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c 


 

By
Vijay.N
Vishak.M
5th Sem C.S.E
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ë The amount of space available to us for information storage (or other uses) is enormous. As first
described in a lecture titled,  
      in 1959 by Richard P.
Feynman, there is nothing besides our clumsy size that keeps us from using this space. In his time,
it was not possible for us to manipulate single atoms or molecules because they were far too small
for our tools.

ë 6e described how the laws of physics do not limit our ability to manipulate single atoms and
molecules. Feynman explored the possibility of manipulating the materials at a scale of individual
atoms and molecules, imagining the whole of the encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of
the pin.

ë Prof. Feynman described such atomic scale fabrication as a b 


b  approach, as opposed to
the 
  approach that we are accustomed to.

ë     ^ It involves the construction of parts through methods such as

cutting, carving and molding. Using these methods, we have been able to fabricate a remarkable
variety of machinery and electronics devices.

ë     ^ n the other hand, would provide components made of single
 
molecules, which are held together by covalent forces that are far stronger than the forces that hold
together macro scale components. Further more, the amount of information that could be stored in
devices build from the bottom up would be enormous
ë troductio to
Na otech ology
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 The prefix µnano¶ is derived from the Greek word M M2
M2
 
   
    
 M

 2

  2

 Õ human hair is approximately 80,000nm wide, and a red


blood cell approximately 7000nm wide2 Õtoms are below a
nanometer in size2 Õ nanometer-
nanometer-sized particle is also smaller
than living cell and can be seen only with the most powerful
microscope available today2

 anotechnology is the technology of preference to make


things small, light and cheap, nanotechnology based
manufacturing is a method conceived for processing and
rearranging of atoms to fabricate custom products 2if we
rearrange the atoms in coal, we can get diamond2 If we
rearrange atoms of sand we can make computer chips etc2

 The original definition this technology that is built from single


atoms and which depends on individual atoms for function2

Click here to see the ano-


ano-sized particle
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ët is small systems ca e see as


a exte sio of iotech ology
ology.. For
example, to create a molecular
motor aout the size of a virus,
scie tists have comi ed
ge etically e gi eered protei s
with other chemically structured
compo e ts ts
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ët is possile to create ew
ki ds of materials y worki g
at the a olevel.
olevel. O e of the
first a omaterials was the
³caro a otue´, which
co ducts electricity etter tha
copper yet is stro ger a d
lighter tha steel
steel..
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Sta dard computer chips,


which soo will have
mi imum feature sizes elow
100 a ometers, will
i evitaly e ter the realm of
a otech ology
ology..
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The first integrated circuit in 1970 chips have become smaller, faster and
more capable2 Computer chips consist of "field-effect transistors" (FETs)
that form the active circuits on most chips become smaller and smaller
they begin to come up with certain problems2

In the computer-chip world, then, nanotech will be characterized by new


types of transistor (such as the m 
 
 
m  )
and new types of semiconductor device   
  

 
 to operate in the nanotech environment2

In the optical communications industry there is already a commercially


available device (wavelength selective switch) which consists of some
100'000 individually moveable mirrors mounted on the surface of a silicon
chip about one cm square where each mirrors is few microns across2

The current 130nm technology node that produces the Intel Xeon
processor defines the size of the DRÕ (Dynamic random access memory)
half-pitch (half the distance between two adjacent metal wires in a
memory cell)2 In 1971 Intel 4004 chip used 10,000nm technology; the
chips of 2007 and 2013 will require 65nm and 32nm technology,
respectively2
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