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# Volume 6, Issue 4, April – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

## The Concept of Spacer Subspaces Associated with

Complex Matrix Spaces of Order m by n, Where m≠n
Debopam Ghosh

## Abstract:- The article presents a formalism to define I. INTRODUCTION

non-trivial subspaces of complex matrix spaces of order
m by n, where m and n are different. This is achieved by The concept of Spacer matrices arise in context of
using the Spacer matrix( as defined in Ghosh[1]) and it’s Generalized Matrix multiplication scheme presented by
Hermitian conjugate, associated with the matrix space, Ghosh [1], it can be observed that the spacer matrix and its
as the building blocks. The Mathematical formalism is Hermitian conjugate are unique for a given pair of
presented and illustrated with suitable numerical nonconforming dimensions (m,n) and (n,m). The structural
examples. form of the spacer matrix and it’s constitution is determined
only by 0’s, 1’s, and m and n(which are positive integers).
Keywords:- Spacer Matrices, Component Matrices of the This property can be utilized to define unique subspaces of
Spacer Matrix, Embedding Dimension, Spacer Matrix based the Matrix spaces M mn (C ) and M nm (C ) , using the
Generalized Matrix Multiplication.
spacer matrix X nm and its hermitian conjugate as the
Notations building blocks. These subspaces are termed as “Spacer
Subspace” of the corresponding Matrix space, these
 M mn (C ) denotes the Complex Matrix space of order subspaces are non-trivial, and dimensionality determined by
m by n the properties of the linear dependencies of the powers of
H H
 N denotes the set of all Natural numbers the square matrix components XX and X X that
 r denotes the Embedding dimension generate the spacer subsets Ŝ and Tˆ , starting with the
 X mn denotes the Spacer Matrix of order m by n H
matrices X nm and ( X ) mn , respectively.
 Pmr , Qrn are the component Matrices associated with
II. MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK AND
the Spacer Matrix X mn ASSOCIATED ANALYSIS
1 
1  The following set of results, from Ghosh [1], forms the
  foundation for the framework developed in this article, here
 m   . , m  1 1 . . 1 1m only the case m≠n is discussed:
 
 .  The Spacer Matrix associated with dimension pair
1  (n, m) is denoted by X mn , which is defined as
m1
follows:
 I ss denotes the Identity Matrix of order ‘s’
 max(a, b) denotes the maximum of the two inputs a  X mn  Pmu Qun , where we have the following:
and b , a, b  N
u  max(m, n)  m  n  max(n, m)  n  m ,
 min( a, b) denotes the minimum of the two inputs a
m, n  N
and b , a, b  N
 a  b denotes the absolute value of the difference of 1 0 . . 0 1m 1m . . 1

m

## the two inputs a and b , a, b  N

0 1 . . 0 1m 1m . . 1 
 1   m

 AT denotes the transpose of the Matrix A P   I mm ( ) m um    . . . . .. . . . . 
 AH denotes the hermitian conjugate of the Matrix A  m  mu  
. . . . .. . . . . 
 A denotes the cardinality of the set A 0 0 1 
. . 1 1m 1m . . m
 A( j ) denotes the jth element of the set A ,

IJISRT21APR082 www.ijisrt.com 39
Volume 6, Issue 4, April – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

1 0 . . 0 
0 (YY H ) nn h 1  (YY H ) nn .........(YY H ) nn
0 
....... (h-1
 1 . .
times)
 . . . . . 
 
 . . . . .  We follow the convention: ( XX H )0  I mm ,
 I nn  0
  0 . . 1  (YY H )0  I nn
Q 1  
( ) u  n n   1n 1
n . . 1
n
 n  un  1n 1 
The following can easily be observed:
1 . .
 n n

 . . . . .   Sˆ  Tˆ  h , m  n, m, n  N , this implies:
 . . . . . 
  h 1
 1 n 1 . . 1 
n
H
n
 Sˆ ( j )  Tˆ ( j )  , j  1, 2,..., h
 
 The Spacer Matrix associated with dimension pair ˆ
 span(S )  M mn (C ) ,
(m, n) is denoted by Ynm , which is defined as follows:
1  dim.(span(Sˆ ))  h  m.n  dim.(M mn (C))
 Ynm  Pnu Qum , where we have the following:  span(Tˆ )  M nm (C ),
1  dim.(span(Sˆ ))  h  m.n  dim.(M nm (C))
 1 
Pnu   I nn ( ) n un  ,
 n   span( Sˆ ) is termed as the Spacer Subspace associated
 I mm  with the Matrix Space M mn (C )
Qum   1 
( ) um m   span(Tˆ ) is termed as the Spacer Subspace associated
 m 
with the Matrix Space M nm (C )
1. The following set of results, relating the spacer matrices
X mn and Ynm , can be easily observed : III. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES:

##  Y  0nm , X mn  (Ynm )  (Ynm )T

H
1. (m,n) = (1,2) , (n,m) = (2,1)

## Construction of the Spacer Subsets and associated Spacer We have: u  3, h  1

Subspaces
(3 / 2) 
X  [(3 / 2) (3 / 2)]12 Y  
Sˆ  M mn (C ) ,
, ,
We define h  min(m, n) , We
(3 / 2)  21
define the Spacer Subset of the complex matrix space
(3 / 2) 
M mn (C ) as follows: Sˆ  {[(3 / 2) (3 / 2)]12}, Tˆ  {  },
(3 / 2)  21
Sˆ  {X mn ,( XX H )mm X mn ,......,( XX H )mmh1 X mn }
, where we have: span(Sˆ )  {v  M12 (C ) | v  c c 12 , c  C}
c 
( XX H ) mm h 1  ( XX H ) mm .........( XX H ) mm ........ span(Tˆ )  {w  M 21 (C ) | w    , c  C}
c  21
(h-1 times)

In an analogous manner, we define the Spacer Subset dim.( span( Sˆ ))  dim.( span(Tˆ ))  1,
associated with the complex matrix space M nm (C ) : dim.( M12 (C ))  dim.( M 21 (C ))  2

## Tˆ  {Ynm ,(YY )nn Ynm ,......,(YY )nn Ynm }

H H h 1
, We have: u  5, h  1
where we have:

IJISRT21APR082 www.ijisrt.com 40
Volume 6, Issue 4, April – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

(5 / 3)  1  5 1 3 3
X  ( )
4 1 5 3 3 24
  , ,
X  (5 / 3) (5 / 3) (5 / 3)13 , Y  (5 / 3)
 
(5 / 3)  1 31 23 27 27 
( XX H ) X  ( ) 
8  23 31 27 27  24
31 ,
(5 / 3) 
S  {(5 / 3) (5 / 3) (5 / 3) 13} , T  {(5 / 3)  }
ˆ ˆ
5 1  31 23 
(5 / 3)    
31
1 1 5 1  23 31 
, span( Sˆ )  {v  M (C ) | v  c c c  , c  C} ,
Y ( ) , (YY )Y  ( )
H
,
13 13 4 3 3 8  27 27 
   
c  3 3 42  27 27  42
span(Tˆ )  {w  M 31 (C ) | w  c  , c  C} ,
c  31 5 1 3 3 31 23 27 27 
span(Sˆ )  {v  M 24 (C ) | v  a  b , a , b  C}
1 5 3

3 24 23 31 27 27  24
dim.( span( Sˆ ))  dim.( span(Tˆ ))  1

## dim.( M13 (C ))  dim.( M 31 (C ))  3

5 1  31 23 
1 
5  23 31 
span(T )  {w  M 42 (C ) | w   
ˆ  
3. (m,n) = (2,3) , (n,m) = (3,2)
,  ,   C}
3 3  27 27 
We have: u  4, h  2    
3 3 42  27 27  42
1 7 1 4 
X  ( )
6 1 7 4  23
,
dim.(span(Sˆ ))  dim.(span(Tˆ ))  2,dim.(M 24 (C))  dim.(M 42 (C)  8
1  41 23 32 
( XX H ) X  ( ) 
18  23 41 32  23
,
IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

##  7 1  41 23 The article presents a mathematical framework to

Y  ( ) 1 7  , (YY )Y  ( )  23 41 ,
1   H 1  construct a unique subspace for any strictly rectangular
complex matrix space, this subspace is nontrivial(since the
6 18
 4 4 32 32 32 32 spacer matrix is non-zero and non-negative by construction,
which is thus also reflected in its hermitian conjugate
counterpart, which is the spacer matrix for the permutated
7 1 4  41 23 32
span(Sˆ )  {v  M 23 (C ) | v  a 
ordered pair representing the nonconforming dimensions),
 b  , a, b  C} using these matrices as initiators, finite subsets in the
1 7 4 23 23 41 32 23 corresponding Matrix spaces are formed, which act as the
spanning sets of the Spacer subspaces of the corresponding
 7 1  41 23 matrix spaces.
 
span(Tˆ )  {w  M 32 (C ) | w   1 7     23 41 ,  ,   C} The issue of determining the precise dimension of the
4 432 32 3232 spacer subspaces can possibly be answered by analysis of
the characteristic polynomial and minimal polynomial
H
associated with the square, hermitian matrices XX and
dim.( span( Sˆ ))  dim.( span(Tˆ ))  2, H
YY (it can be easily inferred that they are diagonalizable,
dim.( M 23 (C ))  dim.( M 32 (C )  6 hence, it is the number of distinct roots of the characteristic
polynomial of these matrices that dictate the dimensionality
4. (m,n) = (2,4) , (n,m) = (4,2) of the associated Spacer subspace). A follow up study will
address this issue with more depth and clarity, and also
We have: u  6, h  2 focus on applicability of these subspaces in solving
theoretical/applied problems.

IJISRT21APR082 www.ijisrt.com 41
Volume 6, Issue 4, April – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
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