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6.

Basic Coordinates
Rotation and Translation in basic of Robot Coordinates, Homogeneous
g Transform
Euler Angles, Denavit-Hartenberg Notation

Affiliated Professor : Jaeyoung Lee


E-mail : biocontrolsys@hotmail.com
H P : 011 – 9455 - 5277
H.P
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Topics
p

ƒ Basic Coordinates
ƒ Coordinate Frames & Denavit-Hartenberg
Denavit Hartenberg Notation
ƒ Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robot Manipulators
ƒ Manipulator
p Jacobian
ƒ Review of Lagrangian Dynamics
ƒ Lagrangian Dynamics of Robot Manipulators
ƒ Newton-Euler Equations of Robot Manipuators
ƒ Forward and Inverse Dynamics
ƒ Robot Statics
ƒ Robot Trajectory Planning
ƒ Robot Control

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Basic Coordinates

ƒ Operators for Translation and Rotation


- Translation - Rotation

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Coordinate Frames
- Translation - Rotation

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Different View Based Upon Different Coordinates


- Translation - Rotation

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Rotation and Translation Combined


- A single rotation after a single translation:

- A single rotation and a single translation after another pair of


translation and rotation:

- Scheme shown above to represent transform operations is not a


good way of simplifying notation and computations.

- We need consistent transforms for translations and rotations:


homogeneous transform

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Rotation Matrix R

- Vector p can be represented with respect to the


two different coordinates, i.e., coordinate A and B

- We can to find a rotation matrix such that

- Noting that x_A, y_A and z_A represent the


components of p along the x, y, and z axes of
coordinate A.

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Rotation Matrix R
- Noting that x_A,
x A, y_A
y A and z_A
z A represent the components of p along the x, y, and z
axes of coordinate A.

- Therefore,

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Rotation Matrix R
- Therefore,

- Similarly,

- Thus, Therefore,

- Rotational matrix R is orthonormal (orthogonal).

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Homogeneous Transform
- In homogeneous transforms, translation and orientations have identical
characteristics.
- Position vector [x y z]T is represented by an augmented vector [x y z 1]T .
- Translation is represented by a matrix:

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Basic Coordinate
- Rotation is represented by a matrix:

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Basic Coordinate
- If translation and rotation are combined

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Basic Coordinate
- If translation and rotation are combined

Therefore,

- Inverse of homogeneous transform

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ More On Rotation : Euler Angles


- Many different sets of Euler angles exist
- Z-Y-Z, Z-Y-X, and etc,
- Example : Z-Y-X : Rotate around z-axis, and then around y-axis, and finally
around x-axis
x axis.

- Rotational Transformation (Post-multiplication)

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ More On Rotation : Euler Angles

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ More On Rotation : Euler Angles


- X-Y-Z
X Y Z Fixed Angles (Pitch-Yaw-Roll)
(Pitch Yaw Roll)

- Note

- Rotational Transformation (Pre


(Pre-multiplicatin)
multiplicatin)

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Equivalent Angle-Axis
- Represented by a unit vector that indicates the axis of rotation and an angle to
rotate.
- If the axis of rotation is k = [K_x K_y K_z]^T,

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Denavit-Hartenberg Notation

- Conventions
Joint i moves link i
Frame i is fixed at (attached to) link i and located at the distal joint, which means
that frame i is located at joint i+1.
Z-axes are aligned with joint axes.

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ 4 Link Parameters
- Link Length(L_n):
Length(L n): the shortest distance between two joint axes at both
ends of Link n.
- Link Twist(alpha_n): "twist" angle of two z-axes at both ends of Link n
in the direction of x_n
x n -axis
axis.
- Link Offset (d_n): distance from the origins of Frame n-1 to Frame n in
the direction of Z_n-1-axis.
- Joint
i Angle(Thetat_n):
l h angle
l ffrom x_n-1-axis
1 i to x_n -axis
i iin the
h direction
di i
of z_n-1-axis.

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Miscellaneous Conventions
- If z-axes
z axes meet each other,
other x_n
x n – axis,
axis in general,
general is defined to be zz_n
n-
1Ⅹz_n.

- Positive direction of z-axis can be either.

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Miscellaneous Conventions
- The origin of frame 0 is usually coincide with that of frame 1.
1
- Z-axis of frame 0 is aligned with z-axis of joint 1.
- For a prismatic joint, z-axis is aligned with the sliding direction of the
j i IIn this
joint. hi case, link
li k offset
ff d iis the
h jjoint
i variable.
i bl
- Homogeneous transform :

- Homogeneous transform can be obtained directly by observing the


coordinates
d in most cases.

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Example :

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Basic Coordinate

ƒ Example :

Note that
h T^0_1 can be
b directly
d l determined
d d

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Forward Kinematics

- For a given set of joint displacements, the end-effector position and


orientation can be calculated. (Forward Kinematics)

ƒ Inverse Kinematics
- For a given set of end-effector position
and orientation, joint displacements are
computed.
- We have to solve nonlinear equations;
however, we may not able to solve for
solutions analytically.

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator

Forward Kinematics

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator

F
Forward
d Kinematics
Ki ti

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator

E d Eff t P
End-Effector Position
iti End-Effector Orientation

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Inverse Kinematics
- For a given tip position [x y]^T, the joint displacement [theta_1 theta_2]^T
is to be determined.

Geometric Method
(Using cosine rule)

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Inverse Kinematics

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Inverse Kinematics

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Inverse Kinematics

Sign: "+", if -p < theta_2 < 0, i.e., at "elbow up“ configuration "-", otherwise.

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Algebraic Method

left hand side: a constant matrix


left-hand-side:
right-hand-side: a matrix whose elements are functions of joint angles

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Algebraic Method

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Algebraic Method

Let

Then

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Algebraic Method
Similarly,

Using
g

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics for a 2-D Revolute-Jointed Manipulator


Algebraic Method
where

Therefore,

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematic Decoupling
If the final 3 consecutive axes meet at a point, the process of solving inverse
kinematics is simplified.

Three axes z4 , z5 , and z6


meet at a wrist center
center.

The position of the wrist center, w, is determined


by q1, q2 , and q3 only.

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ Kinematic Decoupling
- From the target tool position d and orientation R, wrist center
position can be computed:

where
h

- Once the wrist center is known, the first 3 joint variables, q1, q2, and q3 , can
be computed.

- The orientation matrix R^0_3 can be computed after q1, q2 , and q3 are
d t
determined.
i d

- The rest of joint variables, q 4, q5 , and q6 , can be computed from R_6^3,


which in turn can be computed by

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ SCARA Robot

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ SCARA Robot

- Inverse Kinematics of SCARA Robot

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ SCARA Robot
- Rotation matrix R can be in the form of

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ SCARA Robot
- Using a geometry formed by projecting the manipulator configuration
upon a horizontal plane, which forms a 2-link manipulator,

- Again, similarly to a 2-link manipulator,

- and

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Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics

ƒ SCARA Robot
- Solvability : A manipulator is defined to be solvable, if all the sets of joint variables
for a given position and orientation can be determined by an algorithm. Many
manipulators have multiple solutions for a single configuration. For example,
PUMA 560 has 8 solutions.
-W
Workspace
k : The
Th volume
l off space that
h the
h end-effector
d ff off a manipulator
i l can reach.
h
Within the workspace, inverse kinematics solutions exist.
- Closed Form Solution : Inverse kinematic solutions can be grouped into closed form
solutions and numerical solutions.
solutions Closed form solutions are noniterative such as
algebraic expressions; whereas numerical solutions are iterative. Numerical
solutions are computationally more expensive and slower.
p
- Pieper's work : A g
general 6 d.o.f. manipulator
p does not have a closed form solution.
If the three consecutive axies intersect at a point, a closed form solution exists. For
most commercial manipulators, the last consecutive axes intersect at a point.
- Notes: Even if inverse kinematic solutions are found, they may not be physically
realizable due to joint angle limitations
limitations.

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HW 6

ƒ 139p, 연습문제 1

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REFERENCE

ƒ 기초로봇 공학
- 제 2편 : 로봇 제어의 시작

ƒ Introduction to Robotics,, byy J,, J. Craig


g
- Ch 2. Spatial descriptions and transformations
- Ch 3. Manipulator kinematics
- Ch 4. Inverse manipulator kinematics

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