Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Hazards and Disasters Case Studies – A

Framework
We will study a number of hazard event / disaster case studies;

• Asian Tsunami (December 2004)

• Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador (ongoing since 1999)

• Tropical cyclones, Bangladesh (with focus on Cyclone Sidr Nov 2007)

• Hurricane Katrina, USA (August 2005)

• Drought in the Horn of Africa (ongoing since 1980s, focus on Ethiopia and
Kenya in recent years)

• Drought in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia (ongoing since 2007)

• Chernobyl Nuclear explosion, Ukraine (April 1986)

For each major case study (as listed above) you will need to ensure that you
know and understand the following;

Headline facts and figures


Where, when, magnitude, duration, areal extent, speed of onset, numbers
affected, etc

Processes
Why did the hazard event / disaster occur?

Impacts
What geo-physical processes are responsible for the hazard event / disaster?

What
What specific
were thegeographical characteristics
impacts – social, economic, of the place affect
environmental, its level of
political?
vulnerability?
Distinguish between immediate effects and longer term consequences, the
temporal variation of the impacts.

Also distinguish between primary and secondary effects.

Consider how the impacts varied on a spatial scale and between different socio-
economic groups.

Explain the magnitude of the impacts and any variations that you have identified
in terms of; the frequency of the event, the intensity, the speed of onset,
duration, areal extent, predictability, and the vulnerability of the affected
community,
Human response
Who are the main actors involved in the response to a hazardous event /
disaster? Consider individual people, community groups, NGOs, local
authorities, national governments, the international community.

How did these different people respond to the hazard / disaster – before,
during and after the event?

What specific geographical factors affect the choice of adjustments before,


and responses to, the hazardous event / disasters?

Before the event


Consider the relationship between risk assessment and the probability of the
event taking place, predicted losses and the level of community preparedness.
This should include monitoring and the attempts made to predict the event (in
time and space) and estimate the potential impact on people and property.

Also, what actions were taken to reduce vulnerability and what strategies used
to limit the damage from the hazardous event / disaster? Consider community
preparedness, building design, evacuation procedures, emergency response,
rebuilding, and insurance.

How did the affected community perceive the level of risk prior to the event?
How did their perceptions affect their actions?

During and after the event


What were the short, medium and long-term responses to the hazardous
event / disaster? You should distinguish between rescue, rehabilitation and
reconstruction.

What was the response at the local, national and international scale?

How was the post-event response affected by individual perceptions?

What attempts were made to re-assess risk and re-examine vulnerability in


the longer-term after the hazardous event / disaster? What can be learnt from
this event to help minimise the impacts of future events?