down this corridor/hallway (AmE)./ Go through the lobby/ the door
here./ Go up/down the stairs./ Go upstairs/downstairs./ It's right at the end of the
corridor./ It's on the ground floor/in the basement./ It's round the corner. / It's on
the right/left./ It's the second door on the left.

Dialogue 7. Taking a Taxi


A: Victoria, please. I have to be there by 11:15.
B: 11:15, sir? Oh, we'll make it all right.
A: And would you stop at the Royal Hotel? I have to pick up my suitcase.
B: Righto! You're in good time. It's only five past eleven. That'll be £ 2.80 p,
please.
A: Thank you very much. You can keep the change.
I'd like to go to this address. -Sure./ Could you stop/call at the Grand Hotel?
Certainly, madam/sir.

2.19. Complete the following dialogues.


a) A: Paddington, please _______9:15 train.
B: 9:15? We'll make it all right.
A: Would ______? _________ (stop at the hotel, pick up things)
B: OK. I'll wait. You're in good time. That'll be £ 3.25 p.
A: Thank you ________.

b) A: Excuse me; does this bus go to London Bridge?


B: No, _________ (change, # 720 bus)
A: Can you tell me where to get off?
B: Yes, ____________ (next stop)

c) A: Sorry, how do I get to Smith Street?


B: Take _______ (the Tube to Smith Square, turn left, take the second on
the right)
A: Great, thanks.

d) A: Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the accounting department?
B: Take ________ (the lift, fourth floor, second door on the right)
A: Thank you.

e) A: _________ (Oxford Circus)


B: You should take the Piccadilly line.
A: _____________ ?(change)
B: Yes, you'll have to change at Piccadilly Circus on to the Waterloo line.
A: ____________ (which sign)
B: Just follow the sign "Northbound".

2.20. a) Work with a London underground map below. Practice asking for
and explaining the routes between the following stations on the map:
Marble Arch > Monument
St. Paul’s > Knightsbridge
Victoria > Covent Garden > Bank
Covent Garden > Marble Arch > Edgware Road

b) Imagine that your partner asks you the way to the nearest hospital/the local
cinema/the nearest bank/ the Town Hall Square/the nearest hotel/nearest
bus stop. Give directions.
c) You would like to invite your partner over for a cup of coffee. Give him or
her exact information on how to get to your place and have him or her repeat
the instructions so that you can be sure that he or she will not get lost.
2.21. What’s in the name? Scan each of these short texts to find the answer to
the question before each texts.
Taxi Facts
Why is a taxi called a ‘taxi’?
Taxis and cabs are terms used in Britain to describe vehicles which are legally
allowed to look for passengers. It is illegal for other vehicles to display the words
‘taxi’, ‘cab’ or ‘hire’. The word ‘taxicab’, usually shortened to ‘taxi’, comes from
a taximeter. This is the instrument which measures the distance travelled, or time
taken, and automatically calculates the fare. This device was invented in 1891.

Why is a cab called a ‘cab’?


“Cab” is an abbreviation for ‘cabriolet’, a one-horse two-wheeled carriage. Cabs
replaced four-wheeled carriages in the 1840s and 1850s because they were easier
to drive in the crowded city streets.
Why is a cab sometimes referred to as a ‘hackney’ cab?
Originally a hackney carriage was a four-wheeled carriage drawn by a
hackney, a slow-walking horse – from an old French word haquenée (not to be
confused with Hackney – an area of north-east London). A ‘hackney cab’ is now
synonymous with ‘taxi’, although London’s last horse-drawn carriage received its
licence in 1946.
Does your cab driver have a bale of hay on board?
If not, he is breaking the law. In the days when cabs were horse-drawn,
regulations protected the horses so that they would not be hungry. While still
technically a law, fortunately for today’s cabbies it is no longer enforced!

2.22. Scan the text and say how different was the social distinction between
city and country population in America and Europe. What pattern did
Russia follow?
Social Distinction Between Urban and Rural Population
The social distinction between city and country population was less in America
than in Europe, and in addition, the countryside lacked the radical social
separations that were so commonly associated with the aristocrat-peasant structure
of European rural life. Thus, when cities began to grow outward in Europe there
was a strong class discontinuity between the ruling group in the land invaded by
the city — the aristocracy — and the city people taking up residence there —
commonly a working-class group. It was frequently the view of a social class stru-
cture in European cities that the most desirable places to live were fairly close to
the city centre (as in the West End in London). The less desirable housing areas
were shunted toward the edge of the city, in most intimate contact with the country,
thereby creating the sharpest discontinuity in society.
The American pattern differed significantly. It had been a constant practice in
American cities for the middle class to move toward the edge of the city, and when
public transportation was available, into the near fringe of the country. The
American city even a hundred years ago was characterized by suburbs and made
widely varying social use of those open housing areas. The result has been a
constant outward spread of cities so that the boundary line between urban and rural
morphology is seldom very clear.

2.23. Do the quiz below to see how well you know cities around the
world.

1. What proportion of the world’s population lives in the cities?


a) over 80% b) about two thirds c) about a third d) about a
half
2. Which is the world’s largest capital city?
a) Tokyo b) Seoul c) Mexico City d) New Delhi
3. Which is Europe’s noisiest capital?
a) Athens b) Madrid c) Rome d) Paris
4. Which is the world’s oldest capital city?
a) Baghdad b) Damascus c) Cairo d) Amman
5. Which is the world’s highest capital city?
a) La Paz (Bolivia) b) Lima (Peru) c) Quito (Ecuador) d) Kathmandu
(Nepal)
6. Which was the first city to reach a population of 1 million?
a) Mexico City b) New York c) London d) Rome

2.24. a) Look at this extract from a radio talk show and check your answers.
b) Divide the class into two groups. Group A - make up a similar quiz
of 5-7 questions about the world; Group B - make up a quiz about
Russia and the native city/ village of the majority of the group.
Exchange your quizzes and take your time to do them. Then discuss
the results in class.

Mike: Thank you John, and now it’s back to the studio for the answers to last
week’s quiz. Sue?
Sue: Thanks, Mike. Hello, yes, and there are a few surprises in the answers this
week. So let’s start with the first question, which I think held the biggest surprise
for our contestants. According to data collected by the UN, 53% of the world’s
population lives in cities, whilst 47% live in rural areas. In the EU the percentage
of people living in urban centres rises to staggering 74% and even higher 76% in
the USA. It would appear that there is a steady movement towards urban areas
and the proportion of city dwellers will continue to rise.
Although it may seem a fairly straightforward question to answer, there is still
some discussion as to which is the world’s largest capital. This is mainly due to
the difficulty in deciding where the world’s largest cities actually end as they all
tend to be surrounded by mass of satellite towns which all merge into one large
agglomeration. If we take ‘city’ to mean the population which lives within the
city limits, the Mexico City, with a population of more than 23,000,000, is the
world’ largest capital, closely followed by Seoul at 12,000,000 and Tokyo at
8,000,000.
Likewise, it is very difficult to tell which is Europe’s noisiest capital, mainly as
there don’t seem to be any standardised noise pollution measurements across the
countries of the EU, and very few exhaustive studies have been carried out.
However, it is widely recognised that Athens is the European capital which suffers
from the worst noise pollution levels. It is not known whether this information is
based on popular opinion or on statistical data from Greek authorities, however.
Judging from the entries we’ve received, this will come as quite a surprise to
some of our listeners.
On to the forth question. There is still some debate over this one. The Syrians
claim that their capital city, Damascus, is the world’s oldest city, though other
Middle Eastern inhabitants would claim that their capitals are just as old. Sources
seem to suggest that the Syrians are right and that their capital is indeed the oldest
in the world, having been continuously inhabited since 5000 BC.
Question five was pretty straightforward. There is no doubt whatsoever about
which of the world’s capital cities is the highest. La Paz, in the Bolivian Andes,
stands four kilometres above sea level.
And finally, the last question, again a fairy straightforward question. The first
city to have reached a population of 1,000,000 was Rome which had population
of over a million during the heyday of the Roman Empire in 133 BC. London
reached the mark in 1810 and New York in 1875. Today there are over 300 cities
in the world that boast a population in excess of one million.
So, the winners this week are Jane Turbot from Whitstable in Kent, Carol
Jackson from St. Andrews …

2.25. a) Read some results of two surveys in which people living in rural and
urban areas were asked about how happy they were with where they
lived. Comment on them.
b) Make up 5 questions that people could have been asked in the
survey. Use the questions to do a similar short survey in the class.

REPO REPO
RT 1 RT 2
People who enjoy living in cities 79% 72%
People who live in a city but would prefer to live in 35% 43%
rural areas
People who live in the city but spend as much time as 47% 29%
possible outside the city
People who live in rural areas but would prefer to live 62% 36%
in a city
Percentage of these who are under 30 84% -
Percentage of these who are over 50 13% -

2.26. a) Match each sentence (1-8) on the left with an appropriate response
(a-h) on the right. Use the words in bold to help you.
b) Develop the dialogue with a partner by adding new details to it.
1. I enjoy a rural lifestyle. A. Really? So why are we seeing so
much construction in the
countryside around London?
2. There isn’t much pollution if you live B. I'm not so sure. All those pesticides
outside a town. and chemical fertilisers that farmers
use nowadays can't be good for the
environment.
3. There is a lot of productive land in this C. That's probably because we
import
area. more food from abroad.
4. In recent years, there has been a lot of D. Mostly wheat, oats and barley.
migration from towns to cities.
5. The government has promised to leave E. Really? How much is that in
acres?
the green belt alone,
6. There has been a huge reduction in the F. I'm not surprised. With such terrible
amount of arable land over the last prospects within towns,
depopulation
twenty years. is inevitable.
7. My uncle's farm covers almost 800 G. Well I can't see
much evidence of
hectares. cultivation.
8. What are the main crops grown in this H. Really? I always find there’s
area? nothing to do in the countryside.
2.27. a) Read this article and fill in the gaps with the most suitable word
or phrase. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible.
b) Underline all the adjectives used to describe the city and its facilities.

For seven years I lived in Singapore, a (1)_______of almost three million people.
Like London, Paris and New York, Singapore is a (2) __________city, with people
from different parts of the world living and working together. I enjoyed the (3)
______ lifestyle I led there, and made the most of the superb (4) __________,
ranging from the excellent shops to some of the best restaurants in the world. In the
evenings and at weekends there were always (5) _______; with such diverse
attractions as classical western music, an exhibition of Malay art or a Chinese
opera in the street; it was difficult to get bored. Perhaps most impressive, however,
was the remarkable transport (6) ________, with excellent roads, a swift and
efficient bus service and a state-of-the-art underground system which could whisk
(7) _______ from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city (this was
particularly important, as the government banned private cars from entering the
(8)__________ during the morning and afternoon (9) ________ in order to reduce
(10) __________ on the roads and (11) __________ from the exhausts).
Of course, living in a city like this has its disadvantages as well. For a start, the
(12) ________ can be very high - renting an apartment, for example, is very
expensive. And as the city is expanding, there are a lot of (13) _______ where new
apartments are continually being built to deal with the (14) ________ which is a
direct result of the government encouraging people to have more children.
Fortunately, Singapore doesn't suffer from problems that are common in many
cities such as (15) _________, which is partly the result of the government
imposing very severe penalties on anyone bringing narcotics into the country, so it
is safe to walk the streets at night. In fact, the inner-city housing estates there are
probably the safest and most orderly in the world.
Singapore wouldn't be ideal for everyone, however, especially if you come from
the countryside and are used to a (16) _________ lifestyle. The traditional villages
that were once common have disappeared as the residents there realised there were
no prospects for their future and moved into new government housing in the
city. Nowadays, there is very little (17) _________ around the city, which means
that Singapore imports almost all of its food. And despite a 'green' approach to city
planning, the (18) _______ which has eaten into the countryside has had a
detrimental effect on the (19) ________.

2.28. a) Read the text about Belgorod. Pick up the key words to describe each
aspect covered in the passage below, e.g. climate, name, etc.
b) Summarize the text in 7-9 sentences and present them to class.
c) Are you happy living in your city/ village? Explain why.
Belgorod
Belgorod is the capital of Belgorod Province. It is situated in the southern part of
Central Russia, on the right bank of the Seversky Donets River. It’s about 695 km
by road of Moscow. The population of the city is about 350 thousand. The climate
is moderate continental, with the average temperatures in January – 8.5° C, and
in July + 20° C. Annual total rainfall in the region is about 450 mm. It’s less than
in such cities as Glasgow, Manchester, Milan and Rome but more than in Madrid
and Athens.
The name of the city is believed to be associated with chalk cliffs, which are
in abundance in the region: in Russian “bel” means “white” and “gorod” – “city”.
The precise date of the foundation of the city of Belgorod is still unknown,
though scientists are sure that its history goes back as far as antiquity. Some years
ago local historians proved that Belgorod had first come into existence in about
993 AD. It was ruined a short time afterwards, and re-built in the 16 th century. One
thing is certain and that is that Belgorod was first mentioned in the chronicles in
1237. A well known Russian historian, N.M. Karamsin, said that Belgorod had
begun as a fortress stronghold in the 1590s, for protecting Russia’s southern
frontier from the Crimean Tatars. So Belgorod played a very important role in the
life of the Russian Empire for almost two centuries. Once it became even the
center of the “gubernia” (province), where such cities as Bryansk, Kursk, Oryol
and Kharkov belonged to. All in all the gubernia comprised 30 towns.
Positioned on the river and at the junction of several roads, Belgorod
eventually became the area’s prime economic and cultural center. Throughout the
17-19 centuries it rapidly grew and developed. Lots of stone buildings appeared in
its streets – the first schools, monasteries and convents, stone mansions of the
rich. At that time Belgorod sold cattle, corn, lard, leather, honey, fruit, wax, and
various manufactured goods.
But in 1941-1945 Belgorod as all the Soviet regions suffered greatly from
fascist invasion. In July-August 1943 there was one of the most severe battles of
the war – the tank battle on the Prochorovskoe Field, which turned out to be the
breaking point of the World War II. About 1,200 tanks from the both sides took
part in the bloody fight. When it was over, the fertile Russian chernozem ground
(=black earth) was soaked with blood and covered all over with dead bodies and
warped materiel [mә,tiәri'el]. The Prochorovskaya battle effected in the liberation
of Belgorod and Oryol on August 5, 1943. In honour of it Moscow saluted for the
first time during the World War II. After that victory, the Soviet Army got “the
second breath” and started pushing the enemy out of the country. Since that time
each year the day of the 5th August is celebrated as the Day of the City, the Day of
Liberation. There are usually different festive activities on that day, ending with a
traditional fireworks display.
Today Belgorod is a busy and beautiful city. Unfortunately there are not
many notable buildings, because the city was almost totally destroyed during the
war. It has a wide range of industries there: building materials, engineering,
telecommunication equipment, machinery, iron-ore extraction, food-processing,
textile and other light industries. As for agriculture, the region produces grain and
sugar beet, different vegetables and fruit, there’s also dairy farming. Pig production
occurs in most areas. Besides Belgorod province is broadly self-sufficient in
poultry meat and eggs. And don’t forget that our region is situated on the famous
black earth, which the Germans tried to transport to Germany during the War.

As for educational centers there’re four main of


them: State University, Technological University,
Consumer Cooperative University and Agricultural
Academy. So Belgorod supports one of the finest
scientific research communities in Russia.
Belgorod has many twin cities in different countries: Opole in Poland,
Herne in Germany and Wakefield in the UK.
In spite of tough times the Belgorodians believe in the future and hope that
their city will survive all the difficulties.
In 2007, Belgorod was awarded a title of the City of Military Glory
(equivalent of the Soviet Hero City) in commemoration of the victorious tank
battle in 1943.

2.29. Would you like to live in a megapolis? Why? Read the text and fill in
the chart after it.
At present almost the majority of the people in the United States live in a
few major urbanized regions, or megapolises, each extending for hundreds of
miles and some containing over 50 million people. The growth of these extended
urbanized stretches formed by the coalescing of metropolitan areas has been one
of the most significant demographic developments of the second half of the 20th
century.
Megapolis has evolved from a series of ever-enlarging urban forms whose
growth correlated with changing economic, technological, and cultural conditions
and the rapidly increasing living in urban areas. This unprecedented and
uncontrolled increase in the magnitude of the urban areas has created problems of
great complexity.
The first major urban surge coincided with the industrial revolution around the
middle of the last century. The urban pattern that evolved was the industrial city
with its smoking factories in and around the central core of the city and with the
workers living in crowded conditions within walking distance of the factory. The
major industrial cities were usually located along waterways; the cities were small
in area but relatively dense in population. As industry grew and internal transporta-
tion improved with the introduction of horse-drawn omnibuses, and later cable cars
and electric street cars, workers could live farther away from their factories — thus
cities increased in both area and population.
A second stage of urban development came with the establishment of railroad
commuter service in the latter part of the 19 th century. It now became possible for
people to build homes in the rural area outside congested industrial cities and still
be able to commute readily to their places of employment in the central city.
The advent of the automobile at first only broadened the urban pattern
established by the railroads. But as the automobile- and good high ways became
ubiquitous, the surge to the suburbs was greatly increased. Urban sprawl spread in
area and increased in complexity.
The result has been the creation of sizable metropolitan areas comprised of the
central city and its suburban area. In recent decades in the more urbanized parts of
the United States, the tentacles of the rapidly growing suburban fringe of one
metropolitan area have often merged with the also rapidly growing suburban fringe
of one or more other metropolitan areas resulting in an almost solid urban sprawl
stretching for many dozens or even hundreds of miles. This phenomenon of inter-
metropolitan coalescence is developing at an accelerated rate and has become the
most recent and largest type of urban form, the megapolis, and one which is
becoming increasingly important economically, socially and politically.

2.30. a) Study the typical problems of large cities at present. Are any of
these problems to be found in your town or a town you know
well? Could you suggest any solution to these problems?
b) Is life in town more dangerous than life in the country? Read the
list of advantages and disadvantages to living in towns or in the
countryside. Do you agree with these opinions? Discuss your answers
with a partner and then with class.

Economic Urban Location Size Populatio Transport


conditions form n density facilities
a)
problem effect cause
traffic jams traffic is very slow too much traffic
commuters get very stressed especially during rush
hours
slums housing is in bad condition poverty – people don’t
have money to spend on
housing
vandalism pointless destruction of poverty, lack of hope
property
overcrowding difficult living conditions too many people living in
one place
pollution deterioration in health traffic and industrial
production
crime people get constantly poverty, inequality, etc.
stressed

b) People who prefer the countryside to big towns, often say this:
Towns: The countryside:
are noisy is quiet and peaceful
are dirty and polluted is clean
are stressful is calm and relaxing
are crowded (=full of people) has lots of open space
are dangerous is safe

People who prefer big towns to the countryside have a different point of view:
In towns: In the countryside:
there are plenty of things to do there’s nothing to do
it’s exciting it’s boring
there’s a wide range of shops there are only a few shops
there’s a lot of night-life, e.g. bars, there’s no night-life
cinemas, discos

2.31. a) Read the dialogue and say what problems of a big city are discussed in
it.
b) Practice reading the following dialogue with a partner.
Helen: Well, I don’t really think it’s particularly dangerous. Not any more than
any other city. You have to be sensible, take the normal precautions. I mean I
wouldn’t walk down the street and stare at somebody and I certainly wouldn’t walk
home alone, and I wouldn’t go down unlit alleys at night, and obviously there are
certain areas that you just know you wouldn’t go into, but I think on the whole it’s
not a particularly dangerous city.
Robert: I think I agree, but, actually there have been a couple of stories in the
papers recently about this spate of muggings that’s been going on.
Helen: I’ve read about it. They say things are changing and things are getting
worse in the city. I did have a friend, actually, she was on the underground, and her
wallet was snatched from her just as the train was coming into the station, and of
course they got off straight away and there was absolutely nothing she could do
about it.
Robert: Well, I sympathise with her. I mean I’ve seen that happen too, and
you’ve just got to watch it in a place like that, or like the street market. You’ve got
to be really careful there because there is a big crowd and a lot of pickpockets and
they can steal something and run away.
Helen: But I don’t think it’s really dangerous. They’re not violent people, you
just have to be sensitive and keep your eyes open.
Robert: Well, I don’t know. They said that a lot of thieves were carrying knives,
which means if you resist, then you could get badly hurt, so that really makes you
think, doesn’t it?
Helen: I said it wasn’t violent, maybe it is. I heard about a group of tourists the
other day who were mugged. By the way what do you do if you see something like
that? You don’t really know what’s going on and you don’t really want to get
involved in case you get hurt.
Robert: Yes, I think it’s stupid to try and be a hero. I mean you could get very
badly hurt and all they want is just money. I mean I know that is a terrible thing to
say, but it’s just money. It’s not worth losing your life for.
Helen: I suppose so. Apparently, these guys had knife and they cut one of the
women’s handbags from her shoulder. I think she thought they were going to stab
her husband, actually.
Robert: Did you hear if anybody was hurt at all?
Helen: No, no one was hurt. Apparently, the
woman had her passport stolen, and her
travellers cheques taken, but the sad thing was
that they had only just arrived and they didn’t
want to leave all their stuff in the hotel. They
thought it was safer to keep it with them.
Robert: Well, that’s the problem with tourists,
though, isn’t it? They are easy targets. They stand out in a crowd, thieves know
they’re probably carrying money and documents around and they don’t speak the
language, and they’re vulnerable, aren’t they?
Helen: Well ...
Robert: I mean it happens to locals as well. There is a friend of mine who was
jumped at from behind, you know, and they got her bag and they ran away. She
tried to run after them, but the thieves were too quickly obviously.
Helen: Was she hurt at all?
Robert: No, no, but she was really angry.
Helen: Of course.
Robert: She didn’t lose anything really valuable, she didn’t report it to the police
in the end actually.
Helen: I think she should have done that. I think it’s quite important when
something like that happens because it might be mild at the moment but they could
get worse. I think the police need to know if a crime’s happened actually.
Robert: I mean, there should be more police around anyway, shouldn’t there?
There should be more police on the streets at night.
Helen: I think you are right.
Robert: You can be on main streets and there’s nobody around, just a police car
driving up and down every now and again.
Helen: You would feel better protected, I think.
Robert: And it would put the muggers and the thieves off, wouldn’t it?

c) Discuss the following questions in class.


1. Do Robert and Helen think they live in a particularly dangerous city?
2. What precautions do they suggest you should take when walking home at
night?
3. In what places do they suggest you should take special care with your bag
and wallet? Why?
4. There seems to have been an increase in crime in the city recently. What sort
of crime?
5. Have Robert and Helen been victims of crime themselves? What about their
friends?
6. What exactly happened to the group of tourists mentioned in the dialogue?
7. What do they think the police could do to improve the situation?
8. Do you have any idea of what city might be discussed in the dialogue above?

2.32. Work in small groups. Discuss one of these sets of questions and
present the results to the class.
1. Is your home town/village a dangerous place to live in? Do you need to take
precautions when you go out at night? Would you go out alone after ten o’clock?
If you were a member of the opposite sex, do you think your answers would be
the same?
2. Do you take extra precautions when you travel? Why/Why not? Are cities
more dangerous if you’re a tourist? Why/Why not?
3. Which of the following safety measures are used in your town: police patrols
at night, close-circuit TV (CCTV) cameras in public places, security guards on
public transport, street lighting at night? What other measures can be taken to
make our cities safer?

2.33. a) Read the text and pick up the main facts about the history of
London and Moscow. Are there any similar facts in their histories?
b) Draw a “timeline” for both capitals.
c) In which capital city would you most like to spend a weekend?
Explain your choice.
a) London
London was built as a city in the same way as Paris or New York. It began
life as a Roman fortification Londinium at a place where it was possible to cross
the River Thames soon after the Roman invasion in AD 43. A wall was built
around the town for defense, but during the long period of peace which followed
the Norman Conquest in 1066, people went on to build the city outside the walls.
This building continued over the years, especially to the west of the city to link
with the originally separate Westminster. In 1665, there was a terrible plague in
London, so many people left the city and escaped to the villages in the surrounding
countryside. In 1666, the Great Fire of London ended the plague, but it also
destroyed much of the city. Although people returned to live in the rebuilt city after
the plague and the Great Fire, there were never again so many Londoners living in
the city centre. But throughout the 19th century London (or
rather Greater London, its metropolitan area) was the
largest city in the world in population.
These days not many people live in the city centre,
but London has spread further outwards into the country,
including surrounding villages. Today the metropolis of
Greater London covers some 610 square miles (1,580 sq.
km.), and suburbs of London stretch even beyond this
area. Some people even commute over 100 miles (over
150 km.) every day to work in London, while living far
away from the city in the country or in other towns.
The gradual growth of the city helps to explain the fact that London does not
have just one centre, it has a number of centres, each with a distinct character. The
financial and business centre is called the City. Originally, it was a site where
merchants and traders worked and lived quite autonomously from the authorities.
The “square mile” (the name of the originally walled city of London) is home to
the country‘s main financial institutions, the territory of the stereotypical English
“city gent”. During the daytime, nearly a million pople work there, but less that
8,000 people actually live there.
Parliament and the Royal Court were located in Westminster, another ‘city’
outside London’s walls. Now Westminster is the government centre.
The West End, a shopping and entertainment centre, is known for its many
theatres, cinemas and expensive shops. The East End is known as the poorer
residential area of central London, the home of the Cockney (rhyming slang, e.g.
‘money’ in the Cockney is “bees and honey’). The East End markets are famous
throughout the world.
b) Moscow
First tribes appeared on the territory of the future Moscow in the Neolithic
epoch. The oldest settlements, dated as three thousand years before our era, were
discovered within the area of the present-day city. In the second half of the first
millennium of our era, Slavic tribes occupied the areas near Moscow; these were
"vjatichi", who are regarded as a kernel of the future Moscow population.
The reference to Moscow, as to a town, is registered in the old manuscript of
1147. In 1156, Prince Yury Dolgoruky erected timber walls and a moat around
Moscow. He is frequently regarded as the founder of Moscow, and his monument
is among the most honored in Moscow. Moscow gave its name to the land, which
was called Muscovy.
Tatar-Mongolian invasion in 1237-38 resulted in great destruction of Moscow.
However, the city recovered rather rapidly and became the capital of the
independent Moscow principality in the second half of the 13th century. During the
14th and the first half of the 15 th centuries Moscow was a relatively large city with
big industrial and trade population.
At the end of the 15th century, under the principality of Ivan III, Moscow became
the capital of Russia. The Kremlin built of stone at the beginning of the 15 th
century is a benchmark of that epoch.
Moscow was attacked by the Polish and Lithuanian army in the 17 th century
and was conquered by them. After salesman Minin and Prince Pozharsky
organizing people's militia to protect the motherland, Moscow was liberated in
1612. Recently we have started celebrating the day of Moscow liberation,
November 4, as an official holiday.wtkjv
Starting with the reign of Peter the First (the Great), arts and science in Moscow,
and in Russia in whole, progressed strongly. In 1703 the first printed newspaper
(“Vedomosti”) appeared and in 1755 Moscow University was established.
Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital in 1703, after founding St. Petersburg by
Peter the Great on the Baltic coast.
When Napoleon invaded in 1812, he said: "If I capture Kiev, I'll catch Russia by
its feet, if I capture St. Petersburg, I'll catch it by its head, and if I capture Moscow,
I'll destroy its heart". But the Muscovites burned the city and evacuated as
Napoleon's forces were approaching. Napoleon's army, plagued by hunger, cold,
and poor supply lines was forced to retreat soon.
After the reconstruction of that period
Moscow got its present-day look, as well as
a new way of living. At the turn of the 19th
century Moscow was a feudal town,
whereas after the 1812 reconstruction it
acquired new features of a bourgeois city.
By the end of the 19th century, it had
become the second industrial centre in
Russia (after Saint-Petersburg, the then
capital).
The XIX century is known to have been a "golden age" for Russian arts and
science, and Moscow was a birthplace for many famous artists, writers, composers
and scientists, as well as outstanding politicians.
Revolutionary activities in Russia at the beginning of the 20 th century resulted in
October Revolution of 1917. The new government headed by V. Lenin, fearing
possible foreign invasion, moved the capital back from Petersburg-Petrograd to
Moscow on March 5, 1918.
The social structure of Moscow started to change in the 20s of the XX century
because peasants began leaving their villages in search of jobs and a “new life”.
Hence, Moscow architecture changed: the proportion of apartment blocks
inhabited by workers increased drastically, the city sprawled outside, and a lot of
churches were destroyed or transformed into “Palaces of Culture” (convention
centers), clubs or warehouses.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), the Soviet State Committee of
Defense and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. Many
factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October
20, 1941 the city was declared to be under siege. Its remaining inhabitants built
and manned antitank defenses, while the city was bombarded from the air. Despite
the siege and the bombings, the metro construction continued in Moscow
throughout the war, and by the end of the war several new metro lines were
opened. In November 1941, the German Army Group “Centre” was stopped at the
outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow.
On May 8, 1965 in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory in
World War II Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City.
In 1991, Moscow was the scene of a coup [ku:] attempt by the government
members opposed to the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev, President of the USSR.
When the USSR was dissolved later that year, Moscow continued to be the capital
of the Russian Federation. Since then, the emergence of a market economy in
Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services,
architecture, and lifestyles.

2.34. a) Read the following citations and comment on each. Which ones
do you like best? Which ones do you dislike? Why?
b) Think how the village can be defined. Share your ideas with class.

Citations about the city:


1. [A City is] a world of men for me. (Robert Browning)
2. [A city is] torture. (Lord Byron)
3. [Cities are places] where works of men are clustered close around, and works
of God are hardly to be found. (Adapted from William Cowper)
4. [A city is a place which will] force growth and make men talkative and
entertaining, but … artificial. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
5. [A city is] the first requisite to happiness. (Euripides)
6. [A city is] any place where men have built a jail, a bagnio, gallows, a morgue,
a church, a hospital, a saloon, and laid out a cemetery – hence, a center of life.
(Elbert Hubbard)
7. [A city is] a prison for speculative minds. (Franz Mehring)
8. [A city] has always been the fireplace of civilization, whence light and heat
radiated out into the dark. (Theodor Parker)
9. Any city […] is […] divided into two, one the city of the poor, the other of
the rich; these are at war with one another. (Plato)
10. [A city is] a stone forest. (John B. Priestly)
11. [A city is a place where] there is no room to die. (Felix Riesenberg)
12. [A city is] a great solitude. (Latin proverb)
13. [A city is] the sink of the human race. (Jean-Jacques Rousseau)
WRITING
2.35. Write the meaning of the underlined expressions in your own words.
Use a dictionary if you cannot work out the meaning from the context.

1. There were three separate accidents in the city centre during the rush hour, and
soon there was a total gridlock. It took about two hours to clear the roads.
2. I’ve spent six hours behind the wheel today, and now all I want to do is rest. I
never want to see another motorway.
3. The police car made me pull over as they wanted to check my lights.
4. I had a minor bump yesterday. It wasn’t serious, but one of my lights got
smashed.
5. My car conked out on the motorway and I had to ring for assistance. It cost me
£50.
6. He’s a bit of a back-seat driver, so don’t be surprised if he criticises your
driving.

2.36. Some road signs are international. Study the descriptions of their
meaning and then write similar descriptions for the signs below.

There is going There is a There is a cycle There may be


to be a steep hill slippery section route ahead. cattle on the road
downwards. of the road ahead.
ahead.

2.37. Many people in Britain do not like living in the city centre, so they
commute to work from the suburbs and the surrounding countryside.
What are advantages and disadvantages of this way of life? Is it
common for Russia? Write a 250-word essay on the topic.

2.38. Describe a visit to a city which has made the strongest impression on
you. The questions below will help you. Give as many details as
possible. Make use of the expressions below.
in the Victorian/Georgian/Classical/ Baroque/French/Gothic style,
the main … area of the town,
within the walking distance of,
be built on the site, style,
cater for,
tend to be,
to overlook, whether or not it merits,
be well worth a visit/visiting,
to mount an exhibition,
those who enjoy,
a working market/museum/ steam railway/model,
to appreciate the charm

1. When did you first visit the city? Have you visited it more than once? If yes,
when was the last time you went there?
2. What was your overall impression of the place? Is there any one particular
image that stuck to your memory? How would you describe the general
atmosphere of the city?
3. Why did you go there? On holiday? On Business? To study? Was it your own
decision or did your family send or take you there?
4. How long did you stay there? Where did you stay? What were the people like?
What was the weather like?
5. How did you spend your time there? Doing the usual touristy things? Did you
just hang around and watch the world go by or did you rush through the city trying
to see as many sightseeing as possible?
6. Would you like to visit it again? Have you made any plans to go back there?
Would you recommend it to your friends?

2.39. Plan a sightseeing trip around London for one day where you will
visit
no more than four places and have a picnic lunch in a park. Start your
trip at Oxford Circus Station at 9 a.m. Make a note of each place you
will visit; the underground line you will take and the station where you
will get out. Finish your day at a hamburger restaurant in Covent

2.40. Design a tourist guide (a fact file) about your own town or another
town you know well. Be sure to describe the major aspects there:
history in short, present state, population, sights, industry, transport,
hotels and booking accommodation, etc.
2.41. Imagine that it is the year 3000. The Mayor has asked you to design
the perfect city. First, draw a layout of the city. Then, write an outline
for the assignment. Finally, describe the city, considering the name,
the number of people living there, buildings, industry, recreation, etc.

2.42. Render the text in English.


Лондонские автобусы
Красные двухэтажные автобусы - один из символов Лондона, хотя с декабря
2005 г. всего лишь несколько экземпляров можно видеть на туристических
маршрутах. Они провезут вас через весь город, пока вы будете любоваться
достопримечательностями столицы Великобритании. Основная же часть
двухэтажных автобусов уже списана.
Большинство лондонских автобусов до сих пор красные, хотя некоторые
уже выкрашены и в другие цвета. Автобусы, обслуживающие London Buses
network можно отличить по такой табличке спереди машины: В
Большом Лондоне (Greater London) расположено более 18 тысяч автобусных
остановок на 700 маршрутах. На остановках вам не придется ждать автобуса
более 5 минут. Автобусные остановки в Лондоне 2 типов - обязательные
(compulsory) и по требованию (on-request). На обязательных остановках
автобусы останавливаются всегда, если в них есть свободные места.
обязательная остановка по
остановка: требованию:
Для того чтобы автобус остановился на остановке по требованию, вы
должны проголосовать: четко вытянуть руку, причем заранее, чтобы автобус
мог спокойно остановиться. В ночное время все остановки работают в
режиме "по требованию".

Как вести себя в лондонском автобусе?


Сразу после входа необходимо оплатить проезд: в центре Лондона билет
для взрослого стоит £2. За проезд заплатить можно водителю или
воспользоваться сканером для билетов (ticket reader) если у вас уже есть
билет. На некоторых маршрутах нельзя оплатить проезд наличными в самом
автобусе. На всех остановках таких маршрутов установлены автоматы по
продаже билетов, в которых вам необходимо приобрести билет. Если вы не
оплатите поездку или у вас будет неверный билет, вас оштрафуют.
Если вам необходимо выйти, нажмите на кнопку
специального звонка. Это не стоит делать, если кто-либо уже
позвонил до вас. Все автобусы оснащены двусторонней
связью с водителем, а во многих установлены внутренние
видеокамеры. Курение в Лондонских автобусах запрещено.
Ночные автобусные маршруты.
В центре Лондона действует много ночных автобусных маршрутов,
связывающих Трафальгарскую площадь, театры, кинотеатры и места отдыха
и развлечений. На таких маршрутах все остановки считаются остановками
"по требованию". Поэтому для посадки в него надо "голосовать", а для
выхода из него - позвонить в звонок. Стоимость проезда на ночных
маршрутах такая же, как и днем, но детские билеты не действительны -
оплата производится по взрослому тарифу.
Лондонское метро
Лондонское метро - первая подземная железная дорога в мире. Первая
линия была пущена в 1863 году, а уже в 1906 по линиям метро пошли поезда
на электрической тяге. Сейчас Лондонское метро или "труба" – The Tube - как
его здесь называют - одно из крупнейших в мире: 275 станций на 12 линиях.
Метро работает с 5:30 до 24 часов по будням и субботам и с 7:00 до 23:00
по воскресеньям. Утренний час пик заканчивается примерно в 9:30, вечерний
продолжается с 16 до 19 часов.

Оплата проезда в метро Лондона.


Все станции метро поделены на 6 зон: 1 зона - это центр Лондона, 6 зона -
окраины. Стоимость билета зависит от количества проезжаемых зон. Одна
поездка внутри первой зоны стоит £1.50 для взрослых и £0.60 для детей. Если
взрослый путешествует с действующим билетом, то он может провезти собой
в метро до четырех детей младше 11 лет бесплатно. Если вы планируете
совершить несколько поездок, то выгоднее приобрести Travelcard. Они
бывают сроком на год, месяц, неделю или день. Поездка на один день в
пиковый сезон стоит £6.60. Карты Travelcard действительны для оплаты
поездок как в метро, так и в автобусах и на некоторых пригородных поездах.
Билеты можно приобрести на всех станциях метро, в кассах или автоматах. В
случае, если касса закрыта, а в автомате нет нужного вам проездного, то
можно купить простой билет, а, приехав на станцию назначения, обменять
его на необходимый вам, доплатив разницу в цене. Штраф за безбилетный
проезд составляет £20.
Unit 3. THE PLACE I LIVE IN. MY COUNTRY.

A land
flowin
g with
milk
and
honey.
Bible: Exodus, III, 8.
Nature is a house to dwell in.
Charles Lamb

Recommended grammar:
Modals.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

3.1. Read the information about Russia, find all the geographical names on
the map and be ready to give presentation on Russia in class.

Russia or Russian Federation (Russian Rossiyskaya Federatsiya), is an


independent republic in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, the world’s largest
country by area. In general, Russia’s climate is similar to that of Canada. Much of
the land lies north of the 50th parallel of latitude and far from the moderating
influences of oceans. Like Canada, although colder and with greater temperature
extremes in many places, most of Russia has a harsh continental climate.
Although climate, and to some degree soils, limit the country’s agricultural wealth,
mineral wealth is considerable: Russia’s mineral resources are unmatched by any
other country.
Russia’s borders measure more than 20,100 km (12,500 miles). In the north
Russia is bounded by extensions of the Arctic Ocean: the Barents, Kara, Laptev,
East Siberian, and Chukchi seas. In the east the country is bounded by the Pacific
Ocean and several of its extensions: the Bering Strait (which separates Russia from
Alaska), the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). In
the extreme southeast Russia abuts the northeastern tip of North Korea. In the
south it is bounded by China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan,
Georgia, and the Black Sea. In the southwest it is bounded by the Ukraine, and in
the west by Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, the Gulf of Finland, and Finland. In the
extreme northwest, Russia is bounded by Norway. Lithuania and Poland border
Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea.
The capital and largest city is Moscow. Administratively until 2005, Russia
included 89 subjects of the Federation: 21 republics; 6 territories known as krays;
10 national areas called okrugs; 49 regions, or oblasts; 1 autonomous oblast; and 2
cities with federal status. In 2004 there was initiated a process of consolidation of
national areas with bigger subjects. So far the people of 5 okrugs have supported
this process.
In both total area and geographic extent Russia is the largest country in the
world. With an area of 17,075,200 sq km (6,592,800 sq miles), Russia constitutes
more than one-ninth of the world’s land area and nearly twice the area of the
United States or China. From north to south Russia extends more than 4,000 km
(2,400 miles) from Arctic islands in the Barents Sea to the southern border along
the Caucasus mountains. From the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to Big Diomede
Island (Ratmanov Island) in the Bering Strait, Russia’s maximum east-west extent
is almost 10,000 km (6,200 miles), a distance encompassing 11 time zones and
spanning nearly half the circumference of the Earth. Russia stretches across
parts of two continents, Europe and Asia, with the Urals and The Ural River
marking the boundary between them.
Russia’s principal islands lie in the Arctic and Pacific oceans and their
extensions. Farthest north, in the Arctic Ocean, is Franz Josef Land, an
archipelago consisting of about 100 small islands. The other main Arctic islands,
from west to east, include the two islands of Novaya Zemlya, Vaygach Island, the
group of islands called Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, and Wrangel
Island. Between these major islands lie numerous small islands and island chains.
In the Pacific ocean are the Kuril Islands, which extend southwest in an arc from
the Kamchatka peninsula to the main islands of Japan. Russia occupies and
administers all the Kuril Islands, although ownership of the southernmost islands is
disputed with Japan. The Pacific also includes the large island of Sakhalin, which
separates the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan.
Russia contains complex geologic structures and surface formations. Very
simply, however, the landmass consists of vast plains in the west and north, and a
discontinuous belt of mountains and plateaus in the south and east. The upland
and mountainous regions include most of Siberia and extend to the Pacific.
Russia can be divided into several broad geographic regions. From east to west
they are the Great European Plain; the Ural Mountains; the mountain systems and
ranges along much of Russia’s southern border; and the lowlands and uplands of
Siberia, including the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the
mountain ranges of northeastern Siberia.

3.2. Put the words in each line in the box in order according to their size
(the smallest first, the largest last). In each list there is one word that
does not belong with the others. Cross it out.
1. forest tree copse beach wood
2. road peak footpath track lane
3. mountain hillock shore hill mountain range
4. gorge plain waterfall hollow valley
5. gulf ridge inlet bay cove
6. cliff brook river estuary stream
7. city continent tributary county country
8. pond puddle ocean cape lake

3.3. Put the words and expressions in the box into their correct category in the
tables. Some can be included in more than one category.

depopulation * mountainous * urban sprawl * fertile * ridge * cliff * coast *


densely populated * under-developed * summit * industrialized * peninsula * shore
vegetation * glacier * beach * plateau * irrigation * conurbation * cape * source
*
coastline * tributary * waterfall * mouth * peak * overcrowding * highlands *

Geographical features associated Geographical features associated


with water and the sea with land, hills and mountains
Words associated with agriculture Words associated with towns and
and rural land cities

3.4. Complete the following passage with the necessary words from the
previous activities and some geographical names. Use a map of
Russia.
The total _____ of Russia is approximately 17 million square kilometers.
The _____ is about 150 million.
Russia ______ one eighth of the whole land of the earth. The Northern
_______ of Russia is formed by the ______ ocean and its seas.
In the West Russia is bounded by _____, Finland, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Belorussia and the _____. In the South it borders on Turkey, _____,
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, ______, Mongolia and Korea. In the East it shares
borders with the _____ and Japan.
The shores of Russia are washed by 12 _____ of the Atlantic, Pacific and
Arctic oceans. The greater part of the territory is a vast _____ with low mountains
and long rivers. The biggest plains are the Great ______ Plain in Eastern Europe
and the West Siberian Plain in the Asiatic part of the country. The biggest mountain
ranges are the Urals and the _______. The Urals form the natural border between
Europe and ______. The highest _________chain, the Caucasus, is situated
between the Caspian and ________ seas.
There are a lot of rivers and lakes in this country. The Volga and the Ural
are the longest _______ in the European part of Russia. The longest rivers in the
_______ part are the Lena, the Yenisei and the Ob, which _____ into the Arctic
Ocean.
Lake ______ is the largest fresh-water lake in Asia and Europe and the
deepest in the world.
The climate in Russia is varied. It is mainly _______ and continental. Russia
is rich in ______ : coal, iron, oil, gas, ferrous and non-ferrous metals and many
others.
3.5. Match each country on the left with the name on the right by which it
is also known.

(a) Holland Eire


(b) Iran The Netherlands
(c) Myanmar Ulster
(d) Sri Lanka Persia
(e) The Republic of Ireland Ceylon
(f) Northern Ireland Burma

3.6. Explain the difference between the two names in each of the following
pairs.
(a) England and (Great) Britain
(b) (Great) Britain and the United Kingdom
(c) (Great) Britain and the British Isles
(d) Europe and Continental Europe
(e) The Middle East and the Far East
(f) India and the Indian Subcontinent
(g) America and North America
(h) South America and Latin America
(i) The Arctic and the Antarctic
(j) Australia and Australasia
(k) South Africa and Southern Africa

3.7. Which countries are referred to by the following expressions?


(a) The European Union Countries (d) The West Indies
(b) The (British) Commonwealth (e) The Gulf States
(c) The NATO Countries (f) The Third World

3.8. a )Which countries are sometimes referred to by the following colloquial


expressions? What do you know about these countries? Try to find some
interesting facts about them and make a short presentation in class.
b) Has Russia ever had any nicknames?
(a) The States (b) Down Under (c) The Land of the Rising Sun
(d) The Emerald Isle (e) The Celestial

3.9. Look at the report below and fill in the gaps with one of the words or
expressions from the previous activities. In some cases, more than one
answer is possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
We began our journey in the capital, Triguengos, a (1) _________ conurbation of
almost ten million. It is not a pretty place; heavily (2) ________, with huge
factories belching out black fumes, and miles of (3) ________ as housing estates
and shopping centres spread out from the (4) _________ centre for miles. It was a
relief to leave.
As soon as we got into the coutryside, things improved considerably. The climate
is dry and it is difficult to grow anything, but thanks to (5) _______, which helps
bring water in from the Rio Cauto (the huge river with its (6) ______ high up in
the snow-covered (7) _______ of the Sierra Maestra (8) __________), the land is
fertile enough to grow the sugar cane on which much of the economy is based. We
saw few people, however, as many have moved to the towns and cities to look for
more profitable work. It is largely due to this rural (9) ________ that sugar-cane
industry is suffering.
Further south and we entered the Hoguin (10) _______, with mountains rising
high above us on both sides. The land here drops sharply to the sea and the slow-
moving waters of the Rio Cauto give way to (11) _____ which tumble over cliffs,
and small, fast-moving (12) ________ which are not even wide enough to take a
boat. At this point, the road we were traveling along became a (13) _______
which was only just wide enough for our vehicle, and then an unpaved (14)
________ which almost shook the vehicle to pieces.
And then suddenly, the Pacific (15) _________ was in front of us. Our
destination was the town of Santiago de Gibara, built on a (16) _______ sticking
out into the blue waters. The countryside here undulates gently, with low (17)
_____ covered in rich tropical jungle. The open (18) ______ surrounding the (19)
_______ of the Rio Cauto as it reaches the ocean is rich and (20) _________, ideal
for growing the tobacco plants, which need a lot of warm and damp soil.
That night I lay in my cheap hotel, listening to the waves gently lapping the (21)
________, and when eventually fell asleep, I dreamt of the people who first
inhabited this (22) __________ almost two thousand years before.

3.10. a) Scan the text to find the names of the climatic zones of Russia.
b) Read the text again and pick up the main features of the climatic
zones in Russia.
The broad zones of natural vegetation and soils correspond closely to the
country’s climate zones. Summers are too cool for trees in the far north, where
tundra vegetation of mosses, lichens, and low shrubs grows instead. Permafrost,
or permanently frozen subsoil, is found throughout this region. There is a polar
desert zone on several Arctic islands to the north of the tundra zone; the vegetation
in this zone consists of a limited number of moss and lichen groupings scattered in
patches.
Russia’s forests, located mostly in Siberia, cover more than two-fifths of the
country’s total territory (1/4 of the world’s total forested area). The forest zone has
two distinct areas: a large, mainly coniferous forest, or taiga, lies in the north, and a
much smaller area of mixed forest lies in the south.
The taiga occupies two-fifths of European Russia and extends across the Urals to
cover much of Siberia. Much of the taiga also has permafrost. This vast zone is
made up primarily of coniferous trees, but birch, poplar, aspen, willow and other
deciduous trees also grow there. The taiga contains the world’s largest coniferous
forest, representing about one-third of the world’s softwood timber. Larch, a
deciduous conifer, becomes dominant throughout much of the Central Siberian
Plateau and the mountains of eastern Siberia.
Large areas of taiga zone are devoid of trees, particularly where the soil is poorly
drained. In these areas marsh grasses and bushes form the vegetative cover. The
taiga contains infertile, acidic soils known as ultisols, or podzols.
A mixed forest, containing both coniferous and broad-
leaved deciduous trees, occupies the central portion of
the Great European Plain between Saint Petersburg and
the Ukrainian border. The mixed forest is dominated by
coniferous evergreen trees in the north and broad-leaved
trees in the south. The principal broad-leaved species are
oak, beech, maple, and hornbeam. Gray-brown soils are
found in the mixed forest zone.
To the south, the mixed forest transitions through a narrow zone of forest-steppe
and then passes into the zone of a true steppe. The natural vegetation of a forest-
steppe is grassland with scattered groves of trees. At present much of Russia’s
forest-steppe is under cultivation. The natural vegetation of a true steppe consists
of a mixture of grasses with only a few stunted trees in sheltered valleys.
Both the forest-steppe and the steppe have fertile soils and together form a region
known as the chernozem, or black-earth, belt; this is the agricultural heartland of
Russia. Soils in the chernozem belt are high in humus content and have a balance
of minerals that is suitable for most crops.
The forest-steppe has a better moisture supply than the steppe during the growing
season, and consequently it is the best agricultural area of Russia. The chestnut and
brown soils of the southern steppe are not as rich in humus as the chernozems to
the north, but they are high in mineral content and can be productive with adequate
moisture.

3.11. a) Scan the text to pick up the names of animals common for different
climatic zones of Russia. Fill out the chart below.
b) Do any of the animals belong to the following classes: rodents,
reptiles, carnivores, herbivores, or predators?

climatic zone animals birds

Animal life is abundant and varied throughout Russia. The tundra, which spans
the Arctic and northern Pacific coasts and encompasses Russia’s offshore Arctic
islands, is home to polar bears, seals, walruses, arctic foxes, lemmings, reindeer,
and arctic hares. Birdlife includes white partridges, snowy owls, gulls, and loons.
Geese, swans, and ducks migrate into the region during summer, a time when huge
swarms of mosquitoes, gnats, and other insects emerge. South of the tundra, the
taiga is a habitat for elks, brown bears, lynx, sables, and a variety of forest birds,
including owls and nightingales. Swamps in this zone have been stocked with
muskrats from Canada. Muskrats and squirrels are now the main source of pelts
trapped in the wild. The broad-leaved forests of the Great European and West
Siberian plains contain boars, deer, wolves, foxes, and minks. There are also a
variety of birds, snakes, lizards, and tortoises. The forests in the southern part of
far eastern Russia are known for the Siberian tiger - the largest cat in the world -
as well as leopards, bears, and deer. The steppe primarily contains rodents such as
marmots and hamsters, but there are also a few species of hoofed animals,
including antelope. The main beasts of prey are steppe polecats and Tatar foxes.
Bird life includes cranes and eagles. The Caucasus region is particularly abundant
in wildlife, including mountain goats, chamois, Caucasian deer, wild boars,
porcupines, leopards, hyenas, jackals, squirrels, and bears. There is also a variety
of game fowl, including black grouses, turkey hens, and stone partridges. Reptiles
and amphibians are also numerous in the Caucasus region.
Many animal species are threatened or endangered, including the snow leopard
and the Siberian tiger. A great number of threatened or endangered species are
found in far eastern Russia, including Chinese egrets, red-crowned cranes, and
Nordmann’s greenshanks.
3.12. Study the following words describing weather and pick up those
which
can be used to describe the current weather in your town. Use a
dictionary to check out the pronunciation.
General expressions: What kind (sort) of weather is it? / What is the weather
like? How’s the weather?
The weather may be: fine/ jolly/ marvelous/ lovely/ glorious, bright/ sunny, soft/
mild, bad/ awful/ filthy/ nasty/ wretched/ beastly/ dreary/ dull, misty/ foggy, damp/
raw /moist, chilly, dry, sultry/ hot/ stuffy, frosty, stormy, windy, variable/ broken/
unsettled
A: What oppressive/ sultry weather!
B: Yes, isn’t it stifling/ heavy/ close (informal)?

A: Isn’t it humid today?


B: Yes, horribly muggy/ clammy (informal)!
It looks as if we are going to have snow.
The weather is improving.
I hope it’ll keep fine.

Warm weather: What lovely weather!


After the thunderstorm the air is remarkably fresh.
It’s unbearably hot today.
How stifling the air is! (It’s suffocating!)
The heat is abating/ decreasing.
A: It’s hot, isn’t it?
B: Yes, it’s boiling/sweltering/ roasting! (Informal)

Cold weather: It freezes. / It’s freezing.


It’s perishing cold. / It’s precious cold. / The cold searched my marrow. / I am
chilled to the marrow. / The very marrow in my bones is cold.
A: Bit chilly today, isn’t it?
B: Yes, it’s freezing/ nippy ((informal), isn’t it?
It’s below freezing point.
The air was stingingly cold, but not at freezing point.
It’s a sharp frost, isn’t it?
The air is frosty.
I feel chilly /cold.
It’s uncommonly cold after the rain.

The sky: cirrus (wispy) clouds (= light clouds that form high up in the sky)
stratus (= layered) clouds, cumulus (= heaped) clouds, nimbus (= rain-bearing)
clouds
The sky is clouded/ overcast.
The sky was suddenly overcast with low, black clouds.
The clouds are dispersing and the sun is appearing again.

The wind: A cold biting wind almost swept me off my feet.


There isn’t a breath of air.
The wind has abated.
Types of wind:
a breeze - a slight, moderate wind
a wind
a strong wind
a gale - a very strong wind
a hurricane - a very strong wind, more than 100 km per hour, can be dangerous
a blizzard - a blinding snow-storm
a squall - a sudden violent wind, often during rain or snow storms
a monsoon – a wind that blow south from Asia in January and north from
Australia in July
a tornado – a violent storm with very strong winds which move in a circle
a gust of wind - a sudden violent rush of wind
A: It’s a bit windy today!
B: Yes, it’s really blowy/ breezy (informal), isn’t it?

Thunder. Lightning: It thunders.


There is a thunderstorm hanging about/ coming/approaching.
That’s a thunder-cloud over there.
A flash of lightning lit the sky.
Peals/ rolls of thunder were heard.
It lightens.
Dazzling flashes of lightning were followed by a clap/ burst of thunder.
The storm has spent itself.

The Rain: These clouds omen (promise) rain.


The rain has set in.
It keeps on raining. It’s a pelting rain.
It’s beastly wet.
It rained now and then.
A drizzling piercing rain continued all day.
The rain was accompanied by a strong wind and hail.
The rain’s leaving off.
A: What a downpour/ deluge!
B: Yes, it’s chucking it down/ it’s pouring (informal).
When there is no rain for a long time, it is drought.
The snow: The snow is falling thick.
We had a heavy snowfall / a heavy fall of snow yesterday.
It’s a rather snowy winter.
Last year we had a green winter (mild winter with little snow).
Snow-drifts surrounded us from all sides.

3.13. Find collocations for these words. Use a dictionary.


1. ______________ 4. ________________
______________ climate the winds of ________________
______________ ________________

2. _____________ 5. _______________
prevailing _____________ a frosty _______________
_____________ _______________
3. _____________ 6. _______________
to cloud _____________ a hail of _______________
_____________ _______________

3.14. Read the text and find the words in the text which mean the following.
1. average 6. rays from the sun
2. dry 7. make less extreme
3. height above sea level 8. situated very far from the sea
4. distance from the equator 9. differing weather conditions at
5. rain and snow different times of the year

Schemes for dividing the Earth into climatic regions are based on a combination
of indices of mean annual temperature, mean monthly temperature, annual
precipitation totals and seasonality. The climate of a place is affected by several
factors. Latitude affects the amount of solar radiation received, with the greatest in
equatorial` regions and the least in polar regions. Elevation affects both
temperature and precipitation; mountainous areas are generally cooler and wetter.
Location close to the sea or to large bodies of water moderates temperature;
continental areas are generally more arid and more affected by extremes of
temperature.

3.15. Read the text and single out the main features of each season. Are
they true for your region?
Seasons and Weather
It’s a universal truth that every season is beautiful in its own way.
Isn’t it wonderful when in winter everything is white with snow and it crunches
under your feet? When winter comes, we are to spend more time at home,
because it is cold outside. Ponds, lakes, rivers and streams are frozen, and the roads
are sometimes covered with slippery ice or deep snow. We may get fog, sleet and
frost. The trees are bare, because bitter winds have stripped them of all leaves.
In spring nature awakens from its long winter sleep. A warm wind blows up
heavy grey clouds and the sun shines brightly in the cloudless azure sky. The trees
are filled with new life. The weather gets gradually warmer. The fields and
meadows are covered with fresh green grass. The sky is blue and cloudless. At
night millions of stars shine in the darkness.
When summer comes, the weather gets warmer, and sometimes it’s very hot. It’s
the farmers’ busy season. They work in their fields from morning till night.
Sometimes the sky is overcast with heavy clouds. There are storms with thunder,
lightning and hail. Autumn brings with it the harvest time. The days get shorter and
the nights longer. The woods turn yellow and brown, leaves begin to fall from the
trees. The sky is grey and it often rains. The weather is so changeable in autumn
and people have to wear raincoats and umbrellas if they don’t want to get wet
through. The roads are slippery and wet, there are lots of puddles in the streets and
everyone is looking forward to frosty winter days and much snow out-of-doors.

3.16. Christoph Gluck once called nature “a universal language”, but can
we all really speak this language well? What signs of nature can you
read?
a) Read the text and underline all the signs that nature can send to
people. Have you ever watched any of them?
Observing Nature
If people carefully observe nature, it can tell them many interesting and useful
things.
Do you know that thanks to observing nature you can forecast weather? "How?"
you may ask. By watching birds and animals, insects and flowers. It is known that
some insects become more troublesome before a change in the weather. Flies and
mosquitoes, for example, begin to hum and bite before the rain. Big blue-black
beetles fly only in evenings before nice weather.
You should know that the smell of flowers in the gardens and in the parks is very
strong before it rains. Flowers have much sweet nectar before rain and the nectar is
good food for insects. So if you see insects flying over flowers in large numbers,
you should know that it may rain soon.
Birds and animals also help forecast weather. Birds fly lower than usual before it
rains. If you happen to see a bird hiding its head under its wing, it means that soon
it will become colder.
Even your cat can tell you what the weather will be like. The cat washing behind
its ears is telling you about the coming rain.
Look at the sky and it will also tell you about the weather. A red evening sky tells
of good weather the next day, to say nothing about a little yellow or green sky. A
grey sunrise gives promise of a good day, too. If you want to forecast weather, you
must know something about winds.
The South wind brings wet weather.
The North wind is wet and cold together.
The West wind always brings us rain.
The East wind blows the rain back again.
Study nature, observe it and you'll understand that it needs your love and
protection.
b) Complete the sentences with a suitable word or words without looking
back at the text.
1. Do you know that ____ observing nature you can forecast weather?
2. Some insects become more ______before a change in the weather.
3. Birds fly _______ than usual before it rains.
4. If you see insects flying over flowers in large numbers, it means _______.
5. A red evening sky tells you of ________.
6. If you see a bird hiding its head under its wing, it means ________ .

c) Choose the correct answer.


1. How can we forecast weather? (pick up more than one answer)
a) by watching birds, animals, insects and flowers;
b) by listening to the radio;
c) by using meteorological tools and devices;
d) by discussing it with our friends.
2. What do flies and mosquitoes begin to do before rain?
a) to feel sleepy;
b) to bite and hum;
c) to lay eggs;
d) to gather in groups.

d) Say whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).


1. ___ Big blue-black beetles fly only in mornings before nice weather.
2. ___ The smell of flowers is very strong before the rain.
3. ___ The cat washing its tail is telling you about the coming rain.

e) Describe each wind without looking back at the text.


The South wind … The North wind …
The West wind … The East wind …
3.17. a) Study the following metaphors relating to climate, plants and trees.
First think of the best way to translate them into Russian, then think
of
any other Russian idioms or proverbs of this kind. Explain their
meanings in English.

1. Climate Metaphors
Climate metaphors are often used, particularly in written English. The word
climate can refer to the general atmosphere or situation in society.
His dishonest policies towards the workers created a climate of distrust.
The government reforms have created a climate of change.
The words cultural, current, economic, financial, moral, political, social and
prevailing all collocate strongly with climate in this social sense.

She has a very sunny disposition - she's hardly ever miserable.


Job prospects are sunny.

Unfortunately, our plans were met with a frosty reception.


'You lied to me, didn't you?' she said icily.
I'm snowed under with work - I'll never get through it all in time.

After the company accounts were examined, the manager left under a cloud of
suspicion.
Don't let your love for him cloud your judgment.

The soldiers were hit with a hail of bullets.


The Prime Minister was greeted with a hail/ storm of abuse.

After the long flight I was in a haze for a day or two.


I've only a hazy idea what you mean.

The truth is hidden in the mists of history.


She looked at him misty-eyed - clearly in love.

The article sparked off a whirlwind of speculation.


They had a whirlwind romance.

The horses thundered down the race track.


Thunderous applause followed his speech. (Note that ‘thundery’ is used to
describe stormy weather while ‘thunderous’ describes a loud noise.)
The winds of change/discontent/democracy are blowing across the country.

2. Trees and Plant Metaphors


Seed(s) is often used to talk about the start of an idea or feeling:
the seeds of success/ discontent/ revolution.
Root(s) is used to suggest the origins of something. You can talk about going
back to your roots, for example, meaning going back to the place where your
family came from.
You can also talk about the root of a problem or the roots of a tradition.
Putting down roots means settling down and making your home in one place.
When an idea becomes known or accepted, it can be said to take root.
Deeply and firmly collocate with rooted as in, for example: Its origins are
firmly/ deeply rooted in the nineteenth century.
The grass roots of an organisation or society are the ordinary people in it, not
the leaders.

Stem is used as a verb to signify that something originates in something else.


A branch is something that grows off or branches out from a main organisation.
So we talk about branches of a shop or a business branching out into new
directions.
Bud (=flower before it opens) is used in the expression nip in the bud (= stop
something before it develops into something).
The adjective budding can also mean showing promise of future development.

3.18. Fill the gaps in these sentences.


1. Alec has spent most of his life in London, but he is keen to _______back to his
roots when he retires.
2. The business is firmly ________in the west of England.
3. The idea took some time to_________ root, but it's very fashionable now.
4. His grandfather sowed the ___________of the business's success.
5. The US bookshop chain is opening a number of _______ in the UK.
6. It's about time she __________ down some roots.
7. The idea for her novel _________ from her interest in mountain climbing.
8. St James's Drama College turns out a hundred ______ actors every year.

3.19. Suggest three nouns that each of these adjectives could describe.
budding flourishing withering
fading deeply rooted
ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

3.20. Play the guessing game. Prepare a description of any country using
the expressions below, without naming the country. Read your
description to class for them to guess the name of the country.
lie north/ south of __ parallel of latitude
temperature
continental / tropical/ moderate/ subtropical/ subarctic climate
be bounded by / border on/ abut
administratively, _____ includes ___ states/ counties/ provinces/ cantons
an area constitutes
from north to south/ west to east ____ extends more than ___
encompass ___ time zones
Northern/ Southern/ Western/Eastern hemisphere
stretch across
mark the boundary
principal islands
mountain chains
geologic structures
surface formations
be divided into several broad geographic regions

3.21. a) Read the following texts (a, b) about the climate in the USA.
b) Compare it with the Russian climate.
c) Explain why the author compares the weather in Washington with a
winning candidate. What can you compare the weather in your town
with?
a) The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climate zones. The
coldest regions are in the north and north-east, where much snow falls in winter.
The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico
often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that
of the Atlantic coast. The region around the Great Lakes is known for its
changeable weather. In general, the climate in North America is much colder than
in Europe and the average annual temperature of New York, for example, is 11° C.

b) The weather in Washington reminds me of a winning candidate who promises


everything, but you never know just when to expect it at all.
Sometimes it’s April in January, and March often behaves like December or May.
Or as Mark Twain found it here: “When you arrived (at the station at night) it was
snowing. When you reached the hotel it was sleeting. When you went to bed, it
was raining. During the night it froze hard and the wind blew some chimneys
down. When you got up in the morning, it was foggy. When you finished your
breakfast at ten o’clock and went out, the sunshine was brilliant, the weather balmy
and delicious, and the mud and slush deep and all-pervading. You will like the
climate - when you get used to it.”
If you care to follow Mark Twain’s advice, take an umbrella, and an overcoat,
and a fan, and go forth.
My advice on what to expect, season by season, regarding the weather is:
Spring - it’s a wonderful, most attractive, liveliest time of the year. Mild weather
usually arrives earlier than it does in most northern cities. (Prepare for possible 27°
C in March), flowers burst into bloom starting with magnolia, and then followed
by cherry blossoms, azalea and pansies.
Summer - it can be hot, humid, and sticky. Men wear tropical outfits.
Autumn - the best season except for spring; in some ways the best of all. The
climate is dry and mild. If you are driving, the colour in the mountains is beautiful.
Winter - unpredictable, some years raw, cold and soggy, others - short and mild.
You don’t have to bring your umbrellas, but come prepared to buy them.

3.22. Work with a partner and make up short dialogues using the model
and the hints below.
Model:
A: What country are you from?
B: From India (1).
A: What’s the climate like there?
B: I like it, but it’s often(2) very hot (3) in summer (4).

(1) Russia Britain Sweden Canada Cuba France


Egypt Norway
(2) alwaysoccasionally sometimes often seldom frequently
never
(3) cold frosty sultry stormy pleasant windy rainy
snowy stifling
(4) spring winter autumn summer

3.23. Work with a partner. First, complete these phrases. Then use them in
short dialogues.
1. I need an umbrella, it’s ______.
2. Let’s go skiing, there’s a lot of ____ .
3. Shut the window, it’s getting ______ .
4. The ______ blew the leaves into the hall.
5. When it _____, children make snowmen.
6. The sky is blue, it’s a lovely ____ day.
7. It’s very _____ today, let’s go swimming to cool down.
8. Take a sweater. It might be ____ later.
9. I think it’s very ____ in Antarctica.
10. It doesn’t often _____ in the desert.

3.24. First, work in a small group and discuss what types of weather are
bad
and good for doing these things and why. Then share your ideas with
class.
Model:
for skiing the bad weather is: mild weather which makes the snow melt;
good weather: cold, clear days
1. Planting flowers in a garden.
2. Having an evening barbecue.
3. Going out in a small sailing boat.
4. A day of sightseeing in a big city.
5. Camping out in a tent.
6. Looking at ships through binoculars.
7. Travelling by balloon.
8. Flying a kite.
9. Making a snowman.
10. Dreaming about your future.

3.25. Work with a partner. Give a good reason for the following advice
or requests. Impersonal sentences may be of help. Follow the model.
Model: Put on your coat.
a) Put on your coat. It’s cold outside. You may catch cold.
b) Put on your coat. It’s very windy today. The coat will keep you from the
wind.
c) Put on your coat; it's getting cold.
1. Open the window, please.
2. Will you please switch on the light?
3. Please hurry up.
4. We’ll have to take a taxi or go by bus.
5. You needn’t put on your warm jersey.
6. Don’t make so much noise, please.
7. I think you should take your sun glasses.
8. You haven’t forgotten your umbrella, have you?
9. Let’s go for a swim.
10. I hope we’ll be able to go skiing tomorrow.
11. Very soon we’ll be skating.
3.26. Read the weather forecast. What season is it? Make up a similar weather
forecast for your region. Then discuss it with a partner in a short
dialogue.
The Weather Forecast
Announcer : And now the weather. In Scotland it’s snowing. The temperature’s
around minus one degree. In the Midlands it’s windy. Temperatures
are around nine degrees. In Bristol in the West it’s raining.
Temperatures are around twelve degrees. Finally, in Brighton the
weather’s fine. It’ll be sunny but cold all day. Maximum temperature
is about 11 degrees.

3.27. Work with a partner and answer the following questions. Be ready
to discuss your opinions with class.
1. In which months is the weather fine in your town?
2. Are we always pleased to have dry weather? When are we not pleased to
have it?
3. Would it be wise to go for an outing in wet weather?
4. Is it usual to have occasional rain in September in Russia? What about
February?
5. Does it clear up quickly after rain? Is this a feature of any particular season?
6. Where do you get the weather forecast from? Do you always rely on what it
says?
7. Would you take a raincoat with you if the forecast said about occasional
rain?
8. What do you usually do if you are wet through?
9. Which do you like better: when it’s cold or hot?
10. What weather do you like best of all?
11. What is the weather like today?
12. What would you like to do on a nasty rainy day?
13. What part does the weather play in your plans for a holiday?
14. Why do most people prefer summer to any other season of the year? What
is your favourite season?
15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each season of the year?

3.28. Read the following weather reports published in newspapers and use
them while acting out the following situations with a partner.
1) April: Saturday: mainly cloudy, occasional rain with sleet or snow over hills
slowly dying out, hill fog patches, wind NE fresh or strong, max temp 5° C.
Outlook for Sunday: Bright weather with sunny intervals showers will spread
slowly during Saturday, replacing the mainly cloudy weather with occasional rain
or drizzle. On Sunday all districts will have sunny intervals and showers.
March: Dull misty start with rain at times; becoming dry and brighter, wind SE
light, max temp 10° C.
Planning an Outing
Role 1. Phone up B. Ask him/her how he/she is. Comment on the weather. Invite
him/her for an outing. Ask him/her if he/she knows the weather forecast. Say that
you don’t feel like getting caught in the rain and getting wet through. Appoint the
date for your outing.
Role 2. A phones you up. Discuss the weather with him/her. Describe the weather
forecast to him/her which you’ve heard over the radio. Cheer him/her up. Express
your hope that it will clear up and you will have a lot of sunshine. Agree upon the
date for your outing.

2) December: Sunny intervals, snow showers, chiefly near coasts, wind N light
or moderate; max temp 3°C.
Outlook for next week: very cold, snow showers, wind chiefly in the N and E.
Sea passages: wind NE strong to gale force, snow showers, visibility poor, sea
state rough or very rough.
January: Bright at first, rain spreading from W preceded by sleet or snow in
elevated places, max temp 6°C.
Outlook for next week: Cold, with scattered sleet or showers or sunny intervals.
Sea passages: Wind NW moderate, occasionally fresh; mainly fair; visibility
good; sea moderate.
Discussing a future business trip to England in December
Role 1. Phone up B, your colleague, who happened to have worked in England as
a newspaper correspondent for three years. Ask him/her about the weather in
London in December (January). Ask him/her for advice concerning clothes and
things which may come in handy there.
Role 2. A phones you up. He/she tells you about his/her business trip to England
in December (January). You worked in England as a newspaper correspondent for
three years. You describe the weather in London in December (January) and give
him/her advice concerning clothes and things he/she should take with him/her.
Warn him/her about the peculiarities of English winter.

3) Discussing the plans for the forthcoming holidays


Role 1. Phone up B, your friend. Ask him/her how he/she is. Tell him/her you are
going to Belgorod for your holidays in April. You know that your friend has been
to Belgorod many times in all the seasons. Ask him/her about the weather in
Belgorod in April.
Role 2. A phones you up. You’re glad to help your friend. You’ve been to
Belgorod many times in all the seasons. You describe the weather in April.
3.29. Work with a partner and answer these questions.

1. What would you like to shed at this point in your life?


2. Can you think of a situation where you reaped the rewards of
something you did?
3. What in your life is flourishing at the moment?
4. When did you last feel that you were wilting?
5. If you are the apple of your teacher's eye, does your teacher like or
dislike you?
6. If something, for example new houses, is said to be mushrooming,
what is happening?
7. If someone lives in clover, do they live very poorly or very
luxuriously?
8. What kind of person is a couch potato?
9. If discussions are fruitful, what are they like?
10. What do you like doing, if you are a bookworm?
11. Is dog’s life a happy one?
12. Can an underdog be in the centre of people’s attention?
13. Can a wolf in sheep’s clothing be a good friend?
14. Why are some girls embarrassed by wolf-whistles? Do you like
them?
15. Is it possible to reach a target in a wild-goose chase?
16. Can you meet women at a stag party or men at a hen party?
17. Can a new book be dog-eared?
18. In what situations would you like to be a fly on the wall?
19. Do you need to be a bird to get a bird’s-eye-view of a place?
20. Why can you need cat’s eyes on your bicycle?
21. What can make a person a guinea pig? Have you ever been one?
22. What is your burning desire if your have a frog in your throat?
23. Do you have pigeon-holes in your office? What do you use them for?
24. If a priest has a dog-collar, does it mean that he has a dog?

3.30. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings about weather. Give
their Russian equivalents wherever possible.
Citations about the weather and climate:
1. If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun.
2. Small rain lays great dust.
3. As welcome as a storm.
4. After rain comes fair weather (sunshine).
5. It never rains but it pours.
6. April weather.
7. To save/ to put by/ to lay up for a rainy day.
8. Every cloud has a silver lining.
9. [Weather is] the discourse of fools. (Thomas Fuller)
10. [Climate is] a theory. Weather is a condition. (Oliver Herford)
11. [Climate is] what lasts all the time; weather only lasts a few days.
(Anonymous)

WRITING

3.31. This short info shows anyone who wants to visit the West of Ireland
what weather to expect at different times of the year. Make a similar
chart for your country or home region.
Dec - Mar Apr - Jun
coldest months; generally cool, but
usually quite wet; often wet and windy but improving
snow on hills

Jul - Aug Sep - Nov


warmest months; often mild, becoming cold;
bright with showers; mist and fog
cool sea breezes

3.32. What kinds of weather do you think caused the following to happen?
Write a sentence which could go before each of these sentences.

1. We had to sit in the shade every afternoon.


2. The sweat was pouring out of us.
3. I could hardly breathe; I wished it would rain to cool us down.
4. Cars were skidding out of control.
5. The postman had to use a boat to get around.
6. They had to close the airport; the snow was a metre deep.
7. We were able to sit in the garden in the middle of winter.
8. The earth became rock-hard and a lot of plants died.
9. It blew the newspaper right out of my hands.
10. A row of very big trees had been blown over.
11. I could hardly see my hand in front of my face.

3.33. Make up a fact file for any country with a short description of its
geography, climate, flora and fauna.
3.34 Watch the weather forecast on an English TV channel (BBC, CNN,
etc.), listen to some English radio station or browse the Internet (e.g.
www. weatherchannel.com). Write down some new words or
expressions to describe weather and share them with class.

3.35. Render the text in English.


Земле угрожает засуха
Из нового прогноза ведущих британских климатологов явствует, что из-за
глобального потепления засуха, угрожающая жизни миллионов, может
распространиться на поверхности Земли уже в нынешнем веке.
Крайняя засушливость, в условиях которой сельские хозяйство практически
невозможно, затронет примерно треть планеты, говорится в исследовании
Центра климатических прогнозов и анализа им. Хэдли при метеослужбе.
Это один из самых мрачных на сегодняшний день прогнозов, касающихся
возможных результатов повышения температур во всем мире, но и он может
быть недооценкой, заявили ученые.
Выводы, ставшие известными общественности, привлекли удивленное и
испуганное внимание гуманитарных организаций и специалистов по
развитию, которые опасаются, что это сильнее всего ударит по беднякам в
развивающихся странах.
Для таких мрачных предсказаний использовалась модель, построенная на
суперкомпьютере, который работает в Центре Хэдли.
Результаты считаются наиболее достоверными на глобальном уровне, но
явное следствие - это то, что регионы мира, где уже бывают засухи, вроде
Африки, станут местами, где предполагаемое повышение приведет к
наиболее серьезным последствиям.
Исследование, проведенное Элинор Берк и двумя ее коллегами по Центру
Хэдли, моделирует, как коэффициент Палмера для силы засухи (Palmer
Drought Severity Index - PDSI) увеличивается на всей планете на протяжении
ближайшего века при прогнозируемых изменениях в выпадении дождей и
жаре во всем мире из-за изменения климата. Оно показывает, что значение
PDSI для умеренной засухи, в настоящее время составляющее 25% земной
поверхности, увеличивается до 50% к 2100 году; значение для сильной
засухи, сегодня составляющее около 8%, поднимается до 40%; а значение для
чрезвычайной засухи - сегодня 3% - поднимается до 30%.
Многие наблюдатели считают самой пугающей цифру увеличения
территории, охваченной чрезвычайной засухи.
“Мы говорим о том, что примерно 30% земной суши становятся
непригодными для жизни в смысле сельскохозяйственного производства в
течение нескольких десятилетий, - заявил Марк Линас, автор книги “Высокий
прилив”, первого крупного отчета об очевидных последствиях глобального
потепления во всем мире. - Это части мира, где сотни миллионов людей уже
не смогут прокормить себя”.
Пендлтон подчеркнул: “Это означает, что обо всех формах развития можно
забыть. Огромное большинство бедняков в развивающихся странах - это
мелкие фермеры, которые зависят от дождя”.
PART III. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE.
Unit 1. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE. MY FOOD.

Food is the first enjoyment of life.


Lin Yutang

Recommended grammar:
Verbals. Requests and preferences

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY


1.1. Read the passage on eating in the USA and pick up the facts that are
similar to or different from the general eating habits in Russia.
Meals in the U.S.
Meal Times
In the U.S., meals are usually served at the following times:
Breakfast: between 6:30 a.m. and 11:00 a.m.
Lunch: between 11:30 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.
Dinner: between 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m.
Dinner is often the most substantial meal of the day, and usually includes a main
course of meat, poultry or fish, accompanied by side dishes such as soup, salad
and vegetables. Lunch in the U.S. tends to be a lighter meal (often a sandwich,
yogurt or a light entrée). Breakfast meals can vary from cereal and milk to eggs
and pancakes or French toasts. Brunch, a common Sunday meal served between
10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., is really a combination of traditional 'breakfast' and
'lunch' dishes. Scrambled eggs or omelets are often served along with other
regular luncheon dishes. In many restaurants brunch is served from about 10 a.m.
until mid-afternoon.
Common Dishes
Often Americans dine out, i.e. they go to different restaurants. Many foreign
people think that Americans are always eating hamburgers in such restaurants.
Now it’s proven that eating in such restaurants is not healthy enough. And the
truth is that many people in the USA have become vegetarians, who eat little or
no meat. Most Americans, however, like many different kinds of food. They
especially like exotic foods, and restaurants that serve French, Arabic, Mexican,
Japanese, Chinese and African cuisine are among their favorites.
There are a lot of foods in each category, depending upon which type of
restaurant you go to (fast food or regular style, American or international cuisine,
etc.). Below is a sample menu typical of some American-style restaurants:
Appetizers: nachos, chili, shrimp cocktail, raw vegetables and dip, finger
sandwiches, cheese, etc.
Soups: French onion, chicken, vegetable, soup of the day
Salads: regular, Greek, chef, Caesar, spinach
Main Courses: steak, fried chicken with seasoned breading, broiled chicken, fish,
hamburgers, pasta dishes, pizza, often served with vegetables or some other dish
Hot and Cold Sandwiches: combinations of ham, turkey, roast beef, chicken,
tuna salad (tuna fish with mayonnaise and, sometimes, celery), egg salad (chopped
hard boiled eggs with mayonnaise), cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, mayonnaise or
mustard, etc., served on bread
Beverages: coffee, tea, soft drinks, mineral water, iced tea
Deserts: cakes, ice cream, frozen yogurt, fruit, etc.
Breakfast dishes: cold cereal and milk, warm cereal, toasts, yogurt, eggs,
pancakes, French toasts, waffles, etc.
Americans also like to cook. And they don’t always make simple things. Some of
them are real gourmets ['guәmei], and they enjoy preparing fine meals. They
spend thousands of dollars each year on cook-books and cooking utensils to use
in their kitchens. Like people in many countries, people in the US love to entertain,
so they often invite guests to dinner.
When guests arrive, they find a table beautifully decorated with candles and fine
china, because a meal is a more appetizing when it is served in pleasant
surroundings. When guests sit down to eat, they eat heartily. For many
Americans, food that is cooked at home is most scrumptious of all.
Restaurants
There are two main types of restaurants in the U.S.: fast food and full-service
restaurants. Fast food restaurants are called such because little time passes
between the time a patron (= client) orders a meal and when he receives it. The
style of fast food restaurants is much like that of a cafeteria. In a fast food
restaurant, customers go up to a counter to order their meal. It is then placed on a
plastic tray which patrons bring to a table. Fast food tends to be mass-produced.
Items such as hamburgers, hot chicken sandwiches, pizza, and salads are typical of
fast food fare.
Eating in a fast food style restaurant is much less expensive than eating in a full
service restaurant. A typical dinner in a fast food restaurant costs from $4.00 to
$6.00. Add a 6 to 10 percent tax levied on the cost of your bill. It is expected that
customers will finish eating and leave the fast food restaurant within 30 to 45
minutes. In full service restaurants, customers don’t have to look for a table by
themselves. They have to wait to be seated. The head-waiter or a waiter will
necessarily come up to you, offer you a table:
Would you like a table by the window? – Yes, please, but not too close to the
entrance.
and show you to your seat:
This way, please.
The waiter hands a wine list to each customer. In first-class restaurants they have
separate menus for wine and food (Here’s the menu.). Don’t be surprised if you
don’t find a cloakroom in the restaurant. Most restaurants, and, of course, cafes
and pubs, don’t have them. Customers usually put their coats on the back of their
chairs or elsewhere.
First, you order your drinks:
Are you ready to order your drinks? – A gin and tonic for me, please.
What would you like to drink? – Scotch on the rocks, please.
Which wine would you like, sir? Which would you recommend? – We have
Chablis 1994. – Sounds good to me.
If you have ordered a bottle of wine, the waiter will bring one and first pour a
little bit of wine into your glass. You should taste it, and if you find the wine good
(which is most often the case), you should say “Yes” or just nod approvingly. Only
then will the waiter fill your glass.
A few minutes after handing a menu to each customer, the waiter comes back:
Are you ready to order? – I think we are.
What would you like to have for starters?/ What would you like to start
with? – I’d like to have green salads, please./ The same for me, please. /
I think I’ll start with soup/melon.
What would you like to have for the main course? - I’ll have steak and new
potatoes./ I’m at a loss. I don’t know what to order. Can you recommend
something to me?
Why not start with the shrimp cocktail, if you like sea food.–It’s fine with me.
At a restaurant the last course usually called ‘pudding’, ‘sweet’ or ‘dessert’
shouldn’t be ordered together with the starters and the main course. This is usually
done later.
If you order tea and coffee together with the starters, the waiter will bring it at
the beginning of the meal. That’s why if you want to finish your meal with tea or
coffee, order it later.
Do you want any sweet? – A cup of coffee and cheese to finish with, please.
How about pudding? – Chocolate pudding for me, please.
Dinner at full service restaurants can vary from $20 (including tax) in a less
expensive restaurant, to $80 and more in an expensive restaurant. It is expected
that customers will finish eating and leave a full service restaurant within an hour
or an hour and a half.
Could I pay now? - Here’s your bill, sir.
Could I have the bill? – Here you are, madam.
The bill, please. – Here it is, sir.
In case something goes wrong you can say:
I’m sorry but we have been waiting for half an hour.
or Sorry, but we did order 40 minutes ago.
or Sorry, but I asked for strawberry ice-cream, not
chocolate.
Tipping
In general, to express satisfaction with service, it is expected that customers will
give wait staff at full service restaurants a tip of 10-15% of the bill for full meals if
service is not already included. Don’t pay twice for the service: you should add
10-15 % only if there’s a stamped “Service is not included” on the menu or at the
bottom of the bill. A small token is added if you are just having coffee or tea.
Sometimes, wine stewards are also given a tip of 15% of the bill. It is also
customary to give bartenders a 10 to 15% tip. Also, small tips are usually given to
coat check attendants (50 cents to one dollar), restroom attendants (about 50
cents) and car park attendants (also, about 50 cents).
It is not customary to tip in fast food restaurants. Customers are expected to
dispose of the waste from their meals and stack their trays.
Water and Ice
Water from public sources is meant to be used for human consumption. In
general, most people in the U.S. drink tap water, drinking bottled water for the
sake of taste. There are certain places, however, such as Washington, D.C., New
York, Los Angeles and other large cities where it is recommended to filter water
before drinking.
Any cold beverage you order at a cafe, fast food or regular style restaurant will
be served to you with ice unless you request otherwise. Alcoholic drinks can be
served on the rocks.
1.2. Study the vocabulary used to describe food and eating habits. Practice
saying all the words of French origin. Consult a dictionary.
General expressions:
to start with, to make one’s order/ to order, to take one’s order, to be on/
keep to a diet, to pay a bill, to tip, to serve/ wait on, to lay (to spread) the table, to
clear the table, to recommend, to prefer, to try/ to taste;
full course /three-course dinner, hors-d’oeuvres [o:’de:vr], table d’hote
[‘ta:bl’dәut] (items/ dishes), a la carte [,a: la: ‘ka:t] (dishes/ items), buffet/
smorgasbord, portion, specialty, serving, bar, selection, restaurant, snack bar, food
court, café, cafeteria, canteen, refectory (in British colleges), menu, head waiter,
service, waiter (waitress)/ server, service charge, ash-tray, napkin, bill;
Hors d’oeuvres/ appetizers:
mushrooms, julienne, jellied fish (in aspic), caviar, crab cocktail, salad, sardine
salad, mushrooms in sour cream;
Starters:
broth, chicken broth, soup, cabbage (ox-tail, noodle, pea, tomato, fish, onion)
soup, purée, minestrone, thick soup, cream of mushrooms;
Main courses:
Fish dishes:
boiled beluga, spitted sturgeon, halibut in white sauce, pike-perch in white wine,
stuffed fish;
Meat dishes:
mutton, beef stroganoff, rare beef, beefsteak, beef, goulash, assorted roast, meats,
kidney pie, Yorkshire pudding, Chicken Kiev, liver, kidneys, pork, veal,
hamburger, pork chop, tongue, ham, roast mutton, hotchpotch, cutlet, pâté, minced
meat, sausage frankfurters/ wieners (AmE);
Poultry/ game/ fowl:
goose, turkey, chicken, duck, pheasant, chick, Kentucky fried chicken, roast
chicken/ turkey/ goose/ duck;
Grain and milk dishes:
porridge, oatmeal, cereal, pasta, corn-flakes, kefir, half-milk, yogurt, milk, butter,
cream, sour cream, cheese, Swiss/Dutch cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese,
curds;
Trimmings/ side dish/ garnish:
vegetables and potatoes, new potatoes, mashed (boiled, fried, baked, roast,
jacket) potatoes, rice, green peas, cabbage, cauliflower, egg-plants /aubergine,
French fries, eggs (soft-boiled, hard-boiled, scrambled), omelet;
Meat:
beef, kidney, liver, venison, veal, pork, mutton, lamb, fillet;
Fish:
cod, hake, plaice, mackerel, herring, sardine, trout, salmon, eel, pike, sole,
halibut, tuna, catfish, pike-perch, carp, Baltic herring, Baltic sprat, sturgeon;
Seafood:
prawns, clam, shrimp, crab, lobster, crayfish, squid, mussels, oysters;
Vegetables:
artichoke, green pea, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, onion, carrot, tomato,
radish, bean, (a clove of) garlic, spinach, leek, zucchini, (bell) pepper, (a spear of)
asparagus, corn (on the cob);
Fruit:
apricot, peach, pineapple, banana, grape, cherry, black cherry, pomegranate,
grapefruit, tangerine, lemon, orange, pear, plum, apple, fig, avocado, mango,
passion fruit, date, raisin, prune;
Berries:
(note that in English when saying about eating berries you use plural nouns,
singular nouns mean ‘one berry’) strawberries, cranberries, gooseberries,
raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, currants, watermelon, melon;
Nuts:
peanut, pecan, walnut, almond, hazel nut, pistachio nut;
Bread:
roll, croissant, bagel, sandwich, canapé, a loaf of bread, bun, dough, batter;
Dessert:
ice-cream, sundae, crème brûlée, pastry, sherbet, whipped cream, custard,
doughnut, muffin, fudge, cup cake, scone, sponge cake, cookie, biscuit,
cheesecake, jam, jelly/ jello (AmE), cake (it usually needs some filling, icing or
topping), strawberry or apple tart, pudding, waffle flan, shortcake, pancake,
gingerbread, crepe, maple syrup;
Soft drinks/ beverages:
lemonade, mineral water (still, fizzy), soda water, cider, Coca-Cola/Coke, tonic,
juice;
Strong drinks/ spirits:
aperitif, dry or sweet wine, white or red wine, champagne, whisky (AmE
whiskey), Scotch (whisky), cognac, brandy, vodka, rum, liqueur, gin, beer,
moonshine;
Cocktails:
screwdriver (vodka and orange juice), grasshopper (pepper mint liquor, vodka
and cream), whisky sour (whisky and lemon juice), Bloody Mary (vodka and
tomato juice), Manhattan (dry vermouth, sweet vermouth and corn whisky);
swizzle (rum and lemon juice); Highball (whisky and soda on rocks);
Hot beverages:
cocoa, regular coffee (with milk), instant coffee, black coffee, decaffeinated
coffee, Irish coffee (with ice-cream), tea (with lemon or milk), herbal tea, hot
chocolate;
Seasonings/ relishes/ dressings, spices and herbs:
sauce, ketchup/ catsup, mayonnaise, salad-dressing, (olive, sunflower) oil, lemon
juice, dip, spices, vinegar, gravy, mustard, pepper, sugar, salt, cinnamon, vanilla,
nutmeg, ginger, curry, dill, parsley, rosemary, thyme, chives, oregano, sage;
Flavours and tastes:
good, tasty, tasteless/ insipid, bland (neutral in flavour), bitter, sweet, hot/ spicy,
sour, salty, sugary, sickly, savoury/ appetizing, unsalted;
Ways of cooking - verbs:
boil, fry, grill, roast, bake, skewer, knead, mix, sprinkle, dice, mash, pour, spread,
peel, squeeze, roll, grate, crush, whisk, slice, carve, sift/ sieve, shop, dip, drain/
strain;
Ways of cooking - adjectives:
raw, fresh, fried, roasted, canned, smoked, stuffed with, boiled, roasted, stewed,
grilled, marinated;
Quality of food:
greasy, underdone/ undercooked, rare, medium-rare, medium, well-done,
overdone/ overcooked, tough/ stodgy, tender, done to a turn, more-ish (inf. you
want to eat more), nourishing, cloying.
1.3. a) Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passages.
a) recipe fast food eat out dish bill cookery books
menu take-away waiter snack tip ingredients

I’m a terrible cook. I’ve tried hard, but it’s no use. I’ve got lots of (a) ______, I
choose a (b) ______ I want to cook, I read the (c) ______, I prepare all the
necessary (d) ______ and follow the instructions. But the result is terrible, and I
just have a sandwich or some other quick (e) ______. So I often (f) ______. I don’t
like grand restaurants. It’s not because they are expense, it’s just that I don’t feel at
ease in them. First the (g) ______ gives me a (h) ______ which I can’t understand
because it’s complicated and has lots of foreign words. At the end of the meal
when I pay the (i) ______, I never know how much to leave as a (j)______. I prefer
(k)______places, like hamburger shops where you pay at once and sit down and
eat straightaway. And I like (l) ______ places, where you buy a meal in a special
container and take it home.

b) chew lick polish off swallow gnaw


consume peck at gorge digest bolt
1) The children have no appetite. They just ______ their food. They
hardly eat anything.
2) My mother always used to say to me. ‘Now make sure you ______
meat carefully before you ______ it.’
3) Statistics show that we ______ more fruit and meat than 10 years ago.
4) He has an enormous appetite. I’ve seen him ______ four hamburgers
and a pile of chips at a sitting.
5) As children we used to ______ ourselves on ice-cream, chips and
chocolate, and then feel very sick.
6) The starving prisoners were so desperate they would ______any meat
bones they could find.
7) It’s not good for your body to ______ your food so quickly. Eat slowly
so that you can ______ it properly.
8) He was so hungry that when he'd finished his food, he began to______
the plate!

b) Answer the following questions.

1) How do people eat ice-cream cones?


2) How do hungry people eat?
3) How do very greedy people eat?
4) How do people eat if they are not very hungry?
5) How do dogs eat?
6) What is a good, healthy way to eat meat?
7) What is an unhealthy way to eat, and why?

1.4. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
to at down of for out in up
1. I asked ______ the menu.
2. I like to eat ______.
3. He took ______ my order.
4. I prefer a simple café ______ a big restaurant.
5. I like to go ______ self-service places.
6. Let’s invite the Smiths ______ dinner.
7. I looked ______ the menu.
8. I’m very fond ______ Chinese food.
9. Could you help me set ______ the plates?
10. Put the used cutlery ______ the sink.
11. I’ll wash them ______ later.

1.5. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage.
vegetarian crockery main course starter diet side dish
entertaining napkin washing up dessert sink cutlery
Maureen often gives dinner parties at home. She loves (a) ______. She lays the
table: puts the (b) ______ in the right places, sets out the plates and puts a clean
white (c) ______ at each place. For the meal itself, she usually gives her guests
some kind of (d) ______ first, for example soup or melon. Next comes the (e) ___,
which is usually meat (unless some of her guests are (f) _____ or if they’re on a
special (g) ______) with a (h) ______ of salad. For (i) ______ it’s usually fruit or
ice-cream, and then coffee. When everyone has gone home, she must think about
doing the (j) ______, as in the kitchen the (k) ______ is full of dirty (l) ______.

1.6. Many people in the United States snack (eat between meals). Do you?
What snack food would be most difficult for you to live without?
a) Read the following selection. Find out what various kinds of
cravings say about you. Some of the words in the first paragraph
are slang, or playful words often used for humor.
Comfort Food Cravings
[1] Do you crave for crunchies when you get the munchies? Cheer yourself up
with chocolate? Chill out with ice cream? A recent survey of Americans’ eating
habits shows that people snack for the sake of their spirits as well as for their
stomachs.
[2] Why do you choose the foods you do? The answer involves a lot more than
appetite. “For us, humans, eating is never a ‘purely biological’ activity,” observes
Sidney Mintz, author of Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom.
[3] Foods from “the four basic snack food groups” — bready, crunchy, creamy,
and chewy — fill different sensory and emotional needs, according to Julie
Kembel, author of Winning the Weight and Wellness Game.
[4] Crunch is the secret to chips’ soaring popularity, points out Kembel. “We tend
to store tension in our jaws, so when we eat something crunchy, we tense and relax
our jaws, relieving some of that ache.” Chewy foods with carbohydrates, like
bagels or licorice, help you slow down and unwind. Bready foods, like puddings,
pasta, and porridge, create a feeling of fullness that makes you feel more secure.
Finally, creamy foods — luscious objects of sensory delight — are “our way of ...
indulging ourselves,” adds Kembel.
[5] When you're feeling down or distressed, you probably yearn for more than a
mouthful of something nutritious or delicious. However, there’s a definite gender
difference in choosing comfort foods. Nearly half of the women surveyed (49 %)
prefer chocolate, while ice cream soothes the souls and stomachs of about four in
10 men (43 %). From a nutritional standpoint, these foods have a lot in
common. “Chocolate and ice cream are similar in fat and sugar composition and in
biological effects,” notes Debra Waterhouse, author of Why Women Need
Chocolate. “Both release brain chemicals — serotonin and endorphins — that
make us feel better.”

b) Find a word or phrase in the reading that means the same.


Paragraph 1: feelings of hunger (slang); make yourself feel happier; make
yourself more relaxed (slang); eat a small meal in between regular meals
Paragraph 2: a feeling of hunger
Paragraph 3: related to the senses of touch, taste, and feel
Paragraph 4: increasing quickly; strain; delicious; allowing a special pleasure
Paragraph 5: depressed; have a strong desire for; healthy to eat; male or female;
calms; point of view; brain chemicals.

c) Complete the statements about “Comfort Food Cravings.” Circle the


number of the best answer. The answers may not be directly stated in the
reading. You may have to infer the meaning.
1. Someone who is hungry for something crunchy is probably_____.
a. tense b. relaxed c. self-indulgent
2. If you have had a busy day and need to calm down, you may find ____ food
satisfying.
a. crunchy b. chewy c. bready
3. Ice cream and chocolate comfort people because of ____.
a. gender differences b. chemical reactions c. nutrition
4. If you told the experts quoted in this story that you had a craving, they would
probably say,_____.
a. “Why are you hungry? Didn't you have lunch?”
b. “I wonder why you feel this craving right now.”
c. “Chocolate always makes everyone feel better.”
5. A man who is feeling unhappy may crave for _____.
a. ice ream b. chocolate c. bready foods
6. This article is true for_____.
a. people all over the world b. people in North America c. people in
the U.S.
7. A craving for food is ____ need.
a. an emotional b. a biological c. both an emotional and a biological
1.7. Unfortunately, some people have a craving for alcohol. Read this
passage and put each of the following words or phrases in its correct
place. What is your attitude to alcohol?

sociable sip soft drinks sober alcoholics


spirits tipsy teetotallers drunk hangover
Drinking habits vary. Some people don’t drink alcohol at all, just (a) ______ like
fruit juice. They are called (b) ______. Others like to (c) ______a glass of wine
slowly, just to be (d) ______. Others like to drink glass after glass of beer, or
possibly (e) ______ such as whisky, brandy or vodka. Soon they become (f) ____
and if they continue, they’ll get (g) ______ and wake up the next morning with a
bad (h) ______. Some people are dependent on alcohol. They can’t do without it.
They are (i) _____. One thing is certain. If you drive, you shouldn’t drink. Stay
(j)____.

1.8. Read the article about the language used to label food products. Do
Russian producers use any special language to describe the better
quality of their produce? Study some labels on foreign food. What
words have you found? Make a short report on your findings to class.

We are What We Eat


As a food label is often nothing more than an advert to tempt you to buy the
product, you should pay particular attention to the choice of words used. Always
watch out for the word ‘flavour’, as this may mean that the product contains
synthetic (= made from artificial substances), ingredients. Chocolate-flavoured
topping, for example, will not contain chocolate – so read carefully. Many
manufacturers also use a range of meaningless descriptions. Feel-good words,
such as ‘wholesome’ (= good for you, physically or morally) ‘farmhouse’,
‘original’ and ‘traditional’ do not mean anything. Other words such as ‘farm fresh’
and ‘country fresh’ also intentionally blur the true nature of a product’s source.
‘Fresh egg pasta’, for example, means that the pasta was indeed made with real and
not powdered eggs, but maybe months ago. Words that you can trust are ‘organic’,
‘wholemeal’ (=containing all the natural substances in the grain with nothing
removed), ‘natural mineral water’, ‘fair trade’(= refers to products such as coffee,
tea or chocolate marketed in such a way that the small farmers in developing
countries who produce them get the profits rather than large multinational
companies), ‘free-range’(= relating to farm animals that are not kept in cages) and
the ‘V’- vegetarian symbol.
Consumer pressure over GM (= genetically modified, i.e. the genes (DNA) of a
natural product have been altered in some way) foods has led to better labeling, but
loopholes (= ways of getting round regulations usually because they have not been
written in a precise enough way) still exist. GM product derivatives (=things
produced from), such as starches, sugars, fats and oils where no genetically
modified protein or DNA material still remains, still go unlabelled in many
products such as cereal bars, fish fingers, jellies, and vegetable burgers.
Take particular care over low-fat and low-sugar products. Guidelines state that
‘low-fat’ foods must not have more than 5 per cent fat, while ‘reduced fat’ means
that the total fat content is 25 per cent less than the standard versions of the same
product. The terms ‘light’ or ‘lite’ are meaningless since they could refer to texture,
fat content, sugar content or even colour.

1.9. a) Read the passage containing some food idioms and try to retell the
text using non-idiomatic English. Is it easy? Are there any idioms for
similar situations in Russian?
b) Answer the questions that follow the text.
A Real Lemon
The used car I bought for three hundred dollars was a lemon. My friends said I
was nuts to believe the baloney the seller gave. The seller said that the car was
like new, with only ten thousand miles on it. She called it reliable transportation at
a very low price. She said she was really selling it for peanuts.
Starting the engine of the car was a piece of cake. I just turned the key – no
problem. However, soon I was in a pickle: the brakes didn’t work! The owner of
the Cadillac I hit went bananas when he saw the damage to the front of his car. He
started shouting at me and wouldn’t stop. Now I have to pay him two thousand
dollars to repair his car. But my friend Nina was a peach. She took my car to the
garbage dump so that I didn’t have to see it again.

Questions:
1. Can something that is a lemon work well? Have you ever bought such a
lemon?
2. Is something that is a piece of cake easy to do or hard to do? Name some
things that are a piece of cake for you to do?
3. When someone goes bananas, what happens to the person?

c) Match the sentences (1-11) with the idioms (a-k).

1. The baby is the apple of her grandfather’s eye.


2. His speech about the importance of helping the poor is baloney. He wouldn’t
even give his best friend a dime.
3. Our basketball team really creamed its opponent. Our team won by a score of
120 to 60.
4. On our return home, we found the front door open, and we suspected that
something fishy was going on.
5. She went bananas when she heard she had won first prize in the talent
contest.
6. Bill was in a pickle. After filling his car with gas, he couldn’t find the money
to pay.
7. The new tape player I bought was a lemon, and I’m going to take it back to
the store to exchange for a new one.
8. Tony must be nuts to pay a hundred dollars for a shirt.
9. When I was sick last week, Susan visited me and bought groceries for me.
She’s a peach.
10. Rose buys used clothes at second hand stores, and she gets nice-looking
clothes for peanuts.
11. The math test was a piece of cake for Erik. He is very good at doing math
problems.

a. ___ in trouble
b. ___ something that is very easy to do
c. ___ something that doesn’t work, usually an electrical appliance or mechanical
item
d. ___ to totally beat someone in a game
e. ___ something that one loves and cherishes
f. ___ a very small amount of money
g. ___ nonsense
h. ___ suspicious, not right or honest
i. ___ to go crazy
j. ___ very crazy
k.___ very sweet, kind (of a person)

d) Explain the meaning of the words and expression in bold and make up
your sentences to illustrate their use.

1. I have a sweet tooth and can never say ‘no’ to cakes and biscuits.
2. I won’t have dessert, thanks. You’re lucky being so slim; but I’m afraid I have
to count the calories. I have to be a bit calorie-conscious these days.
3. I like to eat the meal with something savoury, like cheese.
4. Ben’s a bit of fussy eater.
5. No, thanks, I won’t have wine. I’m teetotal.
6. Before I book the restaurant, do you have any particular dietary
requirements? (quite a formal language)
7. I won’t have any more wine, thanks. I don’t want to overdo it.

1.10. Put each of the following colloquial words or phrases in its correct
place in the sentences below. Discuss their meanings in class.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
the salt of the earth cup of tea peanuts no picnic
a butter-fingers a vegetable the cream nuts
a piece of cake full of beans in a jam sour grapes
(a) Throw it to me! Oh no, I’ve dropped it! I am ______.
(b) I said I’d pay him today, but my money’s in the bank and it’s just
closed. Now I’m ______.
(c) You’ll have to offer her a high salary for an easy job. An experienced
editor like her wouldn’t do the job for______.
(d) He never wants to do anything interesting. He just sits around all day.
He’s a bit of ______.
(e) It’ll be cold and wet in the mountains. And we’ll have heavy
rucksacks to carry. It’ll be ______.
(f) That firm only employs the very best graduates. They only take
______.
(g) I think people who help the old, sick and homeless are ______.
(h) He’s a bit tired and lifeless now, but after a nap he’ll be ______.
(i) She now says she didn’t really want the job that she failed to get, but I
think it’s just ______.
(j) That’s a crazy idea of hers. She must be ______.
(k) She likes literature and classical music. Discotheques are not her
______.
(l) The exam was very easy. It was ______.

1.11. a) Complete the colloquial similes below with the correct items from
the list below. Translate the sentences into Russian.
b) Find more similes in the Appendix and translate them in Russian.

hot potato cucumber hot cakes


two peas in a pod water beetroot
toast sardines pancake
(a) He never panics in a difficult situation. He stays as cool as a ______.
(b) She was very embarrassed. She went as red as a ______.
(c) No, we aren’t cold. Your flat’s very warm. We’re as warm as ______.
(d) There are no hills or slopes for miles around. It’s as flat as a ______.
(e) They're identical twins, as like as ______.
(f) As soon as his future employers heard he had a criminal record, they dropped
him like a ______.
(g) That singer's new record is in great demand. It's selling like ______.
(h) In the rush-hour buses, people are packed like ______.
(i) She's very extravagant. She spends money like ______.

1.12. Find the words in the box below with the same meaning as the
dictionary definitions (1-11) . A sample sentence with the word
removed has been given to help you.

1. Units of measurement of energy in food.


Example: She's counting ____________ to try and lose weight.
2. A compound which is an essential part of living cells, one of the elements
in food which you need to keep the human body working properly.
Example: Eggs are a rich source of____________.
3. A chemical substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Example: Bread, potatoes and rice are good sources of_________.


_____________________________________________________
4. A liquid substance from plants or animals which can be used for cooking.
Example: Fry the meat and drain off the___________.
5. Matter in food which cannot be digested and passes out of the body.
Example: A diet that doesn't contain enough______ can cause intestinal problems.
6. A fatty substance found in fats and oils, also produced by the liver and
forming an essential part of all cells.
Example: If you eat too much______________, it can be deposited on the walls of
arteries, causing them to become blocked.
7. Essential substance which is not synthesized by the body but is found in food
and is needed for health and growth.
Example: He doesn't eat enough fruit and suffers from_________C deficiency.
8. Substance which is found in food, but which can also be dug out of the
earth.
Example: What is the_______________content of spinach?
9. Too heavy, often as a result of eating too much.
Example: The doctor says I'm______________and must go on a diet.
10. The result of not having enough to eat, or the result of eating too much of
the wrong sort of food.
Example: Many of the children in the refugee camp were________.
11. Receiving food.
(Example: We are developing a scheme to improve__________in the poorer areas.)
1.13. Match sentences (1-10) with a second sentence (a-j). Use the key
words in bold to help you.

1. A lot of people are allergic to nuts.


2. Many people do not trust genetically modified foods.
3. Organic vegetables are more expensive but are better for you.
4. We refuse to eat battery chickens.
5. We prefer to eat free range meats.
6. The harvest has been very bad this year.
7. Following the floods in Mozambique, there was a terrible scarcity of food.
8. There has been an outbreak of salmonella and other food poisoning in Perth.
9. Too many people don’t eat a balanced diet.
10. Fast food is very popular.

a. This is because they are cultivated naturally, without using any


chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
b. There wasn’t enough food to feed everyone affected by the disaster.
c. They are not sure that altering the composition of cells to change
certain characteristics is safe.
d. It’s good to know that the animals were given enough space to express
their natural behaviour.
e. Terrible weather conditions have prevented the crops from ripening
and reduced the yield.
f. A lot of people are in hospital as a result.
g. Unfortunately, a diet of burgers, pizzas and fried chicken is not very
healthy.
h. They physically react very badly.
i. This is because they spend their life confined in a small cage.
j. They don’t consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups.

1.14. Complete this article with one of the words or expressions from the
previous activities. You may need to change some of the word forms.
Most children enjoy eating (1)________, but scientific tests have shown us that
burgers and pizzas can lack some (2) __________ and (3) ___________, which are
essential for health and growth, while simultaneously containing large amounts of
(4) __________and (5) __________which can result in obesity and heart
problems. Many children end up suffering from (6) ________, since they eat too
much of the wrong sort of food. In fact, in many areas of the developed world, a lot
of children show similar symptoms to those in poorer developing countries, where
(7) _________ of food causes thousands of deaths from starvation, especially in
the wake of natural disasters which ruin crops and in some cases totally destroy
the annual (8) __________.
Dieticians tell us that we must eat a (9) ________, as it is essential we consume
sufficient quantities of the different food groups. They tell us that we should all eat
more (10) __________, which cannot be digested by the body, and fewer foods
which are high in (11)__________, as this can block the walls of arteries and lead
to heart problems. This is good advice, of course, but our lifestyles often make this
difficult. Many of the ready-prepared foods we buy from supermarkets are high
in (12) _________, giving us more energy than we actually need.
(13)__________foods are appearing on our supermarket shelves, even though
nobody is really sure if altering the composition of food cells is safe. We have the
option, of course, of buying (14) __________ foods, but naturally-cultivated fruits
and vegetables are expensive. And to make matters worse, we are continually
hearing about outbreaks of (15) __________ and (16) _________ which put us off
eating certain foods, as nobody wants to spend time in hospital suffering from
(17)___________.

1.15. Some meat is given a different name from the animal it comes from.
What animals do the following meats come from?

(a) pork (c) veal (e) beef


(b) mutton (d) bacon (f) ham (g) venison

1.16. Match each verb on the left below with the food item it is most often
associated with on the right.
1) (a) to pluck cheese
(b) to crack an orange
(c) to grate a chicken
(d) to knead a nut
(e) to peel a rabbit
(f) to skin a joint of meat
(g) to slice dough
(h) to carve a loaf

2) (a) to mince cream


(b) to shell meat
(c) to toss a hard-boiled egg
(d) to whip eggs
(e) to stuff a cake
(f) to mash a chicken
(g) to beat a pancake
(h) to ice potatoes

1.17. Explain the difference between the words or phrases in each of the
following pairs.
(a) starving and parched (g) uneatable and inedible
(b) a snack and a square meal (h) a beer-bottle and a bottle of beer
(c) stale and mouldy (i) a starter and a dessert
(d) peckish and ravenous (j) a restaurant and a café
(e) a buffet and a banquet (k) a chef and a caterer
(f) overcooked, undercooked and raw (l) a café and a canteen

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

1.18. Read the text about the meals in Great Britain and compare them
with the meals in the US (Ex. 1.1.). How different are they? Compare
the meals in the US and Great Britain with those of Russia. Discuss
your ideas with a partner inin
Meals a dialogue.
England
The English are very particular about their meals and strictly keep to their
meal times. Breakfast is from any time until 8 o’clock in the morning, lunch is
between 12 and 2 p.m., afternoon tea is between 4 and 5 p.m., and dinner is
between 7 and 9 p.m.
The first meal of the day is breakfast. It’s often a quick meal, because the parents
have to get away to their work, and the children have to go to school.
The breakfast dishes are cornflakes or porridge with milk or cream and sugar, or
with milk and salt. For a change, you can have fried eggs, bacon, fried sausages,
boiled eggs or fish. For breakfast, English people also have marmalade with
buttered toasts, rolls, tea or coffee, which they drink hot, usually with sugar and
with some milk. English tea is so strong that pouring it out into a cup together with
a little milk you get a brownish liquid looking like weak coffee with milk. Most
English put milk in their coffee, too – this is known as “white coffee”. When
dining out, waiters will ask you if you want your coffee “black or white” rather
than “with or without milk”.
At lunch time, the Englishmen usually have cold meat and salad or fish often
with potatoes or other vegetables, fish and chips, sausages and a sweet dish (an
apple pie, a hot milk pudding, cold fruit salad, or ice-cream).
Those who work have their lunch in a café or a restaurant, a cafeteria or a factory
canteen. It never happens that they miss a meal or put it off until a more
convenient time.
From four to five, they have a very light meal called afternoon tea. You can
hardly call it a meal. It’s rather an occasion in the late afternoon at which they have
a cup of tea and a cake or a biscuit. Or it may be a light meal of bread, butter and
jam, cakes and tea; or it may be a heavier meal of those things with a dish of meat
or eggs. In this case it is said that they have the so-called “high tea”. It’s a meal
taken between 5 and 6 p.m. if a dinner is not taken in the evening. Usually it’s a
more substantial meal than afternoon tea.
The most important meal of the day is dinner. Dinner is eaten in the middle of
the day or in the evening. If it’s eaten in the evening, the second meal of the day is
lunch. If dinner is taken in the middle of the day, supper is the evening meal.
Usually dinner is much like lunch. But sometimes when the English have guests,
dinner is the biggest meal and they may have some roast beef, roast chicken, boiled
or roast potatoes, vegetables and fruit. Soup is a side dish. At the end of the dinner
a sweet pudding may come.
At dinner, as well as at lunch and supper, Englishmen drink plenty of water. After
dinner many people drink a cup of coffee. They pour the coffee out of a coffee-pot
into small coffee-cups. (To say the truth, almost every meal in England finishes
with coffee, cheese and butter.)

1.19. They say “On the Continent people have good food; in England
people have good table manners”. Scan the text and comment on the
above saying.
How can you explain the peculiar British attitude to food?
Do the Russians have any special attitude to food that makes them
recognizable? Use the italicized words and expression to discuss
peculiar attitudes to food around the globe.
Britain and good food are two things which are not commonly associated.
Visitors to Britain have widely varying opinions about all sorts of aspects of the
country, but most of them seem to agree that the food is terrible. Why? One reason
could simply be that British tastes are different from everybody else’s. However,
the most common complaint is not so much that British food has a strange,
unpleasant taste, but rather that it has very little taste at all. The vegetables, for
example, are overcooked, to put it mildly.
Another explanation may be that most visitors to Britain do not get the
opportunity to sample home cooking. They either еat the food cooked in an
institution, such as a university canteen, or they eat out a lot, usually in rather
cheap restaurants and cafés. These places are definitely not where to find good
British food. Typical British cooking, which involves a lot of roasting, does not suit
the larger scale production or the quick preparation which is required in such
places. For one thing, food should, according tо British people, be eaten hot,
which is difficult to arrange when feeding large numbers of people. In addition,
the British have not got into the habit of preparing sauces with grilled food in order
to make it tastier.
The explanations above can only serve as a partial excuse for the
unfortunate reputation of British cuisine. Even in fast food restaurants and
everyday cafés, the quality seems to be lower than it is in similar places in other
countries. It seems that British people simply don’t care enough tо bother.
The country has neither a widespread “restaurant culture”, nor a café society. In
the middle of the day, people just want to eat up quickly and are not interested
much in quality (the lunch break is an hour at most). Young people and families
with children who eat at fast food places are similarly not interested in quality.
Little effort is made to make the hamburgers tasty because nobody expects them to
be. The coffee is horrible not because British people prefer it that way but because
they don’t go to a café for a delicious, slow cup of coffee - they go there because
they need the caffeine.
Even at home, food and drink is given relatively little attention. The coffee is
often just as bad as it is in the cafés. British supermarkets sell far more instant
coffee than what a few people who drink it often call “real” coffee. Instant coffee is
less trouble. Meals tend to be eaten quickly and the table cleared. Parties and
celebrations are not normally centred around food. For example, if a British person
expresses a liking for barbecues, this does not necessarily mean that he or she likes
barbecued food - it is understood to mean that he or she enjoys the typical
barbecue atmosphere.
When the British do pay attention to food, it is most frequently not tо appreciate
it but to notice what they don’t like about it. Food hits the headlines only in the
context of its dangers: for example when a government minister announced that the
country's eggs were infected with salmonella. In the early 1990, everybody in the
country knew about “mad cow disease” (= a disease affecting the brains of
infected cattle). There are quite a large number of vegetarians in Britain and an
even larger number of those who are aware of the implications for their health of
what they eat. “Health food shops” are as abundant in the country’s high streets as
delicatessens.
British people have been mostly urban, having little contact with “the land'” for
longer than the people of other countries. Perhaps this is why the range of plants
and animals, which they will eat is rather narrow. To most people, the idea of going
out to pick wild plants for the table is exotic. It is perhaps significant that when the
British want to refer to the people of another country insultingly, they often allude
to their eating habits. Because of the strange things they do with cabbage, for
example, the Germans are “krauts”. Because of their outrageous taste for frog legs,
the French are “frogs”.
However, the picture is not entirely negative. While the British are conservative
about ingredients, they are no longer conservative about the way they are served.
In the 1960s, it was reported that the first British package tourists in Spain not only
insisted on eating traditionally British fish and chips all the time but also on having
them, as was traditional, wrapped up in specially imported British newspapers! By
now, however, the British are extremely open to the cuisine of other countries. The
country’s supermarket shelves are full of the spices and sauces needed for cooking
dishes from all over the world. The increasingly multicultural nature of the
population has helped in this respect. In addition, there is increasing interest in the
pure enjoyment of eating and drinking.

1.20. Manners to behave in restaurants and at dinner table vary widely


from country to country. Discuss these questions with a partner or in
a small group.
1. Do you have guests to dinner very often? Is it more common for
people to have friends come to dinner at home or to meet them in
restaurants?
2. If you are invited to someone’s house for dinner, do you take a gift?
Do you send something before dinner? What is appropriate to give as a gift?
3. What time do you usually eat dinner?
4. Do people talk while eating or wait until they have finished eating to
have a conversation?
5. Where would a special guest sit at the table? Facing the door? At the
head of the table? On the right of the host? On the left? In the middle
position at the side of the table?
6. At a restaurant, which of these methods would you use to get a
server’s attention? Pick up several variants, if needed.
- snap your fingers
- curl your fist finger and move it toward you
- motion with your palm down and your fingers curled toward
you
- clap your hands
- make a kissing noise
- make a whistling or hissing noise
- raise your hand and call out
- raise your hand and make eye contact
- raise your hand with your first finger raised
- catch the waiter’s eye and move your head backward quickly
- catch the waiter’s eye and move your head down toward the
table

Long readings sometimes need headings to help focus the reader!


Practice finding the most suitable heading for the parts of the text below.

1.21. a) As you read this selection, match each passage to the heading
below.
b) Take notes from the text about table manners. Then fill in the chart
that follows for all the countries mentioned in the text.
___ Leaving Food or Not ___ Eating Internationally
___ Observing Carefully ___ Serving Something to Drink
___ Using Tableware ___ Keeping Your Hands in the Right Place
___ Using a Toothpick ___ Cleaning Hands

All Manner of Manners


[1] The Parker Pen Company has been doing business internationally since 1902.
In that time, the company has collected many reports about customs in different
countries. In 1985, Parker Pen asked Roger Axtell, one of its international sales
representatives, to collect these reports in a book about cultural differences. The
result is a series of books called Do’s and Taboos Around the World.

[2] The books deal with all sorts of customs, but the information about eating
gives an idea of the challenges an international traveler faces. Customs for dining
with guests vary so much from one country to another that you could do something
polite in one country that has a completely different meaning in another. Here is
one classic example: a host in the United States offers a guest from Jordan more
food at dinner. The guest refuses and the host does not offer again. The Jordanian
may be shocked and hungry because in Jordan, it is polite for the host to offer the
food several times while it is polite for guests to refuse, even if they want more.
Then what happens when someone from Jordan travels to Zambia? There,
according to Axtell, it is impolite for the host to offer food first. If you aren’t aware
of this custom, you may all be hungry!

[3] In some countries, guests are expected to finish everything on their dinner
plates. In other countries, such as Egypt, it is polite to leave something. In China,
the host will continue to fill a guest’s dish. It is polite to leave some food in the
dish in order to show how generous the host was. At a formal dinner, the second-
to-last course is sometimes plain boiled rice. You should refuse this to show that
you are satisfied and full.

[4] What about serving yourself more to drink? In many Asian countries, you can
fill everyone else’s glasses, but not your own. You will have to wait for someone
else to offer you more to drink. However, if you are a woman in Italy, don’t pour
your neighbor a glass. Some people do not consider this appropriate behavior for a
woman. If you do pour the wine, think twice about which hand you use. In Bolivia
and Chile, most people consider it incorrect to pour the wine with your left hand.
When someone pours you something to drink, do you hold your glass up or leave it
on the table? Customs for this are different in many countries.

[5] In the United States, you are supposed to keep one hand in your lap while
you’re eating. It is considered impolite to put your elbows on the table. Diners
usually hold a knife and fork only when they are cutting something, and then they
put the knife down to change hands and eat with the fork in their right hand. If
food is fairly soft, they use the side of the fork to cut it. However, in many
countries, just the opposite is often true. People eat with their wrists resting on the
edge of the table and continue to hold both the knife and the fork in their hands
while they eat. In Brazil, it is considered rude to cut food with the side of a fork.

[6] According to Axtell, if you want more food in Spain, you should put your
knife and fork down on opposite sides of the plate. In Greece, to show that you are
finished, cross your knife and fork on the plate with the fork facing up underneath.
In Argentina, do the same thing, but put the fork face down. In other countries, you
position your knife and fork close together on the side of the plate or diagonally
when you are finished.

[7] Of course, in many countries people don’t eat with knives and forks. They
may eat with their hands, but in most countries only with the right hand. The left
hand is considered unclean. If people use chopsticks, it is common to pick up the
dish and hold it close to your mouth. But how close should you hold it? Customs
vary from country to country!

[8] In some countries, cleaning your hands is part of the mealtime experience. In
Morocco, someone will bring a pitcher of water and a basin before you eat. You
hold your hands over the basin and rinse your hands in the water that is poured
from the pitcher. In Japan, you will get a warm, wet cloth to wipe your hands
before you eat. In other countries, such as Italy, cleaning your hands after you eat
is important. You may have a finger bowl beside your plate to rinse your fingers in.

[9] When you have finished eating, can you use a toothpick? In the United
States, it is impolite to use a toothpick in public. In other countries, using a
toothpick shows that the food was delicious. But be careful how to use the
toothpick! In some countries, it is polite to hide the toothpick behind your hand.

[10] So what is a traveler to do? Axtell recommends that you watch others
carefully to see what they do. He also says that conversations about customs are
very interesting, so ask questions about ways to do things. He ends each of his
books by talking about the universal action that can help a traveler in many
situations – the smile.

Country Custom

1.22. Do the following questionnaire. How do you feel about food? Discuss
your choices a partner, then in class.

Health Quiz
1. Which of these would you eat?
a. frog’s legs b. horse steak c. caviar d. snails
e. blood puddingf. sheep’s eyes g. brain
2. Which of these do you think is luxury food?
a. oysters b. lobster c. truffles d. pheasant
3. Which of these do you eat most of?
a. potatoes b. rice c. pasta d. beans
4. How many meals do you eat every day?
a. two b. three c. four d. five
5. Which of these do you like eating best?
a. French food b. Chinese food c. Indian food
d. Italian food e. home cooking
6. How often do you eat out?
a. every day b. once or twice a week c. several times a month
d. occasionally e. seldom f. never
7. If you have ever tried to slim, did you …
a. give it up after a few days?
b. try for a few weeks and give up in the end?
c. continue until you were successful?
8. Do you think you eat …
a. a little? b. enough? c. quite a lot? d. definitely too much?

1.23. a) What does our food consist of? What elements are vital for human
bodies? Read the passage below and discuss your menu with a
partner.
Nutrients in food
Foods give us proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
1 . Proteins build and repair body cells. Meat, fish, eggs, milk, beans, grains, and
nuts are rich in proteins.
2 . Carbohydrates provide energy for rapid use. They include sugars in fruits,
sugar cane, and sugar beet; starches in potatoes, bread, cereals such as wheat, rice,
maize, oats, and barley, and vegetables.
3 . Fats are concentrated stores of
energy, found in butter, margarine,
edible oils, meat, eggs, etc.
4 . Vitamins in tiny quantities help
regulate chemical processes inside the
body. Different vitamins occur in fats
and oils, fresh fruits and vegetables,
liver, kidney, cereals, eggs, and yeast.
5 . Minerals are necessary for the
chemical activities of the body and for the construction of tissues. Minerals of certain
kinds abound in milk, cheese, fish, and some green
vegetables.

b) Study the daily food intake for the Western and non-Western worlds.
How is the consumption different? Which type do Russians belong to?

Food intake
The diagrams compare average daily calorie consumption of different foods per
person in two regions. In the Western world people eat more food of more kinds
than they do in the non-Western world.
American-European food consumption
Breakfast cereals, milk, sugar, juice, coffee,
1,000 calories marmalade, fried foods, toasts

Snacks tea, coffee, milk, sugar, cookies


400 calories

Lunch soup, main dish, salad, bread,


1,000 calories butter, dessert, coffee, milk, sugar,
wine, or beer

Dinner main dish, salad, bread,


1,100 calories butter, dessert, coffee, sugar,
milk, wine, or beer

Total: 3,500 calories average daily intake

Asian-African food consumption


Breakfast, rice, milk, pulses (= beans),
lunch, and vegetables, very little meat
dinner or fish

Total: 2,000 calories average daily intake

c) Have you ever heard about the food pyramid? What is it? Work in a
small group and complete the chart below. Do you agree with such a
distribution of food consumption? Discuss it in class.

Food at the top of the pyramid - fats, oils,


and sweets should be eaten only sparingly.
People need protein in moderate amounts in
their diets, so the upper middle section of the
pyramid contains two groups of food that
supply protein: milk, yogurt, and cheese; and
meat, poultry, fish, dried beans, eggs and
nuts. Nutritionists recommend that people eat
two to three servings of these foods a day.
Most people need to eat more fruit and
vegetables, represented in the two lower
middle sections of the pyramid. People
should eat three to five servings of vegetables
and two to four servings of fruit a day. The
base of
the pyramid consists of grains, the food
group that should be eaten the most (six to
eleven servings a day), including bread,
cereals, rice, and pasta.
1.24. More people try to follow a balanced diet nowadays.
a) Read the text about cholesterol and health.
b) Answer the questions and add up your scores to see if you have a
balanced diet.
c) Discuss with a partner what you could change in your diet to
make it more balanced.

a) Cholesterol and Health


Cholesterol (= fatty substance found in the body tissue and blood of all animals)
only becomes a problem when you have too much of it, and it starts to promote the
production of a fatty plaque (= unwanted substance that forms on the surface of
the arteries) that can clog the arteries. Interruption of blood flow to a main heart
vessel can cause a heart attack; a blocked blood vessel on the way to the brain
could cause a stroke.
Some say that cholesterol-rich foods such as eggs, shellfish and offal should be
banished from the diet, but these foods don’t significantly raise cholesterol levels.
The cholesterol in them is broken down quite efficiently and then excreted (= got
rid of from the body), so they are fine to eat in moderation.
Fibre (= substance in food that travels through the body as waste, helping
digestion) produces substances that help to clear the blood of bad cholesterol and
acts as a buffer, so less fat is brought into contact with blood vessels and less is
absorbed. Fibre also keeps bad cholesterol within the gut (= tubes that carry from
the stomach) from where it can be excreted.

b) The Balanced Diet


FAT
1) Which do you usually eat? 7) How many times a week do
you eat
butter 3 high or medium-fat cheese?
margarine 2 five or more 3
nothing 0 three to five 2
once or twice a week 1
2) Which do you usually use for occasionally/never 0
cooking?
meat fat, butter, margarine 3 8) How many times a week do
you eat
vegetable oil 2 chocolate?
corn, sunflower, olive 1 six or more 3
three to five 2
3) How many times a week do you eat once or twice 1
chips? occasionally/never 0
five or more 3
two to four 2 9) How often do you eat meat?
once 1 twice a day 4
occasionally/never 0 once a day 2
most days 1
4) How often do you eat cream or ice- never 0
cream?
Every day 3 10) How many times a week do you
Several times a week 2 eat sausages/meat pies/burgers?
About once a week 1 Six or more 3
Less than once a week/never 0 Three to five 2
Once or twice 1
5) Which type of milk do you drink? Occasionally/never 0
full fat 3
semi-skimmed 1 11) If you have a choice of how to
skimmed/none 0 cook meat, how do you cook it?
fry 3
6) What type of cheese do you eat grill with adding oil 2
most of? grill without adding oil 1
high-fat (Cheddar, Stilton) 4
medium-fat (Camembert, Edam, Brie) 3 12) How many times a week do you
low-fat (cottage) 2 eat cakes, biscuits, or desserts?
variety 3 six or more 3
three to five 2
once or twice 1
occasionally/never 0

_____________________________________________________________
FIBRE
1) What kind of bread do you eat? 4) How many times a week do you
wholemeal 3 eat rice or pasta?
white 1 six or more 4
mixture 2 three to five 3
once or twice 2
2) How many slices of bread do you eat occasionally/never 0
a day?
six or more 4 5) How many times a week do you eat
three to five 3 boiled, mashed or jacket
potatoes?
one or two 1 six or more 5
none 0 three to five 3
once or twice 2
3) How many times a week do you eat occasionally/never 0
cereal?
six or more 4
three to five 3
once or twice 2
occasionally/never 0

TOTAL
If your fat total was less than your fibre total, well done.
If your fat total was about the same as your fibre total (within one or two points),
try to cut down on fat.
If your fat total was greater than your fibre total, you need to make changes in
your diet.
1.25. Read the text and answer the questions that follow.
Alcohol
The attitude to alcohol in Britain is ambivalent. On the one hand, it is accepted
and welcomed as an integral part of British culture. The local pub plays an
important role in almost every neighbourhood, and pubs, it should be noted, are
predominantly for the drinking of beer and spirits. The nearest pub is commonly
referred to as “the local” and people who go there often are known as “regulars”.
The action in some popular television soaps in Britain revolves around a pub. Even
a certain level of drunkenness is acceptable. Provided this does not lead to
violence, there is no shame attached to it.
On the other hand, the puritan tradition has led to the widespread view that
drinking is something potentially dangerous, which should therefore be restricted,
in terms of both who can do it and where it can be done. Most people, including
regular drinkers, consider that it would be wrong to give a child even half glass of
beer. When, in 1993, research was published showing that nearly 70% of fifteen-
year-old children in the country drank some alcohol in an average week, it was
generally agreed that this was a serious social problem.
People cannot be served in pubs until the age of eighteen and they are not even
allowed inside one (unless it has a special children’s certificate) until they are
fourteen. For many people, drinking is confined tо pubs. Wine or beer is not as
much a part of home life as it is in some other European countries. Most cafés are
not allowed to serve even beer.
For most of the twentieth century, pubs operated under strict laws, which
limited their opening hours. These have recently been relaxed. Moreover, many
more types of shops now sell alcohol than previously. However, this lessening of
the negative attitude tо alcohol has been balanced by increasing concerns about its
impact on health and safety. There are government-sponsored guidelines, which
state the maximum amount of alcohol it is advisable for people to drink in a week
without endangering their health. Although millions of people pay little attention
tо these, the general feeling that alcohol can be bad for you has increased.
Moreover, the laws against drinking and driving have been strengthened and are
fairly strictly observed.
Nevertheless, alcohol, especially beer, is an important part of the lives of many
people. Notice, for example, the mass rush across the Channel after customs duties
were changed in 1992. Beer was much cheaper in France and people were allowed
to bring back almost as much as they liked. It was calculated that in that first year
the single European market cost the British government about £250 million in lost
taxes on alcohol.

Questions:
a) What is the attitude to alcohol in Britain?
b) What role do pubs play in Britain?
c) How do the British bring up their children in respect of alcohol?
d) Is the situation with beer in Britain similar or different to that in
Russia? What do you think about drinking beer? Discuss in class your
suggestions, complaints, regrets, or misunderstandings.

1.26. Match the phrases on the left with the correct responses on the right.
Work with a partner and make up short dialogues with these phrases.
1. Shall I make you a cup of coffee, Mary? a. Help yourself to a
cream cake.
2. May I take my coat off? b. Certainly. Here you are.
3. (you open a door for someone to c. No, thanks. I’m driving.
go through)
4. Would you mind passing the salt, d. After you, please!
5. Do you need any help? e. No, thanks. I’ve had enough.
6. I’m so hungry. f. Yes, please.
7. Would you like a drink? g. So do you.
8. Do have some more ham, please. h. Yes, please do.
9. You look wonderful today. i. It’s all right, thanks. I can manage.

1.27. Recast the following orders into requests, using the model.

Model: Would /Could/ Can/ Will you … please.


1. Pass the sugar. 4. Have another glass of pineapple
juice.
2. Have another helping of pudding. 5. Fix me a gin and tonic.
3. Help yourself to the French fries. 6. Have another whisky.

1.28. Make up short conversations from the hints below. Use the patterns
below as models.
a) A: Would you like a cup of tea?
B: No, thank you. I’d rather not. I’d prefer to have some coffee, if
you’ve got some.
Hints:
glass of cider - a Coke; a slice of Swiss roll - a tomato sandwich;
a sausage roll - an apple pie; a cream cake - a fruit flan; some brandy - mineral
water.
b) A: This strawberry flan is absolutely delicious.
B: Yes, it looks it. I wouldn’t mind a slice myself.
Hints:
cucumber sandwiches - one; fruit cake - a slice; ice-cream - one;
meringue - a piece; hot chocolate - a cup; white wine - a glass.

1.29. a) Choose between the pairs of activities below and tell a partner.
Make up sentences using the following pattern. Add your variants.
I’d rather + verb
I'd prefer to + verb
1. eat the caviar/ eat the Swiss chocolate
2. have a dessert/ have a main course
3. have the steak rare/ have the steak well-done
4. have a glass of mineral water/ have a glass of champagne

b) Work in pairs. Ask for instructions, using the verb ‘shall’ and respond to it.
Add more details to your short dialogues.

Model: make you a cup of tea —> - Shall I make you a cup of tea?
- Yes, please. I'd love one. / No, thank you.
Hints:
fix you some Irish coffee; make you a cup of hot chocolate; fetch you a glass of
champagne; fix you a screwdriver; put the kettle on for a pot of tea; switch the TV
on; give you a hand with the dishes.

1.30. Work with a partner and a) respond to the following.

- Well, come on in.


- You’ve done a great job.
- You look wonderful today.
- Can I hang your coat up for you?
- Have some more shrimp cocktail, please!
- Shall I fix you a drink?
- Would you mind passing the cream, please?
- Could I have some brandy, please?
- Help yourself to some more pudding!

b) explain what you can say in the following situations.

a) you want some sugar for your coffee


b) your neighbour passes you the water
c) the hostess offers you some more cheesecake
d) you do not want any more roast beef
e) you want to offer your guests some salad
f) you show your guest into the room
g) you need a spoon

1.31. a) Work with a partner and read the dialogues.


b) Act out similar dialogues, using the expressions in bold.
Having Dinner at Someone’s House
a)
A: Why not come home and eat with us? You’ll have to take pot luck (= eat
what we’re eating, noting special).
B: Thank you. Shall I bring a bottle? (= usually means a bottle of wine)

b)
A: Should I wear a suit on Friday?
B: No, no, it isn’t a dinner party (= rather formal dinner with guests), it’s just an
informal get-together (= informal group of people meeting for a meal/drinks/etc.).

c)
A: Does anyone want seconds? (= a second helping/serving of a dish)
B: Oh, yes, please. It was delicious.

d)
A: Can I pour you some juice? Say when (= tell me when I have served enough).
B: When! (= That’s enough, thanks.)
A: Help yourself to some nibbles (=things like nuts, crisps, etc., served before a
meal).

e)
A: We leave at six. We can grab a bite to eat on the way (=have a quick meal).
B: Or we could get a takeaway when we get there (= ready-cooked meal bought
to take home)
c) Work in a group. Read the dialogue and make a similar dialogue. Is a
formal or informal dinner?

A: Hello, Bob. How nice to see you. Come in, please. How are you?
B: Fine, thanks, Helen. You look very well today.
A: Thanks, Bob.
C: Hello, Bob. Let me take your coat.
B: Hello, Martin. Thanks, here you are. What a lovely house!
A: Thanks, I’m glad you like it. We’ve just redecorated it. Do come into the
living-room and meet Mary. Mary, this is Bob Biltmore. Bob, this is Mary Morris.
B: How do you do?
D: How do you do?
C: Bob, what can I get you to drink?
B: I’ll have a Scotch and soda.
C: Here you are.
B: Thanks.
A: Dinner’s ready. Come into the dining-room, all of you. Bob, would you sit
here, and Mary, would you sit over there.
E: I'm so sorry I’m late, Helen.
A: Never mind, Kate. I hope you don’t mind, but we’ve started.
E: It’s OK. I’m glad you have.
A: I’ll put the salad in the middle of the table. Shall I serve you?
B: No, it’s all right. We can help ourselves.
A: Martin, could you pour the wine, please. Would you like some pork chop,
Mary?
D: Yes, please.
A: More?
D: No, thanks. This is fine.
C: Would you pass the salt, please, Helen?
A: Oh, sorry. Here you are. Bob, help yourself to some vegetables, too.
B: Oh, no, thank you. I'm completely full. The pork was delicious.
A: Thank you. I’m glad you enjoyed it.
C: Can I get anyone coffee or a drink?
B: Could I have a regular coffee, please?
C: Sure. Here you are.
B: Thank you.
D: I’m afraid I have to be going. I have to get up very early tomorrow. Thank
you very much for a lovely evening.
A: Don’t mention it. I’m so glad you could come.
B: I say, you go my way, don’t you? Would you like a lift?
D: Oh, thank you very much. That’s very kind of you.
B: Thank you for inviting me here. I had a wonderful time. It was nice meeting
you, Kate.
E: See you around, Bob and Mary.
C: Here are your coats.
B&D: Thank you.
A: Please give my regards to your family, Bob.
B: Thanks, I will. Come on, Mary. Good-night and thanks again.
D: Good night.
A&C&E: Good-night.

1.32. Read the conversation “Mr. Miles Dines Out”. Answer the questions
that follow.
Waiter: May I take your order, sir!
Mr. Miles: I haven’t seen the menu yet. May I have one, please?
Waiter: I’m sorry. Here it is, sir.
Mr. Miles: There are so many different dishes that it’s hard to decide.
Waiter: The a la carte dishes are on the left. The regular dinners are on the
right
hand page.
Mr. Miles: I’ll have the regular dinner. I’m pretty hungry. With the regular dinner
I’ll get appetizer.
Waiter: Yes, sir. The regular dinner includes appetizer, soup, salad, choice of
desserts, tea or coffee.
Mr. Miles: Is there any particular dish you would recommend?
Waiter: The roast beef is very good tonight. We also have several good
chicken
dishes, if you like chicken.
Mr. Miles: I’m not very fond of chicken, I’m afraid. I think I’ll try beefsteak. For
vegetable, give me French fries, please.
Waiter: How do you want your steak – rare, medium, or well done?
Mr. Miles: Well done, please. What salad do I get with dinner?
Waiter: We have a choice of lettuce and tomato or cucumber and beets.
Mr. Miles: I think tomato will do nicely. And what appetizer do you have?
Waiter: The appetizers are at the top of the page. You can have prawn
cocktails,
fresh fruit cocktail, and tomato juice.
Mr. Miles: All right. That’s settled, then. I’ll have fruit cocktail to begin with and
roast beef with tomato salad to follow.
Waiter: Very good, sir. Anything for dessert?
Mr. Miles: What do you have for dessert?
Waiter: We have pie, chocolate pudding, ice-cream, tea or coffee.
Mr. Miles: Chocolate pudding, please.
Waiter: Here is your bill, sir. You can pay the cashier on your way out.

Questions:
1. Why does Mr. Miles find it hard to make his choice of dishes?
2. What kind of dinner does he finally decide on?
3. What dishes does the regular dinner include?
4. What dishes does the waiter recommend?
5. Does Mr. Miles want his steak rare?
6. What does Mr. Miles order for dinner after all?
7. What’s there for dessert on the menu? What does Mr. Miles order for
dessert?
8. Where is Mr. Miles to pay the bill?

1.33. a) Practice these dialogues with a partner.

1. - Have you decided on something, sir?


- Yes. Haddock and chips for me, please.
- How about the sweet?
- No sweet. Just coffee.
2. - May I take your order, sir?
- I’ll just take a small salad, please.
- Do you want any sweet?
- Apple pie and custard would be nice.
3. - Another piece of meat pie?
- No, thanks, really. I’m on a diet.
- Please, do. You’ve hardly eaten anything.
- It’s delicious.
4. - How about a nice cup of tea before you go?
- Yes, I’d love one.
- How do you like it?
- A strong one with three spoons for me, please.
5. - Can I take your order, sir?
- Yes, I’d like to try the steak, please.
- And to follow?
- Ice-cream, please.

b) Act out the following situations with a partner. Make use of the phrases
below and from the previous activities.
Paying the bill
We’ll split the bill, shall we? (= each person will pay for him/herself)
Lunch is on me today. (informal: = I am paying for you)
Will you join us (= come with us) for dinner at the City Plaza hotel? We’d like
you to be our guest. (formal: = we will pay)
Let me get this. (informal:= pay the bill this time)
I was wined and dined every night by our New York office (=invited out to
restaurants).
Situations:
1. You are having your dinner with a friend and discuss paying the bill.
2. You came to a new country earlier today and you would like to try some local
dishes. You’ve dropped in some local restaurant and now are talking to a waiter.
Ask him about specialties and what he could recommend you.
3. You are calling a restaurant to book a table for four for this Saturday. Discuss
all the details: the location of the table, the dishes – starters, main courses, desserts,
alcohol. One of your friends is a vegan and she needs a special menu.
4. You are to arrange meals for the delegates to the conference. Ask them about
their food preferences and make up a menu for the week.

c) In groups of three use the prompts below to act out a conversation.


Diners
You are colleagues from work/ a couple/ business associates having dinner at
the restaurant.
You are both very hungry/quite hungry/ very hungry.
One of you is a vegetarian/ is on a diet/ doesn’t drink alcohol.
You think the food is excellent/ OK/ awful.

Waiter/ waitress
You are in good mood/ very, very tired/ very nervous (it’s your first day!) so
you are going to be very polite/ a bit rude.
You’re a very good / very bad waiter/waitress.
You want to get a good tip/ go home as soon as possible.

1.34. Read this unusual menu and think of other national dishes. Try to
describe them in a proper way to your foreign friend.

National fare
What’s what on the menu
ACHMA- Georgian noodle and cheese LAVASH – flat Georgian bread
dish LYULYA KEBAB – spiced ground
BAKLAZHANNAYA IKRA – eggplant mutton shashlik
‘caviar’ LOSOSINA – salmon
BARANINA – mutton PELMENI – Siberian meat-filled
BITOCHKI – meatballs ravioli
BLINY – thin, leavened pancakes, crepes PIROZHKI – stuffed doughy
CHAI – tea turnovers
CHICKEN TABAKA – flattened grilled PLOV – pilaf
chicken (Chicken Kiev) SHASHLYK – shish kebab
DOLMA – meat-stuffed grape leaves SHCHI – cabbage / beet root soup
GOLUBTSY – cabbage leaves stuffed SMETANA – sour cream
with ground meat SOSISKI – sausages
GOVYADINA – beef VARENIKI – Ukrainian fruit-filled
GRIBY – mushrooms ravioli
HACHAPURI – cheesy Georgian bread ZHARKOE – beef stew
KULEBYAKA – fish- or cabbage-stuffed JULIENNE – mushrooms baked in
pastry sour cream
KOTLETY – dish made of ground meat or
vegetables

1.35. Work in a small group. Discuss the following topics.

1. My usual menu for breakfast/ lunch/ dinner.


2. The most popular dish in Russia/ The Russian staple food.
3. Food I avoid eating.
4. My favourite food.
5. The most beautiful/ my favourite café /restaurant in my city.
6. The market places in my city.
7. The dishes my family prefer on an ordinary day/ on a holiday/ for a party.
8. Popular diets (based on calorie-counting, blood group, etc.).

1.36. a) Comment on the following proverbs and sayings about food and
dieting. Which one do you like best? Why? Which one do you disagree
with? Explain your choice.

Citations about food and dieting:


1. [Food is] part of the spiritual expression of the French, and I do not
believe that they have ever heard of calories. (Beverly Baxter)
2. [Food is] a weapon. (Maxim Litvinov)
3. What is food to one man is bitter poison to others. (Lucretius)
4. [Food is that which explains] half the emotions of life. (Sydney Smith)
5. [Food is] the commonest cause of domestic strife. (Anonymous)
6. [Dieting is an activity which] shows what bad losers we all are.
(MichaelCohen)
7. [Dieting is] a change that not even a healthy man can suffer. (Michel
de Montaigne)
8. [Dieting is] a system of starving yourself to death so you can live a
little longer. (Jan Murray)
9. [A gourmet is] a glutton in a dress suit. (Shannon Carse)
10. [A gourmet is] one who eats himself into the grave. (12th century
proverb)

b) Think of situations which the following proverbs might suit.

1. “The proof of the pudding is in the eating”.


2. “You cannot eat your cake and have it”.
3. “Hunger is the best sauce”.

1.37. Read the recipes below. Discuss them in class.


a) This recipe was seen in a college canteen in Eastbourne, Britain.

AARecipe
Recipefor forHappiness
Happiness
44 cups
cupsofoflove 22generous
love generousspoons
spoonsofofhope
hope
22cups
cupsofofloyalty 33cups of forgiveness
loyalty cups of forgiveness
44cups
cupsofoffriendship 22spoons
friendship spoonsofoftenderness
tenderness
44quarters
quartersofoffaith 11pt. of laughter
faith pt. of laughter
Small
Smallpinch
pinchofofunderstanding Kindness
understanding Kindnessto totaste
taste
Take
Takelove
loveand
andloyalty,
loyalty,mix
mixthoroughly
thoroughlywith
withfaith.
faith.Blend
Blendititwith
with
tenderness, kindness and understanding. Add friendship and
tenderness, kindness and understanding. Add friendship and
hope.
hope.Sprinkle
Sprinkleabundantly
abundantlywith
withlaughter.
laughter.
Bake it with sunshine.
Bake it with sunshine.
Serve
Servedaily
dailywith
withgenerous
generoushelpings.
helpings.

b) Here is a recipe that Judie Flanigan received after she and her husband
Matt were married. She says that it has worked well for over 30 years.

Tenderizing a Husband
Many husbands are spoilt by mismanagement.
Some women keep them in hot water too long.
Others freeze them.
Some put them in a stew; others keep them in a pickle.
No husband will be good and tender if managed this way, but he can be truly
delicious if properly treated.
Don’t keep him in the kettle by force. He will stay there if care is taken. If he
should sputter or fizz, don’t become anxious. Some husbands do just this. Just add
a little sugar; never add vinegar or pepper.
A little spice improves him, but must be used with good judgment. Do not try
him with something sharp to see if he is tender. Stir him gently lest he lies too long
in the kettle and becomes flat and tasteless.
If you follow these directions, you will find him very digestible, agreeing nicely
with you, and he will keep indefinitely.

WRITING
1.38. Read the description of service in one of the restaurants and describe
service in one of your favourite restaurants.

A new Italian restaurant called Bella Roma has just opened in the High Street,
and we went there the other night to try it. I couldn’t help comparing it to the Casa
Italia, where we ate last week. At the Bella Roma the service was impeccable and
quick; at the Casa Italia it’s always a bit sluggish. In the new place the waiters are
courteous and friendly without being overbearing. In the other place they tend to
be sullen and the service is rather brusque, which I find very off-putting. But at
the Bella Roma they’ll go out of their way to give you what you want.

1.39. Read some recipes from Margaret Fulton below and translate two
recipes of your favourite smart dishes into English.

Get smart!
More and more cooks are wishing up to the benefits of
healthy eating
At cocktail parties, over dinner and at top restaurants, it seems there is a new
word. It describes what some good cooks are doing and the word is ‘smart’.
Smart food, it seems, is high in protein, high in fibre; it is light and energy-
producing. Smart people want to eat it to be fit and to excel. Smart cooks are
trimming excess fat; meat is lightly cooked and served with a fresh tasting sauce.
Grains are turning up with many dishes; vegetables are chosen and cooked with
great care.
Salad Dorzia
1.5 cups long-grain rice
1 teaspoon salt
1 cucumber
3 chicken breast fillets, poached

Vinaigrette
1/3 cup olive oil
1 tablespoon wine vinegar
1 teaspoon French-style mustard
1 teaspoon chopped capers
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
1 teaspoon each chopped fresh tarragon and chives
1 medium red salad onion, peeled and finely chopped
Salt and freshly ground pepper

Wash rice well. Bring 4.5 cups water to the boil, add 1 teaspoon salt and sprinkle
in the rice. Allow water to return to the boil, stir once, turn heat as low as possible
and cover with lid. Steam gently for 18-20 minutes. Remove from the heat,
uncover and fluff up with a fork.
Peel the cucumber, cut in half lengthwise, remove the seeds, then cut it into thick
slices. Place these in a colander, slightly salt and leave for 10-15 minutes to drain.
Rinse and remove from the colander, pat dry with a clean tea-towel or kitchen
towel and put in a salad bowl. Burpless cucumbers do not require this process;
simply peel and slice. Cut the poached chicken into thin strips and add these to the
cucumber along with the cooked rice. Make the vinaigrette by whisking all the
ingredients together thoroughly. Pour over the salad and mix lightly. Serves 4-6.

To poach chicken breasts:


Put 1 cup water, 0.5 onion, 0.5 bay leaf, a few peppercorns, and a few
celery leaves in a saucepan. Bring to the simmer and add the chicken breasts. Bring
back to the simmer, cover and poach gently for 6-8 minutes. Cool in liquid.
Remove bones and slice the meat.

Brown and Wild Rice


Brown and wild rice mixtures have become popular. This is the mixture I use. It
has a delicious, nutty texture.
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup long-grain brown rice
0.5 cup wild rice
1 tablespoon butter, optional

Bring 6 cups water to the boil, add salt and the brown rice, then simmer gently
for 20 minutes. Add the wild rice and simmer a further 20-25 minutes or until both
grains are tender. Drain well, return to pan and heat through. You may toss through
a tablespoon of butter.

1.40. This is a healthy diet for one day. Write down a typical day’s diet for
yourself and see how healthy you are.
Eating a Healthy Diet
Breakfast
Orange, apple or grapefruit juice. Whole grain cereal.
Fruit (apple, raisins)
Nuts (hazels, almonds)
Milk, coffee or tea
A slice of wholemeal toast with butter/margarine and marmalade.

Mid Morning
Coffee or tea

Lunch
Cheese or an egg
Mixed salad with lettuce, tomatoes, onions, celery, dressed with vegetable oil,
salt and lemon juice
A slice of whole meal bread with butter/margarine
Fresh fruit
A glass of wine

Mid Afternoon
Tea or coffee

Dinner
Grapefruit or clear vegetable soup
Meat, fish or poultry
Root vegetables e.g. potatoes, carrots, onions, plus leaf vegetables e.g. cabbage,
spinach, cauliflower
Dessert made with unrefined flour, cereal, sugar and chocolate
A glass of wine

1.41. Read an abstract from the menu of a pub in Britain. Imagine that you
are going to start your own business – a restaurant or a bar. Make up
a menu for your enterprise. Be sure to show all the courses you are
going to offer, including dessert and beverages. Think of a name for
your restaurant/ bar.

1.42. Write a 300-word essay on one of the following topics using the hints
below.
1. My Favourite Food.
- Where do /did you buy or eat the food?
- How much does/ did the food cost?
- Do /Did you eat or drink anything with the food?
- Do/ Did you do anything to show that you were enjoying the food? If so, what?

2. My Favourite Place to Eat.


- Where is /was the place?
- When do / did you go there?
- What does /did the place look like?
- How does /did the place smell?

3. My Food Experience. Write about a funny or embarrassing food experience.


Consider the following questions.
- What happened? Was it funny or embarrassing?
- How did other people react?
- What did you learn?

4. Eating Customs. Describe one or several eating customs.

5. Table manners. Imagine that you have been asked to write a description of
table manners that are considered polite or impolite in Russia. This information
will appear in a guid for people travelling in our country. You can start with filling
the chart with “Dos” and “Don’ts” of table manners.
Do Don’t

1.43. Find some information about one of the following special foods,
eating rituals, or customs. Write a short report about it and share with
class.
1) breaking plates in Greek restaurants 9) paella
2) buffet dinners 10) potluck dinners
3) BYOB parties 11) roasting marshmallows
4) cappuccino coffee or coffee latte 12) Sangria
5) setting the North American table 13) smorgasbord
6) Chinese tea ceremony 14) wine tasting
7) hot pots 15) Japanese tea or sake
ceremonies
8) mate drinking in Argentina, 16) Oktoberfest
Brazil, and Paraguay

1.44. Render the texts in English.


1) Советы от знаменитого доктора Анатолия Волкова, у которого уже более
20 лет худеет и оздоравливается практически вся светская Москва,
представители политической и бизнес-элиты.
Нельзя есть и пить:
1. Консервы. Это изначально еда для выживания, а не на каждый день. Она
не имеет вообще никаких преимуществ перед свежей, кроме срока хранения.
Это относится не только к шпротам и кукурузе в баночке, но и к сокам - их
тоже нужно пить свежеотжатыми.
2. Тушеное мясо и рыбу. Это та же консервированная тушенка, только без
банки. За время тушения свежий продукт разрушается как структура. Мясо и
рыбу можно готовить на пару, на гриле, в духовке, на открытом огне, а также
солить, вялить и, в крайнем случае, варить.
3. Бульон (ни рыбный, ни мясной) - в нем концентрат всего самого
ненужного, что содержится в этих продуктах. Единственное исключение -
куриный бульон.
4. Жарить на масле: нерафинированное масло холодной выжимки на
сковородке горит, а рафинированное - бессмысленный продукт.
5. Копченое (особенно в заводских условиях) - это опять-таки мертвая еда
длительного хранения.
6. Молоко. Это еда для детенышей коровы.
7. Пить одновременно с едой ничего, кроме воды и зеленого чая, да и то
понемногу. Черный чай, кофе, сок - либо за полчаса до еды, либо через час
после. Алкоголь желательно не употреблять вовсе, но если уж очень
хочется... Крепкие напитки лучше пить после еды, а вино - отдельно, с
фруктами.
8. Газированную воду, пусть даже минеральную. Из нее удален кислород. А
вода - это такая структура, которая обязана его набрать. Значит, попав внутрь,
она наберет его там, что не есть полезно.
Нужно:
1. Максимально быстро готовить еду, тогда она легче воспринимается
организмом.
2. Самостоятельно выбирать режим питания. Между приемами пищи должно
проходить не меньше двух часов (после мяса - не меньше трех), чтобы все
успело перевариться.
3. Есть как можно более разнообразно.
4. Раз в день обливаться холодной водой. Казалось бы, к питанию это не
имеет никакого отношения. Однако обливания стимулируют иммунитет. А
значит, и перевариваться все будет лучше.

2) Почему дома есть лучше, чем в фаст-фуде


Современному человеку все чаще приходится есть вне дома. Покидая
его утром и возвращаясь поздно вечером, мы вынуждены где-то
перекусывать. А традиции неспешной еды уходят в прошлое, уступая место
индустрии быстрого питания – фаст-фуду. К сожалению, обед из такого кафе-
забегаловки по определению не может быть полноценным. Предлагаемые в
таких заведениях бургеры, пирожки и прочие блюда кажутся вкусными, но
при частом употреблении очень вредны для здоровья. В такой пище
чрезмерное содержание холестерина. Такая пища непозволительно
высококалорийна, в ней снижено содержание витаминов, а баланс между
белками, жирами и углеводами утрачен. К тому же посетители фаст-фуда
едят наспех, толком не пережевывая пищу. В желудок попадают
неизмельченные или плохо измельченные продукты, что вызывает проблемы
с работой желудочно-кишечного тракта. Еще одним недостатком торопливой
еды является замедленное наступление насыщения. А отсюда – переедание.
Готовя дома, пусть даже на скорую руку, вы сами имеете возможность
сбалансировать свое питание. К тому же даже 5-10 минут, потраченных вами
на приготовление пищи, оказывается достаточно, чтобы переждать острую
вспышку голода, когда хочется съесть все, что под рукой.
Unit 2. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE. MY SHOPPING.

Money is an article which may be used


as a universal passport to everywhere except
heaven, and as a universal provider
of everything except happiness.
Wall Street Journal

Two women make a market;


three make a fair.
Recommended grammar: Ukrainian proverb
Reported Speech.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

2.1. Scan the passage below to pick up the facts about shopping in the US
which are different from Russia.

Hours of Business
Most shops in the United States open at 9:30 or 10:00 a.m., Monday through
Saturday, and close between 5:00 and 6:00 p.m. Larger stores are often open until
9:00 p.m. during the week, and from 10:00 a.m. till 5:00 p.m. on Sunday. Offices
tend to have business hours between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., Monday through
Friday.
Sales Tax
Cities and states have the right to charge an additional percentage of the cost of
some items in order to raise revenues. In most places, a sales tax of up to 10% of
the price is added to the bill for many non-food items. Taxable items may include
prepared food, technical equipment, books, records, clothing, cigarettes, alcoholic
beverages, paper products, household products, appliances, cameras, and film. You
should be aware that the prices listed on items in stores do not include sales tax.
Sales tax will be added to your bill by a cashier.
Making a Purchase
When entering a store, you may be asked to leave bags,
backpacks, or large purses, etc. with a store clerk behind a
counter. You should retrieve your bag as you exit the store,
after you have completed your purchases. To purchase items
in stores in the U.S., you should bring the items you wish to
purchase to a cashier. The cashier will total the cost of the
items you wish to buy using either the price written on the
item itself, or a bar code which is electronically scanned for
a price code stored by the cash register. When the cashier
totals all the items and adds any applicable tax, you should
then pay for your purchase. The cashier will put the items in a plastic or paper
bag and hand it to you. The cashier may also staple the bag shut for security
reasons.
Many newspapers provide coupons that offer discounts on certain items. Check
expiration dates at the bottom of the coupons before using them. Present them to
the cashier before your items are totaled.
b) Scan these receipts in order to pick up the sales tax rates in different
stores around the US (IL stands for Illinois, TX – for Texas, MD – for
Maryland).

2.2. a) Where do you usually buy food in Russia? Read the text about food
shopping in the US and pick up the main features of all food stores.
b) Compare them with similar stores in Russia.
a) Food Shopping
Food shopping in the U.S. can be done in four main types of stores:
supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and delis.
Supermarkets, the largest of these, departmentalized, self-service stores carry a
wide variety of edible items - dairy products, cereals, bread and baked goods,
prepared, canned and frozen goods, ice cream and dessert foods, beverages, and
non-edibles - paper products (toilet paper, facial tissue, paper plates and napkins,
etc.), personal care products, cigarettes, film, housewares and non-prescription
drugs. Some supermarkets also have salad bars, film developing services (in
general, it costs about $7.00 or $8.00 per roll of 24 exposures for developing and
standard prints) and pharmacies. Depending on a state’s laws, supermarkets may
also carry wine and beer. Prices of items are usually clearly marked on the
packages, or on signs near the items. Supermarkets usually have baskets and carts
for carrying items around the store. They generally have several cashiers and use
both manual and electronic pricing scanning (the cashier passes a coded tag in
front of an electronic scanner and a price is automatically entered into the cash
register). In general, supermarkets are open from Monday to Friday from 9 a.m. to
6 p.m., and on Saturday from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Some supermarkets are open on
Sundays as well. Many supermarkets are now open 24 hours. Most supermarkets
are either closed on major holidays, or are open fewer hours. The general consumer
appeal of the supermarket concept — large size, self-service, variety of
merchandise, one-stop shopping, ample parking, and low prices — ensured their
growth. The building of such stores in suburban areas was important in the
development of the retail complexes that came to be known as shopping centers, or
malls.
Today, supermarkets are operated by chains of various sizes and by
independent owners. The supermarket concept is gaining increasing popularity
throughout the world. Other lines of retailing have adopted some of the
supermarket methods of low-cost mass distribution.
Grocery stores, a bit smaller than supermarkets, may carry most of the same
types of products, but in smaller quantities and with less variety (for instance, they
may not have a large selection of fresh vegetables; or they may sell only one
commercial brand of a particular item). Grocery stores do not usually have film
developing services or pharmacies. Depending on a state’s laws, grocery stores
may also carry wine and beer. Prices in grocery stores are usually similar to those
of supermarkets. As in supermarkets, the prices of items are usually clearly marked
on the packages, or on signs near the items. Grocery stores also usually have
baskets and carts and several cashiers. In general, grocery stores usually keep the
same working hours as supermarkets.
Convenience stores (called this because of their hours of operation - usually from
at least 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and sometimes 24 hours a day) carry a very limited
selection of goods and brands. These stores may carry some canned, prepared and
frozen goods, beverages, breads and baked goods, and paper and health care
products. Prices for items can sometimes be twice that of supermarket prices.
When prices are not marked clearly, it is a good idea to ask about the prices of
items before the cashier totals the items you wish to purchase.
Delis usually carry only cold cuts (sliced ham, turkey, salami, chicken, roast beef
and cheese, etc., prepared for use in sandwiches), breads, beverages, and
condiments. Some delis also carry selections of prepared foods and other items.
Other types of specialized food stores include baker’s/ bakery, butcher’s,
confectioner’s/ confectionery, dairy, greengrocer’s, fishmonger’s, fruiterer’s,
sweet-shop, off-license shop/ wine and spirit merchant’s, and tobacconist’s.

2.3. What would you buy in the following shops?

florist's greengrocer's baker's


butcher's tobacconist's pet shop
grocer's newsagent's antique shop
stationer's
2.4. Study the vocabulary used to describe shopping. Practice saying all the
words of French origin. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
General vocabulary:
retail, wholesale, shop/ store, chain, mail-order firm, booth, stall (kiosk), rag fair,
shop-window / window display, to dress shop window, show-case/ case/ glass
cabinet, counter, check-out point, cash-desk, salesman/ saleswoman/ shop
assistant, customer /shopper/ consumer, consumer goods, shopping queue/ line, to
do one's shopping/ to go shopping, shopping spree [spri:], impulse buying, bargain,
to buy/ to purchase/ to shop for, to sell/ to supply/ to deliver (goods), to display
(goods), to be in (full) stock, to be out of stock, cheap, expensive /dear, to cost,
price, at a price, discount, at a discount, sale, sales tax, mark-down, boutique
[bu'tik], scales;
open from 9 am to 6 pm; Monday to Saturday; closing (opening) time;
to attend (to)/ to serve, to be attended to / to be served, to wrap, fitting /changing
room;
to try on, to be stock size, to take size...gloves collar, to wear shoes size ..., to be
dress size ..., to fit, to be a misfit, to suit/ to become, to match/ to go with, to look
(well);
style/ design, cut, fashion /vogue, to come into fashion, all the vogue/ all the
rage, up-to-date, stylish, dowdy, drab,
to be long-wearing, to wear well, to be shrink proof, to be colour-fast / fade
proof, to be shower proof / waterproof/ water repellent, to be crease-resistant, to
wash well, to dry soon, to afford;
to run out of smth. to run short of smth. - I've run out of flour.
to stock up - I usually stock up for the week on Saturdays.
to be well stocked,
that will do, will this do? - I'd like a couple of big apples. - Will these do?
we've just got/had.....in,
to be out of stock to have sold out - Have you got vinegar? - We've sold
out/we're out of stock.
to buy/sell....loose/ piecemeal;
to sell smth. by weight/by the head;
I’m 91-61-91 (i.e. 91 centimeters round the bust, 61 round the waits, 91 round
the hips).
He’s grown out of his shoes.
Adjectives describing price and attitude to money:
free, cheap, reasonable, quite /very/ incredibly expensive, skinflint, thrifty;
Words and phrases about money:
to spend money on smth., at a price, to pay for, to cost, to charge (He charged me
$100 = He asked me to pay $100), to lend, to borrow, to waste, to save up, to
change, change, to buy on credit/installments, pay a deposit of … pounds;
How much is it? / What does it cost?/ What's the price of...? /What price is
this...?/ How much is this watch worth?/ What is the value of it? – It’s worth about
$50.
How do you pay? – (In) cash/ by cheque/ check/ by credit card.
Women's outfitter’s or Men's outfitter's:
This skirt is too tight and too short – it needs letting out and letting down.
The dress is too loose and too long – it needs taking in and taking up.
Ready-made clothes/ Ready-to-wear/ Off-the-peg:
garments, dress /frock, gown, pinafore dress, dressing-gown, housecoat, blouse,
skirt, shirt, trousers/ pants, slacks, jeans, suit, lounge suit, jacket, dinner jacket
(AmE tuxedo), tailcoat/ tails, coat, fur-coat, raincoat /mackintosh, parka, wind
jacket, wind cheater, (AmE wind breaker);
Sports shop /sports outfitter's:
sportswear, sport equipment;
Shoe shop /Footwear:
shoes, pumps, boots, high fur-lined boots, wedge-heeled shoes, shoes with high
stiletto heels, shoes with no pointed toes, shoes with long pointed toes, laced
(shoes, boots), sandals, slippers/trotters (AmE mules), shoes with a zip, covershoes
/ galoshes (AmE rubbers), Wellingtons, trainers, running shoes, tennis shoes;
suede / chamois, patent-leather, canvas shoes, leather-soled, rubber-soled, flat-
heeled (with flat heels), high-heeled, with a small buckle, with a narrow bow, shoe
horn, shoe polish;
to have wide/ narrow feet, to have fallen/ high arches;
I have a high instep so I am only comfortable in a low-cut shoes.
I’ve rather a broad foot.
Milliner's:
hat, cap, beret, panama hat, sun hat;
Knitted goods /wear:
cardigan, sweater, jumper, pull-over/ jersey;
Hosiery:
socks, stockings, tights /panty-hose, knee-high stockings, knee-length socks;
Linen:
sheet, pillow-case, blanket slip, bed-cover, table cloth, napkin;
Women’s underwear:
lingerie, slip, waist-slip, bra /brassiere, panties, briefs, bikini briefs, vest;
Men's underclothes:
sleeveless vest, short-sleeved vest/T-shirt, briefs, trunks, long Johns;
Jeweller’s:
ring (engagement ring, wedding ring), ear-rings, necklace, brooch, pendant,
bracelet, anklet, silverware;
Perfumery /Cosmetics:
perfume / scent, cream, lipstick, varnish, powder, eye-shade, mascara, make-up;
Style:
long-sleeved, V-necked, round-necked;
General description of clothes:
elegant, smart, scruffy, chic, trendy, with-it;
Appearance:
impeccable, well-dressed, badly-dressed, old-fashioned, fashionable;
Textiles:
satin, velvet, cotton velvet, cotton, nylon, serge (for lining), print, linen, pure-
wool cloth, tweed, silk (natural, artificial), leather, kid, tartan, stockinet / knitted,
lace, fringe;
Patters and colours:
plain/ solid (AmE), flowered, background, striped, pin-striped, tartan/ plaid
(AmE), chequered/ checkered (AmE), polka dot /dotted, spotted, zigzag, rich
colour, carmine, coral, crimson, pinkish, purple, beige, copper, khaki, pistachio,
azure;
Haberdasher's:
thread reel, yarn, tape, ribbon, needle, knitting-needle, pin, safety-pin, button,
hooks, clasps, gloves, mittens, muffler/ scarf, toiletries;
Antique shop and art shop:
valuable old articles, bric-a-brac, painting, water-colour, engraving, etching,
sculpture, books on art;
Record shop and newsagent's:
records, newspapers, magazines, posters, paperbacks, greeting cards,
plain/picture postcard, envelopes, stamps;
Chemist's /druggist's/ drugstore:
drugs /medicines and related articles;
Bookseller's /bookshop and Stationer's (AmE stationery):
note paper, writing paper, writing pad, wrapping paper, carbon paper, notebook,
file, diary, paper clip, drawing pin, ruler, rubber/ eraser, fountain pen, ink, ball-
point pen, refill, fibre / felt-tip pen;
Florist's /flower shop:
plant, pot plant, wreath, bouquet ['bukei], seed;
Furniture shop:
bedroom suite [swi:t], sitting-room suite, blind, curtains;
Ironmonger's /hardware shop:
spade, nail, hammer, screw, nuts, screwdriver, gardening tools, watering-can,
bucket / pail;
China shop:
china /porcelain, glassware, pottery /ceramics, crockery (ware);
Household goods:
tableware, dinnerware, kitchen utensils, iron, broom, mop, electric appliances.

2.5. Read the text below and answer the questions after the text.
Non-Food Shopping
Malls are the places where many Americans go to shop for all kinds of goods. A
mall is a large building containing many different kinds of stores, including big
department stores and small specialty stores. Specialty stores sell everything from
electronics to cosmetics to imported coffee. Malls are usually indoors, but some
“strip malls” are outdoors.
Department Stores are large stores where you may purchase items such as
jewelry, perfume, clothing, shoes, appliances, televisions, radios, bicycles,
furniture, etc. You may also find some personal care and food products, as well as
film processing in department stores. While most merchandise is kept on easily
accessible shelves, some small valuable items (such as watches, cameras and
jewelry) may be kept in locked glass cabinets. You may ask to see and examine
most of these items. The procedure for purchasing merchandise is the same as the
one in most other stores: you bring the merchandise to a cashier's counter; the
cashier totals the cost of the merchandise; and you then pay the cashier. The
cashier usually hands you the merchandise in a plastic or paper bag.
Discount Stores such as Wal-Mart, K-Mart, and Target can be found in most
cities and towns. These are very large stores that usually offer department store
items and some grocery items at lower prices. They are able to offer lower prices
because they offer fewer services and less attractive shopping areas.
Campus bookstores carry textbooks required for classes, as well as supplies such
as notebooks, pencils, pens, folders, etc. Campus bookstores also carry stationery
and gift items.
Drugstores sell medications. There are two types of drugs available, over-the-
counter and prescription only. Prescription drugs require written permission from a
doctor in order to obtain them. Over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin, cold
medicine and stomach medications can be bought without first seeing a doctor and
are available at almost any type of food or drug store. If you get a prescription
from a doctor, you should go to a place which has a pharmacy to get your
medications. Drug stores in the U.S. often carry more than pharmaceutical
supplies. You may also find personal care products, perfume, non-prescription
drugs, film, cigarettes, small appliances, greeting cards, and gift items. Some drug
stores also carry some food products and have film processing services.
Liquor Stores. In some states, it is legal to sell beer and wine in supermarkets,
grocery stores, convenience stores and delis. In other states, beer, wine and liquor
are sold only in liquor stores. Liquor stores in many states are closed on Sundays.
State laws restrict the purchase of alcoholic beverages to people aged 21 and over.
Stores, restaurants and other establishments are subject to strict fines and
penalties if they sell alcoholic beverages to people under 21. Therefore, in order to
purchase these items, you may be asked to show a picture identification card. Also,
it is illegal to have an opened container of beer, wine or liquor in a car or other
public places like sidewalks, parks and buildings. Alcoholic beverages must be
consumed in private homes, in restaurants, and other such places which have a
license to serve liquor.

Questions:
1. What is the difference between malls, department and discount stores? Are
there any stores of these kinds in your city? Do they have similar or different
features compared to the American stores?
2. Are there any campus stores in your city? Where do students (ordinary people)
usually buy books for studies?
3. Do you need a prescription to buy medicine at American drugstores? What
about the situation in Russia?
4. Where can people in Russia buy liquor? Where do Americans buy it?
5. How do laws in the US restrict purchase of alcohol? Are there any similar laws
in Russia?

2.6. a) Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passages below.
a) cash desk sales tag label off-the-peg
refund try on fit receipt assistant
mail order bargain till cashier exchange

If you want to buy a ready-made (or we sometimes say (a) _____) jacket, first
find
the jackets in the shop and look at the (b) ______ inside to see the size, material
and make. For the price, look at the price- (c)______. To see if it will (d) ______
you, you can (e) ______the jacket in front of a mirror. If necessary an (f) ______
will help you. You pay the (g) ______, who you will find at the (h) ______. He
or
she will take your money, put it in the (i) ______and give you your change.
Make
sure you also get a (j) ______, which you should keep and bring back to the shop
with the jacket if something is wrong with it and you want to (k) ______it or ask
for a (l) ______of your money. In clothes shops you pay the fixed price, of
course.
You don't (m) ______. Or you can wait until the (n) ______, when many goods
are
reduced in price. If you don't like shops, you can stay at home, look at catalogues
and newspaper advertisements and do your shopping by (o) ______.

b) slavishly trends slaves to fashion


individualists trendy fashion houses
conformists dictate the latest fashion
haute couture dictates personal ornaments

Most people like to think they are (a) ______and simply wear whatever they like.
Few people will admit to being (b) ______. However we are not just talking of the
expensive (c) ______ of the Paris and Milan (d) ______, which not many people
can afford anyway. We are talking of fashions and (e) ______ in everyday clothes.
We say that we wear jeans and sweaters because they are cheap and practical, but
isn't it true that our jeans and sweaters tend to be the same as everyone else wears?
Doesn't that mean that we like to be (f) ______? Of course the big chain-stores, to
some extent, (g) ______what we wear, but they always offer a choice and people
do, on the whole, like to wear (h) ______, which extends beyond clothes to make-
up, (i) ______ (men wear earrings too, nowadays) and hair styles. It is easy to
declare that we do not (j) ______follow the (k)______of fashion, but aren't we all
(l) ______ at heart?

b) Match the phrase on the left (a-o) with the corresponding definition
(1-15) on the right.
(a) dress down 1) smb. strongly influenced by fashion
(b) smart-casual clothes 2) wear less formal clothes
(c) dressy 3) informal, but clean and stylish
clothes
(d) skimpy 4) start a new fashion
(e) baggy 5) to become popular
(f) snazzy 6) to wear clothes intended to attract
people’s attention
(g) to be dressed to kill 7) very expensive clothes
(h) designer/ label clothes 8) have new ideas before they
are fashionable
(i) off the peg/rack or on the high street 9) modern, stylish
(j) all the rage / the height of fashion 10) close-fitting, using little
material
(k) up-to-the-minute 11) very fashionable
(l) set a new trend 12) dealing with the most recent
trends
(m) ahead of one’s time 13) loose
(n) to catch on 14) cheaper clothes
(o) a slave of/ to fashion 15) suitable for formal occasions

2.7. Match each of the following parts of clothing with the correct letter in
the pictures below.

label heel collar lapel sole seam


pocket buckle zip crease sleeve belt
laces toe lining cuff button
2.8. a) Match each material on the left below with the most appropriate
word, phrase or phrases on the right.
(a) corduroy a ship’s sail, a boxing ring
(b) canvas church windows
(c) denim the roof of a shed or cheap hut
(d) fur comfortable soft trousers
(e) frosted glass jeans
(f) stained glass bathroom windows
(g) stainless steel a woman’s expensive, warm coat
(h) corrugated iron a wall
(i) straw a man’s old-fashioned light
summer hat
(j) brick cutlery
(k) cork old ships
(l) silk packing material
(m) suede fine cups, saucers, dishes
(n) linen a wine-bottle stopper
(o) serge shoes, a casual jacket
(p) corrugated cardboard a lawn
(q) tweed a woman’s expensive evening dress
(r) timber fine bed-sheets
(s) porcelain a man’s hard-wearing sports-jacket
(t) turf an ordinary soldier’s uniform

b) What materials, from those above, might the following items be made of?

a football pitch a man’s tie table-mats


the lining of a winter coat a woman’s casual skirt tents
a household lamp base a dentist’s surgery windows a house
a cheap casual jacket a table-cloth an overcoat
an oil-painting base a woman’s purse a watch-case
a baby’s toy animal
2.9. Put the correct form of ‘wear’ or ‘dress’ in the spaces below.

(a) Students normally _______ very informally.


(b) She often _______ in black.
(c) They usually _______ jeans and sweaters.
(d) They were _______ in jeans and sweaters.
(e) What were they _______?
(f) How were they _______?
(g) He can wash, shave and _______in ten minutes.
(h) She was _______ an evening _______.
(i) The men were in evening _______.
(j) It’s informal. There's no need to _______up.

2.10. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.

on in off up for with at by inside back


1. Your jacket’s undone. Button it _______.
2. It was very warm. We took _______ our coats.
3. Put _______ your pullover. It’s cold.
4. That’s the man, _______the dark suit.
5. Hang your coat _______.
6. Hang your coat _______ the hook.
7. He took _______ his shoes and put _______ some slippers.
8. Anna’s the girl _______ the red dress.
9. She’s only three. She can't do her coat _______ by herself.
10. He rolled _______ his sleeves and started working.
11. These jackets are reduced ______ price.
12. The assistant advised me to try the coat ______.
13. I want to look ______ the animals ______ the pet shop.
14. He bought many things ______ mail order.
15. There is normally a label ______ a jacket.
16. I took it ______ to the shop to complain.
17. ‘Is something wrong ______ it?’ he said.
18. I asked ______ a refund.

2.11. Explain the difference between the following.

(a) to overcharge and to undercharge (c) a shopkeeper and a shoplifter


(b) shopping and window-shopping (d) a wholesaler and a retailer

2.12. a) Study the English words for containers below.


b) Then match each container (a-r) with its contents (1-18).
b) (a) basket (1) clothes and personal things for a long stay
(b) trunk (2) coins
(c) tank (3) bank notes, tickets
(d) safe (4) shopping
(e) vase (5) petrol, water
(f) purse (6) suits, jackets, dresses
(g) wallet (7) cash, secret documents, jewellery
(h) kettle (8) boiling water
(i) wardrobe (9) flowers
(j) briefcase (10) school books
(k) envelope (11) clothes and belongings for a week's holiday
(l) jug (12) letter
(m) suitcase (13) water, milk
(n) barrel (14) waste paper
(o) satchel (15) beer
(p) bin (16) hot tea, cold drinks
(q) box (17) business papers
(r) (thermos) flask (18) chocolates, matches
2.13. The following words represent small pieces or quantities. Put each in
its correct place in the sentences below. In (a) some words must be
used more than once.
a)
glimmer grain fragment dot shred crumb
blade trace speck
(a) She was very house-proud. There wasn't a ______ of dirt in her kitchen.
(b) They were so hungry they ate the whole loaf of bread without letting a single
______ fall to the ground.
(c) The desert stretched for miles. Nothing green. Not a single ______ of grass.
(d) We watched the ship as it sailed away until it was just a ______ on the
horizon.
(e) His views are dangerous and extreme, and yet there is a ______ of truth in
what
he says.
(f) The accusations against him are completely groundless. There isn't a ______
of
evidence to support them.
(g) Archaeologists are examining a ______ of a vase which they think is over
5,000 years old.
(h) There now seems to be a ______ of hope that the strike will be averted.
(i) The famine is so bad in that area that the people haven't seen a single______
of
rice for weeks.
(j) One day in June 1987, he suddenly disappeared without ______ and no one
has
seen him since.
(k) The police found a tiny ______ of lipstick on the wineglass.

b)
hint clue breath flake drop
puff
dash item scrap
(a) “Whisky?” - “Well, just a ______, please.”
(b) Don’t ask me about the economic situation. I haven’t a______.
(c) I’m just going out for a ______ of fresh air.
(d) I watched a rain-______trickling slowly down the window.
(e) I’d like my coffee almost black please. Just a very small ___ of milk.
(f) “What a lovely smell. What is it?” – “Some spices and I think some seafood
and also just a ______ of lemon.”
(g) I wrote the phone-number down on a ______ of paper I tore from an
envelope.

2.14. a) Study these words and expressions connected with clothes (1-9) and
shops (1-6) used metaphorically and match them with their definitions
on the right.

Clothes metaphors:
1) off the cuff (a) (usually of a woman) be the
dominant partner in a marriage
2) to be hand in glove with someone (b) involving mystery and
secrecy
3) cloak-and-dagger (c) simple and plain
4) to have/ take the shirt off smb’s back (d) spending as little as possible
5) (to do smth.) on a shoestring (e) have a close working
relationship
with someone
6) without frills (f) restrict smb’s freedom
7) to put someone in s strait-jacket (g) without having prepared anything
8) to wear the trousers (h) to deprive smb. of his/her last
possession
9) shop around

Shop metaphors:
1) to set up shop a) to discuss smb’s work
2) all over the shop b) to begin doing something
3) to shop around c) to stop doing something, working
4) to shut up shop d) to compare prices, quality of goods
at
several shops before buying anything
5) to talk shop e) a meeting where things are discussed but
no action is ever taken
6) a talking-shop f) spread out everywhere

b) Explain the meaning of the following idioms and use them in your
sentences.

hem in, burst at seams, cloak in, feather in one’s cap

c) Many idioms are based on colours. Put each of the following phrases in
its correct place in the sentences below.

a)
out of the blue in black and white green with envy
in the red a black sheep to have green
fingers
once in a blue moon red tape to catch someone red-handed

(a) The offer of a job sounded very good on the phone, but I shan’t believe it till I
have it______.
(b) I must remind you that this is a non-smoking office. I suspect that some of
you
have been smoking. If I happen______, I’m afraid it will mean dismissal.
(c) To import firearms into Britain you’ll have to fill in a lot of forms. There’s a
lot
of______.
(d) If you want to be a successful gardener, of course you’ve got______.
(e) The rest of the family were respectable, honest people, but he was always in
trouble. I'm afraid he was______.
(f) When I saw him in a new sports car, I was______.
(g) Tourists often go to the Louvre, but most Parisians only go______.
(h) The firm is______. It owes a lot of money.
(i) I had lost touch with Jack, and then one night he arrived at my flat
right______.
What a surprise!

b)
red-carpet treatment to see red rose-coloured spectacles
a red herring a white-collar job a green belt
blue-eyed boy a white lie
(a) Naturally the President’s wife received ______ on her visit.
(b) He said he didn’t want to have ______ and sit in an office all day.
(c) All round the city there is ______ of open country where building is
restricted.
(d) She loves animals and tends ______ when she sees one being badly treated.
(e) He told _____ to avoid hurting his wife’s feelings.
(f) Everyone thinks he’ll be Director of the firm one day. He’s the ________.
(g) Be realistic. You can’t go though life looking at the world through _______.
(h) In class pupils sometimes introduce _____ to distract the teacher from his
subject.

2.15. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage below. Do people in Russia use their personal finance
similarly? Be ready to give a short presentation in class on the way
people use their personal finance in Russia.

current account withdraw bargain


buy in bulk savings account mortgage
salary bank statement bank loan
rip-off on credit deposit
overdraft fee discount
refund be in the red receipt
haggle outright fare

In a bank you usually have a (a) _______, which is one where you pay in your
(b) _____ and then (c) _________ money to pay your everyday bills. The bank
sends you a regular (d) ________ telling you how much money is in your
account. You may also have a (e) _______ where you (f) _______ any extra
money that you have and only take money out when you want to spend it on
something special. You usually try to avoid having an (g) ______ or you end up
paying a lot of interest. If your account is overdrawn, you can be said to (h)
_______ (as opposed to in the black or in credit).
Sometimes the bank may lend you money - this is called a (i) ______. If the bank
(or building society) lends you money to buy a house, that money is called a (j)
_____.
When you buy (or, more formally, purchase) something in a shop, you usually
pay for it (k) ______ but sometimes you buy (l) _______ (on installments).
Sometimes you may be offered a (m) ________ or a reduction on something you
buy at a shop. This means that you get, say, £10 off perhaps because you are a
student. You are often offered a discount if you (n) _________. It is not usual to (o)
______ about prices in a British shop, as it is in, say, a Turkish market. If you want
to return something which you have bought to a shop, you may be given a (p)
_______, i.e. your money will be returned, provided you have a (q) _______.
The money that you pay for services, e.g. to a school or a lawyer, is usually
called a (r) ______ or fees; the money paid for a journey is a (s) _____.
If you buy something that you feel was very good value, it's a (t) _____. If you
feel that it is definitely not worth what you paid for it, then you can call it a (u)
_____ (very colloquial).

2.16. Study the information about money, weights and measures in Great
Britain and the USA. Remember the new words.
English Money
Pound or Pound Sterling, monetary unit (currency) of the United Kingdom, is
represented by the symbol £.
Historically, the terms pound and pound sterling originated in Anglo-Saxon
Britain during the 8th century when the basic monetary unit, called a “sterling,” was
made equivalent to 1/240 of a pound of silver and 240 sterlings became known as a
“pound of sterling.” The pound was convertible into silver until 1717. The British
system of money used to be rather difficult. The British pound used to consist of 20
shillings, each of which was worth 12 old pence. Besides these, there were also
halfpence (1/2 p), twopence ['tʌpens], three halfpence (or a penny-halfpenny, 1 1/2 p)
[ɵri:'heipəns], threepence ['ɵrepnəs], sixpence (6 p), farthings (1/4 p), two-shilling
piece, and half-crowns (2 shillings and 6 pence).
On February 15, 1971, the pound’s coinage equivalent was changed to the
decimal system, from 20 shillings to 100 pennies, replacing the traditional
shillings and pence that had been used since 11th-century Anglo-Norman times.
At present they use 1-pound, 5-pound, 10-pound, 20-pound, 50-pound notes
and coins – 1 penny, twopence, 5 pence, 10 pence, 20 pence, 50 pence (p [pi:] for
pence in prices: 50 pence – 50 p), 1-pound and 2-pound coins.
American Money
The American unit is the dollar - $. In the dollar there are 100 cents (c), 1-cent
coin is often called penny. А 5-cent coin is called a nickel, and a 10-cent coin - a
dime, a 25-cent coin – a quarter.
Weights and Measures
For general use the smallest weight is 1 ounce (oz.), and there are 16 ounces in a
pound (lb.). The English buy sweets, tobacco, and sometimes cigarettes by the
ounce while most groceries or fruit, such as apples, pears, strawberries, by the
pound, half-pound or quarter-pound (there are some kinds of fruit that are bought
piecemeal, or loose).
14 pounds make up 1 stone. The English always give people’s weight in stones
and pounds. For example, a man weighs 11 stone 9 lbs (not 163 lbs).
112 lbs make up 1 hundredweight (cwt), which equals 50 kg. So there are 20
cwt in a ton.
Liquids are measured in pints (app. 0.5 liter), quarts and gallons. There are 2
pints in a quart and 4 quarts in a gallon.
Finally, for length the principal measurements are the inch (2.54 cm), the foot
(30.48 cm), the yard (91.44 cm) and the mile (1.6 km).

2.17. a) Do you know how to ask for things when you don’t know the exact
word? Here are some useful words and expressions.
a thing, a machine, a tool;
stuff, liquid, powder, material, cloth;
material/ liquid/ powder/ stuff for …-ing;
square, round, oblong, oval, curved, flat, pointed, sharp, blunt;
big, medium-sized, small, tiny, narrow, wide, heavy, light, short;
metal, glass, plastic, rubber, stone, wood(en), wool(en), rough, smooth, soft,
shiny, transparent, unbreakable, inedible, warm, waterproof;
fragile, hard, flexible, rigid, fast, slow;
extremely, very, rather, quite, fairly;
neither … nor, not at all, about the size of a …, a bit bigger than a …, not quite
as heavy as a …, small enough to hold in your hand;
a point, an end, a hole, a handle;
a thing with a hole/ handle, etc.;
a thing/ tool/ machine for making …, cutting …, etc./ to make …, to cut …;
a thing that you .. with/in/on, etc.;
a thing that goes on top of/ under/ .. .;
you use it for … -ing;
it is something to write on.

What does it feel like? What’s it made of?


What shape is it?
What size is it?
ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

2.18. a) Read the text and answer the questions that follow.
b) Work with a partner and act out the conversation of Mr. and Mrs.
Baxter during their shopping round.

The Baxters Go Shopping


The other day my wife took me on a usual shopping round. In fact I hate going to
the butcher's, grocer's and other shops of this sort, but of course I have to help my
wife about the house.
First, we bought some pork and beef at the butcher's. Then we dropped in at the
grocery and greengrocery. Jill wanted to buy salt, tomatoes and cucumbers. We
also called at the baker's where we bought a loaf of brown bread, some buns and
biscuits.
On our way home, we were passing Selfridge’s. “Let’s drop in here for a while.
You need a suit for everyday wear”, my wife said. I agreed. Selfridge’s is still one
of the biggest and most popular stores in London. They sell everything here. All
the things for sale are on the counters. The customers walk round and choose what
they want. The store has several departments: Women's clothes, Men's clothes,
Shoes, Toys, Sports goods, Umbrellas, Leather goods, China and glass, Food, etc.
When we entered the shop, we went straight to the men’s department. A salesgirl
showed us a number of suits, but we didn’t like any of them. One of them was a bit
loose on me, another was too tight. As to the third one, our opinions were quite
different. I liked the suit. My wife found it too expensive. She wanted a suit as
good as that one but less expensive. The salesgirl showed us a cheaper suit. It was
of good quality, but I didn't like the style. We were about to leave the counter when
they delivered a new selection of goods. They were not only suits but different
kinds of clothes: coats, raincoats, shirts, jackets and trousers. I tried on two or three
suits. The last one was all right. It was just my size and fitted me perfectly. We
both liked the suit and the price was not high. “We’ll take it, wrap it up, please!” I
said to the salesgirl.
After we left the men's department, my wife spent the rest of the morning trying
on hats. She wanted a pink straw hat to match one of her summer frocks. There
was such a good selection of hats in the shop that in the end Jill bought two.

Questions:
1. Whats stores did the Baxters visit before going to Selfrige’s? What did
they buy there?
2. Why did they go to Selfridge’s? Did they buy something they wanted
right away? Why?
3. What did Jill buy for herself in the end? What is your attitude to hat-
gear?

b) Describe your usual shopping round. Say what shops you usually
drop in, what goods you buy, how long it usually takes you, etc.
2.19. a) Read the following dialogues, paying attention to the words in bold.
b) Compare the way of buying non-food goods in English-speaking
countries and Russia.
c) Make up similar dialogues with a partner, changing some items
from the original dialogue.
Situation 1: Sybil Bentam and Paula go shopping and on a tour of Montreal
S.: Good morning, Paula. Did you sleep well?
P.: Good morning. Fine, and you?
S.: So-so. But it doesn’t matter. Let's go to our new department store, it’s a fine
place and there is a very wide choice of goods. And you can have goods for the
value of your money. What would you like to buy?
P.: Oh, I have to buy a lot of things. Mr. Virge asked me to buy some souvenirs
for his family.
S.: Shoot off!
P.: Well, I have to buy a box of make-up for his wife, a beautiful and colourful
pencil box for his seven-year-old daughter, white socks with a red maple leaf for
his 14-year-old son and some spices for his mother.
S.: And what would you like for yourself?
P.: I'’ like a comfortable pair of walking shoes as I do a lot of walking around.
S.: Let’s start with the footwear department then.

Situation 2: At the Footwear Department


Shop assistant: Good morning, can I help you, madam?
S.: Well, we’d like some nice walking shoes, please, size 6.
Shop assistant: What colour would you like?
P.: Something in light brown, please.
Shop assistant: Here you are, here’s a shade darker, and some very light.
P.: Oh, this light-coloured pair looks wonderful, I’ll try them on.
S.: How are they?
P.: A bit tight, I’m afraid, the length is right, though.
S.: Haven’t you got shoes wider at the toes?
Shop assistant: I’ll see... Sorry, but not the same colour. Only those of a darker
brownish shade.
P.: May I try them on?
Shop assistant: Of course, madam.
P.: They are wonderful, very comfortable, too. Yes, I’ll take them. How much are
they?
Shop assistant: Ninety-nine dollars and ninety cents.
S.: Do you want anything else here at the footwear department?
P.: Oh look! What lovely slippers, so light and soft. They’d suit my granny very
much. How much are they?
Shop assistant: Oh, they’re fairly cheap, they are on the clearance sale for a
reduced price as they are going out of fashion, they are only nine dollars.
P.: I’ll take them. Thank you. That’s all I think.
S.: Let’s go to the cashier’s desk and pay.
Cashier: One hundred and eight dollars and ninety cents, please.
P.: Here you are.
Cashier: Thank you. And here is your change, madam.

Situation 3: At the Perfumery Counter


Shop assistant: Good morning. Is there anything you’d like to have?
S.: Yes, show us some boxes of make-up, please.
Shop assistant: Large or small?
S.: Could you show us both of them?
Shop-assistant: Here you are.
P.: Oh, this big one is very beautiful, there are five different eye shadows, with
matching lipsticks, mascara and even powder. But I’m afraid, it’s too expensive for
me. How much is it?
Shop-assistant: Fifty-nine dollars.
P.: That’s too much. Isn't there anything cheaper of the bigger ones?
Shop-assistant: I’m afraid not. Only those small ones.
S.: Oh look, Paula, you buy this small box of different eye-shadows and in
addition a couple of matching lipsticks, mascara isn’t so important.
Shop-assistant: This way it will really be much cheaper. It’ll be only nineteen
dollars.
P.: Well, that suits me all right.
S.: Fine. We’ll take this small box of eye-shadows and these two lipsticks.
Shop-assistant: And wouldn’t you like a couple of bottles of nail varnish to
match?
P: No, thank you. That’s enough.

Situation 4: At the Hosiery Department


Shop assistant: May I show you something?
S.: Do you have white socks with a maple leaf?
Shop assistant: Oh, yes, quite a lot of them. But wouldn’t you have those striped
ones? They are extremely fashionable now.
P.: Oh, they look just what he would like. How much do they cost?
Shop-assistant: The price isn’t very high, though. Ten dollars only.
P.: That’s quite a lot of money for me. Let’s go and take a look at pencil boxes
first and then we’ll see.
S.: That’s a good idea. We’ll come back, thank you.
Shop-assistant: Thank you. You are welcome.

Situation 5: At the Stationery Department


P: Oh, how many beautiful pencil boxes! I can’t make my choice.
S.: Well, look, this pink one with those nice flowers on it. You can zip it very
easily.
P.: Won’t it get stuck?
S.: Those with studs aren’t any safer.
P.: But what about this one closing with magnets?
S.: Yes, I think that’s the best and it’s very beautiful, too.
P.: Let’s ask for the price. I have to think about it.
S.: How much does this pencil box cost?
Shop-assistant: Six dollars, madam.
P.: All right, I’ll take it. And now for the socks.
S.: Well, that’s that. I like shopping. But now let’s have a cup of coffee. I hope
you are not tired.
P.: Oh no, not at all.

2.20. a) Read the lines of two conversations in a clothes shop. Who says
them - the customer or the shop assistant?
b) Work with a partner and put all the lines in the correct order.
c) Practice the conversation with a partner.
1) In a Clothes Shop
a ___ Can I help you?
b ___ Oh yes. I like that one much better. Can I try in on?
c ___ $ 45.99. How do you want to pay?
d ___ Yes, please. I’m looking for a shirt to go with my new suit.
e ___ Blue.
f ___ Yes, of course. The changing rooms are over there.
g ___ OK. I’ll take the white. How much is it?
h ___ Can I pay by credit card?
i ___ What colour are you looking for?
j ___ No, it isn’t the right blue.
k ___ No, it’s a bit too big. Have you got a smaller size?
l ___ That’s the last blue one we’ve got, I’m afraid. But we’ve got it in
white.
m ___ Well, what about this one? It’s a bit darker blue.
n ___ What about this one? Do you like this?
o ___ Is the size OK?
p ___ Credit card’s fine. Thank you very much

2) In a Clothes Shop
a ___ Erm .. this jumper … have you got this in a large?
b ___ Does it fit OK?
c ___ Thanks.
d ___ No, I’m just looking, thanks.
e ___ Can I help you at all?
f ___ No, we’ve only got the small and the medium, but the sizes are quite big.
Try
it on – the fitting room’s behind here … there you are.
g ___ Yes, it fits perfectly, actually …
h ___ Well, if you want anything, juts give me a call …
i ___ Mmm, I don’t know about the colour, myself. … This cream’s going to
get
very dirty …
j ___ Yes, it does. It looks really good on you. That colour suits you.

2.21. Read the conversation below which is not nice because no one says
any polite phrases in it. Make it more civilized by adding polite
phrases or changing some phrases to polite ones.

Chemist: Come in.


Customer 1: Is this the chemist’s?
Chemist: Yes. What do you want?
Customer 1: Give me this medicine.
Chemist: Do you want it now?
Customer 1: Yes. As quickly as possible.
Chemist: It’ll take a long time to prepare it.
Customer 1: I’m in a hurry. Try to do it quickly.
Chemist: All right. Sit down.
Customer 1: (treads on another customer’s foot. Says nothing)
Customer 2: Ouch!
Customer 1: (says nothing)
Chemist: Here is your medicine. Twenty euros.
Customer 1: (says nothing, pushes past another customer and goes out)

2.22. Complete the following dialogue. Act it out with a partner. Make up
similar dialogues using the pictures below.

Shop-assistant: Are you being served, Sir / Madam?


Customer: I’m looking for a ____________ .
Shop-assistant: ________________ are over there. Follow me, please.
Customer: Thank you. I’d like to have __________________.
Shop assistant: I see. And what’s your size?
Customer: _____ or _______. It depends on the style.
Shop assistant: These are really very beautiful and the quality is very good.
Customer: I think I need a lager size. How much is it / are they?
Shop assistant: $ 24.90. A real bargain.
Customer: Oh, really? I guess I’ll take _________. Do I pay here?
Shop assistant: No, at the cash desk / check-out, please.
Customer: ____________ .

2.23. Read the text and discuss. Think of some embarrassing or funny
situation that happened to you in a shop. Discuss it with a partner.

A Bad Day
Monday is not my best day, and last Monday was worst of all. I woke up late, so
I tried to hurry. I didn't want to be late to work. First, I burned my breakfast, so I
couldn't eat it. Then I got coffee on my blouse and I had to change it. While I was
washing the dishes, I broke a plate.
I left the house at 8.45 am. But I forgot my bag, so I had to go home to get it. Of
course, I was late to work. The boss didn't say anything but he was looking at me
all the time.
At noon I wanted to relax. I went out to buy some new clothes. I was trying on
blouses when I looked at my watch. It was 1.00 p.m. I would be late to work again.
I forgot to take off the store's blouse and put on my own. I dropped my blouse on
the table and started to leave wearing a new blouse. The clerk called, "Hey, lady.
Aren't you going to pay for it?" My face was really red. Everyone looked at me.
I paid for the blouse. It was already 1.15 p.m. I didn’t go back to work. I went
straight home and got into bed. It was the only safe place for me that day.
2.24. Read the passages below and discuss some department stores of your
town in a small group: which of them have the best stock, the best
location, the best staff, etc.
Bob's Bargain Department Store
Bob’s Bargain Department Store is the cheapest store in town. However, even
though it’s the cheapest, it isn’t the most popular. People don’t shop there very
often because the products are bad. In fact, some people say the products are the
worst in town. The furniture isn’t very comfortable. The clothes aren’t very
modern. The appliances aren’t very dependable. Besides that, the location isn’t
very convenient, and the salespeople aren’t very helpful. That’s why people don’t
often shop at Bob’s Bargain Department Store, even though it’s the cheapest in
town.
The Lord and Lady Department Store
The Lord and Lady Department Store sells very good products. In fact, some
people say the products there are the best in town.
They sell the most comfortable furniture, the most modern clothes, the most
dependable appliances and the best TV and DVD-players. And besides that, their
location is the most convenient, and their salespeople are the most helpful in town.
However, even though the Lord and Lady Department Store is the best store in
town, people don’t often shop there because it’s the most expensive.

2.25. Imagine that you are at a store and need one of the things in the
pictures below, but you don’t know the English word for it (or it has
just slipped your mind). Explain to a partner (who is a shop-assistant
at the moment) what you need without using the name of the object or
your hands.

2.26. a) Read the following dialogues, paying attention to the words in bold.
b) Compare the way of buying foodstuffs in English-speaking
countries and Russia.
c) Make up similar dialogues with a partner, changing some items
from the original dialogue.
1) Shopping for Food
Mary: Isn’t it good that we have bought this refrigerator, Mama? Now
we can buy in the things we need for the whole week.
Mother: Yes, it is very convenient indeed. Now, Mary dear, I’d like you
to do some shopping as I am very busy now. I’ll send Tom along with you.
Mary: Yes, Mother dear. What do you want me to buy?
Mother: Make a shopping list, please. First, buy some beef.
Mary: How much beef, Mother?
Mother: Well, let it be 2 or 3 pounds, but see that it is fat. The last time
I was there
he managed to wrap up a joint which happened to be very lean. If he
plays such a trick on me again, I’ll never buy at his shop any more. That
done, you buy 6 pounds of potatoes, I think six will do, and a good-sized
cabbage.
Mary: Any beans, Mother dear? I like them very much.
Mother: Yes, buy 2 pounds of them. Now, we shall also need nuts and apples.
Mary: What sort, mom? Cooking apples or for eating?
Mother: Buy 2 pounds of each. Put down a pound of mixed nuts
and a dozen
oranges as well. Then, buy one loaf of bread and …
Mary: White?
Mother: Yes, a dozen fancy cakes, and one pound of fruit cake.
That’ll be all
there. Drop at the dairy section and buy a dozen eggs.
Mary: Aren’t we going to need some milk today, ma?
Mother: Yes, I think we shall. Don’t forget to take the milk-can. A
pint and a half will do, I suppose. Oh, and don’t forget to buy a pound of
fresh butter, a pound of bacon, but not too fat. You watch them closely or
you will be cheated – they’ll give you it all fat. You might as well buy
the sweets – a pound of caramels and a pound of chocolate with nut
filling. Check up the expiration date.
Mary: What kind of caramels, mom?
Mother: At a shilling a pound. Well, get the shopping basket
ready. Now where is that boy? You can never find him when he is
wanted. Tom!
Mary: No need to call him, Mama. He’s out in the street. Give me the
money, please and off I go.

2) Buying Food at the Market


Vera: Good morning, Nina!
Nina: Oh, that’s you, Vera! How nice that you have come.
Vera: I haven’t seen you of late so I thought I’d…
Nina: I say, Vera, have you time to go with me to the market? Ma feels
unwell and she wants me to do the shopping.
Vera: Why, yes! I am quite free.
Nina: Just wait a minute while I get the bag ready. Where can it be, I wonder?
I’ll
go and ask…
Vera: It cannot be in the larder, Nina, can it?
Nina: Of course, it must be there. (Comes back with the bag.) Well, let’s go.
Vera: Have you taken the money?
Nina: Oh, how silly I am! Going to the market without a penny in my
pocket.
Nice, indeed! (Goes out and shortly comes back.) Well, it seems to be
all.
Come on.
(At the market.)
Vera: What do you want to buy?
Nina: Some meat, eggs, vegetables and some berries.
Vera: Are berries in season now?
Nina: They are. Now, what shall we buy first? Vegetables?
Vera: I think so. Where do they deal in vegetables?
Nina: I don’t know. This is the first time I’m out marketing. It seems over there.
Vera: Say, Nina, let’s go over to that woman. See what a wealth of vegetables
she
has.
Nina: (to the saleswoman). How do you sell the cabbage, by the head or by
weight?
Saleswoman: By the head. Here is a nice head, young lady.
Nina: Show me that nicely trimmed one over there, please.
Saleswoman: Here you are. See how firm it is.
Nina: Yes, I shall take it.
Saleswoman: What else would you like?
Nina: A bunch of carrots, please. No, those are overgrown. Give me the bunch
next to it. Yes, that one.
Saleswoman: Anything else, young lady?
Nina: Now pick out ten cucumbers, please.
Saleswoman: Here you are, please. Right from the garden. Some onions?
Nina: Yes. How do you sell them?
Saleswoman: These – by the ten, and these of the smaller size
– by weight.
Nina: I’ll take ten of these.
Saleswoman: Here’s a couple of small ones into the bargain. You are one of my
best customers. Vegetables sell badly today.
Nina: What does it come up to?
Saleswoman: Now, let me see. A cabbage, that’s a pound ten, a bunch of carrots

£ 1.80, please.
Nina: Here you are. Thank you.
3) A Few Errands
Felix: I'm just going down to the shops to buy some cigarettes, Gertie. Do you
want anything while I’m there?
Gertie: Yes, what a good idea! There are a lot of things I need, as a matter
of fact. Let me see ... We haven’t got many eggs left, so bring a dozen large
ones. And there isn’t much cooking-fat in the jar, so bring a pound of lard.
And ...
Felix: Hold on! If you want me to get a lot of things, write them down on a
piece of paper, or I’ll forget something.
Gertie: All right. But wait a minute, while I look in the other cupboard to
see what we need.
Felix: Hurry up, then! I want to call in for a chat with Gerry on the way back.
Gertie: We’ve got plenty of cocoa, but there isn’t much tea or coffee left.
Bring a large tin of instant coffee and a quarter pound of tea. Oh! And I want
some ham.
Felix: How much?
Gertie: Half a pound will do. We’re short of vegetables, too; bring some
beans, and a tin of carrots ...
Felix: I only wanted to go out for a stroll and a chat. I’ll need a lorry to
bring all that home.
Gertie: Here’s the list. Oh, and you can pick up my coat at the dry-
cleaner’s while you are passing? And do me a favour while you are at
Gerry’s: ask Pam if she’s free on Thursday morning. We’re having a meeting
at ten o’clock about the tennis-club dance in August. Bye, dear.

2.27. Work with a partner and act out the following situations.
1. You buy a sweater and leave it in a store by mistake. When you discover it
is missing, you return to the store and ask the clerk if he has seen it.
2. You have bought a pullover. You get home, try it on and it doesn’t fit. You
haven’t washed it and you tried it on in the shop. Maybe, they gave you the
wrong pullover by mistake. You go back to the shop to sort things out.
3. You are at a men’s ready-made clothes department. You want a suit for
everyday wear, some shirts and a tie to match the suit. The shop-assistant is
ready to help you. (You are going to buy those things for you or for your
husband/son).
4. You are at a shoe department. You want a pair of good summer walking
shoes. The shop-assistant is very helpful.
5. You are at a computer shop. You need a new computer. You want it to be both
cheap and reliable.
6. Tomorrow is your mother’s birthday. You need to buy a lot of food. The
sales assistant is eager to help you.
7. You are at a women’s outfit department. You need a summer/ evening dress.
You ask the shop-assistant about the fabrics, the price and other details.
2.28. Work in a small group and discuss these questions. Then discuss them
in class.
1) Do you often go shopping? Is there a greengrocery near your house? What is it
like? When did you last go shopping there? What did you buy there?
2) Where do you usually buy your food? What is the shop like? Do you like to do
your shopping there? Why? When did you last go there? What did you buy?
How long did it take you to do your shopping there?
3) Which is the biggest department store in your town? Where is it? What is it
like? How often do you do your shopping there? When did you last buy
anything there? What was it?
4) What shop do you usually go to if you want to buy a present? What present
did
you buy for any of your relatives (mother, father, sister, etc.) or friends last?
What was the occasion? Where did you buy the present? Did it take you long
to
choose it? Are you sure the person you’d bought the present for really liked
it?

2.29. Comment on the following proverbs and sayings about money, buying
and bargains. Which one do you like best? Why? Which one do you
disagree with?

Citations about the about money, buyin and bargains:


1. Everyone is model size when it comes to handbags. (Karl Lagerfeld)
2. [A bargain] is anything a customer thinks a store is losing money on. (Kin
Hubbard)
3. [A bargain] is a transaction in which each participant thinks he has cheated
the other. (Anonymous)
4. [A bargain is] something you have to find use for, once you’ve bought it.
(Franklin Jones)
5. [Money is] sweet balm. (Arabian proverb)
6. [Money is] a good servant, but a bad master. (Henry G. Bohn)
7. [Money is] a new form of slavery. (Leo Tolstoy)
8. [Money is] a eel in the hand. (Welsh proverb)
9. [Money is] the best messenger. (Yiddish proverb)
10. [Money is] like an arm or leg – use it or lose it. (Henry Ford)
11. [Money is] the sixth sense which enables you to enjoy the other five.
(William Somerset Maugham)
12. [Money is] a kind of disease which those who have it don’t like to spread.
(Mendel Maranz)
13. [Money is] read medicine. (Latin proverb)
14. For some people, shopping is all about the thrill of the hunt; for some, it's
the high of the purchase; and for some, it's the socialization with the salesperson --
the acknowledgement and reinforcement they get. (April Lane Benson, a New York
City psychologist specializing in "overshopping" and the author of I Shop,
Therefore I Am: Compulsive Buying and the Search for Self)

2.30. Read the text and answer the questions below, then discuss it in class.
Fresh Fish
Don Pedro wishes to attract the attention of the entire neighbourhood upon
opening his new shop and for this reason spends a great deal of money on a sign.
In bright colours, the sign bears the following words: FRESH FISH IS SOLD
HERE. The very day of the shop’s opening a customer tells Don Pedro: "Why do
you have the word HERE on the sign? Everyone knows that it is here and not on
the other block where fish is sold. The word HERE is unnecessary."
The observation seems reasonable to Don Pedro. So he calls the painter and has
the word HERE removed from the sign.
A few days later, a lady convinced Don Pedro that the words IS SOLD are not
needed, since nobody is going to assume that the fish is given away free in the
shop.
Without the words IS SOLD the sign will be much more beautiful, says the lady.
“The only words that are necessary are FRESH FISH.”
Thoroughly convinced, Don Pedro calls his painter and has the words IS SOLD
removed.
But the same week an employee from the telephone company comes around
and after praising the beauty of the sign, says: “It seems to me that the word
FRESH is one too many. No one is going to doubt that your fish is not fresh. How
can you sell it rotten? You must remove the word FRESH. FISH is enough.”
Convinced again, Don Pedro calls his painter and has word FRESH removed.
Good Heavens, how many expenses the famous sign brings about! But now it is
very nice with only one word FISH. In spite of everything, Don Pedro feels
satisfied.
But his joy doesn’t last long. In a few days a friend of his, who lives in the
country, passes through there, and shouts to him from the sidewalk across the
street: "What a fool you are, Pedro! From far away everyone can tell, from the
smell, that it is here where fish is sold. Why do you need that sign? The word FISH
is not needed. Everyone knows that it is fish and not perfume which you sell here."
And poor Don Pedro, desperate, has the last word removed.

Questions:
1. Why did Don Pedro put a sign on his new shop? How do we call it now?
2. Why did the sign prove worthless? Do you agree with it?
3. What could Don Pedro have written on his sign to make it worthwhile?
2.31. Read the passage below on the advertisement. What do you think
about it? Does it really influence people’s decision-making when
shopping? What ways of advertising are used in Russia? Can people
trust ads? Discuss these questions in class.
Advertisements are everywhere, from columns of small classified
advertisements for houses, jobs, cars, etc. in newspapers to big posters on walls
and enormous advertisements on hoardings by the side of the road. The job of the
advertising agencies is to publicise the products of the firms which and employ
them. They design eye-catching advertisements and make television commercials
to persuade us to buy, buy, and buy.
But things are not always as good as they are described in ads. According to a
report released in 2002 by the US Federal Nrade Commission half of all weight-
loss ads, whether in print, on television, or on the Internet, make false claims

2.32. a)Look at the ads below and try to guess what they may be publicizing.
Discuss your ideas in a small group.

b) Look at the things that were really advertised by the pictures above and
match the slogans with the pictures.
1) “Shell is making waves for cleaner engines”
2) “Wash out your hair-monsters. Sunsilk anti-flat”
3) “Renault. Creatures of comfort”
4) “The Golden’s Gym 3-Apple a Day Plan”

c) Pick up one thing and make up an ad for it to be broadcast on TV or


radio. Present your ad to class.

2.33. Read the passage below about an interesting way of selling and
buying goods in the US and Britain. Have a garage sale organized in
your group. Bring pictures of the things (or the things !) you would
like to sell and talk your group mates into buying them.
Garage/Yard Sales
You may find inexpensive used household items, clothing, sports equipment or
furniture at garage and yard sales. These are sales of personal objects by
individuals at their home. Purchase and use of these items is considered culturally
acceptable. At a garage sale, you may negotiate the price of items you are
interested in purchasing. Some people go gaga over old or even antique things you
might find there. Often people selling their belongings don’t even know the real
price of the things.

WRITING

2.34. Read the text and write a similar 250-word essay on some piece of
clothing that was all the rage some years ago and is fashionable now.

Back in Fashion
Millie stopped outside a shoe-shop and looked in the window. For some time she
gazed at a pair of fur-lined high boots on display. “They’re exactly what I want”,
she thought. The boots were unpriced so Millie decided to inquire how much they
cost.
“I’d like to buy a pair of boots like the ones you have in the window", she asked
the shop-assistant. “Could you tell me how much they are, please?"
As the price was reasonable, Millie decided to try a pair on. The shop-assistant
asked her to sit down and brought a pair. While she was helping Millie to put them
on, she kept looking at Mill’s stockings made of fine white lace.
“Excuse my asking”, the shop-assistant said at last. “But where did you get those
stockings? We’ve been trying to obtain stockings like these for some time. They
are the very latest fashion and they are in great demand”.
“They are pretty, aren't they?” Millie said. “My grandmother gave them to me”.
2.35. Write a 350-word essay on one of the topics below.
1. My usual shopping for food.
2. My usual shopping for noon-food stuff.
3. My ideal shopping.
4. My embarrassing/ funny shopping experience.
5. My shopping abroad / on a tour.

2.36. Choose any dialogue from Ex.2.26 and give a brief (about 100 words)
account of the conversation.
2.37. Write a short passage about how advertising influences you and what
you buy.

2.38. Render the text in English.


Шопинг, сэр!
Наряду с признанными «храмами» мировой моды – Миланом и
Парижем – Лондон остается столицей шика и родиной особого
английского стиля. Одни из лучших дизайнеров – англичане. Британцы
Джон Гальяно (John Galliano), Александр Маккуин (Alexander McQueen),
Джулиен Макдональд (Julian MacDonald), Вивьен Вествуд (Vivienne
Westwood) занимают свои почетные места на модном олимпе. Обитатели
этого города действительно разбираются в моде и знают толк в одежде.
Лондон… Удивительный город, овеянный легендами, сочетающий в себе
космополитизм единой Европы и сдержанность столицы независимого
острова. Город, растиражированный миллионами открыток с историческими
видами Биг-Бена, Парламента, Вестминстерского Аббатства и Тауэрского
моста, до чопорности чтящий многовековые традиции и одновременно
находящийся в авангарде модных тенденций. Именно поэтому сюда
стекаются модники и модницы со всего мира.
Несмотря на то, что англичане довольно терпимы к туристам, которые
могут иметь совершенно другие представления о хорошем вкусе,
демонстрация возможностей своего кошелька у лондонских гуру стиля
считается безвкусием, а отсутствие воображения и творческого подхода к
одежде - той самой простотой, которая хуже воровства. То есть если вы с
головы до ног нарядитесь во что-нибудь «богатое», подчеркнуто дорогое и
роскошное, то это будет моветоном.
По-настоящему ценятся лондонскими модниками вещи уникальные -
лучше, если они вообще будут существовать в одном экземпляре.
С большой симпатией лондонцы
относятся к национальной одежде всех
мыслимых и немыслимых расцветок и
фактур и столь же экзотическим
украшениям. Излюбленное занятие
лондонских дам — неспешное
исследование длинных рядов одежды с незнакомыми этикетками. Так
запросто можно найти, например, платье, созданное дизайнером, чье имя
через два года не будет сходить со страниц модных журналов. Вообще
угадать тренд – это высший шик. Субботний день охотники за модой тратят
на прогулку по рынку Портобелло (Portobello), где, как утверждают
очевидцы, можно найти абсолютно все: от безделушек до настоящих
драгоценностей, от одежды начинающих дизайнеров до африканской и
американской экзотики, от ширпотреба до эксклюзивных вещей модельеров
прошлого века.
Кстати, антикварная одежда и винтажные аксессуары – это последний писк.
Большим спросом в английской столице пользуются старые платья Chanel,
Elsa Skiaparelli, Christian Dior. Умелые портнихи могут переделать их,
подгоняя под современные фигуры и заменяя поврежденные детали. В
результате возникают модели, в которых можно смело отправляться на любой
светский раут. Именно так поступает, например, модель Кейт Мосс (Kate
Moss), покупая наряды в лондонских антикварных бутиках. Ее звездные
коллеги тоже не отстают. Бьорк (Bjork) уважает марку Marjan Pejoski – она
даже надела платье этого дизайнера на церемонию вручения «Оскара». На
Гвинет Пэлтроу (Gwyneth Paltrow) часто можно видеть платья из коллекции
Boyd. Ann Louise Roswald известна женственными пальто с большими
пуговицами и рисунками в виде цветов. Sophia Kokosalaki – трикотажем а-ля
80-е, а Eley Kishimoto - нарядами с тюльпанами, морем или звездопадом.
Чтобы впитать в себя лондонскую роскошь, надо часами ходить по
магазинам и методом проб и ошибок подбирать вещи, которые соответствуют
вашему неповторимому стилю. Есть и другой путь – для тех, кто всерьез
решил взяться за дело. Компания «Bonvisage Ltd» предлагает трехдневные
туры в Лондон, в программу которых входят встречи со всемирно
известными лондонскими стилистами и дизайнерами. Они объяснят, что
сейчас в моде, проведут по «правильным» магазинам, помогут выбрать
нужные вещи и, если потребуется, внесут необходимые изменения в ваш
облик.
Программа «стильного тура» обширна. Для начала - встреча с ведущим
стилистом и экспертом по вопросам мужской и женской одежды Каролин
Станбери (Caroline Stanbury). Каролин, как уверяют организаторы, настоящая
энциклопедия моды и знает абсолютно все про одежду, аксессуары и
магазины. Сначала она проанализирует уже имеющийся гардероб, затем
выберет нужное направление в стиле и дополнит его необходимыми
элементами. Вместе с клиентами Каролин совершит поход по
Кенсингтонским (Kensington) бутикам и посоветует, что купить. В выборе
обуви можно довериться самому модному лондонскому сапожнику Джону
Лоббу (John Lobb). Он владеет, пожалуй, самой красивой обувной мастерской
в мире. Клиентами его мастерской в разные времена были Энрико Карузо
(Enrico Caruso), Федор Шаляпин (Fyodor Shalyapin), Фрэнк Синатра (Frank
Sinatra), Опенхаймер (Oppenheimer), Бернард Шоу (Bernard Show), Чемберлен
(Chamberlain) и Макмиллан (McMillan), английская королева и принц
Уэльский.
Далее в программе - ателье Ричарда Андерсона (Richard Anderson) на
Сэвил-Роу (Savile Row), в котором клиентов обслуживают в неизменной
атмосфере покоя и достоинства. Здесь сохранены лучшие традиции
английского костюма, введенные знаменитым лондонским денди Бью
Брюммелем (Beau Brummel). Портные и закройщики обращаются друг к
другу не иначе как «сэр» и «мистер». В костюмах от Андерсона сочетаются
простота кроя, изысканность ткани и внимание к деталям. Интересно, что
каждый костюм шьется от начала до конца одним портным в течение двух
месяцев по системе «две примерки» (Bespoke).
Разумеется, вся эта эксклюзивность доступна не всем. Но если уж всерьез
браться за изменение собственного стиля, то лучшего места не найти.
Главное – отнестись к красоте по-гурмански. Как в лучших домах…
Unit 3. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE. MY TRAVELLING.
Not to go anywhere, but to go … travel
for travel’s sake. The great affair is to move.
Robert Louis Stevenson

Recommended grammar:
Sequence of Tenses. Conditionals.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

3.1. Scan the passage below and say why traveling and tourism are so
important in modern life. What are the major types of tourism?
Tourists and Tourism
Travel and tourism are addictive and their impact on our lives is truly
monumental. Despite the fact that mass tourism is viewed as a simple but
harmless way of helping people see the world and broaden their horizons, our
desire to maximize every traveling opportunity that presents itself has had a wholly
unforeseen impact on our attitudes towards life in general and on the world we live
in. In no way could this impact have been accurately predicted, even 30 years ago.
No matter how uninspiring our miserable destination may be, or how
disillusioned we are by the transport systems; no matter what trouble our payment
of debts due to overambitious holiday spending may lead us into, there is nothing
amateur about our desire to make our fantasies realities.
Tourists travel to places away from home and stay there for a short time – a
week or two, perhaps. They travel because they want to do business, or to visit
friends or family, or to have a holiday. All three kinds of travel are part of tourism.
But in the modern world, holidays are the most important kind of tourism.
The tourist industry gives tourists everything that they want and need during
their visits: hotels, restaurants, airports, theatres, etc. When tourists visit places in
their own country, this is called domestic tourism. When they visit other
countries, this is international tourism.
Tourism is a very important business for many countries, and it’s getting
bigger all the time. Millions of people like hoteliers and property owners depend
on the tourist industry for their livelihood, as well as those who work in this
industry. A decrease in the popularity of tourism would be nothing short of disaster.

3.2. a) Read the following texts and match them to the titles below.
b) Answer the questions after the texts.
c) Discuss the titles and the final sentence of each text with a partner.
Title 1. Travel Doesn’t Broaden the Mind
Title 2. Making the Best of Journeys
Text 1
It was the Victorians who were really obsessed with travel. They lived at a
time when travel really did harden the body and improve the spirit. It took a rare
breed of man to trudge through some malaria-infested swamp in a pith helmet after
the native bearers had drunk all the whisky, stolen the rations, and run off with the
compass.
Since then, travelers have thought of themselves as faintly noble, and they
look down on mere tourists who stay in comfortable hotels and ride in air-
conditioned buses. To travelers it is a mark of pride to suffer as much as possible.
They get a perverse joy from spending all day squatting over a sordid cesspit.
Paul Theroux, a best-selling travel writer, is one of the people caught up in
the myth: “The nearest thing to writing a novel is traveling in a strange country.”
Travel, he declares, is a creative act. It isn’t. It may be fun. It may be interesting.
But travelers get no insight into eternal truths.
Text 2
I've been shocked, but not altogether surprised, when I think of the efforts
the human race (adult variety) has made, and makes to keep itself from being
bored on journeys. Look what happens when it crosses the sea on board a great
ship. Everything is organized to prevent boredom - games and concerts, swimming
pools and cinema shows - all sorts of things go on, day in day out. Airports have
huge bookstalls and everybody busily buys magazines and papers to read. In the air
there's a continual succession of meals, drinks and sweets brought by helpful air-
hostesses. No station, except the smallest, is complete without its railway
bookstall, and if you make a journey along any main line for any length of time
and look at your grown-up companions, you'll find them always hiding behind
their papers and magazines.
Nowadays even those who go by car can’t do without the radio - at least a lot
of adults can’t. It's all part of the general idea that journeys are deadly boring, and
that they have got to drug themselves with something to get through. Very few
people over the age of thirty look out of the window.

Questions:
1. What are the main ideas of the texts? Are they similar or different?
2. How is modern traveling different from that of the Victorian period?
How can modern people get similar sensations?
3. What makes travelers different from tourists? Do you prefer to spend
you holidays as a traveler or as a tourist? Why?
4. What makes modern journeys boring? Do your think they are boring?
Why? Why not?
3.3. a) Read the continuation of Text 2 and pick up all the words and
expressions connected with waiting and moving. Use them in your
sentences.
Not long ago I was traveling by air from London Airport to Prestwick in
Scotland. It takes ages to get into the air these days - three-quarters of an hour to
get through the London traffic on a bus, perhaps another half-hour at the airport
until the flight is ready. On some air journeys you spend as much time on the
ground as you do in the air between terminals! Waiting for the flight to be
announced on the loudspeaker, I looked at the passengers who were going to travel
in our aircraft. They were all slumped about in chairs, idly turning over the leaves
of magazines, muttering to each other, obviously bored stiff. All, that is, except the
passengers who were in their teens or younger. These were buzzing round the
waiting-room with a great deal of zeal - indeed, impatience - looking closely at all
the maps of air-routes, working through the time-tables of the different services.
When the flight was at last announced, a boy of about fifteen slipped, quite
politely, to the head of the queue, and was one of the first to board the aircraft
when we were out on the tarmac. I knew he’d traveled by air before when I saw
he’d bagged a seat in the rear of the aircraft, by a window that I knew was one of
the best for a view of the world below. I sat down behind him. Just after we’d taken
off, and everybody had loosened their seat belts, we both fished traveling atlases of
Britain out of our bags.
“Mine’s the same as yours,” I said, over his shoulder. “I like following the
flight; and it’s a good day for seeing the ground,” he said.
It was a good day; we flew all the way to Scotland between six and eight
thousand feet, and there was not a cloud in the sky. Now and then we got up to
look out of the port window, to pick up an expected town, or a wood, or a lake.
We were not far from Birmingham when the captain of the aircraft came
through on one of his periodic visits to the passengers. George was looking out of
the window and mumbling away on his running commentary. The captain tapped
him on the shoulder. “Navigator, eh?” he said. “You seem to know where we are -
would you like to meet our navigator and look at his plot (= map)?”
“Would I?” said George. You couldn’t see his tail for smoke as he scuttled
forward through the crew door.
On most longish flights captain once or twice passes a bit of paper down to
the passengers which gives the aircraft's speed, height, position, and E.T.A. (=
estimated time of arrival); or else he announces it over the loudspeaker; or he does
both. After some time a voice came over the speaker: “Shortly,” it said, “we will
see Windermere to our right - I mean starboard (= the side of an aircraft that is on
the right when you are facing forward). Below us now, on our port side (= the side
of an aircraft that is on the left when you are facing forward), is Morecambe Bay.”
It sounded rather a young voice. Sure enough, along came Windermere, a silver
ribbon in a landscape of great green hills, crowned with spring snow. And the voice
told us when we were flying over Sea Fell, the highest mountain in England, and
showed us Carlisle and the Solway estuary, and the hills of the Lowlands, also
powered with snow. Some of the grown-ups even put down their magazines for a
moment and looked out of the window.
Just before the air-hostess warned us to fasten our safety-belts for landing,
George came back with a beaming face. “Wizard show,” he said, “the navigator’s a
good type; he showed me all his things and even let me give the position on the
loudspeaker.”

Questions:
1. Where was Mr. Fisher once going to? Was he travelling by sea or by air?
2. How was the behaviour of the young passengers different from the behaviour
of the adults in the departure lounge?
3. What did a fifteen-year-old boy do when the flight was announced?
4. Why did the boy choose a seat in the rear of the aircraft?
5. What did the boy do when the plane was high up in the air?
6. What was the weather like on the day of the flight?
7. Why would Mr. Fisher and his young fellow-traveller get up from time to time
from their seats?
8. What did the pilot suggest George could do?
9. What places did the passengers see from above? What did they look like?
10. How did the captain communicate with the passengers? How has the system
changed since then?
11. Why was George’s face beaming when he returned to his seat?

3.4 Study the vocabulary used to describe travelling. Practice saying all the
words of French origin. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
General holiday expressions:
to be on holiday/vacation (AmE), holiday-maker, holiday in the mountains,
camping holiday, seaside holiday, cruise, package tour, coach tour, charter flight, to
go on an excursion, to go on a trip, to see the sights/ go sightseeing/ do the
sightseeing/ do the city, to lie on the beach/ in the sun, to sunbathe/ to get a sun-
tan, to swim in the sea, to take pictures, to visit museums, to send postcards home,
to buy souvenirs, to hike/ go hiking, to tour/ go touring, to climb/ go climbing/
mountaineering, to get away from it all (= to escape your daily routine), value for
money, non-refundable, to cancel a flight/ trip, stopover/ lay-over, to apply for a
visa, to obtain/ get a visa;
Making a reservation:
a booking-office, to book/ to make a reservation/an enquiry, to cancel a
reservation, to confirm/ reconfirm tickets;
At the customs’:
customs inspector/ officer, customs office, customs regulations, departure gate,
departure lounge, to be duty-free, duty-free shop, entry visa, exit visa, multiple
visa, transit visa, examination of one’s luggage, to go through customs and
immigration, green channel, red channel, immigration office, landing formalities;
Travelling by air:
aircraft, jet, helicopter, supersonic aircraft, starboard (right), port (left), cockpit,
aisle, porthole, nose, tail/ rear, wings, fuselage, joystick, crew, pilot, air-host(-ess)/
flight attendant, air traffic controller, ground staff, airline ticket, boarding pass/
card, certificate of vaccination, domestic flight, international flight, scheduled
flight, route via Frankfurt, in the rear, landing, tarmac, terminal, departure lounge,
hangar, runway, duty-free shop, jet lag,
to board the aircraft, to delay/ to postpone a flight, to embark, to go first class/
business/ economy class, to take off, to land, to see the scenery through a porthole,
to be air-sick, to (un)fasten the seat-belts, be stranded at the airport overnight;
The plane was delayed by fog. Air passengers often suffer such delays.
Travelling by sea:
yacht, rowing-boat, fishing-boat, ferry, steamer, liner, steward(-ess), gang-plank /
gangway, companionway, engine-room, shared (single, double, deluxe) cabin,
state-room, upper (lower) deck, bunk/ berth, galley, life-belt, life-boat, starboard
(right), port (left), crew, captain, skipper, purser, docker, docks, harbour, quay, port,
buoy, light-house,
to cast anchor, to weigh anchor, to go ashore, to call at a port, to embark
passengers, to disembark passengers, to be an old salt, to be a bad sailor, to be sea-
sick;
We are sailing on the QE2. It sets sail at noon. It will dock in New York at
6 p.m. and we shall disembark as soon as we can.
The ship was wrecked. The passengers were marooned on a desert island.
Travelling by train:
direct train, through train, freight train, local train, express, carriage, buffet/
buffet car/ dining-car, compartment, smoking (non-smoking) compartment/ smoker
(non-smoker), sleeper, cloak-room/ check-room/ luggage office, an aisle (window)
seat, engine/ train-driver, guard, fellow-passenger, ticket collector / ticket
conductor (AmE), ticket inspector, emergency brake, engine, refreshments, season
ticket, timetable, junction, signal-box,
to board the train, to have a seat facing the engine, to have a seat with one’s back
to it, to change train (at);
Trains always run on time here. You have to change trains at Crewe.
Traveling by car:
to hire a car, to go for a drive, to get around (informal: travelling to different
places), to buy accident insurance, to go as you please,
SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle);
Our car does 10 km to the litre. It goes quite fast. We can
usually overtake other cars.
The car swerved into the middle of the road to avoid the
cyclist.
He backed the car into the drive and parked in front of the
house.
Luggage/ baggage (AmE):
Check-in desk, hand luggage/ hand baggage (AmE)/ carry-on baggage (AmE),
baggage allowance, excess luggage, excess baggage charge, porter,
to apply a luggage tag, to hail/to call a porter;
Accommodation:
hotel, bed and breakfast (B&B), full board (FB) (= all meals), half-board (HB)
(= usually breakfast and one other meal), boarding house/ guest-house, campsite,
caravan/trailer (AmE), motel, youth hostel, spa, seaside resort, ski resort, facilities,
room service;
self-catering (= where you do your own cooking) accommodation: a holiday
apartment, chalet, small cottage, cabin,
to make arrangements about the room, to stay in a hotel, to fill in an arrival card,
to extend a stay;
I’d like to book/reserve (AmE) a single room (a double room, en suite room,
a suite, a twin-bedded room, a room with an en suite bathroom).
I’d like a room with a sea view. Do you have any vacancies?
What are your terms/ rates for a double room?
When do you serve breakfast? Is breakfast included?
I have a double room booked for me/ in my name.
I have a reservation for a double room.
I’d like to check in (check out).
I’d like to have breakfast in my room.
Could we have dinner in our room, please?
How much are my telephone charges?
Could I have these clothes cleaned (washed, ironed)?
Where’s the front desk (the receptionist, the lounge, the doorkeeper, the floor
attendant, the room chambermaid)?
Call Room Service, please.
Is there a hairdresser's (a barber's, a beautician, a round-the-clock snack-bar,
dry cleaning) in the hotel?
What is the check-out time, please?
Sorry to bother you, but I am afraid the TV in my room isn't working.
I'm afraid there's something wrong with the..., could you have a look at it?
General impressions about the holiday:
the holiday of a lifetime,
We had a really good time. /We had lots of fun.
There was a relaxed atmosphere.
The scenery was beautiful. / The nature was unspoiled. /It was a fascinating
place.
The town was rich in architecture.
The children were excited.
It wasn't boring at all.
The room was lovely and clean. The beds were comfortable.
The entertainment was excellent.
The food was adequate.
The service was poor.
3.5. Look at the following sentences and decide if they are true (T) or false
(F). If they are false, explain why.

1. ___ A travel agency is the same as a tour operator.


2. ___ A package tour is a holiday in which the price includes flights, transfers to
and from the airport and accommodation.
3. ___ An all-inclusive holiday is a holiday in which the price includes flights,
transfers, accommodation, food and drink.
4. ___ When passengers embark, they get off a plane or ship.
5. ___ When passengers disembark, they get on a plane or ship.
6. ___ The first thing you do when you go to an airport is go to the check-in.
7. ___ The first thing you do when you arrive at your hotel is checking in.
8. ___ The opposite of a package tourist is an independent traveller.
9. ___ Mass tourism can have a negative effect on the environment.
10. ___Eco-tourism is tourism which has a negative effect on the environment.
11. ___ The words trip, excursion, journey and voyage all have the same
meaning.
12. ___ It is always necessary to have a visa when you visit a foreign country.
13. ___ A flight from London to Paris could be described as a long-haul flight.
14. ___ Flying economy class is more expensive than flying business class.
15. ___ A Canadian citizen flying to Japan will have to fill in an immigration
card
before he arrives.

3.6. Explain the difference between the following.


(a) a scheduled flight and a charter flight;
(b) a crossing and a cruise;
(c) a camp site and a holiday camp;
(d) a time-share apartment and a guest house;
(e) a hotel and a bed and breakfast place;
(f) a tour operator and a travel agent;
(g) seasick, airsick and carsick;
(h) at sea, at the seaside and in the sea;
(i) red channel and green channel;
(j) hand luggage and check-in luggage;
(k) a multiple visa and a transit visa.

3.7. Match words or word combinations on the left with the definition on
the right.
a single ticket a ticket that allows you to travel any number of times
within a particular period
a return ticket the money that you pay to travel by bus, plane, train,
etc.
a season ticket a ticket that allows you to travel to a place but not back
again
a through train a seat next to the passage between rows of seats on a
plane, etc.
fare a ticket for a journey to a place and back again
hand luggage a small piece of paper or plastic attached to the bags to
give some information about the owner
boarding pass small bags that you can keep with you on an aircraft
an aisle seat a card that you show before you get on a plane or boat
junction a train going directly from one place to another
luggage tag the place where two or more roads or railways lines
meet

3.8. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passages below.
a) Holidays
off the beaten track hitch-hiking leisure off-peak
package holiday travel agents resort peak
cut-price tickets youth hostels

People have more money and more (a) ______ nowadays and even young people
can afford to go abroad. Many (b) ______ offer cheap (c) ______ for flights to
all
parts of the world, so youngsters can avoid the crowded, well-known places and
get to less famous areas which are (d) ______. Instead of using public transport
and hotels, they can travel by (e) ______ and stay at (f) ______. But most people
prefer some kind of (g) ______ at a popular holiday (h) ______, which means that
everything is arranged for you and the price you pay includes transport, food and
accommodation. Try to avoid taking your holiday during the busy (i)
______tourist
season. It's more crowded and expensive. If possible, go in the quieter (j) ______
period.
b) Journeys
trip travel journey cruise tour voyage flight

(a) For general advice about ______, go to a travel agent.


(b) One day I would like to do the ______ by train and ship across Russia to
Japan.
(c) We’re going on a ______ of Europe, visiting 11 countries in five weeks.
(d) We went on a three-week ______ round the Mediterranean. The ship called at
Venice, Athens, Istanbul and Alexandria.
(e) He once went by ship to Australia. The ______ took 3 1/2 weeks.
(f) I’m going on a business ______ to Paris next weekend.
(g) Air France ______ 507 from Paris to New York will be taking off in ten
minutes.
(h) The ______ from Heathrow Airport to the centre of London takes about 45
minutes by underground.
(i) On our first day in New York we went on a three-hour ______ of the city by
bus, which showed us the main sights.
(j) During our stay in Paris we went on a day ______ to Disneyland.

c) in at by on
(a) We went ______ car. (d) She arrived ___ Rome ___ midnight.
(b) We went ______ John's car. (e) She arrived ______ the hotel.
(c) We went ______ a journey.

3.9. a) Match the expressions in bold to the definitions after the text.
b) Use the expressions from the text in your sentences.
If a tourist’s yarning to (1) escape the crowd, (2) render off the beaten track
and (3) get back to nature, Suriname increasingly looks a (4) promising
choice. Nobody in Suriname claims that the country (5) boasts the best sand,
sea and sun in the Caribbean. But that, in a way, is precisely the point: there
aren’t (6) hordes of people either.
As Henk Essed, director of the Suriname Tourism Foundation, observes:
“We don’t really need masses of tourists like we have in the rest of the
Caribbean. Instead, Suriname’s modest (7) tourism sector focuses on what
makes the country different. The biggest attraction for visitors (8) seeking
something out of the ordinary is the (9) wealth of wildlife. Large (10) tracts
of the country are still covered by (11) virgin rainforest, home to a huge range
of (12) flora and fauna.”
“There is great potential to develop (13) eco-tourism as one of the major
sources of income in the near future”, says Harold Sijlbing, managing director
of Stinasu, an organisation which promotes conservation of wildlife and
ecological awareness.

(a) ___ looking for something different/unusual


(b) ___ original and natural
(c) ___ live a natural, rural style of life
(d) ___ go where there are not many people
(e) ___ crowds, in a negative sense
(f) ___ go to places tourists don’t normally go
(g) ___ tourist industry (formal)
(h) ___ a choice which could be a very good one
(i) ___ plants and animals (Latin, a fixed phrase)
(j) ___ large amount of (formal)
(k) ___ areas of land, collocates with large, vast, huge
(l) ___ have something that is impressive and that you can be proud of
(m) __ holidays that respect the environment

3.10. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passages below.
Air Travel
a) departure lounge immigration officer check runway
departure gate security guard board on board
departures board excess baggage check in duty free
hand luggage conveyor belt taxi passengers
announcement check-in desk trolley take off
security check
When you travel by air you have to get to the airport early in order to (a) ____
about an hour before your flight. If you have a lot of luggage, you can put it in a
(b) ______ and push it to the (c) ______, where someone will (d) ______your
ticket and weigh your luggage. If you have (e) ______, it can be expensive. Your
heavy luggage is put on a (f) ______ and carried away. A light bag is classed as (g)
______ and you can take it with you on to the plane. An (h) ______ looks at your
passport and a (i) ______checks your hand luggage before you go into the (j)
______ to wait till your flight is called. If you want to, you can buy some cheap
(k)______ goods here. Then you see on the (l) ______or you hear an (m) _____
that you must (n) ______ your plane. You go through the (o) ______, then there is
sometimes a (p) ______ before you actually enter the plane. When all the
(q)______ are (r) ______, and when the captain and his crew are ready in the
cockpit, the plane begins to (s) ______to the end of the (t) ______. Finally,
permission is received from the control tower and the plane moves faster and faster
in order to (u)______.

b) headphones seat belts aisle land


turbulence cabin crew airliner

Flying is fun. I like being in a big (a) _____ with the (b) _____ (flight attendants)
looking after me. They walk up an down the (c) _____ bringing meals and drinks;
and if the flight is going through some (d) __, they warn everybody that it might be
a bit bumpy and ask us to fasten our (e) _____. On a long flight I like listening to
music through the (f) ___ available to all passengers, and sometimes I have a sleep.
I enjoy it all so much that I never want the plane to (g) ______.

c) through at to off in on for by


(a) We decided to go ____ plane.
(b) When do we take ____?
(c) First you must go ____ customs and immigration.
(d) You’d better ask ___ the information desk.
(e) His friend went ___ the airport with him to see him ___.
(f) You must check ____ at 10.30
(g) Put your luggage ___ a trolley.
(h) He looked ___ my passport.

3.11. Read the text paying attention to the order of going through all the
airport formalities and answer the questions after the text.
Airport Formalities
According to the international standards passengers are to arrive at the
airport two hours before departure time on international flights and one hour on
domestic flights. The reason is that passengers should have enough time to
complete all necessary airport formalities.
At the airport passengers should check the time of the flight to make sure
that it is not delayed, cancelled, or altered. This information is available on the
flight information display or at the inquiry office.
Passengers are to fill in customs declarations in one of the international
languages or in the language of the country they depart from. They go to the
Customs for an examination of their luggage. In some cases the Customs officer
may ask you to open your bags and suitcases for inspection. This is done in order
to prevent smuggling. After you are through with all Customs formalities, the
Customs officer puts a stamp on your Customs declaration, or on each piece of
luggage, or chalks it off. The particular procedure depends on the country of
departure.
Then passengers proceed to the check-in area. There they are to register their
tickets, to weigh in and to check in their luggage.
Most airlines have at least two classes of travel: first or business class and
economy or tourist class. Business class is more expensive, while economy class is
cheaper. Each passenger over two years of age has a free luggage allowance. As a
rule, this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for business class
passengers. Excess luggage must be paid for, except some articles that can be
carried free of charge, such as baby's food, articles of baby's care, baby's prams,
wheelchairs of disabled passengers, and some personal effects. Each passenger is
given a boarding pass with his or her seat number. A boarding pass is to be shown
at the departure gate and to the hostess when boarding the plane. Finally,
passengers proceed to the passport control area. Passport control officers will
check your passport and visa and put a stamp on them.
Customs, checking-in and passport formalities are more or less the same in
all countries.

Questions:
1. Is there any difference between the time of arriving at an airport before
departure on international flights and on domestic flights? Why?
2. What are the duties of the Customs officer?
3. What is a Customs declaration?
4. What is different about classes of air traveling? What class do you usually
travel?
5. What excess luggage can be carried on board free of charge?

3.12. Fill in the missing words.

1. The Ritz is a famous _____ in London where rich people like to go.
2. Since we have a tent, we can stay at a _____ .
3. A _____ is a place with a spring of mineral water. People usually go there
for their health.
4. A _____ is a large private lodging house where people can pay to stay and
have meals.
5. A _____ is meant for motorists with a space to park their cars next to the
rooms.
6. Many young people like to stay at a _____ where they can get fairly cheap
accommodation.
7. Many people prefer to take a _____ with them on holiday, then they can stop
and sleep wherever they want.
8. If I had a lot of money, I would go on a world _____ . But I hope I don’t get
seasick very easily.
9. When she was in London, she went on an _____ to the Tower.
10. In summer, London, Paris and Rome are always full of ______.
11. In the winter, Mary spent two weeks at a ski _____ in Austria.
12. A ______ is a holiday organized by a travel agency. It includes travel,
hotels, meals, and people travel there in large groups.
13. Ann spends most of the day _____ on the beach as she wants to come back
from her holidays with a good ______.
14. I’d like a single room with a balcony. Do you have any ______. I’m afraid
I haven’t made a ______.
15. Unfortunately, our single rooms are ______.
3.13. Study some signs and notices which you can see at an international
airport or in a city. Work with a partner and explain their meanings.
Think of other signs that you can add to this list.
At the Airport or Railway Station
To the Customs Departure Lounge
Check-In Duty Free
Baggage Check-In Passport Control
Baggage Claim / Carousel (AmE) Gate 2
Withdrawals Immigration
Deposits Security
Arrivals Information
Departures Lost and Found
Car Rent /Rental First Class Only
In the City or on the Road
Attention Do Not Litter
$ 50 Fine Bus Stop
Tow-away Zone Public Parking
Don’t Walk/ Walk (at the traffic lights) Private Property
Don’t Trespass / No Trespassing Police Station
Exit to Bus Detour
No passing Railroad Crossing
Traffic Circle No Parking
Auto Repair Car Wash
Slow: Children Speed Limit: 55

3.14. Many people have to travel not because they like it but because they
are forced to for a number of reasons. Complete the sentences with a
suitable word or expression from the list below. What problems
mentioned in the sentences are present in modern Russia?
deported expatriates internally displaced repatriated
immigration emigration culture shock refugees
persona non grata economic migrants
UNHCR (UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees – Управление
верховного комиссара ООН по делам беженцев)
1. At the beginning of the war, thousands of _______fled over the border to the
next country.
2. Since the civil war began, almost a million people have been forced to move
to another part of the country. These ______ persons are now without food or
shelter.
3. Nineteenth-century governments encouraged __________ to the colonies.
4. The government is encouraging ________ because of the shortage of workers
in key industries.
5. Going from California to live with hill tribes in India was something of a
_____.
6. Thousands of British ______ live in Singapore, where many of them have
high-powered jobs.
7. The ________ is under a lot of pressure owing to the huge number of
displaced persons around the world.
8. He was _______ from the country when his visa expired.
9. Because he had a criminal record, the government didn’t want him to enter the
country, declared him _________ and asked him to leave immediately.
10. After the economy collapsed in the east, thousands of _______headed west in
the hope of finding a good job.
11. He didn’t want to be _______, but nevertheless was put on a plane back
home.

3.15. a) Complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from the
list below.
b) What is the main idea of the text? Do you agree with it? Discuss
your points of view in class.

persona non grata eco-tourism package tour visas


all-inclusive expatriates mass tourism immigration
independent travelersdeported checking in economic migrants
internally displaced check in economy class culture shock
travel agency disembark refugees excursion

Travel: the Other Side of the Coin


Most of us have, at some point in our lives, experienced the joys of travel. We go
to the (1) _____ to pick up our brochures. We book a two-week (2) _______with
flights and accommodation included (or if we are (3) ______, we make our own
way to the country and travel around from place to place with a rucksack on our
back). We make sure we have all the right currency, our passport and any (4)
_______ that are necessary to get us into the country. We go to the airport and (5)
______. We strap ourselves into our tiny (6) _______aircraft seats and a few hours
later we (7) _____ from the aircraft, strange new sights, smells and sounds greeting
us. Nowadays, it seems, the whole world goes on holiday at once: the age of (8)
_________ is in full swing!
But for the great majority of people around the world, travel for them is done in
the face of great adversity and hardship. They never get to indulge in an (9)
_______ holiday in a luxury hotel with all meals and drinks included. They never
get to explore the lush Amazon rain forest or the frozen wastes of the Arctic on an
(10) _______ holiday. For them, travel is a matter of life and death, I refer, of
course, to all the (11) _______ escaping from their own countries, or the (12)
_______, moved from one part of their country to another by an uncaring
government, or (13) ________ forced to find a job and seek a living wherever they
can.
Can you imagine anything worse than the misery these people must face? Let’s
not confuse them with those (14) _________, who choose to live in another
country and often have nice houses and high salaries. These people are simply
desperate to survive. As well as losing their homes because of war or famine or
other natural disasters, they must come to terms with their new environment: for
many, the (15) _______ can be too great. And while many countries with an open
policy on (16) _______ will welcome them in with open arms, others will simply
turn them away. These people become (17) _______, unwanted and unwelcome.
Even if they manage to get into a country, they will often be (18) _______or
repatriated. Their future is uncertain.
Something to think about, perhaps, the next time you are (19) ________to your
five-star hotel by a palm-fringed beach or sitting in a coach on an (20) _______ to
a pretty castle in the countryside.
3.16. Read the sentences below with the idioms in bold containing words on
traveling. Translate them in Russian and be ready to explain their
meaning in class. Are there any ‘travelling’ idioms in Russian? Try
to convey their meaning in English.
1. She paid her mother a flying visit before she went back to university.
2. “We might have fine weather for our holiday!” – “Yes, and pigs might fly.”
3. He passed his exam with flying colours.
4. Time flies.
5. This business is driving me up the wall!
6. I’ve burnt my boats by resigning, and I haven’t got another job.
7. We’re all in the same boat as far as low wages are concerned.
8. We were all very well until he began rocking the boat by asking if our actions
were legal.
9. I meant to send her a birthday card, but I missed the boat – her birthday was
last week.
10. Our holiday plans are still up in the air.
11. She’s walking on air since he asked her to marry him.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS

3.17. Work with a partner. Read the dialogues and using them as a model
make up similar dialogues.
Dialogue 1: Talking about Holiday Plans
M: Hello, Bob!
B: Hello, Mary!
M: Hey, when are you going on holiday?
B: Well, I think I'll go in March. You see, I've got two weeks in March ... and
then
another two weeks in September.
M: Are you going to take Cindy with you?
B: Sure.
M: And where are you going to go?
B: I’m hoping to go to Mexico in September. I’ve never been there and I keep
hearing all these great things about it.
A: Oh God, it’s sure to be fabulous. Especially if you go in September, you can
get
those charter flights.
B: Yes, maybe.
A: And it’s beautiful down there and not so hot at that time of year.
Dialogue 2: At a Travel Agency
A: Good morning. Can I help you?
B: Yes, I’d like to book a coach tour, please. To Holland.
A: In which month, please?
B: June or July.
A: I see. And for how long?
B: Two weeks, if possible.
A: Two weeks? Right. We have trips to Amsterdam on June 3rd, June 18th, July 5th
and July 20th.
B: Did you say June 5th?
A: No, the 3rd. It’s July 5th.
B: Oh, I see. Well, the one on June 3rd sounds all right. I’ll take that.
A: June 3rd . Yes, we have a room. How many of you will there be?
B: Just me.
A: Right. Now if I could just have some details from you ...

3.18. a) Insert the questions into the dialogue according to the answers
given.
b) Practice the conversation with a partner paying attention to the
phrases used for talking on the phone. Add more details to your
dialogue.

How long are they staying?


Are there any seats available?
When can the tickets come?
When do they plan to leave?
What are the options?
Are there any British Airways flights about that time?

Susan: Grand Tour Agency. Susan Sharp speaking.


Hans: Hello, Susan. This is Hans Bradly. I need to send two our sales managers
to
Rome next week._____________?
Susan: Ok, _______________________?
Hans: Monday, October 14th.
Susan: And if you want to book return flight I must ask you: ____________?
Hans: Four days. They would like to come back on the 17th night. ________?
Susan: Let me have a look. There is a flight at 8.50 p.m. with British Airlines.
Hans: _______________?
Susan: Fortunately, there are. I’ve just called it up onto the screen. Shall I reserve
you two right now?
Hans: Yes, please. And make it Business Class, OK? __________________?
Susan: $440. Your name and address?
Hans: Mr. Bradly, 30 Park Avenue, London.
Susan: And your telephone number?
Hans: (171) 897 67 487
Susan: Will you pay by credit card?
Hans: Yes, by Master card. Number 324 76545 876. Valid until January, 2009.
__________?
Susan: In three or four days.
Hans: Shall I call you then to check up?
Susan: No need. I’ll send them to you as soon as they arrive.
Hans: Thank you so much.
Susan: You are most welcome.

3.19. Look at the pictures and discuss the questions below with a partner.
Questions:
1. What kind of tourists might go to the places in the pictures, and what could
they do there? What problems can they face? What might they enjoy most?
2. What holidays would you prefer? How would they be different from the
holidays you usually have?

3.20. What country (countries) would you like to visit in you lifetime? Plan
a round-the-world holiday and say which six countries you would like
to visit and why. Before discussing your choice in class, do the short
questionnaire below.
1) I am most likely to spend a Saturday night … 2) I enjoy spending time with …
a) at a coffeehouse with friends; a) teenagers;
b) at home with a book; b) college students;
c) having people over for dinner. c) people of all ages.

3) Choose the most appealing menu … 4) My friends would describe me as:


a) potato dumplings; a) social;
b) stir-fried chicken; b) bookish;
c) lamb stew. c) adventuresome.

5) The thought of not having hot water for a week …


a) scares me to death;
b) means I’d have to boil it on the stove;
c) hot water is for wimps.

6) I have always wanted to visit …


a) a European Castle;
b) The Great Wall;
c) Red Square.

Answer Key:
Which letter did you check most often?
a - you might prefer the hustle, bustle and high culture of Central Europe;
b - you might enjoy the relaxed atmosphere of China;
c - you might appreciate the joys and challenges of Russia, or the countries of
the former Soviet Union.

3.21. Work with a partner and think what pieces of advice you would give to
a stranger in the following situations in Russia? In a foreign country?

(a) How to find Luggage Check-In.


(b) How to find Cart Rental.
(c) How to check in at the airport.
(d) What kind of travel card to buy and why.
(e) How to find First Class Carriage at a railway station.
(f) How to ask a clerk about train departure.
(g) How to find a cafeteria.
(h) What to do and where to go after landing.
3.22. Choose the best means of transport for the following people. Discuss
your choice in class.
- for a business man;
- for a retired well-to-do couple;
- for students traveling across Europe;
- for traveling from New York to Siberia;
- for traveling from China to Australia.

3.23. Read the dialogues with a partner and make up a dialogue on any
situation at the airport.

1.
Passenger: How much weight is allowed to take on board the plane?
Check-in clerk: As you are flying economy class, sir, the weight of your baggage
must not exceed forty-five pounds. You will be charged for any excess weight you
have.
Passenger: Oh, I don’t think my things will weigh that much. See, it’s only forty-
one pound. Could I have my handbag with me?
Check-in clerk: Certainly. We shall attach a tag “carry-on baggage” to it. But the
suitcase will have to go to the overhead baggage compartment. And now please
would you step over to the departure lounge. You will hear your flight and
destination announced.
2.
Flight attendant: May I have your seat number? It is in your boarding pass.
Passenger: Here you are.
Flight attendant: Thus way, please. Your seat is over there – third row on the
right, next to the porthole. You may put your hat and raincoat on the rack.
(to all the passengers a bit later) Ladies and gentlemen, please put your seats in
the upright position and fasten your seatbelts.
Passenger: At what altitude are we going to fly?
Flight attendant: The altitude will be about 25,000 feet.
Passenger: Thanks.
Flight attendant: (some time later) How is the flight? Quite comfortable?
Passenger: Yes, thank you. When do we get to London?
Flight attendant: We should touch down shortly after three, very soon now.
(before landing): Ladies and gentlemen. In 10 minutes we shall be landing at
Heathrow. Please remain seated with safety belts fastened and with the seats in the
upright position until the plane has come to a compete halt. Thank you.

3.24. a) Match the six announcements made over the public address system
of an airport to a type of a message.
b) Make up similar announcements of different types.
Types of messages:
- staff announcement - warning
- advertisement - flight cancellation
- delayed flight departure - delayed night arrival
- security announcement - final flight call

Announcement 1
Passengers are reminded that smoking is not permitted in any part of the terminal
building.
Announcement 2
Will passenger Eckber from Miami please go to Airport Information where your
tour leader is waiting. Passenger Eckber to Airport Information.
Announcement 3
This is a staff call. Will Roger Broom, please, go to the Baggage Hall
immediately. Roger Broom to the Baggage Hall.
Announcement 4
This is the final call flight IB763 to Madrid. Will any remaining passengers,
please, proceed immediately to Gate number 14 where the aircraft is about to
depart.
Announcement 5
British Airways regret to announce the delay of flight BA008 to New York.
Passengers should report with their boarding cards to the BA desk where vouchers
for refreshments will be given. We would like to apologize for any inconvenience.
Announcement 6
This is a security announcement. Passengers are reminded not to leave baggage
unattended at any time. Any unattended baggage will be removed and may be
destroyed.

3.25. a) Read the text and explain how the system of domestic and
international flights is organized in the US? What makes it effective?
Domestic flights in the USA are organized
on the principle of hubs and spokes, like a bicycle
wheel which has a hub at the centre and lots of
spokes radiating out from it in all directions. One
such a hub is Houston in Texas: flights to over 100
other airports radiate out in different directions from
there and half of these are non-stop flights.
For example, if you want to get from
Miami to Los Angeles, you can catch a
Continental Airlines flight from Fort Lauderdale,
change planes at Houston and fly on to Orange
County.
The hub and spokes network has made flights cheaper and means that even
quite small places are connected to each other by a major airline or feeder service.
Another advantage of the system is that connecting flights are to some extent
guaranteed. If one incoming flight is up to one hour late, all the connecting flights
(up to 30 or 40) will be held until it arrives so if you are on a delayed flight, that’s
good news - but it’s bad news for everyone else because they all have to wait for
your plane to land. From the point of view of overseas connections, many hubs
also operate as entry points or “gateways”, where passengers flying in from
another country can join the hub and spoke system. The same type of system does
operate in other parts of the world: for example, you can fly from one part of
Europe to another via Frankfurt or Paris, or Amsterdam, or London, but the
difference in other parts of the world is that the fares are not any cheaper so there’s
no special advantage.
b) What do you think about the problem of national security on airplanes
and other kinds of transport? Have you heard about “air marshals” on
US planes? What steps do the USA and other countries take to prevent
hi-jacking and terror acts? Should there be a global spying system
introduced? Is it possible to set up the fine border between providing
security and invasion of privacy?

3.26. a) Study the information about the customs allowance.


b) Work with a partner and discuss the suggested situations.
a) The Customs’ Allowance
For travellers arriving from outside the EU
200 cigarettes, or 100 cigarillos, or 50 cigars, or 250g of tobacco
2 litres of still table wine
1 litre of spirits or strong liqueurs over 22% volume, or 2 litres of fortified wine,
sparkling wine, or other liqueurs
60 cc/ml of perfume
250 cc/ml of toilet water
$136 worth of all other goods including gifts and souvenirs
For travellers arriving from inside the EU
300 cigarettes, or 150 cigarillos, or 75 cigars, or 400g of tobacco
3 litres of still table wine
1.5 litres of spirits or strong liqueurs over 22% volume, or 3 litres of fortified
wine, sparkling wine, or other liqueurs
75 cc/ml of perfume
375 cc/ml of toilet water
PEOPLE UNDER 17 CANNOT HAVE THE TOBACCO OF ALCOHOL ALLOWANCE
Prohibited and restricted goods from outside the EU
Certain goods are prohibited or restricted to protect health and the environment.
We cannot list all the goods involved but we have listed some of them below.
Prohibited goods (that is, goods which are banned completely):
Unlicensed drugs, such as heroin, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines,
barbiturates, and LSD.
Offensive weapons, such as flick-knives, sword-sticks, knuckledusters, and
some martial arts equipment.
Obscene material, and indecent and obscene material featuring children, such as
books, magazines, films, videotapes, laser discs, and computer software.
Counterfeit and copied goods such as watches, clothes, and CDs, also any
goods with false marks of their origin.

Restricted goods (that is, goods which you cannot import without authority
gives a license):
Firearms, explosives, and ammunition, including electric shock devices (such
as stun guns) and gas canisters.
Dogs, cats, and other animals, including rabbits, mice, and rats.
You must not bring these in unless you have a British health import (rabies)
license.
Live birds, including family pets, unless they are covered by a British health
import license.
Endangered species, including birds and plants, whether alive or dead, also such
things as fur, ivory, or leather (or goods made from them) that have been taken
from endangered species.
Meat, poultry, and most of their products including bacon, ham, sausages, eggs,
milk, unless they are cooked and in airtight containers.
Certain plants and their produce. These include trees, shrubs, potatoes, certain
fruit, bulbs, and seeds.
Radio transmitters such as CB radios that are not approved for use in the UK.

b) The situations:
1. You are arriving in the UK from Copenhagen (Denmark). You have 75 cigars
which you bought at a shop in the city. Will you have to pay duty?
2. You are flying from Milan (Italy) to Birmingham (UK). You want to buy some
perfume without paying duty. How much perfume can you buy at the duty-free
shop at Milan airport?
3. You are arriving in the UK from Montevideo (Uruguay), where you live. How
many duty-free cigarettes can you bring in?
4. You are going to fly from Marseilles (France) to London (UK). You want to
buy some Sauterne (white wine) at a shop in Marseilles before you go to the
airport. How much wine can you take with you to London duty-free?
5. You are going to London for three weeks. Will you have to pay duty on your
camera?
6. You and your family (2 adults and two teenagers of 16 and 18) are going to
travel from Moscow (Russia) to Liverpool (UK) to visit friends. How much in the
tobacco line, perfume line and spirits are you all allowed to bring in?
7. Which of the two channels – red or green - would you go through at customs,
if you travel from Madrid (Spain) to London (UK) and have ten packs of
cigarettes, three bottles of champagne and 70 g of perfume?

3.27. a) Read the dialogue with a partner.


b) Plan a similar railway trip to any part of your country or an area
you know well. Decide on the route, the sights and scenery you might
see on your way, the facilities on the train, meals and
accommodation, different classes of passengers, discounts.

Alex: Come along, we are only just in time for the train.
Berney: Oh, no! We’re all right: it doesn’t pull out for another twenty minutes
yet.
Alex: I thought it would leave at 12.30.
Berney: No, not till 12.50.
Alex: Oh, that’s all right! Have you got the tickets?
Berney: No, let’s go along to the booking-office. I want a few magazines and
newspapers, so we’ll call at the bookstall on the way.
Alex: Yes, and I’ve left my bag in the cloakroom: I’ll just slip along there and
reclaim it while you get the tickets and newspapers.
Berney: I’ll meet you outside the left-luggage office in ten minutes’ time.
(ten minutes later)
Alex: I’m glad we are traveling together. Have we got reserved seats?
Berney: No, the train isn’t very crowded and we’ll get seats quite easily, I guess.
Here’s a porter; he can put our bags in the guard’s van and help us find us
the
seats. Porter!
Porter: Yes, sir. Do you want these bags to go into the luggage van of the 12.50?
Are the bags labelled, sir?
Berney: Yes, there’s a tie-on label on mine and a stick-on label on my friend’s.
Get us two corner seats in a first-class smoker.
Porter: Very good, sir. Better come along at once; the train is filling up quickly.
Platform 14.
Berney: Ah! Here we are. How do you like to sit, facing the engine or with your
back to it?
Alex: I don’t mind either way, but if it’s all the same to you I’d prefer to sit the
way the train is going.
Berney: That will suit me perfectly. I’m rather fussy about not sitting in a
draught,
so I prefer to sit with my back to the engine.
Alex: Well, here we are, ready for the journey.
Berney: Put this small bag on the rack above your head, will you? I’ll just go
along
the corridor and see where the dining-car is and book for the first service;
I’m
hungry.
Alex: Right, we shan’t be long now, the signals are down and the guard is
blowing
the whistle. He’s waving his flag. We’re off, now.

3.28. a) Read the extract from an advertisement of the railroad service.


Study the possible types of accommodation on the train.
b) Work with a partner and discuss which is the most comfortable, the
cheapest, the most luxurious. Which would you prefer? Which can you
afford to book now? Compare this accommodation with the train
accommodation in Russia.

VIA Rail has refurbished some of its classic trains in all the rich fabrics,
subtle colours, and polished wood of the art-deco era. Your choice of route and
cabin accommodation is outlined below.
Roomette: ideal for one person, the little cabin has a comfy seat and turns into
snug sleeping quarters at night (private facilities on western routes).
Section: semi-private with wide couch-style seats facing each other; these
convert to bunk beds, with heavy curtains for privacy at night.
Bedroom: ideal for two adults, by day a private living room with two armchairs
and a picture window, by night this converts to lower and upper berths. The cabins
have a sink and WC.
Coach class: there is plenty of space to move around, comfortable reclining
seats, and chair-side drinks and snacks service. On longer routes, Coach service
seats are enhanced by foot rests and there’s cafe and glass-domed observation car.
VIA Rail offers first class service and adds to the coach car comfort with
exclusive lounges at Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa, pre-boarding privileges,
distinctive decor, a cellular phone on board, delicious meals served at your seat,
complimentary drinks, and a choice of wine and liquers with your meal.

3.29. Work with a partner and discuss what you would do in the following
situations.

a) you were left behind at the station?


b) you missed your train?
c) you had to share your compartment with a party of very noisy children?
d) you suddenly missed your ticket when the train began to pull out?
e) you could not get a taxi to take you to the station and you had an enormous
amount of luggage?
f) you suddenly discovered that the bag containing your travelling things was
gone?
g) you found your berth occupied by another passenger?

3.30. a) Study the information about tickets for a sea voyage offered by
some western company.
b) Compare the situation with that in Russia. Do Russian people travel
by sea much? Why?

- Tickets are available from ticket agents at port or on the boats (in high season it
is sometimes not possible to buy tickets on board). Ticket prices are regulated by
the government.
- Three classes of tickets are on sale: first (luxury), second, and third (deck).
Most people travel deck class. If you buy on board, you will probably get a tourist
class ticket (deck plus 20% surcharge). Ocean-view cabins are more expensive
than inside cabins.
- A return ticket usually means a 10% discount.
- Half-fare for children aged 4 to 10.
- Cash payments only.
- Tickets are normally non-transferable.

3.31. a) Read the passage on development of the hotel system in the world.
Ask 3-5 questions about the text.
b) Do some research on development of hotels in Russia and make a
short presentation in class.

Travel and hotels have always been closely related. In Europe and America,
inns and taverns were spaced along the roads at the distance a horse could travel in
a day. The inns were primitive by modern standards. The traveler usually had to
share his bed with at least one other person, and as many as four other persons in
some remote areas. The old-fashioned inns, however, did provide food and shelter
for both men and horses and therefore became a symbol of hospitality.
Modern mass transportation, that is, the movement of large numbers of
people at relatively low prices, began with the development of the railroads in the
19th century. Up to that time, accommodations had been provided by country inns
or by family-owned and operated hotels in the cities. Other means of
transportation – the automobile and the airline – resulted in the growth of
corresponding accommodation facilities. Motels have sprung along highways all
over the world.
The word “motel” was created by combining ‘motor’ and ‘hotel’. When
automobiles were first used, flimsy and inexpensive tourist cabins were built
beside the highways. As people demanded better comfort, the cabins were replaced
by tourist courts and then by modern hotels.
Now the choice of accommodation available is vast. It includes hotels, inns,
“bed and breakfasts”, farmhouses and self-catering establishments – the list goes
on. An increasing number of hotels have leisure facilities for the guests –
swimming pools, tennis courts, golf courses and sauna, for example.
3.32. Read the extract from a hotel leaflet. Ask 3-5 questions about the
procedures of checking-in and checking-out. Work in a small group
and compare the procedures with those in Russian hotels.
Hints for Hotel Guests
1. The first thing to do is to book a room in advance either by letter, telephone or
fax. Otherwise you may arrive at the hotel and be told that there are no rooms.
2. On arrival at the hotel, go to the reception desk in the lobby and confirm your
reservation. The clerk will then give you a registration form to fill in and sign. The
form is to be filled in block letters. In smaller hotels you simply sign the visitor’s
book and give your permanent address.
3. At large hotels you may ask for any service by phone. Tell the operator if you
wish to be called at a certain time. Call Room Service when you want a meal or
drinks sent up to your room. Call Valet or Maid Service if you need your suit or
dress cleaned or pressed.
4. Let the hotel manager know well in advance the day and time of your
departure. Vacate your room before noon. 12 o’clock is the international check-out
time. If for some reason you stayed longer, you would have to pay for another
night.
3.33. Read the following dialogues with a partner. Make up similar
dialogues. Act them out.

Dialogue 1: Booking a Hotel Room over the Phone


A: Good morning. The Grand Hotel.
B: Good morning. I’d like to reserve a single room for three nights starting with
the fourth of August. Do you have any vacancies?
A: I’m afraid our single rooms are fully booked. Would you take a double room?
B: What are your rates for a double room?
A: Our rate for a double room is $ 76 plus VAT (= value added tax).
B: OK, then. I’ll take a double room.
A: In whose name shall I book it, please?
B: In Holm’s name.
A: Could you spell it for me, please?
B: H-O-L-M.
A: How will you be paying?
B: By credit card. The number is 2073 0905 0732 8914.
A: Expiration date?
B: July next year.
A: Thank you, sir. You are welcome to the Grand Hotel.

Dialogue 2: In a Hotel
A: Good evening. I have a reservation for 6 p.m. My name is Thomas Holm.
B: Would you spell the last name, please?
A: Yes. H-O-L-M.
B: Yes. I have your reservation right here. One double from today for three days.
Would you please fill in this registration form?
A: Certainly.
B: Here’s your key. It’s room 1280 on the twelfth floor. The lifts are round the
comer over there.
A: Thank you. What time’s the breakfast, by the way?
B: It's between 7 and 10:30 in the dining-room or you could have it sent up.
A: Oh, that’s nice. I think I’ll have it up in my room then. I’ll give Room Service
a
ring about it later. One more thing, could you give me a wake-up call at 6
tomorrow morning?
B: Very good, sir. Have a nice day!

3.34. Work with a partner. Add 1-2 phrases to each sentence to make up
short dialogues. Act them out.

1) Have you ever been up in a plane?


2) How do you get on board the plane?
3) This is the runway along which the plane will take off.
4) We are gathering speed and lifting smoothly into the air.
5) How do you take to flying?
6) How high are we?
7) We’ll make a non-stop flight without refuelling.
8) That plane is for service on long-distance lines.
9) How many people does it carry?
10) I can’t hear for the roar of the engines.

3.35. a) Read the text below and define the style of each. Prove your
decision.
1) Our Cancellation
If, for any reason beyond our control (hereinafter referred to as force majeure
[,fors ma'3ә]) it becomes necessary to materially alter or cancel your holiday, we
shall offer you the choice of either alternative arrangements of equal standard (if
available) or a full refund of money paid. We undertake not to cancel your holiday
within 8 weeks of departure except for reasons of force majeure or for non-
payment of your holiday balance. We shall offer a compensation: more than 56
days before departure – nil; 56-15 days before departure - £10; less than 15 days
before departure - £20.
2) Just a Coincidence?
Have you ever thought about changing your name? Maybe this will make you
think again, especially if you are going on a sea voyage. On December 5 th, 1664, a
ship sailing off the coast of North Wales sank with 81 passengers on board. There
was one survivor – a man named Hugh Williams. On the same date in 1785,
another ship sank in the same area with 60 passengers on board. There was one
survivor – a man named Hugh Williams. On the very same date, in 1860, a ship
sank off the coast of Scotland. On this occasion there were only 25 passengers on
board. And incredibly, there was once again one survivor – a man named Hugh
Williams.

b) Why is it so important to include “force majeure” in the contract? What


circumstances are meant by “force majeure”?
c) Are you superstitious? Share some of your superstitions, especially
connected with travelling, with class. What superstitions are usual for the
Russians? For other nationalities?

3.36. Role play the following situations with a partner. Then discuss your
choice in class.

There are two different possible sequences of situations given in


chronological order. Follow the instructions and try to get out of scrapes.
At the start you are on the plane to a foreign destination. You will be staying
one night at the Continental Hotel. You have an important business meeting with a
client, Mr. Jones, tomorrow morning at 9.00.
Scenario 1.
1) You’ve left a piece of hand luggage in the departure lounge.
2) The person sitting next to you on the plane won’t stop talking.
3) The plane hits an air-pocket and the flight attendant pours wine over you.
4) You’ve landed. You need some local currency. Go to a currency exchange and
get some of your money exchanged.
5) You take a shuttle bus to the city centre. You can’t find the hotel. Ask for
directions.
6) Check in the hotel.
7) There are no drinks in the mini-bar and no towels. Phone Room Service.
8) You want to see the town at night. Ask the receptionist for any suggestions.
9) Next morning, ask for the bill. You’ve been charged for several extra phone
calls you’ve never made.
10) You realize you didn’t change the time on your watch. It’s 9.30 a.m. local
time. You are running late for the meeting.
11) You take a taxi. The driver overcharges you.
12) You arrive at the office at 10.15 a.m. Apologize for being late.

Scenario 2.
1) There’s a delay in take-off. You start talking to the person in the seat next to
you.
2) The food arrives. It’s not vegetarian as you requested.
3) You’ve landed. The immigration officer asks for your visa. You don’t have
one.
4) You’re at the baggage reclaim. One of your bags has been severely damaged.
5) Take a taxi to your hotel. The taxi driver doesn’t seem to understand you.
6) At the hotel the receptionist has no record of your reservation.
7) You realize you’ve left your briefcase in the taxi. Ask the receptionist for help.
8) You have a bad headache and can‘t sleep because of the disco downstairs.
9) Upon arrival, you gave the hotel laundry your silk shirt to be washed and
ironed. Now it is ruined.
10) At breakfast you want some more coffee and a newspaper.
11) You’ve lost the directions of how to get to the office. Phone your client’s
secretary.
12) You arrive at the office at 8.49 a.m. Introduce yourself at the reception.
3.37. a) Work in a small group and discuss the questions below.
Questions:
1) When did your last travel? Where did you go? Why did you choose to go
there? Was it an all-inclusive holiday?
2) How did you spend that holiday? Relaxing on the beach? Getting to know the
locals?
Use these prompts:
How long? What kind of holiday? Stay where? Like it? Why? Where exactly?
Food? Go again?
b) Read the article about ethical tourism. Would the writer have approved
of your behavior? What to you think about this kind of tourism?
Uneasy Virtue
Going on holiday needn’t mean leaving ethics at home, says Rosie Burke.
How clear is your conscience? You may eat organic carrots, recycle your
newspapers, and contribute to charity. But now you're going on holiday so you
don't need to think about all that. Do you?
“No, it’s as important people apply ethical issues to their holidays as to the
rest of their lives.” Lara Marsh, campaigns officer at Tourism Concern, doesn’t
want to spoil your trip, but she does think people have an obligation to consider the
impact they may be having on their destination. “Ethical tourism can mean all sorts
of things - where you decide to go in the first place, who you travel with and how
you behave when you get there. Tourism is the world’s largest industry. It can bring
benefit, but it’s not spread evenly.”
The World Tourism Organisation predicts that in the next ten years the
number of tourists will reach one billion a year with a quarter of those travelling to
the Third World. And while some of the developing nations are delighted at the
influx of foreign currency, on the whole local people see little benefit from our
spending. The World Bank estimates 90 per cent of income from tourism goes
straight to the multinational operators, with local people seeing as little as 10 pence
in every pound. “Building hotels and resorts can lead to short-term jobs, but they
can also lead to the destruction of habitats and so of livelihoods. Precious water
supplies are often diverted to the large hotels or swimming pools, fishing grounds
are cordoned off for snorkeling and any villages in the way of development are
simply pulled down,” explains Lara Marsh.
“Tour operators are there to make money and there are some who have adopted
the buzz words and use them for marketing rather than being genuinely
concerned, while others who do good things may be keeping quiet about it,” says
Mike Sykes, Managing Director of one operator.
To try and help the ‘quiet’ ones, Tourism Concern has published a community
tourism guide. This shows us how to have holidays in the developing world in
ways that benefit poor communities. For example, you needn’t book through a
large multinational company; you can book directly with a local operator. You need
to be careful when deciding on your destination. Tourism Concern urges people to
react with their feet to hostile regimes. “If a country has a record of human rights
abuses you should simply stay away,” instructs Lara Marsh.
But not everyone thinks that absence makes the country stronger.
Hilary Bradt, who publishes Bradt guidebooks, believes boycotts are basically
detrimental. “Staying away doesn’t do anyone any good while going can make a
difference. By depriving an area of tourism it’s the locals who are suffering.” The
Dalai Lama agrees. He argues that Tibet needs tourists to continue visiting his
country so that they can see and report back on the conditions the local people
have to cope with.
Tourism Concern would like people on package holidays to widen their horizons
and travel beyond the confines of their tourist compounds and luxury hotels. It has
produced a film now shown on some flights to the Gambia that suggests some
steps to ethical behaviour. Tourists are urged to travel further afield, visiting the
villages, learning about the country’s culture and purchasing local products - as
long as they are dressed decently.
People in the Gambia have had their modesty offended by tourists’ style of dress.
But by visiting markets, tourists can inject some money into the local economy by
buying home-grown goods, something the large hotels tend not to do. “I knew of
one hotel in the Gambia that imported all their tomatoes from the Canary Islands
when they really needn’t have done as they had tomatoes growing yards away from
their compound,” says Mike Sykes. Hilary Bradt also felt an ethical policy was
betrayed on a recent trip cruising poverty stricken areas of Russia. All the food
consumed during the cruise had been flown in from Holland.
As an industry, tourism is almost impossible to regulate. “Tourism isn’t a
single product, there are a whole range of services provided by a whole range of
people,” explains Jackie Gibson who works for the Association of British Travel
Agents. “It’s up to the airline, to the hotel, to the tour operator and to the local
government to limit the damage. In Mauritius they have a local law that no hotel
can be higher than the trees which is great, but then they have to justify to the local
people why there aren’t as many tourists as there might be. It’s a question of
balance, everything we do has an impact. Tourism can have a beneficial effect, it
can also mean that we end up destroying what we’re going to see. Most people just
think relaxing thoughts on holiday; maybe if they also think about the kind of life
the locals are living there and what they can do to help, they’ll actually have a
better time.” And you could supplement your suntan with a virtuous glow.
3.38. Work in a small group. Read the text and be ready to discuss the
following issues.
a) What is the impact of traveling on you personally and on your
generation. How has the tourism industry changed?
b) What is the future of tourism?
Like many other industries, the tourist industry changes from year to year.
Firstly, this is because people want to see and do different things. (For example,
more and more people today are becoming interested in eco-tourism.) Secondly, it
is because the world changes; one part of the world can suddenly become more or
less dangerous. For example, 2000 was a good year for tourism in Hungary,
Slovenia and Croatia, because people stopped fighting in Kosovo. The economy
can bring changes, too. When the Japanese yen is strong, Japanese people can
travel more cheaply, but visiting Japan is more expensive for people from other
countries. In 2000, 16 million tourists from Japan visited other countries, but only
4 million visitors from other countries went to Japan.
What about tourism in the future? People have talked about holidays in
space since the 1960s, and some people are already planning them.
In 2001, a rich American man called Dennis Tito had the first holiday in
space. For 20 million dollars he got a ride to the International Space Station.
Some companies plan to sell holidays in space. They will take tourists about
a hundred kilometers up into space and fly them around the earth. One of these
companies, Bristol Spaceplanes Limited, is planning three kinds of spaceship. The
largest of the three, the Spacebus, will carry tourists space for about 10,000 dollars
per person.
Perhaps there will soon be hotels in space, too. Hilton International are
already planning a hotel on the moon; it will be 325 metres high, and they will
build a beach for it.
Now people are using computers when they look for a holiday. With virtual
reality, you can ‘visit’ different holiday resorts before you decide on your holiday.
And virtual reality is getting better all the time. Soon, the real world and virtual
reality will look nearly the same. Then tourists will be able to go on holiday and
stay at home at the same time!

3.39. a) Look through the following tips for American world travelers and
range them according to their importance to you (1 - being the least
important). Comment on your choice.

Ten Tips for American World Travelers


___ Travel light
___ Beat jet lag
___ Safeguard your documents
___ Get the help you need
___ Trains, planes, and automobiles
___ Keep clean and stink free
___ Keep regular
___ On foot
___ Shop like a local
___ Look like a local
Travel light!
Avoid packing a lot of needless clothes, bring a lot of undershirts and just
wash those! Also, if it’s a short trip, try to fit everything into a carry-on. You’ll
avoid losing your bags and keep from breaking your back. If the airline says your
bag’s too big to carry on, wear your bulkiest clothing and fill the pockets with your
camera, books, and whatever else fits!
Beat Jet Lag
Adjust to the time zone of your destination before you get there. Trick your
body into thinking it’s night when it really isn’t by sleeping on the plane using an
eyeshade. Begin three days before the flight with the following regimen: high-
protein breakfast and lunch, and high-carbo dinners. Refrain from caffeinated
drinks until you arrive. THEN, have a big cup of coffee your first morning there.
It’ll really get you going!
Safeguard Your Documents
Carry a photocopy of your passport, flight information, and other important
documents. Never let the real thing out of your sight!
Get the Help You Need!
Even if you know a little of the language, speak English only and you’ll get
what you need faster. But, if you’re going to learn one word in the host country’s
language, learn "FIRE!" you’ll get help faster than if you learn "HELP!"
Trains, Planes and Automobiles
Don’t let go of your bags on the train. Wrap a strap around your arm or ankle
so you can shut your eyes for a minute and relax. Little padlocks may look dinky,
but they’ll actually keep wandering hands away. Always ask for freebies on the
plane – you’ll never know what you’ll end up with. When taking a taxi, use only
official metered taxis. Especially avoid Mercedes cars parked just outside the
airport. Don’t try to bargain with the guy in dark glasses, you’ll just get ripped off.
Keep Clean and Stink Free
Dark clothes hide dirt while white clothes attract it! Bring a little bottle of
Woolite and you’ll always have clean underwear! Guys, shave your armpits! The
ancient Egyptians came up with this one to avoid body odor. (Use the clipper on
your electric razor.)
Keep Regular!
Don’t ask what it is, just eat it. If you’re too regular, take some Imodium.
Always carry Kleenex: toilet paper in public restrooms is often unheard of.
Actually, public restrooms are practically unheard of in some areas.
On Foot
When crossing the street, walk with the herd. You’ll be more visible, avoid
getting ticketed, and if a car does hit you, at least you’ll be cushioned. Also, always
look like you know where you’re going - even if you don’t. By all means, don’t
pull out a map in the middle of the street.
Shop Like a Local
Always carry a spare bag – you’ll never know when you see something
you’ll want to buy. (Don’t count on the store ever giving you a bag!) Remember
the “Tea Rule” - if you’re looking for tea, you’ll never see it. If you’re not looking,
it will be everywhere - and cheap!
Look Like a Local
Don't be an ugly American eyesore: leave your Jansport backpack, white
Nikes, glasses (if you can wear contacts), bright red or blue North-face parka, and
baseball caps at home. If you really want to blend in, dangle a cigarette from your
lips.

b) Make a presentation on your recommendations for travelers, follow the


rules of presentations. Compose it according to the following plan.

1) General information.
2) Planning the travel.
3) Choosing a means of transport.
4) Booking tickets and a hotel.
5) Checking in.
6) At the Customs’.
7) On Board.
8) In a Hotel (reservation, checking-in, possible problems, checking-out).
9) Using taxi.
10) Home, sweet home.
3.40. Read the following citations about traveling. Comment on each.
Which one do you like best? Why? Share your opinion with class.

Citations about travelling:


1. Travel, in the younger soul, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of
experience. (Francis Bacon)
2. There are two classes of travel: first class and with children. (Robert
Benchley)
3. [Vacation is] what you take when you can no longer take what you’ve been
taking. (Earl Wilson)
4. Too often … instead of broadening the mind, [it] merely lengthens the
conversation. (Elizabeth Drew)
5. [Travelling is] an experience we shall always remember, or an experience
which, alas, we shall never forget. (Julius Gordon)
6. [Vacation is] the time when you need half the clothes and twice the money you
took. (Anonymous)
7. [Travelling is] something you enjoy three weeks after unpacking.
(Anonymous)

WRITING

3.41. Fill in the following sample of an entrance visa application form.


Remember that no lines or questions are to be left unattended. If the
questions does not apply to you, write n/a – non-applicable.
VISA APPLICATION FORM FOR FOREIGNERS,
WISHING TO ENTER OR TRANSIT THE UNITED STATES
This form must be completed in duplicate and two recent photographs attached.
Full answers to all questions should be typed or clearly written in black ink.

It is recommended that applications be lodged at least two weeks before the


proposed date of departure.

Country for which the visa is required -


___________________________________
1. Name of any sponsoring Ministry or Organization (or “Private”)
_________
_________________________________________________________________
_
2. Surname (in capital
letters)_______________________________________
First name(s)
_______________________________________________________
Patronymic, if
any___________________________________________________
Full maiden name (in case of women who are or have been married)
__________
_________________________________________________________________
_
Sate any other names you use or have used _______________________________
Day, month, year and place of birth
_____________________________________
Present citizenship (give also former citizenship if
different)__________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
Sate sex, and whether married, widowed, single or divorced
__________________
________________________________________________________________
__
What is your profession or rank?
________________________________________
Where are you employed (give exact address)?
____________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
What type of work do you do?
_________________________________________
3. How long do you wish to stay in the United States of America?
________________________________________________________________
__
4. What is the purpose of your visit?
__________________________________
Do you intend to seek (a) employment, (b) permanent residence? (answer both
questions)
__________________________________________________________
5. If a business or professional visit, give names and addresses to be
visited. If a large firm, give names of individuals, departments or sponsoring
organization who are aware of your visit
____________________________________________
If a private visit give (a) name, (b) address, (c) occupation, (d) relationship of
host(s). How long have they been residents? ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
If staying in a hotel give the name and address
_____________________________
6. Date of departure, rout and date of arrival in the United States?
_____________
7. How much money is available for your visit (evidence of this may be required)
__________________________________________________________________
8. Have you ever visited the United States? If so, give dates of visits and say in
what capacity _______________________________________________________
9. If married, give the full name, date and place of birth of:
___________________
Husband / wife (as appropriate)
________________________________________
Any children
_______________________________________________________
Which of them, if any, are accompanying you?
____________________________
10. Give the full names, date and place of birth of:
_________________________
Your
father_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
Your mother
_______________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
What is their address?
________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
11. If you are not born in RF, when did you arrive and where did you live before?
__________________________________________________________________
12. State your present address
__________________________________________
Telephone number
___________________________________________________
Give your permanent address if different from above
________________________
________________________________________________________________
__
13. Passport number
_________________________________________________
Place and date of issue__________________________________________
Date of expiry _______________________________________________
Exit visa number ________________________________________
Date of issue ___________________________________________
Period of validity ________________________________________
Reentry visa number _____________________________________
Date of issue ____________________________________________
Date of expiry ___________________________________________

I declare the above to be a full and true statement.


Date ___________________________________________
Personal signature_________________________________

3.42. Write a 350-word essay on one of the topics below.


1. My favourite means of transport.
2. An ideal hotel I would like to manage.
3. The trip I will always remember (positive memories).
4. The trip I will never forget (negative memories).
5. Tourism in future.
6. Eco-friendly tourism.
7. Welcome to Russia!
8. “Force majeure” I’d better think of before traveling.
9. The travel guide on etiquette for Russians.

3.43. Fill in the following reservation form.

RESERVATION FORM
Hotel Golden Beach Star has following accommodation possibilities:
double room category A ($ 150), category B ($ 110)
single room category A ($ 200), category B ($ 180)

Prices are for accommodation with breakfast (service and tax included).
As the number of single rooms is very limited, sharing a room by two persons
may be necessary.

Deadline for reservation – 10 days.

I order a room from _____________________ to ____________________


number of nights ______________________________________________
double room category A ________________________________________
double room category B ________________________________________
single room category A _________________________________________
single room category B _________________________________________
age _____________________________ (when sharing a room with someone
about my age is preferred Yes / No).
Name ___________________________

I will arrive by private car (Yes / No)

If booking cannot be made at the required price, please reserve in the next
available (higher/ lower) category.

Date ______________________
Signature _____________________________
3.44. Render the text in English.

Американцев научат этикету


Американское правительство, озаботившись негативным отношением в
мире к США, решило привлечь к формированию положительного имиджа
Америки простых граждан, выезжающих за рубеж не только на работу, но и
на отдых. Учить американцев правильно вести себя за границей будут под
лозунгом: «Помоги имиджу своей страны, путешествуя в интересах своей
компании».
«Репутация «уродливого американца» за границей - не только жесткий
стереотип, но и, согласно американскому правительству, некоторое
беспокойство для властей», - пишет сегодня британская Daily Telegraph.
Чиновники из госдепа решили, что пора привлекать «неформальных послов»,
которые, работая или путешествуя за границей, помогут в формировании
положительного имиджа Соединенных Штатов.
Для этого Госдепартамент разработало специальную брошюру «Мировой
гид гражданина», размером с обыкновенный паспорт, где даны 16
«подсказок» правил этикета. Например: «Думайте так же много, как вы
любите много разговаривать». «Во многих странах любую форму хвастовства
считают очень грубой. Говоря о богатстве, власти или статусе -
корпоративном или личном, – вы можете вызвать негодование», - поясняют
американские чиновники.
Следующая «заповедь» американского туриста гласит: «Слушайте столько
же, сколько говорите сами». При этом чиновники советуют обязательно не
только вставить в разговор фразу «об Америке и своей личной жизни на
родине», но и «поинтересоваться у собеседника о его образе жизни».
Говорить следует «ниже и медленнее», так как
«громкий голос часто воспринимается как хвастовство,
а быстро говорящий может быть принят как
агрессивный и угрожающий».
Помимо этого американцам советуют не касаться тем
религии (это считается личным и не всегда достойно
предмета обсуждения), а в разговоре о политике – идти
на компромисс: «Избегайте аргументов об американской политике, даже если
кто-то критикует американских политических деятелей или политику. Лучше
согласиться не согласившись». И вообще американцам за рубежом следует
сбавить ритм жизни – «мы говорим быстро, едим быстро, ходим быстро,
прожигаем жизнь. Многие нации этого не делают».
«Проведенные исследования показывают, что американцы рассматриваются
в мире как высокомерные, нечувствительные, сверхматериалистические и
неосведомленные о местных ценностях люди. Это является изображением
«уродливого американца» за границей, и мы хотим изменить это», - заявил
британскому изданию один из авторов проекта Кит Рейнхард.
Помимо советов о том, как себя вести и о чем говорить, а о чем лучше
помолчать, гид также предлагает подсказки о том, как вести себя в
нестандартных ситуациях. Американцам настойчиво советуют выучить
несколько фраз на «местном языке» и ручные жесты, принятые в стране
нахождения.
Кит Рейнхард уверен, что простые американцы могут сделать в этом
направлении не меньше официальных чиновников. Такие «неформальные
послы» смогут «изменить отношение к США, что это земля возможностей,
свободы и разнообразия», тем самым «повысив желание больше узнать о
Соединенных Штатах».
О том, что Америку в мире не любят, американцы узнали еще в 2002 году.
Опрос общественного мнения, проведенный службой Gallup в девяти странах
Ближнего Востока, включая даже таких союзников США, как Турция,
Саудовская Аравия и Иордания, показал, что только 22% граждан этих стран
относятся к Америке положительно, в то время как 53% не питают к США
никаких симпатий.
А исследовательский центр Pew Research выяснил, что одной из главных
причин является неприятие американской силы и мощи. Об этом заявили 66%
опрошенных в Западной Европе, 64% – в Восточной Европе и России, 58% –
в Латинской Америке, 38% – в Азии, 54% – на Ближнем Востоке.
Unit 4. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE. MY HEALTH AND FITNESS.

A blessing that money cannot buy.


Izaak Walton.
The sound body is a product of the
sound mind.
George Bernard Shaw

Recommended grammar:
Conditionals and “wish’-clauses.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY

4.1. Read the text and pick up the main threats to our health that modern
life poses and say whether you agree with the opinion expressed in the
text or not. Think of other threats to add to the list.

Health, physical and mental, is a very important aspect of life and as much
energy as we give, it can never be wasted, really.
In the 20th century’s way of life, for many, physical exertion has been cut
down to a minimum. Much of technology seems to be intended to minimize people
actually doing anything with their body, for instance in most tall buildings
nowadays there are lifts instead of stairs, and very little walking is involved in city
life as there are so many forms of transport we can utilize.
We never have to go out to carry wood and to chop it into pieces in order to
heat ourselves, as we are surrounded by electricity and gas, which does all of this
for us. Even those involved in agriculture don’t have to do so much digging these
days as they have machines to do everything for them.
Also the modern diet can be very damaging to one’s health. So much food,
especially in Western Europe and in America seems to come from packets -
dehydrated food – which can’t really have very much real life energy or proteins
which can be used for growing. Also, out food today is very greasy and oily. Of
course, people are becoming aware of the damaging effects of a high level of
cholesterol in the food and of eating large amounts of very bad quality meat and
excessive quantities of sugar. All of these things contribute to a deterioration of
one’s health, but not to reinforcing one’s physical functions.
4.2. Study the topical vocabulary for discussing health issues. Use a
Dictionary if necessary.
Human body:
trunk, limbs (upper, lower), head, neck, throat, shoulder, armpit, chest, breast,
back, waist, stomach, hip, finger, arm, hand, fist, elbow, wrist, palm, leg, thigh,
knee, calf, ankle, shin/shank, foot (feet), heel, instep, sole, toe;
The skeleton:
bones, skull, collar-bone, shoulder-blade, breastbone, forearm, backbone/spine/
vertebral column, hip-bone, kneecap, rib;
The face:
eye (eyeball, eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, pupil, iris), nose, ear, mouth, jaw, tooth
(teeth), lip (upper, lower), tongue, cheek, chin, temple, forehead,;
The internal organs:
brain, windpipe, vein, artery, heart, blood circulation, blood pressure, nervous
system, bronchus, lungs, liver, gullet, intestines, kidneys, bladder, muscles,
muscular system;
Health:
healthy, to be in good health; to feel well/be fine/all right; to be in good shape
/fit,
hurt/ injured/ wounded, to be sick/ ill/ low/ to feel ill, to go down (with) (with
the pronoun ‘I’ you should say “come down with”, not ‘go down with”), to be in
poor/ ill health/ to be in a bad /poor shape/ state/ to be off-colour/ to feel under the
weather/ out of sorts, cripple/ disabled person/ handicapped person,
hypochondriac, blood type (There are four types of blood in the ABO system: A
(II), B (III), AB (IV), and O(I));
to catch a disease, to take a turn for the worse, to get worse, to deteriorate, one's
health gave way, (not) to last more than, to feign illness;
to get better/ to get over/ to be on the mend (coll.)/ to recover (from)/ to fight off,
marked improvement in one's condition, to be out of danger;
Complaints/ symptoms:
Nouns: ‘ache’ is used with the following: toothache, a stomach-ache (upset
stomach), backache, earache and a headache. I'm all ache.
For other parts of the body ‘pain’ is used: to have a pain in the stomach/ in the
neck: e.g. I woke up in the night with a terrible pain in my chest.
disorder (sleep disorder, liver disorder), disturbance (visual disturbance), fever
(to have a fever/ high temperature), high blood pressure, rash, itch, spots, splinter,
blister, cut, boil, inflammation, bruise, a black eye, dislocation, sprain, fracture,
twist, bad digestion, constipation, bleeding, cramps, stiff neck, insomnia, heartburn
sneezing, runny/ running nose/cold in the head, cough/ bad cough/ fits of
coughing, nausea/ vomiting, dizziness, anxiety, fatigue, attack, bout/ fit (of cough/
depression), lump/ swelling, blind/ blindness, near-sighted, far-sighted, dumb/
dumbness, deaf/ deafness, injury/ wound (a wound and injury are both used to
describe damage to the body, but a wound is generally caused by a weapon (e.g.
gun or knife) and it is usually intentional), diarrhea, hangover, cuts and bruises
(minor injuries);
He shot the man in the chest. (= a bullet wound in the chest)
He stabbed the boy in the back. (= a knife wound in the back)
He got into a fight and got beaten up. He had a black eye and two broken
ribs.
Verbs:
You can use ‘to ache’ for some things, e.g. my back aches; but ‘to hurt’ is
more common to describe real pain, and it can be used with or without a direct
object: She hurt (injured) her foot when she jumped off the bus and fell over.
She hurt herself when she jumped off the bus and fell over.
I hit my leg against the table and it really hurts.
to feel pain / to suffer from pain, to have a sharp pain, to itch, to catch a cold, to
limp, to feel stiff, to sweat, to shiver/ to feel shivery, to faint/ to collapse/ to lose
consciousness, to come to oneself, to be clogged (about a nose), to be bunged up
(about a stomach), be out of joint;
Adjectives:
painful, painless, sore (to have a sore back/ throat), dizzy, (to feel) sick (dizzy,
breathless, shivery), stinging, throbbing, feverish, nauseous, trembling, pregnant;
I've got a cold (a cough, a sore throat, a temperature, a stomach ache, chest
pains, earache, a pain in my side, a rash on my chest, spots, a bruise on my leg, a
black eye, a lump on my arm, indigestion/ diarrhea, painful joints, blisters,
sunburn).
I am depressed (constipated, tired) all the time.
I've lost my appetite (voice).
I can't sleep, my nose itches and my leg hurts.
Diseases:
sickness/ illness/ disease/ malady/ ailment, (non)communicable diseases,
catching/ contagious, (in)curable, epidemic, inherited sickness, inborn
disturbance, mild case, fatal illness, auto-suggestion;
heart attack, appendicitis, bronchitis, cancer, whooping-cough, tuberculosis (TB),
chickenpox, smallpox, measles, cholera, malaria, hepatitis, mumps, typhoid, scarlet
fever, yellow fever, asthma, flu /influenza, pneumonia, rheumatism, an ulcer, a
virus/ a bug, allergy/ hay fever, Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS), quinsy,
angina;
Diagnosing and treatment:
to go to the doctor, to consult a doctor, to call a doctor, to complain of
smth., to take one’s temperature, to listen to one’s chest, to examine, to take one’s
blood pressure, to feel one's pulse, to give/ make a diagnosis, to treat for/ to cure
smb. of smth, to give recommendations, to operate (on), to write out a prescription,
to write out a sick leave/ sick note/ sick list, to make out a medical certificate, to
prescribe a diet, to heal (The wound healed slowly. It soon healed up.), medical
check-up, X-ray, to do tests, cure / treatment for, to give/ administer the first aid,
first aid kit;
What is troubling (bothering) you?
What disturbs you?
to buy smth. from the chemist;
Do you have health insurance? Have you ever had any operations?
Are you taking any medication? Are you allergic to anything?
to have the symptoms of, to take a treatment for, to do good, to do harm, to
relieve the pain, to undergo an operation/ surgery, be operated on, to have smth.
removed, to have after-effects/ complications, to be restricted to a diet, to stay in
bed, to gargle, to sit quietly/ still, to breathe deeply, to strip to the waist, to bare
one’s arm, to treat, to take care/ to look after;
Prescriptions:
Take one three times a day after meals.
Take a teaspoonful last thing at night.
Rub a little on before going to bed each night.
We'll get the nurse to put a bandage on.
You'll need to have some injections/ shots before you go.
I'll ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.
You'll have to have your leg put in plaster.
I think you should have total bed rest for a week.
Medicines:
medical insurance, panacea/ cure-all, placebo, to make up a medicine/ drug; to
take a medicine (for), chemist's/ drugstore, mixture, pills, powder, ointment,
drops, a tablespoonful, a teaspoonful, three times a day, every two hours, on an
empty stomach, painkiller/ antibiotics, for soothing the pain, for bringing down the
temperature, to take for a headache/ cough/ a cold, to apply a mustard plaster, put
on/ apply a dressing, to remove a dressing, sterile dressing, to remove the bandage,
to give a shot / injection (of), to be inoculated (against), to put a hot-water bottle
(to), to administer medications and treatments, for external/ internal use;
The doctor:
specialist, physician, general practitioner (GP), dentist,
(plastic) surgeon, oncologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist/ eye
doctor, nurse, to make an appointment with;
Hospital:
to take to hospital, to be admitted to a hospital, to be discharged from a hospital,
patient (in-patient, out-patient), patients with appointments, urgent call, emergency
case, an ambulance, stretcher;
waiting room, ward, reception, patient's file/ medical record, health insurance
/certificate, appointments book, examination couch, crutches, syringe, scales,
height gauge, stethoscope, thermometer, cotton balls;
health-resort, spa;
At the dentist's:
to make an appointment with the dentist for a check-up (for a dental care), drill,
false teeth, dental bridge, crown, porcelain tooth, filling;
to have one's tooth treated, to be loose (about a tooth), to fit on a crown (bridge),

to pull out/ remove/ extract a tooth, to have one's tooth stopped/ filled;
Alternative medicine:
psychotherapy, physiotherapy, acupuncture, chiropractic, herbal medicine,
homeopathy, aromatherapy.

4.3. Match each of these people with the correct definition below.
patient casualty nurse
psychiatrist out-patient midwife
in-patient surgeon medical student
specialist general practitioner
(a) an ordinary doctor
(b) someone who looks after sick people in hospital
(c) person who helps people with mental problems
(d) sick person receiving treatment
(e) sick person who has to stay in hospital
(f) sick person who has to visit the hospital regularly for treatment
(g) someone who operates on sick people
(h) person badly injured in an accident, fire, war
(i) person who helps at the birth of a baby
(j) person who studies to be a doctor
(k) person who specializes in one area of medical treatment

4.4. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passages
below.

a) look after treat ache examine


suffer keep cure nurse
operate receptionist treatment sore
prescription chemist check-up surgery
I am a family doctor. I have a (a) _______ to help me and a (b) ______ to help
the patients when they come to see me. When I see patients in my (c) _______,
first I listen to their problems, then I (d) ______ them. Then, if I can, I (e) ______
them for their illnesses. Some simply have (f) _____ throats, headaches or flu and I
give them (g) ______ to take to the (h) _______. Others (i) _____ from serious
diseases of the heart, lungs, stomach or even brain. I can’t always (j) _____ them
myself and sometimes I have to send them to hospital for (k) ______. If something
is seriously wrong with them, the hospital will decide to (l) _____ on them. The
trouble is people don’t (m) _____ themselves properly. It really isn’t so difficult to
(n)_____ well. If your head begins to (o) _____, have a rest. If you always feel
tired, get more exercise. Eat well. Have a good diet. And have a regular (p) _____
with the doctor.

b) thermometer prescription operation chemist


stethoscope receptionist appointment ward
temperature examine treatment pulse
waiting room symptoms

When I go to the doctor, I tell the (a) ______ my name and take a seat in the
(b)______. My doctor is very busy so I have to make an (c) ______ before I go to
see him. He asks me what’s wrong with me, I tell him the (d) ______of my
illness,
for example high temperature, difficulty in breathing, or pains, and then he will
usually (e) ______me. He’ll listen to my heart with his (f) ______, he’ll hold my
wrist to feel my (g) ______, he’ll take my (h) ______ with his (i) ______. The
problem is usually something simple and he might give me a (j) ______for some
medicine, which I take to the (k) ______. Of course, if I needed more serious (l)
______, I’d have to go to hospital. There I’d be put in a bed in a (m) ______ with
10 or 20 other people. If there were something seriously wrong with me, I might
need an (n) ______.

4.5. Match all the columns in the charts below.


a)
What's the How did it Result Solution
problem? happen?
I cut my finger playing football It's very painful. plaster it and put
into a sling

I cut my foot quite I fell off my bike. I can't walk on it rest for it
badly easily, I limp.
I twisted my ankle I stepped It's swollen and rest
barefooted on a piece blue in colour.
of glass
I broke my arm taking a pie out of It's bleeding quite a special cream or
a hot oven lot. honey
I've got concussion I hit it on the side I can't use it. a bandage
of my desk
I burnt my hand using a knife I'm confused; don't ice pack
know where I am.
I've got a bruise on I fell over running It's bleeding a bit. a plaster
my arm for a bus.

b)
What's the matter? The symptoms Cause of illness
I've got a cold. sneezing, runny nose, sore often food, or a virus
eyes
I've got flu. I keep going to the toilet. allergic reaction to pollen
from grass
I've got hay fever. headache, feeling sick a virus

I've got diarrhea. sore throat, sneezing, a many e.g. food, alcohol
cough
I feel sick. sore throat, sneezing, a
cough, aching muscles and too much alcohol
a temperature, e.g. 39.5
I've got a hangover. I want to vomit a virus

4.6. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.

from on with in to for of


1. He was operated ________ yesterday.
2. She was taken ________ hospital because he got ill.
3. He suffered _______bad headaches.
4. I have a pain ______ my back.
5. What's wrong ______ you?
6. He died _____ cancer.
7. She got worse so they sent ______ a doctor.

4.7. Give one word for the following.


1. A person who makes patients’ appointments with a doctor;
2. A piece of paper which specifies the medicine for curing your illness;
3. A place where the patients come for the check-up;
4. A pre-arranged time for somebody to come;
5. A paid number of days given to you by your office when you are ill;
6. A sick person who is treated by a local physician;
7. A sort of medicine which can cure you of cold;
8. A pain in your head which you have felt for a long time;
9. To make a sick person healthy again;
10. To take off all clothes to the waist;

4.8. Label the diagram below. Add labels to other parts of the body.
4.9. Paraphrase the italicized parts of the sentences.
1. The cough became very bad.
2. I think she’s running a high temperature.
3. She said she was feeling sick.
4. I phoned up a local doctor's office and asked them to arrange for my check up.
5. You should do whatever the doctors tell you.
6. Everybody said that you looked very healthy.
7. The doctor told me I should take the medicine so that I would get better.
8. They checked her blood pressure.

4.10. Match the problems in column A to the pieces of advice in column B.

A B
1. I keep getting headaches. a. Good, you needn’t come back for a
month.
2. I can’t get into my clothes. b. You really must stop smoking.
3. I can’t sleep at night. c. Perhaps you should have an eye test.
4. My eyes are often sore and I d. You ought to do more exercise – it’s
sneeze a lot. very relaxing.
5. I’m going to Nepal on business. e. You really must lose some weight.
6. I’ve got a terrible cough. f. You should have some allergy tests
7. I’ve got an upset stomach. g. You'll have to have a few injections.
8. I fell much better now, doctor. h. You shouldn’t eat so much fried
food.

4.11. Complete the sentences with the suitable word. You may need to
change the form of some words.

illness (sickness) - disease


“illness” is the state of being ill; “disease” refers to a particular kind of illness
with special symptoms and name.
pain - ache
“pain” refers to suffering of body. It is sharp and sudden;
“ache” means a continuous pain.
cure - heal - treat
“cure” means to bring back to health;
“heal” means to make healthy after wounds of any kind (e.g. cuts are healed)
”treat” means to take care of with medicines, etc. It refers to the process or
curing e.g. a person must be treated to be cured.

a) ill - sick (Mind: “ill” is never used before a noun!!!)


1) The nurse mixed the medicine with a teaspoon and gave it to the ____ man
who sat up in bed to take it.
2) When people are _____ and have a temperature over 39 degrees, we say they
are running a high temperature.
3) When I go on board a ship or a boat, I feel _____.
4) He was suddenly taken _____.
b) illness (sickness) - disease
1) What did the man die of? Did he suffer from any chronic ____ or
complication after a serious ____ ?
2) The _____ was catching, and the doctor said he would put me on the sick-list.
3) Scarlet fever is a catching ____.
4) His ____ prevented him from going to school together with his friends.
c) treat - cure
1) After scarlet fever complications developed, and they had to ____ the patient
for a month before he was completely ____.
2) The open air in the mountains _____ him of headaches.
3) The doctor said that if I followed his instructions, I should soon be ____ of the
disease.
d) cure – heal - treat
1) Fresh air, sunshine, and good food may ____ a patient of consumption by
_____his lungs.
2) After a fortnight of slight fever, the wound ____ and he recovered.
3) The doctor applied a medicine which soon ____ the deep cut in my arm.
4) Different remedies may have to be used before the patient can be ________.
5) The whole family should be ________ even if symptoms are not present.
6) The wounds, in some instances, may take time to ________ .
7) The patients can usually be ________ if they are ________ in time.
8) Andrew is carrying niggling (= minor) injuries which are proving slow to
____ .
9) Within three weeks, her skin had ________ .
10) Any secondary bacterial infection may need to be ________ with antibiotics.
11) Her condition had been improved but not ________ by the treatment.
e) ache – pain - hurt
1) As Joe was coming home a sudden ____ in his heart made him stop and lean
against the wall of a house.
2) Wet weather often makes old people feel an ____ in their bones.
3) He fell down the stairs and ____ his leg.
4) This heavy suit-case makes my arm _____ .
5) Did you _____ yourself?

4.12. Match the diseases to their symptoms.


1) flu a) swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain when eating
2) pneumonia b) burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating
3) rheumatism c) rash starting on body, slight temperature
4) chickenpox d) dry cough, high fever, chest pain, quick breath
5) mumps e) headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing
6) an ulcer f) swollen and painful joints, stiffness, limited movement

4.13. Answer the following questions using as many words from the topical
vocabulary as possible.
1. What are the symptoms of flu (tonsillitis, measles, mumps, scarlet fever, etc.)?
2. Who is treated at the clinic and who is treated at the hospital?
3. What do you do when you fall ill?
4. What does the doctor do when he comes to examine you?
5. How does a sick person look?
6. What catching diseases do you know?
7. Do people in Russia get their pay when they are ill?
8. What does the doctor or nurse use the following things for: stethoscope,
thermometer, scales, syringe, scalpel?
4.14. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passages
below.
a) Sadness
sob heartbroken tears grief recover
loss withdrawn miss comfort sleepless
When Susan’s cat was killed by a car, she burst into (a) ______and began to
(b)______ so loudly that the neighbours next door heard her. She was (c)____ by
the (d) ______. Her mother tried to (e) ______ her, but Susan’s (f) ______ was so
great that it was three days (and three (g) ______nights) before she began to
(h)______ enough to eat normally. Even then she talked to no one and was silent
and (i) ______ for weeks. I think she’ll always (j) ______her pet.

b) Nervousness
blush sweat tongue-tied embarrassment shy
nerves stammer tremble tranquillizer faint
I have to tell you that my (a) ______ aren’t very good. Last week I went for a job
interview and my hands began to (b) ______, my palms started to (c) ______ and
my face was red because I always (d) ______ with (e) ______ on these
occasions.
I’ve always been very (f) ______ with other people. When I was asked questions,
I
was completely (g) ______ and I could only (h) ______. I felt (i) ______ and
wished I had a (j) ______to calm me down. I didn't get the job. A pity. I would like
to have been a television newsreader.

4.15. Read these extracts from a leaflet contained in a packet of headache


pills and match the words in bold to their definitions below.

If your answer to any of the following questions is YES, then you should tell a
doctor or pharmacist before taking these pills.
Are you pregnant or breastfeeding?
Are you sensitive to any of the ingredients in these pills?
Do you suffer from liver, kidney or heart problems?
Do you suffer from haemophilia or other problems with your blood not
clotting properly?
Are you taking any other medicines - particularly for blood pressure,
anticoagulants for thinning the blood, antidepressants, cortico-steroids, anti-
epileptic drugs?
Are you asthmatic?
Are you suffering from dehydration?
Do you suffer from or have you suffered from a stomach ulcer?
WARNING:
DO NOT EXCEED THE STATED DOSE
Medicines may cause unwanted side effects in some people. If, after taking this
medicine for the first time, you have an asthma attack or bronchospasm (=
difficulty in breathing), gastro-intestinal hemorrhage (= vomiting of blood or
passing of dark, tarry stools), stop taking these pills and consult a doctor or
pharmacist.

(a) medical term for (formal) excrement or (informal, childish) pooh


(b) forming a partly solid lump
(c) painful infected area on the skin or inside your body
(d) not having enough water in your body
(e) feeding a baby with milk from woman’s breasts
(f) unexpected effects in addition to the intended one
(h) reacting quickly or more than usual to something
4.16. Read the short passage about the health system of Britain. Match the
words and expressions in bold to their definitions below.
British Healthcare System
In Britain, healthcare is paid for through taxes and national insurance
payments taken directly from wages and salaries. The government decides how
much will be spent on the National Health Service, but a lot of people feel they
do not spend enough. Hospital treatment and visits to a family doctor (or GP) at a
surgery or clinic are free, but there is a prescription charge. Dentists and
opticians charge fees. Private healthcare is available, and a large number of
insurance schemes exist to enable people to ‘go private’.

(a) small centre with just two or three doctors


(b) choose private healthcare
(c) general expression for all of the services offered by hospitals, clinics,
dentists, opticians, etc.
(d) large centre with several doctors and kinds of services
(e) tax paid by most adults which covers the costs of healthcare for everyone
(f) charge for the medication the doctor prescribes, which you pay at a pharmacy
(g) British name for the service that covers hospitals, clinics, dentists, etc.
(h) doctor who looks after people’s general health
4.17. a) Put each of the following verbs in the correct space in the
instructions.
a) move raise lower turn hang stand

1) ____ with your feet apart. Let your arms ___ by your sides.
2) ____ your arms above your head.
3) ____ your body first to the left, then to the right. (Don’t ____ your feet.)
4) ____ your arms to your sides again.

b) touch lean hold bend bring straighten

1) Sit on the front part of the chair, with your feet on the floor.
2) ____ the sides of the chair.
3) ____ back against the back of the chair.
4) ____ your knees, and _____ them up to _____ your chest.
5) ____ your legs and lower them to the floor again.
b) Using the words from the exercises above, give instructions how to do
the exercises shown in the pictures below..

4.18. a) Study the following metaphors and idioms relating to health and
keeping fit. Think of similar Russian idioms or proverbs. Explain their
meaning in English.
b) Use the metaphors to make up your own sentences.

a) Medical metaphors
Problems and bad situations in society or other aspects of people’s lives are often
talked about as if they were illnesses.
The word symptom is often used when talking about problems in society.
The current spate of car thefts is a symptom of a deeper underlying problem.
This behaviour is symptomatic of his general lack of self-confidence.
The causes of a problem can be diagnosed and the outlook for a situation can
also be referred to as the prognosis in the same way as we talk about the prognosis
of an illness.
ailing means having a lot of problems;
rash of something means “a number of similar things happening at the same
time”;
World Cup fever means great excitement;
at fever pitch, to reach fever pitch refers to a point of very high intensity;
a jaundiced view (of smth.) - unenthusiastic or skeptical because of previous
bad experiences;
to carry the scars of / be scarred by means “be permanently affected by a
negative experience”;

b) Sport and fitness metaphors


I scored an own goal (= made things worse rather than better) when I told my
boss it had only taken me a day to write the report. Now she wants me to write
several a week.
My boss always seems to be moving the goalposts (= changing the rules), which
makes it very difficult to know what he wants.
The new EU laws aim to provide a level playing field (= fair situation) for all
member states.
He’s too young to be in the running (= seriously considered) for such a job.
The two main parties in the election are still neck and neck (= level with smb.
and equally likely to win) in the opinion polls.
Politicians often skate around (= don’t talk directly about) a subject.
The students all sailed through (= passed very easily) their exams.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS


4.19. Read the dialogues and discuss the questions below with a partner.
1. A Visit to the Doctor
Doctor: Well, what's the matter with you, Mr. Walker?
Mr. Walker: You’d better ask me what is not the matter with me, doctor. I seem to
be suffering from all the illnesses imaginable: insomnia, headaches,
backache, indigestion, constipation, and pains in the stomach. To make
things still worse, I’ve caught a cold, I’ve got a sore throat, and I’m
constantly sneezing and coughing. To crown it all, I had an accident the
other day, and hurt my right shoulder, leg and knee, and nearly broke my
neck. If I take a long walk, I get short of breath. In fact, I feel more dead
than alive.
Doctor: I’m sorry to hear that. Anyhow, I hope things aren’t as bad as
you imagine. Let me examine you. Your heart, chest and lungs seem to be
all right. Now open your mouth and show me your tongue. Now breathe
in deeply, through the nose ... There doesn’t seem to be anything
radically wrong with you, but it’s quite clear that you’re run down, and if
you don’t take care of yourself, you may have a nervous breakdown and
have to go to hospital. I advise you, first of all, to stop worrying. Take a
long rest, have regular meals, keep to a diet of salads and fruit, and very
little meat. Keep off alcohol. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a
time. Have this tonic made up and take two tablespoonfuls three times a
day before meals. If you do this, I can promise you full recovery within
two or three months.
Mr. Walker: And if I don’t, doctor?
Doctor: Then you’d better make your will, if you haven’t yet done so.
Mr. Walker: I see. Well, thank you, doctor. I shall have to think it over
and decide which is the lesser evil: to follow your advice or prepare for
a better world.

2. At the Dentist’s
Nell: Hello, is that you, Bert? Nell here. I'm so glad I've found you in.
Bert: Hello, Nell. How’re things?
Nell: Fine. Listen, Bert. I’m bursting with news. Just imagine - yesterday I had
the first real patient of my own.
Bert: You don’t say so! Who was it?
Nell: A nice old dear with a lot of teeth to be pulled out. It’s such wonderful
practice for me!
Bert: Are you quite sure that some of his teeth couldn’t be filled?
Nell: None of them! I sent him to have his teeth X-rayed, so it’s all right.
Bert: How did you manage to get such a marvellous patient, I wonder?
Nell: He came with a bad toothache. It had been bothering him for a day or two
already.
Bert: Were there no other dentists in the surgery?
Nell: No, I was the only one. It was Sunday.
Bert: Poor old thing! I hope you didn’t try to pull out all his teeth at once, did
you?
Nell: Don’t be silly. I just chose the easiest one to begin with.
Bert: I see ... And how did you get along?
Nell: Wonderfully. I tested his blood pressure and gave him a couple of
injections, though he said that my smile worked better than any injection.
Bert: Oh, he did, did he? And he didn’t have a heart attack after the tooth was
taken out? It would have been natural for an old man.
Nell: No, he just felt a bit sick and giddy. I gave him a tonic and told him to stay
in bed for a while and take his temperature.
Bert: Perhaps I’d better drop in and check his heart? I’m on sick leave now and
can do it at any time.
Nell: You needn’t. I’ll ring him up and in case he’s running a high temperature,
I’ll let you know. But I do hope he won’t. The day after tomorrow he’s coming
again.
Bert: Are you sure he’s not going to make an appointment with some other
dentist?
Nell: I don’t think he will. When he was leaving, he said he looked forward to
having all his teeth pulled out and he would keep them all as souvenirs to
remember me by.
Bert: Well, I wish you good luck then. Hope to hear from you soon. Bye for now,
Nell.
Nell: Good-bye, Bert. I’ll let you know how things are going on.

Questions:
1. What do you usually do when you get sick?
2. How often do you go to see the doctor? What specialists do you usually visit?
3. Do you always follow the doctor’s prescriptions?
4. How often do you visit the dentist? What problems with your teeth do you
usually suffer from?
5. How would you feel when treated by a young doctor, who might have not very
much experience? Have you ever been treated by such?
6. What usual treatment do Russian patients get from dentists?

4.20. a) Are you or any of your friends or relatives hypochondriac? Can a


hypochondriac be treated or cured? Read the text and discuss these
questions and the situation described in the text with a partner.
b) Find a synonym to the word ‘doctor’ used in the text.
c) Ask 7-10 questions about the text and be ready to retell the story.

A Victim to One Hundred and Seven Fatal Maladies


from “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome
I remember going to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for
some slight ailment. I got down the book and read all I came to read; and then, in
an unthinking moment, I idly turned the leaves and began to study diseases,
generally. I forgot which was the first, and before I had glanced half down the list
of “premonitory symptoms”, I was sure that I had got it.
I sat for a while frozen with horror; and then in despair I again turned over the
pages. I came to typhoid fever - read the symptoms - discovered that I had typhoid
fever - began to get interested in my case, and so started alphabetically.
Cholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria I seemed to have been
born with. I looked through the twenty-six letters, and the only disease I had not
got was housemaid’s knee.
I sat and thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view.
Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a
hospital in myself. All they need do would be to walk round me, and, after that,
take their diploma.
Then I wondered how long I had to live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my
pulse. I could not at first feel any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to
start off. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I made it a hundred and forty-seven
to the minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped
beating. I patted myself all over my front, from what I call my waist up to my
head, but I could not feel or hear anything. I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it
out as far as ever it would go, and I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the
other. I could only see the tip, but I felt more certain than before that I had scarlet
fever.
I had walked into the reading-room a happy, healthy man. I crawled out a
miserable wreck.
I went to my medical man. He is an old chum of mine, and feels my pulse, and
looks at my tongue, and talks about the weather, all for nothing, when I fancy I’m
ill. So I went straight up and saw him, and he said:
“Well, what’s the matter with you?”
I said: “I will not take up your time, dear boy, with telling you what is the matter
with me. Life is short and you might pass away before I had finished. But I will tell
you what is not the matter with me. Everything else, however, I have got.”
And I told him how I came to discover it all.
Then he opened me and looked down me, and took hold of my wrist, and then he
hit me over the chest when I wasn’t expecting it - a cowardly thing to do, I call it.
After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, and folded it up and gave it
me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.
I did not open it, I took it to the nearest chemist’s, and handed it in. The man read
it, and then handed it back. He said he didn’t keep it.
I said: “You are a chemist?”
He said: “I am a chemist. If I was a co-operative store and family hotel
combined, I might be able to oblige you.” I read the prescriptions. It ran: “1 lb.
beefsteak, with 1 pt. bitter beer every six hours. 1 ten-mile walk every morning. 1
bed at 11 sharp every night. And don't stuff up your head with things you don't
understand.”
I followed the directions with the happy result that my life was preserved and is
still going on.
4.21. a) Work with a partner. Read the humorous stories below and retell
them using reported speech.
b) Think of some Russian funny stories about doctors and patients
and try to render them in English.
c) Health problems are not funny whatsoever, so why do people in
most countries tend to make up humorous stories about them?

1) An old gentleman came to see the doctor. The man was very ill. The doctor
looked at him and said, “No medicine can help you. If you want to be well again,
you must have a good rest. Go to a quiet place for a month, go to bed early, eat
more roast beef, drink lots of milk but don’t smoke more than one cigarette a day.”
A month later the gentleman came into the doctor’s office. He was a different
man.
“Oh, doctor!” he said. “Thank you very much. Everything is fine and I am well
again. But, doctor, it’s not easy to begin smoking at my age.”

2) Hob was sitting in the doctor’s waiting-room. On the chairs at the wall other
patients were sitting. They all looked sad except Hob who was reading an exciting
story in a magazine. Just then the doctor came in to say that he was ready to see the
next person. Hob got up and went into the consulting room.
Before Hob could say a word the doctor said, “Now what’s the trouble? Sit down
there and we’ll have a look at you. Unfasten your jacket and your shirt, please. I’ll
listen to your heart.” Hob tried to speak, but the doctor interrupted him and ordered
him to say “ninety-nine”. Hob said it. “Now let me see your throat, open your
mouth wide.” The doctor had a good look and then he said, “Well, there’s nothing
wrong with you.” “I know there isn’t,” said Hob, "I just came to get a bottle of
medicine for my uncle."

3) A man went to his doctor and requested treatment for his ankle. After a careful
examination, the doctor asked:
“How long have you been going about like this?”
“Two weeks.”
“Why, man, your ankle is broken! How didn’t you come to me at first?”
“Well, doctor, every time I say something is wrong with me, my wife goes at me
and says I’ll have to get over my habit of smoking.”

4) – You say he left no money.


- No. You see, he lost his health getting wealthy and lost his wealth trying to
get healthy.

4.22. a) Often the humorous effect is based on play of words or unexpected


turn of the story. Work with a partner, read the beginnings of some
funny stories and try to finish them, adding a couple of phrases. Don’t
forget that the stories are to be HUMOROUS!
b) What does patient actually mean by the phrase ‘Can I get a second
opinion?’ in one of the dialogues?

1) Patient: Doctor, I think that I've been bitten by a vampire.


Doctor: ...

2) A man goes to the doctor and says, “Doctor, wherever I touch, it hurts.”
The doctor asks, “What do you mean?”
The man says, …

3) The doctor to the patient: “You are very sick.”


The patient to the doctor: “Can I get a second opinion?”
The doctor again: …

4) Patient: Doctor, I have a pain in my eye whenever I drink tea.


Doctor: …

5) Patient: Doctor! You’ve got to help me! Nobody ever listens to me. No one
ever pays any attention to what I have to say.
Doctor: …

6) Question: What did the doctor say when the invisible man called to make an
appointment?
Answer: …

7) - I have an awful toothache.


- I’d have that tooth taken out if it was mine.
-…
c) Now read the original dialogues and check your guesses. How different are
they? Are there any similar jokes in Russia?
1) Patient: Doctor, I think that I’ve bitten by a vampire.
Doctor: Drink this glass of water.
Patient: Will it make me better?
Doctor: No, but I’ll be able to see if your neck leaks.

2) A man goes to the doctor and says, “Doctor, wherever I touch, it hurts.”
The doctor asks, “What do you mean?”
The man says, “When I touch my shoulder, it really hurts. If I touch my knee -
OUCH! When I touch my forehead, it really, really hurts.”
The doctor says, “I know what’s wrong with you - you've broken your finger!”

3) The doctor to the patient: “You are very sick.”


The patient to the doctor: “Can I get a second opinion?”
The doctor again: “Yes, you are very ugly too ...”

4) Patient: Doctor, I have a pain in my eye whenever I drink tea.


Doctor: Take the spoon out of the mug before you drink.

5) Patient: Doctor! You've got to help me! Nobody ever listens to me. No one
ever pays any attention to what I have to say.
Doctor: Next please!

6) Question: What did the doctor say when the invisible man called to make an
appointment?
Answer: Tell him I can’t see him today.

7) - I have an awful toothache.


- I'd have that tooth taken out if it was mine.
- If it was yours, I would, too.
4.23. Work with a partner. Make up dialogues using the hints below.
1. At the Doctor's
a) A patient enters the room and tells the doctor what he/ she is suffering from.
b) The doctor asks the patient to strip to the waist and then examines him/ her.
c) The patient asks the doctor what’s wrong with him/ her. He/ she seems to be
worried.
d) The doctor tries to comfort the patient and writes out a prescription.
2. At the Dentist's
a) A patient complains of a bad toothache.
b) The dentist asks him/ her to sit down and examines his/ her mouth. One of
his / her teeth should be pulled out.
c) The patient is afraid. He/ she feels sick and giddy.
d) The dentist pulls out his/ her tooth and shows it to the patient who brightens
up and looks happy.
3. At the Bedside
a) A boy complains of a sore throat.
b) His mother is worried. She takes his temperature, it’s normal. His throat is all
right.
c) Then the boy pretends to have a stomach-ache and a headache, to be sick and
giddy.
d) His mother understands he is feigning illness and orders him to go to school.

4.24. a) Skim the text to pick up its main idea.


b) Answer the questions below.
c) Compare the quality of healthcare in the US and in Russia?

The Quality of Healthcare in the United States


Healthcare in the United States is modern and scientific. Physicians, clinics, and
pharmaceutical companies seek the newest and most advanced treatments. Patients
expect their doctors to use the most modern methods of diagnosis and treatment so
that their symptoms can be identified and their illnesses treated quickly and
effectively. Technology plays an important role in specialty care and in the
diagnosis and treatment of illness.
The philosophy of U.S. healthcare emphasizes identifying physical symptoms,
finding their causes, and treating them. Medical care in the United States is based
on the idea that illness is a physiological condition. Historically, U.S. healthcare
providers have not been trained to consider the relationships among mind, body,
and spirit; healthcare in this country has, instead, focused on isolating problems
and finding treatments for specific physical conditions. More recently, medical and
nursing schools have begun to provide limited training on holistic health care.
Some physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals now consider possible
emotional causes for certain physical symptoms. The type of holistic approach to
medicine often found in other parts of the world is not commonly available in the
United States.
Hospital emergency rooms are reserved for critical medical emergencies. They
are prepared to provide treatment for life-threatening and critical situations, such
as uncontrolled bleeding, broken bones, high fevers, dehydration,
unconsciousness, and seizures. If you seek care in a hospital emergency room for
minor problems, you will probably have a long wait, impersonal care, and a large
bill.
U.S. healthcare is very expensive. Healthcare costs, including hospital and clinic
charges and doctors’ fees, are determined by market economics. Treatment is
provided on a “fee for service” basis. Payment is often due when the service is
rendered, using personal funds or previously-purchased medical insurance.
Medical insurance is essential in the United States. There is no universal national
healthcare insurance plan in the country. Americans must arrange for their own
medical insurance; most do so through their employers, or by purchasing private
policies for themselves and their families.
No insurance plan covers every expense. Some types of treatment will be
excluded from coverage (for instance, dental services, plastic surgery, eye
prescriptions, etc.) and, even for expenses that are included, you will be expected
to share the cost by paying a portion of the bill.

Questions:
1. What is the idea of holistic healthcare? Do you know any countries where this
approach is adopted? What is your attitude to this approach?
2. Why could you be unsatisfied with the service provided at hospital emergency
room if you seek help for minor health problems? Is the situation similar or
different to that of Russia?
3. What healthcare expenses is a person to meet himself/ herself? Why do
Americans need medical insurance? Does it cover all medical expenditures of a
person?

4.25. a) Work with a partner and describe a usual visit to a doctor in a


Russian clinic.
b) Read the text and compare the Russian procedure with the one in
the USA? What would strike a Russian as the most unusual thing to
do
while visiting an American doctor?
c) How are medications sold in the USA? Compare it with the

When you visit a doctor or clinic, the procedures may be unfamiliar to you.
In the United States, doctors and other healthcare professionals value efficiency
and thoroughness, often more than expressing personal concern. You may first be
asked to provide information about yourself and your ability to pay for the
services. You may meet with a nurse or physician’s assistant, who will probably
take your temperature, blood pressure, weight, and other measurements; she or he
will probably ask you many questions about the reason for your visit. In some
cases, the nurse or physician’s assistant will conduct the examination and provide
treatment.
If so, it is because your condition is a common one, the treatment routine, and the
practitioner is fully trained to provide the appropriate care. Nurses, physicians, and
other medical professionals will expect you to explain your symptoms and
conditions objectively, even if you are uncomfortable or intimidated. Always give
complete and detailed information. If you have questions about your condition,
treatment, or medical options, ask the doctor or the nurse. They expect and value
your interest and questions. It is common in the United States for patients to ask
about the medical procedures, options, treatments, and cost of care, and to express
preferences about which treatment and medications are prescribed.
Different countries have different laws about which medications may be sold
without a doctor’s prescription. In the U.S., medications available without a
prescription at pharmacies, supermarkets, and other retailers are called “over-the-
counter” medications.
4.26. Work in a small group. Think of the idea of ‘being healthy’. What
does it mean? The questions below will help you define this notion.

1. Are you a member of a health spa/ gym?


2. Do think that you need to lose weight? (Are you overweight?)
3. Is your diet healthy? What does it consist of?
4. Do you catch a cold more than once a year?
5. Do you have any bad habit (like drinking or smoking)?
6. Do you ever get headaches? Do you know anyone who suffers from
migraine headaches?
7. Do you ever read magazines or news articles about health? If yes,
what subject(s) do you find the most interesting?
8. Do you exercise? What kind of exercise do you do? How often do you
exercise?
9. Do you go for regular medical check-ups? How often do you go to the
doctor’s?
10. Do you go to the dentist’s twice a year?
11. Do you have a lot of stress? What is the usual cause of your stress?
How do you reduce stress in your life?
12. Do you have any allergies?
13. Do you have any scars? How did you get them? Hoe do you feel about
them?
14. Do you take medicine when you are sick?
15. Do you take vitamins or mineral supplements?
16. Do you think pets are good for a person’s health?
17. Do you think that the tobacco companies should be held reasonably
responsible for a person’s addiction to nicotine?
18. Do you usually get enough sleep? Do you take any sleeping pills?
19. Have you ever been hospitalized? (Have you ever been in the
hospital?)

4.27. Thomas Gray once said that ‘Health is heaven’s best treasure”.
Everybody should be responsible for keeping this treasure, but we all
should be kept responsible for keeping the treasure of national health.
What do you think about this problem? Work in a small group, answer
the questions below. Present your group’s opinion to class.
1. Who do you think is responsible for the care of your health - you yourself,
your parents, or your doctor and medical people?
2. What do you think is the most serious health problem in Russia? What can
be done about it? Can this problem be solved within the national program on
healthcare which is under way at the moment?
3. What do you think of the health service in this country? What is it like? How
can it be improved?
4. If you had enough authority, what would you do to improve Russians’
health?
5. What do you think about abortion?
6. What do you think of cosmetic surgery? Do you know anyone who has had
cosmetic surgery? Would you ever consider having cosmetic surgery?
7. Would you consider donating your organs after your death?
8. Do you think nuclear power is safe?
9. What kind of pollution is the riskiest?
10. How could you comment these words of Henry Louis Mencken about
health: “Simply a state in which the individual happens to be perfectly adapted
to his environment. Obviously such states cannot be common, for the
environment is in constant flux.” Does it mean that we cannot speak about the
health of nation?
11) What do you know about the SARS virus or AIDS? Is our society treating
these and other plagues adequately?
12) What do you think about vaccination? Can it help in treating diseases?

4.28. a) What is alternative medicine? Have you ever turned to alternative


therapies?
b) Read the descriptions of various kinds of alternative therapies and
answer the questions below. Do you know any other alternative
therapies?

Iridologists examine the eye for irritation or deposits in nerve fibres, which
they say correspond to inflammation or infection in the body. They also claim to
detect inherent weaknesses, and can discover whether a person has a
predisposition for certain illnesses.
Aromatherapy uses essential oils from plants, which are diluted with carrier
oil before being rubbed into the skin. Different plants are supposed to have
different healing properties. Like other massages, it’s soothing, pleasant and
relaxing.
Homeopathy is based on the principle of using the similar or the like to treat
the like. A German doctor, Samuel Hahnemann, found that using substances at
extreme dilutions and shaking them violently produced a correspondingly more
powerful effect. This process of potentizing (= enhancing) has become the key
feature of homeopathy.
In acupuncture, needles are inserted at an acupuncture point, then aligned
with energy pathways called ‘meridians’, which connect internal organs with
points along the body’s surface. The needles are rotated clockwise or
counterclockwise, according to whether energy is to be stimulated or damped
down.
Questions:
1. What makes those various treatments different from more conventional
medicine? What treatment could be offered in their place?
2. Choose one alternative therapy which you find particularly interesting. Make a
list of the reasons why you would or would not want to try it, then discuss your
reasons with a partner.

4.29. Read the text and be ready to hold a Q&A session: ask each other
questions and answer them basing on the text or your personal
knowledge of acupuncture. Have you ever turned to this therapy?
Acupuncture and Other Alternative Therapies
“As an acupuncturist I think it’s important to understand the philosophy of
Chinese medicine, which includes the belief in Chi and the body’s energy flow. If
you have an even flow of chi you are in good health. What acupuncture offers is an
ability to tap into the Chi. It is then possible to readjust a person's flow of energy if
it is has become unbalanced. Before I treat anybody, I take some time to study the
patient’s medical history. I also read the body's pulses. We can take the pulses at
twelve different places, and each place relates to different organ. From this
information I can decide if there are any blockages in the flow of energy or indeed
any surges of energy. It is at this point I decide where I’m going to insert the
needles. These needles increase or reduce the flow of energy when they are twisted
at the appropriate meridian points. Don’t worry - it doesn’t hurt and you won’t
bleed.
There is great interest and acupuncturists have a long waiting list. The reason for
this is partly because conventional medicine has become increasingly impersonal.
Ordinary doctors are over-worked and don’t have enough time to spend on each
patient. It is often easier and quicker for them to hand out pills than to give proper
personal attention.
Now I believe that acupuncture can benefit most people suffering from disease or
who are in pain. In China it is used as an anesthetic. I myself used it on my wife
when she was having our last child. It certainty seemed to reduce her need for
pain-killers.
What acupuncture does is encourage the body to heal itself, which is, after all, a
natural tendency. There is nothing drastic about the treatment, and people feel
more in control of their bodies than when they are subjected to all that high-tech
equipment in a modern hospital.”

4.30. a) What ailments can be treated with alternative medicine? Should


there be any restrictions applied to alternative therapies?
b) Scan the text to pick up the main causes of migraine and the
methods of alternative medicine that can be used to treat it.
c) What treatment would you personally prefer if you had a migraine?

Alternative Therapies and Migraine


A great many people have headaches. For millions it’s a nuisance that can easily
be cured by a couple of aspirin pills. For some, however, that headache becomes a
nightmare. Headaches of such severity are nearly always due to migraine. Cases of
migraine only increase largely due to stress of city living where noise and pollution
are contributive factors. In addition, it’s recognized that particular foods and wine
can bring on a migraine as well as inadequate sleep.
Conventionally, treatment with the painkillers is usually very effective especially
if the patient suffers from nausea. A more successful approach is to use alternative
therapy. Mild bouts of migraine can be relieved by homeopathic remedies, usually
in the form of tablets which dissolve under the tongue and do not irritate the
stomach.
Acupuncture produces excellent results in cases of sever migraine. Four needles
applied to points of the face give rapid relief, and freedom from attacks can be
achieved after as few as six treatment sessions.

Hypnosis is another technique which can be used. Many people misunderstand


hypnosis. A hypnotic state is simply one of deep relaxation. You are still in
complete control and can not be made to do anything against your will. Hypnosis
is an effective cure for migraine, as it induces a trance in the patient and migraine
attacks eventually disappear.

4.31. Some people live for a hundred years or even more. Many of these live
in either the Mediterranean region, or in parts of rural Japan, and
Russia. What do you think is their secret?
a) On a piece of paper write two ideas to complete the sentence:
“People who live the longest normally ...”. Your ideas should explain
why you think some people live to a very old age.
b) Hand in your pieces of paper to the teacher. And debate the pros
and cons of what you have just written. Share any stories of people who
lived long lives.
c) Answer the questions below.
1. Do you think you will live until a ripe old age? Why or why not?
2. What do you think about getting old?
3. What is the average age of people in your country? Can you explain why?
4. What are the aspects of being old?
5. What can old people do to pass time?
6. Are you afraid of being old? What are you afraid of?
7. What do you expect to feel like when you are old? What will you do? How do
you see yourself when old?

4.32. Read the following citations about health and doctors. Comment on
each. Which one do you like best? Why? Share your opinion with
class.
Citations about health and doctors:
1. [Health is] the first of all liberties. (Henry F. Amiel)
2. [Health is] a man’s own observation (of) what he finds good and what he finds
hurt of. (Francis Bacon)
3. [Health is] the absence of disease, and … of all those kinds of pain which are
among the symptoms of disease. (Jeremy Bentham)
4. [Health is] not a condition of matter, but of mind. (Mary Baker Eddy)
5. [Health is] the first wealth. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
6. [Health is] the ground-work for all happiness. (Leigh Hunt)
7. To wish to be healthy is a part of being healthy. (Seneca)
8. [Health is] the one condition taken for granted by those who have it.
(Anonymous)
9. [A doctor] is one upon whom we set our hopes when ill and our dogs when
well. (Ambrose Bierce)
10. [Doctors are] nature, time, and patience. (Henry G. Bohn)
11. [Doctors are] men who prescribe medicines of which they know little, to cure
diseases of which they know less, in human beings of whom they know nothing.
(Voltaire)
12. [Medicine is] nothing more that the substitute of exercise or temperance.
(Joseph Addison)
13. They [doctors] do not heal, but only relieve suffering temporarily,
exchanging one disease for another. (Mary Baker Eddy)
14. [Medicine is] a good laugh and a long sleep. (Irish proverb)
15. [Medicine is] a collection of uncertain prescriptions, the results of which,
taken collectively, are more fatal than useful to mankind. (Napoleon)
16. [Medicine] consists of amusing the patient while nature cures the disease.
(Voltaire)
17. [Medicine is] the knowledge of the loves and desires of the body, and how to
satisfy them. (Plato)

WRITING

4.33. Pick up any citation from the previous activity and write a 350-word
essay using the citation as the title for the essay.

4.34. Make up your prescription of staying healthy as long as possible. Use


examples from your personal experience or form the experience of
your friends and relatives.

4.35. a) What is living stress free? Do some research on the topic by


interviewing your friends and relatives and write a report on this. The
questions
Living Stressbelow
Free will help you to structure your paper. Feel free to add
new questions to the list.
1. What situations do you find stressful (meeting someone for the first time,
making a public speech, having much work to do, etc.)?
2. Do you work or study for long hours under stressful conditions?
3. What is the most stressful / least stressful job you can think of?
4. Which would you choose: A stressful job with very high pay or a relaxing job
with considerably low pay? Why?
5. Does the place you live have a low-stress environment? What do you think “a
low-stress environment” means?
6. How do you relieve stress (listening to a certain kind of music, going
shopping, taking a long walk, being alone, being with other people, eating more or
eating less, taking alcohol, etc.)?
7. Do you always follow the same pattern to relieve stress or do you try different
things? Do you deal with stress differently than your parents do/did?
8. Are you capable of relieving your stress or do you need help?
9. What is the most stressful experience you have ever had? Did you learn
anything from that experience?
10. What do you think is the greatest cause of stress for most people?

b) Plan a low-stress, cheap, one-day holiday.

4.36. What do you think of ‘sick building syndrome’? Explain what you
think it is and give some written suggestions of how it can be treated.

4.37. Compare the health systems of Russia, Great Britain and the USA.
Write a short report on it and present it to class.

4.38. Render the text in English.


Мобильник вызывает астму и экзему?
Как показывают последние исследования,
мобильные телефоны могут быть причиной аллергии.
Доктор Хаджиме Кимата (Hajime Kimata)
из токийской больницы Unitika высказал
предположение, что микроволновое излучение
мобильных телефонов может «провоцировать»
являющиеся причиной аллергических реакций антигены в крови тех людей,
кто уже страдает от аллергии.
Доктор Кимата обследовал группу из 52 больных, страдающих аллергией.
Всем им было предложено просмотреть видеофильм продолжительностью
один час. Половина из них параллельно разговаривала по мобильным
телефонам, у другой они были предварительно отключены.
«Проверив их кровяное давление, мы обнаружили, что мобильные
телефоны ведут к росту содержания в крови определенных химических
веществ, провоцирующих такие аллергические реакции, как экзема, сенная
лихорадка и астма, — говорит Кимата. — Результаты нас удивили, однако
в их результатах не приходится сомневаться — исследование надлежащим
образом контролировалось. У одной группы обследуемых мобильные
телефоны были включены, и они принимали звонки во время просмотра
часового видео. Другая группа просматривала тот же видеофильм, однако
у ее членов мобильники были выключены, и принимать звонки они не могли.
Складывается впечатление, что значительный рост аллергических уровней
может быть вызван использованием мобильных телефонов».
Дальнейшие исследования показали также, что у пользовавшихся
мобильными телефонами обследуемых кожная реакция на клещей домашней
пыли или пыльцу кедра также оказалась более высокой, чем у контрольной
группы.
Проводящиеся в настоящее время исследования влияния мобильников
на здоровье дают пока что противоречивые, но в целом тревожные
результаты. Имеются свидетельства того, что мобильный телефон негативно
влияет на здоровье мужчин, может вызвать развитие опухоли уха и негативно
влиять на работу мозга вообще, а также разрушать клеточную ДНК.
Кроме того, сейчас в некоторых странах мира мобильных телефонов
больше, чем людей, и подключенные к сотовым сетям граждане находят все
новые и новые поводы для волнений, связанных с мобильниками.
В результате, говорят эксперты, на свет появился телекоммуникационный
эквивалент синдрома «фантома конечности», когда у человека с
ампутированной конечностью появляется ложное ощущение ее наличия, хотя
ее больше нет.
Довольно часто в публичных местах можно наблюдать такую картину: где-
то раздается звонок мобильного, и все люди поблизости с неистовой энергией
начинают проверять свои карманы и сумки. Психологи склонны полагать, что
это проявление одной из форм новой фобии, связанной с мобильниками.
Этот феномен уже получил название ringxiety («мания звонка»). Научные
данные, стоящие за новой теорией, достаточно обоснованы: определенные
звуковые диапазоны - от 1 до 6 кГц - легче улавливаются человеческим ухом
и поэтому в большей степени стимулируют реакцию.
В мании звонка существенную роль играет психологическая потребность
всегда быть на связи, ни на секунду не выпадая из общего информационного
поля. Именно эта потребность заставляет людей, сидя в кафе или ресторане,
выкладывать мобильник на стол.
А при потере аппарата у некоторых людей начинаются истерики, причем не
из-за дороговизны пропавшего устройства, а из-за невозможности быть на
связи, пусть даже и временно. Впрочем, пока «мания», как и многие другие
расстройства, провоцируемые современной жизнью, не является настоящим,
признанным заболеванием.
Есть и другие, менее очевидные психологические расстройства, способные
быть вызванными мобильным телефоном. В некоторых странах, в том числе
в Великобритании, набирает оборот сервис Bluedating, позволяющий
обладателям мобильника знакомиться друг с другом посредством технологии
Bluetooth.
Казалось бы, что в этом плохого? Однако психологи считают, что подобные
способы знакомств способствуют развитию у людей социофобии и
неуверенности в себе. «Пользователям Bluedating сложно пересилить себя,
подойти к понравившемуся молодому человеку или девушке и просто
познакомиться. Боязнь быть отвергнутым или неправильно понятым
заставляет людей фактически прятаться за такими технологиями, как
Bluetooth. Bluedating часто позволяет общаться анонимно, не прибегая к
личному знакомству, а это еще больше развивает в людях неуверенность в
себе», - считает доктор психологических наук Петра Бойнтон.
Unit 5. THE THINGS I LIKE AND DISLIKE. PROBLEMS OF MY ENVIRONMENT.

Nature is a step-mother.
Guillaume de Bartas
Nature is a hanging judge.
Anonymous
Society is a hospital of incurables.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
War is the science of destruction.
J.S.Abbot

Recommended grammar:
Noun clauses. Connectors.

BUILDING-UP YOUR VOCABULARY


5.1. Read the text and say what are the major environmental concerns in
modern world. What are the characteristics of each type of the
problem?
A Challenge to All Mankind
There is growing evidence that man’s unrestrained and undirected manipulation
of the natural world at today’s expanding geometric rate can only bring disaster.
Either we reduce the scale of our intervention, or we manage it so the cumulative
impact is tolerable, even beneficial to man and society.
Everyone with a deep concern for the future of the world has a vital role to play
in meeting the environmental challenge. An inescapable reality of that challenge is
the need to consider all elements, both natural and manmade: population as well as
resources, poverty as well as pollution.
For, in the final analysis, any solution is contingent on creating vastly improved
living conditions for all people. At this juncture of human history, we must affirm
the physical unity and interdependence of the biosphere’s diverse elements, and
realize that we hold the planet in trust for future generations.
We need to achieve an international and communal sense of urgency that we can
translate into dynamic global action.
Fresh (= unsalted) water in an unfrozen state comprises less than one per
cent of earth’s water supply. Lakes and rivers are polluted faster than natural
processes can cleanse them. Furthermore, this constant and finite resource –
which is along with air and food provides the base for all living creatures – is
unevenly distributed around the world. And man is using so much of this precious
commodity that many nations are heading for serious trouble. To keep up with an
accelerating demand, we are increasingly drawing on (= using) our fresh water
‘capital’ – groundwater.
Overfishing has depleted the number of fish in the oceans.
Air pollution knows no boundaries: poison in the air over Europe will later
be poison in the air over Asia and North America. Contamination with carbon
dioxide, lead, cadmium or fluoride emissions shows up first and most dramatically
in the atmosphere over big cities, though it is not solely a big city problem. Unlike
water pollution which can be removed before water is used, air pollution must be
attacked at the source to keep our air breathable. The destruction of the ozone
layer is leading to climatic changes and what is known as the greenhouse effect.
Amount of land each person has to feed himself is shrinking rapidly, and half
the earth’s populations is already hungry. Paradoxically, nations with chronic food
shortages have the largest farm populations. The limiting factor to growing more
food is not labour, but supply of productive soil. Only about two per cent of the
earth’s surface is used to grow crops; the rest is too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry –
or covered with water or ice. Besides, the pesticides, fertilizers and irrigation
techniques applied to produce more food are polluting the pure water and
productive land we need to survive. Poor waste disposal adds to this pollution.
The destruction of the rainforests is causing widespread ecological problems.

5.2. Study the vocabulary used to describe environmental and social


problems. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
Environmental problems:
shrinking habitat, endangered spices, finite resource, ecological balance, pristine
environment, piecemeal conservation, protection, green credentials (= reputation of
positive support of the environment), greens;
the worst case scenario, global warming, climatic changes, greenhouse effect,
deforestation, prophets of doom and gloom (= people who make the most
pessimistic forecasts for the future), pollution, ozone layer, acid rain, smoke (from
factories), car exhaust fumes, emission, fossil fuel, dumping industrial waste,
aerosol can/ spray, CFC (= chlorofluorocarbon, gas used in sprays), carbon
dioxide, bottle bank;
harmful /damaging/ destroying;
to exert severe pressure on smth., to cut down, to throw away, to recycle, to
plant, to waste resources;
Problems or war/ terror and peace:
outbreak/ start, clashes, ultimatum, hostilities/ hostile acts, hostilities begin/
break out, hostilities cease, (to take somebody) to the brink of war, conflict, war
zone, the war between (two countries), in a state of war, a theatre of war, ally/
allies/ allied forces, aid, troops, military forces, supplies, civilians, casualties,
victim, survivor, refugees, guerrilla, to be hostile;
shelling / firing of guns and explosives, incendiary device/ bomb, germ/
biological warfare, weapon of mass destruction (WMD), target, to take aim at;
peace talks, peace settlement, ceasefire, peace treaty, truce, intermediary,
peacekeeping troops, international observer, campaign, corps [ko:];
to be alive, to be wounded, to be contused/ shell-shocked, to be missing, missing
in action (M.I.A.), prisoner of war (P.O.W.);
to invade a country, to capture/ to take/ to take control of, to retreat, to attack, to
defend, to run out (food supplies have run out), to deteriorate, to mobilize, to
declare war, to retaliate (against smb. for smth.), to wage war/ to fight/ to make a
war against/ with smb., to rout/ to defeat, to withdraw (troops), to station troops, to
besiege, to ambush, to plan/ to organize/ to launch a campaign, to place/ to set off/
to throw a bomb, to place an army on a war footing;
terrorist, hijacker, hostage, to take smb. hostage, to hold smb. hostage, to bargain
for smth., to release;
Adjectives:
war-stricken (area), war-devastated (area), a war can be limited, holy, civil,
global/ world, air, guerrilla, nuclear, cold, trade, class, liberating;
Problems of poverty:
poverty line, income poverty (= if your income is less that the defined poverty
line in your country), human poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, lack /shortage of
food, famine, poor sanitation, poverty alleviation, overseas aid, scarce resources,
Peace Corps [ko:].

5.3. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below.

sewage enlightened pesticides sustainable


organic acid rain ecological deforestation
disposal herbicides extinction animal rights

When industrialisation began, little thought was given to its (a) ______effects.
Raw, untreated (b) ______ was allowed to pollute our seas and rivers. Animals
were killed for profit to the point of (c) ______. The loss of trees through
uncontrolled (d) ______caused erosion and unstable climate, (e)______was caused
by the poisonous gases man sent into the atmosphere. Chemicals in (f)______
killed animal life, (g) ______ destroyed plants. The balance of nature was
disturbed.
It is only now that we are waking up to the problem. More natural, (h) ______
farming is advocated. Legislation controls the (i) ______ of waste products into
our air and water. Wildlife organisations are becoming more militant in their fight
for (j) ______. Replanting policies in some parts of the world mean that our forests
should in future be (k) ______.
We can only hope that growing public awareness and (l) ______ legislation will
produce a world which is safe for us and will provide a good quality of life for
future generations.

5.4. a) Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passages below.
b) Think of examples from real life to illustrate each case.

a) The Outbreak of War


deteriorate mobilise hostile acts declare war clashes
aggression outbreak forces ultimatum
retaliate
For years there were border (a) ______between troops of country X and those of
country Z. Then (b) ______ from X attacked a village in Z. Z accused X of (c)
______ and began to (d) ______ in readiness for possible war. X warned Z: “If you
carry out (e) ______ against us, we will (f) ______.” But there was more fighting
on the border. The situation begun to (g) ______. X delivered an (h) ______ to Z.
“If you do not promise to respect our borders, we will (i) ______.” Finally came
the (j) ______of war.

b) Peace Making
withdraw intermediary targets neutral peace treaty
get involved intervene ceasefire civilian peace-keeping force

After months of fighting, during which (a) ______ as well as military (b) ______
were bombed, country X asked country Y, which had remained (c) ______ during
the hostilities, to act as an (d) ______, but Y decided not to (e) ______. X then
asked the United Nations to (f) ______. The United Nations managed to arrange a
(g) ______and stationed a multi-national (h) ______ between the two opposing
armies. After weeks of talks, the two countries finally signed a (i) ______ and the
UN troops were able to (j) ______.

5.5. Explain the difference between the following.

(a) to advance and to retreat (e) conventional war and nuclear war
(b) liberating war and civil war (f) an ally and an enemy
(c) absolute poverty and relative poverty
(d) GDP and GNP
5.6. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
as on in for out between
1. X declared war ______ Z.
2. Troops are moving ______ readiness ______ an attack.
3. Y didn’t want to get involved ______ the fighting.
4. The Second World War broke ______ in 1939.
5. Canada acted ______ an intermediary ______ the argument.
6. War planes carried ______ an attack.
7. The peace-keeping force remained ______ the two enemy armies during peace
talks, then withdrew.

5.7. Read the passage from the New Internationalist (1999) and match the
words in bold to their definitions after the text.

Changes in Attitudes to War


One area in which great changes occurred in the twentieth century is in the
public attitude to war and peace. The vocabulary in which war is spoken about has
ceased to be one of courage, patriotism and pride, and has instead become one of
failure or of unimaginable disaster. The ‘War Office’ has in general become the
‘Ministry of Defence’; the greatest destructive weapons ever invented have
become ‘deterrents’. Most people went out of the 20 th century with a view of the
military ‘virtues’, of the place of war in a civilised society, fundamentally different
from that of the nineteenth century and earlier. The inventor of dynamite at the end
of the nineteenth century believed that his invention would outlaw war, since the
devastation it could produce would make any major outbreak destructive beyond
imagination. After 1918 the same view was held about aerial warfare. My
childhood was dominated by the conviction that a major war would end up wiping
out the cities of the industrial world. Since 1945, the possibility of nuclear
annihilation has seemed to make war between the great powers an act of
collective suicide. These factors alone have contributed to a revulsion against
large-scale military operations among thinking people in all nations - though the
world is unquestionably still full of national, ethnic and political causes whose
supporters see a resort to bullets and bombs as the only means of gaining their
ends.

(a) loyalty to your own country


(b) the act of killing yourself deliberately
(c) ways of discouraging people from doing something because of the negative
results
(d) achieving their aims
(e) most important political powers (used about the USA and the Soviet Union
from the 1940s to 1990s)
(f) feeling of total disgust towards
(g) use something, especially something bad, as a means of achieving something
(h) total destruction by nuclear weapons
(i) movements, organisations
(j) fighting a war using airplanes
(k) make war illegal or impossible

5.8. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the sentences
below.
absolute alleviation Domestic malnutrition
relative sanitation servicing National
1. The figure of a country’s Gross ____ Product will be larger than that for its
Gross _____ Product.
2. In countries where food is scarce, ______ is inevitably a major problem.
3. Using overseas aid for debt ______ does not directly help any people who are
suffering through poverty.
4. The amount of money earned by someone suffering from _____ poverty will
be greater in a rich area than in a poor area, whereas ____ poverty does not take
account of a person’s immediate environment.
5. The Child Poverty Action Group does all it can for the ____ of poverty among
children in the United Kingdom.
6. Temporary refugee camps usually have rather poor _____ facilities.

5.9. Read the sentences below containing the metaphors of warfare and
some expressions relating to poverty. Explain their meanings in
English and think of any similar Russian expressions.

1. The government is waging war on drunken driving.


2. Paparazzi are besieging the Princess’s home.
3. A major advertising campaign was planned to launch a new cosmetics range.
4. The Brazilian football team routed all the others in the World Cup.
5. The companies are battling to win market supremacy.
6. We have a major fight on our hands if we are to save the company from
bankruptcy.
7. It’s time to rally the troops and get them to do some overtime.
8. A lot of artists who only became famous after their deaths spent their lifetimes
in penury.
9. It’s a very poor country – over 60% of the population live on /below the
breadline.
10. The charity’s main aim is to improve healthcare in impoverished areas of the
world.
11. Everywhere in the city you see destitute people living in shop doorways or
under bridges.
12. Unfortunately, the number of deprived children in the world is growing,
even in so-called rich countries.
13. When we were first married, we were living from hand to mouth.
14. When we were children, money was always tight.

ACQUIRING COMMUNICATION SKILLS


5.10. a) For a long time, man has been taking a head-in-the-sand
approach,
eagerly accepting certain myths about environmental and
demographic problems. Comment on the following myths. Think of

Myth 1: Wars, disease, and natural disasters will control population surplus.
Myth 2: Technology and oceans will feed the world.
Myth 3: Man is only using a fraction of the land.

b) Read the facts below and see how they destroy the myths above.

Myth 1:
Fact: In five years of terrible war, population of North and South Vietnam grew
by more than 3 million.
Fact: A giant tidal wave killed more than 500,000 in East Pakistan in 1970, but
this number was replaced in just 35 days.
Fact: Improved healthcare and modern medicines have lengthened western
man’s life-span by two decades since 1900.
Myth 2:
Fact: Green revolution is shot in the arm, but population growth is neutralizing
food production giants.
Fact: Oceans are 90% biological deserts, with other 10% in danger of being
over-exploited.
Myth 3:
Fact: Much of the land is too hot, too cold, too wet or too dry for agriculture and
human habitation.

5.11. Work with a partner and answer the questions about being eco-
friendly.

1. Why do environmentalists say we should avoid spray cans?


2. Why do greens favour organic farming and using unleaded petrol?
3. Why do environmentalists encourage us to use recycled paper and
bottle banks? How do Russians take part in the recycling process?
4. What are other methods of environmental protection that greens
favour? Do you favour such methods? Why?

5.12. Look at the pictures. Which of these environmental problems would


effect you most if they occurred in the area you live? What action
could you take as an individual to deal with the problems?
5.13. a) Work with a partner. Read the text about global warming and
changing climate. Think about possible consequences of these
processes and discuss them in details with your partner.
The Greenhouse Effect
According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature
has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated
warming during the past two decades. There is new and stronger evidence that
most of the warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.
Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through
the buildup of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous
oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed although
uncertainties exist about exactly how the earth’s climate responds to them.
Our Changing Atmosphere
Energy from the sun drives the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the
earth’s surface; in turn, the earth radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric
greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the
outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse.
Without this natural “greenhouse effect”, temperatures would be much low