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European Pupils

Magazine
Andrei Mihai, Marian Garofide
Politehnica University, Bucharest, Romania
garofidemarian@hotmail.com

Wind Energy Energia Eoliana


History Istoricul energiei eoliene
Wind power was used by people over 3000 years Puterea vantului a fost folosita de oameni de
ago; windmills were used for pumping water or peste 3000 de ani, morile de vant erau folosite
grinding. Even today, in the century of information, pentru macinat sau pomparea apei. Chiar si astazi, in
wind power is exploited secolul informatiei,
to obtain electricity. puterea vantului este
Demand and con- exploatata pentru
sumption of increasingly obtinerea electricitatii.
high electricity had led to Cerinta si consumul din
the need of developing ce in ce mai mare de
new methods of obtaining electricitate, a dus la
energy. Scientists had nevoia de dezvoltare a noi
found the solution in the me tode de obtinere a
old windmills that have a energiei. Oamenii de
great advantage, that it stiinta(cercetatorii) au
doesn’t pollute, and the gasit solutia in vechiile
fuel (wind) is free. mori de vant care au un
Attempts to obtain mare avantaj, acela ca nu
power from wind dates polueaza, iar
back over a hundred combustibilul(vantul) este
years ago. A true blos- gratis.
soming of this technology Astfel de la banalele mori
was achieved in the last de vant, care macinau
30 years after the 1973 cereale sau pompau apa, s
oil crisis when the price -a ajuns la proiectarea
of oil barrel increased turbinelor eoliene care au
causing many countries to o capacitate uriasa de a
invest in renewable en- produce energie electrica.
ergy research, one of Incercari de a obtine
these energies being energie electrica din vant
wind. Wind turbine elements dateaza de peste o suta de
ani. O adevarata inflorire
Technology a acestei tehnologii s-a realizat in ultimii 30 de ani,
Wind energy is directly linked to sun activity on dupa criza petrolului din 1973 cand pretul
Earth. This creates differences in atmospheric pres- barilului de petrol a crescut determinand astfel foarte
sure and temperature thus determines the movement multe tari sa investeasca in cercetari de energii
of air currents that is captured with wind turbines. regenerabile,una din aceste energii fiind energia
Wind turbines convert the kinetic From the old wind- eoliana.
mills, which grind grain or pump water, the design of
wind turbines has reached a huge capacity to produce Technologie
electricity energy of air flow in mechanical energy, Energia eoliana este direct legata de activitatea
and then, using a generator, into electricity. The en- soarelui pe Pamant. Acesta creeaza diferente de
ergy of an air flux that moves at a linear velocity V is presiune atmosferica si temperatura antrenand astfel
determined by the kinetic energy expression: curentii de aer. Aceasta este captata cu ajutorul
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European Pupils
Magazine
Wind Energy
turbinelor eoliene. Turbina eoliana transforma
energia cinetica a fluxului de aer in energie
(1) mecanica apoi cu ajutorul unui generator in energie
Where: m- air mass [kg] electrica. Energia unui flux de aer care se misca cu o
v- wind speed [m/s] viteza liniara V se determina cu expresia energiei
cinetice:
The power of aero generator
is determined by the relation:
(1)
Unde: m-masa aerului [kg]
(2) v-Viteza vantului [m/s]
Cp - power factor
ρ - air density [kg/m3] Puterea unui aerogenerator
v - wind speed [m/s] se determina cu relatia:
A- blades’ swept out area [m2]

(2)
ρ-densitatea aerului[kg/m3]
Cp-coeficient de putere

Pentru un randament mare al turbinei eo-


liene este foarte importanta intensitatea cu care
bate vantul. Conform unei scari intocmite de
Beaufort, intensitatea se imparte in 13 categorii
diferite.
Aceasta scara pleaca de la o intensitate 0
cand vantul are o intensitate intre 0 si 0,2 m/s si
For greater efficiency of wind turbine it is very ajunge la o intensitate de 12 cand viteza
important the intensity with which the wind blows. vantului este de 32,7 m/s (117,72 km/h).
According to the Beaufort scales, drawn intensity is Eficienta captarii energiei fluxului de aer si
divided into 13 different categories. transformarea in energie electrica depinde de
This scale goes from 0 when the wind intensity is viteza vantului, numarul de pale ale turbinei,
between 0 and 0,2 m/s and reaches an intensity of 12 constructia aerogeneratorului si mai ales
when the wind speed is 32,7 m/s (117,72 km/h). orientarea turbinei.
Capturing energy efficiency and air flow into elec- Importanta vitezei vantului este data de
trical energy conversion depends on wind speed, num- faptul ca cercetarile lui Betz au aratat ca o
ber of turbine blades, aero generator construction and turbina eoliana ideala poate extrage doar 59,3%
especially the orientation of the turbine. din fluxul de aer, rezultand de aici si importanta
Wind speed is important as Betz's research shows constructiei turbinei eoliene. Pentru a obtine o
us that an ideal wind turbine can extract only 59.3% of eficienta maxima de conversie a energiei
airflow, hence resulting in major wind turbine con- trebuie ca viteza de rotatie a rotorului sa fie
struction. corelata cu viteza vantului. Aceasta corelare se
To obtain maximum efficiency of energy conver- obtine printr-un numar optim de pale, in urma
sion, the rotation speed of the rotor must be correlated cercetarilor stabilindu-se ca numarul de pale
with wind speed. This correlation is obtained by an optim este 3.
optimum number of blades. Researchers had found Pentru a caracteriza turbinele eoliene cu diferite
that the optimum number of blades is 3. caracteristici aerodinamice se utilizeaza parametrul
To characterize the different aerodynamic char- adimensional numit rapiditatea turbinei λ.
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European Pupils
Magazine
Wind Energy

Tab. 1 Vertical Axis Turbines Horizontal Axis Turbines

Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages


Can borrow from ad-
Omni-directional Poor self-starting capabilities. vanced wind energy
Can be mounted at the Less efficient compared to technology.
base or at the top horizontal axis turbine with Generally self start- Need yawing
(water). the same capture area. ing and more effi- mechanism to face
Simpler installation and No commercial success in the cient. flow (water-tides)
maintenance so reduce wind industry (due to bound- Can be supported
overall cost. ary layer effect) from the top or bot-
tom (water)
Wind
Water Rapiditatea leaga intr-o singura formula
Tab. 2 Turbine
Turbine trei variabile importante ale turbine:
(land-base)
Fluid density, ρ (kg/m3) 1,223 1025
(3)
Flow speed, v (m/s) 10-15 1,5-2,5
ω, viteza de rotatie;
Power coefficient, CP 0,35 0,35
R, raza rotorului;
Power density, v, viteza vantului.
214-722 605-2802
P/A=0,5ρV3CP (W/m2)
Induction factor, a 0,626 0,626 Daca pana in urma cu cativa ani,
Diameter, d (m) 50 25 turbinele eoliene poluau fonic, in prezent
297 kW- datorita evolutiei tehnologiei, s-a reusit
Power, P (W) 420 kW-1,4 MW
1,4 MW reducerea considerabila a nivelului
531 kN- (decibeli) zgomotului prin urmatoarele
Drag force, F (N) 112 kN-253 kN
1,47 MN metode:
acteristics of wind turbines we use the dimensionless Antifonarea nacelei permite,reducerea
parameter called the turbine speed (λ). The speed of zgomotelor.
turbines ties into one formula three important vari- Multiplicatoarele sunt special concepute
ables: pentru turbine eoliene. În plus, se încearcă
favorizarea acţionărilor directe, fără utilizarea
multiplicatoarelor.
(3) Profilul palelor face obiectul unor cercetări
ω, rotation speed [rad/s] intense pentru reducerea poluării sonore determinată
R, rotor radius [m] de scurgerea vântului în jurul palelor sau a emisiilor
v, wind speed [m/s] datorate nacelei sau pilonului.
Arborii de transmisie sunt prevăzuţi cu
Since few years ago, wind turbines produced noise amortizoare pentru limitarea vibraţiilor.
pollution, in present, due to the evolution of technol-
ogy, it has managed to reduce considerably the deci- Fiecare progres realizat in proiectarea
bels in the following ways: turbinelor, producerea, instalarea si intretinerea lor
Antiphonary Platform enables noise reduction; este sustinut de echipe multidisciplinare care au
The multipliers are specially designed for wind realizat si intretin baze de date ce cuprind harti ale
turbines; vintului pe intreaga suprafata a planetei (fig. 4) si
In addition it seeks to promote direct distribution pachete software eficiente pentru simularea

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European Pupils
Magazine
Wind Energy
without using multipliers; vantului (directie, intensitate, durata, etc).
Profile blades is the subject of intensive research Imaginatia este singura limitare pe care o cunoaste
to reduce noise caused by wind flow around the blades design-ul noilor forme de turbine, iar progresele
or the emissions from the basket or pillar. inregistrate de stiinta materialelor face ca acestea
Transmission shafts are fitted with dampers to sa fie tot mai eficiente (fig. 5 a,b,c). Fiecare tip de
mitigate vibration. turbina (cu axa verticala sau orizontala) prezinta
avantaje si dezavantaje care pot influenta
Each progress encountered on turbines design, randamentul in exploatare atat in cazul aplicatiilor
manufacturing, installing and maintenance is backed eoaliene cat si al celor marine (tab.1, tab.2). 
by multidisciplinary teams creating and maintaining
wind map databases for the entire Earth’s surface Energia eoliana devine una dintre cele mai atractive
(fig.4) and efficient software for wind flow simulation. solutii de obtinere a energiei electrice in conditiile
Imagination thrust and technology advances create scaderii rezervelor de combustibili traditionali si in
more effective materials and more efficient shapes of conditiile noi formulate de era ECO-Energy spre care
turbines (fig.5 a, b, c). Either vertical or horizontal se indreapta omenirea.
axes each turbine type has pros and cons that might
influence the exploitation efficiency for wind as well Principalul avantaj al acestei tehnologii este acela ca
for water applications (tab.1, tab.2). spre deosebire de alte tipuri de energie regenerabila

It results that in these conditions wind energy is energia eoliana este mediatizata sustinut si este promovata
the most viable solution of obtaining electric energy, if de numeroase organizatii nonprofit printre care Green
traditional fuels run low and if it respects the new con- Peace, Earth Share of Missouri, Earth Island Institute etc.
ditions of the ECO era to witch mankind is heading.
Bibliography and Iconography
The main plus of this technology is unlike other Emilian M. Dobrescu - Energiile Regenerabile-eficienta
unconventional methods; it is publicized and sup- economica, sociala si ecologica
ported by nonprofit organizations such as Green Iulian Constantin - Energia eoliană
Peace, Earth Share of Missouri, Earth Island Institute Revue Sciences et Avenir, July 2004
etc.. www.sizilien-sicily-sicilia.de\Energie-uk.htm
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