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GEING – Krebs und Kiefer International and others ltd. - Skopje Environmental impact assessment report

GEING – Krebs und Kiefer International and others ltd. - Skopje

– Krebs und Kiefer International and others ltd. - Skopje Environmental impact assessment report for the

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Skopje, August, 2006 adress: Borka Taleski
report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Skopje, August, 2006 adress: Borka Taleski

Skopje,

August, 2006

open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Skopje, August, 2006 adress: Borka Taleski 24, tel/fax 3132
Tech. No . GPG_015_04/2006 Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod

Tech. No. GPG_015_04/2006

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Manager of Design department,

Frosina Ilievska

Manager,

Zanina Dimitrievska

Skopje,

August, 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Objectives

2

1.3 Scope of work

2

2 MACEDONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND POLICIES

4

2.1 Legislation

4

2.2 Policy

7

2.3 Expropriation and compensation

9

2.3.1

Expropriated land for the needs of the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino”

10

2.4 Non governmental organizations and local inhabitant opinion

11

2.5 Categorization of the impact on the environment

11

3 ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES

12

4 TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

18

4.1

Technology of exploitation

19

4.1.1 Reserves of coal and its quality

20

4.1.2 Technology of exploitation, external and internal waste disposal

21

 

4.1.2.1

Ancillary infrastructure

26

4.2

Previous performance of the existing mine Suvodol

28

5 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA

5.1 Geographical location and communication

29

5.2 Climate and ambient air quality

32

5.2.1 Climate characteristics of the Pelagonija valley

32

5.2.2 Ambient Air Quality

39

5.3

Geology and hydrology

47

5.3.1 Soils

47

5.3.2 Hydro geological characteristics and groundwater

48

 

5.3.2.1

Groundwater in aquifer environments with intergranular porous of the

litho logical units

48

5.3.2.2 Groundwater in aquifer environments in neogene complex

48

5.3.2.3 Groundwater in aquifer environments with crack porous

49

5.3.2.4 Obtained results from all hydro geological investigations

49

5.3.3

Hydrological conditions and surface water

51

5.3.3.1 Quality of the water in Crna Reka

54

5.3.3.2 Treating and monitoring of the water from the TPP Bitola

57

5.4

Landscape characteristic

59

5.4.1 Mine surrounding Flora and Fauna

59

5.4.2 Flora and Fauna on the mining site

60

5.5

Determined limit values of noise

61

5.6

Structure of the inhabitat regions, sociological and cultural parameters of

 

the area

63

5.7

Cultural and historical inheritance

64

IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES

6

65

 

6.1 Impacts on the relief

65

6.2 Impact on the geology and soils

65

6.2.1

Description of the expected impacts emissions especially on geological

composition and groundwater

65

6.3 Impact on surface water

67

6.4 Impact on the air

68

6.5 Mining impact on biodiversity and mitigation measures

69

6.5.1

Mitigation and restoration measures after exploatation

71

6.6 Socio - economic impact

71

6.7 Noise and vibration impact

72

6.7.1 Assessment of the noise and vibration impact in the open pit mine Brod –

72

6.8 Recultivation and revitalization of the region covered by mining activities of

Gneotino and its surrounding

open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino”

74

6.9

Major accidents, fires and explosions

77

6.9.1 Possible sources of fires, explosions and its impact on the environment

77

6.9.2 Measures for decreasing of harmfull influences: fires and explosions

78

6.9.3 Planinng of protection, rescue and help of TTP Bitola

78

6.9.4 Services for protection rescue and help of TTP Bitola

79

6.9.5 Qualifying and training for protection, rescue and help to the workers in

 

the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

79

6.9.6

Occupational health and safety

80

6.10 Synopsis on the assesment of impacts on the environment

80

7

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

84

 

7.1 Environmental Management Plan objective

84

7.2 Environmental Management Plan Implementation

84

7.3 The Environmental Action Plan

85

7.3.1

Draft Mitigation Plan

85

7.3.1.1

Management and Training

85

7.3.2

Recommendations for a Monitoring Plan

86

7.3.2.1 Scope of Monitoring Work

86

7.3.2.2 Summary of Monitoring Issues

86

7.4

Operation Monitoring and Management

87

7.4.1 Noise

87

7.4.2 Vegetation

87

7.4.3 Mitigation and Enhancement Measures

88

7.4.4 Monitoring of water

88

7.4.5 Assessment of Impacts

88

7.5 Action Plan for realization the suggested measures for Environmental

89

Protection

FIGURE CONTENT

CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES

13

Figure 3.1 Mine”Suvodol”

13

Figure 3.2 Mine”Oslomej - West”

14

Figure 3.3 Region of Bitola with communication network

15

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

18

Figure 4.1 Existing Suvodol mine

18

Figure 4.2 Technological scheme of exploitation

22

Figure 4.3 Excavation on the Brod-Gneotino with dragline

23

Figure 4.4 Road from mine Suvodol to the Brod-Gneotino

24

Figure 4.5 External Disposal- Suvodol mine

25

Figure 4.6 Ancillary infrastructures in the TPP and in the mine Suvodol

27

CHAPTER 5 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA

29

Figure 5.1 Location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

29

Figure 5.2 Three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine

Brod-Gneotino

30

Figure 5.3 the location of TPP “Bitola” and the Brod-Gneotino and Zivojno depositories

31

Figure 5.4 Network of meteorological and hydrology stations in Bitola region

32

Figure 5.5 Monitoring Station in Bitola

33

Figure 5.6 Average monthly temperatures (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in the

Bitola monitoring station

34

Figure 5.7 Average monthly and annual rainfalls in (mm) in m.s Bitola

35

Figure 5.8 Monthly Mean Relative humidity at Monitoring Station Bitola

36

Figure 5.9 Monthly Sum of Sunshine Duration at MS Bitola

37

Figure 5.10 Rose of wind-Bitola, for the period 1951-1980

38

Figure 5.11 Content of 24 hour concentration of SO 2 in the Pelagonija plain

39

Figure 5.12 24-hour concentration of the SO 2 – Frequency distribution

40

Figure 5.13 Content of 24-hour concentration of Black Smoke in the Pelagonija

valley

41

Figure 5.14 Maximum monthly concentration of smoke

41

Figure 5.15 24 hour concentration of the Black Smoke – Frequency distribution

42

Figure 5.16 Maximum monthly concentration of NO 2

43

Figure 5.17 Content of 24 hour concentration of NO 2 in the Pelagonija valley

43

Figure 5.18 24 hour concentration of the NO 2 – Frequency distribution

44

Figure 5.19 Crna Reka

51

Figure 5.20 Minimal monthly flow and minimal flow per year at the hydrological

station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

52

Figure 5.21 Maximum monthly flow and maximum flow per year at the hydrological station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

53

Figure 5.22 Average monthly flow and average flow per year at the hydrological

station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

54

Figure 5.23 the monitoring station Skocivir - Crna Reka

56

Figure 5.24 the area of the proposed open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

59

CHAPTER 6 - IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES

65

Figure 6.1 the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino and its surrounding

72

TABLE CONTENT

CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES

Table No. 3.1 Exploitable coal reserves in region close to the TPP Bitola

13

14

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

18

Table No. 4.1 Basic technical characteristics of the equipment used in Suvodol

19

Table No. 4.2 Available Lignite Reserves in the Bitola Area

20

Table No. 4.3 Quality Characteristics of Lignite from the Pelagonian Basin

21

Table No. 4.4 Coal quality of the ore body Brod- Gneotino

21

CHAPTER 5 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA

29

Table No. 5.1 Average monthly temperature (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in m.s

Bitola

34

Table No. 5.2 Average monthly and annual rainfall in (mm) in m.s Bitola Table No. 5.3 Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station:

35

Bitola (in %)

36

Table No. 5.4 Daily sunshine duration at main meteorological station Bitola

37

Table No. 5.5 Numerical dates of the speed of the wind and direction (in ‰) and

(m/s) for Bitola 1951-1980

38

Table No. 5.6 Hard particles (dust) emission and pollutant substances from Block II and III Table No. 5.7 Hydro chemical characteristics of surface and ground waters in

46

roof aquifer, taken from the research boreholes realized during the 2000/2001 year Table No. 5.8 Physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino Table No. 5.9 Minimal monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000 Table No. 5.10 Maximum monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station

49

50

52

Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

53

Table No. 5.11 Average monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

54

Table No. 5.12 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations of

organoleptic indexes

55

Table No. 5.13 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations for acidification

55

Table No. 5.14 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations for oxygen regime

56

Table No. 5.15 the limited values or concentrations of the indexes of eutrophication

56

Table No. 5.16 Physical-chemical analyzes of the waste water in TPP Bitola analyzed on 10.04.2006 year

57

Table No. 5.17 Threatened bird species in the area of proposed open pit mine

61

Table No. 5.18 Permitted levels of noise emitted from the equipment

62

Table No. 5.19 Permitted level of noise

62

CHAPTER 6 - IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES

65

Table No. 6.1 Source of noise

73

CHAPTER 7 - ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

84

Table No. 7.1 Action plan for realization of the suggested measures for

environmental protection of open pit mine Brod-Gneotino – capital investments

and operative expenses Table No. 7.2 The numbers 01, 02, 03

starting from the beginning of the mine activities of the open pit mine, until the

moment of closing (the end of exploitation)

89

90

Are marking the periods (phases)

REFERENCES

LAW REGULATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA - NOISE, VIBRATION DAMAGES AND ACCIDENT

1.

Law for nature protection (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No. 67/04 and 14/06 year);

2.

Law on the environment (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.53 /05 and 81/05 year);

3.

Law for Urban and Physical Planning (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.51 /05 year);

4.

Law for construction (building) (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.51/05 year);

5.

Law for protection and rescue (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.36 /04 and 49/04 year);

6.

Law for fire extinguishing (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.67/04 year);

7

Law for protection of harmful noise (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.27 /84 year);

8.

Law for noise in the environment/ 2006 year - proposal;

9

Law for cultural heritage (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.20 /04 year);

10.

Regulation for determination of the projects and criterions on which is established the needs for implementation on the procedure for environmental impact assessment (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.74 /05 year);

11.

Ordinance for standards and rate for settlement on the space (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.02 /02 and 50/03 year);

12.

Ordinance for standards and rates for design of the objects (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.69 /99; 102/00 and 02/02 year);

13.

Ordinance for determination of the number, sorts and maintenance on the manual and transport of fire extinguishing devises(Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.15 /87 and 20/87 year);

14.

Physical plan of Republic of Macedonia 2000-2020year;

15.

NEAP -1996 year and NEAP-2000 year;

16.

Law for storage and protection of burning liquids and gases (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.15/76;51/88;19/90 and 12/93 year);

17.

Ordinance for building plant for burning liquids, storage and pouring into the burning liquids (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.22 /71 and 23/71 year);

18.

Decision about determination in witch cases and under witch circumstances is disturbed the peace life on the inhabitance of harmful noise (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.64/93 year);

19.

Ordinance for technical measures and conditions about noise protection on the premises (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.35/70 year);

20.

Ordinance for general measures and normative for noise protection in the work premises (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.29/71 year);

21.

Law for protection at working place (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.12/98; 21/98; 33/00 and 29/02 year);

22.

Ordinance foe general measures and protection at work, for working and ancillary areas (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia and SRM No.31 /98; 36/89;

33/93);

23.

Standards: MKS, Z.CO …

Directives: 2002/49/EC; 10/157/EEC; 84/533EEC, 92/23/EEC; 1999/101/EC; 2000/14/ EC; 2002/44/EC; 2003/10/EC; 96/82/EC; 96/082/EEC

LITERATURE

1.

Detailed mine design for opening and exploitation of the open pit mine Brod- Gneotino, Book I, General concept for opening, exploitation and develop on the open pit mine Brod –Gneotino, RI Pove and Geing-Skopje, 2006.

2.

Study for Brod-Gneotino-about biodiversity; -Study for biodiversity in Republic of Macedonia, MEPP; -Action plan of biodiversity in Republic of Macedonia, MEEP; -National Environmental Action Plan in Republic of Macedonia-NEAP, MEEP; -Flora in Republic of Macedonia- K.Micevski; -Biogeography-Dragan Kolcakovski; -Study for assessment of the high-tension power impact Bitola-Greece boundary Farmahem;

3.

Ministry or the Environment-Finland:

-Noise Abatement Act-1987 -Noise Abatement Decree-1988 -Council of State Decision on noise level guidelines-1992

4.

World Bank Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines-1995

5.

Bruel & Kjaer: Urban Noise-2005

6.

Noise tribune -2005

7.

EPA-Biodiversity and mining;

8.

Report for hydro geological investigations on the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino” during 2004-2005 year, January 2004 year;

10.

Fusibility study for opening and exploitation on the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino” during 2004-2005;

11.

Environment protection-2004

12.

Detailed mine project open pit mine “Suvodol”-II phase of exploitation

- Technical project for fire protection on the premises and equipment

- Technical project of special measures for protection at work-1987 year

13.

Revised Ecological- Technological project for the TPP “Bitola”- Bitola- book I mine “Suvodol”-Skopje 2000.

14.

State automatic monitoring system for air quality of ambient air- monthly report may 2006 (Ministry of Environment and Physical planning).

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

The coal is the main energy resource in the Republic of Macedonia. It covers 82% of the electricity production in the country. The remaining 18% of the needs are covered by hydropower and import of electricity from other neighbouring countries. Renewable energy does not play an important role in Macedonia to date.

There are two thermal power plants in Macedonia: TPP Bitola and TPP Oslomej. TPP Bitola supplies 70% of the electricity needs of Republic of Macedonia. The rest 12% is covered by the TPP Oslomej.

TPP Bitola contains three thermal blocks Bitola 1, Bitola 2, Bitola 3 with installed capacity of 225 MW each, or total installed capacity of 675 MW. The total annual production of electricity of TPP Bitola is 4.300 GWh for which 6.300.000 tones of coal are to be provided from the open pit mine Suvodol. The existing remaining reserves of Suvodol mine are about 42 million tones of coal, which allows operation in the following 6-7 years. Therefore, concrete measures for finding the new coal reserves have to be taken.

Possible sources are:

opening a new coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Under coal stratum series (which exists as part within the borders of the existing mine Suvodol, but is located deeper, at 10-50 m below the present site line and the main coal stratum layer).

Estimated exploitation reserves of the open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino are about 40.000.000 tones which will be exploited with other resources in the next period of 16 years.

Because the conditions of coal exploitation are specific, for current supply of 6.300.000 tones it will be necessary all three coal pit mines to work parallel.

In the Main mine design for Brod - Gneotino is defined a conception for future coal exploitation till year 2026, as follows:

Coal reserves close to village Zivojno

from the coal pit mine "Brod - Gneotino" 2.000.000 tones/year

from coal pit mine "Suvodol" 1.300.000 tones/year

from coal pit mine "UCS Suvodol" (under coal stratum) 3.000.000 tones/year

With this the annual level for supplying 6.300.000 tones of coal necessary for the TPP Bitola (TE Bitola 1, 2 and 3) can be reached.

For reaching this level it is necessary to start as soon as possible with the exploitation of Brod - Gneotino and than USC Suvodol.

According to the Main mine design for Brod - Gneotino from the starting of excavation (excavation of overburden) to reaching the level for coal exploitation 2-3 years are necessary. Because of that it is very important to start the exploitation of Brod - Gneotino as soon as possible.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

1.2 OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to assess possible environmental impact of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino, and to propose mitigation measures for avoiding or minimizing all impacts. The activities which have to be taken during the exploitation of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will have positive and negative impacts on the surrounding area. As a possible negative impacts to the environment are:

-impact on air

-impact on water

-impact on geology, hydrogeology and soils

-impact on flora and fauna

-impact on landscape

-socio-economic impact

These impacts must be taken into consideration during the process of commission, exploitation and after decommission. Many of these effects can be avoided, or at least greatly reduced and minimised by careful project planning, choice of appropriate mining technology, choice of appropriate mining equipment and careful ongoing operation. Mitigation measures for minimisation of the negative impacts will be taken also. Permanent control and check on the registered parameters in the existing meteorological and hydrological stations have to be done continuously. Monitoring of the proposed mitigation measures will be established for regular control of their positive effects.

On the other hand this new open pit mine will have significant positive social influence on the surrounding region. New jobs and employments will increase the social and financial stability of the inhabitants from the surrounding villages and the town of Bitola.

Also it is very important to point out the significant meaning of the coal mine Brod- Gneotino for the whole electric power system in Macedonia.

1.3 SCOPE OF WORK

The process of preparation of the EIA Study for the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino has started with the prospecting of the location and collecting the information from the TPP Bitola. This has been performed by carrying out interviews with technical and environmental experts from TPP Bitola and the Electricity Generation Company ELEM to collect data, viewpoints, opinion and to clarify the relevant laws and the legal basis with respect to the environmental aspects of the project.

The interviews were carried out with the authorities from ELEM and TPP BItola:

- Stojko Mojancevski, Manager for Production in ELEM;

- Blagoja Petrovski, Chief Manager Engineer for Environmental issues and protection during work in TPP Bitola;

- Pece Stafilov, Manager of the geodetic sector in TPP BItola;

- Vasko Stojanovski, Chief Manager-Engineer for the new open pit coal mine Brod- Gneotino (previous chief manager of Suvodol mine);

The public opinion has also been taken into consideration.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

During the work, detailed site investigation was performed for getting the clear picture of the existing biodiversity, existing land use and socio economic conditions of the population that live in the surrounding area and etc.

All existing data and technical documentation for the technology process, proposed equipment and performed site investigation works were used as a base for the preparation of this EIA Study.

Elaborates for hydro geological investigation works performed in the period from year 2001 to 2003 were used. Analyzes of the geological characteristics of the excavated material and quality and quantity of the ground water are given in them.

Hydrological parameters and parameters for the quality of Crna Reka on the hydrological station Skocivir were used for analyze the existing quality of the water in Crna Reka. Also hydro meteorological parameters from the Hydro meteorological station Bitola were used in order of analysing the precipitations, wind, temperature and etc. All these previous mentioned data were obtained from the Hydrometeorological Institute, the official authorized institute in the Republic of Macedonia.

For the technology process and the process of excavation in the new open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino the existing experience and technology process that is already use in the open pit mine Suvodol was used.

During the preparation of this EIA Study we had very close cooperation with the technical staff and authorities from ELEM and REK Bitola. Also, several meetings with the local authorities and local population were held.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

2. MACEDONIAN ENVIRONMENT AL LEGISLATION AND POLICIES

2.1

LEGISLATION

The intention of this section is to give a brief general description of the policy of the local authorities regarding environmental protection on national, regional and local levels.

Macedonian legal framework

The following law, acts and ordinances were identified as relevant for the environmental topics embraced in this study:

Ambient air quality law (Official gazette of Republic of Macedonia 67/2004)

In the ambient air quality law (Official gazette 67/2004) margins of tolerance, limited values, target values, upper and lower estimated levels for each pollutant substances are regulated. This law is harmonized with EU Framework directive 96/62/EC.This law provides the base for determination of the limited values for ambient air quality and limits for alarming, limited values of exhaust emission gases ant vapor from stationary sources, limited values of exhaust emission gases from portable sources and contents of pollutant substances in the fuel.

The Ministry of Ecology and Physical Planning has worked out ordinance of limited values for ambient air quality, margins of tolerance, limits for alarming, which was brought at the end of the first quarter in 2005 year. Preparation of ordinance for evaluation of ambient air quality is in procedure. Sub legal acts are harmonized with EU Framework directive for air quality 96/62/EC, and also with directives 99/30/EC, 80/779/EEC, 85/203/EEC, 82/884/EC, 92/72/EEC, 2002/3/EC, and

2000/69EC.

Law on water (Official gazette of Republic of Macedonia 4/1998, 19/00)

Law on water (Official gazette 4/1998, 19/00) is the legal base for protection and water management in the Republic of Macedonia. With this law are arranged the ways of the water utilization, water protection from dangerous pollution, financing of the water management activities, concession, trans-boundary water and other questions wish are significant for water utilization.

In year 2003 was prepared the new Law on water which includes the all aspect of the management: utilization and allocation of the recourses, protection and pollution control, protection from harmful impact on the water and maintenance planning and water management. This is prepared in the framework of the PHARE SOP 99 Program.

In the proposed law are implemented the requirements for management of water recourses determined in the following directives:

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.2000/60/EEC for framework policy on the community in the water area.

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.98 /83/EEC for quality of the water which is used for consumption.

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.76 /160/EEC for quality of the water which is used for swimming.

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.91 /271/EEC for waste water treatment.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.86 /278/EEC for environment protection especially in the land when the slag is used in the agriculture.

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.98 /676/EEC for water protection of pollution provoked by nitrate in the agriculture sources.

Law on noise

In Republic of Macedonia noise control is regulated with several laws and sub law acts. According to Government programs in Republic of Macedonia for approaching the national legislatives toward EU legislative and Action Plan for European partnership, it is predicted putting into force Law on noise for which the MoEPP is in charge.

In the law EU directive 2002/2004/EC will be included.

This Law on noise and its sub laws for noise control, with standards for planning shall be put into force at the end of 2006 year.

Law on transportation of dangerous substances (Official gazette SFRJ 27/90, 45/90 and Official gazette RM 12/93)

In Republic of Macedonia, the transportation of dangerous substances is performed according to decree on the Law on transportation of dangerous substances (Official gazette SFRJ 27/90, 45/90 and Official gazette RM 12/93).

With this law are determined the conditions for transport of dangerous substances, and effects connected with this (preparation of minerals for transport, transport, packaging, load and unload).

Law on nature protection (Official gazette 67/04)

With this law is given a new dimension about biodiversity. This law includes species protection, habitat, and ecosystems, and provides the conditions under which are awarded the rights for performing all activities in management and protection, to bring plans for management with protected area and annual programs for nature protection, which have to be harmonized with Nation Plan in the Republic of Macedonia. Also gives bases for preparation National Strategy for nature protection. In this law are included Directive 2004/35/EU.

Law on mineral recourses (Official gazette RM No.18/99 and 29/02)

According the Law on mineral recourses (Official gazette RM No.18/99 and 29/02) the articles which are related for this project are described in:

- Excavation field -Article 46, Article 50,

- Approval for mine performance object-Article 52, Article 53, Article 54

- Technical revision and approval for uses on the mine objects-Article 56, Article 57, Article 58, Article 50

- Approval for exploitation-Article 61, Article 62, Article 63, Article 64,

Concession

- for

detail

geological

investigation

and

mineral

recourses

exploitation

Annex IV

- Mine measurement and mine plans Annex V

- Measures for work protection Annex VI

- Supervision-Annex-VII

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Law on waste material (Official gazette PM No 68/04, 71.04)

With this law is arranged the way and the conditions of collecting, transporting, treatment and disposal of the waste on the landfill, maintenance of the landfills and recycling of the waste.

In this Law are harmonized the following Directives:

- Council’s Directive on waste (75/442)

- Council’s Directive on waste oils (75/439; 87/101)

- Council’s Directive on landfills (91/31)

- Council’s Directive on incineration of waste (2000/76)

Law on construction (Official gazette No.51/05)

In this law are determined the basic requirements of construction, the rights and the obligations of the participants in construction, project documentation, building site, usages, maintenance.

Law on energetic (Official gazette No.63/06)

With this law are arranged: goals of the energetic policy and the way of its implementation, energetic activities and the manner of regulation the energetic activities, construction of energetic objects, the scope of the work of the Regulatory commission for energetic, electricity energy markets, natural gases markets, condition for accomplishing energetic efficiency and promotion of restorable energy sources usage, and other question important for energetic.

Law for expropriation (Official gazette No.33/95)

With this law is arranged the expropriation on the property and the rights which result from the land, buildings, and other object (real estate) because of the object construction and performing other works of public interest, determination of the public interest and determination of the compensation for expropriated real estate.

Occupational Health and Safety Acts

The Ministry of Labor issued an ordinance for Protection at Work (PAW), Official Gazette of RM 13/98.

The law includes:

- General measures;

- Measures for protection at work;

- Obligations of the employer (planning and organizing of PAW);

- Periodic reviews and inspection of tools and conditions for work;

- Health examinations for the employers;

- Rights and obligations of the employers;

- Personal protection devices for the workers for health protection.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Law on Environment (Official gazette RM No 53/05)

medium in the

environment and also includes essential global questions.

Republic of Macedonia, like other Central and East European countries, has started a transformation process towards market economy. As part of the economic development program, the Government has prepared a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and Local Ecological Action Plan (LEAP) with the support of the World Bank. The NEAP I from 2003 is amended with NEAP II from2005.

The Contents of the National Environmental Action Plan II are described in Article 63 of the Law on environment.

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning has been the key agency involved in the preparation of the NEAP together with the industry, municipalities, private sector organizations, research institutions and the public and non-governmental organizations. The policies and actions are consistent with the “Environmental Action Programmed for Central and Eastern Europe” (EAP), the document adopted at the Ministerial Conference in Lucerne in 1993.

This law has implemented requirements which result from the following International instruments ratified by the Republic of Macedonia:

- The convention of Environment Impact assessment in a Transboundary context (Espoo convention).

- Convention on Access to information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Maters (Argus Convention).

Law on environment

is

the

essential

law which takes care

of

all

More important EU Directives which are harmonized with the law are:

- Directive 96/61/EC on integrated pollution prevention and control;

- Council

Directive

96/82/EC

on

the

control

of

major-accident hazard involving

dangerous substances;

- Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on public access to environment information and repealing Council Directive 90/313 EEC;

MoEPP is responsible for issuing the Integrated Ecological Permission A. In the Republic of Macedonia already starts the process of implementation the system of Integrated Prevention and Pollution Control (IPPC) with harmonization of the EU Directive 96/61/EC.The procedure for obtaining ecological permission is described in Article 97 of the Law on environment. The content of the ecological permission is described in Article 107 of the Law on environment.

2.2

POLICY

The State Environmental Inspectorate is responsible for control the implementation of the Law and other acts of the environment.

The Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning is completely authorized for the monitoring on the environment. In the Law on the environment is foreseen nomination of Municipality environmental inspectors for better control on the environmental in the municipalities.

The Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning and its inspectors are authorized for water management, waste management, nature protection and air quality control also.

Some articles for the responsibilities of the MoEPP and Environmental inspectors are given below:

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Article 31

At the level of the Republic of Macedonia, the Ministry of Environment shall carry out continuous measurement and monitoring of changes and states of the quality of air, water, protected special natural resources, as well as levels of noise, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and other types of changes and states in the environment.

Measurements and monitoring of changes and states referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall also be carried out by scientific expert organizations registered for the activities related to the environment and nature protection and promotion, authorized by the Minister of Environment. They shall be obliged to submit the data immediately to the Ministry of Environment.

The type of monitoring, methodology and parameters of measurement and monitoring of changes and states of the quality of air, water and soil, protected special natural resources, as well as levels of noise, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation shall be specified by the Minister of Environment.

Article 42

During the supervision of the implementation of measures of protecting the air against pollution, the inspector shall be obliged to specify whether:

1. The polluter has provided pre-requisites for reducing pollution to the level allowed, in accordance with technical-technological standards concerning equipment and technology used and with legal norms;

2. In cases of exceeding extreme levels of emissions and emissions allowed, the pollutant has taken the necessary technical and technological measures;

3. The pollutant has carried out prescribed emission measuring procedures and whether it keeps records of the measurement procedures already conducted;

4. Monitoring systems have been functioning well;

Article 43

In supervising the implementation of measures to protect water against pollution, the inspector shall be obliged to specify whether:

1. The users of the source of pollution, have provided pre-requisites for reducing pollution down to the level prescribed i.e. allowed;

2. In cases of exceeding the allowed level of quantities of hazardous substances in technological and sanitary waters or when there is an increased temperature of technical waters, the entity possessing or the user has taken prescribed technical-technological measures;

3. The users have conducted the necessary measurement procedures on the quality of waste water prior to its release into natural recipients (rivers, lakes, soil);

4. Legal communities and individuals, regularly and within terms specified, submit relevant reports and data to the Ministry of Environment;

5. Monitoring systems have been functioning well.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Article 49

In conducting their work, inspectors shall be authorised to:

- Give orders for eliminating adverse effects resulting from environment and nature pollution or degradation and returning original conditions thereof, within a specified term;

- Cause cessation of the work of legal entities and individuals due to harmful activities that cause environment and nature pollution or degradation, regardless of whether they possess the relevant approvals and consents provided for by the law;

- Prohibit the work and utilization of and to seal off working premises, equipment, appliances and devices causing adverse effects or failing to fulfil the prescribed conditions;

- Temporarily confiscate equipment, devices and appliances representing sources of environment and nature pollution or degradation, in case of elimination of defects, or a final decision by a competent court; and

- Determine shorter term for recultivation within the term specified in Article 17 of this Law.

The inspector shall participate in the technical review of investment projects with regard to aspects related to environment and nature protection.

Article 50

Legal communities and individuals that perform activity shall be obliged to provide conditions for uninterrupted execution of the supervisory inspection, and provide true and accurate data, information, samples and other materials as required by the inspector free of charge.

The Suvodol Mine and TPP Bitola are regularly monitored by the MoEPP and the Environmental inspectors which means that the open pit coal mine Brod–Gneotino will be also monitored on the same way.

Monitoring on the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be performed on the way which is described in the Law on Environment.

2.3 EXPROPRIATION AND COMPENSATION

In accordance with the Law for Expropriation, there is a Department for expropriation in TPP Bitola, which is concerned with the process of expropriation of the mine land. The procedure for expropriation for the land of Brod-Gneotino is being done according to the existing one in Suvodol mine.

So far there haven’t been any problems with the substitution for the expropriated land. It will be done gradually and it will be defined according to the land profile (agricultural, forestry and other; cadastre class of the land, climate factor and economical circumstances). The people whose land is expropriated are satisfied with the process of expropriation. With the expropriation they have material benefit.

The open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is extended at a surface of 4,795,241 m 2 . From that area 80% is public property and 20 % private property, with exactly determined parcels and theirs ownership. The private property will be expropriated according to The Law for Expropriation and compensation which was announced in July 1995, in the “Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia” No. 13/95. Because the process of expropriation will be done gradually the total number of the parcels and the total number of the people whose land will be expropriated is not determined yet.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

With this Law, the expropriation of the private property and the rights which result from it for the concerned people are organized.

The compensation will be done through the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Macedonia.

Procedure for expropriation

There are maps with cadastre parcels and data for the property of the parcels which will be included with the expropriation line. After that the Report for expropriation is working out in which the property list number, data of the parcel owner and address are shown. Also the data for the soil category of the parcels and the cadastre cultures (agriculture or forest) planted on the parcels foreseen for expropriation are defined. In addition geodetic base is prepared with expropriation line in proportion of 1:2500 or 1:1000 and it is presented in the Report for expropriation.

The Report for expropriation is being certificated from the municipality organ, authorized for the geodetic works with the following note:" the current condition of this list is identical with the condition in the cadastre department” (Official gazette 24/75).

Based on the data given in the Report for expropriation Ministry of Financial will prepare certificate in which total amount for compensation will be defined. According that certificate the land owners will be compensated.

As far as the land in state property, the user rights of the owner which in the moment handles with it, will be cancelled and the same will be given of permanent or temporal usage to the new user.

2.3.1 Expropriated land for the needs of the open pit coal mine “Brod-Gneotino”

The total surface of the open pit mine, which has to be expropriated, is:

- 4.795.241 m 2 .

For the first phase-opening from south to north (approximately in accordance to profile 11), which will be developed during 5 years includes surface, to be expropriated of:

- 1.909.196 m 2 .

The second phase-profile11 to north includes a surface of:

- 2.886.045 m 2

So far, according to the data from TPP Bitola, at the surface of the open pit coal mine, the expropriation is done on small surface, of:

- 241.882 m 2 ,

So that for expropriation is left:

- 4.553.359 m 2 .

The surface which has to be expropriated for the external waste dump I is:

- 684.547 m 2 .

The surface which has to be expropriated for the south external waste dump is:

- 354.752 m 2 .

The total surface which has to be expropriated for the external waste dump I is:

- 1.039.299 m 2 .

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

The total surface which has to be expropriated for external waste dump II is:

- 928.115 m 2 .

2.4 NON GOVERMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND LOCAL INHABITANT OPINION

The local inhabitants are introduced with the operations and impacts of the mine and the TPP Bitola, from the beginning of theirs work. Since 1990 till now, have been organized several meetings (annual meetings), where the inhabitants are made familiar with the plans of monitoring, safety measures and working process of the mine Suvodol and the TPP Bitola. There is close cooperation between the authorities from TPP Bitola and the local inhabitants, and open presentation of the monitored parameters, which are in the frame of the Maximal Permitted Concentrations.

On 14.07.2006 was organized meeting between representatives from ELEM and TPP “Bitola” and inhabitants from village ”Tepavci”. During the meeting was discussed about the activities connected with the opening of the open–pit mine Brod-Gneotino. Also was presented conception for development and connection of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino with the existing mine Suvodol.

During the meeting was concluded that the local inhabitants have no complaints about the opening of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino. ELEM and TPP Bitola will continue to help with the reconstruction of the roads, building small accumulations, and taking care for the other needs of the surrounding villages in accordance with the possibilities. Also was taken into consideration the fact that with the start of the operation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino about 700 people will be employed. General conclusion from the meeting was that with the opening of the mine the local inhabitant would have some benefit.

The description on minutes of meeting is given in Appendix 1.

Several ecological NGO’s in the region are interested in the environmental protection of the area. The most active groups are from Bitola. The Thermal Power Plant Bitola, mine Suvodol and foreseen open pit mine Brod-Gneotino causes impact to the environment and human health, and this is very often topics of tribunes on different levels. The NGO”Molika” very often makes questionnaires in order to estimate public opinion and their awareness about the problem of the environmental pollution.

2.5 CATEGORIZATION OF THE IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

The below mentioned categorization of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is done on the basis of the Law of Construction (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No.51/2005):

1. The specification, purpose, complexity and technological circumstances

- The open pit mine as a construction is of high priority for the Republic of Macedonia and belongs to category I

(According to the Regulation for specific determination of constructions and according to separate categories of construction - Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No. 107/2005, article 30).

2. Construction projects for which it is an obligation to conduct action for the evaluation of impacts on the environment.

- As a construction the open pit mine needs integrated ecological license

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

(Addition I, paragraph 16 with sections 2 and 8 from the Regulation for the determination of projects and for the criteria on which basis the need to conduct action for the evaluation of the Impacts on the Environment are determined – Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia,

No.74/05.).

3. Technological (production) processes which can have impacts on the environment

- The open pit mine is a construction class I for which a zone of sanitary protection larger than 1200 m is necessary and to become green wider than 50 m.

(The classification is according to the Regulation for standard and normative for organization of the area, article 46, 47, 48- Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia 02/2002, 50/2003).

4. Damages and accidents - fires, depending on technological processes

- the open pit mine as a construction belongs to category K2

(The categorization is according to the Regulation for Technical normative for hydrant net for fire extinguishing, article 14- Official Gazette of SFRJ No. 30/1991).

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

3. ANALYSIS OF ALTERN ATIVES

As already discussed in the chapter 1 (Introduction), from the total electricity production in Macedonia 82% are provided by the thermal power plants TPP Bitola and TPP Oslomej. These plants use coal as fuel. From this production, TPP Bitola provides 70% and TPP Oslomej 12% of electricity. The rest of the country’s electric power needs are provided by hydroelectric power stations and by electricity imports. The current installed capacity for production of electricity from the hydro power plants in Macedonia is ~ 464.2 MW, which corresponds to ~ 15% of total supply. From the total production of electricity, there is ~ 10% energy lost during transportation per year, while 5-15 % of the electricity is imported.

The TPP Bitola is supplied with coal from the open pit mine Suvodol. Current coal reserves in the open pit mine Suvodol are 42.000.000 tones of coal. Taking into considering that for current annual production of electric power in TPP Bitola 6.300.000 tones of coal are necessary (the three thermal blocks Bitola 1, Bitola 2 and Bitola 3 have an installed capacity of 3 x 225 MW = 675 MW), the current coal reserves are enough to feed TPP Bitola for the following 6 to 7 years.

Some 10 to 50 m below the coal layer being exploited today in the Suvodol mine a secondary coal layer was found (located in the center part of the mine Suvodol), called Bottom fascia segment of coal series in o.p. Suvodol.

The Figure 3.1below presents the open pit mine Suvodol.

. The Figure 3.1below presents the open pit mine Suvodol. Figure 3.1 Mine”Suvodol” The installed capacity

Figure 3.1 Mine”Suvodol”

The installed capacity of the thermal power plant “TPP Oslomej” is 125 MW. To provide the planned annual electricity production about 1.000.000 tones of coal that is provided from the mine Oslomej - West are needed. The current coal reserves in the mine Oslomej - West are about 9.000.000 tones of coal, which are enough for the thermal power plant to operate in the next 8-9 years.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

The following Figure 3.2 presents the open pit mine Oslomej - West.

Figure 3.2 presents the open pit mine Oslomej - West. Figure 3.2 Mine”Oslomej - West ”

Figure 3.2 Mine”Oslomej - West

Because the current coal reserves are sufficient for the country’s electricity production only for the next years (6-7 years for TPP Bitola and 8-9 years for TPP Oslomej) AD ELEM analyzed additional possibilities to use other resources.

In 2002 a Study for lignite supply of TPP Bitola was carried out (December 2002, as a part of the PHARE Program for investment possibilities in the energetic sector in the Republic of Macedonia). Besides the use of coal as fuel, the Study analyzed the possible use of alternative fuels like crude oil, crude oil in combination with natural gas and natural gas only).

In region close to the TPP Bitola the following exploitable coal reserves were found (see Table 3.1):

Table No. 3.1 Exploitable coal reserves in region close to the TPP Bitola

Mine

Coal reserves (t)

o.p. ”Suvodol” (at the moment is exploited)

42.000.000

Bottom fascia segment of coal series in o.p. ”Suvodol”

50.000.000

o.p. ”Brod – Gneotino”

40.000.000

”Zivojno” (probably it will be underground exploitation)

69.000.000

Total reserves

201.000.000

As mentioned above and taking into consideration the estimated current coal reserves in open pit mine Suvodol and the region, AD ELEM is making efforts to open new open pit coal mines.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

In the mentioned study for lignite supply of TPP Bitola, the alternatives for the usage of crude oil, combination of crude oil with natural gas and the usage of natural gas only are analyzed. The scenarios for these alternatives have been analyzed taking into consideration the parallel usage of coal and other substances (crude oil and natural gas). These analyses are presented as Appendix 2.

In addition, it must be mentioned that the above presented alternatives for TPP Bitola ask for large investments for the necessary modifications in the TPP itself. Especially large investments are necessary for the construction and installation of a transport system for these substances to the TPP (additional construction of a railway or construction of a gas pipe). As a conclusion of the above mentioned discussion on alternatives for the TPP of Bitola it was decided that the best solution for continuation of the operation of the thermal power plant Bitola for the next ~ 20 years is the utilization of the current reserves of coal from the foreseen mines”Brod-Gneotino” and Bottom fascia segment of coal series in o.p. Suvodol”.

The exploitation method for these two mines is predicted to be with open pit mine exploitation. Also for the close future in purpose of additional coal exploitation the opening of the coal mine ”Zivojno” is planed (which will probably be an underground exploitation). The qualitative characteristics of the coal from these mines are similar in quality. They can be used as fuel in the Thermal Power Plants without any modifications of the plant.

The following Figure 3.3 presents the coal deposits with the communication network of power lines, roads and railways close to TPP Bitola.

KICEVO 40 0 KV 40 0 KV OHRID Mariovo v. G. Aglarci v. Meg len
KICEVO
40 0 KV
40 0 KV
OHRID
Mariovo
v.
G. Aglarci
v.
Meg len ci
TS-Bitola 2
400/11 0 KV
TS-Bitola 1
TPP "Bitola 1,2,3"
3×225 MW
150/110/35 KV
v.
D. Orehovo
v.
Novaci TS-Suv odol
110/6 KV
v.
Pa ral ovo
v.
Logo va rdi
mine
"S uvodol"
TS-Bitola 3
v. Ribarci
110/10 KV
BITOLA
110 KV
TS-Brod-Gneotino
v.
Sko civir
110/6 KV
v.
Gn eo ti no
mine
"Brod-Gneotino"
v.
Br od
15 0 KV
river Crna
v.
Med jitlija
"Zivojno"
mine
REK "Bitola"
v. Zivojno
0
5
10
15
20
G R E E C E
r. Dragor
railway Bitola-Skopje
SKOPJE
TS Dubrovo
LERIN
TS Skopje
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and
railway Bitola-Skopje SKOPJE TS Dubrovo LERIN TS Skopje Scale (km) Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and

Scale (km)

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Figure 3.3 Region of Bitola with communication network Besides the use of the coal from the existing reserves in the Republic of Macedonia, an additional alternative can be the import of coal from Greece.

However, this coal contains much higher amounts of sulfur 1-1.5% (for comparison: the coal from the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino contains 0.6% sulfur). Additionally, the price for transport of the coal to TPP Bitola is high. Due to that reason, this alternative was rejected.

Taking into account the above mentioned possible alternatives, the final decision for AD ELEM is to open the coal mines of Brod-Gneotino and bottom fascia segment of coal series (which is part of the existing mine Suvodol). Taking into consideration the conditions for coal exploitation from these mines and to satisfy the current supplying needs of 6.300.000 t of coal/year for TPP Bitola it is necessary to have parallel operation of all the three mines. The conception of exploitation is defined with the following coal quantities:

- from open pit mine ”Brod-Gneotino” 2.000.000 t coal per year;

- from existing mine ”Suvodol” 1.300.000 t coal per year;

- from the Bottom fascia segment of coal series in open pit mine Suvodol 3.000.000 t coal per year;

The above mentioned action plan for coal exploitation makes sure that the TPP Bitola will be supplied with the necessary quantities of coal till the year 2026.

Besides the use of coal as basic raw materiel for the TPP and the water in the HPP, in Macedonia the use of renewable energy is considered as well, such as exploitation of wind and solar energy. It is hereby mentioned that for the utilization of these potential energy resources considerable financial investments are needed. However, studies have already been carried out in 2005 to install a certain capacity of wind energy in the Republic of Macedonia. In the studies are determined regions in Macedonia where the constant needed frequency of wind is given and the wind strength is constantly high enough as well. In the forthcoming years, AD ELEM will probably proceed with the installation of wind power for current production. A couple of years ago the government of Macedonia has included the use of renewable energy in its current national energy policy. ELEM has recently taken up the use of renewable energy in its own energy policy as well.

Nevertheless, the installation and construction of these alternative energy capacities will not replace the main fuel, which is to date coal. The capacities for electrical energy production in TPP Bitola will remain on coal. This can be change in future times.

Although Macedonia has around 250 sunshine days per year, the installation of solar energy is actually not foreseen for ELEM as this exploitation needs high investments. Till now, this alternative is considered to be only a private one. Private houses as well as public houses and hotels can be equipped with solar energy, but this is not an alternative for coal.

In Macedonia, a certain capacity of energy production is covered by geo-thermal energy as well. The capacities today are in the range of lower percentage (~6-8%) of the total energy production in Macedonia.

As it can be seen from the above mentioned alternatives, the Brod-Gneotino project is of very high importance for the Macedonian energy market as:

- The necessary feed of TPP Bitola with fuel can be achieved only with exploitation of coal from Brod-Gneotino and the deeper coal layers in the existing Suvodol mine.

- Alternative fuels (gas or mineral oils) need high additional investments in transport capacities and change of TPP Bitola burners.

- Geo-thermal power is used only for hothouse production and the usage is local. The

geothermal energy is not used as electrical energy.

- Import of additional energy from neighbouring countries is limited due to the limited net capacities of the national current net.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

- Renewable energy is to date not an alternative to replace coal as fuel but can have its market in the future (wind energy for the national current network and solar energy on private basis).

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

4. TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The production of the thermo power plant “Bitola”, which has a capacity of 3x225 MW, depends mainly on the remaining reserves for exploitation in the existing open coal pit mine “Suvodol”. Research carried out on 26. 07. 2003 shows that there were over 57.834.417 tons of coal left for exploitation, but there are approximately 40.000.000 tons to date. The reduction of coal is as result of ongoing exploitation of the open pit coal mine.

The ELEM AD Program” Power plant in the Republic of Macedonia”-Skopje, predicts that the coal reserves will be sufficient until 2012. Due to this, proper activities for the opening and exploitation of new coal reserves near the existing open coal pit mine “Suvodol” were undertaken. The most potential location was found out to be “Brod-Gneotino” and part of a new coal series in the open coal pit mine of “Suvodol”.

new coal series in the open coal pit mine of “Suvodol”. Figure 4.1 Existing Suvodol mine

Figure 4.1 Existing Suvodol mine

It was decided to open and to activate a new mine “Brod-Gneotino” and for that purpose it was necessary to prepare a Mine Project Design with all the necessary elements and objects. One of the most important aspects of discontinuing application of mine technological activities connected with opening, exploitation and for stability of open pit mines are draining and protection the mine from surface and underground water and environmental protection

To have as far as possible complete picture about these problems, a proper evaluation and reinterpretation as well as analyses of the hydrological, hydro-geological characteristics and base line conditions of the open pit mine were done.

The location of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino (exploitation field) has a form of foot. Its axis is with direction from northwest to south east. The middle length of the exploitation field, in direction of excavation fronts is ~ 3.5 km. The width of this field is:

- ~0.9 km south

- ~1.7 km in the middle

- ~1.5km north part

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

The bottom of the lowest part is determined at ~ 550 m. above sea level, and the highest spot, at the contours of the exploitation field is determined at ~ 700 m. above sea level. According to the height above sea level at the bottom and the ending contours, the exploitation field at the excavation site represents space field depression, with high difference of ~150 m.

The whole surface of the excavation site, to finishing contours of the exploitation field is ~471 ha (4.795.241 m 2 ) and the surface of the contour of the mine is ~260 ha. For the delay places of the barren soil spaces with surface of ~144 ha (for I) and ~76ha (for II) are foreseen.

According to “rose of winds” at this location the wind from the north direction is dominant and predominant.

At wider area, on which the location of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is, there are certain number of line of communications/traffic roads, which connect the rural places between themselves, also with open pit Suvodol and the city of Bitola.

In dependence of the terrain circumstances the allowed speed of motor vehicles on this lines of communications are:

- road from II class

60-80km/h

- road from III class

50-80km/h

- road from IV class

30-80km/h

These conditions are relevant during evaluation of the influence of the noise in the working and natural environment, at the area where the open pit coal mines Brod-Gneotino is located.

4.1 TECHNOLOGY OF EXPLOITATION

The technology of exploitation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be the same as in the Suvodol mine. Part of the equipment which will be used in the new open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino will be from Suvodol, the other equipment will be provided from MAN Takraf. List of the new equipment is given in the Appendix 3.

The exploitation of the coal mine Suvodol started in 1977 with the excavation of the barren soil, and in the middle of 1982 the excavation of coal.

The coal layer with an average thickness of 19.8 m is located at a depth of 30 - 100 m. The technological process of exploitation in the open pit mine of Suvodol is based on the classic continuous technology of excavation, transportation and delay of the cover layer (with the barren soil). 3 ECR systems (dredging machine, conveyer belt, and delayer) are in use and on the basis of the characteristics of the available mechanization and geometry of the excavation site; all analyses for the vertical line of the floors and the dynamics of the excavation are made (such information was taken from the history of running the mine Suvodol and the TPP Bitola).

The annual capacity of excavation of coal from the Suvodol mine is 6.500.000 t of coal.

Table No. 4.1 Basic technical characteristics of the equipment used in Suvodol

Location

Novaci, Bitola

Number of units

3

Type of fuel

coal

Year when work started

1982/1984/1988

Steam boiler

 

Type

P-65

Production

ZIO-Podoljsk, Russia 700 t/h

Capacity

Steam turbine

 

Type

K-210-130-3

Production

LMZ, Russia

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Power

225

MW

Generator

 

Type

TBB-200-2A

Production

Elektrosila, Russia

Power

247

MVA

Cooling tower

3

Dredging machines Type Number of units Theoretical capacity Type Number of units Theoretical capacity Type Number of units Theoretical capacity Type Number of units Theoretical capacity

SRs- 2000

2

6000

m3/h

SRs- 1300

1

4000

m3/h

SRs- 630

2

1200

t/h

Ku- 300

1

2200

t/h

Pressing installations Number Capacity

2

1250

t/h

4.1.1 Reserves of coal and its quality

The calculation of exploitation of coal reserves is carried out by a method of transversal parallel profiles, and the reserves are as shown by category in the following table below.

The remaining economically recoverable lignite reserves of Suvodol mine are considered not to be sufficient to provide enough lignite for the operation of TPP Bitola after the rehabilitation, more so, in case a fourth thermal power unit is constructed. However, in the greater area of TPP Bitola there are additional lignite deposits, which are located in Macedonia, south of the country and on the Greek territory. Therefore, in order to assess the feasibility of TPP Bitola fuel supply alternatives the following lignite resources must be taken into account:

The deeper lignite seams of Suvodol Mine, which are currently not under exploitation. The total reserves of those seams are estimated to be 30 million tons and the distance from TPP Bitola is 2 km.

The Brod-Gneotino deposit, which is located 14 km from Bitola TPP and has reserves of 43 million tons of lower quality compared to that produced at the Suvodol Mine.

The Zivojno deposit, which is located 20 km from TPP Bitola and has reserves of 69 million tons of higher quality lignite compared to that produced at the Suvodol Mine.

The available lignite reserves and their quality characteristics are presented in Tables 4.2 and 4.3.

Table No. 4.2 Available Lignite Reserves in the Bitola Area

Mine/Deposit

Exploitable Reserves

Remaining Reserves (*)

Suvodol

-

40 Million Tons

D.U.S.

30

Million Tons

(**)

Brod-Gneotino

43

Million Tons

(**)

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Zivojno

69

Million Tons

(**)

Total:

182 Million Tons

 

(*)

: Starting at 1.1. 2002

 

(**) : Not yet under exploitation

Table No. 4.3 Quality Characteristics of Lignite from the Pelagonian Basin

 

Suvodol

Brod-Gneotino

Zivojno

Ash %

11.56 – 16.09

13.63

– 18.16

14.48 – 14.52

Total Sulphur %

0.62 – 0.89

0.72 – 0.88

0.85 – 1.57

LCV (kJ/kg)

7760 - 7381

6.868

- 9.883

12731 - 13904

The coal quality of the ore body "Brod-Gneotino" is determined by performing chemical analysis, from the type of complete technical analyses, elementary analysis, analysis on composition and melting point of ashes, by making a petrographical analysis and technological examinations.

Table No. 4.4 Coal quality of the ore body Brod- Gneotino

sum of reserves (ton)

coal's

average

composition

by

reserves

block

categorization

 

Total

 

caloric

moisture

Ash

value

(%)

content

kJ/kg

(%)

14.692.609

51,16

16,52

6727

A

14.546.962

48,69

18,06

7153

B

29.239.571

49,93

17,29

6939

A+B

5.084.014

48,75

14,16

8660

C

1

34.323.585

49,75

16,82

7194

A+B+C 1

4.1.2 Technology of exploitation, external and internal waste disposal

The Main mining project for "Brod-Gneotino" is made according the existing documentation for: officially verified "Elaborate of classification and categorization of coal reserves from the Brod-Gneotino, year 2001", as well as the other available documentation for geological, hydro-geological and geo-mechanical characteristics of the project location.

The total length of the exploitation field on the contours of the final slopes in the direction of the excavation fronts is approximately 3.4 km, and the width varies from 0.9 km in the south, 1.7 km in the central and 1.5 km in the northern part. The complete area coverage of the open pit following the final contour is approximately 4.795.241 m 2 .

According to the geotechnical and hydro geological characteristic on the project area, in the Main mining project is defined technology of excavation. There is annual schedule of

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

excavation to the final contours on the exploitation field, and the defined location for the external and internal waste disposals.

The technology which will be used in a mining is: continuous ECR (Excavator – Conveyor belts – Transporters) technology:

- excavation of material and coal by bucket wheel excavator,

- transport of the material and coal from excavator to the reclaimer by conveyor belts,

- Material is disposed with reclaimer.

There are two defined external waste material dumps: Waste Disposal I and Waste Disposal II, one for each ECR system (continuous Excavator-belt Conveyor-Reclaimer ECR I and II). External waste material dumps are situated near the open pit on non-agricultural soil.

During the period of exploitation, the excavation will be done by continuous technology, for some parts of the mining the excavation will be done with dragline, and sometimes with dredge and transported with truck. There will be no needs for blasting.

For the purpose of excavation, for soil material it will be used bucket wheel excavator type SRs-2000 for the ECR I system, two bucket wheel excavators type SRs-1050 for the ECR II and ECR III. For the coal excavation, two bucket excavators type SRs-1150 and one SRs-323 will be used. For excavation of some parts in mining, two dragline excavators will be used, type ESh- 10/70 (with capacity of 10m 3 ) and ESh-6/45 (with capacity of 6m 3 ) for discontinuous excavation, in the parts inaccessible for the bucket wheel excavators. The technological scheme of exploitation is shown at the following figure:

E{10 SRs(H)2000 I BTO Hmax=40m SRs(H)1050 BRs1800 E{10 SRs(H)1150 BRs1800 Hmax=40m Figure 4.2 Technological
E{10
SRs(H)2000
I BTO
Hmax=40m
SRs(H)1050
BRs1800
E{10
SRs(H)1150
BRs1800
Hmax=40m
Figure 4.2 Technological scheme of exploitation
ET-I
B=1800
ET-II
B=1600
EU-II
B=1600

The disposal material will be carried out by a reclaimer type ZP-6600 and A 2 RsB-5500. In the beginning of the exploitation, the disposal material will be transport at the external waste disposals (for the maximum period of 6 year). After these time period, the disposal will be done in internal located area (to the place where the coal previously will be excavated).

At the external waste disposals will be disposed total quantity of 69.100.000 m 3 mass for a period of 6 years (ECR I) and 4 years (ECR II system). After this, the waste will be disposed within the previously excavated area, by forming an internal waste disposal with total amount of 225.760.104 m 3 masses.

The continuous technology of excavation (machinery) is running on electrical power.

On the next picture is shown present excavation condition at the mining Brod-Gneotino. On the straight direction can be seen transformer substation for mining Brod-Gneotino and existing mining Suvodol.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Figure 4.3 Excavation on the Brod-Gneotino

Figure 4.3 Excavation on the Brod-Gneotino with dragline

Within the technological process of exploitation, beside the basic mining and transport equipment, it’s necessary to include appropriate auxiliary equipment:

- bulldozers – one for each excavator and reclaimer;

- turn-o-dozers – for moving the conveyor belts;

- dredgers for excavation;

- hydraulic excavators (dredgers), class 2m 3 – for digging and cleaning the main and auxiliary water canals;

- trucks and jeeps;

The auxiliary equipment is mostly equipped with combustion engines.

Roads will be built for transport of people and stuff in the mining. The roads are predicted for all ECR systems, and also to the waste disposals. The existing mining Suvodol is connected with mining Brod-Gneotino with unpaved road.

The roads will be built of local material, and for prevention of dust (when the vehicle is moving), the roads will be permanently sprayed with water (especially in summer).

On the next Figure 4.4 is shown road from the mine Suvodol to Brod-Gneotino and part of project area.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Figure 4.4 Road from mine Suvodol

Figure 4.4 Road from mine Suvodol to the Brod-Gneotino

All above mentioned excavators run on electrical power, meaning that these excavators are environmentally friendly, because not causing damage upon the environment.

The negative impact on the environment from the exploitation might be at the point of excavation, where wheel buckets are playing main role in crushing and separating the material from the compact mass, and thus creating tiny particles of dust emitted in the air. Where this dust goes, depends on the weather conditions (winds and moisture). It’s predictable that major part of the dust will be settling down in the nearest area, namely the open pit itself, whilst the impact at the wider environment would be minimal. In certain periods of the year (summer months), for dust suppression water fogs will be used to protect the air from pollution.

The transport of the waste material and coal is carried out by conveyor belts. These conveyors run on electrical power. They will be placed from the excavation point to the waste disposing point. The negative impact from them would be the separation of airborne dust at the collection points, or the emission of dust from the conveyor belt itself - if there is a very strong wind; but strong winds are not typical for the site of the open pit Brod-Gneotino. Best way to prevent dust separation at the collection (reception) points is to isolate (enclose) them.

The coal transport from “Brod-Gneotino” to the reception point at the thermo-plant TPP “Bitola” is carried out by a system of conveyor belts in full length of approximately 10 km. But because this conveyor belt goes across an arable land, in order to prevent dust emissions, it will be fully covered (closed).

The waste disposal will be carried out by a reclaimer type ZP-6600 and A 2 RsB-5500, both driven by electrical power, which is good feature - from the aspects of ecology. In the beginning of the exploitation, the waste disposal is done at the external waste disposals, located in a non- arable land. So, these are the best location for the external disposals.

External disposal on Suvodol mine is shown on Figure 4.5

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Figure 4.5 External Disposal- Suvodol mine

Figure 4.5 External Disposal- Suvodol mine

As best alternatives for external disposal from aspect of near surrounding of the mine and from environmental aspect is precisely that surface because agriculture land are not occupied.

Because in the near surrounding of the external disposals there are not inhabitant places, the negative influence will not reflect on humans, so the disposals will not cause certain sociological problems.

At the external waste disposals will be disposed total quantity of 69.100.000 m 3 mass for a period of 6 years (ECR I) and 4 years (ECR II system). After this, the waste will start to be disposed within the previously excavated area, by forming an internal waste disposal (total amount of 225.760.104 m 3 masses).

From ecological point of view, disposing the waste material within the open pit is more acceptable, because that way a lot of surrounding land is spared from devastation by covering it with waste material, and to some extents, the excavated area recovers its previous shape.

The material which is disposed is contained mainly from two kinds of materials: quarter sediments (sand, clay, dust).

At the end of the exploitation, one part of the mine, which will not be filled with the internal disposal, will be in a form of a pit, for which there will be not enough material for fulfilling. That pit will be fulfilled with water from the ground waters, naturally. The naturally fulfilled pit with water will form a lake which will be possible to use later for tourism and fisheries.

For the time of exploitation, a selective excavation of the humus material is also carried out and disposed at a humus disposal, and to keep it there till exploitation time is finished, in order to re-use later, for biological reclamation of the excavated site.

With ending the process of active exploitation and waste material disposing, comes the stage for technical reclamation. This includes levelling of the finishing surfaces and smoothing the bench slopes.

After the surface levelling, comes the stage of applying the humus layer and commence of biological reclamation, by use of complex melioration measures in order to improve chemical and mechanical features of the ground layer. Biological reclamation will be carried out by

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

planting trees and grass, and some agro-cultural plants on the smoother terrain. The process of reclamation and revitalization will recover trapped land and will tribute in returning in its previous state.

The recultivation is developed in the Project for Recultivation, revitalization and physical planning- project in progress.

The auxiliary equipment is mostly equipped with combustion engines and it’s a source of bad exhaust fumes. Air pollution caused by the fumes of the combustion engines is local and limited only to the working area, that is, in the zones with larger concentration of these kind of mechanization.

4.1.3 Ancillary infrastructure

The Figure 4.6, below shows the ancillary infrastructure in the TPP Bitola and in the mine Suvodol. The infrastructure for the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is foreseen as in the Suvodol mine.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

In Steam Power Plant: In the mine: 1. Bus station 1. Bus station 2. Doorman’s
In Steam Power Plant:
In the mine:
1. Bus station
1.
Bus station
2. Doorman’s booth
2.
Doorman’ booth
3. Management hut in TPP
3.
Additional workshop
4. Cooling tower
4.
Oil warehouse
5. Restaurant
5.
Restaurant
6. Management building
6.
Management building
7. Workshop
6.
Central workshop
8. Main plant object
7.
Garage and services
9. Pump station
8.
Warehouse
10. Station for electrolyze
9.
11. Chemical preparation of water
10.
12. Starting boiler room
11.
13. Crude oil station
12.
14. Dressing room
13.
15. Hut for accommodation
14.
16. Chimney
15.
17. Oblique bridge for coal
16.
18. Fixing linen with crane
17.
19. Warehouse
18.
20. Transformer station 400/110
[kV]
19.
20.
21. Hut for spare part
21.
22. Tansportation system for ash
and gross
22.
Oil station
Fixing linen with crane
Major dispatcher
Transformer station
Plant for crumbling
Coil deposit for wider uses
Coil deposit for TPP
Dredge
Delaying machine
Combine machine
Lane for coil
Lane for barren soil
Lane for ash and slime
Plant (reversible )station
23. Ambulance
24. Investments
25. Pit for neutralization
26. Fire protection for transformer

Figure 4.6 Ancillary infrastructures in the TPP Bitola and in the mine Suvodol

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

4.2 PREVIOUS PERFORMANCE OF THE EXISTING MINE SUVODOL

The ELEM Company is managing with TPP Bitola and the existing open pit coal mine Suvodol successfully. The previous experiences gained in the existing Suvodol mine will be applied in the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino.

Because of the long term experience of ELEM in the field of coal mining (managing with TPP Bitola and the existing mine Suvodol for 30 years) and their successful handling with the environmental and socio-economic issues, the same methodology will be applied in the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino.

In TPP Bitola monitoring of the air emission and imission is carried out. New equipment for monitoring and filtration of the air will be installed in the future. At the moment the specialized company “Technolab”- Skopje is carrying out the monitoring of the present conditions.

The expropriation and compensation in the existing mine Suvodol was carried out without any problem. Because of that the same procedure will be applied in Brod-Gneotino.

The local inhabitants are closely introduced and familiar with the managing of the TPP Bitola and the existing mine Suvodol and do not have any complaints.

In each chapter is shortly described the previous performance with the existing mine Suvodol or the TPP Bitola.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

5. ENVIRONMENT AL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE D AT A

5.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND COMMUNICATION

The open pit mine of Brod-Gneotino is located in the south-eastern part of the Pelagonija valley around 19 km southeast from Bitola, near the border with Greece, (see Figure 5.1).

from Bitola, near the border with Greece, (see Figure 5.1). Figure 5.1 Location of the open

Figure 5.1 Location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

It covers the south-western part of Mountain Selechka, or 10 km south from the open pit

mine of Suvodol, between the villages Gneotino and Dolno Egri to the west and the village Brod and the river Crna to the south. The open pit mine is located at 570-650 m above sea level and covers total surface of 4.795.241 m 2 .

The open pit mine is connected to villages in the local area by passable country village roads and to Bitola mine. It is connected to Suvodol with an asphalt road of category II, which makes the normal functioning of transportation possible.

A three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino is

shown in Figure 5.2.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Figure 5.2 Three-dimensional presentation of the

Figure 5.2 Three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

The following are the coordinates of the nearest villages to the open pit mine Brod- Gneotino, Brod and Gneotino and their distance from the nearest villages.

Gneotino coordinates:

Latitude: 40•59’00’’ N

Longitude: 21•29’0’’E

Distance of the village Gneotino form the village Novaci is 6.9 km, Medzitlija 7.0 km, Gorno Egri 4.0 km.

Brod coordinates:

Latitude: 40•57’00’’N

Longitude: 21•34’00’’E

Distance of the village Brod from Zivojno is 6.2 km, Novo Selo-6.7 km, Germijan 4.6 km.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

REK”Bitola” Suvodol open pit § Brod-Gneotino deposition Zivojno MACEDONIA deposition GREECE
REK”Bitola”
Suvodol open pit
§
Brod-Gneotino
deposition
Zivojno
MACEDONIA
deposition
GREECE

Figure 5.3 Location of TPP “Bitola” and of the Brod- Gneotino and Zivojno depositories

The Figure 5.3 shows the location of TPP “Bitola” and the Brod-Gneotino and Zivojno depositories.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

5.2 CLIMATE AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY 5.2.1 Climate characteristics of the Pelagonija valley

5.2.1 Climate characteristics of the Pelagonija valley Figure 5.4 Network of meteorological and hydrology stations

Figure 5.4 Network of meteorological and hydrology stations in Bitola region

From left to right in the Figure 5.4, the following monitoring stations are located in BItola region:

- Climatologically station

- Rainfall station

- Water meter

- Limnigraph

- Histogram of average precipitation

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino Figure 5.5 Monitoring Station in Bitola

Figure 5.5 Monitoring Station in Bitola

On the Figure above the monitoring station in Bitola is given with the following coordinates:

- longitude:2121’ 23’’

- latitude: 4102’ 24’’

- altitude (m): 586

Pelagonija valley is located in the southern part of the country. The climate characteristics in this area are temperate continental with slight influence from the Mediterranean climate. The Hydrological Institute follows the climatic and meteorological conditions in the Republic of Macedonia and the following information are from their sources.

Climate in this region is characterized with wet winter period with snow cover of 5-63 cm, mostly from December until March and a dry, hot summer period with temperatures higher than

40•C.

The microclimate is not monitored, so it can not be presented.

Average annual rainfalls are 560-600 mm. The period with low temperature (less then - 10•C) is relatively short, which means that exploitation is possible throughout the year.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Table No. 5.1 Average monthly temperature (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in m.s Bitola

Month

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

1 1.3

 

2.5

2.1

0.1

-6.8

3.2

-5.2

2.9

-1.2

0.6

2 1.7

 

2.9

3.5

0.0

1.9

3.8

5.3

-1.8

2.2

-2.5

3 2.8

 

4.2

3.9

6.6

5.2

11.8

8.9

5.2

6.9

5.8

4 10.0

 

6.4

13.1

11.6

13.0

10.5

10.4

8.7

12.0

11.4

5 17.0

 

17.1

14.9

16.9

17.2

16.5

16.0

18.4

14.1

17.4

6 20.8

 

22.7

21.5

20.6

20.4

20.9

21.3

21.8

19.8

19.4

7 22.4

 

23.0

23.7

22.0

24.2

24.2

23.4

24.0

22.4

23.2

8 22.0

 

19.8

23.6

23.0

22.9

23.8

21.1

23.8

21.7

21.7

9 15.1

 

16.9

16.8

18.0

17.5

18.5

15.6

16.2

17.5

18.2

10 10.5

 

8.8

12.1

12.8

11.9

14.0

11.9

12.8

13.8

11.6

11 7.5

 

6.2

5.0

6.5

9.3

5.9

7.1

7.5

6.1

4.9

12 3.1

 

2.5

-1.9

3.6

-2.9

-5.4

2.5

1.0

3.0

1.8

Average/year

11.2

11.1

11.5

11.8

11.6

12.3

11.5

11.7

11.5

11.1

12.4 12.2 12 11.8 11.6 11.4 11.2 11 10.8 10.6 10.4
12.4
12.2
12
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11
10.8
10.6
10.4

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Figure 5.6 Average monthly temperatures (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in the Bitola monitoring station

From the Table No.5.1, the average monthly temperature is the highest in July and August, 2001. In comparison with the surrounding region, the temperatures are slightly lower because of the closeness of Pelister Mountain. The Figure 5.6 is made on basis of average monthly t•C in the period of 1996-2005.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Table No. 5.2 Average monthly and annual rainfall in (mm) in m.s Bitola

Month

                         

/year

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

1996

50,7

69,7

49,9

32,3

71,6

15,1

30,0

48,5

111,8

46,4

62,0

91,0

679,0

1997

19,2

38,8

41,5

50,6

27,2

14,8

27,9

43,9

11,0

157,5

49,7

67,1

549,2

1998

25,1

62,8

18,4

20,4

84,0

22,5

24,2

22,2

67,4

61,1

157,4

68,0

633,5

1999

76,8

51,5

78,4

35,5

14,2

88,5

56,5

6,3

54,5

36,0

149,7

65,1

713,0

2000

23,4

59,8

60,6

17,8

53,4

14,7

8,9

4,4

19,4

91,3

29,5

19,3

402,5

2001

40,9

27,2

6,0

81,3

61,3

6,1

17,6

29,7

16,2

1,3

26,2

80,3

394,1

2002

39,8

13,8

84,5

64,8

129,8

9,2

74,8

45,8

122,4

86,1

17,4

175,4

863,8

2003

105,2

42,6

18,5

65,3

65,5

21,3

4,9

29,7

26,8

132,1

25,6

71,8

609,3

2004

76,6

22,4

28,8

83,3

69,1

94,6

35,6

43,6

64,3

38,1

86,9

58,4

701,7

2005

74,1

79,7

58,7

17,9

64,7

30,0

12,9

38,7

27,0

40,4

74,8

130,1

649,0

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1996 1997 1998 1999
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Figure 5.7 Average monthly and annual rainfalls in (mm) in m.s Bitola

According to the Table No.5.2, the highest quantity of rainfall is in June and December in 2002 and because of that was the wettest year, during that period (1996-2005).

According to the Figure 5.7, the driest year was 2000 and 2001, with average rainfall of 400 mm. The average quantity of rainfall during the period 1996-2005 was 650 mm.

Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Table No. 5.3 Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola (in %)

Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola (in %)

Day

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

Monthly

Average

Multiannual

Average

2001

2002

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

90

75

82

82

45

56

48

52

67

59

86

83

90

57

72

55

66

90

48

71

61

47

77

80

71

31

52

46

52

70

49

64

57

49

82

76

85

42

44

42

36

67

46

50

53

56

85

65

78

61

46

48

35

45

44

84

58

51

93

87

68

97

73

86

39

47

43

56

52

52

81

83

80

96

61

85

80

59

63

44

60

69

84

85

71

66

72

90

55

40

51

52

63

66

73

81

72

56

96

82

42

32

49

51

61

56

80

90

87

69

95

79

36

37

47

48

61

70

81

94

76

62

81

67

34

53

60

47

59

73

86

96

67

55

82

72

46

46

89

52

58

51

88

96

75

56

83

62

68

46

62

54

57

62

96

99

63

57

56

63

50

60

52

50

60

88

96

97

55

53

80

43

48

60

59

55

64

78

96

96

64

53

66

43

45

40

53

53

59

87

97

89

66

57

65

52

44

45

49

54

58

63

92

99

60

39

58

55

42

38

51

47

62

75

83

98

41

58

74

54

48

45

47

58

59

81

83

94

59

56

68

55

61

41

48

51

58

72

88

99

67

65

71

70

67

47

58

61

53

66

89

100

58

64

65

52

50

50

70

58

46

66

89

93

95

58

56

58

41

62

75

63

60

81

69

90