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AP® BIOLOGY SAMPLE FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS

(MULTIPLE CHOICE RESPONSE) BY OUTLINE 9. Which of the following is a correct statement


SECTIONS. about
the relationship between pH and the hydrogen-ion
SECTION IA concentration of a solution?
A) there are no H ions present in a solution
1. Which of the following is an example of a with a basic pH
hydrogen B) there are no H ions present in a solution
bond? with a neutral pH of 7.0
A) the peptide bond between amino acids in a C) the concentration of H ions in a solution
protein with a pH of 7.0 is 100X as great as that
B) the bond between an oxygen atom and a in a solution with a pH of 9.0
hydrogen atom in the carboxyl group of a D) the concentration of H ions in a solution
fatty acid with a pH of 5.0 is twice that in a solution
C) the bond between Na+ and Cl- in salt with a pH of 3.0
D) the attraction between a hydrogen of one E) the concentration of H ions in a solution
water molecule and the oxygen of another with a pH of 4.0 is 400X as great as that in
water molecule a
E) the bond between carbon and hydrogen in solution with a pH of 1.0
methane
10. Which of the following pairs of functional groups
Questions 2-5 characterizes the structure of an amino acid?

A) Glucose F) Iron
B) Glycerol G) Zinc
C) Glycogen H) Magnesium
D) Glucagon I) Calcium
E) Guanine J) Sulfur

2. Essential for the synthesis of neutral fats


3. A storage form of carbohydrate in muscle
4. A constituent of the chlorophyll molecule
5. Required in ionic form for the activity of many
enzymes, the maintenance of bone, and the
contraction of muscle fibers

6. A feature of organic compounds NOT found in


inorganic compounds is the presence of:
A) ionizing chemical groups
B) electrons
C) carbon atoms covalently bonded to each
other
D) oxygen
E) hydrogen bonds

7. Which of the following can be used to determine


the
rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions?
A) rate of disappearance of the enzyme
B) rate of disappearance of the substrate
C) rate of disappearance of the product
D) change in volume of the solution
E) increase in activation energy

A + B  AB
8. Which of the following best characterizes the
reaction represented above?
A) Hydrolysis
B) Catabolism
C) Oxidation-Reduction
D) Exergonic Reaction
E) Endergonic Reaction
Questions 11-14 refer to the following graph. The
solid curve and the dashed curve represent
alternative pathways for the same reaction. One 15. The graph below represents the relationship
pathway is enzyme catalyzed. between the cadmium level in the drinking
water of mice and their blood pressures. All
of the following are accurate statements
about the relationship shown in the graph
EXCEPT:

A) both high and low concentrations


of
cadmium are associated with low BP
B) an intermediate level of cadmium
produces the highest BP
C) the lower the cadmium
concentration in the water, the
higher the BP
D) up to a certain point, BP increases
as cadmium intake increases
E) after a certain point, BP decreases
11. Represents the activation energy of the enzyme- as cadmium intake increases
catalyzed reaction

12. Represents the net energy change of the


reaction

13. Represents the energy state of the products of


the
enzyme-catalyzed pathway

14. Represents the energy state of the products of


the
pathway that is not enzyme-catalyzed
B) microtubules
C) mitochondria
D) ribosomes
E) endoplasmic reticulum
SECTION IB 9. To observe the process of mitosis in plant root
cells, a biologist should examine the plant’s:
1. The organelle that is a major producer of ATP and A) root hairs
is found in both heterotrophs and autotrophs is the: B) Casparian strip
A) chloroplast C) root cap
B) nucleus D) zone of maturation
C) ribosome E) apical meristem
D) Golgi body
E) mitochondrion 10. All of the following cells have either cilia or
flagella EXCEPT:
2. All of the following cell components are found in A) cells lining the oviduct in mammals
prokaryotic cells EXCEPT: B) pollen produced in the anthers of
A)DNA angiosperms
B) ribosomes C) the sperm produced in the antheridia of
C)cell membrane fern
D) nuclear envelope D) cells lining the respiratory tract of humans
E) enzymes E) Paramecium and Euglena

3. Structures found in the cells of both angiosperms 11. Which of the following is a characteristic of
and mammals are: mitochondria and chloroplasts that supports the
A) cell walls and cell membranes endosymbiotic theory?
B) centrioles and lysosomes A) both have bacteria-like polysaccharide cell
C) chloroplasts and ribosomes walls
D) cell membranes and chromosomes B) both can reproduce on their own outside
E) contractile vacuoles and leucoplasts the
cell
4. Cytokinesis is the portion of the cell cycle during C) both contain DNA molecules
which: D) both contain endoplasmic reticulum and
A) the growth of cells is momentarily arrested Golgi bodies
in the G2 stage E) both contain ribosomes that are identical
B) the amount of DNA per chromosome to ribosomes of the eukaryotic cytoplasm
double
C) centromeres uncouple and chromatids 12. Which of the following are characteristics of both
separate prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
D) a cell plate is formed in plant cells A) cytoplasm and a well-defined nucleus
E) the nuclear membrane breaks down surrounded by a membrane
B) membranous sites of ATP synthesis, Golgi
5. If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the complex, and ribosomes
resulting movement of water into the cells is called: C) mitochondria, nucleus, and ribosomes
A) conduction D) cell wall, several chromosomes, cytoplasm
B) active transport E) cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA, and RNA
C) transpiration
D) osmosis 13. Unlike the cells of flowering plants, the cells of
E) facilitated diffusion animals are characterized by which of the following?
A) mitochondria
6. What is the primary role of the lysosome? B) a nucleus surrounded by a double
A) ATP synthesis membrane
B) intracellular digestion C) centrioles,
C) lipid transport D) a plasma membrane surrounded by a non-
D) carbohydrate storage living cell wall
E) protein synthesis E) a single large central vacuole

7. The cytoplasmic channels between plant cells 14. Carbohydrate-containing layer at the surface of
which are most similar to gap junctions between the plasma membrane
animal cells are called: 15. The major component of the fluid bilayer of a
A) middle lamellas plasma membrane
B) tonoplasts 16. Carrier molecules in the plasma membrane
C) plasmodermata 17. Steroids affecting the fluidity of the plasma
D) tight junctions membrane
E) desmosomes 18. ATP synthase in the inner mitochondrial and
chloroplast membranes
8. The nucleolus functions in the production of:
A) Golgi body A) Glycocalyx
B) Cholesterol
C) Triglyceride
D) Phospholipids
E) Protein

19. Which of the following organelles modifies and 26. The rate of division of most vertebrate cells is
packages for secretion the materials produced by the LEAST likely to be influenced by which of the
ribosomes? following?
A) chloroplast A) contact with other cells
B) Golgi apparatus B) the availability of nutrients
C) nucleus C) compounds that inhibit protein synthesis
D) nucleolus D) the cell’s photoperiod
E) mitochondrion E) the temperature of the organism

20. A student using a light microscope observes a 27. A biologist isolates numerous tiny, green-
cell and correctly decides that it is a plant cell pigmented cells from a sample of lake water. The
because: cells are covered with a mucilaginous sheath. They
A) ribosomes are visible contain relatively large amounts of chlorophyll a and
B) an endoplasmic reticulum can be seen phycobilin pigments and lack a compact, organized
C) a cell membrane is present nucleus. Electron microscopy will reveal that these
D) it has a large central vacuole cells also contain which of the following pairs of
E) centrioles are present subcellular structures?
A) ribosomes and chloroplasts.
21. Which of the following occurs during mitosis but B) ribosomes and mitochondria
not during meiosis: C) Golgi bodies and cell wall
A) the chromosomes are pulled to opposite D) thylakoids and cell wall
poles of the spindle apparatus E) chloroplasts and mitochondria
B) the chromatids of each chromosome are
separated 28. Which of the following is an example of active
C) the nuclear envelope breaks down transport across a membrane?
D) both synapsis and crossing-over take A) the movement of water from a nephron
place into
E) the diploid number of chromosomes is the collecting duct of a kidney
reduced to the haploid number. B) the movement of glucose by facilitated
diffusion into a liver cell
22. Membranes are components of all of the C) the movement of water from inside of a
following EXCEPT a: cell
A) microtubules into a surrounding hypertonic medium
B) nucleus D) the movement of Na+ into a neuron as a
C) Golgi apparatus nerve impulse is generated
D) mitochondrion E) the movement of H+ into a thylakoid disc
E) lysosome during photosynthesis

23. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have 29. Which of the following cells would most likely
which of the following features in common? have the greatest concentration of densely packed
A) membrane bound nucleus rough endoplasmic reticulum?
B) cell wall made of cellulose A) an ameba engulfing small ciliates
C) ribosomes B) a bioluminescent bacterial cell
D) flagella or cilia that contain microtubules C) a pancreatic cell engaged in the
E) linear chromosomes made of DNA and production
protein. of digestive enzymes
D) a functional phloem cell at maturity
24. Which of the following is best observed by using E) an epithelial cell whose DNA is replicating
a compound light microscope? before mitosis
A) eukaryotic cell
B) virus
C) DNA sequence
D) the inner structure of a mitochondria
E) a nuclear pore

25. All of the following are typical components of the


plasma membrane of an eukaryotic cell EXCEPT:
A) glycoproteins
B) cytochromes
C) cholesterol
D) phospholipids
E) integral proteins
B) isolated chloroplasts in the dark
C) chlorophyll extract in the dark
D) boiled chloroplasts in the light
E) boiled chloroplasts in the dark

SECTION IC

1. Which of the following would result if the 6. The carbon that makes up organic molecules
sodium-potassium pump of a neuron were in plants is derived directly from:
inoperative? A) combustion of fuels
A) the movement of chloride ions would B) carbon fixed during photosynthesis
produce an action potential C) carbon dioxide produced in
B) an impulse would travel from the respiration
axon D) carbon in the lithosphere
to the dendrites of the neuron E) coal mines
C) the rate of transmission of the
impulse 7. If plants are grown for several days in an
would greatly increase atmosphere containing 14CO2 in place of
D) the rate of ATP synthesis would 12
CO2, one would expect to find:
increase A) very little radioactivity in the growing
E) an action potential would not occur leaves
B) large amounts of radioactive water
2. The end products of the light-dependent released from the stomata
reactions of photosynthesis are: C) a large increase in the 14C in the
A) ADP, H2O, NADPH2 starch stored in the roots
B) ADP, PGAL, RuBP D) a large decrease in the rate of carbon
C) ATP, CO2, H2O fixation in the guard cells
D) ATP, NADPH2, O2 E) an increase in the activity of RuBP
E) CO2, H+, PGAL carboxylase in the photosynthetic
cells
3. Which of the following enzymes is responsible
for CO2 fixation in C3 plants? 8. The O2 released during photosynthesis comes
A) succinate dehydrogenase from:
B) RuBP carboxylase A) CO2
C) hexokinase B) H2O
D) amylase C) NADPH
E) DNA polymerase D) RuBP
E) C6H12O6
4. All of the following statements concerning
cellular respiration are true EXCEPT: 9. Which of the following is an important
A) in the citric acid cycle, two molecules difference between light-dependent and light-
of CO2 and one molecule of FADH2 are independent reactions of photosynthesis?
produced for each acetyl-CoA that A) the light-dependent reactions occur
enters the cycle only during the day; the light-
B) ATP is converted to ADP during two of independent reactions occur only
the reactions of glycolysis during the night
C) when aerobes respire anaerobically, B) the light-dependent reactions occur in
they may build up an oxygen debt the cytoplasm; the light-independent
that may be paid eventually by intake reactions occur in chloroplasts
of oxygen C) the light-dependent reactions utilize
D) the metabolic breakdown of glucose CO2 and H2O; the light-independent
yields more energy during reactions produce CO2 and H2O
fermentation than during aerobic D) the light-dependent reactions depend
respiration on the presence of photosystems I
E) the conversion of glucose to pyruvic and II; the light –independent
acid can occur in the absence of reactions require only photosystem I
oxygen E) the light-dependent reactions
produce ATP and NADPH; the light-
independent reactions use energy
5. Dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP) is a blue dye stored in ATP and NADPH
that is decolorized when it is reduced. After
being mixed with DPIP, which of the following 10. Carbohydrate-synthesizing reactions of
would show the greatest change in color? photosynthesis directly require:
A) isolated chloroplasts in the light A) light
B) products of the light reactions 16. On a sunny day, the closing of stomata in
C) darkness plant leaves results in:
D) O2 and H2O A) a decrease in CO2 intake
E) chlorophyll and CO2 B) a shift from C3 photosynthesis to C4
photosynthesis
C) an increase in transpiration
D) an increase in the concentration of
CO2 in mesophyll cells
E) an increase in the rate of production
of starch

11. Within the cell, many chemical reactions that,


by themselves, require energy input(have a
positive free-energy change) can occur 17. Red algae can grow at greater depths than
because the reactions: most other algae can because red algae are:
A) may be coupled to the hydrolysis of A) specialized for absorbing red
ATP wavelengths of light for
B) take place very slowly photosynthesis
C) take place when the cells are at B) specialized for absorbing ultraviolet
unusually high temperatures wavelengths of light for
D) are catalyzed by enzymes photosynthesis
E) are aided by various metal ions that C) specialized for absorbing blue
act as catalysts. wavelengths of light for
photosynthesis
12. In the mesophyll cell of a leaf, the synthesis D) unable to sue chlorophyll for
of ATP occurs in which of the following? photosynthesis
I. Ribosomes E) adapted for chemosynthesis, rather
II. Mitochondria than photosynthesis.
III. Chloroplasts
18. Which of the following cellular processes is
A) I only coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP?
B) II only A) facilitated diffusion
C) III only B) active transport
D) II and III only C) chemiosmosis
E) I, II, and III D) osmosis
E) Na+ influx into a nerve cell
13. During respiration, most ATP is formed as a
direct result of the net movement of:
A) potassium against a concentration Questions 19-23
gradient
B) protons down a concentration A) Glycolysis
gradient B) Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs)
C) electrons against a concentration C) Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions
gradient of photosynthesis
D) electrons through a channel D) Light-Dependent reactions of
E) sodium ions into the cell. photosynthesis
E) Chemiosmosis
14. Which of the following processes is carried
out more efficiently by a C4 plant that by a C3
plant? 19. process in which O2 is released as a by-
A) light absorption product of oxidation-reduction reactions
B) chemiosmotic coupling
C) photolysis 20. process in which CO2 is released as a by-
D) fixation of CO2 product of oxidation-reduction reactions
E) transport of sugars
21. process in which carbon from CO2 is
15. Which of the following pathways for the incorporated into organic molecules
transformation of cellular energy most likely
evolved first? 22. process found in both photosynthesis and
A) cyclic photophosphorylation cellular respiration
B) citric acid cycle (Krebs)
C) Calvin cycle 23. process in which sugar is oxidized to pyruvic
D) C4 photosynthesis acid
E) glycolysis