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UNIT 5

OPERATING SYSTEM

Vocabulary Bank Unit 5

Task 1. Read, write the translation and learn the basic vocabulary terms:abbreviation -
сокращение

1. accommodation - размещение
2. additional - дополнительно
3. application program - прикладная программа
4. applications software - прикладное программное обеспечение
5. assembly line - линия сборки
6. background – фон, задний план, происхождение
7. batch - пакет, партия
8. circumstance - обстоятельство, условие
9. command driven – ведомый командами
10. command prompt - командная строка
11. commitment - приверженность, обязательство
12. computation - вычисления, расчеты
13. environment - среда
14. eye-watering price - потрясающая цена
15. facility - объект
16. graphic engine – графический процессор
17. graphical user interface – графический интерфейс пользователя
18. icon – пиктограммы
19. interaction - взаимодействие
20. interface - интерфейс
21. kernel - ядро
22. key function – функция кнопки
23. layer - слой, уровень
24. logout – разлогиниться
25. memory-protection – защита памяти
26. multiple - умножить
27. multiprogramming - мультипрограммирование
28. multi-tasking mainframe – многозадачный мэйнфрейм
29. multi-user – многопользовательский
30. resident program - резидентская программа
31. revenue stream - регулярное поступление дохода
32. robust - крепкий
33. search engine – поисковик
34. shell - оболочка
35. shortcoming - слабое место, недостаток
36. source code - исходный код
37. sufficient - достаточный, обоснованный
38. supervisor program - супервизор; организующая(управляющая) программа
39. to be aware - быть в курсе
40. to establish - установить
41. to facilitate - облегчать, способствовать
42. to implement - выполнять, осуществлять
43. to invoke - призывать, взывать
44. to object to - возражать, протестовать
45. to adopt – принимать, перенимать
46. to allocate - назначать, распределять
47. to boot - запускать
48. to entail - влечь за собой, вызывать
49. to hack into - взломать что-либо
50. to interrupt – помешать чему-то
51. to lock - закрывать
52. to look forward to - ожидать с нетерпением
53. typesetting tool - инструмент для набора

TEXT 5A. OPERATING SYSTEMS

Some operating systems are command driven (i.e. the user runs a program by typing a
command). The screen is usually blank except for a symbol which acts as a command prompt.
When the command is typed at the prompt and the Enter key is pressed, the command is
processed and the output is displayed on the screen. OS commands are usually short words or
abbreviations (e.g., date, logout, password).
Unix is a command driven operating system used on all sizes of computers, but mostly
large multi-user, multi-tasking mainframe computers. It is available in many versions, such as
Linux, Minix etc.
Operating Systems: Hidden Software

When a brand new computer comes off the factory assembly line, it can do nothing. The
hardware needs software to make it work. Are we talking about applications software such as
wordprocessing or spreadsheet software? Partly. But an applications software package does not
communicate directly with the hardware. Between the applications software and the hardware is
a software interface - an operating system. An operating system is a set of programs that lies
between applications software and the computer hardware.
The most important program in the operating system, the program that manages the
operating system, is the supervisor program, most of which remains in memory and is thus
referred to as resident. The supervisor controls the entire operating system and loads into
memory other operating system programs (called non-resident) from disk storage only as needed.
An operating system has three main functions: (1) manage the computer's resources, such
as the central processing unit, memory, disk drives, and printers, (2) establish a user interface,
and (3) execute and provide services for applications software. Keep in mind, however, that
much of the work of an operating system is hidden from the user. In particular, the first listed
function, managing the computer's resources, is taken care of without the user being aware of the
details. Furthermore, all input and output operations, although invoked by an applications
program, are actually carried out by the operating system. Some operating systems have a GUI
(pronounced like 'goo-ey' – graphical user interface) that allows the user to use a mouse to click
on icons on the screen or choose commands from a list of choices known as a menu. Operating
systems with graphical interfaces mentioned in this unit include: MacOS, OS/2, Penpoint,
Windows NT, Windows 3.x, Windows 9X and Windows 2000.

General Features of Operating Systems

An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the
computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. All computers do not use
the same operating systems. Some software being only designed to run under the control of
specific operating systems, it is important to assess the operating system used on a particular
model before initial commitment. Some operating systems are adopted as “industry standards”
and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software
base. The reason for this is that software houses are willing to expand resources on the
development of application packages for machines functioning under the control of an operating
system which is widely used. The cost of software could be lower in such circumstances as the
development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.
Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently
switching from one to the other for the purpose of increasing processing productivity. This is
known as multiprogramming (multi-tasking in the context of microcomputers), which requires a
powerful operating systems incorporating work scheduling facilities to control the switching
between programs. This entails that data are read for one program while the processor is
performing computations on another and printing out results on yet another.
In multi-user environments an operating system is required to control terminal operations
on a shared access basis as only one user can access the system at any moment of time. The
operating system allocates control to each terminal in turn. Such systems also require a system
for record locking and unlocking, to prevent one user attempting to read a record whilst another
user is updating it, for instance. The first user is allocated control to write to a record (or file in
some instances) and other users are denied access until the record is updated and unlocked.
Some environments operate in concurrent batch and real-time mode. This means that a
“background” job deals with routine batch processing whilst the “foreground” job deals with
real-time operations such as airline seat reservations, on-line booking of hotel accommodation,
or control of warehouse stocks, etc. The real-time operation has priority, and the operating
system interrupts batch processing to deal with real-time inquiries or file updates. The stage of
batch processing attained at the time of the interrupt is temporarily transferred to backing
storage. After the real-time operation has been dealt with, the interrupted program is transferred
back to internal memory from backing storage. And processing recommences from a “restart”
point.
The operating system also copies to disk backing storage the state of the real-time system
every few minutes (periodic check points) to provide a means of recovering the system in the
event of a malfunction.
An operating system is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory
(RAM) where it must reside throughout processing so that commands are instantly available.
The operating system commands may exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in
which case only that portion of the OS which is frequently used is retained internally, other
modules being read from disk as required. Many microcomputers function under the control of a
disk operating system known as DOS.

Task 2. Answer the following questions.

1. What is an operating system?


2. What system provides an interface between applications programs and the computer
hardware?
3. Is the work of the operating system always obvious to the user?
4. What is the most important program in an OS?
5. How does the supervisor program work?
6. What is the difference between resident and non-resident programs?
7. How can you explain the meaning “command driven”?
8. What is a command prompt?
9. How can you define Unix? What versions is it available in?
10. What do you know about GUI?
11. What are three main functions of an operating system? Give some examples to prove your
answer.
12. Why is it important to assess the operating system on a computer before buying it?
13. What is multiprogramming?

Task 3. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for:

load – загружать
available – доступный
multi-tasking computer – многозадачный компьютер
user – пользователь
user interface – пользовательский интерфейс
word processor – текстовый процессор
non-resident programs – нерезидентская программа
command-driven – ведомый командами
execute – выполнять
abbreviations – аббревиатуры
multi-user mainframe computer – многопользовательский мэйнфрейм
printing files – файлы для печати
blank – пустой, бланк, пробел
graphical user interface – графический пользовательский интерфейс

Task 4. Find the English equivalents for the following word combinations.

1. командний рядок, підказка – command prompt(line), hint(tip, prompt)


2. прикладні програми – application program
3. текстовий процесор – word processor
4. електронні таблиці - spreadsheet
5. операційна система – operation system
6. пакет програм - application software package
7. резидентна програма – resident program
8. керуюча програма, програма розпорядник - control program
9. великі комп'ютери – mainframe computer
10. піктограми - icons
11. натиснути і відпустити клавішу – press and release the button
12. апаратне забезпечення комп'ютера - hardware

Task 5. Mark the following as True or False.

1. The work of the operating system takes place in the background and is always obvious to the
user. F
2. The most important in an OS is the supervisor program. T
3. Programs that remain in memory while the computer is in use are known as non-resident
programs. F
4. The screen is usually blank except for a symbol (e.g.$) which acts as a command prompt. T
5. OS commands are usually long words. F
6. Unix is a command driven operating system used in all sizes of computer but mostly large
multi-user, multi-tasking mainframe computers. T
7. The hardware doesn’t need software to make it work. F
8. An application software package communicates directly with the hardware. T
9. An operating system has only two main functions. F
Task 6. Match the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. operating a. The hardware or software that connects two systems and allows them
system - c to communicate with each other.
2. interface - a b. A popular multi-user multi-tasking operating system originally
3. applications designed for mainframe computers. A wide variety of versions exist.
(program or c. The set of programs that controls the basic functions of a computer
software) - d and provides communication between the application programs and
4. Unix - b the hardware.
5. menu - f d. A computer program designed to be used for a particular purpose, e.g.
6. spreadsheet - e a wordprocessor, spreadsheets or database program.
7. swipe card - i e. A type of application program with an array of cells that is used for
8. word processor calculating formulas.
-h f. A list of options displayed on a computer screen.
9. software g. An application program or collection of programs that can be used in
package - g different ways.
h. A type of computer application program used for typing and editing
text documents.
i. A plastic card with a magnetic strip running across it containing
confidential data.

Task 7. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

interface, supervisor, manage, memory, package, software, drives, interface, nonresident,


command driven

Ex 7
1. An applications software package does not communicate directly with the hardware.
2. Between the applications software and the hardware is a software interface – an operating
system.
3. The most important program in the operating system is the supervisor program, most of
which remains in memory.
4. An operating system has three main functions: 1) manage the computer resources, such as
the central processing unit, memory, disk drives and printers, 2) establish a user interface , and
3) execute and provide services for applications software.
5. Unix is a command driven operating system used in all sizes of computers.
6. Programs that only stay in memory while they are being used are known as nonresident
programs.
Task 8. Complete the gaps in this summary of the text on operating systems using these
linking words and phrases.

although because in addition such as but


therefore
Ex 8
The user is aware of the effects of different applications programs but operating systems are
invisible to most users. They lie between applications programs, such as wordprocessing, and the
hardware. The supervisor program is the most important. It remains in memory, therefore it is
referred to as resident. Others are called non-resident because they are loaded into memory only
when needed. Operating systems manage the computer's resources, such as the central
processing unit. In addition, they establish a user interface, and execute and provide services for
applications software. Although input and output operations are invoked by applications
programs, they are carried out by the operating system.

Task 9. Here is a list of typical tasks performed by an operating system. In each case the main verb
has been omitted. Fill in the blanks using the words a) execute, b) monitor, c) format, d) diagnose.
Sometimes more than one may apply
A typical operating system will:
1. _________ input and output devices.
2. _________ the status of hardware devices.
3. _________ hardware interrupts.
4. _________ new disks.
5. _________ disk directories.
6. _________ disk reading and writing operations.
7. _________ disk errors.
8. _________ disk commands relating to the deletion, copying, renaming, and dumping of files.

Ex 11
1. At the present time, there are many types of system programs and the operating system
has a special place among them.
2. PC’s productivity, reability and functionality are influenced by many factors, an installed
operating system on it - is one of them.
3. When the operating system is able to perform multiple tasks and these tasks performed
simultaneously, it is called multitasking.
4. The operating system monitors the performance of the processor and if the running task
requires it resources, its execution must be suspended until the resource is (will be)
received.
5. The capabilities of personal computers to process information are limited, moreover the
parameters of the amount of processed information and the speed of calculations are the
most critical.
Ex 12
1. What did Linus Torvalds use to write the Linux kernel?
He used the GNU programming tools developed by Richard Stallman’s Free Software
Foundation, an organization of volunteers dedicated to fulfilling Stallman’s ideal of making
good software that anyone could use without paying.

2. How was the Linux kernel become first made available to the general public?
When Linus had written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux kernel on
the Internet.

3. What is a programmer likely to do with source code?


Source code is important. It’s the original from which compiled programs are generated.

4. Why will most software companies not sell you their source code?
Because they believe that if they make it available it will destroy their revenue stream.

5. What type of utilities and applications are provided in a Linux distribution?


A distribution is the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit, complete with the
utilities and applications you need to make it do useful things – command interpreters,
programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools, and graphical user interfaces based on the
X windowing system.

6. What is X?
X is a standard in academic and scientific computing, but not common on PCs; it’s complex
distributed windowing system on which people implement graphical interfaces.

7. What graphical user interfaces are mentioned in the text?


KDE and Gnome.