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АРТИКЛИ

Артикли относятся к числу самы х распространенны х слов в


английском язы ке. О ни играю т важную смыслоразличительную
роль в речи и являю тся важ нейш ей составляю щ ей успеш но­
го общ ения. Употребление артиклей регулируется множ еством
правил и и склю чений, которы е основываю тся н а логике и на
язы ковой традиции. В больш инстве случаев нуж но руководство­
ваться см ы слом , поним ать, в каком значении и с какой целью
употребляется то и ли иное слово.
О днако, прежде всего, употребление артиклей зависит от
того, каки м является им я сущ ествительное — собственны м или
нарицательны м , и, если оно является нарицательны м , принад­
леж ит ли оно к группе исчисляемы х либо неисчисляемы х сущ е­
ствительных. И счисляем ы е сущ ествительны е имею т единствен­
н ое и множ ественное число; неисчисляемы е сущ ествительные
н е имеют ф орм ы множ ественного числа. Таким образом, зная
категорию сущ ествительного, мы получаем диапазон артиклей,
которы е могут быть использованы :

Существительные А / AN THE нет артикля


исчисляемые
a book the book —
в единственном числе
исчисляемые
— the books books
во множественном числе
неисчисляемые — the money money
имена собственные — the Sun London

Сделать дальнейш ий выбор вам помогут следую щ ие правила.

НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЙ АРТИКЛЬ
A AN
перед согласным звуком перед гласным звуком
в написании в произношении в написании в произношении
a tower a user an apple an hour
a computer a year an idea an SMS
a hotel a one-room flat an umbrella ап MP3 player

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Употребление Примеры
1. с исчисляемыми в ед.ч. You can choose a dressfrom this catalogue.
в значении «один из», I got a messagefrom my mum.
«какой-то», «любой», A person who tries hard can achieve very
«каждый» much.
2. «один», «еще один» Wait a minute, please.
His dream is to earn a thousand dollars
a month.
My phone called a second time.
3. первое упоминание I ’m lookingfor a job.
4. описательное The Internet is a usejjd source o f information.
определение We need a secretary with some work experi­
ence.
5. профессия, род занятий My brother is a first-year student.
After graduation he’ll work as a doctor.
6. после what, such, quite, What a pleasant surprise!
rather This is rather a (a rather) silly mistake.
7. of + цифра a discount of 5 percent
an audience o f200people
a height of 10 metres
8. порция Will you buy me an ice-cream ?
9. эмоция, умственная What a pity /relief/ shame / nuisance!
деятельность 4- уточнение She’s got a great love o f life.
Do you have a guilty pleasure ?
I have a suspicion that you’re right.
The university gave me a good education and
a first-class knowledge o f law.

Секреты успеха!
Н еопределенны й артикль употребляется, главны м образом,
перед исчисляемы м сущ ествительным в единственном числе. П о­
этому, прежде чем поставить артикль A/AN к существительному,
нужно определить, является ли оно исчисляемым. В основном,
категория исчисляемости совпадает с русской логикой,• но есть
и особые случаи.
С н и ж еп еречи слен ны м и сущ ествительны м и н еоп ределен ­
н ы й арти кль н икогда не употребляется, даж е п ри н али чи и
Описательного определения. О братите вни м ани е, что многие
из дан ны х сущ ествительны х являю тся исчисляем ы м и в рус­
ском язы ке:

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advice information permission
applause insurance progress
equipment knowledge research
evidence lightning transport
food luck travel
fun money trouble
furniture news weather
gossip parking work

Например:
We had Jerrible weather at the weekend.
I am not sure i f it is _good news.
В английском язы ке м ного сущ ествительных, которы е не
имею т ф орм ы м нож ественного числа, но при этом могут упо­
требляться с неопределенны м артиклем , особенно при наличии
описательного определения:

age fee memory


alibi fortune mess
amount friendship mood
appetite headache moustache
attitude holiday occupation
audience impact range
background income reputation
benefit increase salary
career influence sleep
choice job smell
cough laugh suspicion
cure lifestyle temper
diet living variety
distance meal whisper

Н апример:
A headache may be a direct result o f stress.
The cafe has a reputation fo r a wide choice o f well-priced food.
Обратите вним ание, что сущ ествительные crossroads, means,
series, species могут употребляться с артиклем A /A N , т.к. им е­
ют одинаковую форму в единственном и м нож ественном числе.
Н апример:
Patrick shared a series o f selfies in his Instagram Stories.
A drink-driver caused a crash at a busy crossroads.

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Устойчивые выражения
с неопределенным артиклем

all of a sudden in a hurry to drop sb a line


as a matter o f fact in a low voice to go for a walk
as a result in a mess to keep an eye on sb
as a rule in a rush to make a date
at a distance in a whisper to make a mistake
at a glance it’s a pity to make a speech
at a loss it’s a pleasure to make a start
at a profit on a large scale to make an appointment
at a time once upon a time to make an impression
for a long time to a certain degree to play a trick
for a while to a certain extent to put an end to
from a distance to be a success to tell a joke
in a fury to catch a glimpse to tell a lie
in a good humour to do a favour to throw a party
in a good mood to do sth for a living to work a miracle

Н еопределенны й артикль употребляется в сочетаниях с гла­


голами to have, to take, to give:
to have a cold to have a sleep to take a nap
to have a good laugh to have a smoke to take a risk
to have a good time to have a suspicion to take a seat
to have a headache to have a think to take a shower
to have a look to have a try to give a call
to have a quarrel to have a word to give a chance
to have a reputation to have an impact to give a hand
to have a rest to take a course to give a lift

Обратите вним ание, что в следующих словосочетаниях с гла­


голами to have, to take, to give артикля нет:
to have (great) fun to have success to take part
to have breakfast to have trouble to take place
to have difficulty (in) to take action to give cause
to have dinner to take care to give permission
to havefree time to take exercise to give way

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ОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЙ АРТИКЛЬ
Употребление Примеры
1. из ситуации Let's take the children to the zoo.
(контекста) понятно, Could you turn on the kettle?
о чем идет речь Sorry I ’m late, the subway was crazy!
2. уникальный или He works in the centre of the city.
единственный в London is the capita! of the UK.
данной ситуации The sun is shining and there aren’t any clouds in
(контексте) the sky.
3. конкретизирую­ This is the money
щее (уточняющее) The guy in the car in front of the cafe looks strange.
определение
4. в сочетании с of Put a period at the end of every sentence.
(только один)
He got married at the age of 47.
The popularity of mobile phones has skyrocketed.
Сравните:
Can I have a cup o f coffee? (один)
We made a list of places to visit.
5. перед central, fol­ That’s the right answer.
lowing, last, left, main, We study at the same school.
necessary, next, only, Wejust spent the whole day shopping!
opposite, present, That’s the very book I ’m lookingfor.
right, same, very, whole English is the main language in the world.
Ho: last year, next week, _next door
6. порядковое This is thefirst time I ’ve been here.
числительное I ’m the pupil of the l l 'hform.
7. прилагательное Have you heard the latest news ?
в превосходной ‘The’ is the most common word in the English lan­
степени guage!
8. при повторном There was a cat on the porch. The animal was enjoy­
упоминании ing the sunshine.
9. после one of, some Some of the messages were deleted.
of, many of, most of, Most of the world’s electronics are made in China.
each of
10. приложении, Katie Holmes married Tom Cruise, the actor.
если подчеркивается Сравните:
известность лица Do you know Rob Brown, an actor in ‘Blindspot’?
(не является всемирно известным)
Употребление Примеры
11. обстоятельство I’ll meet you at the airport.
места (где? куда?) Сравните:
She works in a children’s hospital in Minsk.
(в одной из больниц)
12. группа людей The government provides carefor the sick, the elderly,
the unemployed and the poor.
13. класс предметов I can play the guitar, (музыкальный инструмент)
Nobody knows who invented the wheel, (изобрете­
ние)
The dog is a friend of man. (dog — класс живот­
ных; man в родовом значении без артикля)
14. общеизвестные the cinema the news the sunshine
понятия the environment the police the underground
the Internet the rain the weather
the media the sky the world
Ho: _nature, _space, _society (в общем смысле)
15. ландшафт the country(side) the mountains
the forest the sea(side)

Секрет успеха!
О пределенны й артикль употребляется перед лю бы м и сущ е­
ствительны ми, когда и говорящему, и слуш аю щ ему понятно, что
именно имеется в виду; когда речь идет о конкретном (н еп о­
вторим ом, уникальном , единственном в своем роде) предмете
(явлении, человеке), которы й невозм ож но перепутать ни с чем
другим. Вместо артикля the м ож но поставить слова «этот», «тот
самый».
W hat’s the time?
Where did you park the car?
Have you locked the front door?
I ’m afraid M r Gail is out o f the office ju st now. Can I take a message ?
Everyone has the right to get the healthcare they need.

Устойчивые выражения с определенным артиклем


all the same in the sun to break the silence
at the bottom in the wild to change for the better
at the moment not in the least to cross the road
at the top on the contrary to do the cleaning

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by the way on the increase to hit the roof
for the sake of on the left to lay the table
for the time being on the one hand to look in the eye(s)
from the beginning on the other hand to make the bed
in the daytime on the right to make the most of sth
in the distance on the run to pass the time
in the doorway on the safe side to read between the lines
in the end on the spot to speak to the point
in the habit of on the tip o f my tongue to take thefloor
in the long run on the whole to take the trouble
in the middle out of the blue to tell the difference
in the night out of the ordinary to tell the time
in the open air out of the question to tell the truth
in the original the day after tomorrow to tell the way
in the past the day before yesterday to weather the storm
in the rain the other day under the impression
in the shade to be on the move under the influence

ОТСУТСТВИЕ АРТИКЛЯ

Употребление Примеры
1. исчисляемые во мн.ч. _Dogs are much more playful than cats.
в значении «все», ■_Mobilephones are the best way to keep in touch.
«любые», «всякие» или _ Women love it when _men send them Jlowers.
с описанием
2. неисчисляемые I’ll help you with jpleasure.
в общем смысле или We had terrible weather at the weekend.
с описанием _Water is necessaryfor Jife.
3. количественное Max works _six days a week.
числительное Open the book at _page 5.
4. годы Wefirst met in (the year) 2018.
Ho: The plant was built in the nineties.
5. наука, учебный The study of history is a window into the past.
предмет Ho: I study the history of World War II.
6. спорт He plays _table tennis twice a week.
7. после amount of, group What kind of _car do you drive ?
of, kind of, number of, The number o f junemployed is rising.
range of, sense of, sort of, A sense o f responsibility is a vital school goal.
type of

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Артикль не употребляется в следующих
устойчивых выражениях
arm in arm from beginning to end on second thoughts
at breakfast from memory on time
atfirst from top to bottom on top of all
atfirst glance hand in hand out of date
atfirst sight in (outer) space out of doors
at half price in addition out of order
at hand in advance out o f sight
at high speed in cash to be in trouble
at home in charge of to catch sight of
at last in comparison with to cause trouble
at least in conclusion to do research
at odds in connection with to give advice
at present in contrast to to give cause for
at risk in danger to give permission
at sea in debt to give way
at short notice in despa ir to go on holiday
at sunrise in detail to keep (good) time
at sunset in fact to lose control
at war infashion to lose heart
at work in favour of to lose sight of
by accident in honour to make friends
by bus (car, tube) in person to make fun of
by chance in reality to make money
by cheque in reply to to make progress
by heart in search of to make sense
by means of in secret to make use of
by mistake in seventh heaven to pay attention to
by name in sight to shake hands
by plane in time to take action
close to heart last but not least to take advantage
common knowledge on average to take care of
common sense on behalf of to take first place
day after day on board (the ship) to take for granted
day by day on condition that to take notice
face toface on credit to take offence
forages on demand to take part
for example on fire to take place
for fun on foot to take to heart
for good on holiday to win first prize
for instance on occasion under control
for life on purpose under pressure
free o f charge on sale with pleasure
УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ АРТИКЛЕЙ С НЕКОТОРЫМИ
СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫМИ

— A THE
school, college, university, church, hospital, prison, jail
Прямое назначение: Описание: Конкретизация:
I go to school every day. Moving to a new school The college wasfounded
(учеба) can be stressfulfor a in 1998.
She spent a week in child. The walls of the jail
_hospital. (лечение) They got married in a were built of massive
He was sent to _prison local church. stones.
for fraud, (наказание) I work as a nurse in The locals raised money
a hospital, (одна из to rebuild the church.
больниц)
breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper
Привычный прием Описание: Конкретизация:
пищи в обычное It was a delicious break­ Is the dinner ready?
время: fast. How much did you pay
Lunch is at 12 o’clock. There’s no such thing as for the lunch ?
Let’s have dinner out afree^ lunch.
tonight.
What shall I cook for
_supper?
части суток, дни недели, месяцы, поры года
В общем смысле: Описание: Конкретизация:
_Night has come. I spent a sleepless night. Wake up early on the
I was born in summer, We met on a Monday in^ day of your exam.
in _June. July. We will always remem­
A frosty November ber the May of 1945.
brought an end to a rainy
autumn.

АРТИКЛИ С ИМЕНАМИ СОБСТВЕННЫМИ

Название — THE Исключения


Venus, Mars, the earth, the planet
планеты
(the) Earth the Sun, the Moon (of) Venus
стороны the North, from East
света the Southeast to West
Название — THE Исключения
the North Pole,
the South Pole,
полюса
the Arctic,
the Antarctic
регионы:
Africa, Europe, the Lake
материки,
(Latin) America, District,
регионы
(Central) Asia the Highlands,
the Middle East
пустыни the Sahara (Desert)
отд. остров: группа островов:
острова the Isle of Man
Sicily the British Isles
вершины: горные цепи:
горы
(Mount) Elbrus the Alps
океаны, the (River) Nile,
моря, реки the Pacific (Ocean)
Lake Baikal, the Braslav
озера the Baikal
Loch Ness Lakes
the Republic,
the Union,
the Kingdom,
the States,
the Federation,
the Emirates: the Netherlands,
страны the USA, the UK, the Philippines,
the Republic the Vatican
of Belarus
Belarus, the England of the
England Middle Ages
western Spain,
the west of Spain
Ancient Greece
населенные Minsk, Athens, the Minsk of 1945,
пункты New York City the city of New York
the City,
районы Westminster,
the West End,
города Malinovka
the East End
Fifth Avenue,
улицы, the High Street,
Broadway,
площади the Main Street
Red Square

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Продолжение

Название — THE Исключения


the Golden
Gate Bridge,
мосты Tower Bridge the Bridge of Sighs
the Brooklyn
Bridge
the National Park,
Hyde Park,
парки the Botanical
Disneyland
Gardens
аэропорты, Gatwick Airport,
вокзалы Victoria Station
Buckingham Palace,
городские the Eiffel Tower,
London Zoo,
объекты the White House, the London Eye
Covent Garden,
(театры, the British Museum, (колесо
St. Paul’s Cathedral,
музеи, the Hermitage, обозрения),
Shakespeare’s
дворцы the Royal Stonehenge,
Birthplace
и т.п.), до­ Opera House, Madame
(название места,
стопримеча­ the Egyptian Tussauds
имя в притяж.
тельности Pyramids
падеже)
McDonald’s,
магазины, Selfridges, Harrods, the Studio Cafe,
рестораны, (имя в притяж. the White Tower,
гостиницы падеже или the Hilton Hotel
мн. числе)
the Belarusian
Minsk State Lin­
State University,
учебные guistic University,
the Open University,
заведения Oxford University
the University
(название города)
of Lon don
the Coca Cola Com­ a Ford, a Nikon,
Coca Cola,
pany, the British an Android
компании IBM, Microsoft,
Broadcasting Corpo­ (марка, продукт
General Motors
ration (the BBC) компании)
the Government,
the City Council,
государ­
the Senate, Parliament,
ственные
учреждения
the Supreme Court, Congress
the Pentagon,
the British Parliament

120
Название — THE Исключения
политиче­ the Democratic
ские партии Party
the 2018
Olympic Games,
обществен­
the Eurovision Song
ные меро­
Contest,
приятия
the Cup Final,
the Minsk Summit
the Renaissance,
исторические
the French
события World War II
Revolution,
и периоды
the Ice Age
New Year’s Day,
the Fourth of July,
праздники Easter (Sunday),
the Eighth of March
Halloween
(the) Belarusians,
a Russian,
the English,
националь­ a Dutchman,
the French,
ности a Swiss,
the Swiss,
a Japanese
the Chinese
языки French the French language
Betsy,
имена, a Picasso (про­
Mr. Brown, the Browns (семья)
фамилии изведение)
Aunt Jane
Doctor Heil,
Admiral Nelson, Peter the Great,
титул,
Lord Byron, Elizabeth II,
должность
President the Prince o f Wales
Lukashenko

В данном разделе п еречислены лиш ь осн овны е п равила упо­


требления артиклей в английском язы ке. Б олее подробную и н ­
ф орм ацию вы можете найти в сп равочни ке «А нглийские арти к­
ли» М и трош киной Т.В., а больш ое количество упраж нений н а
отработку правил вы найдете в книгах «А нглийский язы к: п ол ­
ны й курс подготовки к ц ен трали зованн ом у тестированию и э к ­
замену» и «Грамматика ан глий ского язы ка: готовим ся к цен тра­
лизованном у тестированию ».

121
Рекомендации по выполнению
тестовых заданий на артикли
Прежде чем приступать к вы полнению задания н а артикли,
вним ательно прочитайте предлож енны й вам текст. Определите,
о чем идет речь, обратите вним ание н а контекст.
Д елая выбор между артиклям и, используйте следую щ ий ал­
горитм:

1. Определите, к каком у сущ ествительному относится артикль:


к исчисляемом у либо к неисчисляемому.
2. Если сущ ествительное исчисляемое, определите его число:
единственное или множественное. П омните, что сущ естви­
тельное во множ ественном числе обычно имеет окончание
-s. П ом ните о сущ ествительных, которые являю тся исклю ­
чением и образуют множ ественное число без -s: men, women,
children, people, police, teeth, feet, mice. Кроме того, некоторы е
сущ ествительные с окончанием -s имеют одинаковую ф ор­
му в единственном и м нож ественном числе: crossroads, means,
series, species, works.
3. Если перед вами исчисляемое сущ ествительное в единствен­
ном ч и сле, оно может употребляться либо с A /A N , либо с
THE:

122
а. Вместо артикля A /A N всегда мож но поставить в предло­
ж ение слова «один из», «какой-то». Также на артикль А
будет указы вать описательное определение (прилагатель­
ное, которое обычно стоит перед сущ ествительны м и от­
вечает н а вопрос какой?). Н апример: Would you like а сир
o f tea? Не sent те a yeryJMME emoticon.
б. А ртикль T H E употребляется, если есть конкретизация.
Это мож ет быть наличие после сущ ествительного п ри ­
даточного предлож ения или словосочетания с предлогом
(чащ е of) либо уточняю щ ая и нф орм ац ия в предыдущих
предлож ениях (ситуация, контекст). К онкретизирую щ ее
определение отвечает н а вопрос какой именно? и указы ­
вает на такое качество или характеристику сущ ествитель­
ного, которое выделяет его среди других, делает его осо­
бенны м и уникальны м . Н апример: I like the way you have
done this. Write your name in the space at the bottom o f the page.
4. Если перед вами исчисляемое сущ ествительное во м нож е­
ственном ч и сл е, оно может употребляться либо без артикля,
либо с артиклем THE:
а. А ртикль не ставится, если перед сущ ествительны м во
м нож ественном числе м ож но поставить слова «все», «лю­
бые», а такж е при наличии описательного определения.
Н апример: _Sm all children enjoy listening to jstories before
falling asleep. I dislike _people who never say thank you.
б. А ртикль T H E употребляется при наличии кон кретизаци и
(см. пункт 36). Н апример: The people who live next door are
really nice. The guests at your party were extremely noisy.
5. Если перед вам и неисчисляем ое сущ ествительное, оно может
употребляться либо без артикля, либо с артиклем THE:
а. А ртикль не ставится, если неисчисляем ое сущ ествитель­
ное употреблено в общ ем см ысле либо присутствует о п и ­
сательное определение. Н апример: _М опеу can’t buy you
happiness. Wash your hands with _soap and _water. Bitter
strong coffee is a very common drink.
б. А ртикль T H E употребляется при наличии кон кретиза­
ции (см. пункт 36). Н апример: The laughter o f ту children
is music to m y ears. I was kept awake by the noise o f the traffic.
Секрет успеха!
Употребление артикля зависит не только от контекста, но и
от типа сущ ествительного, к котором у этот артикль относится:

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А / AN THE —
С исчисляемым С любым существи­ С неисчисляемым
в единственном числе, тельным, при наличии в общем смысле или
в значении «один из» конкретизации. с описанием.
или с описанием. С множественным
числом, в значении
«все», «любые» или
с описанием.

Типичные ошибки в употреблении артиклей


S Употребляйте артикль A/AN только перед исчисляемы м сущ е­
ствительны м в единственном числе:
Buying an iPhone is an expensive decision.
Happiness is not an inevitable result o f having _money.
•S Употребляйте артикль T H E только при наличии кон крети за­
ции:
I can’t express the happiness that I fe lt when my son was born.
_ Children need plenty o f exercise and afresh air.
•/ H E употребляйте артикль A /A N перед неисчисляемы м сущ е­
ствительным:
W hat _nice weather we are having today!
Have you heard the news?
•S H E употребляйте артикль A /A N перед сущ ествительны м во
множ ественном числе:
Rangers have to protect _wild animals from _poachers.
She paid a hundred dollars fo r a pair o f _shoes.
S Запом инайте устойчивые выраж ения с артиклями:
Why are you talking in a whisper?
Try to go out fo r a walk at least once a day.
Главное правило выбора артикля в английском язы ке: н е­
определенны й артикль A/AN используется, когда речь идет не
о конкретном предмете (человеке или явлении), а об одном из 1
многих. Если же говорим о чем -либо конкретном, п онятном со­
беседникам , употребляем определенны й артикль T H E . П ерево­
дите предлож ение, анализируйте контекст, определяйте тип су- |/!
щ ествительного (исчисляемое, неисчисляем ое), и вы сможете
правильно подобрать к нему артикль.
Попробуем п рим енить все вы ш еперечисленны е правила и :
«секреты» н а практике и разберем несколько текстов н а употре­
бление артиклей.

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Текст 1
Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
On (I) ... recent Saturday, I found (2) ... wonderful coffee table in
(3) ... outlet mall on (4) ... 6th Avenue. I paid m y bill, legally drove
m y car up to (5) ... front door and went inside to pick up (6) ... table.
After one o f the shop assistants kindly helped me load (7) ... heavy
glass table into m y car, I ran back inside to get my purse. Less than
(8) ... m inute later, (9) ... Parking C ontrol officer was writing me (10)
... ticket for illegal parking. I tried my best to explain w hat I had done.
H e said I needed to park around (11) ... side, where there was no
access. Honestly, it seem ed he did n ’t believe me, which was strange
because there was (12) ... big piece o f (13) ... furniture in (14) ... back.
He handed m e (15) ... ticket and walked away.
Анализ текста 1
1) a (a recent Saturday)
С ущ ествительны е, обозначаю щ ие дни недели (Saturday) уп о­
требляю тся с неопределенны м артиклем при нали чи и оп иса­
тельного определения (recent).
2) а (a wonderful coffee table)
И счисляем ое сущ ествительное в единственном числе table
при наличии описательного определения (wonderful coffee) уп о­
требляется с неопределенны м артиклем.
3) an (an outlet mall)
Н еопределенны й артикль употребляется, т.к. outlet mall «тор­
говый центр» упом инается в этом тексте впервы е, такж е мож но
сказать, что речь идет об одном из торговых центров.
4) — (6th Avenue)
Н азвания улиц употребляю тся без артикля.
5) the (the fro n t door)
О пределенны й артикль показывает, что речь идет о ед и н ­
ственном главном входе в данном магазине.
6) the (the table)
О пределенны й артикль употребляется при п овторном уп о­
м инании одного и того же предмета (table).
7) the (the heavy glass table)
Н есмотря н а наличие описательного определения, по содер­
жанию текста понятно, о каком столе идет речь, поэтому ис-
иользуется определенны й артикль.
8) a (a minute)

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Н еопределенны й артикль употреблен в значении «один».
9) а (a Parking Control officer)
И счисляемое сущ ествительное officer «патрульный» употре­
блено в ф орме единственного числа и упом инается в данном
тексте впервы е, п оэтом у необходим неопределенны й артикль.
10) a (a ticket fo r illegal parking)
Н еопределенны й артикль необходим, так как у сущ естви­
тельного ticket есть описательное определение fo r illegal parking,
которое допускает сущ ествование многих предметов такого вида
(отвечает н а вопрос какой штраф?, а не какой именно штраф?).
11) the (the side)
Н аличие конкретизирую щ его определения (where there was по
access) обуславливает употребление определенного артикля.
12) а; 13) - (a piece o f furniture)
С ловосочетание a piece o f используется, когда речь идет об
отдельной части, элементе чего-то неисчисляемого: a piece o f
furniture - (один) предмет мебели. Н еисчисляемое сущ ествитель­
ное furniture в этом случае употребляется без артикля.
14) the (in the back)
Речь идет о багаж нике автомобиля, которы й уже упом инался
ранее, поэтом у используется определенны й артикль.
15) the (the ticket)
О пределенны й артикль употребляется при п овторном упо­
м и н ан ии одного и того же предмета (ticket).
Текст 2
Заполните пропуски в тексте артиклями а / ап или the там, где
это необходимо:
O n (1) ... Christm as Eve we approached some people in the street
and asked them what they valued most in life. Here are the results o f
(2) ... survey.
As expected, (3) ... good health was cited as (4) ... num ber one
factor essential for a happy life. Having a partner to share life’s ups
and downs was (5) ... next most im portant factor. In describing
th eir ideal spouse, people said they wanted to spend their lives with
som eone who would give (6) ... love generously, who w asn’t afraid o f
(7) ... hard work but at (8) ... same tim e was capable o f having (9) ...
great fun. Interestingly, m ore men than women m entioned that they
wanted their partners to be intelligent. (10) ... M ost women tended to
speak of practicality as (11) ... feature they desired in a relationship.
(12) ... third factor in im portance was (13) ... strong family, stated

126
equally by both sexes. Besides, high on (14) ... list was having (15) ...
rewarding career th at provides respect and job satisfaction.
Анализ текста 2
1) — (Christmas Eve)
Н азвания праздников употребляю тся без артикля.
2) the (the survey)
По содерж анию текста понятно, о каком исследовании идет
речь, поэтому используется определенны й артикль.
3) — (good health)
Н еисчисляем ое сущ ествительное health при наличии оп и са­
тельного определения good долж но употребляться без артикля.
4) the (the number one)
Устойчивое словосочетание the number one обозначает «самый
важный, первый в списке».
5) the (the next factor)
Перед прилагательны м next «следующий» обы чно употребля­
ется определенны й артикль.
6) — (give love)
Н еисчисляем ы е сущ ествительны е в общ ем см ысле (love) и с­
пользую тся без артикля.
7) — (hard work)
Н еисчисляем ое сущ ествительное work при наличии оп иса­
тельного определения hard долж но употребляться без артикля.
8) the (at the same time)
Перед прилагательны м same «тот же самый» обы чно употре­
бляется определенны й артикль.
9) — (great fu n )
Н еисчисляем ое сущ ествительное fu n в сочетании с оп иса­
тельны м определением great употребляется без артикля.
10) — (most women)
Артикль не используется, так к ак прилагательное most в д ан ­
ном контексте не предполагает сравнения и имеет значение
«большинство».
11) a (a feature) /
Н еопределенны й артикль перед исчисляемым существитель­
ным feature показывает, что имеется в виду одно из многих качеств.
12) the (the third factor)
П орядковы е числительны е (the third) употребляю тся с оп ре­
деленны м артиклем .
13) a (a strong fam ily)

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И счисляем ое сущ ествительное в единственном числе fam ily
при наличии описательного определения (strong) употребляется
с неопределенны м артиклем.
14) the {on the list)
П о контексту понятно, что речь идет о сп и ске (list) ф акто­
ров, важ ны х для счастливой ж и зн и , что обуславливает исполь­
зование определенного артикля.
15) a (fulfilling career)
В английском язы ке сущ ествительное career «профессия» яв­
ляется исчисляем ы м , поэтому при наличии описательного опре­
деления (rewarding) употребляется с неопределенны м артиклем.

Задания на употребление артиклей


1. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
Dos and Don’ts in Case of Fire
(1) ... first thing that you m ust do is to make (2) ... phone call to
the fire-brigade. You have to tell them (3) ... correct address, what is
burning and if there are any people in (4) ... danger. If th ere’re people
at (5) ... risk, you should try to help them evacuate. If th ere’s (6) ...
fire extinguisher, try to put out the fire in (7) ... beginning. If you
haven’t succeeded, you m ust im m ediately evacuate. For evacuation
out o f (8) ... building never use elevators. You can use only the marked
staircases which are usually separated from corridors with solid, thick
autom atic doors through which smoke can’t go. Do not push each
other while clim bing down (9) ... stairs.
If you c a n ’t leave the building because o f sm oke, choose (10) ...
farthest room from (11) ... fire and try to insulate the door with (12)
... wet towels or wet sheets. As a last chance, insulate (13) ... bathroom
door and get under the shower. If you can, contact the fire-brigade
and give them inform ation about your location. (14) ... m ost im por­
tant is not to get into (15) ... panic!
2. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the гам,
где это необходимо:
The M use C om pany is looking for an Event M anager with (1) ...
relevant qualifications and at (2) ... least five years’ work experience.
(3) ... com petitive salary and (4) ... generous benefits are available
for (5) ... right candidate. You will be responsible for organizing all
kinds o f (6) ... business and social events as well as controlling (7) ..
whole project, from planning at (8) ... start to running (9) ... event
on the day. You m ust be available to start work at (10) ... short notice
and must be (11) ... good team player. This is (12) ... challenging and
fulfilling job for anyone wishing to start (13) ... career in event m a­
nagem ent. (14) ... com pany wishes to fill (15) ... vacancy immediately.
3. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
The A m azon rainforest in (1) ... South A m erica is (2) ... w orld’s
largest rainforest. It got its nam e from (3) ... River A m azon which
flows across (4) ... northern part o f (5) ... Brazil. A m azonia covers (6)
... territory o f about 5.5 m illion square kilometres — an area far larger
than (7) ... E uropean U nion. It is hom e to (8) ... third o f all known
terrestrial plant, anim al and insect species. It has taken (9) ... nature
millions o f years to create the A m azon rainforest, yet (10) ... people
have destroyed large parts o f it in only (11) ... few generations. Since
(12) ... 1950s, A m azonia has lost 18 percent o f its original forest cover,
and up to 50 percent o f the forest has been partially destroyed. If (13)
... destruction is not stopped, in fifty years (14) ... largest rainforest
may disappear for (15) ... good.
4. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
I took on my first job on (1) ... sum m er holidays. At (2) ... first,
my parents were against (3) ... idea o f m e working. I d id n ’t really want
to spend my sum m er working either, but it looked like (4) ... good op­
portunity to get some experience and a bit o f money. I was (5) ... sales
assistant in a departm ent store, and while it w asn’t (6) ... particularly
challenging work, (7) ... store could be rather busy at weekends. I had
a supervisor whom I really liked. H e regularly kept (8)'... eye on me
to make sure I was doing (9) ... right job. To m y surprise, I found (10)
... whole experience (11) ... great fun. I m ade (12) ... friends with one
o f the assistants and we often had (13) ... good laugh together as she
told really funny jokes. T hat was (14) ... few years ago, and now I am
(15) ... M anaging D irector o f that same store.
5. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикль the там, где необ­
ходимо.
Europe is the world’s second smallest continent and (1) ... third
most populated. There are about 50 countries — w ith (2) ... Russia
and (3) ... Turkey being partly in Europe and partly in (4) ... Asia.
Europe is surrounded by water o n three sides — (5) ... M editerranean
Sea, (6) ... A tlantic and Arctic Oceans. It is separated from Asia by

129
(7) ... Ural M ountains. (8) ... highest m ountain peak is (9) ... M ount
Elbrus. E urope’s longest river is (10) ... River Volga and (11) ... largest
lake is (12) ... Lake Ladoga located in (13) ... north-w estern Russia.
T he world’s smallest country, the Vatican City, is in Europe. (14) ...
Pope, the leader o f the worldwide C atholic C hurch, lives here along
with 800 citizens. T here are 24 official languages in Europe, but ac­
tually Europeans speak m ore th an 200 languages. (15) ... European
U nion was form ed to bring together the countries o f Europe.
6. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
Once upon (1) ... tim e, w hen we were young and reckless, we
believed in (2) ... Santa Claus, a m an in (3) ... red clothes with (4) ...
long white beard who comes once (5) ... year to give out presents to
children who have been good. Every year, (6) ... Uncle Teddy used to
dress up as Santa and bring us presents. W hen he did this, we believed
he was (7) ... real Santa, and we all looked forward to this visit. One
year, we were waiting at (8) ... hom e for Santa to turn up, and when
we heard (9) ... loud knock on (10) ... door, we opened it in (11) ...
excitem ent. But this year our visitor was different. He had on (12) ...
same red clothes, but it was unm istakably our Uncle Teddy. He had
forgotten to put on (13) ... long white beard he wore to disguise his
face! It was th at day that I realized that Santa Claus w asn’t real at all;
it was just (14) ... story that had been m ade up for (15) ... children.
7. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
D ear Mrs Corry,
I ’ve seen your advertisem ent on (1) ... Internet and I am writing
to apply for (2) ... sum m er job as (3) .,. waitress in your hotel. I am
(4) ... 18-year-old girl from Avignon. Avignon is (5) ... com m une in
(6) ... south-eastern France on (7) ... left bank o f (8) ... Rhone river.
I have just left (9) ... school, where I had (10) ... reputation for be­
ing honest and diligent. I am about to start (11) ... degree course in
(12) ... architecture at (13) ... University o f Glasgow in September.
I am interested in this job as I ’d like to gain some experience in (14)
... English-speaking country. This will give me the opportunity to im ­
prove my English while also earning some money. Will you please tell
me if you can provide (15) ... accom m odation and meals and what
salary you are offering?
I ’m looking forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely, Lara Smut

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8. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
Located at the C hina-N epal border, (1) ... M ount Everest has (2)
... altitude o f 8,848 metres. It is (3) ... highest point on the planet and
(4) ... particularly desirable peak for m ountaineers. (5) ... first person
to reach its top was Sir Edm und Hillary in (6) ... early 1950s. Since
then, going on an expedition there has been (7) ... highlight o f m any
clim bers’ careers.
(8) ... m ost dangerous part o f the clim b is called (9) ... D eath
Zone, about 8000 m etres above (10) ... sea level, where (11) ... air is
so thin th at the progress is painfully slow. Climbers can only concen­
trate on moving up one step at (12) ... tim e as the lack o f oxygen af­
fects the brain and muscles so m uch that thinking and moving become
very difficult indeed.
M any clim bers still d o n ’t m ake it back alive from their attem pt to
climb (13) ... m ountain. Those who do succeed can expect to suffer
from (14) ... very sore throat and cough, but they inevitably think it is
worth it for (15) ... satisfaction o f standing on top o f the world.
9. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the там,
где это необходимо:
Instagram it, or it d id n ’t happen. This is like the m odern equiva­
lent o f the old philosophical brain teaser: ‘If (1) ... tree falls in a forest
and nobody’s there to see it, does it make (2) ... sound?’
Today m any o f us docum ent everything we do online. We take (3)
... picture, m ake it look a little bit better than it actually did and watch
(4) ... likes rack up. According to the Office for N ational Statistics,
(5) ... U K has the highest num ber o f (6) ... social m edia users in (7)
... EU , the m ajority o f them being in (8) ... South East.
While adults make up (9) ... largest portion o f the total num ber
of Facebook users, teenagers prefer Instagram, (10) ... photo-sharing
app and (11) ... social network. It’s like Twitter with followers, only
instead o f (12) ... real-time text updates, you provide photo updates
about what you’re doing, where you’re going and what you’re thinking
or feeling. As o f (13) ... Desem ber 2020, (14) ... most-followed person
was footballer Cristiano Ronaldo with about 245 million followers. (15)
... United States heads the ranking with 140 million Instagrammers.
10. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
Have you ever felt uncom fortable when som eone stands too close?
Most people have (1) ... certain distance, called ‘personal space’,
which they like to keep from others, depending on the relationship.

131
Living in (2) ... cities has m ade people develop (3) ... new skills for
dealing with situations where they are very close to (4) ... strangers.
(5) ... Most people on (6) ... public transport try not to look at each
other, they avoid (7) ... skin contact and apologise if hands touch by
(8) ... mistake. People use their sm artphones, books or newspapers as
(9) ... barrier between them and others and if they do not have one o f
these, they stare into (10) ... distance, m aking sure they are not look­
ing into anyone’s eyes.
Personal space varies widely between countries. R om anians, on
(11) ... average, like to keep 140 cm between them and (12) ... strang­
er while U krainians are happiest keeping their distance at only 40 cm.
From what scientists can tell, people in (13) ... South Am erica, in
(14) ... general, require less personal space than people from (15)
... Asia.
11. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
The coronavirus has forced m any people to work from (1) ...
hom e, juggling (2) ... professional and personal responsibilities from
(3) ... same space. Keeping (4) ... eye on the kids during this tim e
can be a lot to handle, so m any parents are turning to technology to
keep them busy.
But how m uch screen tim e is too m uch? “ If you can lim it your
child’s screen tim e to tw o-hour chunks at (5) ... tim e, th a t’s ideal,”
said Titania Jordan, the chief parenting officer. Jordan d oesn’t m ean
two hours (6) ... day, because th a t’s not realistic given the am ount o f
(7) ... time we are cooped up inside during (8) ... pandem ic. I t’s best
to do two hours o f screen tim e in (9) ... m orning, afternoon and at
(10) ... night with (11) ... other activities in (12) ... between. (13) ...
biggest concern with too m uch screen tim e is a child’s health.
She says while we are in this unprecedented tim e it’s im portant for
parents not to be too hard on themselves. “ Give yourself (14) ... grace
(передышка). Take (15) ... deep breath. Just give your kids as much
variety as you can. But above all, are they fed? Are they clothed? Are
they safe? Are they loved? Then you’re doing your b est.”
12. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
Why are (1) ... British famous for talking about the weather? (2)
... reason is that (3) ... most British people feel it’s rude to ask (4) ...
personal questions w hen you don’t know som eone very well. This is
why they often choose (5) ... ‘safe’ topics, like the weather. This fact

132
can give (6) ... British people the reputation for being ‘cold’ or un in ­
terested in you. But this isn’t necessarily the case.
O n (7) ... o th er hand, m any Am ericans value (8) ... openness and
equality. This m eans th at they feel very com fortable sharing (9 )... p er­
sonal inform ation. As (10) ... result, you may find yourself talking to
a stranger in (11) ... USA about topics you would never share with
(12) ... people you d o n ’t know in your own country. This may feel
like Am ericans are to o familiar. T hey’re not, they’re just trying to be
friendly.
These differences can be confusing but (13) ... thing to rem em ber
is th at (14) ... p eo p le’s behaviour is generally positive, even if it seems
strange. If you’re not sure why som eone is being over-friendly or not
being sociable enough, rem em ber that it’s because o f the way they
show (15) ... politeness in their culture.
13. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
гам, где это необходимо:
W hen young people want some quick cash, they im m ediately think
of (1) ... babysitting job. Sitting around playing (2) ... gam es, watching
(3) ... cartoon on TV, and reading a book seems like (4) ... easy way
lo m ake some money. They im agine putting (5) ... well-behaved child
to (6) ... bed at 9 o ’clock in (7) ... evening and then relaxing on the
sofa until (8) ... parents com e hom e. T hey couldn’t be m ore wrong!
(9) ... truth is th at w hether or not babysitting is easy depends (10) ...
lot on you.
On (11) ... Sundays, I work as (12) ... babysitter for (13) ... family
with two young boys. While (14) ... boys are usually polite and calm ,
nt (15) ... tim es they like fighting, scream ing and shouting for no real
reason! Som etim es they really test m y patience. Babysitting requires
(16) ... flexibility. I have to be (17) ... friend while playing with them ,
hut (18) ... teacher w hen they fight with each other over (19) ... silly
things like sharing th eir toys. So, every Sunday is like (20) ... adven-
lure for me, but I always look forward to it.
14. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
гам, где это необходимо:
Today I woke up at around nine o ’clock in (1) ... m orning. I m ade
(2) ... cup o f black coffee for my wife and put it on (3) ... dressing
i.ible next to her bed. I go through this ritual only at weekends. On
(4) ... weekdays, I have to get up m uch earlier to take our children to
(5) ... school. I drop them off outside (6) ... school which is on (7) ...
Madison Avenue, and th en go straight to (8) ... work.

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As I work in (9) ... office in the city centre, I always have dif­
ficulty finding (10) ... parking space. You know, I’m sick and tired o f
(11) ... city traffic and the pollution — I grew up in the country, close
to (12) ... nature and I ’ve never got used to living in the city. I think
(13) ... only thing I would miss about living in (14) ... big city like
this is going to (15) ... concerts o f all kinds as I’m (16) ... keen pop
music fan. I also enjoy (17) ... exotic food and at (18) ... tim es we go
out with our friends and have (19) ... dinner in a nice restaurant, but
(20) ... most o f the tim e we eat at hom e, where the food is extremely
delicious - except when I make it!
15. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
Pet owners continue to identify with their four-legged pets or treat
them like (1) ... real children. (2) ... form er celebrity hair stylist cre­
ated her own line o f wigs for dogs in (3) ... variety o f styles. G ucci
launched (4) ... doggy backpack. (5) ... New York City played host to
a Pet Fashion Week, com plete with (6) ... canine runway models. The
pet fashion today is (7) ... fast growing m ulti-m illion dollar industry,
and m ore and m ore pet owners have taken to buying clothing and
accessories from (8) ... designer brands.
Now your dog can keep up with (9) ... latest fashions in (10) ...
sportswear, evening wear, or pyjamas. And if an entire outfit is (11) ...
bit too m uch, take (12) ... look at the collar bandanas that come in
m ultiple sizes. You can also buy (13) ... hat or jewellery that goes with
your dog’s eyes. (14) ... Sunglasses for dogs are also on (15) ... sale if
you prefer your dog to be anonym ous. D on’t have (16) ... dog? How
about (17) ... collar for your cat that lights up in (18) ... dark? It will
certainly help if your pet gets lost at (19) ... night.
D o n ’t be surprised if in (20) ... near future you’ll see dogs dressed
better than you!
16. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там , где это необходимо:
After visiting a few huge cities around the world, we felt like see­
ing (1) ... most famous location in (2) ... N orth Am erica, (3) ... Big
Apple. We opted for Radio City A partm ents, located on (4) ... 49th
Street which is only (5) ... couple o f m inutes from both (6) ... Times
Square and (7) ... Rockefeller Centre.
There is so m uch to do in New York, so it’s worth getting a New
York Pass where you purchase a num ber o f (8) ... attractions as one
ticket which in (9) ... general is a lot cheaper than buying entry into
each attraction individually.
We were in New York City for 5 days and wanted to take (10) ...
advantage o f every single m inute, actually we wanted to make (11)
... most o f every single second. We m anaged to walk across (12) ...
Brooklyn Bridge and catch (13) ... glimpse o f (14) ... Statue o f Li­
berty, go to the top o f (15) ... Em pire State Building and see (16) ...
Broadway m usical. Besides, we went on (17) ... horse drawn carriage
ride through (18) ... C entral Park, bought a lot o f great fashions in
(19) ... M acy’s and visited (20) ... M useum o f M odern Art.
You just have to experience this incredible city first hand!
17. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там , где это необходимо:
Amid growing coronavirus tensions across (1) ... globe, (2) ...
Harvard M edical School, a leading m edical school in (3) ... US, has
urged all students to perform yoga to fight against the deadly corona­
virus. (4) ... School recently issued its health guideline that yoga, (5)
... m editation and controlled breathing are “some tried and true ways
to relax” .
Yoga is (6) ... ancient physical, m ental and spiritual practice that
originated in (7) ... India. (8) ... word ‘yoga’ derives from Sanskrit
and m eans to jo in or to unite, symbolizing (9) ... union o f body and
consciousness. Yoga is regarded as one o f (10) ... best therapies to
deal with (11) ... anxiety. It reduces (12) ... stress levels, lowers blood
pressure, improves lung capacity and in this way can lower (13) ... risk
o f coronavirus disease.
It was (14) ... Indian Prim e M inister N arendra M odi who p ro ­
m oted the virtual im portance o f yoga in India. In 2014, he offered
(15) ... U nited N ations to celebrate ‘June 21’ as (16) ... International
Day o f Yoga since it is the sum m er solstice, that is, (17) ... longest day
o f the year in (18) ... N orthern Hem isphere.
Today yoga is practiced in (19) ... various forms around the world
and continues to grow in (20) ... popularity.
18. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
Potatoes are (1) ... second m ost-eaten food on the planet (after
rice). Some like (2) ... mashed potatoes, while (3) ... others would
rather have F rench fries. For m any people, though, nothing beats
crunchy potato crisps. I t’s hard to believe but this snack food was
created com pletely by (4) ... accident.

135
There is (5) ... long-standing story th at crisps were invented in
(6) ... 1853 by George C rum , a ch ef at (7) ... Am erican restaurant.
One sum m er day, C rum wanted to silence (8) ... choosy diner who
com plained that his fried potatoes were too thick and oily. C rum cut
w afer-thin slices o f potato, cooked them in oil until crisp, added (9)
... rather generous am ount o f (10) ... salt, and sent them out to (11)
... fussy custom er to teach him (12) ... lesson. The custom er tried one,
liked (13) ... taste — or at (14) ... least so the legend goes — and went
on to eat them all. To C rum ’s surprise, the dish intended as (15) ...
prank ended up being a hit.
In (16) ... year 2006, the British H eart foundation warned that
eating (17) ... packet o f crisps a day — as m any school children do —
was the equivalent o f drinking five litres o f (18) ... cooking oil a year.
Needless to say, crisps should be kept as (19) ... treat rather than (20)
... staple part o f o ur diets.

19. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the


там , где это необходимо:
The G reat Wall o f China is (1) ... m ust-see attraction to all tra­
vellers to C hina. 2,300 years ago (2) ... first sections o f the wall were
built to keep invaders out, but ironically it is now rebuilt to draw (3)
... tourists in. T he G reat Wall actually consists o f num erous walls built
across (4) ... northern C hina and (5) ... southern M ongolia. It is ap­
proxim ately 6000 km long. If all the fortified walls that were built by
the different dynasties and kingdoms around C hina are included, (6)-
... total length would exceed 20,000 kilometers.
Unfortunately, (7) ... most o f the original wall no longer exists.
Over the centuries each dynasty m aintained and developed the wall.
During (8) ... Ming dynasty (1368-1644) the wall was repaired and
extended and took on (9) ... appearance it has today, with a complex
system o f (10) ... forts and towers. The G reat Wall o f C hina is now
(11) ... famous U N E SC O World H eritage Site visited by m ore than 10
m illion tourists (12) ... year.
T here’s a popular m yth that the G reat Wall o f C hina is (13) ...
only hum an-m ade object visible from (14) ... M oon. According to
NASA, it’s really difficult, if not impossible, to see the G reat Wall
from (15) ... space with the unaided eye. The Wall is mostly grey stone
in a grey landscape and, in fact, is very difficult to see even from an
airplane flying at a m ere 15 kilom eters above.

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20. Дополните рассказ. Используйте артикли а / ап или the
там, где это необходимо:
Benjamin F ranklin famously said, “ By failing to prepare, you are
preparing to fail” . It’s definitely (1) ... good advice for any student.
Here are a few guidelines for you to use as (2) ... practical reference.
• Start early with revision. D on’t leave it until (3) ... last minute.
While some students really thrive on (4) ... last-m inute cram ­
ming, this is not (5) ... best way to approach an exam.
• You will be able to work better if you eat (6) ... healthy diet and
get enough sleep. Surviving on (7) ... junk food is not (8) ...
good idea.
• They say th at variety is (9) ... spice o f life, and it certainly helps
to improve your preparation. Always doing (10) ... same thing is
quite dull. Spice up your revision period by trying (11) ... dif­
ferent exercises and techniques.
• You cannot work solidly for 8 hours. One and (12) ... half hours
is likely to be your limit before you need (13) ... break. Peri­
odically, take 10 m inutes to go and get (14) ... drink and walk
around a bit.
• G et your hands on any old exam papers and familiarise yourself
with (15) ... structure and form at.
• (16) ... night before the exam, look over your notes and review
what you have done. Try to get (17) ... good night’s sleep, and
give yourself enough tim e to get to the exam w ithout rushing.
As you get m ore experienced in taking exams, you will find (18)
... ways that work best for you. In (19) ... m eantim e, these tips should
give you (20) ... good starting point for study.
G ood luck!

Be
Develop organise
good study
habits / i Ж

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