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МИНИСТЕРСТВО НАУКИ И ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего образования
«УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Ю.В. Жукова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ
НЕЯЗЫКОВЫХ ВУЗОВ
Учебное пособие

Ульяновск
УлГТУ
2020
УДК 420 (075)
ББК 81.2-923 я7
Ж 86

Рецензенты:
кафедра английского языка Ульяновского государственного
педагогического университета им. И.Н. Ульянова;
доцент кафедры иностранных языков Ульяновского института
гражданской авиации имени Главного маршала авиации Б.П. Бугаева,
кандидат педагогических наук М.А. Морозова

Учреждено редакционно-издательским советом университета


в качестве учебного пособия

Жукова, Юлия Владимировна


Ж 86 Английский язык для студентов неязыковых вузов : учебное пособие
по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов всех
специальностей первого и второго курсов технических вузов /
Ю.В. Жукова. – Ульяновск : УлГТУ, 2020. – 250 с.

ISBN 978-5-9795-2080-3

Учебное пособие предназначено для формирования умений и навыков


различных видов чтения (просмотрового, поискового, ознакомительного,
изучающего) англоязычных текстов тематической направленности,
монологической и диалогической речи, письма на английском языке, а также
развития общего кругозора. Пособие состоит из 10 тематических уроков и
поурочного грамматического справочника.
УДК 420 (075)
ББК 81.2-923 я7

© Жукова Ю.В., 2020.


ISBN 978-5-9795-2080-3 © Оформление. УлГТУ, 2020.
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Введение .............................................................................................................. 5

Lesson 1: Higher Education


Section 1: Словообразование -tion / sion / cion; -al; -ics; -ly .................... 6
Section 2: Чтение........................................................................................... 9
Section 3: Грамматика Глагол to be; Оборот there + be;
Порядок слов в утвердительном предложении; Типы вопросов .......... 16

Lesson 2: Learning Foreign Languages


Section 1: Словообразование -er/-or/-ar; -ant/-ent ................................... 25
Section 2: Чтение ......................................................................................... 27
Section 3: Грамматика Личные местоимения; Объектные
местоимения; Притяжательные местоимения; Указательные
местоимения; Вопросительные местоимения ........................................ 34

Lesson 3: Environment
Section 1: Словообразование -ment; -able / ible; -free; re- ....................... 43
Section 2: Чтение ......................................................................................... 45
Section 3: Грамматика Времена группы Simple Active/Passive;
Функции it/one/that; Степени сравнения прилагательных ..................... 53

Lesson 4: Electricity
Section 1: Словообразование -en; un-/-in-/im- ........................................... 66
Section 2: Чтение ......................................................................................... 68
Section 3: Грамматика Времена группы Continuous Active/Passive;
Предлоги места и направления ................................................................. 75

Lesson 5: Means of Communication


Section 1: Словообразование -ing; -ure; -less; dis- .................................. 86
Section 2: Чтение ......................................................................................... 88
Section 3: Грамматика Времена группы Perfect Active/Passive;
Предлоги времени ........................................................................................ 97

Lesson 6: Computers
Section 1: Словообразование -ance; -ic; -ive; -ty .................................... 107
Section 2: Чтение ........................................................................................ 110
Section 3: Грамматика Модальные глаголы; Предлоги причины и цели 117

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Lesson 7: Transport
Section 1: Словообразование -ness; -ise (ize); ous; -ed ........................... 124
Section 2: Чтение ........................................................................................ 126
Section 3: Грамматика Согласование времен .......................................... 134

Lesson 8: Health
Section 1: Словообразование -age; -ful; -ify ............................................ 142
Section 2: Чтение ........................................................................................ 144
Section 3: Грамматика Причастие I, Причастие II; Даты
и время в английском языке ...................................................................... 150

Lesson 9: Scientific and Technical Progress


Section 1: Словообразование -ist; -ary/-ory; -ate .................................... 159
Section 2: Чтение ........................................................................................ 161
Section 3: Грамматика Герундий; Заглавные буквы
в английском языке .................................................................................... 168

Lesson 10: Going Online


Section 1: Словообразование en-; over-, under-, sub- ............................. 176
Section 2: Чтение ........................................................................................ 178
Section 3: Грамматика Условные предложения ...................................... 187

Поурочный грамматический справочник ................................................. 194

Библиографический список .......................................................................... 250

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов технических вузов всех


специальностей первого и второго курсов, изучающих дисциплину
«Английский язык», а также может быть использовано с целью развития и
совершенствования уровня сформированности иноязычной коммуникативной
компетенции на основе широкого спектра вопросов научной и
социокультурной проблематики.
Пособие состоит из 10 тематических уроков, включающих в себя
основной и дополнительные тексты, назначением которых является
формирование и развитие у студентов умений и навыков различных видов
чтения (просмотрового, поискового, ознакомительного, изучающего)
англоязычных текстов тематической направленности, монологической и
диалогической речи, письма на английском языке, а также развития общего
кругозора. Каждый урок содержит блок лексических и грамматических
упражнений для активизации грамматических структур, а также
общественной лексики и научно-технической терминологии.
Учебное пособие включает в себя большой грамматический раздел, в
котором представлен основной теоретический материал, реализованный в
комплексе упражнений по грамматике английского языка, что позволяет
максимально эффективно развить умения и навыки правильного оформления
речи в типичных коммуникативных ситуациях.

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LESSON 1
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
-tion / sion / cion; -al; -ics; -ly

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 1A. Higher Education in Russia
Text 1B. Higher Education in England
Text 1C. Higher Education in the USA
Text 1D. A Letter

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Глагол to be
Оборот there + be
Порядок слов в утвердительном предложении
Типы вопросов

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


глагол + -tion / sion / cion =
существительное
указывает на действие, состояние или абстрактное понятие.
Суффикс -tion прибавляется к словам, которые оканчиваются на -t,
- ate, и другие сочетания букв.
 to edit (издавать) → edition (издание)
 to locate (находиться) → location (местонахождение)
 to invent (изобретать) → invention (изобретение)
Суффикс -sion присоединяется к словам, которые оканчиваются на
- de, -d, -se, ss, -mit, а также после согласных -l, -n, -r.
 to decide (решать) → decison (решение)
 to permit (разрешать) → permission (разрешение)
 to confess (признавать) → confession (признание)
Суффикс -cion встречается только в двух словах.
 suspicion (подозрение)
 coercion (принуждение)
to educate – education; to vacate – vacation; to graduate – graduation; to
organize – organization; to qualify – qualification; to complete – completion; to

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select – selection; to inform – information; to examine – examination; to direct –
direction; to decide – decision; to diffuse – diffusion; to provide – provision; to
explode – explosion; to invite – invitation; to commit – commission.

существительное + -al = прилагательное


Суффикс -al выражает отношение к чему-то, качество.
 person (личность) → personal (личный, персональный)
 form (форма) → formal (формальный)
education – educational; profession – professional; centre – central; nature –
natural; vocation – vocational; practice – practical; commerce – commercial;
industry – industrial; music – musical; region – regional.

прилагательное с суффиксом -ic + s =


существительное с суффиксом -ics

Суффикс -ics используется для обозначения названий научных


дисциплин, искусства, общественных наук, спорта, военного искусства,
названия ремесел и других занятий.
 acoustic (акустический) → acoustics (акустика)
 mathematic (математический) → mathematics – (математика)
mechanic – mechanics; linguistic – linguistics; economic – economics; ceramic
– ceramics; genetic – genetics; phonetic – phonetics; athletic – athletics.

прилагательное + -ly = наречие

Суффиксы -ly и -ily указывают на способ, образ действия.


 high (высокий) → highly (высоко)
 true (честный) → truly (честно)
quick – quickly; usual – usually; successful – successfully; increasing –
increasingly.

Упражнение 1. Определите по суффиксу часть речи данных слова.


identical, acceleration, dynamics, naturally, technical, intensively, impression,
athletics, erosion, practical, slowly, installation, solution, economics, additional,
happily, connection, industrial, electronics, carefully, politics, integral, revision,
transportation.

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Упражнение 2. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные,
прилагательные или наречия с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.

1. She exhibited her paintings to It was the opening day of the … .


the public.
2. He connected two devices by She replaced the receiver before
- tion
wire. the … was made.
3. He dictated a report to his He used a tape recorder for … .
secretary.
1. Each region has its own This change takes place at …
customs. level.
-al 2. The music was a little same. She is blessed with … talent.
3. Government often regulates New technology is being applied
industry. to almost every … process.
1. He was a dynamic personality The … of this class are different
in the business world. from those of other classes.
2. This physic phenomenon was The universe is governed by the
-ics discovered by an international laws of … .
team of scientists.
3. She loves listening to acoustic The hall has excellent … .
folk music.
1. It was polite of him to hold the She asked him … to hold the door
door for her. for her.
-ly 2. The hotel offers excellent Despite her anger, she had
conditions at reasonable rates. behaved very … .
3. That seems easy to you. You can … imagine my surprise.

Упражнение 3. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. He takes part in all … at the university. to compete
2. She speaks … everywhere. loud
3. She likes drinking coffee, … , in the morning. special
4. My father is a very … singer. origin
5. I hope you will take into … what I’ve told you. to consider
6. I’ve been to the theatre with my mom … . recent
7. There are many … places of visit. culture
8. He has got the best … of different stamps. to collect
9. The partnership is aimed at developing ….. in the region. electronic
10. I wait for …to go abroad. to permit
11. Turn to the right and you’ll … see this beautiful monument. immediate
12. There are a lot of … projects to protect the environment. globe

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SECTION 2: Чтение (Reading)
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
system ['sɪstəm], principle ['prɪnsəpl], bachelor ['bæʧələ], specialist ['speʃəlɪst],
master ['mɑːstə], course [kɔːs], period ['pɪərɪəd], fundamental [ˌfʌndə'mentəl],
humanitarian [hjuːˌmænɪ'teərɪən], mathematics [ˌmæθə'mætɪks], linguistics
[lɪŋ'gwɪstɪks], literature ['lɪtərəʧə], specialized ['speʃəlaɪzd], mechanical
[mɪ'kænɪkəl], engineering [ˌenʤɪ'nɪərɪŋ], equivalent [ɪ'kwɪvələnt], thesis ['θiːsɪs],
certificate [sə'tɪfɪkət], discipline ['dɪsəplɪn], qualified ['kwɔlɪfaɪd], qualification
[ˌkwɔlɪfɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n], distance ['dɪst(ə)ns], industry ['ɪndəstrɪ], status ['steɪtəs],
academics [ˌækə'demɪks], progress ['prəugres], process ['prəuses], candidate
['kændɪdeɪt], doctoral ['dɔktərəl], commercial [kə'mɜːʃəl], fund [fʌnd], technical
['teknɪkəl], to focus ['fəukəs], result [rɪ'zʌlt].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


high [haɪ], higher education ['haɪə] [ˌedju'keɪʃən], future ['fjuːʧə], necessary
['nesəsərɪ], to provide [prə'vaɪd], to preserve [prɪ'zɜːv], knowledge ['nɔlɪʤ], value
['væljuː], to exchange [ɪks'ʧeɪnʤ], based [be͟ɪst], to include [ɪn'kluːd],
postgraduate [ˌpəust'græʤuət], initial [ɪ'nɪʃəl], direction [dɪ'rekʃən], natural
science ['næʧrəl] ['saɪəns], scientist ['saɪəntɪst], to complete [kəm'pliːt],
vocational [və'keɪʃənəl], to defend [dɪ'fend], success [sək'ses], successful
[sək'sesful], to award [ə'wɔːd], to grant [grɑːnt], according [ə'kɔːdɪŋ], further
['fɜːðə], security [sɪ'kjuərətɪ], to issue ['ɪʃjuː], extremely [ɪks'triːmlɪ], competitive
[kəm'petɪtɪv], entrance ['entrəns], common ['kɔmən], research [rɪ'sɜːʧ],
experience [ɪk'spɪərɪəns], to confirm [kən'fɜːm], legislation [ˌleʤɪ'sleɪʃən],
development [dɪ'veləpmənt], through [θruː].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


to be based on – быть основанным на hands-on experience – практический
to include – включать в себя опыт
a bachelor’s degree – степень to enter an university – поступить в
бакалавра университет
a specialist degree – специалист to graduate from – выпуститься
a master’s degree – степень магистра on a commercial basis – на
a postgraduate course – аспирантура коммерческой основе
to defend thesis – защищать on state-funded basis – на бюджетной
дипломную работу основе
to be awarded – присуждаться to play an important part – играть
to further studies – продолжить важную роль
обучение highly-qualified specialists –
to pass an exam – сдать экзамен высококвалифицированные
full-time study – очное обучение специалисты

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part-time study – вечернее обучение to preserve culture – сохранять
a distance education system – система культуру
дистанционного образования to develop knowledge and skills –
a way to success – путь к успеху развивать знания и навыки
to depend on – зависеть от to form values – формировать ценности
to do research work – выполнять to exchange information – обмениваться
исследовательскую работу информацией

Text 1A
Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Higher Education in Russia
Russia’s present-day education system is based on the Bologna principles
and includes such levels of education as bachelor’s degree, specialist degree,
master’s degree and a postgraduate course.
Bachelor’s degree is the initial stage in the higher education system.
Educational period is 4 years and gives general fundamental training. Russian
universities offer a lot of bachelor’s programs by different directions (technical,
humanitarian or natural science profile with such directions as nanotechnologies,
mathematics and sciences, linguistics and literature, general and high-
specialized mechanical engineering, agriculture and many more). At the end of
the course of studies, students defend their thesis. If successful, students are
awarded a Bachelor’s Degree certificate (Bachelor of Art, Bachelor of Science)
that grants them the right to work according to profession or to further their
studies on a Master’s Degree course.
Unlike bachelor’s degrees, specialist degrees are more focused on practical
work in industry according to the selected discipline. These programs are
offered to individuals who have education equivalent to Russian general
secondary or vocational secondary education. The course of studies lasts 5
years. Based on the examination results and thesis defence, a Specialist Degree
certificate specifying the qualification (e.g., “Mechanical engineer”, “Teacher”,
“Information Security Specialist”, etc.) may be issued. Graduates of a Specialist
Degree may work in industry or further their studies on a Master’s or other
postgraduate course.
To get onto a Master’s course you will need to have successfully graduated
from a Bachelor’s or Specialist degree and pass an entrance exam. Most
universities in Russia offer MA (Master of Arts), MSc (Master of Science) and
MBA (Master of Business Administration) courses. These can be taught on a
full-time, part-time or distance basis with courses both in Russian and in English
that is becoming increasingly common. The course lasts two years and involves
students training for research work. Students defend a thesis which, if
successful, leads to a Master’s Degree certificate and the qualification of Master.

10
Graduates of Master’s Degrees may work in industry or further their studies on a
postgraduate course.
A postgraduate course is a form of training for academics. Graduates of a
Master’s or Specialist Degree can enroll in a postgraduate course. The course
includes study, teaching, hands-on experience, and research. Postgraduate
students select a research field and subject of research for their dissertation.
Full-time study lasts at least 3 years, while part-time study lasts 4 years. A
graduate is awarded a postgraduate certificate with the corresponding
qualification. Depending on the result of the dissertation defence, a Candidate of
Science Degree is given which is the first Degree to confirm the status of
scientist. Candidates of Sciences proceed to their Doctoral Degree (the second
Degree to confirm the status of scientist).
Russian legislation grants Russians only one free higher education (of
levels 1, 2, or 3) while subsequent study must always be paid for. Foreign
citizens who have graduated from a university outside the Russian Federation
may enter a second higher education course both on a commercial and state-
funded basis. This can be done as part of a Bachelor’s (up to 4 years), Specialist
(up to 6 years), or Master’s (at least 2 years) Degree. The selection process is
based on entry examinations.
It is necessary to note that higher education plays an important part in the
life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for
future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers,
doctors and other professional workers.
Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and
skills are developed, values are formed, and information is exchanged.
Education is the way to success.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What is Russia’s present-day education system based on? 2. Who can enroll
in a Bachelor’s Degree course? 3. In what case are students awarded a
bachelor’s degree certificate? 4. What can students do after getting a bachelor’s
degree certificate? 5. What are specialist degrees focused on? 6. How long does
a specialist degree study last? 7. What does a master’s degree course involve? 8.
What is a postgraduate course? 9. Why is a second higher education on the
commercial basis?

Упражнение 4. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1.The academic year in higher 1. two weeks in winter and two months
educational institutions... in summer.
2. Students take exams at the end of 2. helps working professionals to
each semester and if... continue their education while

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remaining at their jobs.
3. Twice a year students have 3. advanced knowledge and
vacations... concentrate on their major subjects.
4. The first- and second year students... 4. study general engineering subjects.
5. At the third year students get more... 5. the results are good, they get grants.
6. A distance education system is... 6. begins on the 1st of September and is
divided into 2 terms.

Text 1B
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите об особенностях обучения в
Великобритании.
The System of Higher Education in Great Britain
Higher education in Britain has a long and distinctive history. The system
of higher education in Britain includes universities, colleges of higher education
and advanced courses in the further education. The British educational system
on the higher level is still more selective and class-divided than secondary
education, particularly so far as the oldest universities are concerned.
There are the following main types of universities in Great Britain: ancient
universities, Redbrick universities, New universities and Open University.
The two oldest universities in England – Oxford and Cambridge – refer to
the first group called ancient universities. They were founded in 12th and 13th
centuries accordingly. Each university is a federation of colleges. Cambridge
consists of 24 colleges and Oxford consists of 48 colleges. Each college is
largely independent: it has its own staff of teachers, a separate building, and its
own financing and individual curricula. Each college organizes term exams but
university is responsible for final exams and awarding degrees to college
students. Besides, some colleges are only for male students and others are only
for female ones. Moreover, there is a tutorial system these universities are
famous for all over the world. Tutors teach students one-to-one or in very small
groups. Such lessons are called tutorials.
The universities founded between 1850 and 1930 including London
University are known as redbrick universities. They were called so because that
was the favorable building material of the time. They are in London, Durham,
Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Nottingham, etc. The
University of London is the largest of them. The division between Oxford and
Redbrick is sharp and essentially class one. Redbrick universities were built to
provide a liberal education for the poorer boys and to give technological
training.
The universities founded after the World War II are called the new
universities because of their modern approach to university courses. They are in
Staffordshire, Kent, Essex, Lancaster, Sussex, York and were built as a result of
Industrial Revolution. After World War II the UK began to develop its

12
industries very quickly. British plants and factories needed a lot of qualified
specialists. That’s why a number of New Universities appeared in large
industrial cities.
The last type is Open University. It started in 1960 for people who wanted
to continue their education but couldn’t attend classes because they worked full-
time and studied only in free time. University provides its students with lecture
materials and tests by e-mail, TV and radio programs. Such form of education is
called distance training. Every year in October Open University students take
exams.
All British Universities are private institutions. Every university is
independent, although they all receive financial support from the state. The
Department of Education and Science has no control over their regulations,
curriculum, examinations, appointment of staff, or the way they spend money.
The number and type of faculties differ from university to university.
The universities in Great Britain are classed as higher educational
institutions because they award degrees. After four years of studying students
get a traditional bachelor’s degree. A master’s degree is usually awarded after
another year or two of further studies. The highest degree is the Doctor of
Philosophy (Ph.D) that is awarded for research only after getting bachelor’s and
master’s degrees.

Text 1C
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите об особенностях системы высшего
образования в США.
Higher education in the USA
There is no national system of higher education in the United States. There
are over 2100 various higher educational institutions including colleges,
technological institutes and universities both private and public. Most of them
charge for tuition. Private universities are generally smaller but very expensive.
It means that the tuition fees are extremely high. State colleges and universities
are not so expensive, and if the students are state residents, they pay much less.
American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex
called “campus” with teaching blocks, libraries and many other facilities
grouped together on one site often on the outskirts of the city. Some universities
are comprised of many campuses.
All the universities are independent offering their own choice of studies,
setting their own standards. The greater the prestige of the university, the higher
the credits and grades are required.
The terms “college” and “university” are often used interchangeably as
“college” is used to refer to all undergraduate education; and the four-year
undergraduate program leading to a bachelor’s degree can be continued at either
college or university. Universities tend to be larger than colleges and also have

13
graduate schools where students can receive post-graduate education. Advanced
or graduate university degrees include law and medicine.
Most colleges and universities’ undergraduate courses last for four years.
During the first two years students usually take general courses in the art or
sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies they
concentrate on. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are
awarded for the successful completion of each course. These credits are often
transferable so students who have not done well in high school can choose a
junior college (or community college) which offers a two-year “transfer”
program preparing students for degree-granting institutions. Community
colleges also offer two-year courses of vocational nature leading to technical
and semi-professional occupations such as journalism or others.
Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors.
Freshmen and sophomores are the first- and second year students accordingly, a
junior is a third year student, and a senior is a fourth-year student. A student
working for the Bachelor’s Degree (BA or BS) is called an undergraduate; one
working for the Master’s (MA or MS) or Doctor of Philosophy Degree (PhD) is
called a graduate student. Some students receive grants which cover all or a part
of their tuition. A person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.
The student’s progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works and
examinations. The student’s work is given a credit, usually on a five point scale.
Letters indicate the level of achievement: “A” is the highest mark and “F”
denotes a failure. There are no final examinations at colleges and universities,
and students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a
particular subject.

Упражнение 5. Укажите, являются ли утверждения из текстов 1B и 1C верными


(true) или неверными (false)
1. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and the most famous universities in
Great Britain. 2. Oxford and Cambridge consist of colleges that are largely
independent. 3. One of the traditions of Oxford and Cambridge is that some
colleges are only for male and others only for female students. 4. New
Universities were founded after the First World War as a result of Industrial
Revolution. 5. Open University is for those who work part-time. 6. There is a
national system of higher education in the United States. 7. Higher education in
the USA is given in both colleges and universities. 8. Most colleges and
universities’ undergraduate courses last for three years. 9. A student working for
the Bachelor’s Degree is called a postgraduate. 10. The student’s work is given a
credit usually on a five point scale.

14
Text 1D
Прочитайте и переведите письмо. Напишите мотивационное письмо.
Motivation letter for a Master’s in Computer Science
Dear sir/madam,
First of all, let me introduce myself. I am Mike and recently I have been
working in E-telecom as a Network Engineer. I have attended my Bachelor’s
degree in Computer Science and Engineering from UlSTU.
The undergraduate curriculum in Computer Science and Engineering has a wide
variety of engineering subjects. Various courses like Artificial Intelligence
(Robotics), Programming Languages, Electronics, Software Engineering,
System Programming, Micro Processor, Interfacing & Assembly, Algorithm
Analysis and Design, Digital Signal Processing, Network and System Security,
Digital system, Algorithm analysis and design, Computer graphics and
multimedia, Computer Simulation and Modeling provided me with a strong
foundation in the theoretical concept of Computer Science and Engineering.
While offering both depth and breadth across this field, these courses put into
perspective the importance and relevance of Computer Science and Engineering
and the application of its fundamentals to the problems faced by the real world. I
will have a great contribution to the society since our country begins to transfer
manual system to computerize.
I am much eager to adopt and know new technologies. I am really enthusiastic
to attend a Master of Computer Science in order to understand different
Computer Science concepts because every industry needs them. The good
reputation of high-quality education standards, an extremely distinguished
faculty members, and research facilities are the factors which have motivated me
to choose for my M.Sc. studies the Newcastle University.
Moreover, I feel I am responsible for making a big move in this field and this
grant will give me a big chance to be one day someone who is remembered for
his innovations. Our grandchildren should be proud of us one day when they
look back and find how hard we worked to make the world a better place. I
believe my qualification and your needs would be an excellent fit. I will be
happy to provide any further information or documents if required.
I look forward to your positive response. Thank you for your time and
consideration.
Yours faithfully,
Mike

15
Упражнение 6. Выполните письменный перевод текста.
Higher education plays an important part in the life of every country as it
trains highly-qualified specialists for further development and progress of the
country. It must be taken into consideration that in order to become a highly-
qualified specialist a person should develop skills in many fields of study, learn
foreign languages and improve the level of achievements. The serious need to
find ways of ensuring continuous adoption of the universities to contemporary
needs in our rapidly changing world is widely recognized. This means that styles
of teaching, quality of teaching materials that should match individual students’
needs and organization of the university itself have to be brought up to date and
improved. The university’s way to success is by means of high quality of
leaning materials and a high level of professionalism of its teachers. Currently,
the popularity of distance learning is growing. The top benefit of distance
education is its flexibility. Students can choose when, where, and how they learn
by selecting the time, place, and medium for their education. For those who
want direct and live access to teachers there are video conferencing options.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол to be в настоящем
времени.
1. Where ... you? – I ... at the lecture. 2. Where ... Peter? – He ... in the dinning
room. 3. Where ... Lisa and Alex? – They ... at the university. 4. ... you busy? –
No, I ... not. Sam ... busy. He ... the busiest person I’ve ever met. 5. It ... half
past eight. She ... late for classes again. 6. How ... you? – I ... very well today.
7. We ... interested in doing maths. 8. Vera ... afraid of missing the lecture. 9. He
... not nervous and ... rarely upset. He ... the kindest person I’ve ever seen. 10. I
... sorry. They ... not at the office at the moment. 11. What time ... it now? –
Quarter to ten. 12. It ... the highest building I’ve ever seen. 13. Which sport do
you think ... the most dangerous? 14. Chess and aerobics ... not as exciting as
skydiving and figure skating. 15. What ... the weather forecast for tomorrow?

Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол to be в прошедшем


времени.
1. When I ... a child, I ... afraid of dogs. 2. ... the weather nice, when you ... out?
3. We ... not hungry after the journey, but we ... tired. 4. Yesterday it ... raining
all morning. It stopped at lunchtime. 5. It ... hot in my office, so I opened the
window. 6. The concert ... very long. It started at 7.30 and finished at 10. 7. The
weather ... warm yesterday, but today it is raining the whole day. 8. We ... on
holiday last year. It ... at a lovely place. 9. When he ... at their place, they ... very
happy. 10. She ... good at communicating with strangers. 11. We ... looking for

16
someone with an outgoing personality. 12. There ... difficulties with translating
these technical texts among students. 13. There ... few students at the lecture
yesterday. 14. The examination ... short and superficial. 15. It ... my own idea to
do it in this way.

Упражнение 3. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол to be в будущем времени.


1. I ... at the university tomorrow. 2. They ... at the international conference next
week. 3. Mike ... here later. 4. The weather ... good tomorrow. 5. There ... a lot
of students at tomorrow’s laboratory work. 6. It ... snowing when you are
coming back. 7. He ... travelling to London all night. 8. The task ... done next
Friday. 9. A test ... completed in 2 hours. 10. He ... very happy to see you again.
11. Where ... you ... tomorrow after lectures? 12. Who ... you ... writing letters to
after dinner?

Упражнение 4. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол to be в настоящем,


прошедшем или будущем времени.
1. I … (to be) very busy today. 2. They … (to be) in the reading room now. 3. It
… (to be) a cold day tomorrow. 4. We … (to be) students of one of the
Ulyanovsk universities. 5. You … (to be) late for classes yesterday. 6. We … (to
be) in the university laboratories last week. 7. They … (to be) in Moscow next
month. 8. They … (to be) participants of the scientific conference tomorrow.
9. Every University … (to be) headed by Rector. 10. Many scientific articles …
(to be) published in our university last year. 11. They ... not there the day before
yesterday. 12. He ... eighteen soon. 13. She ... as pretty as her sister. 14. I … not
ashamed of what I do. In fact I .. quite proud of it. 15. He ... the best among all
participants of this competition. 16. I … (to be) sorry I … (to be) busy during
the examination period in a month as I will spend my time getting ready for
exams. 17. We … (to be) lucky to have a brilliant lecturer in strength of
materials this year. 18. Computers may … (to be) useful for practicing simple
skills but they … (to be) not an essential feature of modern education. 19. When
I came home my parents … (to be) having lunch and at the same time they …
(to be) watching TV. 20. When a child I … (to be) never any good at art.

Упражнение 5. Определите функцию глагола to be.


1. Everything is in constant motion. 2. We are from Russia. 3. This article is of
great scientific value. 4. They were told to do their work quickly. 5. They are
writing a test now. 6. It is interesting but difficult to study at our university.
7. This work is of great importance. 8. The number of participants is twenty five.
9. То do this is to spoil the device. 10. That problem will be discussed at the
meeting. 11. Не is to do the work well. 12. The only way out is changing the
parameters. 13. То listen is not to hear. 14. The proposition is not true. 15. We

17
are to take exams in winter. 16. They were doing their research during the last
week. 17. In our experiment we are to compare two substances. 18. They are
interested in completing this task. 19. All seasons are beautiful in their own way.
20. This problem can be solved. 21. Our purpose was to determine the effect of
X-rays on the substance. 22. He is to leave on the fifth of November. 23. He will
be making an experimental work tomorrow at this time. 24. Protocol is currently
under consideration by the government. 25. They are doing their best to achieve
success in this field. 26. The President is to make a speech tomorrow. 27. He is
being taught to drive a car right now. 28. She is at the university now.

Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол to be в обороте There +


be в нужной форме. Поставьте английские предложения в вопросительную
форму.
1. There … three windows in the lecture hall. 2. There … a big tree near the
main building last year. 3. There … a text book and two exercise-books on the
table. 4. There … much chalk in the classroom. 5. There … few students at the
lecture yesterday. 6. There … a sport center in our university next year. 7. There
… a lot of trees in the territory of the campus. 8. There … many foreign students
in the hostel. 9. There … a lot of mistakes in his dictation that was last week.
10. There … two thousand students in the university this year. 11. There …
many natural and applied sciences in the curricilum this year. 12. There …
specialized subjects in the third year of studies. 13. There … some interesting
stories in this book. 14. There … a round table in the middle of the conference
hall. 15. There … a new library and a computer center in the main building next
year.

Упражнение 7. Согласитесь или опровергните следующие утверждения. Дайте


правильный ответ.
Например: There are 50 minutes in one hour. (В одном часе 50 минут.) – No, there
aren’t. There are 60 minutes in one hour. (Нет. В одном часе 60 минут.)
1. There are 3 buildings in our university. 2. There are two degrees that students
can get in higher educational institutions. 3. There is one rector who is the head
of the university. 4. There are three hostels in the territory of the university’s
campus. 5. There are five months in one term. 6. There are three terms in the
academic year. 7. There are ten floors in the main building of our university.
8. There is one sport center in our university.

Упражнение 8. Составьте и запишите предложения.


1. meanings / are / the word “education” / many / of / there.
2. there / four lectures / were / yesterday?
3. many / this / there / tools / in / are / workshop.

18
4. highly-qualified specialists / there / next year / a lot of / after the graduation /
will be.
5. Oxford / there / which / in the world / is famous for / a tutorial system / is.
6. engineering subjects / there / a wide variety of / is / in our university
7. enough credits / at colleges and universities / there / in America / if to collect /
in a particular subject / final examinations / are / no.
8. between / is / and / Great Britain / time difference / there / Russia.
9. in the conference / there / many / tomorrow / will / participants / be?
10. difficult / is / answer / to / this / no / there / question / simple.

Упражнение 9. Опишите свой город, используя обороты There is / There are.


Составьте утвердительные (+) и отрицательные (-) предложения.
Например: a theatre (+) – There is a theatre in the town. (В городе есть театр.)
many cinemas (+); two rivers (+); four castles (-); one library (-); a zoo (-); 5-
star hotels (+); two bridges (+); many higher educational institutions (+); metro
(-); many foreign students (+).

Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский,


используя оборот There + be.
1. Есть такая теория, разработанная известным ученым. 2. Сегодня
состоится научная конференция по вопросам образования. 3. В аудитории
несколько иностранных студентов. 4. В моем городе есть много
университетов. 5. В университете существует пятибалльная система, по
которой оценивают уровень успеваемости студентов. 6. В Америке есть
много колледжей и университетов, в которых можно получить высшее
образование. 7. В Великобритании существуют следующие основные типы
университетов: древние университеты, “краснокирпичные” университеты,
новые университеты и Открытый университет. 8. В хорошо
оборудованных лабораториях было проведено много полезных
экспериментов.

Упражнение 11. Отметьте предложения, в которых нарушен порядок слов и


перестройте их в соответствии с правилами.
Например: Tom walks every morning to work. – Tom walks to work every morning.
1. Jim doesn’t like very much baseball. 2. Ann drives every day her car to work.
3. When I heard the news, I immediately called Tom. 4. Maria speaks very well
English. 5. Last Friday very interesting cartoons children watched. 6. After
eating quickly my dinner, I went out. 7. You watch all the time television.
8. Two books Liza reads every month. 9. I think I’ll go early to bed tonight. 10.
In London we were in July last year. 11. You should to the dentist go every six
months. 12. We went last night to the movies.

19
Упражнение 12. Исправьте, если это необходимо, местоположение
подлежащего согласно правилу о порядке слов в предложении.
1. A bachelor’s degree has her brother. 2. He likes his way of living abroad.
3. A test she did with mistakes. 4. It froze hard last night. 5. These exercises I
did well. 6. He met the participants of the conference at the station. 7. Many
courses I take on this subject. 8. Coffee break they have in the big dining-hall.
8. Four exams they will pass next semester. 9. He entered a postgraduate course
last year. 10. Thesis we must defend next year. 11. From the university I
graduated two years ago. 12. Homework he is doing for tomorrow.

Упражнение 13. На основе приведенных слов постройте предложения,


соблюдая порядок слов.
1. she / won / easily / the game. 2. tennis / every weekend / Sam / plays.
3. quietly / the door / I / closed. 4. his name / after a few minutes / I /
remembered. 5. a letter to her parents / Ann / writes / every week. 6. interesting
books / found / we / in the library. 7. in the park / they / a new hotel / are
building. 8. to the bank / I / every Friday / go. 9. I / on Saturday night / didn’t
see / at the party / you. 10. brightly / is / shining / sun / the. 11. gave / the
librarian / all / us / books / necessary / the / yesterday. 12. if / pass / exams / all /
successfully / grants / they / get / students / will.

Упражнение 14. Определите верный порядок слов в английском


повествовательном предложении. Переведите.
1. Они в парке вечером играют в футбол 2. Они будут на следующей
неделе писать тест 3. Студенты после лекций что-то с интересом
обсуждают. 4. Мы всем родственникам отправили приглашения.
5. Встречались в кафе они вчера вечером. 6. Мама мне письмо передала от
друга вчера. 7. Машину он вел медленно 8. На занятии мы новые слова
выучили. 9. В Лондоне часто идет дождь. 10. Они поедут через две недели
в Америку.

Упражнение 15. Укажите, какой тип вопроса представлен.


1. Do you study English at the university? 2. Who of you studies French?
3. What do you prefer: going to the cinema or watching TV at home? 4. They
made many mistakes in the test, didn’t they? 5. Will you go abroad next month?
6. How many people are there in the lecture hall? 7. Does she like tea or coffee
in the morning? 8. What will she do next? 9. Who lectures you on mathematics?
10. They don’t understand this grammar rule, do they? 11. How long do you live
here? 12. What was discussed at the meeting? 13. He is a distinguished scientist,
isn’t he? 14. Are you satisfied with your education?

20
Упражнение 16. Задайте общий и специальный вопрос к предложениям.
1. My sister is at the university now. a. Is ……..….....?
b. Where ……...?
2. It is getting cold at night. a. Is …….…..... ?
b. When …..…..?
3. They were school-children last year. a. Were …….....?
b. When ……....?
4. They will be busy tomorrow because they will have a test a. Will ….….....?
soon. b. Why ……..…?
5. He entered the Aviation institute last year. a. Did ……..…..?
b. Where …..….?
6. My friend studies at the state technical university. a. Does ……..…?
b. What …..…..?
7. The students will have industrial training next summer. a. Will ………...?
b. What ….....…?

Упражнение 17. Задайте все типы вопросов к данным предложениям.


1. John wants to become a highly-qualified specialist in the field of electrical
engineering. 2. At the end of the course of studies students defend their thesis.
3. They will make many calculations during their laboratory work. 4. Scientists
obtained valuable data on gene engineering. 5. There are a lot of mistakes in his
dictation. 6. There were many letters for me yesterday. 7. There will be twelve
students in my group. 8. Full-time study in the postgraduate course lasts 3 years.
9. After two years of further study students can get a master’s degree.

Test yourself
1. Определите функцию глагола to be – They are at home.
A. смысловой глагол
B. глагол-связка
C. вспомогательный глагол

2. Определите функцию глагола to be – He is an architect.


A. смысловой глагол
B. глагол-связка
C. вспомогательный глагол

3. Определите функцию глагола to be – He’s tall although he's only fifteen years
old.
A. смысловой глагол
B. глагол-связка
C. вспомогательный глагол

21
4. Определите функцию глагола to be – He is reading a scientific magazine now.
A. смысловой глагол
B. глагол-связка
C. вспомогательный глагол

5. Найдите предложение, в котором to be употребляется в функции глагола-


связки.
A. I am going to the theatre.
B. It is evident that he is right.
C. A book is read.

6. Выберете правильный перевод – They are to do research in the field of physics.


A. Они проводят исследования в области физики.
B. Они будут проводить исследования в области физики.
C. Они должны провести исследования в области физики.

7. Найдите предложение, в котором to be имеет функцию смыслового глагола.


A. It is a book.
B. This book is interesting.
C. This book is of scientific value.

8. Выберете правильный вариант перевода – There are many universities in our


town.
A. Много университетов в нашем городе.
B. В нашем городе много университетов.
C. В нашем городе есть университет.

9. Выберете правильный ответ на вопрос – Are there many diagrams in the book?
A. Yes, she does
B. Yes, it is
C. Yes, there are

10. Какое предложение составлено грамматически неправильно.


A. There is a table and two chairs in the room.
B. There is much milk in the bottle.
C. There are one student in the classroom.

11. Отметьте предложение, в котором нарушен порядок слов.


A. I like her songs very much.
B. At 5 o’clock started my favourite film.
C. He gave me this interesting book.

22
12. Отметьте предложение, в котором нарушен порядок слов.
A. We can’t visit the museum. There isn’t enough time.
B. I will do my homework in the morning tomorrow.
C. He likes to the gym going every evening.

13. Выберете предложения с правильным порядком слов.


A. He went to school yesterday.
B. He is often late for classes.
C. They always are interested in new innovations.

14. Выберете предложения с правильным порядком слов.


A. I think, I’ll tomorrow in the evening go to cinema.
B. Yesterday I went to bed too late.
C. We don’t like at all cooking.

15. Составьте утвердительное предложение – degrees / on practical work /


specialist / in industry / are / focused / more / on.
A. Specialist are more focused on practical work in industry degrees.
B. Specialist degrees are more focused on practical work in industry.
C. Specialist degrees in industry are focused more on practical work.

16. Укажите, какой тип вопроса представлен – Who of you studies French?
A. Общий вопрос
B. Вопрос к подлежащему
C. Альтернативный вопрос

17. Укажите, какой тип вопроса представлен – Are you at home?


A. Общий вопрос
B. Вопрос к подлежащему
C. Альтернативный вопрос

18. Найдите разделительный вопрос.


A. Do you like reading?
B. What do you like?
C. You like reading, don’t you?

19. Найдите вопрос к подлежащему.


A. Who are you looking at?
B. Whom didn’t you invite?
C. Who came?

23
20. Найдите предложение с ошибкой.
A. What do you prefer: tea or coffee?
B. Who did study at the university?
C. They were pupils, weren’t they?

21. Найдите предложение с ошибкой.


A. What did you enter this university?
B. Are you a student?
C. He studied part-time, wasn’t he?

22. Найдите верный ответ на вопрос – Did you do anything interesting last
weekend?
A. No, I did
B. Yes, he does
C. Yes, I did

23. Выберете правильный ответ на вопрос – Where are you going on holiday?
A. No, thanks.
B. Yes, he is
C. England

24. Составьте вопрос – go / or / will / the park / to / they / the cinema / to?
A. Will go they to the park or to the cinema?
B. They will go to the park or to the cinema?
C. Will they go to the park or to the cinema?

25. Составьте вопрос – get / he / when / up / did?


A. When did get he up?
B. When did he get up?
C. When he did get up?

24
LESSON 2
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- er/-or/-ar; -ant/-ent

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 2A. Learning Foreign Languages
Text 2B. The importance of the English language
Text 2C. The Language of Science

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Личные местоимения
Объектные местоимения
Притяжательные местоимения
Указательные местоимения
Вопросительные местоимения

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


глагол + -er / -or / -ar =
существительное
Суффиксы -er, -or, -ar указывают на исполнителя действия,
профессию или инструмент.
 to train (тренировать) → trainer (тренер)
 to act (действовать) → actor (актер)
 to beg (просить) → beggar (попрошайка)
to regulate – regulator; to invent – inventor; to generate – generator;
to transform – transformer; to indicate – indicator; to compute – computer;
to radiate – radiator; to visit – visitor; to rectify – rectifier; to cut – cutter;
to contain – container.

глагол или существительное + -ant / -ent =


прилагательное
Суффикс -ant (-ent) имеет значение характеристики «передающий
качества».
 to please (радовать) → pleasant (приятный)
 to resist (сопротивляться) → resistant (сопротивляющийся, стойкий)
 to differ (отличаться) → different (разнообразный)

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-Ant присоединяется к глаголам, которые оканчиваются на -ate и -y, а
также к основам существительных, которые оканчиваются на -ance, -ancy.
 to hesitate (колебаться) → hesitant (колеблющийся)
 brilliance (блеск, великолепие) → brilliant (замечательный,
блестящий)
 to occupy (занимать, оккупировать) → occupant (житель, оккупант)
-Ent присоединяется к глаголам, которые оканчиваются на -ere и
ударный конечный -er, а также к основам слов, которые в форме
существительного принимают суффикс -ence, -ency.
 to cohere (согласовываться) → coherent (согласованный)
 to prefer (предпочитать) → preferent (предпочтительный)
 intelligence (интеллект, ум) → intelligent (образованный, ум)
urgent; sufficient; important; efficient; distant; evident; confident; recent;
frequent; insistent; assistant; convenient; vacant; transparent; different; arrogant;
abundant; relevant; tolerant; absent; present.

Упражнение 1. Составьте предложения по образцу, получив слово, означающее


род деятельности или профессию.
Например. Someone who interviews people is an interviewer.
1. A person who plays football is a … .
2. A person who builds houses is a … .
3. A person who treats people is a … .
4. A person who rules the country is a … .
5. A person who explores new lands is a … .
6. A person who drives a taxi is a … .
7. A person who always causes trouble is a … .
8. A person who makes films is a … .
9. A person who travels to another place is a … .
10. A person who designs building is a … .
11. A person who controls air traffic is a … .
12. A person who delivers lectures is a … .

Упражнение 2. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные или


прилагательные с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.
-er 1. The report was untrue. It’s a job of a news … to
-or separate facts from fiction.
2. They translate the new The new edition includes the
edition. comments of a … .
3. He invented the machine but The … of the machine spent
spent years refining the design. years refining the design.

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4. He created and reproduced a He was a … and a …. of a
system. system.
1. Their visits increased in … guests receive the discount.
frequency.
2. His style of dressing differs He has a very … style of
-ant from others. dressing.
-ent 3. The professor was known for He was a … professor.
his brilliance.
4. His answer came with We received all the …
relevance. information.

Упражнение 3. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. An … is someone who travels to places about which very to explore
little is known, in order to discover what is there.
2. She was … that they should all meet for dinner. to insist
3. We need to be … in our approach. to consist
4. Some of the local people are suspicious of … . foreign
5. The salary is … on experience and qualifications. to depend
6. The way the system works will be transparent to the … . to use
7. She sometimes comes across as being rather … . arrogance
8. If you say that someone is a good … or a bad … , you are to dance
saying how well or badly they can dance.
9. I’m a great … in regular exercise. to believe
10. It is … that they all be present. urgency

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
problem ['prɔbləm], socially ['səuʃəlɪ], especially [ɪs'peʃəlɪ], present ['prezənt],
progress ['prəugres], technology [tek'nɔləʤɪ], information [ˌɪnfə'meɪʃən], total
['təutəl], to double ['dʌbl], efficient [ɪ'fɪʃənt], planet ['plænɪt], absolutely
[ˌæbsə'ljuːtlɪ], international [ˌɪntə'næʃənəl], contact ['kɔntækt], to communicate
[kə'mjuːnɪkeɪt], career [kə'rɪə], planning ['plænɪŋ], naturally ['næʧərəlɪ],
magazine [ˌmægə'ziːn], professional [prə'feʃənəl], business ['bɪznɪs], intellectual
[ˌɪntə'lekʧuəl], horizon [hə'raɪzən], culture ['kʌlʧə], cultural ['kʌlʧərəl], literature
['lɪtrəʧə], original [ə'rɪʤənəl], grammar ['græmə], to concentrate ['kɔnsəntreɪt],
aspect ['æspekt], to ignore [ɪg'nɔː], interest ['ɪntərəst], interesting ['ɪntrəstɪŋ],
resource [rɪ'sɔːs], subtitle ['sʌbˌtaɪtl], process ['prəuses], to collaborate
[kə'læbəreɪt], internet ['ɪntənet].

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Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.
learning ['lɜːnɪŋ], foreign ['fɔrɪn], foreigner ['fɔrɪnə], language ['læŋgwɪʤ], to
demand [dɪ'mɑːnd], science ['saɪəns], scientific [ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk], explosion
[ɪk'spləuʒən], knowledge ['nɔlɪʤ], known [nəun], to contribute [kən'trɪbjuːt],
overflow [ˌəuvə'fləu], mankind [ˌmæn'kaɪnd], means [miːnz], exchange
[ɪks'ʧeɪnʤ], our ['auə], necessary ['nesəsərɪ], other ['ʌðə], future ['fjuːʧə], branch
[brɑːnʧ], to raise [reɪz], ability [ə'bɪlətɪ], more [mɔː], mutual ['mjuːʧuəl], wider
['waɪdə], through [θruː], another [ə'nʌðə], without [wɪ'ðaut], to develop
[dɪ'veləp], exercise ['eksəsaɪz], essential [ɪ'senʃəl], some [sʌm], same [seɪm],
vocabulary [və'kæbjulərɪ], boring ['bɔːrɪŋ], to lose [luːz], quickly ['kwɪklɪ],
should [ʃud], to vary ['veərɪ], studies ['stʌdɪz], connection [kə'nekʃən], access
['ækses], cartoon [kɑː'tuːn], to broaden ['brɔːdn], movies ['muːvɪz], eventually
[ɪ'venʧuəlɪ], opportunity [ˌɔpə'tjuːnətɪ], to touch [tʌʧ], chatting [ʧætɪŋ], talking
[tɔːkɪŋ], thus [ðʌs], exciting [ɪk'saɪtɪŋ], to share [ʃeə], own [əun].
СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
to learn foreign languages – изучать to read foreign literature in its original
иностранные языки form – читать зарубежную литературу в
an explosion of knowledge – рост оригинале
знаний (информационный взрыв) to develop skills – развивать навыки
an overflow of information – to do exercises – выполнять упражнения
переизбыток информации at the same time – одновременно, в то
an efficient means – эффективное же самое время
средство to lose an interest (to) – утратить
information exchange – обмен интерес (к)
информацией to have internet connection – иметь
to be able to communicate – иметь подключение к интернету
возможность общаться to have the access to many useful
to read scientific books – читать resources – иметь доступ ко множеству
научные книги полезных ресурсов
to raise a professional level – повысить to broaden vocabulary – увеличивать
уровень профессиональных навыков словарный запас
to develop mutual understanding – to feel at ease – чувствовать себя
развивать взаимопонимание комфортно
to make horizons wider – сделать to have an opportunity – иметь
кругозор шире возможность
to do writing tasks – выполнять to get in touch (with) – поддерживать
письменные задания связь (с), быть на связи

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Text 2A
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Назовите главные причины, по которым
необходимо изучать иностранные языки.
Learning Foreign Languages
The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign
languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the
progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and
has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind
is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main
and the most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our
planet.
Foreign languages are absolutely necessary for people nowadays because
of our growing international contacts with foreign countries. The ability of
speaking one, two or even more foreign languages helps people from different
countries to develop mutual friendship and understanding. We can also make
our intellectual and cultural horizons wider through contacts with people of
another culture. Native speakers are always happy when someone is trying to
learn their language so they will be proud of you when people practice their
skills with them, and even if learners make mistakes, native speakers always try
to help by correcting mistakes and by explaining their language.
There are many reasons why we begin to study foreign languages. One
studies a foreign language to be able to communicate with other people who
speak this language; others study it for future career. If we are planning to
travel to countries where the language we know is spoken, we can
communicate with people there and understand what they are saying to us. If
we are working in any branch of science, we wish to read scientific books and
magazines in other languages to raise our professional level. It is very
interesting to read foreign literature in its original form without any help and
translation. Making business nowadays also means the ability of speaking
foreign languages.
Learning a foreign language is one of the hardest things a brain can do.
What makes a foreign language so difficult is the effort we have to make to
transfer between linguistically complex structures. It’s also challenging to learn
how to think in another language. Above all, it takes time, hard work and
dedication.
Learning a foreign language is a long and complex process because
learners are required to cover all the aspects of a new language such as the
structure and culture of the target language. When you learn a foreign
language, you should develop all your skills. You should speak and do writing
tasks, study grammar, do exercises, read texts and even books, listen to the
speech of native speakers, etc. It is essential not to concentrate only on some
aspects and ignore others. Studying grammar and doing exercises on

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vocabulary may be boring and difficult at the same time. You may lose an
interest to them very quickly. That’s why you should vary your studies.
Nowadays it is much easier to do it as we have the internet connection and the
access to many useful resources. You may start from watching cartoons with
subtitles which are not very difficult to understand. When your vocabulary is
broadened, you may turn to movies and series. Eventually, you will be able to
feel at ease watching them even without subtitles. Moreover, you have an
opportunity to learn a foreign language with the help of native speakers. And
this is not about lessons on Skype. It is about modern social networks by means
of which you can get in touch with people from other countries chatting or
talking with them. Thus, it is possible to learn a foreign language and to make
the process exciting and interesting. Train all parts of the language, collaborate
with foreigners and share your own knowledge.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What are the main reasons for studying foreign languages? 2. What skills are
developed while learning foreign languages? 3. Why is it necessary to train all
parts of the language? 4. Why do you study English? 5. How many languages
would you like to know? Which ones? 6. Is it easy or difficult to study English
grammar? Why? 7. Do you agree with the statement: the more languages you
speak, the more times you are a human being? Why? Why not? Give your
reasons.

Упражнение 4. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1. All over the world … 1. when we travel abroad or when we
read foreign literature in the original.
2. Everybody knows his own language 2. and some of them are international
ones.
3. It is important to know foreign 3. the effort we have to make to
languages … transfer between linguistically complex
structures.
4. English is necessary in the 21st 4. by plenty of world systems and
century … associations.
5. There are more than 2700 languages 5. but to know a foreign language is
in the world … very useful as well.
6. English is considered to be the 6. when international cooperation is sat
international language … its highest level.
7. What makes a foreign language so 7. people are learning foreign
difficult is ... languages.

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Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и
переводом этих слов.
language концентрировать an occupation undertaken for a
внимание significant period of a person’s life and
with opportunities for progress
foreign игнорировать, the language in which something was
пренебрегать first written
international взаимный, a periodical publication containing
совместный articles and illustrations, often on a
particular subject or aimed at a particular
readership
career оригинальный, an act of giving one thing and receiving
исходный another
magazine обмен the method of human communication,
either spoken or written, consisting of the
use of words in a structured and
conventional way
mutual иностранный, existing, occurring, or carried on between
зарубежный nations

original журнал fail to consider


concentrate язык coming or introduced from outside
exchange международный having the same specified relationship to
each other
ignore карьера focus all one’s attention on a particular
object or activity

Text 2B
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Почему необходимо развивать все виды
речевой деятельности при изучении английского языка.
The importance of the English language
English, the most widely internationally used language in many world
countries, is the language of education, business, medicine, banking, tourism,
diplomacy, etc. English is also the language of computing that is why it is a
global language. The number of users increases on daily basis. Use of the
English language is very useful to achieve personal goals such as getting a job,
making a successful communication with people and also promoting one’s
position in the workplace. Therefore, English is advantageous for those people
travelling to the English-speaking countries to help them easily understand the
language and overcome language problems. However, people face lots of

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challenges in the learning process and mastering this language such as cultural
differences, accent, slang, grammar and vocabulary, pronunciation and so on.
English has four major skills that are very important to improve English
language learning properly, namely, reading, listening, speaking and writing.
Listening skill is as important as other skills. There are some approaches to
improve listening skill such as: listening to English songs; listening to short
stories and short paragraphs; listening to English news on Radio and TV,
especially native English channels; listening to English poems.
Speaking is another important skill in English language. It means the way
of producing sound, utterance and sentences correctly and accurately. Speaking
means the use of language orally for the purpose of communication and
delivering the message. Researchers suggest some techniques to improve
speaking skill such as: joining English clubs and courses in order to speak freely
and fluently; the role of teacher is important to motivate the learners to speak
English; a suitable environment should be provided because it makes positive
results on learning language because most of the learners feel shy and anxious
while speaking; making presentations and debates in English.
Reading is another skill in the English language which enriches the
vocabulary and improves language comprehension. The following steps are
useful to improve reading skill: while you start reading, you should focus on the
new vocabularies; read about interesting topics or those topics that you are
interested in; find something like short stories and children’s book because it is a
good way to improve your reading and vocabulary in early stages.
Writing is an important skill in language which influences the result of
learning language avoiding repetition and long sentences; it is good for the
learners to choose and use clear words and expressions. The following ways
help learners to improve their writing skill: follow spelling rules; know the
abbreviations in English language; puncuation mark is so important in English
language because it changes the meaning; to improve writing, it is good to write
poems and short stories to overcome the difficulties of writing skills. It means
when learners know the writing steps, follow and apply them, they will do better
and better in writing.
If learners want to be fluent in the English language, they should practice
well in all skills because practicing makes learners familiar with all aspects of
language. Practicing has a great impact on the result of learning language.
Learners must know that it is a usual thing to make mistakes because even
native speakers make them. That’s why learners must have a good plan for
practicing each day.

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Text 2C
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Назовите главные причины, почему
английский язык является языком науки.
The Language of Science
Every major science journal you have ever heard of is in English. This isn’t
exactly a coincidence, however. Since science is a broad and collaborative field,
it seemed necessary at some point in the past to decide upon a sort of scientific
lingua franca and use it. As in many other fields, English was chosen and
remains the bridge language of science.
There are some obvious advantages of having English as the language of
science. First of all, it is widely spoken and learned as a second language around
the world. It is used in business, medicine, and many other fields, so why not
science too? Having just one language as the “official” scientific language also
expedites the process of communication between scientists who all have crucial
new information and research to share with the rest of the world. As long as you
are a scientist and have a certain level of English, you can participate
internationally in science.
The disadvantages of having a “primary” language for scientific
communication are not entirely obvious at first, but once you start to analyze
and think about how it probably affects scientists who don’t speak English as
their first language, you begin to see where problems might arise. To start, we
all express ourselves differently in different languages, even if we aren’t aware
of it. If you know a second language and take a moment to try and write out
anything complex or technical in that language, you will see how difficult it can
be. This means scientists from different linguistic backgrounds have to spend
extra time and energy when they are writing up their research papers in English.
Not only does it take more energy and time to write in a language that isn’t
your native language, it is also might be difficult to explain exactly what you
meant to convey. There is more to language than just putting words together to
form cohesive sentences and phrases; there is also the cultural and contextual
aspect. When you add complicated scientific terminology into the mix, you end
up with scientific writing that doesn’t express itself as authentically as it would
if it were written in the scientist’s native language.
To expect everyone in the scientific community all over the world to be
proficient in English as well as be an expert in whatever they are researching is
to expect a lot, especially, from scientists in countries where getting any kind of
decent education at all costs a good chunk of change. By limiting the language
of the scientific community to one, English, we are not giving space for brilliant
minds that just happen not to have the right level of English to share with the
rest of the world. If we could figure out a way around that, we would advance
much more quickly as a society in terms of scientific research and discoveries.

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Упражнение 6. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. How many letters are there in English? 2. How many words are there in
English? 3. How to determine the level of knowledge of the English language?
4. In which countries does English have the status of a state language? 5. Why
has English become international? 6. What are the features of the English
language in contrast to Russian and other languages? 7. How to learn English
online? 8. Is it difficult to learn English? 9. How to expand the vocabulary of the
English language? 10. Do you want to become a scientist? Why? Why not?
11. How does English affect communication in the scientific field? 12. What are
the benefits of using English in science?

Упражнение 7. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


In the world of globalization, English has increasingly become the medium
in every field of communication. As a result, the demand for using English
effectively is necessary in every country. Teaching and learning English, except
for the native language, is thus crucial for communicative purposes to cope with
the growing local, national and international demands for English skills. English
is considered as a foreign language, and is used for the purposes of academic
advancement, career advancement, and traveling abroad. The process of learning
English is slow and progressive and it could be interpreted as a series of
challenges to face. Practising with a native speaker is the best way of
exchanging information and helps you develop mutual understanding through
training listening and speaking skills at the same time. Speaking skills include
not only transforming your passive vocabulary into active, but also
pronunciation practice. Moreover, you learn new words and expressions from
your language partner. It is much easier to memorize them through a live
conversation than through reading because usually your brain perfectly links the
new word to the situation from your real life.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Выберите из списка слова, которые можно заменить личными
местоимениями he, she, it, they.
innovations, a foreign language, a scientist, business, specialists, an actress,
an actor, vocabulary, a professional level, skills, useful resources, science,
a female cousin, scientific books, a woman, writing tasks, February, summer,
a river, Peter and Mike, windows, Tuesday, communication, English words,
features, Mary, a niece, grammar, a nephew, a ruler, a doctor, a student,
an interpreter, a businesswoman, a businessman, women, men, the sun,
the moon, Mr. Brown, Mrs. Smith, Ms Black, a wife, a husband, a daughter,
a brother, an aunt, an uncle, a daughter, a son, a family.

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Упражнение 2. Замените выделенные слова личными местоимениями.
1. Andrew is from Australia. But now … lives in the USA. 2. Laura is a foreign
student. … studies in Russia. 3. Karl and his brother live in London. … like it.
4. Olga and me are good friends. … have met for 5 years. 5. Are you and your
sister twins? … look so alike. 6. Iren is very nice. …’s my best friend. 7. Tom
and I aren’t English. … are from Sydney. 8. George is my brother. …’s 30 years
old. 9. Sam and Alise are married. … have got three children. 10. Sandra is 28
years old. …’s a nurse. 11. This is Ann. … is having lunch now. 12. Look at the
children! … are playing snowballs. 13. Ivan is my cousin. … is riding a bicycle
now. 14. Look at John’s parents. … are walking over there. 15. Lisa is Bob’s
niece. Listen, … is singing.

Упражнение 3. Выберете правильное указательное местоимение.


1. this/these scientists; 2. this/these professor; 3. this/these football player;
4. this/these articles; 5. that/those scientific magazine; 6. this/these
opportunities; 7. this/these information; 8. that/those specialists; 9. this/these
foreign language; 10. this/these course of studies; 11. that/those education;
12. this/these dictionary; 13. that/those people; 14. this/these man; 15. this/those
women.

Упражнение 4. Постройте предложения по образцу. Используйте повелительное


наклонение глагола look и указательные местоимения this – этот и these – эти.
scientist / a Nobel winner Look at this scientist. He is a Nobel winner. –
Посмотрите на этого ученого. Он – призер
Нобелевской премии.
pictures / unusual Look at these pictures. They are unusual. –
Посмотрите на эти картины. Они необычные.
1. woman / Minister for Foreign Affairs 2. sportsman / a two-time champion
3. sportswoman / famous 4. children / well-educated 5. windows / clean
6. innovations / revolutionary 7. experiments / important 8. foreigners /
different

Упражнение 5. Выберете правильный вариант.


1. This … is easy. a) questions b) homework
2. These … are my neighbors. a) women b) man
3. What are you doing … afternoon? a) that b) this
4. Who is … speaking? a) this b) these
5. These are my glasses and … are hers. a) those b) that
6. We are going to the seaside … summer. a) that b) this
7. … man over there is a famous politician. a) That b) These
8. You’d better take … gloves. The others we saw a) this b) these

35
don’t match your dress.
9. I couldn’t forget … girl I had met in the park. a) that b) these
10. Do you know that … ? a) little boy b) little boys
11. Can you get … old books on the top shelf? a) these b) those

Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски подходящим указательным местоимением


this, that, these, those.
1. … people over there are waiting for the bus. 2. The day I first came to London
was wonderful. I will remember … day for ever. 3. … summer I’m pretty busy.
4. I’m working as an interpreter … days. 5. … were the wonderful days! 6. Do
you remember … winter when we all went to Egypt? 7. Hello! ... is Tom. Can I
speak to George, please? 8. … is a new cathedral and … one over there was
built 900 years ago. 9. Will you come at five o’clock? I’ll be at home at … time.
10. The summer of 2019 I spent in the country. I remember we had a lot of rain
… year. 11. … are my sisters. They have just arrived from London. 12. Who
was … girl I saw you with last night? 13. Do you want to sit on … chair here or
on … one over there? 14. … sweets you gave me last night were very nice.
15. Look at … colourful air balloons in the sky. 16. Nick and Nancy have
decided to buy a house … year. 17. … trees over there were planted by the
students of our university. 18. … buildings in front of you were built in the 18th
century.

Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски притяжательными местоимениями my,


your, his, her, our, their.
1. I’d like to raise ... professional level in this field. 2. We’d like to learn foreign
languages in ... country. 3. The children are able to communicate easily with ...
friends. 4. He’d like to find an efficient means to improve … listening skills.
5. He makes ... business successfully enough. 6. You made ... horizons wider
thanks to travelling a lot. 7. He lost ... interest to this field of studies. 8. We have
internet connection in ... house. 9. Thanks to reading foreign literature in …
original form he broadened ... vocabulary. 10. This is Mr. Smith and this is ...
business partner. 11. These are foreigners. And those ones are … friends.
12. This is Minister for Foreign Affairs and these are … assistants. 13. We are
sportsmen. This is … coach.

Упражнение 8. Внесите изменения в предложения, используя местоимения,


данные в скобках. Не забывайте про окончание -s у глагола-действия в Present
Simple.
Например: I have three rooms in my flat (He). – He has three rooms in his flat.
1. I practice my language skills every day (She). 2. I try to correct my spelling
mistakes (He). 3. I want to share my knowledge with students (They). 4. I have

36
to get working on improving my writing skills (He). 5. I do my homework in the
evening (We). 6. I want to achieve my goal (They). 7. I make my process of
learning English interesting (You). 8. I publish my scientific articles every year
(He). 9. I often vary my studies of English (You). 10. I have my English classes
at 5 o’clock (She).

Упражнение 9. Переведите на английский язык сначала местоимения, потом


предложения полностью.
1. Мой учебник по английскому языку на твоем столе. 2. Он дал ему свой
электронный адрес. 3. Ее курсы по английскому языку начинаются в 10
часов утра. 4. Я нашел его расписание на сайте университета. 5. Она
видела их новую лабораторию. 6. Я получаю большое удовольствие от
своей работы. 7. Она сказала мне свой номер телефона. 8. Ты видел нашего
нового декана? 9. Она любит своих родных. 10. Мы видели их новое
оборудование две недели назад. 11. По этому поводу вы должны связаться
с нашим общим другом. 12. Это твой шанс познакомиться с ним. 13. В
день ее десятилетия мы подарили ей поездку в другой город. 14. Я хотел
бы прочесть некоторые из его сочинений.

Упражнение 10. Переведите притяжательное местоимение «свой».


Примечание: В английском языке нет местоимения «свой». Вместо него нужно
употреблять соответствующее притяжательное местоимение (мой, наш, твой,
его, ее, их).
1. I always keep … (свое) word. 2. Everything resumed … (свой) usual
appearance. 3. He had a belief in … (свой) own cleverness. 4. I’ve changed …
(свой) day-off by their request 5. You always manage to impress us with …
(своими) ideas. 6. Thanks to the culture we reflect … (свой) national experience
and … (свои) human values. 7. Our country has strengthened … (свою) national
health strategy. 8. These institutions argue that developing countries must build
… (свой) capacity for their own sake. 9. She used to love to tell me stories about
… (своей) youth. 10. There many countries that have announced … (своей)
support.

Упражнение 11. Переведите с английского, обращая внимание на употребление


самостоятельной формы притяжательного местоимения.
1. I have a scientific article. This is my scientific article. This scientific article is
mine. 2. We have useful resources in this field. These are our useful resources in
this field. These useful resources are ours. 3. They have goals to achieve. These
are their goal. These goals are theirs. 4. You have a desire to go abroad. This is
your desire. This desire to go abroad is yours. 5. She has a talent for languages.
This is her talent for languages. This talent for languages is hers. 6. He has an

37
analytical mind. This is his analytical mind. This analytical mind is his. 7. We
have a choice. This is our choice. This choice is ours. 8. There are many
countries smaller than ours. 9. Our plan is better than theirs. 10. This is not my
task, mine is difficult. 11. My family is large, yours is larger. 12. That’s her own
business, not yours.

Упражнение 12. Вставьте нужную форму притяжательного местоимения.


1. I have a suggestion to make. This is … suggestion. 2. Do you have an
invitation? Is this invitation …? 3. Whose idea was that? – It’s … . 4. The
landscape is beautiful in … own unique way. 5. She does all the translation on
… own. 6. He saw it with … own eyes. 7. Here is your hat, but where is …?
8. We have arranged with a driver of … about a trip. 9. Do you know …
address? I forgot where she lives. 10. … parents live in Italy. Sometimes we stay
at … house.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на английский язык, используя притяжательные


местоимения.
1. У меня есть компьютер. Это мой компьютер. Этот компьютер мой. 2. У
них есть расписание. Это их расписание. Это расписание их. 3. У тебя есть
проект. Это твой проект. Этот проект твой. 4. У него есть друзья-ученые.
Это его друзья. Эти друзья его. 5. У вас есть дом. Это ваш дом. Этот дом
ваш. 6. У нее есть план. Это ее план. Этот план ее. 7. У нас есть
возможности. Это наши возможности. Эти возможности наши. 8. У него
есть научные статьи. Это его статьи. Эти научные статьи его.

Упражнение 14. Дополните предложения личными и объектными


местоимениями.
Например: I want to see them but they don’t want to see me.
1. He wants to see her but … doesn’t want to see … . 2. You want to see him but
… doesn’t want to see … . 3. They want to see you but … don’t want to see … .
4. She wants to see us but … don’t want to see … . 5. We want to see them but
… don’t want to see … . 6. He wants to talk with her but … doesn’t want to talk
with … . 7. They want to talk with us but … don’t want to talk with … . 8. We
want to talk with you but … don’t want to talk with … .

Упражнение 15. Переведите предложения. Вставьте объектные местоимения по


смыслу.
1. I don’t know these men. Do you know …? 2. Where is Tom? I want to speak
to ... 3. We live in Russia. Our parents live with … . 4. I bought some bread.
Will you take … out of the bag? 5. The children are in the yard. Can you see …?

38
6. I like Jane and Tom. Do you like … ? 7. These people know … and I don’t
know … . 8. We know this actress and she knows … .

Упражнение 16. Вставьте объектные местоимения в правильной форме.


Переведите предложения.
1. Are you talking about … ? (обо мне) 2. Do you know … ? (его) 3. He gave
… a beautiful flower. (ей) 4. He gave … good advice. (мне) 5. He is staring at
… . (на нас) 6. He saw … in the street. (меня) 7. I bought this dress for … .
(для тебя) 8. I know … very well. (его) 9. I sent a letter to … . (им) 10. I want
to go with … . (с вами) 11. She looked at … in silence. (на нас) 12. Show …
the book. (ей) 13. Show the book to … . (ему) 14. Tell … to call me up right
away. (ему) 15. Tell me everything about … (о них)

Упражнение 17. Заполните пробелы соответствующим вопросительным


местоимением who, what, whose, how, when, where.
1. … sits next to Frank? Clara. 2. … does the boy come from? – From
Newcastle. 3. … old are her children? – Seven and ten. 4. … is Peter’s birthday?
– In April, I think. 5. … much is the shirt? – It’s twenty pounds. 6. … is best at
playing tennis? – Bob. 7. … are you going? – To my friends. 8. … much is an
orange juice? – It’s fifty pence. 9. … does the restaurant open? – At six o’clock.
10. … can I get some ice cream? – At the snack bar. 11. … are you going to
order? – Fish and chips. 12. … are you going to do on Saturday? – I don’t know.
13. … has got my pullover? – I have got it. 14. … is your name? – Carol. 15. …
is Susan’s party? – On Friday. 16. … can I do for you? – I want two white T-
shirts. 17. … can I get a newspaper? – At Park Street. 18… is your best friend? –
It’s Paul. 19. … does Nick live? – In Boston. 20. … colour is your new bike? –
It’s blue. 21. … do you collect? – Stamps.

Test yourself
1. Выберете подходящее по смыслу личное местоимение – Look at the children!
… are playing football in the snow!
A. We
B. They
C. You

2. Выберете подходящее личное местоимение – Lisa is Pavel’s friend. Listen! … is


singing!
A. She
B. It
C. He

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3. Выберете подходящее личное местоимение – (My friends and I) are at school.
A. You
B. We
C. They

4. Найдите предложения с объектными местоимениями.


A. Jack’s car is smaller than yours.
B. Look at that! There is a friend of mine.
C. I don’t know what to tell him about her.

5. Выберете подходящее по смыслу местоимение – He is quit right, I agree with …


A. he
B. his
C. him

6. Выберете правильный вариант – Who is that lady? – Why are you looking at … ?
A. she
B. her
C. it

7. Выберете подходящее местоимение – Please, listen to … . I want to express my


point of view.
A. I
B. me
C. my

8. Выберете подходящее местоимение – You can fully rely on … . We won’t let you
down.
A. we
B. us
C. them

9. Выберете подходящее по смыслу местоимение – I hope you enjoy … holiday.


A. his
B. you
C. your

10. Выберете подходящее по смыслу местоимение – Jill and Jack write articles for
… university newspaper.
A. his
B. them
C. their

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11. Замените слова в скобках на притяжательное местоимение – Your exams are
easier than … .
A. our
B. ours
C. theirs

12. Выберете нужную форму притяжательного местоимения – What does your cat
drink? … likes milk.
A. My
B. Mine
C. Yours

13. Найдите предложения с неверными притяжательными местоимениями.


A. The photos on the table are my.
B. Jane is watching her favorite film.
C. We talked about ours problems.

14. Найдите предложения с верными притяжательными местоимениями.


A. I met my friends at the café.
B. That camera is their.
C. This sandwich is his.

15. Выберете подходящее по смыслу местоимение – This house is not mine, mine
is … green cottage next to it.
A. this
B. these
C. that

16. Выберете подходящий вариант перевода – те здания


A. this buildings
B. these buildings
C. that buildings

17. Выберете подходящий вариант перевода – этот перевод


A. this translation
B. these translations
C. that translation

18. Выберете подходящий вариант перевода – то письменное задание


A. this writing task
B. that writing task
C. those writing tasks

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19. Обьясните, какое время описывает местоимение that – Many small companies
went bankrupt that summer.
A. текущий отрезок времени
B. время в прошлом
C. время в будущем

20. Обьясните, какое время описывает местоимение this – This month you are
studying better that last month.
A. текущий отрезок времени
B. время в прошлом
C. время в будущем

21. Какое вопросительное местоимение требует после себя использование


глагола-сказуемого в форме третьего лица единственного числа?
A. what
B. which
C. who

22. Какое местоимение предполагает выбор между ограниченным набором лиц


или предметов:
A. what
B. which
C. who

23. Какое местоимение имеет перевод что и какой?


A. what
B. which
C. how

24. В каком случае вопросительное местоимение who переводится как «кого,


кому» в предложении – Who did you invite?
A. чтобы заменить дополнение в предложении
B. чтобы заменить подлежащее в предложении
C. чтобы указать признак предмета

25. Выберете правильный вариант употребления вопросительного местоимения


в функции определения и определяемого существительного – Какую ручку я
могу взять?
A. What pen I can take?
B. What pen can I take?
C. What can I take a pen?

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LESSON 3

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


-ment; -able / ible; -free; re-

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 3A. Environment protection
Text 3B. Global ecological problems we face today
Text 3C. Ecological Problems of Big Cities

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Времена группы Simple Active / Passive
Функции it / one / that
Степени сравнения прилагательных

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


глагол + -ment =
существительное
Суффикс -ment обозначает действие, состояние, результат действия.
 to enjoy (наслаждаться) → enjoyment (наслаждение)
 to environ (окружать) → environment (окружающая среда)
 to advance (достигать) → advancement (достижение)
to develop – development; to invest – investment; to announce – announcement;
to improve – improvement; to argue – argument; to move – movement.

глагол + -able / -ible =


прилагательное
\

Суффикс -able (-ible) указывает на возможность и значение


«выполнимый».
-Able используется, когда основа слова, к которому присоединяется
суффикс, может использоваться самостоятельно. Если слово оканчивается
на согласный, то он удваивается перед -able.
 to notice (замечать) → noticeable (заметный)
 to advise (советовать) → advisable (целесообразный)
 to read (читать) → readable (читабельный)
 to forget (забывать) → forgettable (незапоминающийся)

43
-Ible присоединяется к основам, которые не используются
самостоятельно или в случае исключения из правил использования -able.
 to access (получать доступ) → accessible (доступный)
 to flex (менять, разминать) → flexible (гибкий)
 to permit (позволять, допускать)→ permissible (допустимый)
to consider – considerable; to use – usable; to rely – reliable; to avail –
available; to comfort – comfortable; to detect – detectable; to divide – divisible;
to fuse – fusible; to deduct – deductible; to digest – digestible; to suggest –
suggestible.
существительное + -free =
прилагательное
Используется со значением «без», «не содержащий».
 sugar (сахар) → sugar-free (без сахара)
 nuclear (ядро)→ nuclear-free (безъядерная зона).
waste – waste-free; smoke – smoke-free; tax – tax-free; duty – duty-free.

re + глагол =
глагол со значением «сделать заново»,
«переделать»
Префикс re- указывает на повторность действия и чаще всего
переводится на русский приставкой «пере-». Часто присоединяется к
глаголам.
 to write (писать) → to rewrite (переписывать)
 to paint (красить) → to repaint (перекрашивать)
 to direct (направлять) → to redirect (перенаправить)
Префикс re- пишется через дефис в следующих случаях:
1. Если слово начинается на букву e: to edit (издавать) – to re-edit
(переиздавать).
2. Если слово с префиксом re- по форме совпадает со словом, которое
имеет совсем другое значение: to re-create (создать заново, воссоздать) –
to recreatе (отдыхать, оздоравливаться, поправляться).
3. Когда слово начинается на заглавную букву: to Re-Christianise
(повторно обратить в христианство).
to use – to reuse; to cover – to re-cover; to enter – to re-enter; to organize –
to reorganize; to do – to redo; to make – to remake; to evaluate – to re-evaluate;
to open – to reopen; to press – to re-press; to read – to reread; to marry –
to remarry.

44
Упражнение 1. Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся
следующие слова.
measurement, possible, visible, movement, desirable, achievement, acceptable,
water-free, suitable, fancy-free, enrollment, value-free, usable, accessible,
amusement, profitable.

Упражнение 2. Назовите глаголы, образованные от следующих слов и


переведите их.
adorable (обожаемый), equipment (оборудование), agreeable (допустимый),
fulfillment (выполнение), available (доступный), management (управление),
believable (правдоподобный), replacement (замена).

Упражнение 3. Переведите слова с префиксом re-.


to rename, renewable, to regroup, reorganization, to re-examine, to rebuild,
to replay, refreshment, rediscovery, recooler, to Re-X-ray, to re-serve,
to rewrite, to reread.

Упражнение 4. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. People face the fact that the media is controlled by the … . to govern
2. There are a lot of …hotels here. fashion
3. You’ve failed the exam. You should … it. to write
4. Brighton is the ideal place for night … . to entertain
5. They enjoy a … lifestyle. to comfort
6. The army was called in to … order. to store
7. The patient felt much better after proper … . treat
8. Such action is neither necessary nor … . to advise
9. … technological process is very cost effective. waste
10. This … is still functional. to equip
11. The … was good but it can’t be compared with the original. to make

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
problem ['prɔbləm], industrial [ɪn'dʌstrɪəl], ecology [iː'kɔləʤɪ], real [rɪəl], planet
['plænɪt], global ['gləubəl], proportion [prə'pɔːʃən], transport [træn'spɔːt], energy
['enəʤɪ], traffic ['træfɪk], limit ['lɪmɪt], toxic ['tɔksɪk], electricity [ˌelek'trɪsətɪ],
plastic ['plæstɪk], technological [ˌteknə'lɔʤɪkəl], process ['prəuses], technology
[tek'nɔləʤɪ], ignore [ɪg'nɔː], experimental [ɪkˌsperɪ'mentəl], special ['speʃəl],

45
resource [rɪ'sɔːs], action ['ækʃən], result [rɪ'zʌlt], atmospheric [ˌætməs'ferɪk],
social ['səuʃəl], carbon ['kɑːbən], dioxide [daɪ'ɔksaɪd], serious ['sɪərɪəs].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


environment [ɪn'vaɪərənmənt], environmental [ɪnˌvaɪərən'mentəl], important
[ɪm'pɔːtənt], development [dɪ'veləpmənt], to create [krɪ'eɪt], huge [hjuːʤ],
amount [ə'maunt], pollutant [pə'luːtənt], to become [bɪ'kʌm], danger ['deɪnʤə],
dangerous ['deɪnʤərəs], acid ['æsɪd], pollution [pə'luːʃən], to threaten ['θretən],
the Earth [ɜːθ], to discuss [dɪ'skʌs], throughout [θru'aut], to suffer ['sʌfə], to
reach [riːʧ], tremendous [trɪ'mendəs], to cause [kɔːz], means [miːnz], factory
['fæktərɪ], plant [plɑːnt], disease [dɪ'ziːz], to appear [ə'pɪə], to damage ['dæmɪʤ],
scientific [ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk], knowledge ['nɔlɪʤ], to eliminate [ɪ'lɪmɪneɪt],
considerable [kən'sɪdərəbl], alternative sources [ɔːl'tɜːnətɪv] [sɔːsiz], to support
[sə'pɔːt], to encourage [ɪn'kʌrɪʤ], efficiently [ɪ'fɪʃəntlɪ], gasoline ['gæsəliːn], to
entangle [ɪn'tæŋgl, en-], fertiliser ['fɜːtɪlaɪzə], eventually [ɪ'venʧuəlɪ], to allow
[ə'lau], recycling [riː'saɪklɪŋ], successfully [sək'sesfulɪ], oceanic [ˌəuʃɪ'ænɪk],
renewable [rɪ'njuːəbl], effort ['efət], measure ['meʒə], success [sək'ses], purifying
['pjuərɪfaɪɪŋ], air [eə], water ['wɔːtə], safeguarding ['seɪfgɑːdɪŋ], circumstance
['sɜːkəmstæns].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


environment protection – защита to dump wastes into – сбрасывать
окружающей среды отходы в
pollutant – загрязняющее вещество down the drain – просто так
global warming – глобальное recycling – переработка
потепление waste-free technologies – безотходные
acid rains – кислотные дожди технологии
pollution – загрязнение воздуха и воды up-to-date – современный
overpopulation – перенаселение to carry out large-scale experimental
to threaten human life – угрожать work – проводить крупномасштабную
человеческой жизни экспериментальную работу
throughout the world – по всему миру to study data on – изучать данные о
to suffer from – страдать от renewable and non-renewable –
to reach tremendous proportions – возобновляемый и невозобновляемый
достигать огромных масштабов to make joint efforts – прилагать
to cause – вызывать, быть причиной совместные усилия
harmful emissions – вредные выбросы to take necessary measures –
to do harm to – наносить вред принимать необходимые меры
to eliminate a problem – устранить to achieve success – достигать успеха
проблему to purify air, water and soil – очищать
alternative sources – альтернативные воздух, воду и почву
источники to safeguard natural resources –
carbon dioxide – углекислый газ сохранять природные ресурсы

46
Text 3A
Прочитайте текст и ответьте, какие виды загрязнений существуют и
какие меры необходимы для успешного решения проблемы защиты окружающей
среды в глобальном масштабе.
Environment Protection
Currently, ecological problems are becoming more and more important.
Due to the development of industrial cities that create a huge amount of
pollutants the problem of ecology has become real. Our planet is in serious
danger these days. Global warming, acid rains, air and water pollution,
overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on Earth. All over
the world people are discussing environmental protection problems and go on
polluting air, water and soil.
It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution
that is now reaching tremendous proportions. It is usually caused by different
means of transport such as cars, buses and planes that are among the worst air
polluters. Factories and plants also pollute air by pouring harmful emissions into
the air causing lung diseases and doing harm to our health. As a result, acid rains
appear and damage forests and soil.
However, our scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it
possible to eliminate it if people use good will and make considerable
investments for that purpose. First of all, people should try to use alternative
sources of energy, such as solar, water or wind energies, or at least to burn
smokeless fuels. There are ways to reduce air pollution caused by road traffic. It
is possible to build more railways and to support public transportation. Also,
people should be encouraged to drive at the speed limit in order to use fuel more
efficiently. Another way is to encourage tree planting because trees absorb
carbon dioxide. Special kinds of gasoline for cars can also help to reduce air
pollution.
Water pollution is as dangerous as air pollution. Factories and plants dump
wastes into rivers and lakes polluting them. Wastes that get into rivers, streams
and oceans can entangle wildlife or be mistaken by them for food and spread
diseases to humans. Rain or excess water can wash fertilisers into rivers and
streams causing excess weeds to grow. There are several things that can be done
to restore polluted waterways back to normal. You should make sure you never
throw anything that could be toxic down the drain or onto soil. Basically, it is
important to remember that anything that gets onto the ground can eventually
end up in a river, lake or stream.
Soil pollution does not allow plants to grow and makes people sick after
they eat fruit and vegetables grown on polluted soil. People also pollute soil by
throwing litter onto it. Forests are full of used bottles and cans. Such litter can be
found in rivers and lakes too which makes wild animals sick and causes their

47
death. This can be stopped if you make sure that you throw litter into recycling
bins and take litter with you after a picnic in a forest or on a river bank.
Everybody should know the rule of three Rs: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
Water and electricity should be reduced. We should reuse whatever we can:
plastic bags, paper, cans, glass and bottles. Paper and plastic, for example, are
also recycled at factories and plants and we get paper and plastic bags made
from recycled materials.
It is impossible to stop technological process, to close all factories and
plants to prevent pollution, but people need to invent new waste-free
technologies that will not damage the environment. There are new inventions
such as self-destructible plastic bags which turn into powder if you keep them
for some time or leave them in the forest. There are up-to-date filters that make
water and air clean and that some factories and plants have started using to
prevent pollution.
We must not ignore the problems of environmental pollution and we have
to make everything possible to stop or at least reduce it. Large-scale
experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.
It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land,
forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It
is the joint efforts of many scientists and special public organizations that can
deal with the problem and take necessary measures to protect the environment.
By means of planned actions of all countries we can eliminate pollution and
achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural
resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political
circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.
It is still a big job and much remains to be done.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. Are the ecological problems important today? 2. What causes air pollution
and what kind of emissions are in the air? 3. How can acid rain be caused?
4. How does acid rain affect our environment? 5. Why are trees important for
life on earth? 6. What kind of climate changes can air pollution cause? 7. What
are the ways of reducing air pollution? 8. How does water pollution occur?
9. What can be done to reduce water pollution? 10. What is soil pollution caused
by? 11. What are the possibilities of reusing waste materials? 12. How can we
get rid of waste of all kinds? 13. What is the role of technology in reducing
pollution?

48
Упражнение 4. Составьте словосочетания, используя слова ниже.
an international program, circumstances, problems, efforts, proportions, pollution,
measures, resources, protection, work, success.
1. ecological …; 2. air and water …; 3. to reach tremendous …; 4. to develop
…; 5. to make joint …; 6. large-scale environmental …; 7. to take necessary …;
8. to achieve …; 9. social and political …; 10. environment …; 11. non-
renewable … .

Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и


переводом этих слов.
to safeguard обстоятельство extremely great, important or strong
advancement очищать facts or information used for making
calculations or decisions
tremendous мера one of two or more available possibilities
to eliminate существенный, a fact or condition connected with or
неотъемлемый relevant to an event or action
data охранять, progress
защищать
essential потрясающий, a plan or course of action taken to achieve
огромный a particular purpose
to purify альтернативный to protect something or someone from
being harmed or having problems.
measure данные completely remove or get rid of
(something)
circumstance устранять completely necessary, most basic and
typical
alternative продвижение, to make something clean by removing
прогресс dirty or harmful substances from it

Text 3B
Прочитайте текст. Укажите отрицательные стороны научно-
технического прогресса. Приведите примеры экологической ситуации в вашей
стране.
Ecological problems we face today
Global warming, climate change, pollution, and ecological balance – these
are some of the major concerns of the ecologists around the world these days.
Following are some common environmental problems that our world faces.
1. Air pollution is one of the world’s biggest environmental problems as it
tends to be a typical byproduct of the modern life. Air pollution is the result of
fossil fuel combustion as well as various gases and toxins released by industries
and factories. The most common air pollutants today are: 1. Ozone – a colorless,

49
odorless gas generated when nitrogen oxides – is found in motor vehicles and
industrial machinery and can trigger health problems including chest pain,
cough, throat irritation, etc; 2. Carbon monoxide – a poisonous gas produced by
the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels – reduces the blood’s oxygen-carrying
capacity; 3. Nitrogen dioxide – a highly reactive gas formed when fuel is burned
at high temperatures (such as in motor vehicle exhaust, electric utilities and
industrial boilers) – reacts with water and oxygen to make nitric acid, one of the
main components of acid rain; 4. Lead is a common element in many
manufactured products. Gasoline and paint are the major sources of lead
emissions.
2. Water pollution is of great importance. Today, we don’t think of water as
something valuable but scientists believe that in the future fresh water will be
able to become as rare and valuable as oil and gold. We take the supply of fresh
running water for granted in our homes today; however, we don’t really
understand how important water is for life. As the world’s population increases,
freshwater systems around the world will become more stressed. At the current
rate of pollution and overpopulation, scientists speculate that two thirds of the
world’s population may have difficulty accessing clean drinking water by 2050.
3. Climate changes affect our world. A majority of the scientists, ecologists
and environmentalists around the world believe that the global climate is
changing and it’s mainly because of human activities. When carbon dioxide
(CO2) is released into the atmosphere, it acts like a blanket preventing heat from
escaping. This buildup of CO2 leads to one of most obvious impacts of climate
change: a global warming. Climate changes like global warming are the result of
human practices like emission of greenhouse gases. Global warming leads to
rising temperatures of the oceans and the earth’ surface causing melting of polar
ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as
flash floods, excessive snow or desertification.
4. Loss of biodiversity is one more global problem. Our activities are
directly impacting the ecology and biodiversity of the earth. Deforestation,
pollution of land, air, and water, over fishing, hunting, climate change, and
unplanned agriculture, all affect natural evolution and biodiversity, giving rise to
more serious ecological imbalances. Humans have destroyed and are
continuously destroying wildlife and habitat and causing damage to biodiversity.
5. Overpopulation is one of the crucial problems. The population of the
planet is reaching unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like
water, fuel and food. Population explosion in less developed and developing
countries is straining scarce resources. Intensive agriculture practiced to produce
food damages the environment through use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides and
insecticides.

50
Text 3C
Прочитайте текст. Приведите примеры экологической ситуации в вашем
городе.
Ecological Problems of Big Cities
The ecological aspect of urbanization is reflected in the fact that cities are
increasingly concentrating all types of environmental pollution having a direct
and indirect effect on large areas. The development of urbanization has led to
the formation of zones of active interaction of territorial communities of people
with the environment. The result of this is the pollution and destruction of the
components of the natural environment, primarily due to the production and
communal activities of the population and the deterioration of the natural
conditions of people’s lives. The growth of population, industrial enterprises and
cars are accompanied by significant changes in natural landscapes and
conditions in cities and suburbs, the occurrence of specific natural phenomena in
them, and the deterioration of the ecological qualities of the urban environment.
It is important to note that the larger the city is, the stronger the
environmental conditions are, the more difficult it is to solve environmental
problems. Compared to the countryside, most cities in the world have the worst
environmental conditions for human life. This is due to the fact that all the
components of nature in cities are changed by human activities. The modern city
with its powerful social and economic and engineering infrastructure is
becoming one of the main reasons for environmental degradation. Citizens face
such serious problems as poor health and a decline in living standards. It is the
change in the health of city residents that is not only an indicator of the
ecological state of the supercity, but also its most important social and economic
consequence which should determine leading directions for improving the
quality of the environment. In general, many factors affect the health of citizens,
especially the characteristic features of the urban lifestyle – physical inactivity,
increased stress on the nervous system, transport fatigue, and a number of
others, but most of all is environmental pollution.
The first and certainly the most obvious problem caused by urbanization is
air pollution. Transport is a huge source of air pollution in megacities, since
along with the development of living standards in the countries the number of
cars is growing.
Water and soil are in critical condition as well. This is influenced by car
exhaust emissions, a lot of household waste and landfills in the city, industrial
emissions and waste dumping into the rivers. Enterprises, power plants, sewer
systems and domestic wastewaters form a real waste river which the outdated
treatment technology cannot handle.
Modern people are so used to the endless noise from construction work,
sound advertising, sounds of the highway, etc., that they do not even notice the
harmful effects. However, such pressure seriously affects the human nervous

51
system. In turn, LED advertising, working around the clock, the flickering lights
of shopping centers and entertainment complexes also greatly loosen nerves,
lead to headaches, sleep disorders and other diseases.
Thus, considering the city as an integral system, three aspects can be
distinguished that determine the environmental safety of the urban population:
the pollution of the atmosphere by enterprises and transport, the low quality of
drinking water, and food products inadequacy to the necessary standards.
However, if the consumption of drinking water or food still implies the
possibility of quality control and management (a person can choose what to
use), the ecological state of the atmosphere in the modern city continues to
deteriorate under the pressure of transport and other technogenic factors, greatly
limiting the ability to manage the situation.

Упражнение 6. A. Назовите 10-15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему


“Environment Protection”.
B. Составьте сообщение на тему:
1. Global ecological problems. 2. Environment protection must be global. 3. The
problem of clean water in your town. 4. The problem of waste disposal in your
town. 5. Measures to solve a problem of air pollution in your town.

Упражнение 7. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


Large-scale and global environmental hazards to human health reach
tremendous proportions and include global warming, climate change, ozone
depletion, air and water pollution, changes in ecosystems due to loss of
biodiversity, land degradation and overpopulation. Up-to-date appreciation of
this scale and type of influence on human health requires a new perspectives
which focuse on waste-free technologies production as well as development of
renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. Protecting health from global
environmental change requires management at many levels from the social and
economic drivers of environmental change to the resulting hazards and
exposures for human populations. It is necessary to carry out large-scale
experimental work in the field of purifying air, water and soil, safeguarding
natural resources and taking care of our nature by stopping dumping wastes into
rivers and harmful emissions into the atmosphere. We can achieve success only
on the level of world community taking necessary measures in protecting the
environment.

52
Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)
Упражнение 1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в правильную форму
Present Simple.
1. I … (to like) spending my free time outside. 2. This scientist … (to develop)
a new theory. 3. We … (to want) to achieve a success in this field. 4. You …
(to work) very hard every day. 5. My partner … (to spend) much time on
inventing this device. 6. They … (to take) part in scientific conferences once a
month. 7. I … (to visit) international meetings every year. 8. He … (to want) to
become a highly-qualified specialist in his field. 9. My scientific work …
(to be) of great importance. 10. Her achievements… (to help) her in her work.
11. We … (to invite) foreign participants to the conference. 12. You …
(to know) this distinguished scientist. 13. They … (to go) to English courses on
Sundays. 14. We … (to have) our English lessons twice a week. 15. He …
(to have) many publications in different magazines and journals.

Упражнение 2. Составьте противоположные предложения в Present Simple.


1. The scientists do research in the field of computer engineering. 2. I like the
way he lives and works. 3. She doesn’t work on Sundays. 4. My friends don’t
visit me. 5. You have an important task. 6. My boss works overtime. 7. We
don’t travel very often. 8. He sometimes uses dictionary while translating texts.
9. Our colleagues like our new office. 10. I go to the theatre very often. 11. My
neighbor listens to the music late at night. 12. She doesn’t like modern art.
13. They prefer visiting the exhibition. 14. My cat sleeps all day long. 15. She
doesn’t spend much time shopping.

Упражнение 3. Заполните предложения do или does.


1. What colour … you like? 2. Where … she work? 3. Where … your parents
live? 4. What kind of films … you prefer? 5. … he play football at the
weekends? 6. How … your friends spend their free time? 7. … Allan have green
eyes? 8. What time … she return from work? 9. What university … you study
at? 10. … you have breakfast in the morning? 11. Where … they put their key?
12. …your son often go to the gym? 13. … this girl and that boy get on well?
14. … your friend know any celebrities? 15. What subject … you study at the
university?

Упражнение 4. Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в


утвердительную форму Past Simple.
1. I … (to do) morning exercises yesterday. 2. He … (to work) at a factory last
year. 3. She … (to sleep) after dinner. 4. We … (to work) part-time 5 days ago.
5. They … (to drink) tea every day last week. 6. Mike … (to be) a student last

53
year. 7. Helen … (to buy) a car last month. 8. You … (to see) your friend
yesterday. 9. You … (to be) at Moscow 2 years ago. 10. It … (to be) a good day
yesterday.

Упражнение 5. Поставьте данные предложения в Past Simple в отрицательную


форму.
1. My working day began at six o’clock. 2. It took me much time to get there.
3. I had breakfast at seven o’clock. 4. I left home at half past seven. 5. I took a
bus to the institute. 6. They played football at the institute. 7. Classes started at
eight. 8. We had four classes yesterday. 9. I drove there very fast. 10. She
prepared for the test.

Упражнение 6. Сделайте предложения в Past Simple вопросительными.


Например: They passed all their exams successfully. – Did they pass all their exams
successfully?
1. He made some mistakes. 2. He turned on the radio. 3. They visited Moscow
one month ago. 4. Anna talked to me last Sunday. 5. I did my maths homework
yesterday. 6. You called Kate. 7. Mark worked yesterday. 8. She traveled to
Japan last year. 9. They lived in Texas. 10. She saw a movie yesterday.

Упражнение 7. Напишите отрицание и вопрос к предложениям в Future Simple.


Например: They will take all the necessary books. – They will not take all the
necessary books. – Will they take all the necessary books?
1. My friends will visit the conference next Monday. 2. The weather will be
good tomorrow. 3. We will take an exam next week. 4. You will go to the park
today. 5. Ben will be at the university in 10 minutes. 6. You will call me
tomorrow. 7. He will play chess tomorrow. 8. I will see him next week.
9. The conditions will be fine next month. 10. We will go to England next year.

Упражнение 8. Поставьте следующие предложения в Past Simple и Future


Simple, добавляя слова last/next year, last/next week, yesterday, tomorrow и т.д.
1. I go for a walk every day. 2. Many cities throughout the world suffer from air
pollution. 3. Ecological problems reach tremendous proportions. 4. Many
factories pour harmful emissions into the rivers. 5. Acid rains damage forests
and soil. 6. Scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it
possible to eliminate global ecological problems. 7. People pollute nature by
throwing litter everywhere. 8. To save the planet people reuse whatever they
can. 9. Scientists invent new waste-free technologies. 10. They take necessary
measures to protect the environment.

54
Упражнение 9. Поставьте сказуемое в отрицательную форму.
1. They achieved successes in purifying air, water and soil. 2. They will reduce
air pollution caused by traffic. 3. They try to use fuel more efficiently. 4. Today
we face a lot of environmental problems. 5. He took all the necessary books
about ecology. 6. Global climate changed because of human activities. 7. Our
planet will face shortage of resources like water, fuel and food in the nearest
future because of careless attitude to the nature. 8. We have lectures, seminars
and course works on such subjects as ecology and material science. 9. Intensive
agriculture damaged the environment through use of chemicals. 10. Many
factors will affect the health of citizens.

Упражнение 10. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в Present, Past, Future


Simple.
1. My brother … (to go) to work every day. He … (to leave) home at seven
o’clock. His office … (to be) near our house and he … (to walk) there. He …
(not to take) a bus. Yesterday he … (not to go) to work because he … (to have)
a day-off so he … (to get) up at nine o’clock. 2. Yesterday my father … (not to
read) newspapers because he … (to be) very busy. He … (to read) newspapers
tomorrow. 3. I … (not to go) to the university every day. Sometimes I … (to
have) days-off. Yesterday I … (not to have) classes at the university but there …
(to be) three tutorials. 4. Yesterday Liza … (to have) many things to do. Today
she … (to be) exhausted. She … (to want) to go on holiday now. 5. Sue lives life
to the full. Last month she … (to be) in Germany. Today she … (to be) in
London. Tomorrow she … (to visit) Rome. Next week she … (to be) in Greece.
6. They … (to complete) this work in two weeks. That is why next week they …
(to work) without days off. 7. Her parents … (to live) in the village in a three-
storeyed house with a large garden around it two years ago. Then they … (to
move) to the town. They … (to plan) to go on a trip around Prague to see
sightseeing in the Czech Republic. 8. My life … (to be) very exciting and
interesting. I … (to meet) a lot of people every day and … (to travel) a lot.
9. They … (to discuss) an important problem tomorrow at the meeting. 10. Swan
… (to buy) new clothes yesterday. He … (to be) very glad that he … (to find)
what he was looking for.

Упражнение 11. A. Поставьте общие вопросы к предложениям


A. 1. You will go to the library tomorrow. 2. They took necessary measures to
protect the environment last year. 3. He works at the university every day.
4. They built a new library a year ago. 5. Global warming leads to rising
temperatures of the oceans and the earth’s surface. 6. Fossil fuel consumption
will result in emission of greenhouse gases over the next few years. 7. Climate
change has various harmful effects. 8. Human activity caused the extinction of

55
species. 9. These measures will help in regulating temperature and rainfall.
10. These toxic gases reach the upper atmosphere.

B. Вставьте соответствующие вопросительные слова, дайте ответы на


получившиеся вопросы.
1. … is your name? 2. … are you good at? 3. … are you interested in? 4. … do
you like reading? 5. … knows the answer to this question? 6. … did he do this
task? 7. … did they talk about? 8. … will they finish this project? 9. … can we
meet? 10. … must he write? 11. … should they go to this lecture? 12. … were
you last night? 13. … doesn’t understand this rule? 14. … did the group of
students see yesterday? 15. … did he buy at the supermarket? 16. … were you
born? 17. … lectures you on mathematics? 18. Here are the books. … is yours?

Упражнение 12. Определите время и залог. Переведите предложения.


1. Students ask the lecturer many questions. The lecturer is asked many
questions. 2. Thomas Edison invented a lighting bulb. A lighting bulb was
invented by Thomas Edison. 3. Scientists carry out many unusual experiments.
Many unusual experiments are carried out by scientists. 4. Pushkin wrote a lot of
famous novels. A lot of famous novels were written by Pushkin. 5. Popov
invented the radio in 1895. The radio was invented by Popov in 1895. 6. They
will introduce a new system of education next year. A new system of education
will be introduced next year.7. We must finish our work as soon as possible. Our
work must be finished as soon as possible. 8. They do research every month.
Research is done every month. 9. We will finish our work in the evening. Our
work will be finished in the evening. 10. You can do this exercise. This exercise
can be done by you.

Упражнение 13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


страдательного залога. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и
отрицательную формы.
1. They were told to do their work quickly. 2. It is a big international company.
Two thousand people are employed by it. 3. A lot of money was spent to carry
out this project. 4. This flat is cleaned every day 5. I am invited to parties very
often but I don’t like noisy companies. 6. This book will be translated into
several languages. 7. New methods were developed. 8. Much attention must be
paid to improvement of standards. 9. A country must be provided with highly-
qualified specialists. 10. Electricity is widely used nowadays. 11. This document
will be checked later. 12. An experiment was conducted successfully.

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Упражнение 14. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в
страдательный залог. Переведите предложения.
1. They take necessary measures to protect the environment. 2. We develop a
new international program. 3. He achieved success in his field. 4. Factories and
plants pollute air. 5. They will study data on all resources. 6. Students carried
out practical work. 7. We must safeguard natural resources for future
generations. 8. They purify water for domestic purposes. 9. He will eliminate a
problem within 2 hours. 10. He made efforts to solve this problem.

Упражнение 15. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в


страдательный залог, обращая внимание на место предлога. Переведите
предложения.
Например: We often speak about her. – She is often spoken about. (О ней часто
говорят.)
1. We will take care of our grandmother. 2. They often refer to his scientific
discovery. 3. They will carry out this work tomorrow. 4. They insisted on this
experiment. 5. The scientists listened to him with great attention. 6. She will
send for the documents next week. 7. Today people speak about this poet much.
8. Parents looked for the child everywhere. 9. Teachers paid attention to the
work of this student. 10. His friends always wait for him.

Упражнение 16. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в


страдательный залог, обращая внимание на прямое и косвенное дополнение в
роли подлежащего.
Например: They showed (1) us (2) a new film. (Они показали нам новый фильм)
1) We were shown a new film. (Нам показали новый фильм)
2) A new film was shown (to) us. (Нам был показан новый фильм)
1. They offer him the job. 2. She will send you a fax. 3. They show me new
equipment. 4. Someone gave her a book. 5. The teacher will give the students
extra lessons. 6. They should send you a receipt. 7. Students asked a lecturer
many questions. 8. They will write a letter to him. 9. She told her friend a secret.
10. They awarded a gold medal to top 10 universities.

Упражнение 17. Переведите предложения с it в различных функциях.


1. It is summer. It is warm outside. 2. It is the most interesting article on this
subject. We will discuss it next week. 3. It is important to understand this
grammar rule. 4. Scientists find it necessary to solve this problem. 5. It is joint
efforts of all countries that can deal with the problem of pollution. 6. It is the
25th of March now but it seems that it is winter because of the cold and snowy
weather. 7. Electricity is universal. It is necessary to say that it is the most
efficient sources of power. 8. It is known that electricity has a range of

57
advantages: it is clean, cheap and easily-regulated. 9. What is it? It is an electric
motor – a new source of electric power. 10. It is the invention of an engine that
started the first industrial revolution. 11. Mathematics is studied at all technical
universities and every engineer must know it well. 12. The use of new methods
and equipment made it possible to solve this problem and even eliminate it.

Упражнение 18. Переведите предложения с one в различных функциях.


1. Engineer is one the most important professions, the one that is taught at
technical universities. 2. If one doesn’t work hard, he can’t achieve success.
3. These methods are highly efficient, but those ones are even better. 4. One
must present his report to the end of July. 5. I have a watch, a very good one.
6. We must do only one exercise now. 7. One cannot translate this article
without a dictionary. 8. One destroys nature without thinking about future
generations. 9. There are several interesting articles in your specialty here.
Translate the one our professor has spoken about. 10. One must study well to get
grants every month.

Упражнение 19. Переведите предложения с that в различных функциях.


1. This method of work is much more efficient than that of your team. 2. That
the launching of the manned space ship is the greatest achievement of the Soviet
science is clear to everybody. 3. The fact is that turbo-jet and turbo-prop planes
can fly at greater speed which adds to the passenger’s comfort. 4. The machines
that you see are produced by our machine-building plant. 5. That professor is
our lecturer on mathematics. 6. It is the high qualification of future specialists
that will determine the scientific and technological progress of any country. 7. It
is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution.
8. People need to invent new waste-free technologies that will not damage the
environment. 9. It is the joint efforts of many special public organizations that
can solve the problem environment protection. 10. It is necessary to take into
consideration the positive experiences of international systems existing for
different means of transport.

Упражнение 20. Определите функции it, one, that, переведите предложения.


1. Modern machines are better than the old ones. 2. She says that she did not get
this letter. 3. He finds it useful to read and translate much English literature.
4. That the level of sulphur dioxide in the air is high is evident to all. 5. These
pictures are as nice as those that you painted last month. 6. It was Lomonosov
who first determined the existence of atmosphere round Venus. 7. That
experiment carried out by our scientists was successful. 8. Atomic energy can
serve people but one should never forget that energy can also destroy the world.
9. Take a dictionary; it is difficult to translate this text without it. 10. I have read

58
your article and found it very interesting. 11. The speaker touched upon only
one important problem – the state of higher education in Great Britain.
12. Scientists develop new processes and improve old ones to produce better
kinds of steel. 13. They know that the number of cars is growing all the time.
14. I find it necessary to read these articles. 15. That there are many
environmental problems in the world is a well-known fact. 16. People who study
languages like those that play the piano must have much practice. 17. It was
Mendeleyev who established the periodic table of elements. 18. That lecture will
give you more information than any book. 19. One can easily regulate the speed
of this machine. 20. It was clear that computers could perform the work that man
could not. 21. One of the most useful applications of Ohm’s law is the
measuring of resistance.

Упражнение 21. Сгруппируйте прилагательные-синонимы со сходными


значениями.
fast (быстрый); dirty (грязный); angry (сердитый); clever (умный); hot (горячий);
big (большой).
large, smart, warm, filthy, evil, huge, intelligent, quick, humid, dusty, massive,
furious, ardent, wise, polluted, speedy, enormous, savvy, heated, ill-tempered,
vast, rapid, witty, muddy, enraged, stuffy, swift, bulky, greasy, gifted, annoyed,
torrid, prompt.

Упражнение 22. Распределите прилагательные по тематическим категориям.


1. A man’s character (характер человека); 2. Appearance (внешность); 3. Colours
(цвета); 4. Taste (вкус); 5. Sound (звук); 6. Object’s quality (качество предмета).
savoury, loud, ugly, bossy, solid, violet, mute, aggressive, graceful, sour,
cheerful, silver, noisy, smooth, evil, scarlet, spicy, handsome, responsible,
sticky, silent, shy, pink, squeaky, mad, fluffy, fruity, beautiful, jealous, emerald,
skinny, bitter, careless, wet, pretty, deafening, purple, soft, polite, sweet,
attractive, ivory, brave, greasy, slim, salty, beige, moody, creaky, glamorous,
serious

Упражнение 23. Допишите недостающие формы прилагательных.


small
younger
the thinnest
taller
fine
newer
the busiest
more suitable

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good
the worst
many
less
sensitive
the most charming
more expensive
comfortable

Упражнение 24. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную


степень.
1. He is … (young) than my brother. 2. This new building is … (large) than that
one. 3. What’s the temperature? I think today is … (hot) day than it was
yesterday. 4. This is a … (interesting) book than the previous one! 5. She is …
(good) than I used to think. 6. The weather today is … (bad) than yesterday.
7. The house in the mountains was … (cosy) compared to the house we rented at
the seaside. 8. New York streets are … (busy) than Philadelphian ones. 9. A …
(clever) student will get an opportunity to go to the contest.

Упражнение 25. Используйте превосходную степень прилагательных.


Например: It’s a very good room. It is the best room in the hotel.
1. It’s a very cheap restaurant. It’s … (the town). 2. It was a very happy day. It
was … (my life). 3. She’s a very intelligent student. She … (the class). 5. It’s a
very valuable painting. It … (the gallery). 6. Spring is a very busy time for me.
It … (the year). 7. This house is big. It is … (I have ever seen). 8. We work in
the profitable company. It is … (the world).

Упражнение 26. Раскройте скобки, выбирая правильную форму


прилагательного.
1. This man is … (tall) than a. taller b. the tallest c. more tall
that one.
2. Asia is … (large) than a. more large b. the largest c. larger
Australia.
3. The Volga is … (short) than a. shortter b. shorter c. more short
the Mississippi.
4. Mary is a … (good) student a. gooder b. better c. more good
than Lucy.
5. This garden is the … a. beautifulest b. more c. most
(beautiful) in our town. beautiful beautiful
6. She speaks Italian … (good) a. the best b. gooder c. better
than English.

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7. Spanish is … (easy) than a. easyer b. easier c. more easy
German.
8. This book is … (interesting) a. the most b. interesting c. more
of all I have read this year. interesting interesting
9. January is … (cold) month a. colder b. the most cold c. the coldest
of the year.
10. My sister speaks English a. bader b. worse c. more bad
… (bad) than I do.
11. A bus is … (fast) than a a. faster b. more fast c. the fastest
tram.
12. The … (tall) trees in the a. most tall b. taller c. tallest
world grow in California.
13. Who is the … (attentive) a. attentivest b. most c. more
student in your group? attentive attentive
14. It is autumn. Every day the a. colder b. more cold c. the coldest
air becomes … (cold).

Упражнение 27. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


сравнительных союзов than, as … as, not so … as.
1. It is nicer to walk with someone than to go alone. 2. She has more good marks
than he has. 3. Learning English is more difficult than most people think.
4. Their house is twice as big as ours. 5. These boxes are not as heavy as those
ones. 6. It is sometimes better to walk than to take a bus. 7. In winter days are
not so long as in summer. 8. A mountain is higher than a hill. 9. I need the
information quickly, so please let me know as soon as possible. 10. Italy is not
as big as Germany. 11. Chemistry is as difficult as physics. 12. I like to keep fit
so I go swimming as often as I can. 13. His second book was not so good as the
first one.

Упражнение 28. Переведите обороты в сравнительной степени на русский язык.


1. The sooner, the better. 2. The harder we study, the more we know. 3. The
more you work, the better you know English. 4. The more we study nature, the
more we know about it. 5. The nearer the earth is, the denser the atmosphere is.
6. The stronger the wind is, the harder the conditions of work for weather
observers are. 7. The quicker we finish, the sooner we will go home. 8. The
bigger the cities are, the greater the pollution is. 9. The more cars are in the
streets, the worse the air in the cities is. 10. The bigger the city is, the more
opportunities you can get.

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Test Yourself
1. Выберете правильную форму глаголов в форме 3 лица единственного числа –
to study / to play / to watch.
A. studies / plaies / watchs
B. studies / plays / watches
C. studyes / plays / watches

2. Выберете правильный вариант отрицательного предложения – He likes going in


for walk.
A. He doesn’t likes going in for walk.
B. He doesn’t like going in for walk.
C. He don’t likes going in for walk.

3. Составьте общий вопрос к следующему предложению – He goes to the


university every day.
A. Do he go to the university every day?
B. Does he goes to the university every day?
C. Does he go to the university every day?

4. Выберете подходящий вспомогательный глагол – … she come tomorrow?


A. Does
B. Did
C. Will

5. Выберете подходящий вспомогательный глагол – … they visit this museum


yesterday?
A. Does
B. Did
C. Will

6. Выберете подходящий вспомогательный глагол – … she do her homework every


day?
A. Does
B. Do
C. Did

7. Выберете подходящий маркер времени – They passed all their exams … .


A. next semester
B. last semester
C. every month

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8. Выберете подходящий маркер времени – They will call you … .
A. two days ago
B. the day after tomorrow
C. every day

9. Переведите – I was given good advice.


A. Мне дали хороший совет.
B. Я дал хороший совет.
C. Мне дают хороший совет.

10. Выберете правильную форму – This work … every day.


A. will be done
B. is done
C. was done

11. Определите время и залог – Students ask the lecturer many questions.
A. Present Simple / Passive
B. Past Simple / Passive
C. Present Simple / Active

12. Определите время и залог – An experiment will be carried out.


A. Present Simple / Passive
B. Future Simple / Passive
C. Future Simple / Active

13. Определите время и залог – Students were told to go there.


A. Past Simple / Passive
B. Past Simple / Active
C. Present Simple / Passive

14. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в страдательный –


They will invite him to the conference.
A. He will invited to the conference by them.
B. He will be invited to the conference by them.
C. He will invite to the conference by them.

15. Преобразуйте предложения из страдательного залога в действительный –


This exercise can be done by him.
A. He can does this exercise.
B. He can done this exercise.
C. He can do this exercise.

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16. Определите функции one и that – One must know that these rays produce a
harmful effect on man.
A. Числительное / указательное местоимение
B. Неопределенное местоимение / союз доп. придаточного предложения
C. Заменитель существительного / относительное местоимение

17. Определите функции it и that – It is important to know that there four seasons in
a year.
A. указательное местоимение / относительное местоимение
B. формальное подлежащее / союз доп. придаточного предложения
C. формальное подлежащее / союз подлежащего придаточного предложения

18. В каком предложении it употребляется в функции формального


подлежащего?
A. It will be important to practice in a laboratory.
B. I find it necessary to read these articles.
C. It is he who tells the truth.

19. Найдите предложение с усилительной конструкцией.


A. It was clear that computers could perform the work faster.
B. It is industrialization that makes ecological problems very serious.
C. It is known that he works a lot.

20. Найдите предложение с неопределенно-личным местоимением one.


A. I have only one task to do.
B. It is necessary to say that one should read a lot.
C. I have a lot of Russian books as well as foreign ones.

21. Найдите предложение с относительным местоимением.


A. The device that is used here is very important.
B. That man is a stranger in this city.
C. I think that you are right.

22. Выберете правильный вариант – Every year The Guinness Book of World
Records announces … person in the world.
A. most higher
B. the highest
C. highest

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23. Выберете правильный вариант – This chair is … than the other one.
A. much comfortable
B. very comfortable
C. more comfortable

24. Выберете правильный вариант – The harder he works, … he becomes.


A. very successful
B. the more successful
C. the most successful

25. Выберете правильный вариант – Their car was twice as … as ours.


A. more expensive
B. expensive
C. the most expensive

26. Выберете правильный вариант – I’ve heard James playing the piano. He doesn’t
seem to be getting … .
A. gooder
B. the best
C. better

27. Выберете правильный вариант – For … information call our assistant.


A. farther
B. furthest
C. further

28. Выберете превосходную степень слова good.


A. best
B. the best
C. better

29. Выберете сравнительную степень слова bad.


A. worse
B. the worst
C. the worse

30. Выберете положительную степень слова more.


A. the most
B. many
C. much

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LESSON 4
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- en; un- / in- / im-

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 4A. Electricity
Text 4B. A Great Inventor of the World
Text 4C. Russian Inventors that changed the world
Text 4D. Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Времена группы Continuous Active / Passive
Предлоги места и направления

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


прилагательное или существительное + -en =
глагол
Суффикс -en имеет значения «становиться», «использовать»,
«воздействовать».
 hard (твердый) → harden (делать(ся) твердым)
 weak (слабый) → weaken (слабеть, ослабевать)
 short (короткий) → shorten (укорачивать, укорачиваться)
fast – to fasten; soft – to soften; threat – threaten; fright – to frighten; glad – to
gladden; length – to lengthen; height – to heighten; wide – to widen.

un- / in- / im- + прилагательное =


прилагательное-антоним
Префиксы un-, in-, im- используются для образования отрицательной
формы слова или его антонима. В предложении их можно заменить
отрицательной частицей not.
 I am unable to do this. (Я не в силах сделать это) → I am not able to
do this. (Я не в силах сделать это)
 It’s impossible! (Этого не может быть!) → It’s not possible! (Этого
не может быть!)
Префикс un- используется чаще всего и присоединяется к словам,
начинающимся как с гласной, так и с согласной букв. Не существует

66
четкого правила, когда и где его нужно употреблять. Поэтому слова с этим
префиксом нужно просто запоминать. Но существуют некоторые частные
случаи, например, префикс un- всегда используется со словами, которые
заканчиваются на -ed или -able.
 known (известный) → unknown (неизвестный)
 comfortable (комфортный) → uncomfortable (некомфортный)
 prepared (готовый) → unprepared (неготовый)
Префикс in- используется со словами, которые начинаются на гласные
(кроме i и u) и согласные, а также перед сочетанием букв ac (исключение:
unacceptable) и согласной с.
 accurate (точный) → inaccurate (неточный)
 organic (органический) → inorganic (неорганический)
 appropriate (подходящий) → inappropriate (неподходящий)
 capable (способный) → incapable (неспособный)
Префикс im- присоединяется к словам, которые начинаются только на
согласные m и p.
 mobile (подвижный) → immobile (недвижимый)
 possible (возможный) → impossible (невозможный)
 polite (вежливый) → impolite (невежливый)
definite – indefinite; active – inactive; capable – incapable; correct – incorrect;
reliable – unreliable; important – unimportant; usable – unusable; helpful –
unhelpful; usual – unusual; limited – unlimited; necessary – unnecessary;
personal – impersonal; practical – impractical; patient – impatient; material –
immaterial.

Упражнение 1. Допишите отрицательные приставки следующим


прилагательным.
an ...friendly look; an …interesting book; an …natural colour; an …important
task; an …possible answer; an …personal letter; an …definite article;
an …correct answer; …direct speech; …accurate data; an …known author;
an …appropriate joke.

Упражнение 2. Замените фразы одним словом.


Например: not countable – uncountable
not necessary – ; not safe – ; not tidy – ; not breakable – ; not real – ;
not expensive – ; not happy – ; not possible – ; not usual – ; not comfortable – ;
not direct – ; not interesting – ; not patient – ; not convenient – ; not popular – .

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Упражнение 3. Подберите к данным прилагательным сначала слова с
противополным значением, а потом синонимы по образцу.
Например: friendly – unfriendly – hostile
Прилагательные: friendly, usual, doubtful, expensive, correct, clean,
interesting, natural, healthy, important, polite.
Синонимы: artificial, rude, dirty, cheap, wrong, extraordinary, boring,
confident, sick, insignificant, hostile.

Упражнение 4. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. It’s … to predict the future. possible
2. Saltwater intrusion may not only damage arable land but threat
also … water supplies.
3. She could see a figure sitting … , facing the sea. mobile
4. Hard water may be … . to soft
5. Explorers penetrated deep into … regions. to know
6. The cold … the butter. hard
7. The report has been criticized as … and … . accurate
complete
8. I am … to take on such a responsibility. prepared
9. He has just … the papers together with a paper clip. fast
10. It is … for you to wear shorts at a formal reception. appropriate
11. It is … to interrupt someone who is speaking. polite
12. His influence on modern art is … . questionable
13. The city is going to … the road. wide
14. The plan will only … tensions between the two groups. height

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
electricity [ˌelek'trɪsətɪ], form [fɔːm], energy ['enəʤɪ], mechanical [mɪ'kænɪkəl],
generation [ˌʤenə'reɪʃən], kerosene ['kerəsiːn], lamp [læmp], experiment
[ɪk'sperɪmənt], Philadelphia [ˌfɪlə'delfɪə], principle ['prɪnsəpl], distance ['dɪstəns],
efficiently [ɪ'fɪʃəntlɪ], business ['bɪznɪs], dynamo ['daɪnəməu], machine [mə'ʃiːn],
transmission [træns'mɪʃən], distribution [ˌdɪstrɪ'bjuːʃən], commercial [kə'mɜːʃəl],
industrial [ɪn'dʌstrɪəl], activity [æk'tɪvətɪ], laser ['leɪzə], technological
[ˌteknə'lɔʤɪkəl], function ['fʌŋkʃən], television ['telɪvɪʒən], computer
[kəm'pjuːtə], controllable [kən'trəuləbl], regulated ['regjəleɪtɪd].

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Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.
widely ['waɪdlɪ], source [sɔːs], conversion [kən'vɜːʃ(ə)n], nuclear ['njuːklɪə],
primary ['praɪm(ə)rɪ], alongside [əˌlɔŋ'saɪd], wheel [wiːl], slightly ['slaɪtlɪ], wood
[wud], burning ['bɜːnɪŋ], stove [stəuv], kite [kaɪt], stormy ['stɔːmɪ], gradually
['grædjuəlɪ], bulb [bʌlb], lighting ['laɪtɪŋ], moreover [mɔː(r)'əuvə], whole [həul],
range [reɪnʤ], various ['veərɪəs], labour ['leɪbə], appliance [ə'plaɪəns], supply
[sə'plaɪ], require [rɪ'kwaɪə], aircraft ['eəkrɑːft], advantage [əd'vɑːntɪʤ], easily
['iːzɪlɪ], by-product ['baɪˌprɔdʌkt], cover ['kʌvə], advance [əd'vɑːns], truly
['truːlɪ], provide [prə'vaɪd], mankind [ˌmæn'kaɪnd], importance [ɪm'pɔːtəns],
rarely ['reəlɪ], granted [grɑ͟ːntɪd], heating ['hiːtɪŋ], cooling ['kuːlɪŋ], convenient
[kən'viːnɪənt].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


to be widely used – быть в широком to be located far from – быть
использовании расположенным далеко от
an energy source – источник энергии transmission – передача
conversion – преобразование distribution – распределение
coal – уголь advantage – преимущество
natural gas – природный уголь to generate by-products –
oil – нефть вырабатывать побочные продукты
nuclear power – ядерная энергия to cover all fields of human activity –
invention – изобретение охватывать все области человеческой
an electric light bulb – электрическая деятельности
лампочка recent technological advances –
outdoor lighting – наружное освещение недавние технические достижения
indoor lighting – внутреннее to take for granted – считать само
освещение собой разумеющимся
a whole range of – целый ряд heating – отопление
time and labour saving appliances – cooling – охлаждение
приборы, экономящие время и труд application – применение
to become a part of our everyday lives – to solve a problem – решать проблему
стать частью повседневной жизни to be based on – быть основанным на
over long distances – на большие
расстояния

Text 4A
Прочитайте текст и назовите важные изобретения в области
электротехники. Переведите текст.
Electricity
Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used
forms of energy. We get electricity which is a secondary energy source from the
conversion of other sources of energy like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power
and other natural sources which are called primary sources. Many cities and

69
towns were built near waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that
turned the movement of water wheels to perform work. Before electricity
generation began over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food
was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-
burning stoves. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin’s experiment with a kite one
stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became
understood. In the mid-1800s, everyone’s life changed with the invention of the
electric light bulb. Prior to 1879, electricity had been used in arc lights for
outdoor lighting. Thanks to the development of the electric lamp by Thomas
Edison this invention used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes.
Moreover, a whole range of various time and labour saving appliances based on
electricity have become a part of our everyday lives.
To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, George
Westinghouse developed a device called a transformer. It allowed electricity to
be efficiently transmitted over long distances. This made it possible to supply
electricity to homes and businesses located far from the electric generating plant.
One more important invention in the field of electricity made by Michael
Faraday was a generator. An electric generator also called dynamo is any
machine that converts mechanical energy to electricity for transmission and
distribution over power lines to domestic, commercial, and industrial customers.
Generators also produce the electrical power required for automobiles, aircraft,
ships, and trains.
One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily-
regulated and doesn’t generate by-products. Applications of electricity now
cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest
laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source of some of the most recent
technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly electricity
provides mankind with the energy of the future.
Despite its great importance in our daily lives, most of us rarely stop to
think what life would be like without electricity. We tend to take electricity for
granted like air and water. Every day we use electricity to do many functions for
us from lighting and heating/cooling our homes to being the power source for
televisions and computers. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of
energy used in the applications of heat, light and power.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What is this text devoted to? 2. What is electricity? 3. What are the sources of
electricity? 4. What are the advantages of electricity? 5. What are home uses of
electricity? 6. What the latest industrial applications of electricity do you know?
7. Who invented the electric light bulb? 8. What did George Westinghouse
develop? 9. Do you know who invented a generator? 10 What is a principle of
generator operation? 11. Can you imagine your life without electricity? Why?

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Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте слова, означающие:
1 абзац:
1. main 2. version 3. alteration 4. to conduct, to do 5. production 6. slowly 7.
outside 8. inside 9. before 10. a number of 11. device.
2 абзац:
1. probable 2. to provide 3. remote 4. factory.
3 абзац:
1. significant 2. area, sphere 3. apparatus 4. home 5. to demand.
4 абзац:
1. plus 2. pure 3. usage 4. newest 5. humanity.
5 абзац:
1. in spite of 2. everyday 3. seldom 4. role 5. regulated 6. comfortable.

Упражнение 5. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1.The greatest advantage of electricity 1. are becoming universal.
is that …
2. Electricity … 2. that is used in the applications of
heat, light and power.
3. The generator, a new source of 3. the principles of electricity became
electricity … understood.
4. The applications of electricity in 4. it is clean and easily-regulated.
the home and industry …
5. Thanks to Benjamin Franklin’s 5. was developed by Michael Faraday.
experiment with a kite …
6. Electricity is a convenient form of 6. offers improved service at reduced
energy … cost.

Text 4B
Прочитайте текст. Назовите величайшие достижения выдающегося
изобретателя.
A Great Inventor of the World
Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) was one of the greatest scientists who played a
key role in the development of electromagnetism and other scientific discoveries
of his time. Despite his breathtaking number of patents, his achievements were
often underplayed during his lifetime. Tesla invented fluorescent lighting, the
Tesla induction motor, and the Tesla coil. He developed the alternating current
(AC), electrical supply system that included a motor and transformer as well as
three-phase electricity.
He had a unique capacity to visualize images in his head. When working on
projects, he would rarely write down plans or scale drawings, but rely on the

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images in his mind. Tesla travelled around the world. For example, he worked
for a telegraph company in Budapest. During this time, he became acquainted
with twin turbines and helped develop a device that provided amplification
when using the telephone. Living in Paris, he worked for the Continental Edison
Company. Here he improved various devices used by the Edison company and
also conceived the induction motor and devices that used rotating magnetic
fields. With a strong letter of recommendation, Tesla went to the United States
in 1884 to work for the Edison Machine Works company where he became one
of the chief engineers and designers. Moreover, Tesla worked on a form of X-
Rays. He was able to photograph the bones in his hand; he also became aware of
the side-effects of using radiation. However, his work in this area gained little
coverage, and much of his research was lost in a fire.
One of his best known statements is “The scientific man does not aim at an
immediate result. He does not expect that his advanced ideas will be readily
taken up. His duty is to lay the foundation for those who are to come, and point
the way”.
In addition to science, he had many artistic and literary friends; in later life
he became friendly with Mark Twain inviting him to his laboratory. He also
took an interest in poetry, literature and modern Vedic thought. Tesla was
thoughtful about greater problems of war and conflict, and he wrote a book on
the subject called “A Means for Furthering Peace” (1905). This expressed his
views on how conflict may be avoided and humanity learns to live in harmony.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. Why did Tesla say that the scientific man did not aim at an immediate result?
2. What qualities should a person have to become a great inventor? 3. What
inventor do you consider to be great? Why? Point out his or her qualities,
contribution to science and inventions that have revolutionized our world.

Text 4C
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о великих русских
изобретателях и их достижениях.
Russian Inventors that changed the world
Russian inventors have contributed generously to the development of
global scientific thought. Many of their inventions in the field of electricity have
transformed the world and people’s way of thinking.
The invention of an electrically-powered railway wagon was a precondition
for the transport revolution that spurred the development of towns and industrial
centers. It all started in 1874-1876, when Fyodor Pirotsky conducted a slew of
experiments on transmitting electricity over a distance, with one rail serving as a
direct conductor and the other as a reverse conductor. An electric motor located
one kilometer from the power source worked. A few years later, he conducted

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an experiment at a railway spur near Sestroretsk. There were 40 people in the
wagon. The first electrified tram line was opened as late as 1881 in a Berlin
suburb on the basis of designs by the Russian inventor.
It is owing to discoveries by Russian physicist Alexander Stoletov that we
enjoy television today. In the late 1880s, he produced a theoretical justification
of photoelectric effect through a series of experiments. Photoelectric effect
formed the basis for the production of solar cells which are broadly used in
practice now. Stoletov created the first solar cell based upon outer photoelectric
effect and discovered the proportionality between the intensity of light and
photo induced current.
You cannot have a power grid without transformers. Transformers were
invented, built and put into operation by Russian electrical engineer Pavel
Yablochkov and physicist Ivan Usagin. The solution that made it to history
books as the “distribution of light” was produced by Yablochkov in the mid-
1870s. The invention which consisted of a transformer and condenser was
displayed in Paris and St Petersburg and, as early as 1882, the open-core
transformer was patented in France by inventors Lucien Gaulard and Josiah
Willard Gibbs.
The creation of the first incandescent lamp is closely connected with the
name of the well-known Russian scientist and inventor, Alexander Lodygin.
Lodygin laid the foundation for the production of the present-day incandescent
lamps that are more economical than those with carbon electrodes. He was also
the first inventor who discovered the advantages of the metal wire filaments in
comparison with other ones. Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb before
Thomas Edison, but it was not commercially profitable. Lodygin produced an
improved lamp having two carbon electrodes instead of one and a longer life. In
1873 the scientist demonstrated his invention in several Petersburg streets
lighting them by means of his electric lamps. It was the first practical application
of the incandescent lamp for lighting purposes. Lots of people went out into the
streets to see electric lights for the first time in their life and for the first time in
the world.

Text 4D
Прочитайте текст. Изложите основное содержание текста по-
английски.
Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy
There are several global problems in the modern world. One of them is the
depletion of natural resources. Every minute the world uses a huge amount of oil
and gas for human needs. Therefore, the question arises: what happens if we
continue to use them in the same huge amount? According to calculations, the
planet’s oil reserves will be exhausted by the end of this century. That is, our
grandchildren and great-grandchildren will have nothing to use as a source of

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energy. That sounds scary. Also, the use of traditional natural resources affects
the ecological situation in the world. Therefore, humanity is now increasingly
thinking about alternative sources of energy.
Today alternative energy sources (AES) are already widely used for
solving energy problems not only commercially but also in the private sector.
The availability of technologies for producing energy from inexhaustible
sources allows you to build a house with volatile environmentally friendly
infrastructure in remote areas, and to solve energy problems of the existing
facilities.
Wind resources can produce electricity in regions where sustained winds
blow. Electricity generated by wind turbines is absolutely free of emissions,
although research is still needed on reducing the noise levels of the turbines.
Giant wind turbines capture wind energy and use it for generators, windmills for
mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel
ships.
Biomass is a material that is formed from living organisms such as wood or
agricultural waste. Biomass can be burned to produce electricity or converted to
gas used as fuel. But using fuels produced from biomass results in the release of
various gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides which
all contribute to air pollution.
Geothermal energy is hot water or steam from depths or below the surface
of the earth to generate electricity. Earth’s geothermal energy comes from the
original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals
(80%). Once a geothermal plant is built, it is generally self-sufficient energy-
wise. But improper drilling into the earth can release hazardous minerals and
gases.
Hydropower had the greatest influence on people’s lives during the 20th
century. It played a major role in making electricity a part of everyday life and
helped spur industrial development. Hydro power is one of the largest sources of
energy which accounts for 20% of the worldwide demand of electricity.
Compared to other sources of energy, hydroelectric power is one of the
cheapest, non- carbon emitting, non polluting sources. Hydropower converts the
energy of flowing water into electricity.
Solar energy can also be used to generate electricity. Solar panels convert
the radiant energy of the sun into electrical energy. Some calculators and
portable radios are powered by solar panels. Solar panels or modules located on
the roof can supply electricity to the building. Solar power is a renewable
resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth. Solar power
generation releases no water or air pollution because there is no chemical
reaction from the combustion of fuels. But solar power does not produce energy
if the sun is not shining.

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Упражнение 7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. What are renewable energy sources? 2. What are non-renewable energy
sources? 3. What is the main difference between renewable and non-renewable
energy sources? 4. What is solar energy? 5. What is wind energy? 6. What is
biomass energy? 7. What is water power? 8. What is geothermal energy?
9. Where are these types of renewable sources of energy used? 10. What are the
pros and cons of each type of renewable energy sources?

Упражнение 8. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


It is impossible to imagine our life without electricity. Electrical power has
become universal. Many devices are based on properties of electricity that made
their applications most widely used today. Nowadays there is a whole range of
home and industrial applications of electricity from time and labour saving
appliances to modern advances in different fields of industry. But there is a big
problem of local of electricity generation these days. Many consumers are taking
steps to reduce their electricity consumption. This is as a result of the recent
increase in electricity tariffs for users. We should all try to use less electricity by
insulating our houses, turning off the light when leaving a room and using less
hot water. We must try to develop alternative sorces of energy to provide
electricity for domestic and industrial purposes. Among the most widespread
one is solar energy. It is known that solar power is pollution free and causes no
greenhouse gases to be emitted after installation. Moreover, it is renewable clean
power that is available every day of the year; even cloudy days produce some
power.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Добавьте окончание -ing к глаголам, распределяя их по строчкам
в соответствии с написанием.
come, clean, swim, do, write, make, shop, live, sing, run, dance, play, work, sit,
sleep, take, have, eat, jump, cry
cleaning, _______________________________
coming, ________________________________
swimming, _____________________________

Упражнение 2. Напишите глаголы, от которых образованы данные слова,


переведите их на русский язык.
reading, living, showing, giving, cleaning, opening, sitting, taking, standing,
saying, calculating, beginning, realizing, playing, wondering, sending.

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Упражнение 3. Дополните предложения нужной формой глагола to be (am, is,
are).
1. Anna and Max … doing the translation now. 2. Olga … getting ready for
exams at the moment. 3. Our teacher … writing something on the blackboard.
4. It … getting dark. 5. After their working day people are hurrying home. 6. I
… preparing for my report at the moment. 7. Children … decorating the hall for
the party. 8. The wind … blowing now. 9. People … speaking quietly in the
conference-hall. 10. You … waiting for the call.

Упражнение 4. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол-действие в скобках в Present


Continuous.
1. Tom and Angela … (to sit) in a cafe now.
2. It … (to snow) outdoors now.
3. We … (to wait) for our teacher in the lecture hall.
4. I … (to watch) the children playing in the yard.
5. The girls … (to argue) about what present to buy for their mutual friend.
6. Alex … (to have) a rest at the moment.
7. Look! All the people … (to come) into the hall.
8. Fortunately our experiment … (to go) according to the plan.
9. The students … (to have) a lecture now.
10. Her health … (to improve) day after day.
11. The rainforests … (to disappear) from our planet nowadays.
12. Look! The guide … (to point) at some ancient building.

Упражнение 5. Составьте предложения по образу.


Например: Tim … (not to read) now. He … (to sleep) at the moment. 
Tim isn’t reading now. He is sleeping at the moment.
1. Students … (not to write) a dictation now. They … (to translate the text).
2. Margaret … (not to wash) the dishes. She … (to sweep the floor).
3. The days … (not to get) shorter. They … (to get longer).
4. My Granny … (not to read) a magazine. She … (to watch TV).
5. My friend and me … (not to sunbath). We … (to swim).
6. Sam and Julia … (not to dance at the disco). They … (to prepare) for the test.
7. I … (not to learn) a poem now. I … (to write an essay).
8. You … (not to skate) now. You … (to play snowballs).

Упражнение 6. Сделайте данные предложения вопросительными. Дайте краткие


ответы.
1. Scientists are working at improving traditional production processes.
2. Nowadays mankind is experiencing changes in life and work on a global
scale. 3. We are using computers in all spheres of technology, science and

76
everyday life. 4. They are planning the protection of global natural resources.
5. The use of electricity is offering improved service at reduced cost. 6. He is
working in the field of electrical engineering. 7. They are using much electricity
per day. 8. She is looking at the new invention with great interest. 9. They are
drawing the sketches of their inventions. 10. They are trying to find an
instruction to this device.

Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление Past Continuous.
1. This time last year I was moving to France. 2. We noticed him but he wasn’t
looking at us. 3. What were you doing at 8 o’clock yesterday? 4. They were
taking steps to reduce their electricity consumption. 5. It was snowing hard
when I got up. 6. I saw you in the park on Thursday. You were walking and
eating an ice-cream. 7. Her grandmother was watering flowers while she was
working in the garden. 8. We were watching TV when the door bell rang. 9. She
was reading when somebody knocked at the door. 10. They were talking about
him when he suddenly came in.

Упражнение 8. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форму Past Continuous.


1. While I … (to write down) a grammar rule, my friends … (to do) new
exercises. 2. When we entered, the children … (to read) their books. 3. The girls
… (to feed) the birds in the garden while the boys … (to make) a bird-house.
4. Some of the children … (to ski) while other children … (to play) snowballs.
Everybody … (to have) a lot of fun. 5. When we came, the family … (to get)
everything ready for Christmas. Sam and Julia … (to decorate) the Christmas
tree. 6. When I went out into the garden, the sun … (to shine). 7. I … (to talk) on
the phone when you met me in the park yesterday. 8. When I came home, he …
(to repair) his computer.

Упражнение 9. Задайте вопросы по образцу, используя времена Past Simple и


Past Continuous.
Например: When did you meet Jerry? I met Jerry when I was walking in the park.
1. When did you break the window? (to play football)
2. When did you learn new words? (to take an English lesson)
3. When did she write the story? (to fly to London)
4. When did he catch that butterfly? (to go through the fields)
5. When did you see the rainbow? (to walk in the garden)
6. When did he see Jane? (to cross the street)
7. When did you learn about it? (to get ready for exams)
8. When did you find this article? (to surf the Internet)

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Упражнение 10. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форму Future
Continuous.
1. I … (to do) my English test tomorrow at 11 a.m. 2. This time next week I …
(to take) an exam on physics. 3. I am sure that she … (to communicate) with her
friends tomorrow at this time. 4. You … (to clean) your room while I … (to
cook). 5. The government … (to state) a law about the environment protection
tomorrow in the morning. 6. This time next month I … (to work) in an
international company in London. 7. This time at weekends she … (to go)
sightseeing in Italy. 8. They … (to write) an entrance test tomorrow at 9 o’clock
in the morning. 9. I … (to lay) the dinner table while my mother … (to cook) a
meal. 10. I … (to take) a course in English tomorrow from 8 till 10.

Упражнение 11. Поставьте данные предложения в вопросительную и


отрицательную формы.
1. She will be doing aerobics at 7 o’clock tomorrow evening. 2. We will be
cycling tomorrow morning. 3. Henry will be walking his dog at 2 o’clock
tomorrow. 4. Mary will be making a cake for our party at 3 o’clock tomorrow.
5. The girls will be preparing the costumes for the performance since 3 o’clock
tomorrow. 6. Tom will be writing an article at this time next Friday. 7. We will
be exercising in the gym from 2 p.m. till 5 p.m. tomorrow. 8. Mr. Peters will be
visiting our country from Monday till Friday. 9. It will be raining all day
tomorrow. 10. You will be watching an interesting film at 5 o’clock next
Thursday.

Упражнение 12. Составьте вопросы в Future Continuous. Дайте ответ,


используя словосочетания в скобках.
Например: What will John be doing tomorrow at 5 p.m.? (to move to London) – John
will be moving to London.
1. What will Mary be doing this time on Monday? (to do a research)
2. What will Michael be doing in 2 days at this time? (to design a new car
model)
3. What will Nick’s father be doing on Sunday evening? (to work in the garden)
4. What will Alex be doing at the University tomorrow in the afternoon? (to
study languages)
5. What will Bob’s mother be doing tomorrow in the evening? (to cook a
delicious meal)
6. What will the singer be doing at the concert? (to sing his new songs)
7. What will the teacher be doing next lesson at this time? (to explain a new
grammar rule)
8. What will the scientist be doing next week from Wednesday to Friday? (to
conduct the scientific experiment)

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Упражнение 13. Выберите из скобок нужную форму Present Simple или Present
Continuous. Объясните сделанный выбор.
1. It sometimes (snows / is snowing) here in April. 2. It (snows / is snowing)
now. 3. Every morning mother (cooks / is cooking) breakfast for us. 4. It is 8
o’clock now. Mother (cooks / is cooking) breakfast. 5. Every day father (leaves /
is leaving) the house at half past eight. 6. Now it is half past eight. Father (leaves
/ is leaving) the house. 7. We often (watch / are watching) TV. 8. Now we (sit /
are sitting) in armchairs and (watch / are watching) TV. 9. Sometimes Mike
(does / is doing) his homework in the evening. 10. Look at Mike. He (does / is
doing) his homework. 11. It often (rains / is raining) in September. 12. It (rains
/ is raining) now. 13. Every day the family (has / is having) tea at 5 o’clock.
14. It is 5 o’clock now. The family (has / is having) tea.

Упражнение 14. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple или


Present Continuous.
1. My wife usually … (to work) at home, but she … (to spend) this month in
Italy. 2. Tom usually … (to cycle) to work but now he … (to go) by bus.
3. When … the lesson … (start) today? 4. What’s your brother doing? He … (to
do) the crossword in the newspaper He … (to do) it every day. 5. I’m afraid I’ll
lose this game of chess. I … (to play) very badly this time. I usually … much
better (to play). 6. Every day she … (to learn) English. Her English … (to get)
better day after day. 7. You can borrow my dictionary. I … (to use) it a lot, but I
… (not use) it now. 8. We … (not travel) by train very often. We … (to like)
travelling by car. 9. I … (to write) English exercises twice a week. 10. Don’t
shout! The baby … (to sleep). The baby always … (to sleep) after dinner. 11. It
… (to snow) right now. It’s beautiful! I … (to like) this weather.

Упражнение 15. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Past Simple или Past
Continuous.
1. We … (to sit) at the breakfast table when the doorbell … (to ring).
2. He … (to meet) a lot of friendly people while he … (to work) in California.
3. When they … (to leave) the museum, the sun … (to shine).
4. While the children … (to sleep), their parents … (to watch) TV.
5. It … (to start) to rain while she … (to water) the flowers in her garden.
6. When I … (to open) the door, it … (to rain).
7. He … (to hear) a loud bang while he … (to talk) to his friend.
8. I … (to see) Sue in town yesterday but she … (not/see) me. She … (to look)
the other way.
9. I … (to meet) Tom and Ann at the airport a few weeks ago. We … (to have) a
chat while we … (to wait) for our flights.

79
10. I … (to drive) home yesterday when suddenly a man … (to step) out into the
road in front of me. I … (to go) quite fast but luckily I … (to manage) to stop in
time and … (not/hit) him.
11. When I … (to go) to school the day before yesterday, I met Mike and Pete.
They … (to talk) and … (to laugh). They told me a funny story. Soon I … (to
laugh), too. I still … (to laugh) when we came to school. After school I … (to
tell) this story at home. My father and mother … (to like) it very much.

Упражнение 16. В каждой паре предложений поставьте глагол в одной из форм:


Future Simple или Future Continuous.
1. to fly: We … to India this summer. – We … to India at this time next
Saturday.
2. to drive: I can give you a lift to the office in a couple of minutes, I … that
way anyway. – If you are late I … you to school
3. to take: Don’t call me at 7 a.m., I … a course in English. – I … a course in
English after work.
4. to swim: He … across the river during the competitions tomorrow. – He …
across the river next competitions.
5. to read: Our granny … 3 fairy-tales to us in the evening. – Our granny … a
fairy-tale to us when mum and dad come home.
6. to discuss: They … their plans for holidays tomorrow. – We … actual
problems at the meeting tomorrow at the morning meeting.
7. to have: I … a rest the whole evening next Saturday. – I … a rest after work.
8. to do: They … nanotechnology research. – They … nanotechnology research
the whole year.

Упражнение 17. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в


страдательный залог. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
употребление времен группы Continuous.
1. They are building new research institutes to develop a scientific basis.
2. She is publishing her new book of poems.
3. He will be playing the guitar at this time tomorrow
4. The teacher was correcting students’ translations.
5. She is looking through the newspaper now.
6. The students will be having an interesting discussion after lectures.
7. Our direction is discussing important matters.
8. The government is stating laws.
9. They are solving many important problems on machine building
development.

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10. We will be using less hot water.
11. Our family was watching television.
12. This hotel was holding a wedding party on that day.
13. The authorities were looking for proper solutions.
14. The company will be sponsoring the World Cup.
15. The workers were reconstructing the houses.
16. Maria is ignoring the message.
17. The boy was drawing a picture.
18. The President was making his speech.
19. They will be getting ready for their exams.
20. They were doing much for the development of non-renewable energy
sources.
21. Are they building a new shopping mall in our town?
22. Are they repairing car?
23. Were they doing exercises?
24. Was your father washing the car?
25. Will you be writing a poem?
26. Will they be talking about the meeting?

Упражнение 18. Вставьте соответствующий предлог in / on / at.


1. … a room; 2. … Russia; 3. … the top of the page; 4. … the sea; 5. … the
traffic lights; 6. … a wall; 7. … a car; 8. … the bus; 9. … the city center; 10. …
bus-stop; 11. … the tree; 12. … bed; 13. … the dentist’s 14. … the middle of;
15. … the door; 16. … a photograph; 17. … home; 18. … the street; 19. … a
newspaper; 20. … a football match; 21. … the south of Italy; 22. … a
conference; 23. … the first floor; 24. … a motor-bike.

Упражнение 19. Вставьте соответствующий предлог in / on / at / to.


1. There is a nice picture … the wall. 2. She never keeps her money … her bag.
3. Don’t sit … the ground. 4. I talked to some nice people … the party. 5. I think
her flat is … the third floor of that building. 6. Who is the boy … that photo? 7.
The boy jumped into the river and swam … the other side. 8. The children are
playing … the garden. 9. Joy didn’t go … work yesterday. 10. It is very dark …
night. 11. There are no stars … the sky. 12. Let’s meet … the entrance to the
supermarket. 13. She will be … home tomorrow afternoon. 14. She waited for
him … the bus stop … the corner of Green Street and Long Street. 15. There is
nobody … the building. 16. I left my bag … the chair … the corner of the room.
17. When we were … Spain, we stayed … a hotel. 18. My name was … bottom
of the list. 19. … the middle of the room there are three small boxes. 20. We met
… a conference last Thursday. 21. We had a good meal … restaurant and then
we went back … the hotel.

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Упражнение 20. Выберите подходящий предлог и переведите предложения.
1. The clock hangs on the wall … the table. (above / under / on)
2. He has played Hamlet … the stage many times. (on / in / next to)
3. The bank is … the post-office and the beauty salon. (behind / at / between)
4. The ball has rolled … the bed. (on / under / above)
5. Bob and Jane were sitting in the café … each other. (between / behind / in
front of)
6. The gym is … my college. (next to / on / between)
7. The monument is … the right. (in / at / on)
8. The supermarket is … the cinema. (between / on / opposite)
9. You can see this wonderful waterfall … my back. (in / among / behind)
10. He drives … the tunnel slowly. (in / across / through)
11. You should go 5 steps … the house. (towards / above / at)
12. I jumped … the wall into the garden. (up / over / round)
13. We walked … the town and took many photographs. (round / through / into)
14. The dog swam … the river. (around / between / across)
15. They jumped … the bridge into the river. (over / off / with)
16. I looked … the window and watched the people in the street. (to / in / out of)
17. They walked … me. They didn’t notice me. (past / over / at)
18. Let’s go for a walk … the river. (across / between / along)

Test yourself
1. Как образуется Continuous Tense Active?
A. be + Ved
B. have + V3
C. be + Ving

2. Определите, в каком времени и залоге составлено предложение – I am


conducting an experiment now.
A. Present Simple / Passive
B. Past Continuous / Active
C. Present Continuous / Active

3. Выберете форму для Future Continuous Active:


A. will be being done
B. will be doing
C. will have been doing

4. Выберете правильный вариант: – He … (to translate) a text yesterday at 5.


A. translated
B. was translate
C. was translating

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5. Как образуется Continuous Passive?
A. be + being + V3
B. be + V3
C. be + being + V2

6. Выберите форму для Present Continuous Passive.


A. is being asked
B. was being asked
C. will be asked

7. Выберите форму для Past Continuous Passive.


A. is being written
B. had been written
C. was being written

8. Выберите форму для Future Continuous Passive.


A. will being invited
B. will was invited
C. will be invited

9. Определите время страдательного залога – I am being invited to all the meetings.


A. Present Simple
B. Past Simple
C. Present Continuous

10. Определите время и залог – When I came in, he was speaking to my friend.
A. Present Continuous / Active
B. Past Continuous / Active
C. Past Continuous / Passive

11. Определите время и залог – The question was being studied by the scientists.
A. Present Continuous / Passive
B. Past Continuous / Active
C. Past Continuous / Passive

12. Определите время и залог – My father is working in his room.


A. Present Continuous / Active
B. Present Continuous / Passive
C. Past Continuous / Active

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13. Переведите – He was being asked many questions.
A. Ему задали много вопросов.
B. Ему задавали много вопросов.
C. Он задавал много вопросов.

14. Какое время и залог используется в данном предложении – Noise was being
reduced by filtering.
A. Present Simple / Passive
B. Past Continuous / Active
C. Past Continuous / Passive

15. Переведите – I am being listening to with great attention.


A. Меня внимательно слушали.
B. Меня внимательно слушают.
C. Я внимательно слушаю.

16. Выберите предложение в страдательном залоге.


A. A task is being done very carefully.
B. He was reading an interesting article.
C. I was going here yesterday at 5 o’clock.

17. Найдите предложение, составленное в Past Continuous Passive.


A. He was working on the project the whole month.
B. He was being asked many questions at the conference.
C. He liked spending his free time outdoors.

18. Найдите синоним предлогу above.


A. against
B. under
C. over

19. Укажите предлог, противоположный по значению behind.


A. under
B. inside
C. in front of

20. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Земля вращается вокруг


Солнца:
A. The Earth goes in front of the Sun.
B. The Earth goes round the Sun.
C. The Earth goes next to the Sun.

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21. Как переводится предлог at в предложении – Sam stood at the window?
A. у
B. на
C. за

22. Какой предлог соответствует значению за пределами?


A. inside
B. outside
C. into

23. Какой предлог называет положение предмета между двумя другими


предметами?
A. behind
B. among
C. between

24. Какой предлог не имеет значения рядом?


A. beside
B. next to
C. inside

25. Как переводится предлог opposite?


A. внутри
B. напротив
C. впереди

26. Какой предлог означает проходить сквозь?


A. across
B. towards
C. through

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LESSON 5
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- ing; -ure; -less; dis-

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 5A. Means of Communication
Text 5B. From the History of Television
Text 5C. Morse and Telegraph Invention
Text 5D. Telephone

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Времена группы Perfect Active / Passive
Предлоги времени

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


глагол + -ing =
существительное
Суффикс -ing обозначает действие, результат, процесс, материал,
продукт. Этот суффикс не стоит путать с окончанием -ing для глаголов.
 to meet (встречаться) → meeting (встреча)
 to proceed (продолжать, действовать) → proceeding (поведение)
 to build (строить) → building (здание, строительство)
to develop – developing; to begin – beginning; to read – reading; to swim –
swimming; to understand – understanding; to head – heading; to boil – boiling;
to open – opening; to train – training; to travel – travelling; to act – acting.

суффикс существительного -ure

Суффикс -ure указывает на действие, результат, инструмент,


функцию или определенное ведомство.
 pressure (давление)
 departure (отправление)
 measure (мера)
structure; agriculture; manufacture; future; nature; closure; failure; leisure;
mixture; literature; pleasure; procedure; treasure; temperature; furniture; feature.

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существительное + -less =
прилагательное
Суффикс -less указывает на отсутствие какого-то признака, качества.
 hope (надежда) → hopeless (безнадежный)
 fear (страх) → fearless (бесстрашный)
 use (польза) → useless (бесполезный)
harm – harmless; doubt – doubtless; aim – aimless; sound – soundless; taste –
tasteless; joy – joyless; help – helpless; expression – expressionless.

dis- + глагол / существительное / прилагательное


=
противоположное действие / понятие / качество
Префикс dis- присоединяется к словам, начинающимся как на
согласную букву, так и на гласную. Указывает на противоположность
действия, качества.
 to like (нравиться) → to dislike (не нравиться)
 to agree (соглашаться) → to disagree (не соглашаться)
 order (порядок) → disorder (беспорядок)
to approve – to disapprove; to appear – to disappear; connection –
disconnection; ability – disability; to satisfy – to dissatisfy; organized –
disorganized; similar – dissimilar; comfort – discomfort; respectful –
disrespectful.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление суффикса -less.
a moonless night, a cloudless sky, a noiseless machine, the numberless stars in
the universe, a heartless ruler, a homeless cat, a leafless tree, a nameless author,
a sunless room, a sunless smile, an endless street, a colorless liquid, a friendless
child, a sleepless night, careless people, a doubtless victory.

Упражнение 2. Напишите основу, от которой образованы следующие слова:


architecture, beginning, to disconnect, studying, commonless, to disjoin,
creature, mixture, tasteless, meaningless, singing, disbalance, powerless,
moisture, pressure, disadvantageous, disrespectful, shining.

Упражнение 3. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. My parents changed all … in the house. to furnish
2. I … with you. He is not a lazy boy. to agree

87
3. His business is … cars. to repair
4. My grandmother … living in the old house. She wants to buy to like
a new one.
5. Your blood … is high. You need to call a doctor. to press
6. He is a … driver. He drives a car badly. care
7. I’ve had some … nights, so I feel exhausted. to sleep
8. The … will take two hours. to proceed
9. She gave … answers to our questions. honest
10. The … will be brief. to meet
11. The prize is awarded for an outstanding contribution to … . to broadcast
12. He spent his income all on … . pleasant

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
role [rəul], communication [kəˌmjuːnɪ'keɪʃən], television ['telɪvɪʒən], telegraph
['telɪgrɑːf], radio ['reɪdɪəu], telephone ['telɪfəun], Internet ['ɪntənet], information
[ˌɪnfə'meɪʃən], effectively [ɪ'fektɪvlɪ], service ['sɜːvɪs], mobile ['məubaɪl],
operator ['ɔpəreɪtə], technology [tek'nɔləʤɪ], person ['pɜːsən], standard
['stændəd], distance ['dɪstəns], channel ['ʧænəl], data ['deɪtə], to demonstrate
['demənstreɪt], idea [aɪ'dɪə], global ['gləubl], product ['prɔdʌkt], navigation
[ˌnævɪ'geɪʃn], coordinate [kəu'ɔːdɪnət], location [ləu'keɪʃn], situation [ˌsɪʧu'eɪʃn],
traffic ['træfɪk], fact [fækt], music ['mjuːzɪk], kilometer [kɪ'lɔmɪtə], reality
[rɪ'ælətɪ], modern ['mɔdən]

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


great [greɪt], importance [ɪm'pɔːtəns], means [miːnz], nowadays ['nauədeɪz],
appliance [ə'plaɪəns], society [sə'saɪətɪ], breakthrough ['breɪkθruː], mankind
[ˌmæn'kaɪnd], discovery [dɪ'skʌvərɪ], opportunity [ˌɔpə'tjuːnətɪ], to imagine
[ɪ'mæʤɪn], addition [ə'dɪʃən], labour ['leɪbə], available [ə'veɪləbl], unthinkable
[ʌn'θɪŋkəbl], without [wɪ'ðaut], cellular ['seljulə], allow [ə'lau], valuable
['væljuəbl], entertainment [ˌentə'teɪnmənt], access ['ækses], additional
[ə'dɪʃənəl], matter ['mætə], dissemination [dɪˌsemɪ'neɪʃən], through [θruː], to
overestimate [ˌəuvə'estɪmeɪt], previously ['priːvɪəslɪ], further ['fɜːðə],
significantly [sɪg'nɪfɪkəntlɪ], permissible [pə'mɪsəbl], to conduct ['kɔndʌkt],
feature ['fiːʧə], tool [tuːl], to receive [rɪ'siːv], to expand [ɪk'spænd]

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


to imagine – представить себе, high-speed access to –
вообразить высокоскоростной доступ к
means of communication – средства to overestimate – переоценить

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связи data transfer – передача данных
to be of great importance – быть “smart home” – умный дом
важным Internet things – интернет вещей
technological breakthrough – to take into consideration – принять во
технический прорыв внимание
mankind – человечество an artificial satellite – искусственный
a discovery – открытие спутник
an opportunity – возможность indispensable – незаменимый
in addition to – кроме, наряду с to be dependent on – зависеть от
cellular communication – сотовая связь to solve problems – решать проблемы
no longer – уже не, больше не to require time and effort – требовать
time and labour saving appliances – времени и усилий
электроприборы, экономящие время и both … and – как …, так и …
труд a range of – целый ряд
to stay in contact with – оставаться на to enable – давать возможность
связи с

Text 5A
Прочитайте текст и расскажите о том, какие средства связи
существуют.
Means of Communication
The technological breakthrough of mankind in the twentieth century has
brought many interesting discoveries and opportunities into our lives, without
which it is difficult to imagine a comfortable life today. In addition to home time
and labour saving appliances, cars, airplanes, comfort and new opportunities
have become available thanks to the means of communication such as television,
telegraph, radio, telephone which play an important part in the development of
society.
Today our life is unthinkable without cellular communication. It allows us
not only to stay in contact with family and friends, call up at work and solve
important problems but also receive answers to a range of other questions. A
mobile phone is a valuable tool for finding information on the network,
entertainment, and even able to replace a wallet. The development of cellular
network standards has enabled mobile phones high-speed access to the Internet
which provides additional opportunities. Today we can talk on the phone as well
as see the person speaking no matter what distance is. An important role in the
spread of information is played by modern communication channels through
which it comes to the consumer very quickly.
It is difficult to overestimate the role of communication in our lives. With
the advent of the Internet and modern mobile technologies it is no longer
necessary to perform many actions that previously required both time and effort.
We can pay any bills for light, gas, water using a mobile phone. Mobile
communication technologies take care of our safety. By activating additional

89
options with the operator, you can track where the child is and see his location
on the map.
Further development of cellular networks will significantly increase the
permissible amount of data transfer which will significantly expand the scope of
their application. According to experts, the introduction of the fifth generation of
cellular networks will make it possible to full and more effective use of
technologies for “smart home” and Internet things, and even transport will be
“smart”. Examples of remote control of cars, conducting complex medical
research through fifth-generation cellular networks are already being
demonstrated by developers.
Satellite communications systems must also be taken into consideration.
The idea that prompted the creation of the first artificial satellite and its launch
into Earth orbit was in the creation of a global communication system. It was the
need to unite the continents by telephone with the globe that led to the sharp
development of satellite communications, and subsequently was of great
importance in human life.
The creation of a satellite communications system made it possible to bring
telephony capabilities as well as other communication channels to a new level.
Satellite Internet, cellular phones and television are just a few of the new
features.
One of the common satellite communication products is navigation. This
allows the user to get the exact coordinates of their location which can be
indispensable in an unforeseen situation if a person is lost. Satellite navigation
allows us to reduce the time when receiving certain services, for example, find
the nearest store, or get information about the traffic situation in a certain place.
In fact, nowadays a person is less and less dependent on wires. Music and
television through the air, and a conversation with a man for thousands of
kilometers – all this today is no longer a fairy tale but the reality of a modern
citizen.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What has many interesting discoveries and opportunities brought into our
lives in the twentieth century? 2. What means of communication do you know?
3. Why is it unthinkable today to live without cellular communication? 4. What
is a mobile phone used for today? 5. What opportunities do mobile phones with
high-speed access to the Internet provide? 6. In what way do mobile
communication technologies take care of our safety? 7. What will be caused by
the introduction of the fifth generation of cellular networks? 8. Why must
satellite communications systems be taken into consideration?

90
Упражнение 4. Составьте словосочетания, используя слова в рамке.
cellular, smart, technological, situation, access, communication, mobile,
artificial, saving appliances, technologies, high-speed
1. … breakthrough; 2. time and labour … ; 3. means of … ; 4. … network; 5. …
to the Internet; 6. mobile communication … ; 7. … home; 8. … satellite; 9.
unforeseen … ; 10. … Internet; 11. … phone.

Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и


переводом этих слов.
appliance распространение let (someone) have or do something
opportunity развлечение to consider something that is greater in
amount or importance than it really is
unthinkable переоценивать something that consists of cells
cellular появление extra to what is already present or
available
to allow невообразимый the appearance of invention
entertainment сотовый a chance that makes it possible to do
something
additional устройство an event, performance, or activity
designed to make fun
dissemination возможность a device or piece of equipment designed
to perform a specific task
to overestimate дополнительный too unlikely or undesirable to be
considered a possibility
advent позволять the act of spreading something

Упражнение 6. Расставьте предложения из текста 4A в правильном порядке.


We can pay any bills using a mobile phone thanks to the advent of the
Internet and modern mobile technologies.
Today our life is unthinkable without cellular communication.
One of the common satellite communication products is navigation that
can be indispensable in an unforeseen situation if a person is lost.
1 The technological breakthrough of mankind in the twentieth century has
brought many interesting discoveries.
The advent of a satellite communications system made it possible to bring
telephony capabilities and other communication channels to a new level.
The development of cellular network standards has enabled mobile phones
high-speed access to the Internet.
New opportunities have become available thanks to the means of
communication.

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Text 5B
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о развитии различных видов
телевизионных систем в хронологической последовательности.
From the History of Television
Television sets can be found in billions of homes around the world. But
100 years ago nobody even knew what television was. The name “television”
comes from Greek word meaning “far” and a Latin word meaning “to see” so
the word «television» means “to see far”.
A mechanical television set was the first step in the history of television
development. These early TV-sets started appearing in the early 1800s. They
involved mechanically scanning images transmitted onto a screen. A German
inventor Paul Gottlieb Nipkow was the first who developed the mechanical
television. That device sent images through wires using a rotating metal disk.
Instead of calling the device a television, however, Nipkow called it an “electric
telescope”. The device had 18 lines of resolution. In 1907, two inventors Boris
Rosing from Russia and an Englishman A.A. Campbell-Swinton combined a
cathode ray tube with a mechanical scanning system to create a totally new
television system. Ultimately, the early efforts of these inventors would lead to
the world’s first electrical television a few years later.
In fact, electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San
Francisco in September 7, 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor
Farnsworth, a 21-year-old inventor, who had lived in a house without electricity
until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to develop a
system that could capture moving images in a form that could be coded onto
radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. It is necessary
to take into consideration that Farnsworth’s invention which scanned images
with a beam of electrons is the direct ancestor of modern television. Those first
television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white.
The earliest mention of color television was in a 1904 German patent for a
color television system. In 1925, Russian inventor Vladimir Zworykin also filed
a patent disclosure for an all-electronic color television system. While both of
these designs were not successful, they were the first documented proposals for
color television. Actually, 1953 was a year of a successful development of color
television system based on a system designed by RCA (Radio Corporation of
America) that began commercial broadcasting.
At present TV communication is provided with help of a system of
artificial earth satellites so that people living in different parts of the country and
all over the world and in different time zones are able to watch the central TV
programs at the most convenient hours. Nowadays many countries also have
cable TV – a system using wires for the transmission of television programs
(like telephone calls). Cable television first appeared in 1949 as a means of
transmitting TV signals to rural and mountain areas far from big cities. A few

92
years ago it became evident that the next major advance for TV would be digital
television. In a digital system the usual continuous signal is replaced by a digital
code contain information on brightness, color, etc.
By the end of 1980s television has moved to a new and the most important
stage in its development since the appearance of colour television. Technically it
is called high-definition television (HDTV) or Hi-Vision. This is much higher
resolution television of the 21st century. This revolution was started by Japanese
manufacturers when they developed a new video system with a picture several
times sharper than in the existing TV sets. The new system increases the
screen’s width-to-height ratio (16:9). Besides, recent developments in plasma
display panel technology make HDTV commercially practicable.
IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is the new generation telecasting
system whereby television services are delivered via the Internet Protocol route
by means of a fast and reliable Internet connection. IPTV services have three
main features:
1. VOD: Video on demand (VOD) is an option available to the users of
IPTV. Each user is given the option to choose from a catalog of videos and
watch them as many times as required.
2. DVR: IPTV allows users to watch TV shows broadcast in the past using
digital video recorder (DVR) which is also known as time shifted programming.
3. Live Television: IPTV allows users to watch live transmissions with
minimal latency. It provides live television broadcasts either with or without
interactivity, without being just like traditional TV broadcasts.

Упражнение 7. Укажите, являются ли утверждения из текста 5B верными (true)


или неверными (false).
1. Television sets can be found in a few homes around the world. 2. The name
“television” comes from Greek word meaning “near”. 3. Mechanical television
sets was the first step in the history of television development. 4. Early
televisions started appearing in the early 1700s. 5. A German inventor Paul
Gottlieb Nipkow was the first who developed the mechanical television. 6. An
electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in New York. 7. A
successful development of color television system was designed by Radio
Corporation of America. 8. Internet Protocol Television services have one main
feature.

Упражнение 8. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. How many hours do you spend watching TV? 2. What TV shows do you like?
Why? 3. What types of programmes don’t you like? Why? 4. What is your
attitude to gossip shows? documentaries? quiz shows? 5. Which channels are
your favourite? Why? 6. What do you prefer: watching TV at home or going to
the cinema? 7. What genres of TV series do you like the most? 8. Are

93
advertisements necessary during films or programs? 9. What are advantages of
digital television over analog one?

Text 5C
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о том, с какими трудностями
столкнулся Морзе при создании телеграфа.
Morse and Telegraph Invention
Long before Samuel Morse electrically transmitted his famous message
“What hath God wrought?” from Washington to Baltimore on May 24, 1844,
there were signaling systems that enabled people to communicate over
distances. Most were visual or “semaphore” systems using flags or lights. In the
eighteenth century, such systems used an observer who would decipher a signal
from a high tower on a distant hill and then send it on to the next station.
The idea of using electricity to communicate over distance is said to cross
Morse’s mind during a conversation on board a ship when he was returning
from Europe in 1832. Michael Faraday’s recently invented electromagnet was
much discussed by the ship’s passengers, and when Morse came to understand
how it worked, he speculated that it might be possible to send a coded message
over a wire. While a student at Yale College years before, he had written his
parents a letter about how interesting he found the lectures on electricity.
Despite what he had learned at Yale, Morse found when he began to develop his
idea that he had little real understanding of the nature of electricity, and after
sporadic attempts to work with batteries, magnets, and wires, he finally turned
for help to a colleague at the University of the City of New York, Leonard D.
Gale – a professor of chemistry who was familiar with the electrical work of
Princeton’s Joseph Henry, a true pioneer in the new field. Gale’s help and his
knowledge proved crucial to Morse’s telegraph system because Gale not only
pointed out flaws in the system but showed Morse how he could regularly boost
the strength of a signal and overcome the distance problems he had encountered
by using a relay system Henry had invented. Henry’s experiments, Gale’s
assistance and hiring the young technician Alfred Vail were keys to Morse’s
success.
To transmit messages across telegraph wires in the 1830s Morse and Vail
created what came to be known as Morse code. The code consisted of letters in
the alphabet and numbers as a set of dots (short marks) and dashes (long marks)
based on the frequency of use; letters used often (such as “E”) got a simple code,
while those used infrequently (such as “Q”) got a longer and more complex
code. The inconvenience of the Morse telegraph was that only specialists could
decrypt its code, while it was completely incomprehensible to ordinary people.
Therefore, over next few years many inventors worked to create a device that
would register the message text itself.

94
Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By 1861 telegraph wires
stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe too, Samuel Morse’s system
became popular. Cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900
transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last news and business
information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.

Упражнение 9. Прокомментируйте следующие утверждения.


1. With the appearance of the telegraph development the world changed.
2. Telegraph invention revolutionized a long-distance communication.
3. Although the telegraph that Samuel Morse successfully tested in 1837 is no
longer in use today, its fall gave rise to many other forms of long distance
communication.
4. Telegraph opened people up to a whole new world of socialization and
brought people closer together.
5. Telegraph transmission takes much longer than electronic communication
methods used today.
6. Telegraph is incapable of transmitting video, audio or documents.

Text 5D
Прочитайте текст и скажите, что нового вы узнали из текса.
Перескажите текст.
Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell, best known for his invention of the telephone,
revolutionized communication as we know it today. His interest in sound
technology was deep-rooted and personal as both his wife and mother were deaf.
He launched the Bell Telephone Company in 1877. Ultimately, the talented
scientist held more than 18 patents for his inventions and work in
communications.
“Watson, says Bell! If you can hear me, go to the window and wave your
hat”. This phrase, said on March 10, 1876, was the first to be spoken by
telephone. The speaker, Alexander Graham Bell, became known all over the
world as the inventor of the device. In fact, the history of the phone invention is
complicated. In the early 1850s, New Yorker Antonio Meucci discovered that
electric current had a positive effect on people’s health. He designed a generator
and began private practice. Once, Meucci connected the wires to the patient’s
lips, and he himself went into the remote room where the generator was located.
When the doctor turned on the device, he heard the patient scream as distinctly
as if standing next to him. After that Meucci turned his attention to experiments
with the device. By the beginning of the 1870s, he had already created drawings
of the device which he called a telephone.
Another competitor of the well-known inventor of telephone
communications Alexander Graham Bell was a man named Elisha Gray. He

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filed an application with the Patent Office two hours later than Bell. There’s
some debate over who should be credited with the invention of the telephone.
It’s said that Bell raced to the patent office to be the first to secure the rights to
the discovery. There was no ringer in the very first telephone. It was later
invented by Bell’s assistant, Thomas Watson. The microphone was finalized by
Thomas Edison. By the way, it was Edison who came up with the idea of
starting a conversation with the word “Hello”.
Telephone installation was rapidly spreading around the world. The first
city where devices began to appear in the apartments of wealthy people was
Boston where Bell lived and worked. In 1879, the invention appeared in Paris.
In 1881 it became possible to talk with a friend in Moscow, St. Petersburg,
Odessa, Berlin, Riga and Warsaw. By the beginning of the 20th century
international and intercity lines began to spread over the planet. By 1910 there
were more than 10 thousand stations all over the world which served more than
10 million subscribers.
Officially, the first conversation on a cell phone took place in 1973 in New
York. But there is a version that the world’s first wireless devices appeared in
the Soviet Union. The radio engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich had developed a
telephone model that could transmit voice to a base station by radio. The device
weighed 500 gr and could work in standby mode for 20-30 hours. It looked like
a box with a dial plate, a pair of toggle switches and a connected handset. The
owner of such a device should either hold the case in one hand, and a receiver in
the other hand, or hang a box on his belt. This time is considered to be the start
of the history of mobile phones.

Упражнение 10. Дайте развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы.


1. Why do parents want their children to have a mobile phone? 2. What are the
advantages of having a mobile phone? 3. What problems can you have with a
mobile phone? 4. When did you get your first mobile phone? 5. What do you
usually use your mobile phone for? 6. How do you feel when you forget your
mobile phone at home? 7. Do you think it is right that mobile phones are not
allowed in some places? 8. In what place would you recommend people switch
off or turn down their mobile phones? Why? 9. Think about these people. Find 3
pros and cons in buying a mobile phone for them: a 5-year-old boy; - an old
lady; - a teenager.

Упражнение 11. Назовите 10-15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему


“Means of communication”.

Упражнение 12. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


It is only through technology that mass media can exist. Humans like to
both watch and listen to something at the same time. For at least 140,000 years,

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humans have been entertained and informed by watching and listening to the
things going on around them. Nowadays it is impossible to imagine our life
without such a technological breakthrough as television because it is one of the
most popularly used modes of electronic form of communication and is of great
importance today. Television is widely used for purposes like information as
relates to news broadcasting, entertainments ranging from sports to artistic
production in dramas, movies and music to commercial use in advertising.
Among popular advancements after invention is the development from black
and white to colored televisions, from analogue to digital transmissions as well
as the introduction of the 3D televisions. TV development has also included the
introduction of the “liquid crystal display” television. The development that was
started many years ago by TV manufacturers including Panasonic, Hitachi,
Sony, Philips and Toshiba among others also took the technology to another
level.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Распределите глаголы в 3й форме таким образом: сначала
напишите глаголы, образованные от правильных глаголов, затем – от
неправильных.
had, met, written, done, cleaned, rained, seen, said, gone, sung, cut, happened,
locked, made, lived, asked, liked, slept, told, fallen.

Упражнение 2. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в Present Perfect.


Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму.
1. John … (to stay) in contact with his old school friends. 2. I …
(to overestimate) the importance of this decision. 3. He … (to solve) all the
problems. 4. It … (to give) students the opportunity to practice their speaking
skills. 5. The project … (to require) a great amount of time and efforts. 6. You
… (to make) a mistake in your dictation. 7. Demand … (to overtake) the supply.
8. They … (to solve) equations simultaneously. 9. I … (to tell) the truth about
that event. 10. Some people (to refuse) to participate in this competition.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы утвердительно, поставив глагол в Present


Perfect и используя слова already / just.
Например: Are the rooms clean? (to clean) — Yes, my mother has just cleaned them.
1. Does she know the song? (to learn) 2. Is breakfast ready? (to cook) 3. Do you
know how tasty the pie is? (to eat) 4. Is she at home? (to come) 5. Do you know
the melody? (to hear it many times) 6. Can you speak on the subject? (to read
about it) 7. Is Ann on holiday? (to go to Italy) 8. Are you ready with the
report? (to write it) 9. Can you do this work? (to finish it)

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Упражнение 4. Дополните предложения словами for или since.
1. I’ve lived in Washington … 1997. 2. Alex has studied English … three years
3. They haven’t visited their grandparents … months. 4. Kate is ill. She has been
in bed … Tuesday. 5. My dad has had his car … sixteen. 6. It has been ten years
… we moved to Oxford. 7. I have known him … 2 years. 8. They haven’t seen
each other … 10 years.

Упражнение 5. В письме есть 4 ошибки на использование for и since. Найдите и


исправьте их.
Dear Mum and Dad,
I’ve lived in Africa since two weeks and I love it! Africa is beautiful! I haven’t
travelled to any faraway place for last summer. I’m so happy now! I’ve already
seen Mr. Brown. He is working for World Wildlife Fund here and taking photos
of wild animals. I haven’t seen any lions yet. I think I’ll see them later. Thank
you for the trip. I’ve dreamed of Kenya for my childhood. I haven’t seen you
since ages! I miss you so much!
Love, Tom.

Упражнение 6. Перепишите предложения по образцу, используя слово yet.


Например: I am still doing my homework. – I haven’t done my homework yet.
1. I am still translating the text. 2. I am still writing the exercise. 3. I am still
cleaning my room. 4. He is still reading the story. 5. He is still washing his bike.
6. They are still discussing the book. 7. They are still conducting an experiment.
8. We are still having breakfast. 9. She is still making sandwiches. 10. She is
still answering the questions.

Упражнение 7. Дополните предложения, используя форму глаголов в Past


Perfect, приведенных ниже.
Например: to learn the poem – I went to bed after I had learnt the poem.
to have dinner, to do homework, to come, to read the book, to clean the room, to
go shopping, to return from Australia, to finish work
1. I went to see my friend after... . 2. I watched TV after... . 3. They went home
after... . 4. He phoned me after... . 5. She went to dance after... . 6. We wrote a
composition after... . 7. They rebuilt the house after... . 8. We went for a walk
after...

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Упражнение 8. Определите, что произошло раньше. Объедините два
предложения в одно, не меняя части местами. Используйте Past Perfect и слово
before.
Например: I sent a telegram. I met my friend. – I had sent a telegram before I met my
friend.
1. The rain stopped. I went for a walk. 2. I did my homework. My mother
returned home. 3. We met in the street. We went to the park. 4. They packed
their things. Then they started. 5. I had dinner. I switched on the TV set. 6. He
returned home. The guests left. 7. We came to the cinema. The film began. 8. I
read the book. I saw the play. 9. They lived here. They moved to another place.
10. We played tennis. We went to the gym.

Упражнение 9. Вставьте глагол во времени Future Perfect.


1. I … (to be) a Londoner for five and a half years by next September. 2. By
Tuesday Jill … (to read) these novels by O’Henry. 3. Next year is Fred and
Kate’s 10th wedding anniversary. They (to be) … happily married for ten years.
4. Molly thinks the film … (to start) by the time she gets to Fred’s. 5. Before his
holiday Tom … (to spend) all his money. 6. The train … (to leave) by the time
they get to the station. 7. I … (to finish) my chemistry homework before he
comes home. 8. Before Lisa arrives, I … (to cook) dinner. 9. Jonny … (to
translate) this document by 7pm o’clock this afternoon. 10. Helen … (make) this
awesome doll by her daughter’s birthday.

Упражнение 10. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect и Past Simple.


Например: I … (to write) a letter to my cousin. – (already, yesterday).
1. I have already written a letter to my cousin. 2. I wrote a letter to my cousin
yesterday.
1. Mother … (to bring) our tea. – (a few minutes ago; not yet)
2. He … (to go) to London in a few days. – (already; last week)
3. Students … (to clean) their classrooms. – (for 2 hours; last Saturday)
4. Anna … (to read) a new novel by Chekhov. – (this month; last year)
5. The boys … (to play) football in the yard now. – (yesterday; many times)
6. The bell … (to ring). – (just; some minutes ago)
7. The teacher … (to explain) a new rule. – (just, last lesson)
8. Ann … (to do) the flat. – (since Friday; on Friday)
9. They … (to discuss) this plan. – (many times; a few days ago)
10. Granny … (to make) a birthday cake. – (just; yesterday)

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Упражнение 11. Найдите и исправьте в предложениях ошибки во временной
форме глаголов Past Simple / Past Perfect.
1. They were late but the lecture didn’t start yet. 2. I had remembered that I left
the iron switched on. 3. The floor was slippery because Tom spilt some juice on
it. 4. Mary had given me the book I hadn’t read before. 5. He returned home
because he remembered that didn’t lock the door. 6. Before the pupils had
started the exam, they had switched their mobiles off. 7. Fred gave me the car
back after he used it. 8. The concert had finished and we had gone to a nice
restaurant. 9. I didn’t recognize Henry because he lost much weight and grew
a moustache. 10. I visited so many beautiful places in China before I had come
to the Great Wall.

Упражнение 12. Выберете правильную форму глагола, обращая внимание на


употребление Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect.
1. By the time I get home, my wife … watching her favourite TV series on her
favourite channel.
A. will have finished B. will finish C. will be finishing
2. When she arrives, Ann and Tom … .
A. will cook B. will be cooking C. will have cooked
3. By the time I’m 35, I … my own business.
A. will have started B. will start C. will be starting
4. When she arrives, we … on the platform.
A. will have waited B. will wait C. will be waiting
5. You … your exams if you don’t study.
A. won’t have passed B. won’t be passing C. won’t pass
6. Goodnight. I … you tomorrow.
A. will be seeing B. will see C. will have seen
7. This time tomorrow I … in the ocean.
A. will be swimming B. will have swum C. will swim
8. I’m so tired. I think I … to bed.
A. will go B. will be going C. will have gone
9. By next year, she … her promotion.
A. will receive B. will have C. will be receiving
received

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10. This time next week he … to South Africa.
A. will be flying B. will fly C. will have flown
11. By the time the guests arrive, I … the room.
A. will have cleaned B. will clean C. will be cleaning
12. Tomorrow at nine I … a test.
A. will be writing B. will have written C. will write

Упражнение 13. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в


страдательный залог. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
употребление времен группы Perfect.
1. She has just sent those letters. 2. I haven’t taken the books back to the library
yet. 3. The teacher has already checked my test. 4. Has he lost the key? 5. We
have opened all the windows. 6. I haven’t bought bread on the way home.
7. Have you done this exercise? 8. He had written a letter by the evening. 9. She
had watered the flowers before the rain started. 10. Had you done your task?
11. They hadn’t built a new house by the end of this month. 12. The speaker had
presented his project by 6 o’clock. 13. They will have built the airport by next
April. 14. We will have decorated the Christmas tree before the children come
back. 15. Will they have visited three countries by 2021? 16. I think we won’t
have launched our new product by the end of December.

Упражнение 14. Определите время и залог глаголов.


1. takes 2. has given 3. is sleeping 4. has been studied 5. will be doing 6. had
realized 7. are being built 8. will consider 9. caught 10. costs 11. will have given
12. were playing 13. have 14. had been worked 15. are answered 16. had won
17. will appreciate 18. was translated 19. went 20. will be done 21. were being
produced.

Упражнение 15. Выполните упражнение по образцу.


Например: Present Simple Active (to spend) – spend / spends
Past Continuous Passive (to write) – was/were being written
1. Present Continuous Active (to sing) 2. Future Perfect Active (to learn)
3. Present Simple Passive (to do) 4. Past Simple Active (to think) 5. Future
Continuous Passive (to assemble) 6. Present Continuous Passive (to take) 7. Past
Perfect Passive (to finish) 8. Past Continuous Active (to calculate) 9. Present
Perfect Active (to walk) 10. Future Simple Active (to win) 11. Past Continuous
Passive (to divide) 12. Present Simple Active (to carry out) 13. Past Perfect
Active (to watch) 14. Past Simple Passive (to build) 15. Future Perfect Passive
(stop) 16. Present Perfect Passive (to produce) 17. Future Continuous Active (to
play) 18. Future Simple Passive (to get).

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Упражнение 16. Раскройте скобки, обращая внимание на употребление групп
времен Simple, Continuous, Perfect и на ключевые слова.
1. He … (to write) a test. (every semester / now / already / 2 days ago / by 2
o’clock)
2. We … (to play) football. (at the moment / last month / when he came /
tomorrow at this time)
3. They … (to make) a scientific report. (now / just / often / by the evening /
yesterday / yet / yesterday at 5 p.m. )
4. We … (to watch) TV. (when it started to rain / while she was cooking / when
they came home / when they come home)
5. She … (to solve) important problems. (yesterday / tomorrow / at the moment /
by the next week / already / usually)
6. You … (to study) new English grammar rule. (every day / now / just / a week
ago / next week / by tomorrow / the whole evening yesterday)

Упражнение 17. Выберете подходящий предлог времени at / on / in.


1. … 6 June; 2. … 8 o’clock; 3. … Wednesday; 4. … 12.30 a.m.; 5. … 1977;
6. September; 7. … 24 September; 8. … Friday; 9. … present; 10. … the
morning; 11. … the moment; 12. … night; 13. … Monday morning;
14. … weekends; 15. … Christmas.

Упражнение 18. Вставьте предлоги времени at / on / in, где нужно:


1. Where were you … 28 February? 2. I got up … 8 o’clock this morning. 3. I
like getting up early … the morning. 4. I’m leaving … next Saturday. 5. My
sister got married … May. 6. Diana and I first met … 1998. 7. Will you be at
home … this evening? 8. Did you go out … Friday? 9. Did you go out … Friday
evening? 10. Do often out … the evening? 11. She phones me … every Sunday.
12. I always feel tired … the evening. 13. We went to Scotland … last summer.
14. What do you usually do … the weekend? 15. Can you play tennis … next
Sunday? 16. I’m afraid I can’t come to the party … Sunday. 17. We went to bed
late … last night. 18. I don’t like going out alone … night. 19. I won’t be out
very long. I’ll be back … ten minutes. 20. I’m leaving … Saturday.

Упражнение 19. Поставьте подходящий предлог времени after, before, since,


for, ago, until, during, by.
1. We have lived in this house … six Мы живем в этом доме вот уже шесть
years. лет.
2. We lived there 5 years … . Мы жили здесь 5 лет назад.
3. She has worked here … 2012. Она работает здесь с 2012 года.
4. I’ve been waiting for him … 20 Я жду его уже 20 минут.
minutes.

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5. You should wash the floor … your Ты должен помыть полы до того, как
mother comes home. придет мама.
6. I’ll be at the office … 7 o’clock. Я буду в офисе до 7 часов.
7. I have never seen that woman … . Я никогда не видел ту женщину
раньше.
8. She went to the market 2 hours … . Она ушла на рынок 2 часа назад.
9. Ann works hard … the week. Аня много работает в течение недели.
10. He must buy warm clothes … winter Он должен купить теплую одежду до
comes. наступления зимы.
11. I can come but only … ten minutes. Я могу прийти, но только на десять
минут.
12. It’s been raining … last night. Дождь идет с прошлой ночи.
13. … 11 o’clock I had read five pages. К одиннадцати часам я прочитал пять
страниц.
14. He waited … they were quiet. Он ждал, пока они не успокоятся.
15. I’ve been painting … my childhood. Я рисую с детства.
16. No one was allowed to use any Никому не разрешалось использовать
written materials … the exam. письменные материалы во время
экзамена.
17. He found his passport, 6 months … Он нашел свой паспорт через 6
losing it. месяцев после его потери.
18. The month … June is May. Месяц до июня – май.
19. The day … Tuesday is Wednesday. День после вторника – среда.
20. I waited for her call … 6 p.m. but Я ждал ее звонка до 6 вечера, но она
she didn't call. I suppose she was busy. не звонила. Я полагаю, она была
занята.

Test yourself
1. Как образуется Present Perfect Active?
A. be + V3
B. have/has + V3
C. have been + V3

2. Найдите предложение, составленное во времени Present Perfect Active?


A. I like the whole school to participate in the sports.
B. I wanted to see results.
C. Most people have joined the game.

3. В каком времени составлено предложение – I had made an experiment.


A. Past Simple
B. Past Continuous
C. Past Perfect

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4. Выберете правильный вариант: – He … (to translate) a text yesterday by 5 p.m.
A. translated
B. had translated
C. was translating

5. Выберете форму для Future Perfect Active.


A. will had done
B. will have doing
C. will have done

6. В каком времени составлено предложение – I will have done by the time they
arrive.
A. Future Simple / Past Continuous
B. Future Perfect / Future Simple
C. Future Perfect / Present Simple

7. Как образуется Present Perfect Passive?


A. have/has been V3
B. had + V3
C. have/has V3

8. Выберете подходящий вариант для Present Perfect Passive?


A. has played
B. had been played
C. have been played

9. Выберите форму для Past Perfect Passive.


A. was asked
B. has been asked
C. had been asked

10. Выберите форму для Future Perfect Passive.


A. will has been written
B. will have be written
C. will have been written

11. Определите время страдательного залога – I have been asked many questions.
A. Present Perfect
B. Past Perfect
C. Present Perfect Continuous

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12. Переведите: She will have finished this work by tomorrow.
A. Она закончит эту работу завтра.
B. Она закончит эту работу к завтрашнему дню.
C. Она закончила эту работу вчера.

13. Определите время и залог в данном предложении – I haven’t done my


homework yet.
A. Present Perfect/Passive
B. Past Perfect/Active
C. Present Perfect/Active

14. Переведите – I have already done a test.


A. Я только что сделал тест.
B. Я уже сделал тест.
C. Я делал этот тест раньше.

15. Выберите предложение в страдательном залоге:


A. A task will have been done.
B. He will have written an interesting article.
C. I will have gone here tomorrow by 5 o’clock.

16. Вставьте подходящий предлог времени – I visited a lot of interesting places …


my time in London.
A. while
B. during
C. in

17. Вставьте подходящий предлог времени – The course starts … 10 March.


A. at
B. on
C. in

18. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он живет в Индии 5 месяцев.


A. He has lived in India for 5 months.
B. He has lived in India about 5 months.
C. He lived in India 5 months ago.

19. Как переводится предлог in в предложении – She usually works better in the
morning?
A. в
B. -
C. на

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20. Какой предлог соответствует значению с каких-то пор, с?
A. with
B. within
C. since

21. Какой предлог имеет значение не позднее, чем; к какому-то моменту


времени?
A. before
B. by
C. after

22. Какой предлог употребляется в данных выражениях? – … the end of the


month; … the beginning of the year.
A. in
B. at
C. on

23. Какой предлог употребляется с днями и датами и везде, где есть слово
“day”?
A. in
B. at
C. on

24. Как переводится предлог over в предложении – I’m expecting a phone call over
an hour?
A. в течение
B. через
C. более

25. Какой предлог имеет значение ранее какого-то момента времени?


A. till
B. before
C. after

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LESSON 6
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
-ance; -ic; -ive; -ty

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 6A. Technologies of the 21st century
Text 6B. Computers are everywhere
Text 6C. What is a computer?
Text 6D. Types of computers

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Модальные глаголы
Предлоги причины и цели

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)

глагол / прилагательное + -ance, -ence, -ancy, -ency


=
существительное
Данные суффиксы указывают на состояние или качество чего-то.
Суффиксы -ance и -ancy присоединяются к глаголам, которые
оканчиваются на -y, -ure, -ear, -ate, к твердой с (как в слове cab) или
твердой g (как в game).
 to vary (изменяться) → variance (изменение)
 to insure (страховать) → insurance (страхование)
 to tolerate (терпеть) → tolerance (терпение, толерантность)
Суффиксы -ence и -ency присоединяются к глаголам с окончанием -
ere (кроме preserve), к ударным окончаниям -er, мягкой с (как в слове cell),
или мягкой g (как в gin).
 to interfere (вмешиваться) → interference (вмешательство)
 to prefer (предпочитать) → preference (предпочтение)
 to emerge (появляться) → emergence (появление)
Существительные с суффиксами -ance и -ence можно образовать от
прилагательных.
 resident (жилой) → residence (резиденция)
 intelligent (умный) → intelligence (ум)

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to perform – performance; to ignore – ignorance; to apply – appliance; to clear –
clearance; to dominate – dominance; arrogant – arrogance; significant –
significance; to adhere – adherence; to confer – conference; confident –
confidence; evident – evidence; innocent – innocence; important – importance.

существительное + -ic =
прилагательное
Суффикс -ic имеет значение «вызванный чем-то».
 base (основа) → basic (основанный)
 science (наука) → scientific (научный)
ocean – oceanic; athlete – athletic; rhythm – rhythmic; art – artistic; energy –
energetic; economy – economic; history – historic; symbol – symbolic.

глагол/ существительное + -ive =


прилагательное
Суффикс -ive имеет значения «иметь качество», «способность».
 to attract (привлекать) → attractive (привлекательный)
 to create (создавать) → creative (креативный)
to construct – constructive; to act – active; to defense – defensive; to impress –
impressive; to select – selective; mass – massive; impulse – impulsive.

прилагательное + -ty =
существительное
Суффикс -ty (-ity/-ety) указывает на качество, состояние, которое
передает прилагательное.
 active (активный) → activity (активность, деятельность)
 real (реальный) → reality (реальность)
capable – capability; accessible – accessibility; human – humanity; anxious –
anxiety; poor – poverty; intensive – intensity; original – originality; curious –
curiosity; social – society; safe – safety.

Упражнение 1. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные или


прилагательные с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.
1. The scientists had difficulty in They had difficulty in explaining
-ance
explaining how the star had the … of the star.
disappeared.
2. Jack ignored our Jack displayed his … during our
conversation. conversation.

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3. An actress performed her role An actress showed a brilliant … of
brilliantly. her role yesterday.
1. Children expected presents I saw the look of … in the
for Christmas. children’s eyes.
-ancy 2. He hesitates to call her. I noticed a certain … in his calling
her.
3. Students made errors frequent The … of student errors was
enough. frustrating to the young teacher.
1. We were surprised how We were surprised at the … in her
different her speech had speech.
-ence become.
2. I prefer good literature. My own … is for good literature.
3. He insisted on the need for He spoke with great … of the need
reform. for reform.
1. The game was very simple The … of the game makes it
and boring. boring.
-ty
2. She is too curious. … is her weak point.
3. This poem is original. The … of this poem should be
discussed.
1. This experiment impressed This experiment was … .
-ive us.
2. She acts in this play. She has a very … role in this play.
3. She was in mood to talk. She was in a … mood.
1. C is a symbol for carbon. C is a … sign for carbon.
2. The economy has grown There has been an acceleration in
-ic
steadily. … growth.
3. He is an optimist. He has an … turn of mind.

Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. She’s a woman of … sensibility. poet
2. Tina’s joke was … for her friends. to offend
3. Nowadays we often judge people only by …, so it is not to appear
good.
4. Mendeleyev created a … Table of the Elements. period
5. Anna likes … kinds of sport. to act
6. The word ‘professional’ has connotations of skill and … . excellent
7. He has enough … to cope with the job. flexible
8. There are … information systems. geography
9. He is possessed of great … . to able
10. Engineers are carrying out essential … work to maintain

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11. … moved me to open the box. curious
12. Rubber is a flexible … . substantial

SECTION 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
technology [tek'nɔləʤɪ], innovation [ˌɪnəu'veɪʃn], innovative ['ɪnəuveɪtɪv],
impression [ɪm'preʃn], sensation [sen'seɪʃn], to affect [ə'fekt], social ['səuʃl],
structure ['strʌkʧə], civilization [ˌsɪvɪlaɪ'zeɪʃn], to convert [kən'vɜːt], material
[mə'tɪərɪəl], service ['sɜːvɪs], sphere [sfɪə], activity [æk'tɪvətɪ], effect [ɪ'fekt],
modern ['mɔdən], person ['pɜːsn], personal ['pɜːsənl], computer [kəm'pjuːtə],
machine [mə'ʃiːn], to occupy ['ɔkjupaɪ], meter ['miːtə], portable ['pɔːtəbl], system
['sɪstəm], visual ['vɪʒuəl], presentation [ˌprezən'teɪʃn], fantastic [fæn'tæstɪk],
resident ['rezɪdənt], negative ['negətɪv], aspect ['æspekt], telecommunication
[ˌtelɪkəˌmjuːnɪ'keɪʃn], contact ['kɔntækt], to form [fɔːm], to combine [kəm'baɪn],
audio ['ɔːdɪəu], robotic [rəu'bɔtɪk], general ['ʤenərəl], vacuum ['vækjuəm], area
['eərɪə], association [əˌsəuʃɪ'eɪʃn], rational ['ræʃənl], intelligence [ɪn'telɪʤəns],
creativity [krɪ'eɪtɪvɪtɪ].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


century ['senʧərɪ], to evolve [ɪ'vɔlv], undoubtedly [ʌn'dautɪdlɪ], indeed [ɪn'diːd],
gasoline ['gæsəliːn], to aim [eɪm], source [sɔːs], to draw [drɔː], strength [streŋθ],
waste [weɪst], society [sə'saɪətɪ], to change [ʧeɪnʤ], environmental
[ɪnˌvaɪərən'mentl], preference ['prefərəns], rather ['rɑːðə], significant
[sɪg'nɪfɪkənt], enough [ɪ'nʌf], square [skweə], to provide [prə'vaɪd], increasingly
[ɪn'kriːsɪŋlɪ], to simplify ['sɪmplɪfaɪ], to touch [tʌʧ], harmful ['hɑːmful], health
[helθ], capability [ˌkeɪpə'bɪlətɪ], direction [dɪ'rekʃn, daɪ-], approach [ə'prəuʧ],
disadvantage [ˌdɪsəd'vɑːntɪʤ], to achieve [ə'ʧiːv], available [ə'veɪləbl], contest
['kɔntest], exhibition [ˌeksɪ'bɪʃn], purpose ['pɜːpəs], boundary ['baundərɪ],
thought [θɔːt], to assume [ə'sjuːm], humanity [hjuː'mænətɪ].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


to evolve – развиваться rather than – вместо; а не
to make a great impression on – a means – средство
производить большое впечатление на to provide with the necessary
to cause a sensation – произвести information – предоставлять
сенсацию необходимую информацию
to take smth for granted – воспринимать to simplify – упрощать
как само собой разумеющееся to be harmful to – быть вредным
to affect one’s life – влиять на жизнь to form a new approach (to) – создать
to take first steps in – делать первые новый подход (к)
шаги for general use – для общего

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to draw strength from – черпать силу из пользования
to give preference to – отдавать to give up a sense of boundaries –
предпочтения чему-то выйти за рамки
to have negative effect on – иметь to be used to – привыкнуть
негативное влияние на

Text 6A
Прочитайте текст, выделите интересные факты и перескажите.
Technologies of the 21st century
It is known that much is being done today for the development of
technology. In past centuries, technology has evolved quite slowly and each
innovation has made a great impression. Now new technologies do not cause a
sensation. Everyone takes it for granted that new inventions are created every
year that, undoubtedly, affect our lives. In fact, technology has changed along
with changes in the economic and social structure of human civilizations.
Indeed, technology is the art of transforming one thing into another, such as
converting oil into gasoline or building materials into a house. It should be noted
that together with technology the product itself is changing. If in past centuries it
was something material, now it is a service and information sphere.
Technologies of the 21st century are aimed at:
1. New sources of energy: Many scientists are taking their first steps in
creating new energy sources that can draw their strength from simple water or
waste from human activities. If society is able to switch to new sources of
energy in the near future, many things can change. A global problem is
environmental pollution because our society is not used to walking. It gives
preference to cars which have negative effect on our environment. Accordingly,
it would be best to power our cars with fresh water rather than gasoline.
2. Computers: A modern person cannot imagine his life without a
computer. People spend most of their time on the Internet. Therefore,
development in a computer environment is quite significant. A computer is both
a tool to get a job done and a means of spending free time. Nowadays it is
enough to click and order a dinner within seconds. Moreover, a computer
transformed quick enough from a huge machine occupying a whole room of 50
square meters into a portable system that can fit in a briefcase and provide us
with the necessary information. Increasingly, the system of visual presentation
of information is simplified through holographic technology. And a touch screen
that seemed something fantastic 5 years ago is widely used today by every
second resident of a large city. But, there are some negative aspects. Using a
computer is very harmful to our health.
3. Telecommunications: With the development of computers,
telecommunications began to develop as well. It will be difficult for a person to
perform various actions without them. Everyone knows that the Internet holds a

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great potential, and, for example, Skype’s capabilities allow people to hold
meetings without personal contact. The main direction of modern
communication systems forms a new approach to communication and combines
the audio and video aspects. Thus, telecommunications have opened up new
spaces for man but there are some disadvantages. Modern society is lazy and
cannot leave home to achieve its goals.
4. Robotization: An interesting area is the robotic technology. People have
always dreamed of a device that would do the work for them. Now such devices
are available for general use such as dishwashers, new vacuum cleaners, etc.
There are also many contests and exhibitions of various robotic models for
industrial, domestic and scientific purposes that can help people.
The development of innovative technologies is a very important and
interesting area of human activity. A person can develop something new, create
something that will help people, he may give up a sense of boundaries that will
lead to the free association of his thoughts. According to the 21th century, it can
be assumed that humanity will enter a more rational stage of the technologies
development related to such problems as humanity, intelligence and creativity.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What is this text about? 2. What is being done today for the development of
technology? 3. What was the attitude to innovations in past centuries? 4. Why
don’t new technologies cause a sensation in the 21st century? 5. What is
technology? 6. What are technologies of the 21st century aimed at? 7. What
does it mean to create new sources of energy? 8. Why is development in a
computer environment quite significant? 9. What is the potential of the Internet?
10. What are the prospects of robotic technology development?

Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте:


1 абзац – синонимы к словам
1. to create 2. impression 3. invention 4. transforming 5. along with 6. today 7.
in fact
2 абзац – антонимы к словам
1. old 2. weakness 3. difficult 4. past 5. local 6. positive
3 абзац – слова, означающие:
1. an electronic machine that can store and deal with large amounts of
information.
2. a global computer network
3. an action or system by which a result is achieved
4. able to be easily carried or moved
5. to make (something) simpler or easier to do or understand

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4 абзац – объясните, что означают данные слова:
1. telecommunication 2. to perform 3. potential 4. to allow 5. to combine
6. disadvantage
5 и 6 абзацы – найдите фразы, означающие:
1. an attractive field 2. to expect of appearance of a new appliance 3. widely
used 4. a lot of competitions 5. it can be supposed 6. to refer to challenges

Упражнение 5. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1. In past centuries, technology has 1. changes in the economic and social
evolved quite slowly, that is why … structure of human civilizations.
2. Today, new technologies do not 2. a computer is both a tool to get a job
cause a sensation because … done and a means of spending free
time.
3. In fact, technology has changed 3. each innovation has made a great
along with … impression.
4. In the 21th century humanity will 4. in creating new energy sources that
enter a more rational stage of the will be able to transform our daily
technologies development … lives.
5. The development in a computer 5. everyone takes it for granted that
environment is quite significant as … new inventions are created every year.
6. Many scientists are taking their first 6. related to such problems as
steps … humanity, intelligence and creativity.

Text 6B
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию об использовании
компьютеров в повседневной жизни и работе людей.
Computers are everywhere
We are now living in what some people call the digital age, meaning that
computers have become an essential part of our lives. Young people who have
grown up with PCs and mobile phones are often called the digital generation.
Computers help students to perform mathematical operations and improve their
maths skills. They are used to access the Internet, to do basic research and to
communicate with other students around the world.
Teachers use projectors and interactive whiteboards to give presentations
and teach sciences, history or language courses. PCs are also used for
administrative purpose – to write letters and databases, to keep records of
students and teachers. Any educational institutions’ websites allow teachers to
publish exercises for students to complete online. Students can also enroll for
courses via the website and parents can download official reports.
Mobiles let you make voice calls, send texts, email people and download
logos, ringtones or games. With a built-in camera you can send pictures and

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make video calls in face-to-face mode. New mobiles combine a telephone with
web access, video, a games console and MP3 player, a personal digital assistant
(PDA) and a GPS navigation and system, all in one.
In banks, computers store information about the money held by each
customer and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial
transactions at high speed. They also control the cash points, or ATMs
(automatic teller machines), which dispense money to customers by the use of a
PIN-protected card. People use a Chip and PIN card to pay for goods and
services. Instead of using a signature to verify payments, customers are asked to
enter a four-digit personal identification number (PIN), the same number used at
cash points; this system makes transactions more secure. With online banking,
clients can easily pay bills and transfer money from the comfort of their homes.
Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example,
monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport
control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air
traffic. On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer.
Travel agents use computer to find out about the availability of flights, prices,
times, stopovers and many other details.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.


1. What is the term computer used for? 2. Did the invention of computers
change the world for the better? 3. Do computers mean a lot to you? 4. What do
you use your computer for? 5. Does using a computer take much of your time?

Упражнение 7. Составьте сообщение на следующую тему: «Как или для чего


используются компьютеры в следующих сферах»:
1. Car production;
2. Entertainment;
3. Factories and industrial processes;
4. Education.
Используйте слова и словосочетания при составлении сообщений:
1. to design and build the car; to test car models; to control electronic
components; to monitor engine speed; to store information; to display data.
2. to play games; to listen to the radio; to download music; to take photos; to
watch movies; to watch TV programmes on the computer; to make video clips.
3. to control industrial robots; to design and assemble products; to do
calculations; to control assembly lines.
4. to search the Web; to prepare presentations; to access the Internet; to get
ready for exams; to do exercises online; to do research; to look for important
information.

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Text 6C
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию об основных компонентах
компьютера и их назначения.
What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It
has the ability to store, retrieve and process data. You may already know that
you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse
the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations and
even videos.
A computer system consists of two parts: hardware and software. Software
is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do and how to do it.
Examples of software include web browsers, games, and word processors.
Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure such as the
keyboard or mouse. It also includes all of the computer’s internal parts. There
are three basic hardware sections: the central processing unit (CPU), main
memory and peripherals.
Perhaps the most influential component is the central processing unit. Its
function is to execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all
the other units. In a way, it is the “brain” of the computer. The main memory (a
collection of RAM chips) holds the instructions and data which are being
processed by the CPU. Peripherals are the physical units attached to the
computer. They include storage devices and input/output devices.
Storage devices (hard drives, DVD drives or flash drives) provide a
permanent storage of both data and programs Disk drives are used to read and
write data on disks. Input devices enable data to go into the computer’s memory.
The most common input devices are the mouse and the keyboard. Output
devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example,
the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by
means of a printer.

Text 6D
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о различных типах
компьютеров и их основных характеристиках.
Types of computers
When most people hear the word computer, they think of a personal
computer such as a desktop or laptop. However, computers come in many
shapes and sizes, and they perform many different functions in our daily lives.
When you withdraw cash from an ATM, scan groceries at the store or use a
calculator, you’re using a specific type of computer.
Many people use desktop computers at work, home and school. Desktop
computers are designed to be placed on a desk, and they’re typically made up of

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a few different parts, including the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and
mouse.
The second type of computer you may be familiar with is a laptop
computer, commonly called a laptop. Laptops are battery-powered computers
that are more portable than desktops allowing you to use them almost anywhere.
Tablet computers – or tablets – are handheld computers that are even more
portable than laptops. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, tablets use a touch-
sensitive screen for typing and navigation. The iPad is an example of a tablet.
Many of today’s electronics are basically specialized computers, though we
don’t always think of them that way. Here are a few common examples. Many
cell phones called smartphones can do a lot of things computers can do
including browsing the Internet and playing games. Wearable technology is a
general term for a group of devices including fitness trackers and smartwatches
that are designed to be worn throughout the day. These devices are often called
wearables for short. A game console is a specialized type of computer that is
used for playing video games on your TV. Many TVs now include applications
or apps that let you access various types of online content. For example, you can
stream video from the Internet directly onto your TV.

Упражнение 8. A. Назовите 10-15 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему


“Computers”.
B. Дайте развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Do you often use a computer? 2. Are you computer literate? 3. Do you find
most computers user-friendly (easy to use)? 4. What is the influence of the
Internet on our daily life? 5. Can the use of the Internet help people to learn
English? 6. What are the advantages of laptop computers over desktop
computers? 7. What are pros and cons of using computers in our life?

Упражнение 9. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


Since the first computer was made in the late fifties, the technology has
developed extremely. Computers that took the place of a living room then are
now being made in credit card formats. The ability of tiny computing devices to
control complex operations has transformed the way many tasks are performed,
ranging from scientific research to producing consumer products. Tiny
‘computers on a chip’ are used in medical equipment, home appliances, cars and
toys. Workers use handheld computing devices to collect data at a customer site,
to generate forms, to control inventory, and to serve as desktop organizers. Not
only is computing equipment getting smaller, it is getting more sophisticated.
Computers are part of many machines and devices that once required continual
human supervision and control. Today, computers in security systems result in
safer environments, computers in cars improve energy efficiency, and computers

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in phones provide features such as call forwarding, call monitoring, and call
answering. These smart machines are designed to take over some of the basic
tasks previously performed by people; by so doing, they make life a little easier
and a little more pleasant.

SECTION 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Вставьте подходящий модальный глагол (can / may)
1. … you see anything in this dark room? 2. … I borrow your rubber, please?
Yes, of course you … . 3. Kate … speak English. 4. Mike has got many books
so he … read them. 5. … I borrow your pen? 6. Only a person who knows the
language very well … answer such a question. 7. Most children … slide on the
ice very well. 8. You … find any kind of information on the Internet. 9. British
Parliament … issue laws and form the budget. 10. … I try on this coat? 11. You
… not talk loudly in libraries. 12. He … read and write in English.

Упражнение 2. Вставьте подходящий модальный глагол (must / have to)


1. It’s 8 o’clock! I … go to work. 2. Her granny is ill. She … visit her. 3. We are
going to drive for six hours. We … get something to eat! 4. I … learn English. It
will help me in the future. 5. It’s his sister’s birthday tomorrow. He … buy her a
birthday present! 6. I watch television all the time. I … stop. 7. Everyone …
obey the law. 8. He … put some petrol to the car. 9. People … take care of
nature. 10. People … save natural resources, otherwise they will face energetic
crisis.

Упражнение 3. Вставьте подходящий вариант (mustn’t / don’t have to)


1. You … get up early on holidays. 2. It’s very cold. You … go out today.
3. You … clean your room today. You can do it tomorrow. 4. You … leave your
kids unattended at the airport. 5. You … be late for the interview. 6. You … eat
the soup if you don’t want to. 7. We … run. We have plenty of time before the
concert. 8. You … pay now. You can pay online later. 9. This museum is free.
We … buy any tickets. 10. This is my dad’s pen. You … lose it. 11. You …
make much noise. Little Tim is sleeping. 12. It’s Sunday tomorrow. I … get up
early. 13. Spectators … use mobile phones during the performance.

Упражнение 4. Перепишите предложения в настоящем времени на будущее или


прошедшее, используя модальный глагол have to.
1. I must fly to India now. (next month)
2. We must go and buy some painkillers. (last night)
3. He must sign the contract today. (tomorrow)
4. I must water the plants now. (yesterday)

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5. He must mend a broken window. (tomorrow morning)
6. You must pay the rent today. (last Friday)
7. You must brush your teeth before going to bed. (yesterday)
8. You must fasten your seatbelt in a car. (last trip)

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения и определите значение модального


глагола should (совет, обязанность, упрек, недоумение).
1. We should think twice before buying that yacht. 2. You should have thanked
the teacher. 3. A real lady should be delicate in her words and doings. 4. Why
should I wash their cups? 5. She shouldn’t be so light-minded. 6. They should
inform the police immediately. 7. How should I know that? 8. You should have
warned me beforehand. 9. The secretary should answer the phone-calls. 10.
Your son should take part in this mathematical competition.

Упражнение 6. Дайте совет, используя модальный глагол should.


What changes should Tim make in his lifestyle?
1. Tim takes a dog for a walk once a day. 2. Tim doesn’t tidy his room. 3. Tim
watches six hours of TV a day. 4. Tim eats cheeseburgers for breakfast. 5. Tim
doesn’t study for his Math exam. 6. Tim misses English classes. 7. Tim is lazy.
8. Tim plays computer games every day.

Упражнение 7. Преобразуйте предложения с модальными глаголами в


прошедшее время. Используйте could, had to, was to, was allowed to.
Например: He can’t dive. (Он не умеет нырять.) –
Last year he couldn’t dive. (В прошлом году он не умел нырять.)
1. You must show your identity card here. – Last night …
2. We can’t buy a new car. – Last summer …
3. Mike may take my laptop computer for a couple of hours. – This morning …
4. Victor has to call his mother. – Yesterday …
5. You don’t need to paper the walls. – Yesterday …
6. She is to be at the office at 9 a.m. – Last Friday …
7. You must not tell lies. – Last night …
8. He may take this dictionary. – Last lesson ...

Упражнение 8. Преобразуйте предложения с модальными глаголами в будущее


время. Используйте will be able to, will be allowed to, will have to.
Например: The baby can talk. (Малыш умеет разговаривать.) – Soon the baby will
be able to talk. (Скоро малыш сможет разговаривать.)
1. He can’t get the tickets. – I’m afraid …
2. You may use my camera. – Tomorrow …
3. I must wait for him at the airport. – Next Sunday …

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4. You must tell me the truth. – Very soon …
5. I have to take these pills 3 times a day. – Tomorrow …
6. I can read this book in Italian. – In two years …
7. You may come at any time. – Tomorrow …
8. He can’t even say a word in English. – If he skips classes, he …
9. You mustn’t go there. – I think …
10. They may not touch the picture. – During the tomorrow museum visiting
they …

Упражнение 9. Выберите в скобках правильный вариант модального глагола.


Переведите предложения.
1. He … (can’t / couldn’t) open the window as it was stuck. 2. Interpreters …
(may / must) translate without dictionaries. 3. … (Can / May) I use your bike
today? 4. … (May / Could) you give me the recipe for this cake? 5. I hardly ever
see Jane, she … (may / might) have moved to Africa. 6. Take an umbrella. It …
(may / can) rain. 7. You … (could / should) stop smoking. You know you …
(cannot / must not) buy health. 8. You … (may / must) finish the article as soon
as possible. 9. Liz doesn’t … (ought to / have to) keep to a diet anymore.
10. Lara … (can / might) get a playstation for her birthday. 11. You … (must not
/ needn’t) read in the dark. 12. My grandfather is retired, so he … (shouldn’t /
doesn’t have to) go to work. 13. The fridge is full, so we … (must not / needn’t)
go shopping. 14. Our employees … (can / must) sign this agreement. 15. We …
(may / ought to) reserve a table in advance if we want to have dinner there. 16. I
… (can’t / needn’t) believe it! You … (have to / must) be joking. 17. Ann …
(must / is to) finish school next year. 18. Sorry, I’m late. I … (needed to / had to)
wait for the plumber. 19. What time do we … (should / have to) be at the
railway station? 20. Don’t wait for me tonight. I … (might / must) be late.

Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения с формами модальных глаголов на


английский язык.
1. Он должен … learn new English words. 2. Она умеет … play the guitar.
3. Людям следует … be careful when crossing the street. 4. Водителям не
следует … drive fast. 5. Ей разрешают … go to the cinema today? 6. Мне
нельзя … come home late. 7. Я не умею … speak English well. 8. Детям
нельзя … run here. 9. Им не разрешают … play computer games. 10. Тебе
следует …try again.

Упражнение 11. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая


внимание на употребление предлогов причины и цели.
1. Yesterday’s game was canceled because of the rain. 2. Use this product only
in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. 3. The paper was rejected on

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account of its length. 4. We managed to eliminate ecological problems thanks to
joint efforts of all people. 5. The job is attractive because of the pay. 6. The
success was due to his foresight and forethought. 7. He is Russian as you might
have guessed from his name. 8. Her mood changes in accordance with the
weather. 9. Thanks to her advice, he managed to make a huge progress in his
field of study. 10. She was told to wear flat shoes, on account of her back
problem. 11. The house stuck out because of its unusual shape. 12. Visibility
was bad due to low cloud. 13. I learnt of the position through a newspaper
advertisement. 14. From what I’ve heard, the new exam will be more difficult.
15. The cause of the problem is uncertain.

Упражнение 12. Соедините два предложения, используя предлоги because /


because of / as / due to.
1. Nina went to the seaside in summer. She wanted to swim in the sea. 2. Mike
didn’t want to be late for school. He caught the bus. 3. Nick was good at
swimming. He won the first prize at camp competition. 4. The flight was
delayed. There was storm. 5. Ann bought a car. She had a lot of money. 6. Bob
spent two weeks at the hospital. He had broken his leg. 7. She should not do
sports. She has health problems. 8. Windows could not start. There were
software problems. 9. There is fast population growth in the world. Lots of
questions arise. 10. The company shuts down. There is crisis.

Test yourself
1. Найдите правильно составленное предложение.
A. Do you can do it?
B. May I take it?
C. Does he must go there?

2. Найдите правильно составленное предложение.


A. He can’t does it.
B. She mustn’t call there.
C. They don’t can do this test.

3. Найдите предложение с грамматической ошибкой.


A. He ought to help him.
B. He must to go there.
C. She can do it.

4. Найдите предложение с грамматической ошибкой.


A. He can reads this book in Italian.
B. He may use my camera.
C. She must show her identity card here.

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5. Какой модальный глагол не имеет формы в прошедшем времени?
A. can
B. may
C. must

6. Какой модальный глагол указывает на умственную или физическую


возможность?
A. should
B. can
C. must

7. Какой модальный глагол указывает на необходимость в виду личного


убеждения?
A. can
B. must
C. may

8. Какой модальный глагол указывает на обычное и повторяющееся действие?


A. should
B. could
C. would

9. Выберете правильный эквивалент: – You must be ready to start working now.


A. You are able to be ready to start working now.
B. You have to be ready to start working now.
C. You are allowed to be ready to start working now.

10. Выберете правильный эквивалент: – He may come in.


A. He is to come in.
B. He is able to come in.
C. He is permitted to come in.

11. Выберете правильный эквивалент: – She can get there by bus.


A. She has to get there by bus.
B. She is able to get there by bus.
C. She is allowed to get there by bus.

12. Поставьте данное предложение в отрицательную форму – You have to read


this book.
A. You haven’t to read this book.
B. You must not to read this book.
C. You don’t have to read this book.

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13. Поставьте данное предложение в вопросительную форму – My friend is to take
part in the conference.
A. Is my friend to take part in the conference?
B. Does my friend take part in the conference?
C. Is my friend take part in the conference?

14. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Everyone should know a foreign


language.
A. Каждый может знать иностранный язык.
B. Каждому следует знать иностранный язык.
C. Каждый должен знать иностранный язык.

15. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он обычно проводил много


времени в библиотеке, готовясь к экзаменам.
A. He could spend hours in the library getting ready for exams.
B. He might spend hours in the library getting ready for exams.
C. He would spend hours in the library getting ready for exams.

16. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он может читать и писать


по-английски.
A. He has to read and write in English.
B. He is able to read and write in English.
C. He is permitted to read and write in English.

17. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Они должны остаться дома


из-за плохой погоды.
A. They must stay at home because of bad weather.
B. They are to stay at home because of bad weather.
C. They have to stay at home because of bad weather.

18. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – нельзя


предсказать.
A. can’t predict
B. needn’t predict
C. be not able to predict

19. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – должен


начаться в 10.
A. have to start at 10
B. may start at 10
C. be to start at 10

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20. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – необходимо
использовать.
A. be allowed to use
B. must use
C. may use

21. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – можно


вычислить.
A. must calculate
B. can calculate
C. should calculate

22. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – можно взять
эту книгу.
A. must take this book
B. can take this book
C. may take this book

23. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – упорно не


желать делать.
A. needn’t do
B. wouldn’t do
C. must not do

24. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – быть в


состоянии выполнить:
A. have to carry out
B. be allowed to carry out
C. be able to carry out

25. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – следует


рассмотреть.
A. must consider
B. should consider
C. can consider

26. Выберете правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент – не нужно


торопиться.
A. needn’t hurry up
B. shouldn’t hurry up
C. mustn’t hurry up

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LESSON 7
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- ness; -ise (ize); -ous; -ed

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 7A. Transport as it is
Text 7B. Transport that will revolutionize the future
Text 7C. Driving to the Future
Text 7D. Types of Travelling

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Согласование времен

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)


прилагательное + -ness =
существительное
Данный суффикс указывает на состояние или качество чего-то.
 happy (счастливый) → happiness (счастье)
 careful (осторожный) → carefulness (осторожность)
 thick (толстый) → thickness (толщина)
dark – darkness; faithful – faithfulness; great – greatness; kind – kindness;
lazy – laziness; busy – business; rude – rudeness; sad – sadness; red – redness;
empty – emptiness; useful – usefulness; hopeful – hopefulness; rough –
roughness; fit – fitness.

существительное + -ise (ize) =


глагол
 critic (критик) → to criticize (критиковать)
 symbol (символ) → to symbolize (символизировать)
Суффиксы -yse, -yze являются вариантами суффиксов -ise и -ize. Они
встречаются только в определенных словах, которые следует запомнить.
 analyze (анализировать); paralyze (парализовать);
 electrolyse (подвергать электролизу); catalyse (катализировать);
В некоторых глаголах, которые оканчиваются на -ise, данное
буквосочетание (ise) является не суффиксом, а частью основы. Такие
глаголы следует запоминать наизусть.

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 exercise (заниматься)
 revise (проверять, повторять)
 compromise (пойти на компромисс)
 advise (советовать)
to advertise; to patronize; to characterize; to minimize; to amortise; to civilise; to
energise; to itemize; to maximize; to neutralize; to prioritise; to specialize.

существительное + -ous =
прилагательное
Суффикс -ous выражает характеристику, имеет значение «быть
наполненным каким-то качеством». Часто прибавляется к
существительным.
 danger (опасность) → dangerous (опасный)
 poison (яд) → poisonous (ядовитый)
humour – humorous; fame – famous; variety – various; number – numerous;
nerve – nervous; mountain – mountainous; anxiety – anxious.

глагол / существительное + -ed =


прилагательное
Суффикс -ed имеет значения «подвергаться влиянию», «иметь
характеристики, форму». Прибавляется к глаголам и существительным.
 interest (интерес) → interested (заинтересованный)
 to amaze (удивлять) → amazed (изумленный)
to exhaust – exhausted; to excite – excited; bore – bored; to tire – tired; to
inspire – inspired; to amuse – amused; to fulfill – fulfilled; to surprise –
surprised.

Упражнение 1. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные,


прилагательные или глаголы с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.
1. These are new buildings that They are … by these new
excite their curiosity. buildings.
-ed
2. Minor details don’t worry him. He is not … about minor details.
3. His manners began to irritate I was … by his manners.
me.
1. The lazy student promised to He inclines to … .
reform.
-ness
2. He is weak in mathematics. He has a … in mathematics.
3. Chairs were very hard. People complained about the …
of the chairs.

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1. I was burning with curiosity He was … about unknown
about unknown lands. lands.
2. A wide variety of opinions … opinions enriched a
-ous enriched a discussion and helped discussion and helped to produce
to produce a consensus. a consensus.
3. Some people feel danger to Some people consider travelling
travel by plane. by plane … .
1. Her distinguishing Those who know her … her as
characteristics are kindness and kind and optimistic.
optimism.
-ise / ize
2. They should make more They should … their method
detailed analysis of their method. more in detail.
3. You must learn to create good You must learn to … .
advertisements.

Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. We were … with the finished product. to please
2. It would be … to live in a peaceful world. glory
3. I was entranced by the … of her voice. sweet
4. We need to … the chance of error. minimum
5. The feeling of … to my friend overwhelmed her in the grateful
evening.
6. She has always lived a … life. to charm
7. This invention helped to … agriculture. mechanic
8. He was the most … scientist in the field. respect
9. He showed his … to them. rude
10. His personality is hard to … . characteristic
11. Dad seemed more … than angry. to disappoint
12. She has a … heart. generosity

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
public ['pʌblɪk], transport ['trænspɔːt], transportation [ˌtrænspɔː'teɪʃn], urban
['ɜːbən], private ['praɪvɪt], model ['mɔdəl], passenger ['pæsənʤə], combination
[ˌkɔmbɪ'neɪʃn], distance ['dɪstəns], regional ['riːʤənl], local ['ləukəl], personal
['pɜːsənl], airplane ['eəpleɪn], type [taɪp], to construct [kən'strʌkt], primitive
['prɪmɪtɪv], navigation [ˌnævɪ'geɪʃn], Europe ['juərəp], aviation [ˌeɪvɪ'eɪʃn],
history ['hɪstərɪ], balloon [bə'luːn], astronaut ['æstrənɔːt], millennium
[mɪ'lenɪəm].

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Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.
backbone ['bækbəun], sustainable [sə'steɪnəbl], possibility [ˌpɔsə'bɪlətɪ],
seamless ['siːmləs], journey ['ʤɜːnɪ], flexible ['fleksəbl], supply [sə'plaɪ], rather
['rɑːðə], rapid ['ræpɪd], scientific [ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk], bus [bʌs], van [væn], bicycle
['baɪsɪkl], however [hau'evə], couple ['kʌpl], perhaps [pə'hæps], carriage
['kærɪʤ], vehicle ['viːɪkl], to appear [ə'pɪə], precise [prɪ'saɪs], throughout
[θru'aut], kite [kaɪt], ancient ['eɪnʃənt], field [fiːld], thus [ðʌs], spaceflight
['speɪsflaɪt], launch [lɔːnʧ], exactly [ɪg'zæktlɪ], often ['ɔfn].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


high-quality – высококачественный land transport – наземный транспорт
public transport – общественный domestic animals – домашние
транспорт животные
urban transport – городской транспорт animal-drawn vehicles – гужевой
private car – личный автомобиль транспорт
seamless journey – бесперебойные rail transport – железнодорожный
перевозки транспорт
modern transportation system – to make a discovery – сделать открытие
транспортная система spaceflight – космический полет
rapid progress – быстрый прогресс to launch – запускать (спутник, ракету)
a developed country – развитая страна to take advantage (of) – выгодно
to construct – строить, конструировать использовать
river navigation – речное судоходство a mode of transport – вид транспорта

Text 7A
Прочитайте текст, выделите интересные факты и перескажите.
Transport as it is
A modern and high-quality public transport is the backbone of urban
transport. Against the door-to-door trip by private car, a more sustainable model
of public transport should offer passengers the possibility of a seamless journey
taking advantage of the flexible combination of features of the different
transport modes and the covering supply of interconnected long-distance,
regional and local networks of public transport.
Transport has always played an important role in people’s life. It’s a way of
travelling from one place to another. Modern transportation system is rather well
developed thanks to rapid scientific and technological progress. There are lots of
buses, mini-vans, taxis, personal cars, bicycles, trains, airplanes, even ships and
ferries in every developed country.
However, a couple of centuries ago, there were only carts carried by horses
and old-fashioned boats. Perhaps, the oldest type of transport is the water one.
People constructed primitive boats for river navigation since the stone ages. The

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first land transport was presented by the carriages which were later carried by
domestic animals. The first animal-drawn vehicles were traced in Europe in the
4th millennium BC. Rail transport appeared much later, to be precise nearly 500
years ago. Modern railroad was introduced in the 19th century in England.
Aviation had several forms throughout the history. If we speak about the kites,
they appeared in ancient China around before 200 BC. Then, there were the hot
air balloons invented in the 18th century.
The first aircraft flight was made by the Wright brothers at the very
beginning of the 20th century. Perhaps, the discoveries made in the field of
transportation in the 20th century were the most important. Thus, in 1961 the
first human spaceflight was launched. In 1969, the first astronaut stepped on the
Moon. Nobody knows exactly where else is scientific progress taking us but it’s
most likely that soon we will travel by spaceships more often.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What is the backbone of urban transport? 2. What is a door-to-door trip? 3.
Why has transport always played an important role in people’s life? 4. Why is
modern transportation system well-developed now? 5. What modes of transport
do you know? 6. What is the most convenient mode of transport? 7. What is the
fastest mode of urban transport? 8. What is the cheapest mode of urban
transport? 9. Do you like trips by river transport? Why? Why not? 10. What is
the safest (the most dangerous) mode of transport?

Упражнение 4. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1. Historically most of the cities relied 1. favour rail transport.
2. Competitiveness of public transport 2. as a major barrier to cross-border
will be improved particularly in trade in the region.
3. Meanwhile, the poor quality of land 3. on extensive public transport
transport infrastructure acts facilities.
4. Long travelling distances and hard 4. have made river navigation
weather conditions impossible in the canals.
5. During the last two decades, 5. by individual countries with active
pollution and a continuous drop in spaceflight programs.
water levels
6. Subsequent development projects are 6. areas where it is a genuine
to be completed. alternative for a private car.

Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и


переводом этих слов.
public бесперебойный, belonging to or for the use of one
непрерывный particular person or group of people only

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navigation транспорт a machine with an engine that carries
people or things from place to place
seamless запускать happening in a short time or at a great
rate
construct быстрый the passage of ships
vehicle домашний, concerning the people as a whole
бытовой
rapid зд. судоходство build or make
private транспортное something that has no breaks or gaps in it
средство or which continues without stopping
to launch общественный a system or means of conveying people
or goods from place to place
transport строить, use in the home rather than in an
конструировать industrial or office environment
domestic частный, личный send (satellite, or spacecraft) on its course

Упражнение 6. Установите соответствие между фразами и их переводом.


Составьте диалоги, взяв данные фразы за основу.
1. Excuse me, where is the nearest bus a. Какой автобус мне нужен, чтобы
stop? доехать туда?
2. Which bus goes to the city centre? b. Сколько стоит один билет?
3. Which bus do I have to take to get c. Как часто ходит 12 автобус?
there?
4. Where do I have to change? d. Следующий трамвай придет через
5 минут.
5. How much does a ticket cost? e. Вы не знаете, как лучше добраться
до станции метро?
6. How many stops are there before f. Сколько стоит проезд?
the city centre?
7. You have to get off here. g. Когда уходит последний поезд?
8. The next tram is in 5 minutes. h. Этот автобус идет к театру?
9. When is the last train? i. Можно мне такси до вокзала? Я
нахожусь в отеле «Плаза».
10. Do you know the best way to the j. Какой автобус идет в центр?
subway station?
11. Does this bus go to the theatre? k. Сколько остановок до центра?
12. How often does the 78 run? l. Вам нужно выходить здесь.
13. How much is the fare? m. Извините, где находится
ближайшая автобусная остановка?
14. Can I get a taxi to the train station? n. Где мне надо пересаживаться?
I am at the Plaza Hotel.

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Text 7B
Прочитайте текст. Найдите информацию о том, каким образом новый
вид транспорта изменит жизнь человечества в будущем. Перескажите текст.
Transport that will revolutionize the future
The eagerly-awaited age of futuristic transportation would be really
interesting and thrilling as the new and advanced modes of transportation would
completely supersede the current ones, radically transforming the transportation
sector and triggering a paradigm shift.
Recent developments in Cloud computing and emerging technologies like
Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things have turned autonomous cars from
a vision to a present reality so that many companies have announced their plans
of launching autonomous cars and trial runs of these cars are already going on in
different cities of the world. Autonomous cars will overwhelm the existing
automobile industry and will be its biggest and most breathtaking transformation
since its appearance at the beginning of the 20th century.
Tesla Motors and its founder Elon Musk have a well-deserved reputation
for being technological mavericks. Yet another plan of Musk is creating a
localized, futuristic subway system. Construction of new subway systems is
going at a slower pace in the USA. But the futuristic loop is already being tested
in Los Angeles.
Tesla Motors has finished building its first stretch of a tunnel in the city
that will transport people in their own cars or pedestrian “pods” at speeds up to
150 mph. The system will allow people to avoid traffic and commute swiftly.
However, the downside is the risk associated with congestion and gridlock at the
entrance of the tunnel as more and more people will take up to these pods as a
superfast means of transportation.
Hyperloop, as the name suggests, is a sealed tube or system of tubes
through which a pod may travel free of air resistance or friction conveying
people or objects at high speed. Hyperloop would allow passengers to travel at a
top speed of 600 miles per hour which is more than twice the highest speed of
the fastest train. Hyperloop projects are being developed in many parts of the
world, including San Francisco and Baltimore.
One more futuristic means of transport is a flying taxi that may seem
straight out of a science fiction novel or a fantasy of the human mind but flying
taxi project is as realistic as it gets. Big companies such as Uber, Boeing, and
Airbus have started developing this technology. For example, Uber plans to fly
these taxis by 2023 and for this endeavor it has also partnered with NASA.
The future is closer than we think.

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Text 7C
Прочитайте текст. Кратко расскажите об особенностях и основных
характеристиках каждой инновации.
Driving to the Future
The automotive industry is experiencing the biggest upheaval in its history.
Electric was the first phenomenon to transform cars. When it was first
introduced, experts envisaged a specific use for public transport, for example.
Despite the predictions, electric cars are slowly emerging as a must-have in all
the market segments.
Tomorrow, cars will be able to do without their drivers. The first two stages
have already been completed. Cruise control has existed for several years:
drivers can set a cruising speed and remove their feet from the pedals. And some
cars now offer driver assistance systems that make it possible to remove the
hands from the wheel in specific situations such as in traffic jams, or when
parking, etc.
There are some other innovations coming soon.
1. Shared autonomous vehicles: Self-driving cars are already here and
doing well in safety tests. If the car is self-driving, we have a wonderful
opportunity for people to co-own it and pay for the portion of the car they use.
2. Custom-designed vehicles: Using 3D printing technology, Arizona-based
Local Motors is 3D-printing cars. They work with pre-determined engine types
and 3D print cars on top of those engines. You can pick and choose features
from different cars to create your own. That means we may see all kinds of
interesting-looking cars on the street.
3. Brain-assisted vehicles: Many crashes could be avoided if the driver had
swerved or braked just a tiny bit faster. If Nissan has its way, brain-wave
technology will make that possible. By detecting whether a driver is about to
perform one of those functions, the brain-to-vehicle technology could speed up
the process by up to a half second. The driver will have to wear a headset full of
electrodes which the company is trying to make wireless and as unobtrusive as
possible.
4. Intelligent dashboards: “Augmented reality” dashboards are already a
reality in BMW vehicles but industry experts predict that 70 percent of new cars
will incorporate them by 2022. A boon for safety, these features project
information such as speed and turn-by-turn directions onto the windshield
directly in the user’s field of vision – so there’s no need to take your eyes off the
road.
5. A doctor in your car: Ford is leading the way toward technology that
monitors health from the driver’s seat. The company has already developed an
electrocardiography reader that monitors heart function through sensors in the
seat that don’t need to touch the skin in order to function. For example,

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technology monitors glucose levels of people with diabetes. This technology
will enable them to do it from the car.
6. Mechanic on wheels: Cars will be able to diagnose their own mechanical
problems. If it’s a software fix that’s needed, you’ll get an upgrade. If you need
to take the car to a mechanic, the car will research the options and book itself an
appointment. It will be able to renew its own insurance and look for better deals
as well.
7. Voice commands for your car: One of the important innovations is the
introduction of Alexa-like personal assistants. You’ll be able to interact with
your car through voice command. For example, you might be driving and
looking for a parking space. All you’ll have to do is to say “Find parking,” and
your vehicle will navigate you to the closest, least expensive, safest garage
based on your programmed preferences and then pay the fee with your credit
card.

Упражнение 7. Составьте сообщение на тему «Машина моей мечты» (“A car of


my dream”). При составлении сообщения опирайтесь на следующие слова-
подсказки.
Технические
Марка
Характеристики Класс машины характеристики
автомобиля
characteristics a car class technical
a car brand
characteristics
Ford expensive – дорогой Economy – Эконом sedan – седан
Volkswagen, beautiful – Compact – Компакт wagon – пикап
Hyundai красивый Intermediate – hatchback – хэтчбек
Toyota, etc. luxurious – Средний universal – универсал
роскошный Standard – Стандарт
powerful – мощный Full – Полный front-wheel drive –
fast – быстрый Premium – Премиум передний привод
Luxury – Люкс rear-drive – задний
Minivan – Минивэн привод
SUV (Sport Utility four-wheel drive –
Vehicle) – полный привод
Внедорожник, etc.
mechanical /
automatic change-
speed gearbox –
механическая /
автоматическая
коробка передач

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Text 7D
Прочитайте текст. Кратко расскажите об особенностях и основных
характеристиках каждого вида путешествия.
Types of Travelling
Travelling becomes more and more popular nowadays. Even ten years ago
we couldn’t expect that we would be able to travel almost everywhere. Millions
of tourists go to different places during the year. It is said that travelling
broadens your mind and it is absolutely true. Even a short trip where you get to
know different people and different cultures may change you completely.
There are several types of travel for different types of travelers.
1. A business trip is a trip undertaken for work or business purposes, as
opposed to other types of travel, such as for leisure purposes or regularly
commuting between one’s home and workplace. Going on family vacations or
with friends of course has a different planning to do than when it’s about a
business trip. The needs while being on a business trip are always different. You
need to carry professional and sophisticated stuff to be perfect for your business
meetings or programs such as cufflink case, tie case, watch case and other travel
accessories.
2. Solo travel means you’re going somewhere else alone, where you will
spend a significant chunk of time alone once you get there. Traveling alone is
not uncommon and most solo travelers are able to meet other travelers at hostels,
bars, organized tours or any place where travelers tend to hang out or
congregate. Travelling alone is a unique experience and can be a very rewarding
way of travelling.
3. When we travel with our friends, those memories become even more
priceless in our bank of golden experiences. Exploring a different country,
conquering fears together and discovering new perspectives ultimately
progresses our relationships to levels that it is impossible to imagine. Embarking
on a journey with your friends is an unpredictable voyage that every person
should experience at least once in his or her life.
4. Just because you’ve settled down and have kids doesn’t mean your
adventuring days are through. Traveling with a family is a completely different
than traveling solo or as a couple.
5. Travelling with a group is another must-do. It means you are sharing the
experience with others who have a similar mindset, creating great conversations
and bonding experiences. At the same time, you’re widening your circle of
companions who share similar interests for free-time exploration.
6. Luxury travel is to undertake a new experience and immerse in a new
destination whilst indulging in the very best levels of personal and attentive
service, lavish and sumptuous accommodation, exquisite and unrivaled levels of
gastronomy and informative and educational guides. This travel is without

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stress, pressure of time or daily routine where your every need is pre-empted and
your every expectation is met and exceeded.
7. Adventure travel is a type of tourism involving travel to remote or exotic
locations in order to take part in physically challenging outdoor activities.
Adventure travel is good for soul, good for health, and good for the planet.

Упражнение 8. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What type of a traveller are you? Do you go it alone, travel with your partner
or friends, or perhaps with a guided tour group? 2. Do you agree that travelling
with friends is much more interesting than travelling alone? Why? 3. What are
the most interesting tourist sights in your city? 4. Have you ever travelled
abroad? If no, tell about three countries you’d like to visit.

Упражнение 9. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


No doubt, transport plays a significant role in our everyday life. In the 17th
and 18th centuries the majority of people have never thought and dreamt about
traveling farther than a few miles. A great bulk of humans, wherever they would
like to go, had to reach their destinations on horseback or by carriage.
Nowadays, nobody is able to imagine our modern world without different means
of transport. Hundreds and thousands of people travel every day on business or
simply for pleasure. These humans have a possibility to travel by air, rails, road
or by sea. Unfortunately, if supplies of oil run out in the nearest future, it will be
pretty much impossible to do. So, what will transport be like then? In any case,
this topic is utterly disputable though curious. Human beings will have to tackle
this obstacle by using an electric engine, for instance, and by implementing
sophisticated technology which is based on alternative energy sources. It
includes wind, ocean, solar, geothermal and bio energy. It gives an opportunity
to evolve compact vehicles that don’t damage the ecology of the planet.
Anyway, there is no point to use vestiges of the past and rely on that old
transportation forms because they don’t meet the requirements of humanity in
general.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Поставьте главное предложение в прошедшее время и сделайте
соответствующие изменения в придаточном предложении согласно правилам
согласования времен.
1. She says that the inventor of the machine spends years refining the design.
2. He says that English language learning methods are more practical and that
now his English also has a very big help. 3. She says that special booklets for
citizens of the Republic who are travelling abroad were issued. 4. She says that

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despite the relocation she continued to visit her friends. 5. He says that they have
not seen each other for ages. 6. He says that they are doing their best to achieve
success in their field. 7. He says that fresh air and exercise will be able to
contribute to good health. 8. A boy says that they were taking many photos
during their week’s journey. 9. He says that they must study harder. 10. She says
that she can speak French well enough.

Упражнение 2. Перепишите предложения в косвенной речи, обратите внимание


на изменение местоимений, наречий и видовременных форм глаголов.
1. They said, “This is our book”. They said that … . 2. She said, “I went to the
cinema yesterday”. She said that … . 3. He said, “I am writing a test tomorrow”.
He said that … . 4. You said, “I will do this for him”. You said that … . 5. She
said, “I am not hungry now”. She said that … . 6. They said, “We have never
been here before”. They said that … . 7. They said, “We were in London last
week”. They said that … . 8. He said, “I will have finished this paper by
tomorrow”. He said that … . 9. He said, “They won’t sleep”. He said that … .
10. She said, “It is very quiet here”. She said that … .

Упражнение 3. Раскройте скобки, выбирая нужную форму глагола.


1. She realized that nobody (will come / would come / came). 2. We understood
that she (does / did / has done) nothing. 3. He said he (will arrive / arrives /
would arrive) in some days. 4. My mother was sure I already (have come / had
come / came). 5. I didn’t know they (are / were / will be) in the room. 6. We
supposed the rain (will stop / would stop / will have stopped) in some hours.
7. He said he never (has been / had been / will be) to London. 8. We wanted to
know who (is singing / sang / was singing) in the next room. 9. I always thought
he (is / was / will be) a brave man. 10. When I saw him, he (is working / was
working / worked). 11. We know she always (comes / came / will come) in time.
12. They thought he (will have finished / would have finished / finished) his
work by the evening. 13. She said she (has / had / will have) a terrible headache.
14. We supposed they (will send / would send / are sending) us the documents.
15. He said he (has not seen / had not seen) us for ages.

Упражнение 4. Употребите предложения как придаточные дополнительные. В


роли главных предложений используйте предложения, данные в скобках.
Выполните задания в соответствии с правилом согласования времен.
Например: They are working in the garden. (We were sure).
We were sure that they were working in the garden.
1. I have never been to Paris. (I told). 2. They have been waiting for him for ten
minutes. (He didn’t know). 3. Tim hasn’t written for them for ages. (She knew).
4. Kath will not see us. (My mother wrote). 5. He is going to the park. (He told

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me). 6. They are skating. (I supposed). 7. Somebody told her the truth. (He did
not expect). 8. She is a very clever girl. (Everybody knew). 9. He doesn’t agree.
(He told). 10. She must do her homework. (She said). 11. I don’t like going to
parties. (I told them). 12. She doesn’t know how much the dress cost. (Mary told
me). 13. I can repair your computer. (I told him).

Упражнение 5. Преобразуйте общие вопросы в косвенную речь.


1. He asked that student, “Are you making notes?” 2. She asked me, “Did you
see him at the party?” 3. He asked me, “Have you passed your exams?” 4. My
friend asked, “Does your sister like skating?” 5. Mother asked her daughter,
“Have you cleaned your room?” 6. He wanted to know, “Will she come here
tomorrow?” 7. They asked me, “Have you ever been to the USA?” 8. He asked
her, “Did you go to the university?” 9. He wondered, “Were you playing
football yesterday evening?” 10. My father asked me, “Can you pass me this
journal?” 11. He asked, “Do I have to do it?” 12. He wanted to know, “Are you
going to the cinema?”

Упражнение 6. Преобразуйте специальные вопросы в косвенную речь.


1. My mother said to me, “Why didn’t you help your sister?” 2. His friend
asked, “How long does it take you to get to the university?” 3. Bob said to me,
“How long have you been waiting for your friend?” 4. She asked, “Who is
singing in the next room?” 5. I asked my friend, “When did you return my
dictionary” 6. They asked, “What time will the train arrive?” 7. The teacher
asked, “Who speaks English?” 8. He asked us, “How are you?” 9. He asked,
“What is the time?” 10. She asked me, “When will we meet again?” 11. She
asked me, “What time can you call me?” 12. He asked, “What were you doing
from 5 to 7 yesterday?”

Упражнение 7. Преобразуйте повелительные предложения в косвенной речи.


1. “Stop making so much noise,” the teacher said. The teacher told … .
2. “Be more tolerant,” she said to him. She told him … .
3. “Clean your room,” her father said to her. Her father told her … .
4. “Hurry up! We are late,” she said to us. She told us … .
5. “Give me your advice,” he told her. He asked her … .
6. “Take off your shoes”, she told us. She told us … .
7. “Mind your own business”, she told him. She told him … .
8. “Be careful crossing the road”, she said. She told me … .
9. “Open the window”, she said. She asked me … .
10. “Learn new English words”, the teacher said. The teacher told … .

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Упражнение 8. Преобразуйте повелительные предложения в косвенной речи с
отрицанием.
1. “Don’t touch it”, she said to him. She told him … .
2. “Don’t do that again’, he said to me. He told me … .
3. “Don’t conduct such experiments”, he said. He told her … .
4. “Don’t repair the car yourself”, she warned him. She warned him … .
5. “Don’t use mobile phones here’, she said. She told us … .
6. “Don’t come in, the floor is wet and slippery”, she said. She told them … .
7. “Don’t share this information with him”, she told me. She told me … .
8. “Don’t mention it ever”, he said. He told her … .
9. “Don’t let her believe his words”, he advised her. He advised her … .
10. “Don’t touch the pictures in the gallery”, she said. She told the boys … .

Упражнение 9. Перепишите предложения в косвенной речи, обратите внимание


на изменение местоимений, наречий и видовременных форм глаголов.
1. She said, “I study English.” – She said that she … .
2. She said, “I am studying English.” She said that she … .
3. She said, “I have studied English.” She said that she … .
4. She said, “I studied English.” She said that she … .
5. She said, “I am going to study English.” She said that she … .
6. She said, “I will study English.” She said that she … .
7. She said, “I can study English.” She said that she … .
8. She said, “I may study English.” She said that she … .
9. She said, “I have to study English.” She said that she … .
10. She said, “I must study English.” She said that she … .
11. She said, “Do you study English?” She asked … .
12. She said, “Did you study English?” She asked … .
13. She said, “Will you study English?” She asked … .
14. She said, “Have you studied English?” She asked … .
15. She said, “Are you studying English?” She asked … .
16. She said, “Were you studying English?” She asked … .
17. She said, “What do you study?” She asked … .
18. She said, “When did you study English?” She asked … .
19. She said, “When have you studied English?” She asked … .
20. She said, “Who was studying English?” She asked … .
21. She said, “Why will you study English?” She asked … .

Упражнение 10. Перепишите предложения в косвенной речи, обратите


внимание на изменение местоимений, наречий и видовременных форм глаголов.
1. “I like this song”, he said. He said … .
2. “Where is your sister? she asked me. She asked me … .

137
3. “I don’t speak Italian”, she said. She said … .
4. “Say hello to Jim”, they said. They asked me … .
5. “The film began at seven o’clock”, he said. He said … .
6. “Don’t play on the grass, boys”, she said. She told the boys … .
7. “Where have you spent your holidays?” she asked him. She asked him … .
8. “He is cleaning windows now”, he said. He said … .
9. “Does she know Robert? he asked. He wanted to know … .
10. “Don’t try this at home”, the stuntman told the audience. The stuntman
advised the audience … .
11. “I was very tired”, she said. She said … .
12. “Be careful, Ben”, she said. She told Ben … .
13. “I will get there by train”, she says. She says … .
14. “Why haven’t you phoned me?” he asked me. He wondered … .
15. “I cannot drive them home”, he said. He said … .
16. “Peter, do you prefer tea or coffee?” she says. She asks Peter … .
17. “Don’t go too far”, he said. He advised her … .
18. “Have you been shopping?” he asked us. He wanted to know … .

Упражнение 11. Восстановите прямую речь в предложениях.


Например: He said that he would go to see his friends the next day. –
He said: “I will go and see my friends tomorrow”.
1. She said she had already visited that new fitness center. 2. My father told me
that he was occupied and didn’t have time for going there. 3. The student
confessed he had not learnt the lesson. 4. Everybody was sure that he wouldn’t
come the following day because he was ill and felt unwell. 5. My sister told me
that she would give me a book to read when she finished it. 6. Mother asked me
to stay at home as it was raining outside. 7. The man said he had never been to
England. 8. Jill told us she was be working the whole day on Sunday. 9. The
dean said that the industrial training would be in summer. 10. His father asked
him to be more serious. 11. Bill said that he thought he had left his passport at
home. 12. Jane said that she had been going for sports since her childhood.
13. The teacher told the students to close their books and repeat after him.
14. Sam told me he had to entertain his sisters on Saturday evening. 15. She said
she was going to make a scientific report. 16. He asked her if she was doing her
homework then. 17. They asked us if we were at home. 18. She asked him if he
could help her. 19. I asked my friend if he often went to Moscow. 20. The
teacher asked who of students could answer his question. 21. I asked my friend
what the professor had spoken about in his lecture. 22. She asked me why I was
looking at her like that.

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Упражнение 12. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский,
обратите внимание на употребление согласования времен.
1. Он сказал, что не знает, когда начнется урок. 2. Она сказала, что купит
новое платье. 3. Он сказал, что водит машину. 4. Она сказала, что работает
сейчас. 5. Они сказали, что они уже приготовили ужин. 6. Он сказал, что
должен выступить с докладом на конференции. 7. Она хотела знать,
почему он не пришел. 8. Она попросила его открыть окно. 9. Он
поинтересовался, как у них дела. 10. Он сказал, что посещал Москву в
прошлом году. 11. Он спросил ее, перевела ли она текст. 12. Она
поинтересовалась, поедет ли он завтра навестить своих родителей. 13. Она
попросила его не ходить туда одному. 14. Учитель сказал студенту, что он
не допустил ни одной ошибки в диктанте. 15. Она попросила его
подождать здесь, пока она не вернется. 16. Он сказал мне, что он будет
сдавать экзамен завтра в 10 утра. 17. Я хотел знать, какой язык они
изучают и разговаривают ли они по-английски. 18. Я сказал своему другу
прийти в семь вечера. 19. Он сказал мне, что хочет пить и попросил
принести сок. 20. Он спросил меня, сколько я уже знаком с ней.

Test yourself
1. Выберете правильный вариант – “I can speak English very well”. He said that
he…
A. might speak English very well.
B. can speak English very well.
C. could speak English very well.

2. Выберете правильный вариант – “Please close the window”. She asked him …
A. close the window.
B. to close the window.
C. closed the window.

3. Выберете правильный вариант – “Don’t go there”. She … him not to go there.


A. said
B. promised
C. told

4. Найдите предложения с грамматической ошибкой.


A. I don’t know where the post office was.
B. I don’t know where the post office is.
C. I don’t know where was the post office.

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5. Найдите предложения с грамматической ошибкой – “Do you often play
tennis?”. He asked me …
A. I often play tennis.
B. if I often played tennis.
C. if you often played tennis.

6. Выберете правильный вариант – “Who spoke at the meeting yesterday”. She


wondered … at the meeting … .
A. who spoke / yesterday
B. who had spoken / yesterday
C. who had spoken / the day before

7. Выберете правильный вариант – The teacher asked what we …


A. were discussing
B. are discussing
C. discuss

8. Выберете правильный вариант: – Marry warned that she … home late at night.
A. came
B. would come
C. had come

9. Восстановите прямую речь – She said that she had already found her book.
A. She has already found her book.
B. I have already found my book.
C. I found my book already.

10. Восстановите прямую речь – She asked me not to open the window.
A. You don’t open the window.
B. Not to open the window.
C. Don’t open the window.

11. Восстановите прямую речь – Annie said that she would see the film the following
week.
A. I will see the film next week.
B. I would see the film the following week.
C. She will see the film next week.

12. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Mike asked me if I had read


“Robinson Crusoe” by Daniel Defoe.
A. Майк спросил меня, буду ли я читать книгу «Робинзон Крузо» Даниэля
Дефо.

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B. Майк спросил меня, прочитал ли я книгу «Робинзон Крузо» Даниэля Дефо.
C. Майк спросил меня, когда я прочитал книгу «Робинзон Крузо» Даниэля
Дефо.

13. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Nick asked Tom what he had
seen at the museum.
A. Ник спросил у Тома, что он видел в музее?
B. Ник спросил у Тома, когда он ходил в музей.
C. Ник спросил у Тома, что он видел в музее.

14. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – He said that his mother was a
doctor.
A. Он говорит, что его мама доктор.
B. Он сказал, что его мама доктор.
C. Он сказал, что его мама была доктором.

15. Выберите правильный перевод – Он сказал, что уже ездил в Москву.


A. He said that he has already been to Moscow.
B. He said that he has been to Moscow already.
C. He said that he had already been to Moscow.

16. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он спросил у нее, придет ли


она завтра.
A. He asked her if she will come tomorrow.
B. He asked her if she comes the next day.
C. He asked her if she would come the next day.

17. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он спросил у нее, где она


живет.
A. He asked her where she lives.
B. He asked her where she lived.
C. He asked her where she is living.

18. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – Он попросил позвонить ему.


A. He asked to call him.
B. He asked call him.
C. He told to call him.

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LESSON 8
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- age; -ful; -ify

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 8A. Health Care
Text 8B. Healthy Food
Text 8C. Keeping Fit

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Причастие I, Причастие II
Даты и время в английском языке

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)

существительное
прилагательное + -age = существительное
глагол
Данный суффикс означает собирательные понятия, процессы,
действия и их результаты.
 to break (ломать) → breakage (поломка)
 to use (использовать) → usage (использование)
 to pass (проходить) → passage (переход, пропуск)
to bag – baggage; to band – bandage; short – shortage; mile – mileage; block –
blockage; to marry – marriage; advantage; disadvantage; average; village;
courage.
существительное + -ful =
прилагательное
Суффикс -ful указывает на качество, характеристику, имеет значение
«быть наделенным чем-то».
 beauty (красота) → beautiful (красивый)
 success (успех) → successful (успешный)
 respect (уважение) → respectful (уважаемый)
skill – skillful; play – playful; help – helpful; care – careful; wonder –
wonderful; hope – hopeful; use – useful; stress – stressful; color – colorful;
power – powerful; cheer – cheerful; doubt – doubtful; faith – faithful; meaning –
meaningful.

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существительное / прилагательное + -ify =
глагол
Суффиксы -ify, -efy используются в значении «превращать»,
«наделять качеством». Глаголы с этими суффиксами образуются от
прилагательных, реже существительных.
 pure (чистый) → to purify (очищать)
 gas (газ) → to gasify (газифицировать)
Суффикс -efy используется только в 4-х словах.
 liquefy (плавить, таять); putrefy (гнить, разлагаться)
 rarefy (разрежать, разжижать); stupefy (притуплять, поражать)
mode – to modify; rare – to rarefy; beauty – to beautify; class – to classify;
simple – to simplify; note – to notify; false – to falsify; intense – to intensify;
test – to testify; pure – purify; electric – to electrify; simple – to simplify.

Упражнение 1. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные,


прилагательные или глаголы с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.
1. He uses these words in casual These words occur in casual … .
situations.
-age 2. She made an interesting report It was an interesting … about a
about a situation in our university. situation in our university.
3. Thousands of pilgrims travel The … has become very popular
around the world. in recent times.
1. All kinds of pollution do a lot of All kinds of pollution are … to
-ful harm to nature. nature.
2. She took care of it personally. She was very … about it.
3. Everything is in peace here. It’s so nice and … here.
1. There are not electric lines in Many of the rural areas aren’t … .
many of the rural areas.
-ify
2. The glory of the town is its The citizens … the fountain in
fountain. their town.
3. The instructions are not simple. We have to … the instructions.

Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. They … the collective political will of the organization in this person
field.
2. A lot of water is wasted through … . to leak
3. He is as diligent as he is … . skill
4. He … the recipe by using oil instead of butter. mode

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5. I had a … day at work yesterday. stress
6. … of the car is a real test for women. to break
7. They … their efforts to increase sales. intense
8. He has … connections. power
9. We walked down a narrow … to the back of the building. to pass
10. A receiver … the television signal. ample
11. He was a …, kind and well-behaved boy. thought
12. The … system has collapsed because of too much rain. drain
13. We ... the water by boiling it. to purify
14. Organizing a ... international scientific conference takes a lot success
of energy

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
diagnosis [ˌdaɪəg'nəusɪs], physical ['fɪzɪkl], mental ['mentl], professional
[prə'feʃənl], to associate [ə'səuʃɪeɪt], dentistry ['dentɪstrɪ], pharmacy ['fɑːməsɪ],
medicine ['medɪsɪn], medical ['medɪkl], optometry [ɒp'tɒmɪtri], psychology
[saɪ'kɔləʤɪ], occupational [ˌɔkju'peɪʃənl], therapy ['θerəpɪ], athletic [æθ'letɪk],
public ['pʌblɪk], to vary ['veərɪ], community [kə'mjuːnətɪ], individual
[ˌɪndɪ'vɪdjuəl], social ['səuʃəl], economic [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪk], condition [kən'dɪʃn],
policy ['pɔləsɪ], service ['sɜːvɪs], factor ['fæktə], financial [faɪ'nænʃəl],
geographic [ʤɪə'græfɪkəl)], barrier ['bærɪə], personal ['pɜːsənəl], to affect
[ə'fekt], negatively ['negətɪvlɪ], system ['sɪstəm], population [ˌpɔpjə'leɪʃn],
mechanism ['mekənɪzm], adequately ['ædɪkwətlɪ], efficient [ɪ'fɪʃiənt],
industrialization [ɪnˌdʌstrɪəlaɪ'zeɪʃən], audiology [ˌɔːdɪˈɒlədʒi].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


health [helθ], care [keə], maintenance ['meɪntənəns], via ['vaɪə, viːə], treatment
['triːtmənt], recovery [rɪ'kʌvərɪ], cure [kjuə], disease [dɪ'ziːz], illness ['ɪlnəs],
injury ['ɪnʤərɪ], impairment [ɪm'peəmənt], physician [fɪ'zɪʃən], midwifery
[ˌmɪd'wɪfərɪ], nursing ['nɜːsɪŋ], to provide [prə'vaɪd], access ['ækses],
to influence ['ɪnfluəns], timely ['taɪmlɪ], outcome ['autkʌm], to consider
[kən'sɪdə], insurance [ɪn'ʃuərəns], coverage ['kʌvərɪʤ], additional [ə'dɪʃənəl],
lack [læk], ability [ə'bɪlətɪ], income ['ɪnkʌm], limitation [ˌlɪmɪ'teɪʃən], efficacy
['efɪkəsɪ], overall ['əuvərɔːl], to establish [ɪs'tæblɪʃ], targeted ['tɑːgɪtɪd], reliable
[rɪ'laɪəbl], decision [dɪ'sɪʒn], facility [fə'sɪlətɪ], to contribute [kən'trɪbjuːt],
significant [sɪg'nɪfɪkənt], development [dɪ'veləpmənt], conventionally
[kən'venʃənəlɪ], regarded [rɪ'gɑːdɪd].

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СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
health care – здравоохранение to regulate nervous system activity –
improvement – улучшение регулировать деятельность нервной
to give treatment – лечить системы
to undergo treatment – лечиться to be in good mood – быть в хорошем
to make a recovery – выздоравливать настроении
to cure of a disease – вылечить от to get rid of – избавиться от
болезни complexion – цвет лица
insurance coverage – страховое to regain strength – восстановить силы
покрытие to keep fit – поддерживать форму
fresh and low-fat product – свежий и to spend time outdoors – проводить
низкокалорийный продукт время на свежем воздухе
to do sports – заниматься спортом to improve quality of life – повысить
to control nutrition – следить за качество жизни
питанием healthy appearance – здоровый
to overestimate – переоценить внешний вид
to be responsible for – отвечать за healthy lifestyle – здоровый образ жизни

Text 8A
Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Health Care
Health care is the maintenance or improvement of health via the
prevention, diagnosis, treatment, recovery, or cure of disease, illness, injury, and
other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by
health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates
are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, pharmacy, midwifery,
nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, psychology, occupational therapy,
physical therapy, athletic training and other health professions are all part of
health care. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care,
and tertiary care as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary
across countries, communities, and individuals, influenced by social and
economic conditions as well as health policies. Providing health care services
means “the timely use of personal health services to achieve the best possible
health outcomes”. Factors to consider in terms of healthcare access include
financial limitations (such as insurance coverage), geographic barriers (such as
additional transportation costs, possibility to take paid time off of work to use
such services), and personal limitations (lack of ability to communicate with
healthcare providers, poor health literacy, low income). Limitations to health
care services affect negatively the use of medical services, the efficacy of
treatments, and overall outcome (well-being, mortality rates).
Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs
of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a
well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, well-

145
trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information decisions and
policies are based on, and well maintained health facilities to deliver quality
medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a
country’s economy, development and industrialization. Health care is
conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general
physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What is health care? 2. What is the part of health care? 3. What influences an
access to health care? 4. What must be done to improve the quality of health
care in your country? 5. Do you think you have a healthy life style? 6. Is it
possible to have a healthy life style in modern world? 7. Is healthy lifestyle
popular in Russia? 8. Do you do anything to keep fit? What exactly?

Упражнение 4. Поставьте вопросы к следующим фрагментам текста.


1. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. 2.
Health care provides primary care, secondary care and tertiary care. 3. Factors to
consider in terms of healthcare access include financial limitations, geographic
barriers and personal limitations. 4. A well-functioning health care system
requires a financing mechanism. 5. Health care promotes the general physical
and mental health and well-being of people around the world.

Упражнение 5. Прокомментируйте данные утверждения (согласны / не


согласны и почему).
1. Nowadays a long healthy life is a dream. 2. People have a lot of diseases
because of pollution. 3. Being healthy means being happy as well. 4. Some
people think they are healthy, if nothing in their body hurts. 5. The best way to
stay healthy is to do sports. 6. Doing exercises is the best way to avoid
depression. 7. Nowadays fitness clubs and sports centers are competing with
cinemas and theatres.

Text 8B
Прочитайте текст, выделите интересные факты и перескажите.
Healthy food
Every person knows that one of the main processes of people’s daily
routine is eating. Food influences many processes in our organism such as body
development and brain activity.
One of the biggest mistakes is that healthy food does not taste good.
Vegetables and fruit, small amount of sugar, lack of salt and fat sound like a
nightmare for those who are used to eat all these products. However, you can be

146
sure that today it is very easy to cook delicious meal using only natural
ingredients. Another reason why people are not ready to eat healthy is a small
amount of spare time. When you are busy during your day, it is faster to buy
some snacks or takeaway food and satisfy your hunger. Actually, it is only a
stereotype created by people who are lazy and look for an easy wayout. Fresh
and low-fat products improve blood pressure. Fruit and vegetables help to make
your mood better and prevent different diseases. For people who do sports it is
also good to control nutrition as it allows showing better results. The ideal
variant is to drink a lot of water which contains necessary minerals for our
organism. Sometimes it is necessary to add some vitamins to your daily menu,
especially in cold seasons.
The importance of vitamins for our health can hardly be overestimated. The
most essential vitamins for people are D, C and A. For example, vitamin D is
responsible for the healthy development of bone tissues and teeth, as well as for
calcium absorption. People get it with sunshine, but if you live in the northern
regions where sunny days occur not very often you should take enough D
vitamins with food. It is contained, for example, in egg yolk, butter, cod-liver
oil. Vitamin A is responsible for the growth and good sight. It’s contained in
beef liver. Greenery, carrots, tomatoes, and some other vegetables contain a lot
of carotene which if taken inside with any fat is converted into vitamin A. As for
vitamin C, it’s very important for the immune system. It can be found almost in
all fresh fruit and vegetables, especially in kiwi, black currant, briar, and sweet
pepper. Vitamin B9, also known as folic acid, regulates nervous system activity
and helps to combat depression. It is contained in green vegetables, liver,
wholemeal bread, honey. Vitamin E is a natural anti-oxidant which slows the
aging process, regulates the reproductive system activity and has a good effect
on the state of skin, hair and nails. Sometimes it is even described as the
“vitamin of beauty”. It can be found in crude vegetables oils, nuts and wheat
germ.
So, if you wish to be healthy, energetic and have a healthy appearance, pay
careful attention to your diet. Try to choose natural food containing all basic
vitamins and minerals. Your daily nutrition must include enough fresh fruit and
vegetables, crude oil and wholegrain bread. Also try to eat fish or sea products
twice a week.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What is healthy food? 2. Do you pay much attention to what you eat? 3. Do
you think it is more important for you to eat healthy or tasty food? 4. Do you try
to eat your breakfast, lunch and dinner at a certain time every day? 5. Do you
have a snack every time you are hungry or do you wait for the lunch or dinner?
6. What is healthy about not eating after 6 p.m? Do you try to follow this rule?
7. Why are vitamins important? 8. Is obesity a great problem in where you live?

147
9. Why are there so many obese people today? 10. What are the most efficient
ways to lose weight? 11. Do you think diets are useful or not? 12. Have you ever
tried to go on a diet? What kind of diet was it? Did it work?

Text 8С
Прочитайте текст, выделите основные способы поддерживать тело
крепким, а дух бодрым.
Keeping Fit
A person who is full of energy has an attractive appearance and is in good
mood deserves everybody’s admiration. A secret of such a success is obvious.
Don’t be lazy and get all your strength together to keep fit. Perhaps, you should
change your entire lifestyle that is a hard thing to do, but very soon you will feel
a positive effect. Don’t be discouraged! The scientists have approved that a
person need only twenty one days to get used to something. So, you have only
three weeks for discomfort to endure. And perhaps it will not be hard for you at
all. Your body will grant you with lightness and beauty, health and high spirits.
What rules must be followed in order to look great? First, you must get rid
of bad habits. Smoking and drinking do not give you any benefits. Smoking
destroys the lungs, affects the complexion, the teeth and hair. Alcohol kills
neurons in the brain. You will say that these things help you relax and have fun.
Do not worry when you stop smoking and drinking, your body will release
hormones of joy without doping. The second important thing is to have enough
rest. It takes at least seven hours of sleep to regain strength. It is better if you go
to bed early in the evening and wake up at sunrise. The bedroom should be well
ventilated and cool.
Physical activity is very important for keeping fit. Going to the gym will
bring you a positive effect including strong muscles and physical strength.
Running, jumping, swimming, bending and stretching are among the most
popular exercises. Many people prefer jogging which is the cheapest and the
most accessible kind of sport. Walking is a very popular activity too. Even
moderate physical activity can improve general health and the quality of life.
Everyone can benefit from being a little more active. Making small changes like
using the stairs instead of the lift or walking or cycling instead of taking the bus
can help people live a more active, healthier and enjoyable life. Spend more
time outdoors. Big cities with their polluted atmosphere contribute to headaches
and various diseases. Try to break out into the countryside, take a walk in the
park or go to the countryside from time to time to get a breath of oxygen. One
more important thing to do is to eat right. All other things are practically useless
without this rule. This is the main and most difficult thing to do to keep fit.
Following these simple rules will help you improve your quality of life.
You will feel much better as well as look great. A positive attitude is also the

148
way to success. Do not keep evil. Do not be jealous or envious, try not to be
nervous. Enjoy your life and always smile.

Упражнение 7. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What does it mean to be healthy? 2. Is it possible to have a healthy life style in
modern world? 3. Why do many people try to have a healthy life style? 4. Is
physical activity (jogging, going to a gym, swimming pool) an important part of
a healthy life style? 5. Is there any connection between a person’s style of life
and the duration of his life? 6. Can you tell a physically inactive person from
someone who takes care of his\her physical condition? What are the main
differences? 7. Do you often find yourself under stress? What are the areas of
your life where stress situations take place more often? Study?
Work? Family? Relationships with friends? 8. What do you think is the best way
to cope with stress?

Упражнение 8. Подберите русские эквиваленты для следующих английских


пословиц о здоровье. Прокомментируйте каждую пословицу на английском
языке.
Например: A proverb “A sound mind in a sound body” means …. . It is necessary to
add that … .
A sound mind in a sound body. Кто рано ложится и рано встает,
здоровье, богатство и ум наживет.
An apple a day keeps the doctor Здоровье дороже денег.
away.
Early to bed and early to rise makes Профилактика лучше лечения.
a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
Good health is above wealth. Кто яблоко в день съедает, у того
доктор не бывает.
You are what you eat. Здоровье это не просто отсутствие
болезни.
Prevention is better than cure. В здоровом теле здоровый дух.
Laughter is the best medicine Тот здоровья не знает, кто болен не
бывает.
Health is not simply the absence of Скажи мне, что ты ешь, и я скажу, кто
sickness. ты.
Health is not valued till sickness Cмех – лучшее лекарство.
comes.

Упражнение 8. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


In accordance with the WHO definition, health is a state of good physical,
mental and social well-being and not merely the lack of disease or disability.

149
Nowadays it is very popular to keep a healthy lifestyle that includes many
things. First of all, it concerns physical exercises. One of the most important and
easiest things is daily physical exercises. People usually do it in the mornings
after wake-up. It is a good way to improve the shape of a body and improve the
mood. People also visit fitness centres and gyms. Everyone chooses classes he
or she likes most of all, for example, dance classes, aerobics, etc. One more
important thing is eating healthy food. If you eat unhealthy food, there will no
be benefits from doing physical exercises. Healthy food includes fruit and
vegetables as well as seafood, dairy products, nuts and meat. More than that, it is
very important to keep regular hours. We should remember that health is a value
which facilitates the realization of aspirations, a resource which guarantees
development and a means of improving the quality of life. We must take care of
our health. If we don’t, who will?

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие словосочетания с Participle I и
Participle II.
a burning candle – a burnt candle; falling leaves – fallen leaves; boiling
vegetables – boiled vegetables; developing industry – developed industry;
a controlling device – a controlled device; changing distance – changed
distance; painting children – a painted picture; an increasing speed –
an increased speed; a transmitting signal – a transmitted signal; a moving object
– a moved object; reducing noise – reduced noise.

Упражнение 2. Обратите внимание на употребление причастий в функции


определения. Переведите на русский язык. Определите тип причастия.
1. There is a lot of work waiting for me to do. 2. The cup broken by the boy was
his mother’s. 3. The key lost in the darkness wasn’t mine. 4. There were birds
flying high up in the sky, there was a white ship slowly disappearing in the open
sea. 5. There is a cloud of smoke rising into the air. 6. Who is that man sitting by
the window? 7. The things packed for the trip were all winter things. 8. The fruit
dried in summer will be eaten in winter. 9. Pictures cut out from old magazines
covered the walls. 10. Yesterday the professor told us about the experiments
now being carried out in his laboratory. 11. The large house being built in our
street is a new school. 12. This company is interested in the goods produced by
our factories. 13. All books taken from the library must be returned next week.
14. The woman sitting in the armchair is the editor’s wife. 15. The articles
written by this political observer are read with great interest.

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Упражнение 3. Выберите нужную форму причастия. Определите тип причастия.
1. The girl (making / made) a report is our best student. 2. Everything (writing /
written) here is quite right. 3. The building (surrounding / surrounded) by trees
(bloomed / blooming) is very beautiful. 4. Who is that boy (talked / talking) to
his groupmates? 5. The texts (translating / translated) by the students were easy.
6. The girl (singing / sung) in the room is my sister. 7. The floor (washing /
washed) by Ann looked very clean. 8. We listened to the folk songs (singing /
sung) by Russian singers. 9. Do you know the girl (playing / played) in
the garden? 10. The book (writing / written) by this scientist is very significant.
11. Translate the new words (writing / written) on the blackboard. 12. We could
not see the sun (covering / covered) by dark clouds. 13. The (losing / lost) key
was found. 14. I met Mary and Ann (going / gone) along the street. 15. Read the
(translating / translated) sentences once more.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление Participle I в функции обстоятельства.
1. Driving a car a man tries to keep steady speed and watch the car in front of
him. 2. Living in the country, they enjoyed beautiful nature. 3. People stood on
the bridge, watching the boats on the river. 4. The boys kept silence thinking
about the teacher’s question. 5. Looking for his dog, Tom was running around
the town. 6. Developing the industry of their region they took into account
different fields. 7. He stood watching people coming along the street. 8. Taking
the dictionary, he looked up the unknown word. 9. Going home I kept thinking
about my friend. 10. Waiting in the hall he thought over the problem.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление Participle II в функции обстоятельства.
1. If translated into Russian, this article will be of great importance for me.
2. When asked, the student answered very well. 3. Ice melts when heated.
4. When completed in 1897, Jefferson’s building was the largest and costliest
library in the world. 5. If compared to today’s TV program, the first black-and-
white pictures were rather bad. 6. Though discovered, Newton’s mistake had no
influence on his theory. 7. If heated to 100C0, water turns into steam. 8. Though
first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars.

Упражнение 6. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление Perfect Participle в функции обстоятельства.
1. Having gone there twice, I didn’t want to go there again. 2. Having left the
house, I suddenly remembered that I had left my umbrella. 3. Having shown us
his new picture, he left. 4. He knew the city very well, having lived in Paris for a
long time. 5. Having written the book, he could relax. 6. Having translated the

151
text, he went for a walk. 7. Having ridden a bike, she felt excited and energetic.
8. Having talked to her neighbour in the street, she went home. 9. Having read a
story, she closed the book and put it on the shelf. 10. Having bought tickets to
the cinema, he decided to call her.

Упражнение 7. Объедините два предложения в одно, используя Причастие I.


Например: She was sitting in a sofa. She was reading a novel. – She was sitting in a
sofa reading a novel.
1. Ann was lying on the bed. She was dreaming. 2. I came home. I was feeling
exhausted. 3. The man was walking along the street. He was talking on the
phone. 4. Sam felt unwell. He was playing tennis. 5. Ann fell asleep. She was
listening to music. 6. The man was reading an interesting article. He was making
notes. 7. The girl studied different cultures. She was exploring various cuisines.
She was cooking. 8. The man looked around. He was crossing the road. 9. He
was climbing up a mountain. He was taking photos. 10. He repaired his
computer. He was following all the instructions.

Упражнение 8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя Причастие II.


1. Research … (to make) by him was of scientific value. 2. We are interested in
the results of experiments … (to carry out). 3. She didn’t understand the word …
(to say) by her student. 4. He didn’t find books … (to take) from the library.
5. She doesn’t like a meal … (to cook yesterday). 6. This is the house …
(to build) many years ago. 7. The question … (to bring up) during the discussion
was very important. 8. The article on quantum mechanics … (to publish) in this
journal was written by a famous scientist. 9. You can get the book …
(to recommend) by our teacher in the library. 10. When … (to finish) the new
invention will be widely used.

Упражнение 9. Раскройте скобки, обращая внимание на употребление Participle


I и Participle II.
1. … (to smile) she entered the room. 2. The girl … (to write) something on the
blackboard is my friend. 3. This is a letter … (to address) to you. 4. I like to read
stories … (to write) by this writer. 5. … (to read) this book I wrote out many
useful expressions. 6. She entered the room … (to bring) the nice big doll.
7. Many people who came to the museum liked the pictures … (to paint) by this
artist. 8. There was a small kitten … (to play) on the sofa. 9. While … (to read)
this book I always remember my childhood. 10. The report … (to make) by Tom
is of great importance. 11. The boy asked questions … (to look) at us. 12. Sam
spoke about her brother … (to live) in London. 13. … (to go) through the park I
met my teacher. 14. … (to answer) the questions John made a mistake. 15. Did
you understand the rules … (to explain) to us yesterday?

152
Упражнение 10. Используйте Perfect Participle. Начните предложения с
Having…
1. We finished our work. We went home. 2. We bought tickets. Then we went
into the theatre. 3. They had dinner. Then they continued on their journey.
4. Sue did all her shopping. Then she went for a cup of coffee. 5. They found
a hotel. Then they looked for somewhere to have dinner. 6. Ann finished her
lessons. Then she went home. 7. Sandy read the newspaper. Then he wrote some
business letters. 8. Mr. Jones asked the secretary to bring him the newspaper.
Then he returned to his office. 9. They continued their journey after they’d had
dinner. 10. After Lucy had carried out all experiments, she went home.

Упражнение 11. Объедините два предложения в одно, используя Perfect


Participle.
1. They went abroad. They had got visa. 2. She sent him a message. She had
tried phoning him many times. 3. We moved to Greece. We had done all our
duties. 4. He was exhausted in the evening. He had studied all day. 5. They
made a decision. They had thought things over several times. 6. They began
to doubt. They had accepted the majority decision. 7. He sent an email. He had
corrected all the mistakes. 8. He went for a walk. He had done his homework.

Упражнение 12. Перепишите предложения, используя нужную форму


причастия.
1. Because she was tired, Kate went to bed. 2. He was sitting in the garden and
he was drinking his tea. 3. After Jane had made dinner, she called the children.
4. The boy who is standing by the door is my brother. 5. Simon cut his hand
while he was chopping some wood. 6. Donna had a shower before she went
to bed. 7. Because we were late, we took a taxi. 8. Gary opened the window and
breathed the fresh air. 9. She was lying on her bed and she was reading a book.
10. The jewels which were taken by the thieves were very valuable. 11. Amy
picked up her pen and started to write the letter. 12. The man who is walking
towards us is a relative of mine. 13. After the teacher had explained the exercise,
he asked the students to do it. 14. Because she had forgotten to take her purse,
she had to borrow some money from a colleague.

Упражнение 13. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая


внимание на форму причастия.
1. Это новые доклады, выполненные студентами второго курса.
2. Объясняя новое грамматическое правило, учитель не заметил, что урок
закончился.
3. Тот человек, ожидающий нас на улице, приехал из Москвы.

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4. Изучив биографию этого ученого и его изобретения, он решил сделать
доклад о нем.
5. Будучи очень занятым, он не услышал, что мама его позвала ужинать.
6. Купив все необходимые продукты, он приготовил салат.
7. Сделав все приготовления, он ждал гостей.
8. Книга, которую сейчас обсуждают – важная работа этого писателя.
9. Взяв бумагу и ручку, ребенок начал писать.
10. Читая статью в английском журнале, я выписал незнакомые слова.
11. Если нагреть намагниченные материалы, они размагнитятся.
12. При изоляции провод можно использовать в качестве проводника.

Упражнение 14. Переведите на английский язык следующие числа и месяцы.


1. Пятое февраля; 2. Третье марта; 3. Двенадцатое сентября; 4. Тридцатое
июня; 5. Шестнадцатое октября; 6. Тридцать первое декабря; 7. Двадцать
пятое августа. 8. Пятнадцатое января; 9. Первое апреля; 10. Девятое мая;
11. Восьмое июля; 12. Тринадцатое ноября; 13. Пятое сентября;
14. Двадцать восьмое февраля; 15. Двадцать второе июля.

Упражнение 15. Ответь на вопрос What date is it today?


March 1; April 13; November 23; January 10; May 9; February 12; July 19;
June 2; August 30; September 15; July 21; October 3; November 7; December
28; January 26; March 6; April 12.

Упражнение 16. Напишите даты при помощи порядковых числительных.


Например: The New Year is on (31.12). – The New Year is on the thirty-first of
December. (Новый год – тридцать первого декабря.)
1. The Women’s Day is on (08.03). 2. Victory Day is on (09.05). 3. Christmas in
Russia is on (07.01). 4. Christmas in America is on (25.12). 5. St. Valentine’s
Day is on (14.02). 6. Halloween is on (31.10). 7. The Fatherland Defender’s Day
is on (23.02). 8. April Fools’ Day is on (1.04). 9. Family day is on (8.07). 10.
Russia Day is on (12.06).

Упражнение 17. Прочитайте следующие годы по-английски:


1325; 1987; 2014; 2026; 1898; 1900; 2000; 2004; 2018; 1967; 1479; 1509;
1910; 1618; 2007; 1999; 1876; 1632; 2050; 2156; 2010; 1800; 1805; 1711;
1994; 1117; 2020.

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Упражнение 18. Произнесите и напишите даты по-английски.
05.07.2012 03.10.1986 01.12.2017 06.01.1978
01.06.1453 15.12.1367 17.02.1955 12.08.1690
06.03.1797 23.04.1998 02.11.1564 22.04.1915
04.05.2020 07.09.1900 08.06.1800 09.12.1805
10.10.2010 11.11.2011 13.03.2023 30.11.2025

Упражнение 19. Который час? Напишите ответы цифрами по-английски.


1. It is five o’clock in the evening.
2. It is a quarter past three in the afternoon.
3. It is half past five in the morning.
4. It is a quarter to six in the evening.
5. It is twenty-five to nine in the morning.
6. It is twenty to eleven at night.
7. It is ten o’clock in the morning.
8. It is ten to four in the afternoon.
9. It is five to nine in the morning.
10. It is twenty past six in the evening.
11. It is midnight.
12. It is twenty-five to two in the afternoon.
13. It is eleven o’clock in the morning.
14. It is five minutes to two.
15. It is five minutes past two.

Упражнение 20. Скажите по-английски, который час.


Например: 5:20 – It is twenty minutes past five.
5:20; 12:30; 9:15; 16:45; 21:00; 19:25; 11:35; 10:50; 06:05; 14:30; 7:10; 13:50;
11:55; 7:20; 13:30; 10:15; 17:45; 22:00; 18:25; 12:35; 11:50; 07:05; 8:30;
10:10; 14:50; 15:55; 4:25; 6:35; 5:50; 21:05; 22:30; 23:10; 6:20; 13:30; 9:25.

Test yourself
1. Как образуется Participle I?
A. Ving
B. having V3
C. V3

2. Как образуется Participle II?


A. Ving
B. having V3
C. V3

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3. Как образуется Perfect Participle?
A. Ving
B. having V3
C. V3

4. Найдите правильный вариант перевода причастия «делая домашнее задание».


A. done homework
B. being done homework
C. doing homework

5. Найдите правильный вариант перевода причастия «написав письмо».


A. wrote a letter
B. having written a letter
C. writing a letter

6. Найдите правильный вариант перевода причастия «сказанный».


A. said
B. saying
C. having said

7. Найдите правильный вариант перевода причастия «дом, строящийся сейчас».


A. a house built
B. a house being built
C. a house having been built

8. Выберете правильный вариант – Time … on the brain is never spent in vain.


A. spending
B. being spent
C. spent

9. Выберете правильный вариант – I felt very tired ... the whole day.
A. having worked
B. work
C. being worked

10. Выберете правильный вариант: – He speaks like a man … his own opinion.
A. had
B. having
C. has

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11. Выберете правильный вариант – … that she could trust them she didn’t know
what to do.
A. Didn’t know
B. Not having known
C. Not knowing

12. Выберете правильный вариант – He was seen … in a lively conversation.


A. engaged
B. having been engaged
C. being engaged

13. Переведите на английский язык – Двадцать шестое марта.


A. twenty-six March
B. the twenty-six of March
C. the twenty-sixth of March

14. Переведите на английский язык – Третье февраля.


A. the three of February
B. the third of February
C. third February

15. Найдите правильный вариант – 1987.


A. nineteen and eighty-seven
B. nineteen eighty-seven
C. one thousand nine hundred and eighty-seven

16. Найдите правильный вариант – 1900.


A. nineteen zero zero
B. one thousand nine hundred
C. nineteen hundred

17. Найдите правильный вариант – the thirty-first of December, twenty fifteen.


A. 31.11.2015
B. 31.12.2014
C. 31.12.2015

18. Найдите правильный вариант – 03.10.1986.


A. three of October, one thousand nine hundred and eighty-six
B. the third of October, nineteen eighty-six
C. the third of October, nineteen and eighty-six

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19. Найдите правильный вариант – A quarter past four in the morning.
A. 4:15
B. 16:15
C. 4:45

20. Найдите правильный вариант перевода – Twenty-five to nine in the evening.


A. 21:25
B. 9:25
C. 20:35

21. Найдите правильный вариант перевода – Twenty past six in the evening.
A. 6:20
B. 7:40
C. 18:20

22. Найдите правильный вариант перевода – A quarter to four in the evening.


A. 15:45
B. 4:45
C. 16:15

23. Найдите правильный вариант перевода – 18:10.


A. ten minutes to six
B. ten minutes past seven
C. ten minutes past six

24. Найдите правильный вариант перевода– 22.40.


A. forty minutes past ten
B. twenty minutes to eleven
C. twenty minutes to ten

25. Найдите правильный вариант – 15.15.


A. a quarter past fifteen
B. a quarter to fifteen
C. a quarter past four

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LESSON 9
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
- ist; -ary/-ory; -ate

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 9A. Scientific and technical progress and modern
society
Text 9B. Tomorrow is now
Text 9C. No title

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Герундий
Заглавные буквы в английском языке

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)

суффикс существительного -ist

Суффикс -ist используется для выражения принадлежности к


определенной профессии, сфере труда, направлению науки, политики,
искусства.
 impression (впечатление) → impressionist (импрессионист)
 lingua (язык) → linguist (лингвист)
 commune (коммуна, община) → communist (коммунист)
art – artist; economics – economist; ecology – ecologist; piano – pianist;
special – specialist; psychology – psychologist; material – materialist; modern –
modernist; chemistry – chemist; physics – physicist; nature – naturalist.

существительное / глагол + -ary / -ory =


прилагательное
Суффиксы -ary, -ory означают характеристику, качество, отношение к
чему-то. Они прибавляются к существительным, реже к глаголам.
 diet (диета) → dietary (диетический)
 moment (момент) → momentary (мгновенный)
 migrate (мигрировать) → migratory (перелетный, кочевой)

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Суффикс -ary используется с основами слов, которые в форме
существительного принимают суффикс -ary, или если основа не
используется самостоятельно (но не всегда).
 ordinary (обычный)
 necessary (необходимый)
 contemporary (современный)
Суффикс -ory используется с основами слов, которые в форме
существительного принимают суффиксы -or, -ion.
 satisfaction (удовлетворение) → satisfactory (удовлетворительный)
 illusion (иллюзия) → illusory (иллюзорный)
 contributor (помощник) → contributory (вносящий вклад)
to gloss – glossary; contradictor – contradictory; legend – legendary; fragment –
fragmentary; station – stationary; evolution – evolutionary; custom – customary;
to contradict – contradictory; to advise – advisory; compliment –
complimentary.

существительное / глагол + -ate =


прилагательное
Суффикс -ate указывает на характеристику, признаки, имеет значение
«обладать чем-либо». Прибавляется к глаголам и существительным.
 fortunate (счастливый, удачный)
 moderate (умеренный)
 adequate (адекватный)
 deliberate (спланированный, умышленный)
adequacy – adequate; affection – affectionate; consider – considerate; literacy –
literate; moderation – moderate; passion – passionate; accurate; immediate;
separate; subordinate; approximate; animate; aggregate; elaborate; articulate.

Упражнение 1. Образуйте от основ выделенных слов существительные или


прилагательные с указанными суффиксами и напишите их.
1. His report in physics was pure Regarding physics, he was
perfection. famously a … .
2. He is the most active He is an … on “Twitter”, an
microblogger who has about 21 online social networking and
-ist
million followers. microblogging service.
3. Economists were dreaming of Economic … predict a new world
a better economic future in the order in which information is the
world. resource that drives a nation's
economy.

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1. They became the second in the Winning is … – we play for the
competitions. fun of the sport.
-ary
2. Your actions contradict your “Perfect” and “imperfect” are …
-ory
words. terms.
3. Genius always makes Genius usually follows a … path.
revolution.
1. She set up a literacy program.
She is … thanks to special
program.
2. You’ve got to learn to She is one of the most … people I
-ate
consider other people. know.
3. Could you give us a rough This is the … location of the
approximation of the ancient ancient city.
city?

Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически


соответствовало содержанию.
1. I read many books because I fond of biography of … heroes legend
of British history.
2. You have a duty as a … to communicate your discovery to science
the world.
3. … exercise, such as walking, is recommended. moderation
4. Children often invent … friends in order to speak and play to imagine
with them.
5. Any … can climb a difficult hill; you just change gear. to cycle
6. She’s an intelligent and … speaker. articulation
7. A passing … stopped to help. motor
8. He told the story in … detail. elaboration
9. The researchers made an … error. element
10. She’s a ... in modern French literature. special
11. He was very ... about his feelings on the subject. articulation
12. She made ... remarks about his work. compliment

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
natural ['næʧərəl], characteristic [ˌkærəktə'rɪstɪk], present ['prezənt], civilization
[ˌsɪvəlaɪ'zeɪʃən], course [kɔːs], to illustrate ['ɪləstreɪt], material [mə'tɪərɪəl],
telephone ['telɪfəun], radio ['reɪdɪəu], television ['telɪvɪʒən], automobile
['ɔːtəməubiːl], airplane ['eəpleɪn], modified ['mɔdɪfaɪd], technology [tek'nɔləʤɪ],
based [be͟ɪst], communication [kəˌmjuːnɪ'keɪʃən], continent ['kɔntɪnənt], center
['sentə], industry ['ɪndəstrɪ], agriculture ['ægrɪkʌlʧə], population [ˌpɔpjə'leɪʃən],

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horizon [hə'raɪzən], fundamentally [ˌfʌndə'mentəlɪ], intellectual [ˌɪntə'lekʧuəl],
result [rɪ'zʌlt], activity [æk'tɪvətɪ], range [reɪnʤ], to double ['dʌbl], number
['nʌmbə], astronaut ['æstrənɔːt], transistor [træn'zɪstə], electronic [ˌelek'trɔnɪk],
medical ['medɪkəl], instrument ['ɪntstrəmənt], modulation [ˌmɔdjə'leɪʃən], absurd
[əb'sɜːd], integrated ['ɪntɪgreɪtɪd], era ['ɪərə], orbital ['ɔːbɪtəl], station ['steɪʃən],
astrophysics [ˌæstrəu'fɪzɪks], medicine ['medɪsɪn], biology [baɪ'ɔləʤɪ], typically
['tɪpɪkəlɪ], cosmic ['kɔzmɪk], central ['sentrəl], position [pə'zɪʃən], to dominate
['dɔmɪneɪt], effect [ɪ'fekt], technical ['teknɪkəl], social ['səuʃəl].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


to distinguish [dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ], to influence ['ɪnfluəns], to create [krɪ'eɪt], science
['saɪəns], level ['levəl], necessary ['nesəsərɪ], to mention ['menʃən], countless
['kauntləs], device [dɪ'vaɪs], application [ˌæplɪ'keɪʃən], hardly ['hɑːdlɪ], article
['ɑːtɪkl], means [miːnz], to bind [baɪnd], community [kə'mjuːnətɪ], to depend
[dɪ'pend] on, scientific [ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk], sanitation [ˌsænɪ'teɪʃən], to provide
[prə'vaɪd], abundant [ə'bʌndənt], to expand [ɪk'spænd], mind [maɪnd], enterprise
['entəpraɪz], attempt [ə'tempt], particular [pə'tɪkjələ], outcome ['autkʌm],
knowledge ['nɔlɪʤ], previously ['priːvɪəslɪ], young [jʌŋ], alive [ə'laɪv],
equipment [ɪ'kwɪpmənt], wherever [weə'revə], precise [prɪ'saɪs], to require
[rɪ'kwaɪə], to suppose [sə'pəuz], mere [mɪə], launch [lɔːnʧ], to conduct
['kɔndʌkt], investigation [ɪnˌvestɪ'geɪʃən], inconceivable [ˌɪnkən'siːvəbl], earth
[ɜːθ], to witness ['wɪtnəs], society [sə'saɪətɪ], whole [həul], existence [ɪg'zɪstəns],
to remedy ['remədɪ].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


natural science – естественные науки to find wide use – найти широкое
characteristic feature – характерная применение
особенность precise control – точный контроль
to distinguish – отличать, выделать It seems – кажется…
the course of development – ход the invention of integrated circuits –
развития изобретение интегральных схем
to create – создавать a new era of change – новая эра перемен
countless – бесчисленный launching – запуск
to be modified – менять, быть to conduct investigations – проводить
измененным исследования
to be based on – быть основанным на inconceivable – немыслимый
to depend on – зависеть от to improve society’s living – изменить
to expand intellectual horizons – жизнь общества к лучшему
расширять кругозор working conditions – условия труда
in a particular way – особым образом long-term – длительный, долгосрочный

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Text 9A
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Укажите положительные и
отрицательные стороны научно-технического прогресса.
Scientific and technical progress and modern society
Natural science is the main characteristic feature distinguishing the present
society from the other civilizations in the past. From its early beginnings in the
sixteenth century, the developments of science have influenced the course of
civilization development. Today it plays a dominant role. In other words, we
live in a world that has been created by science.
This point is easy to illustrate on the material level. It is necessary to
mention the telephone, the radio, the television, the automobile, and the airplane,
or any of the countless devices invented by the application of science. There is
hardly an article used in the homes, in the places of work, or in the places of
enjoyment that has not been modified by technology based on science; the
means of communication that bind the continents into a single community
depend on scientific know-how, without modern sanitation it would be
impossible to have large centers of population; without modern industry and
agriculture it would be impossible to feed, to clothe, and to provide the
“abundant life” to this large population.
Science is expanding intellectual horizons – science has an impact on the
mind of a man. Fundamentally, science is an intellectual enterprise, an attempt
to understand the world in a particular way. All the developments mentioned
above are the results, the outcomes of this intellectual activity.
Over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been doubled
every 12-15 years. In 1930 a man knew four times as much as he did in 1900; by
1960 his knowledge had grown sixteenfold, and by the year 2000 it was a
hundred times what it had been a century previously.
The second part of the twentieth century brought a number of technical
innovations which are still very young but which are taken so much for granted
that it is as if they have always existed.
In the fifties of the last century hardly anyone would probably have
believed that we should be able to sit at home and watch astronauts walking in
space or that people could be kept alive by the heart of a dead man.
The transistor was not invented until 1948. This piece of electronic
equipment found wide use in space technology, computers, transistor radios,
medical instruments, television sets – in fact, wherever precise control and
modulation of electrical signals was required. It seemed absurd to suppose that it
could ever be replaced. However, the Invention of ICs (integrated circuits) in
1958 brought a new era of change in the field so fundamental that it has the
characteristics of a second industrial revolution.
Twelve years separated the launching of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 1 in
1957 and man’s first landing on the Moon in 1969. The first long-term orbital

163
station Salyut launched in 1971 opened a new era in space research providing
the possibility of conducting investigations in the field of astrophysics, space
technology, medicine, biology, etc. under conditions inconceivable on the earth.
In 1981 we could witness the launching of a typically new cosmic vehicle – the
Shuttle.
It is not difficult to continue with other examples but the point is clear.
Events like these were characteristic of the rate of technological development in
the second half of the 20th century. Science has a central position in modern
society. It dominates man’s whole existence. Research and innovations in
technology should improve society’s living and working conditions and remedy
the negative effects of technical and social changes.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What means of communication are mentioned in the text? 2. What
technological innovations made communication between continents possible? 3.
How do science and technology influence people? 4. How fast was scientific
knowledge developing in the 20th century? 5. What are the potential dangers of
scientific discoveries? 6. Do science and technology do more good than harm
for a man, more harm than good or about equal?

Упражнение 4. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.


1. We live in a world … 1. depend on scientific know-how.
2. Telephone, radio, television, 2. found wide use in space technology,
automobile, airplane, or any of the computers, transistor radios, medical
countless devices … instruments, television sets.
3. The means of communication that 3. were invented by the application of
bind the continents into a single science.
community …
4. Science has an impact … 4. that has been created by science.
5. Over the past 150 years the range of 5. on the mind of a man.
human knowledge …
6. The transistor – a piece of electronic 6. has been doubled every 12-15 years.
equipment – …

Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и


переводом этих слов.
countless обильный, богатый a means of counteracting or
eliminating something undesirable
know-how считать само собой relating to the intellect
разумеющимся
abundant во много раз, it means to be very large and great

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многочисленный amount of something
intellectual существование only with great difficulty
take for granted средство, мера the fact or state of living or having
objective reality
hardly перемена, изменение practical knowledge or skill; expertise

remedy бесчисленный, an act or process through which


многочисленный something becomes different
manifold едва ли, с трудом existing or available in large
quantities; plentiful
change умственный, something is true without questioning
мыслительный, it
интеллектуальный
existence знание дела, ноу-хау by many times

Text 9B
Прочитайте текст. Обратите внимание на первый и последний абзацы и
найдите предложения, раскрывающие основную идею текста.
Tomorrow is now
The Julian calendar recorded the year 2001 – the beginning of the 21st
century. It was far more than a chronological event, for the meaning and
importance of chronological time is less vital now than ever before in history.
Time began for a man more than a million years ago and until today it has been
the mover and shaker of man’s destiny. However, the slow pace of nature has
been augmented by the incredible speed of the developing technology since the
last third of the 20th century. The technological innovations are revolutionizing
our lives more than anything else. Events, inventions, moralities - all slide and
change so swiftly that we seem to be rushing at tomorrow and our future has
already arrived. In that sense the 21st century is already here, for the
responsibility for the events and technology that will be produced is being
formed today.
It is possible to extrapolate from certain seemingly well-rooted trends and
technologies and thus gain a glimpse at the very least of the possible tomorrows
that await us. The increasing sophistication of the rocketry, for example,
prognosticates a continued assault on space. At the same time, we have virtually
run out of frontiers on land and will probably turn at long last to the sea that
blankets seven tenths of the earth’s surface. X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray
astronomy, orbiting astronomical observatories, and the stable, atmosphere-free
far side of the moon, as the finest of all observatories will be the disciplines and
the platforms we will use to peer out into space and back into time to the origin
of all things.

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And what might man find there? No one today has answers. We can safely
say only that the questions will be raised and countless voyages in search of
answers will be undertaken. In truth, the 21st century will probably be a new age
of exploration. The laser, the computer, and atomic energy have found their
ways into our lives and are already being used for the tasks of today. These same
tools will be applied to new tasks of the 21st century, tasks we cannot even
conceive today.
In every area of human activity the future offers dazzling capabilities for
exploring and understanding ourselves and the world about us. But what we will
do with the incredible amounts of knowledge we are at this very moment
heaping together.
In all probability, we will accept every challenge the human mind can find.
These are broad areas of probability, yet it is to these only that we can look in
the hope of seeing where we are headed. For the technological avalanche
threatens to inundate us by generating an ever more elaborate technology and in
the process creating problems that could not have been foreseen. Moreover, the
solution to these problems lies in creating a still more sophisticated technology
which creates more problems not by failing in its designed goals but by
succeeding brilliantly. We will soon learn to plumb the depths of the human
gene and, therefore, present to nature on a molecular level our demands for the
future of man.
The 21st century will demand extreme caution and scientific discipline. We
will pursue knowledge; it will be the preoccupation of the 21st-century man.
The only questions remaining concern the uses to which such knowledge will be
put and the price we must pay for it.

Упражнение 6. Найдите английские эквиваленты для следующих русских слов


и словосочетаний.
время было вершителем и мерилом судьбы человека; медленная поступь;
инновации кардинально меняют нашу жизнь; ожидающие нас возможные
альтернативы завтрашнего дня; наступление на космос; мы примем любой
вызов; поток технологической информации грозит затопить нас; не из-за
неудачи в достижении поставленных целей, а из-за блестящего успеха;
раскрывать глубины человеческого гена.

Упражнение 7. Прокомментируйте данные утверждения (согласны / не


согласны и почему).
1. Our future has already arrived.
2. The shape of tomorrow can well been foreseen.
3. The main fields of investigation will be the space and the seas and oceans.
4. Among the theoretical problems the main one will be the origin of the
universe. 5. Man should be cautious about new technologies.

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Text 9C
Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Кратко изложите основное
содержание текста по-английски.
Scientific research became so important in the 20th century that it is no
longer possible to describe any human society without according it its rightful
place.
Scientific activity, with all its technical and economic consequences, is at
present passing through a period of particularly rapid development as compared
to other human activities and may double in the course of each decade. This law
of growth can be deduced from a fairly wide variety of statistical facts such as:
the number of original publications appearing in the scientific journals and the
number of abstracts published in a branch of science such as physics or
mathematics. It is also found to be true if the criterion adopted is the number of
scientific personnel working in laboratories. Lastly, the number of significant
scientific discoveries made each year can be estimated, and though such an
estimate must, of course, be somewhat arbitrary, the result will again show the
same rate of growth. A few figures will support the information given above.
The number of scientific journals and periodicals which was about 100 at the
beginning of the 19th century, reached 1,000 in 1850, more than 10,000 in 1900,
approached 100,000 in 1960 and – if the rate of growth remains constant –
should be in the neighbourhood of a million at the end of the century.
If we turn to the length of scientific papers, it is getting out of hand. In the
past 35 years, the length of paper has increased by an average of 64 per cent.
The average letter is 30 per cent longer today than it was 10 years ago, despite
frequent editorial decrees that they should be short. To examine the problem the
most prestigious publications in physics, chemistry, astronomy, and
mathematics from three countries – the US, Britain and Japan – were studied.
Between 1950 and 1980/83, the length of papers increased appreciably in each
country and for all publications. Values ranged from 13 per cent for the Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society to 115 per cent for the Journal of the
Mathematical Society of Japan. Chemistry papers grew the most (93 per cent),
with astronomy second (82 per cent), then mathematics (77 per cent), and
physics (27 per cent). National averages were: Japan, up 85 per cent; the US, up
65 percent; and Great Britain, up 45 percent. The jump in the length of letters is
even more dramatic. The average increase over the last 20 years is 74 per cent.
But how should we interpret those findings? Mainly, three reasons are
detected for long papers. First, it is easier to write them. As Churchill put it, he
needed a week to prepare a five minute speech on an important subject, but he
could talk for an hour immediately. Secondly, scientists are rewarded for
overwriting. Thirdly, writing today is sloppier. Some people suspect that modern
authors have to use more words to express a quantum of thought than earlier
writers, because they have not learnt English grammar as thoroughly. Though,

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not everyone agrees with this interpretation. For example, Helmut Abt, longtime
editor of the Astrophysical Journal believes that the length of papers has little to
do with the three main points. He says that the answer lies in the scientific
content. Science is more complex now. Instruments yield far more information
and more space is needed for explanation. Many papers that would have been
acceptable for publication 20 years ago are not acceptable now because they do
not have enough content.

Упражнение 8. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What has been the most rewarding technological advance in the last 100
years? 2. What was the biggest technological change in your life? 3. What
technologies do you find most useful in everyday life? 4. What jobs will be lost
due to technological advances? 5. How do you feel about robots that look like
humans? 6. Do you think time travel will ever be possible? 7. Do you think time
travel can have negative consequences for the future?

Упражнение 9. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


Japanese scientists say they have found a way to “read” people’s dreams.
Researchers at the ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories used
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for what they say is “the world’s first
decoding” of night-time visions. Their research is published in the journal
“Science”. The researchers wrote that visual imagery during sleep has long been
a topic of persistent speculation, but its private nature has hampered objective
analysis. Here, we present a neural decoding approach in which machine
learning models predict the contents of visual imagery during sleep. They were
able to predict what images their volunteers had seen with a 60 per cent
accuracy rate. A spokesperson says that their expectations from the dream study
are quite high, but they are also looking carefully at the ethical aspects of the
technology which may allow a third person to look at somebody else’s thoughts.
Head researcher Yukiyasu Kamitani says that dreams have fascinated people
since ancient times but their function and meaning has remained closed. He
believes his research is a key step towards reading dreams more precisely.

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык.
Объясните случаи употребления герундия.
1. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very healthy. 2. She likes sitting in the
sun. 3. It looks like raining. 4. Let’s go boating. 5. He talked without stopping.
6. Some people can walk all day without being tired. 7. My son took up boxing
for a while but soon lost interest. 8. What composer continued writing music

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after he became deaf? 9. It goes without saying. 10. We thought of seeing a film
after lunch.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык, обращая


внимание на глаголы, выражающие начало, продолжение и окончание действия.
1. They went on talking. 2. He gave up smoking a few years ago. 3. Have you
started working on the project? 4. My wife keeps insisting on buying a house in
the country. 5. Stop laughing at me. 6. Have you finished washing the dishes?
7. I continued walking in that direction. 8. They began building that house in
1999. 9. Would you like to take up dancing?

Упражнение 3. Раскройте скобки, обращая внимание на употребление герундия,


где это необходимо.
1. Stop … (make) noise. 2. When will you finish … (translate) the text? 3. He
gave up … (play) football last year and took up … (swim). 4. Continue …
(work). 5. Please, don’t pay attention to me and keep on … (write). 6. I started
… (play) the piano when I was four. 7. When will you begin … (think) about
your studies? 8. Go on … (read). 9. It is a good idea to take up … (swim).

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на


употребление герундия.
1. Перестань плакать. 2. Продолжайте писать. 3. Я думаю, что тебе следует
начать заниматься спортом. 4. Ты уже закончил читать эту книгу? 5. Он
бросил играть в компьютерные игры. 6. Хорошая идея начать играть на
музыкальном инструменте. 7. Продолжайте варить до тех пор, пока мясо
не станет мягким. 8. Я только-только начал есть, когда зазвонил телефон.
9. Продолжай учиться, несмотря на то, что это и трудно.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык, обращая


внимание на глаголы, выражающие предпочтение.
1. She dislikes living in her old house. 2. I enjoy talking to people and don’t
mind helping them. 3. My granny likes cooking. 4. My brother doesn’t like
washing up. 5. My sister doesn’t mind doing morning exercises but she hates
getting up early. 6. I love travelling but I can’t stand flying. 7. He enjoyed
talking of his travels. 8. She enjoys meeting people because she likes being
helpful.

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения с глаголами предпочтения, после


которых употребляется герундий.
1. Я ничего не имею против того, чтобы посетить Нью-Йорк. 2. Я думаю,
получу удовольствие от вида небоскребов и других современных зданий.

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3. Мне нравится слушать звуки города. 4. Я люблю гулять по городу. 5. Я
не люблю ходить по музеям. 6. Я терпеть не могу осматривать
достопримечательности. 7. Я ненавижу шум и городскую суету. 8. Мне
нравится читать зарубежную литературу. 9. Я ничего не имею против того,
чтобы пойти туда вместе. 10. Я предпочитаю путешествовать на машине.

Упражнение 7. Выберите предлог. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание


на употребление герундия.
1. Read the rule … writing the exercise. (after, before, by the time)
2. She is fond … collecting posters of pop singers. (for, to, of)
3. She likes art very much and she is keen … visit-ing art galleries. (in, on,
about)
4. He is tired … painting the wall. He has been working for 5 hours. (of, after,
for)
5. She is clever … learning English. (of, for, at)
6. I don’t understand how David can fish for hours … catching anything. (with,
without, on)
7. Kate bought a book … buying an umbrella. (but, without, instead of)
8. … visiting the British Museum the tourists were very much impressed. (After,
Before, Instead of)
9. I can’t get used … getting up early. (for, with, to)
10. … hearing the news Mr. White felt pleased. (On, With, By)
11. We were fascinated … Ella’s singing Russian songs. (by, about, on)
12. I like the idea … visiting St. Petersburg this sum-mer. (of, to, about)
13. Jack answered the examiners’ questions … thinking and later he regretted it.
(without, instead of, with)
14. Thank you … helping us in troubles. (about, by, for)
15. My friends and I dream … going to England. (to, of, for)
16. Children went for a walk … switching off the light. (with, without, before)
17. We were surprised … meeting Alice at the theatre. She was going to stay at
home on that day. (at, by, with)
18. Sorry … interrupting you, but could you show me the way to the nearest
cinema? (for, at, of)
19. We have improved our English … learning the new words and rules every
day. (by, for, with)
20. Pamela is looking forward … visiting London again. (to, on, about)

Упражнение 8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя герундий. Объясните, почему в


данном случае надо употребить герундий.
1. The doctor insisted on … (send) the sick man to hospital. 2. He was good at
… (repair) cars. 3. She was sorry for … (come) late. 4. The children ran out the
room and began … (play). 5. He seemed sorry for … (be) rude. 6. The girl had

170
no talent for … (dance). 7. After … (check) the students’ papers, the teacher
handed them back. 8. Excuse her for … (break) her cup. 9. She was proud of …
(win) the prize. 10. She accused the boy of … (tell) her lies. 11. I don’t mind …
(open) the window. 12. I objected to my mother … (do) my room. 13. They
enjoy … (watch) her dancing. 14. She doesn’t feel like … (see) him. 15. She
never approved of her daughter … (drink) so much coffee. 16. She hates … (be)
photographed because she thinks that she is not beautiful.

Упражнение 9. Замените придаточные предложения герундиальным оборотом с


предлогом (где необходимо).
Например: She thought she would go to the country for the weekend. – She thought of
going to the country for the weekend.
1. Thank you that you invited me to the theatre. 2. The woman insisted that her
husband should consult the doctor at once. 3. The thought that he had missed the
party made him unhappy. 4. The teacher insisted that the students should come
after the lessons for a meeting. 5. He thinks he will learn two foreign languages
in future. 6. Helen suggested that they should go on a trip. 7. I don’t mind if the
children go to the station with me. 8. The teacher suggested that you should read
English books every day. 9. The place looked so beautiful that she thought that
she would like to live there. 10. In the darkness they were afraid that they might
lose their way. 11. Do you mind if I smoke here? 12. My parents objected that I
played computer games all day.

Упражнение 10. Определите, где в предложениях нужно использовать


заглавные буквы.
1. dear jennifer,
thanks for your letter, i was so happy to get it! glad to hear that you have won
the running competition! congratulations on your first place, jen!
2. i am going to spend this summer together with my family. we like to travel, so
all summer we will spend in different countries. we are going to visit greece,
italy, spain, portugal, france and germany. i really dream to see the coliseum. I
am fond of ancient roman history since my childhood. And i consider that it was
a great empire which had no equal in all the world.
3. dear paul,
i received your letter on 10 june for which i thank you very much. i'’m glad to
hear that you’ve passed your driving test in march! congratulations!
hope to hear from you soon.
take care,
victor

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4. melbourne and sydney are cities in australia, where it is summer in december.
the republic of cuba is very popular among tourists.

5. the russian doctor of science degree is the highest research degree in this
country. many scientists having that degree are professors.
6. On my left is professor edith hill. professor hill is a psychologist at the
university. next is martin learner. mr. learner is a reporter.
this is mr. harvey mountain. he’s a businessman. this is ms. cynthia johnson.
she’s a teacher.
7. the chinese are good workers. the french make wonderful cheese. the
americans like fast food. the english are famous for being polite.

8. i was born in january. february is usually the coldest month. she will visit her
sister in august. the hottest days here are in july. halloween is celebrated in
october. the best months for travelling are august and september.
9. sunny day is sunday. monday is not quick. tuesday is for business.
wednesday’s half the week. thursday’s always active. friday’s short and fun.
saturday is happy and the week is gone.

Test yourself
1. Определите, какая форма герундия представлена – swimming.
A. Simple Passive
B. Perfect Active
C. Simple Active

2. Определите, какая форма герундия представлена – having translated.


A. Perfect Passive
B. Perfect Active
C. Simple Active

3. Определите, какая форма герундия представлена – being done.


A. Simple Passive
B. Perfect Active
C. Simple Active

4. Выберете правильный вариант перевода герундия – walking.


A. гуляя
B. прогулка
C. гуляющий

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5. Выберете правильный вариант перевода предложения с герундием – She likes
being visited by her friends.
A. Она любит, когда ее навещают друзья.
B. Она любит навещать друзей.
C. Она любит, когда ее приглашают друзья.

6. Выберете правильный вариант перевода предложения с герундием – He is


excited of having spoken to her.
A. Он взволнован от того, что она поговорила с ним.
B. Он взволнован от того, что с ним поговорили.
C. Он взволнован от того, что поговорил с ней.

7. Выберете правильный вариант перевода предложения с герундием – He is glad


of having been spoken to.
A. Он рад, что он выговорился.
B. Он рад, что с ним поговорили.
C. Он рад общению.

8. Выберете правильный вариант – отрицательная форма герундия.


A. for not coming in time
B. for coming not in time
C. not for coming in time

9. Найдите предложение с герундием.


A. My attention was attracted by his loud speaking.
B. I don’t like your speaking so loudly.
C. The doing of the exercises didn’t take him long.

10. Выберете подходящий перевод – Reading books every day will improve your
knowledge.
A. Читая книги каждый день, можно повысить знания.
B. Ежедневное чтение книг обогатит ваши знания.
C. Читая книги каждый день, ты улучшаешь свои знания.

11. Определите функцию герундия – There are different ways of obtaining this
substance.
A. Подлежащее
B. Именная часть сказуемого
C. Определение

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12. Определите функцию герундия – The car needs repairing.
A. Определение
B. Прямое дополнение
C. Обстоятельство

13. Определите функцию герундия – They spoke about their travelling.


A. Предложное дополнение
B. Именная часть сказуемого
C. Прямое дополнение

14. Определите функцию герундия – His hobby is driving a car.


A. Обстоятельство
B. Определение
C. Именная часть сказуемого

15. Определите функцию герундия – Everybody laughed on hearing his answer.


A. Обстоятельство
B. Определение
C. Именная часть сказуемого

16. Определите функцию герундия – Asking him about it was useless.


A. Подлежащее
B. Дополнение
C. Именная часть сказуемого

17. Выберете предложения, в которых герундий имеет функцию прямого


дополнения.
A. He avoided looking at us.
B. I don’t mind doing it for you.
C. Go on reading.

18. Выберете предложения, в которых герундий имеет функцию предложного


дополнения.
A. She didn’t agree to coming here.
B. We finished dressing.
C. I don’t feel like working.

19. Выберете предложения, в которых герундий имеет функцию определения.


A. In copying the text, he made a few mistakes.
B. They gave up the idea of selling their car.
C. I don’t like his manner of reading.

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20. Выберете предложения, в которых герундий имеет функцию подлежащего.
A. Walking you are getting healthier.
B. I am fond of walking a lot.
C. Walking is very healthy.

21. Выберете предложения, в которых герундий имеет функцию именной части


сказуемого.
A. Travelling is a part of his life.
B. My husband’s business is travelling around the world.
C. I don’t mind your travelling around the world.

22. Выберите подходящий предлог – Write the exercise … reading the rule.
A. after
B. by the time
C. before

23. Выберите подходящий предлог – She looks … leaving.


A. like
B. for
C. after

24. Выберите подходящий предлог – He is good … finding proper solutions.


A. for
B. with
C. at

25. Выберите подходящий предлог – Write the exercise … reading the rule.
A. after
B. by the time
C. before

26. Назовите самый простой случай употребления заглавной буквы – My relatives


live in this city.
A. со всеми местояимениями
B. в начале предложения
C. с местоимением my

27. Выберите варианты, в которых слова пишутся всегда с заглавной буквы.


A. названия дней недели, месяцев и праздников
B. названия родственных связей
C. названия национальностей и языков

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LESSON 10
Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)
en-; over-, under-, sub-

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Text 10A. Going Online
Text 10B. Online Education
Text 10C. Online shopping: pros and cons
Text 10D. The Rise of Travel Vlogging

Section 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Условные предложения

Section 1: Словообразование (Word-formation)

en- + существительное / прилагательное


=
глагол
Префикс en- отличается от других префиксов английского языка тем,
что может менять часть речи, к которой относится слово. Префикс en-
имеет значение «вводить в определенное состояние», «наделять чем-то».
Префикс en- меняется на -em перед согласными p, m, b.
 able (способный, умеющий) → enable (давать возможность)
 large (большой) → enlarge (увеличивать)
 danger (опасность) → endanger (подвергать опасности)
 power (сила, власть) → empower (уполномочивать, разрешать)
case – encase; circle – encircle; rich – enrich; joy – enjoy; train – entrain; purple
– empurple; list – enlist; roll – enroll; bitter – embitter; compass – encompass.

префиксы over-, under-, sub-


Префикс over- указывает на чрезмерность, превышение чего-то, сверх
чего-то или то, что находится над чем-то.
 confident (уверенный) → overconfident (слишком уверенный)
 weight (вес) → overweight (перевес, излишек веса)
 come (приходить) → overcome (побороть, преодолеть)

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Префикс under- служит антонимом к over- и переводится как «недо»,
«под».
 estimate (оценивать) → underestimate (недооценивать)
 weight (вес) → underweight (недовес, недостаток веса)
 line (линия) → underline (подчеркивать)

Префикс sub- означает нахождение под чем-то, подчинение,


подразделение, а также имеет значение «почти».
 tropical (тропический) → subtropical (субтропический)
 standard (стандартный) → substandard (нестандартный)
cloud – overcloud; optimistic – overoptimistic; cook – overcook; eat – overeat;
load –overload; crowd – overcrowd; produce – underproduce; do – underdo;
developed – underdeveloped; pay – underpay; foot – underfoot; normal –
subnormal; soil – subsoil; surface – subsurface; structure – substructure.

Упражнение 1. Образуйте слова с указанными префиксами от основ


выделенных слов и напишите их.
1. Students are able to get access The system … students to access
to class materials online. class materials online.
en- 2. We have a very large product Please … on this question, we
range. need to know more.
3. He lists himself as a political I’m sure that you can … the help
liberal. of your friends.
1. This is an argument of weight. My luggage was … by five kilos.
over- 2. She comes of a good family. You must … all difficulties.
3. He sees how they look at each He … all and … none.
other.
1. They estimated the distance at We … how long it would take to
about three miles. get there.
under- 2. I took your point. She … to complete the project in
six months.
3. I hear that a leading politician His views … a very thorough
went over to the other party. change in course of time.
1. You should answer three Her work had a great influence on
sequent questions. … generations.
2. The atomic reactor used a gas They used … particle accelerator
sub- coolant.
3. None of that will matter once The aim of the invention is to
we reach the surface. prevent … water from being
contaminated.

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Упражнение 2. Преобразуйте слово так, чтобы оно грамматически
соответствовало содержанию.
1. A crowd of reporters … the mayor. circle
2. The importance of training in health and safety cannot be … . to estimate
3. … key words and phrases as you read. line
4. How can I … my vocabulary? rich
5. He spent quite a lot time working … . sea
6. We discussed the principles that … their methods. to lie
7. The study … the social, political, and economic aspects of the compass
situation.
8. … information was as important as the title itself. title
9. Don’t … him with facts. to whelm
10. Changing hardware parameters from … conservative optimal
defaults to their normal settings can improve performance
greatly.
11. They voted aid for the … countries in Asia developed

Section 2: Чтение (Reading)


Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
person ['pɜːsən], personal ['pɜːsənl], multidisciplinary [mʌlti'dɪsəplɪnərɪ],
individual [ˌɪndɪ'vɪdjuəl], content ['kɔntent], real [rɪəl], reality [rɪ'ælətɪ],
presentation [ˌprezən'teɪʃən], parallel ['pærəlel], genuine ['ʤenjuɪn], identity
[aɪ'dentətɪ], public ['pʌblɪk], global ['gləubəl], to contact ['kɔntækt], to associate
[ə'səuʃɪeɪt], online [ˌɔn'laɪn], popular ['pɔpjulə], service ['sɜːvɪs], address [ə'dres],
supermarket ['sjuːpəˌmɑːkɪt], restaurant ['restərɒŋ], cafe ['kæfeɪ], company
['kʌmpənɪ], lifestyle ['laɪfstaɪl], taxi ['tæksɪ], to specify ['spesɪfaɪ], date [deɪt], to
indicate ['ɪndɪkeɪt], mobile ['məubaɪl], phone [fəun], pension ['penʃən], fund
[fʌnd], to revolutionize [ˌrev(ə)'luːʃ(ə)naɪz], communication [kəˌmjuːnɪ'keɪʃən],
medium ['miːdɪəm], modern ['mɔdən], business ['bɪznɪs], partner ['pɑːtnə].

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов.


to offer ['ɔfə], huge [hjuːʤ], opportunity [ˌɔpə'tjuːnətɪ], longer [lɔŋə], to concern
[kən'sɜːn], sophisticated [sə'fɪstɪkeɪtɪd], to enable [ɪ'neɪbl] to escape [ɪs'keɪp],
data ['deɪtə], to share [ʃeə], issue ['ɪsjuː], speed [spiːd], high [haɪ], to download
['daunləud], movies ['muːvɪz], matter ['mætə], leisure ['leʒə], pleasure ['pleʒə],
entertainment [ˌentə'teɪnmənt], to simplify ['sɪmplɪfaɪ], latest ['leɪtɪst], weather
['weðə], tomorrow [tə'mɔrəu], even ['iːvən], relative ['relətɪv], purchase ['pɜːʧəs],
via ['vaɪə, viːə], discovery [dɪ'skʌvərɪ], goods [gudz], abroad [ə'brɔːd], price
[praɪs], lower ['ləuə], ordinary ['ɔːdənərɪ], store [stɔː], affordable [ə'fɔːdəbl], sale
[seɪl], peculiarity [pɪˌkjuːlɪ'ærətɪ], trading ['treɪdɪŋ], delivery [dɪ'lɪvərɪ], to appear

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[ə'pɪə], beloved [bɪ'lʌvd], enough [ɪ'nʌf], to arrange [ə'reɪnʤ], to order ['ɔːdə],
through [θruː], advance [əd'vɑːns], luxury ['lʌkʃərɪ] to impress [ɪm'pres],
application [ˌæplɪ'keɪʃən], desired [dɪ'zaɪəd], appointed [ə'pɔɪntɪd], utilities
[juː'tɪllətɪz], account [ə'kaunt], tax [tæks], return [rɪ'tɜːn], to submit [səb'mɪt],
therefore ['ðeəfɔː], existence [ɪg'zɪstəns], extent [ɪk'stent], preferred [prɪ'fɜːd].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


no longer – уже не, больше не by means of – с помощью; посредством
information exchange – обмен to learn the latest news – узнавать
информацией последние новости
sophisticated – сложный to make purchases – совершать
to create content – создавать контент покупки
to communicate with – общаться с via the Internet – через интернет
to escape reality – уходить от peculiarities – особенности
реальности delivery – доставка
genuine identity – подлинные личные to call a taxi – вызвать такси
данные in advance – заранее
to go public – обнародовать; делать at the appointed time – в назначенное
общедоступным время
to download movies – скачивать in the indicated place – в назначенном
фильмы месте
in a matter of seconds – за несколько to pay for utilities – оплачивать
секунд коммунальные услуги
a source of pleasure – источник to update account – пополнять счет
удовольствия to fill out a tax return – заполнять
to simplify one’s life – делать жить налоговую декларацию
проще to enable – давать возможность

Text 10A
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Укажите сферы жизни, в которых
интернет играет важную роль.
Going Online
The Internet offers a huge number of opportunities for a modern person.
The Internet is no longer concerned with information exchange alone: it is a
sophisticated multidisciplinary tool enabling individuals to create content,
communicate with one another and even escape reality. Today, we can send data
from one end of the world to the other in a matter of seconds, make online
presentations, live in parallel “game worlds,” and use pictures, video, sound, and
text to share our real lives, our genuine identity. Personal stories go public; local
issues become global.
The speed of the modern Internet is so high that people can download
movies, music and games in a matter of seconds to fill their leisure time. But the
Internet is not only a source of pleasure and entertainment for people; it can also

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greatly simplify our lives. For example, by means of it you can learn the latest
news, see the weather for tomorrow and even contact relatives or friends living
in another country.
The ability to make purchases via the Internet has become a real discovery
for people. Now people can buy goods not only in their city, but also abroad,
and at prices that are much lower than those that are in ordinary stores. The
affordable price of goods for sale on the Internet is associated with the
peculiarities of online trading so a modern person can save not only his time but
also money.
Online purchases would not have become so popular if a service such as
the delivery of goods purchased in online stores in the city and even in the
country had not appeared. For example, if you need to buy beautiful flowers for
your beloved, you can do this without leaving home. It is enough to find a good
online store and arrange delivery to the address you need.
Today you can also order delivery of water to your home or office, delivery
of food purchased at the online supermarket, or even delivery of prepared food
from a restaurant, cafe, etc. There are even companies that offer ready-made
healthy food delivery services for those who lead the healthy lifestyle.
Today, it is possible to call a taxi through the Internet. And you can do this
in advance - by specifying the date and time when you need a car. And even if,
for example, you need a luxury car in order to impress a girl or a business
partner, you can indicate this when filling out an application, and the desired
transport will be waiting for you at the appointed time and in the indicated place.
Using the Internet, a modern person can also pay for utilities, update
account in a bank or mobile phone, fill out a tax return and submit a report to a
pension fund and much more. Therefore, do not be afraid to use the Internet, and
your life will become much easier.
All in all, the Internet has turned our existence upside down. It has
revolutionized communications to the extent that it is now our preferred medium
of everyday communication.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.


1. What opportunities does the Internet offer for a modern person? 2. What do
you think it is ok when personal stories go public in the social networks? 3. How
can a modern person fill his leisure time by means of the Internet? 4. What is
Internet for people beside a source of pleasure and entertainment? 5. In what
way does the Internet simplify our loves? 6. Why has the ability to make
purchases via the Internet become a real discovery for people? 7. Can you point
out pluses and minuses of online purchases? 8. Do you often call a taxi through
the Internet? Why? Why not? 9. Is it safe to pay for utilities via the Internet?

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Упражнение 4. Соедините части предложений по смыслу.
1. The Internet has turned … 1. do a lot of things such as to pay for
utilities, etc.
2. The Internet has revolutionized … 2. helps people save money and time.
3. Using the Internet, a modern person 3. our existence upside down.
can …
4. The speed of the modern Internet is 4. in advance by specifying the date
so high that people … and time when you need a car.
5. The ability to make purchases via 5. can download movies, music and
the Internet … games in a matter of seconds to fill
their leisure time.
6. Today, it is possible to call a taxi 6. the way we live and think.
through the Internet …

Text 10B
Прочитайте и переведите текст. Назовите наиболее эффективную
форму обучения, на ваш взгляд.
Online Education
The modern world is experiencing great changes in almost every sphere of
life including education. Nowadays, young people have a variety of educational
systems. Online classes are becoming more and more popular.
Online learning is education that takes place over the Internet. It is often
referred to as “e-learning” among other terms. However, online learning is just
one type of “distance learning” - the umbrella term for any learning that takes
place across distance and not in a traditional classroom. Distance learning has a
long history and there are several types available today, including:
– Correspondence Courses: conducted through regular mail with little
interaction.
– Telecourses: where content is delivered via radio or television broadcast.
– CD-ROM Courses: where the student interacts with static computer
content.
– Online Learning: Internet-based courses offered synchronously and/or
asynchronously.
– Mobile Learning: by means of devices such as cellular phones, PDAs
(Personal Digital Assistant) and digital audio players (iPods, MP3 players).
By far the most popular approach today is online learning. It is catalyzing a
pedagogical shift in how we teach and learn. There is a shift away from top-
down lecturing and passive students to a more interactive, collaborative
approach in which students and instructor co-create the learning process. The
Instructor’s role is changing from the “sage on the stage” to “the guide on the
side.”

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Constructivism, a special point of view, maintains that people actively
construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment. This is a
student-centered approach in which students co-create their learning experience.
This approach empowers students as active learners instead of just passive
recipients absorbing information and reproducing it for standardized tests.
Constructionism asserts that learning is particularly effective when
constructing something for others to experience. This can be anything from a
spoken sentence or an internet posting, to more complex things like a painting or
a presentation. For example, you might read this page several times and still
forget it by tomorrow - but if you were asked to explain these ideas to someone
else in your own words, or produce a slideshow that explained these concepts,
you would gain a deeper understanding that is more integrated into your own
ideas.
Collaboration: As an instructor, you focus on the experiences that would
best generate learning from the learner’s point of view, rather than just
publishing and assessing the information you think they need to know. Each
participant in a course can and should be a teacher as well as a learner.
Teachers’ job changes from being the sole source of knowledge to being a guide
and role model. You connect with students in ways that address their own
learning needs by moderating discussions and activities in a way that
collectively leads students towards the larger learning goals of the class.

Упражнение 5. Установите соответствие между словами, их толкованием и


переводом этих слов.
e-learning на основе интернета, proceeding from the general to the
через интернет particular
correspondence создавать совместно give (someone) the authority or
course power to do something
Internet-based точка зрения produced by or involving two or
more parties working together
a cellular phone уполномочивать; a particular attitude or way of
давать возможность; considering a matter
оказывать
поддержку
top-down общий, a course in which you study at home,
объединенный, receiving your work by post and
совместный sending it back by post
to co-create заочный курс to pay particular attention to
(обучения)
point of view сосредоточиваться; learning that takes place by means of
концентрировать computers and the Internet
внимание на

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collaborative нисходящий, сверху a type of telephone which does not
вниз need wires to connect it to a
telephone system.
to empower электронное based on Internet technologies
обучение
to focus сотовый телефон to create something together

Упражнение 6. Найдите английские эквиваленты для следующих русских слов


и словосочетаний.
общепризнанно, безоговорочно; общий термин; совместно создавать
учебный процесс; заочное обучение; личностно-ориентированный подход;
переживать этап больших изменений; своими словами; изменение
педагогических подходов; получить более глубокое понимание; пример
для подражания; возглавлять обсуждение.

Упражнение 7. Прокомментируйте данные утверждения (согласны / не


согласны и почему).
1. Offering online learning is a great, revolutionary alternative to traditional
training. 2. You can get excellent knowledge studying online. 3. Learning in a
physical classroom is interesting and more involving as human interaction is
present. 4. You can easily do without a teacher while learning new material. 5.
E-learning is harmful for health. 6. E-learning has more advantages than
disadvantages.
Text 10C
Прочитайте текст и переведите его. Кратко изложите основное
содержание текста по-английски.
Online shopping: pros and cons
Modern information technologies have influenced greatly people’s lifestyle
and their daily routine. Today we can do shopping not only at markets and stores
but also on the Internet. There is a great variety of online shops on the Internet
and they sell all kinds of goods: from cars or airplane tickets to books or food.
You can buy anything just with a few clicks of the mouse. The first online store
appeared in England in 1979. And since then shopping online has become really
popular and widely-used. Currently the largest world online corporations are
“Amazon” and “eBay”.
It is often faster and cheaper to buy online. For instance, finding and
buying books on a website is easier and more convenient than walking around a
large bookstore. Moreover, customers save not only their time but money as
well: warehouses are normally cheaper than shops so online companies offer
lower prices even when delivery charges are included. Although shipping a

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small number of items from another country could be sometimes quite
expensive.
It goes without saying that not all products can be purchased online as easy
as books. People prefer to try on clothes, for example, to feel the quality and
choose the right size. So they often go shopping first, choose the product in
stores and then place an order for it online, having found some attractive
discount.
Online shopping is also an ideal way of buying goods for extremely busy
people or for the disabled. Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day. All
you need is the Internet access and a valid method of payment: credit cards,
electronic money or cash on delivery.
The main disadvantage of online shopping is insecurity. There is always a
small risk that your financial and personal information might be exploited by
hackers. Other frustrating disadvantages are additional costs for delivery and
long waiting time up to several weeks. Besides, online shopping is a bit risky
because you can get goods of bad quality, broken or even wrong items.
As we can see, shopping on the Internet has both advantages and
disadvantages. Nevertheless, it is a very useful and convenient invention. We
should just be careful when choosing a website and placing orders.

Упражнение 8. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What kind of shops do you usually go to? 2. How often do you go shopping?
3. How much money a month do you spend on clothes? 4. Do you prefer going
shopping alone or with your friends and family? 5. What was the best thing you
have ever bought? 6. Do you often regret having bought something? 7. Can
shopping be a real hobby? 8. What do you prefer more online shopping or
traditional shopping? 9. Is it safe to order things via Internet? 10. What are
advantages and disadvantages of online shopping?

Упражнение 9. Совершая покупки онлайн, у вас могут возникнуть вопросы о


товаре, доставке, способах оплаты и т.д. Выберите подходящий ответ.
1. Can I afford it? A. check the price
B. choose a payment method
C. sign up
D. learn more about the product
2. How much is delivery? A. track the package
B. check the shipping rates
C. choose a payment method
D. choose a delivery option
3. Can I pay by Mastercard? A. choose a payment method
B. look through the Returns Policy
C. sign in

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D. do some shopping around
4. Where is my package? A. pick up the package
B. get a confirmation
C. check if it is in stock
D. track the package
5. Have I placed the order? A. look through the Returns Policy
B. receive a confirmation email
C. read customer reviews
D. add the item to cart
6. How big is it? A. zoom in on the photos
B. check the price
C. read the product description
D. check the shipping rates
7. What do others think of it? A. check if it is in stock
B. receive a confirmation email
C. read customer reviews
D. choose a payment method
8. Do they have enough left? A. check if it is in stock
B. do some shopping around
C. sign in
D. sign up
9. Is it cheaper in ozon.ru? A. sign in
B. sign out
C. do some shopping around
D. choose a payment method
10. Can I have it delivered fast? A. look through the Returns Policy
B. track the package
C. pick it up
D. check the shipping rates
11. How do I cancel the order? A. add the item to cart
B. cancel the order
C. place the order
D. look through Terms and Conditions

Text 10D
Прочитайте текст. Выскажите свое мнение о его содержании.
The Rise of Travel Vlogging
Always online is already here and will set the trend going forward. Due to
fast-evolving technologies and digital-and-information age we see radically new
lifestyle of the majority of people of new generation. Nowadays modern life
takes place in two dimensions: in real time and space and virtual ones. In virtual

185
reality, the user recreates their day, sharing important news, presenting an
improved reality and an improved themselves.
Video blogging, also called ‘Vlogging’ is a positive way for people to
develop and create ideas of the events occurring in their lives. Vlogging has a lot
of advantages over traditional text blogs so it’s no surprise that more and more
bloggers are giving it a go. Video blogs grab the attention of Internet users;
people are more likely to become excited about the dynamic content of a video
blog rather than a written posting with lots of long sentences and no images. The
more enthusiastic viewers are about a vlog on a website (through social sharing
and the like), the more traffic the site will get. It is one of the accessible ways to
tell incredibly engaging stories about everything from fashion and culture to
politics and travel.
Travel reviews have become so popular that almost every social media
account holder posts such reports on a regular basis. In this regard, the rise of
travel vlogging, that is, the activity of creating and maintaining vlogs dedicated
to the author’s travels, is not surprising. Tourism has become a journalistic
mainstream and simply could not help but penetrate the blogging environment
allowing anyone to share their impressions of travel. Only the laziest is not
involved in travel vlogging: many travelers and ordinary tourists tend to share
useful information or positive experiences with friends, relatives or completely
strangers on the Internet. In this regard, a lot of blogs and vlogs have appeared,
specializing in the topic of travel, foreign travel, national cuisine, sports, culture,
etc. Some authors want to record the happy moments of travel for themselves
personally in a virtual diary, others are counting on a mass audience. Many
people dream of making travel their profession, but only a few can afford to
engage in travel blogging at a professional level, in other words, make a hobby
as a profession. Those who are seriously involved in travel blogging even get
some income from it. Travel blogs are virtual diaries of users that contain
comments and personal thoughts on a particular topic. Vlogs are interactive and
allow other users to comment them. Posts are composed of text and photos as
well as audio and video files.
No doubt, user generated travel content – reviews, opinions, comments –
sometimes represent a more reliable source of information than information
from the travel service providers themselves, and have an increasing influence
on the formation of public opinion about travel services. Travel blogs make life
easier for consumers of travel services. They help to learn more about the
destination, to evaluate alternatives and avoid unwanted locations, provide
various ideas (about what to see and do at the destination), reduce the risks and
uncertainties associated with travel planning.

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Упражнение 10. Составьте сообщение на тему «How to become a successful video
blogger». При составлении сообщения опирайтесь на следующие фразы-
подсказки:
be yourself; consider audience; don’t hide emotions in videos; surround yourself
with positive people; invest time and effort into vlogging; plan catchy titles for
your vlogs; learn to use social media; learn to edit videos; listen to your
audience; don’t listen to the haters; build a vlogging community; think about the
topic of your vlog.

Упражнение 11. Выполните письменный перевод текста.


The online distance learning tools are changing the world we live in and the
way we learn to live. One of the new original software-based conference room
solutions is Zoom technology. Zoom is a cloud based service which offers
meetings and webinars and provides content sharing and video conferencing
capability. It helps, for example teachers bring their students together in a
frictionless environment to get more done. Zoom is the leader in modern
enterprise video communications with an easy, reliable cloud platform for video
and audio conferencing, collaboration, chat and webinars across mobile devices,
desktops, telephones and room systems. Zoom’s features allow teachers to
explore and assess skills through rich interactions with students. In addition to
screen sharing, Zoom motivates teachers to annotate their shared screen, making
lessons more interactive. Teachers can record their lessons to the cloud or
locally so that students can also record and turn recording on and off as many
times as they like during a lesson, if the teacher enables this feature. The
innovative approach of Zoom technology enhances positive learning outcomes
for diverse groups of students as well as encouraging higher education in remote
areas while potentially reducing workloads for teachers.

SECTION 3: Грамматика (Grammar)


Упражнение 1. Найдите соответствие между правой и левой колонками.
Обратите внимание на употребление условных предложений 1 типа (First
Conditionals).
1. If I study hard a. you’ll lose weight.
2. If we buy online b. I’ll travel abroad.
3. If you go on a diet c. they’ll simplify their lives.
4. If there are no buses d. I’ll know much.
5. If I win a tour e. he’ll be late.
6. If he doesn’t hurry f. your website will be popular.
7. If they do it g. we’ll save time.
8. If you create an interesting content e. we’ll have to take a taxi.

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Упражнение 2. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках так, чтобы предложения
выражали реальное условие.
1. If I … (to see) John, I’ll tell him your news. 2. He … (to be) very pleased if
it … (to be) really true. 3. If you … (to go) to town on Monday, you …
(to meet) my brother Tom. 4. If you … (to need) help, my father …
(to help) you. 5. We … (to have) a picnic lunch if the weather … (to be) fine.
6. If you … (to ask) a policeman, he … (to tell) you the way. 7. I …
(to finish) the work tomorrow if I … (can). 8. I … (not/take) an umbrella if …
(not/rain). 9. If they … (to catch) the bus now, they … (to arrive) at half past
nine. 10. He … (to find) the answers if he … (to look) in the keys. 11. If he …
(to write) to her, she … (to answer) at once. 12. He … (to lose) weight if he …
(to stop) eating too much. 13. If she … (to be) patient, I … (to try) to explain.
14. If we … (to leave) at once, we … (to catch) the early train. 15. If she …
(to drink) this medicine, she (to feel) much better.

Упражнение 3. Составьте предложения, обращая внимание на употребление


условных предложений 1 типа.
1. go shopping / spend much money; 2. give up bad habits / feel better; 3. rain /
not go for a walk; 4. have free time / call you; 5. you be late / he get angry;
6. practice every day / be a winner; 7. get ready for exams / pass successfully;
8. not cook / be hungry

Упражнение 4. Раскройте скобки таким образом, чтобы предложения выражали:


а) реальное условие (First Conditionals); b) нереальное условие (Second
Conditionals).
1. If I … (to speak) Spanish, I … (to visit) Mexico. 2. If the questions … (to be)
easy, all of us … (to pass) the test. 3. If he … (to have) enough money, he … (to
buy) a large house. 4. We … (to be) pleased to see you if you … (to arrive).
5. They … (to help) her if she … (to ask) them. 6. If he … (to try) hard, he …
(to succeed). 7. If I … (to go) to London, I … (to see) the Tower of London.
8. If you … (not hurry), you … (to miss) the train. 9. If you … (to want) to live
abroad, you … (to have) to learn the language. 10. If he … (to drop) his studies,
he … (not get) his certificate.

Упражнение 5. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях 2 типа, поставив


глаголы в правильную форму.
1. If you … (to be) more attentive, you … (not make) so many mistakes. 2. If
you … (to go) to bed earlier, you … (to get) enough sleep. 3. If we … (to have)
more time, we … (to communicate) more often. 4. If you … (to learn) a foreign
language, you … (to have) more opportunities. 5. I … (to help) you if you …
(to trust) me more. 6. If I … (to be) in your position, I … (to stay) at home.

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7. They … (to know) English better if they … (to learn) new words and
grammar rules. 8. If I … (to be) him, I … (to tell) the truth. 9. If I … (to be)
you, I … (not worry) about it. 10. His car … (to be) a lot safer if he … (to buy)
some new tires.

Упражнение 6. Выберете подходящую форму глагола в каждом предложении,


обращая внимание на употребление условных предложений 2 типа.
1. A mother (would have sent / would send) her child to the camp if she (has /
had) the opportunity to do it. 2. If it (costs / cost) not so much, I (bought / would
buy) it. 3. If she (had / has) enough time, she (had cooked / would cook) dinner.
4. If we (would go / went) to this club, we (danced / would dance) all night.
5. She (was / would be) angry if you (lost / had lost) this photo. 6. If he (were /
was) rich, he (would travel / had travelled) a lot. 7. If I (was / were) you I
(would call / called) her. 8. He (wouldn’t / didn’t) live here if he (had / would
have) his own flat. 9. They (would go / went) to the cinema if they (didn’t /
hadn’t) study. 10. She (went / would go) to bed if she (didn’t / wouldn’t) work at
night.

Упражнение 7. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Объясните


употребление условных предложений 3 типа.
1. She would have succeeded if she had heard his advice. 2. I would have
forgiven him if he had told me the truth. 3. If you had asked me, I would have
helped you. 4. If he had known her phone number, he would have called her.
5. They wouldn’t have been late if they had taken a taxi. 6. She wouldn’t have
worked in the café if she had graduated from the university. 7. If she hadn’t
made a mistake, we would have won. 8. If they hadn’t helped us, we would have
failed our exams. 9. If I had told her the way, she wouldn’t have got lost. 10. If
you had read that book, you would have known the answer.

Упражнение 8. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях 3 типа (Third


Conditionals), поставив глаголы в правильную форму.
1. If they … (to give) more money to the factory, it … (not close). 2. If mankind
… (to take) care of nature, there … (to be) less ecological problems. 3. If Sam
… (to know) the right answer, he … (to get) better marks. 4. If she … (to study)
harder, she … (to be) one of the best students in her group. 5. If she … (to tell)
me she didn’t like horror films, we … (to go) to a comedy. 6. If she … (to
prepare) for exams, she … (to pass) them. 7. If he … (to see) the map, he … (not
/ to lose) his way. 8. If you … (to agree) to go with me to Paris, you … (to see)
the Eiffel Tower too. 9. The device … (not / to break) if you … (to notice)
defects earlier. 10. If we … (not / to open) the windows, it … (to be) stuffy in
the room.

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Упражнение 9. Напишите цепочку рассуждений о жизни Анны, используя
условные предложения 3 типа.
Например: If Ann hadn’t gone to France for a holiday, she wouldn’t have met a nice
guy Tom. (Если бы Анна не поехала в отпуск во Францию, она бы не встретила
там хорошего парня Тома.)
Ann went to France for a holiday – met a nice guy Tom there – fell in love with
him – got married – stayed in Paris – started learning French – found a good job
there – earned much money – became happy and successful

Упражнение 10. Найдите к каждому началу предложения его окончание.


Обратите внимание на употребление условных предложений 1, 2, 3 типа.
Переведите получившиеся предложения.
1. You could have done much better in a. if I were you.
the exam …
2. She will put this dress on … b. if she had spoken Japanese quite
well.
3. If I were you … c. if you come.
4. I will watch this film … d. we could have gone horse-riding.
5. She would have gone to Japan last e. I would travel around the world.
summer …
6. If it rains much… f. I would have got wet.
7. If I were a rich man … g. if she loses weight.
8. If I hadn’t taken an umbrella … h. if it is interesting.
9. If I had an opportunity … i. if you had read more.
10. I would call him … j. I would study harder.
11. We will meet tomorrow … k. the flowers will grow fast.
12. If the weather had been nice … l. I would help the poor.

Упражнение 11. Переведите условные предложения 1, 2, 3 типа с русского


языка на английский.
1. Если бы у меня был отпуск сейчас, я бы поехал на озеро Байкал. 2. Я
посмотрю этот фильм, если он понравится тебе. 3. Если бы ты подписал
документы вчера, мы бы их уже отправили. 4. Если бы он не потерял
номер телефона, он бы позвонил ей. 5. Он был бы здоровым мужчиной,
если бы не курил. 6. Если я пойду в магазин, я куплю новый телефон. 7.
Если бы она училась усерднее в прошлом году, она бы блестяще сдала все
экзамены. 8. Если погода будет солнечная, мы пойдем на пляж. 9. Он
приедет вовремя, если выйдет из дома в 5 вечера. 10. Я знаю, он бы помог
мне, если бы у него сейчас было время. 11. Они не простудились бы, если
бы надели теплые свитера. 12. На твоем месте, я был бы благодарен. 13.
Если бы ты был отличным оратором, то в понедельник презентация

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прошла бы успешнее. 14. Если бы я заметил ошибки, результат был бы
лучше. 15. Рейс отменят, если будет дождь. 16. На твоем месте, я бы не
был так уверен.

Test yourself
1. Определите, что означает данное предложение – If it rains, the grass gets wet.
A. реальное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени
B. реальное событие, которое относится к будущему времени
C. маловероятное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени

2. Определите, что означает данное предложение – If you went to bed earlier, you
would not be so tired.
A. реальное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени
B. реальное событие, которое относится к будущему времени
C. маловероятное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени

3. Определите, что означает данное предложение – If you had studied harder, you
would have passed the exam.
A. нереальное событие, которое относится к прошедшему времени
B. реальное событие, которое относится к будущему времени
C. маловероятное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени

4. Определите, что означает данное предложение – If you don’t hurry, you will
miss the train.
A. нереальное событие, которое относится к прошедшему времени
B. реальное событие, которое относится к будущему времени
C. маловероятное событие, которое относится к настоящему времени

5. Какой тип условных предложений указывает на научные факты, законы


природы, общепринятые или очевидные утверждения.
A. нулевой тип
B. первый тип
C. второй тип

6. Найдите условное предложение 0 типа.


A. If I were you, I wouldn’t miss that chance.
B. If you heat water, it boils and turns to steam.
C. If I decide to join you at the party, I’ll let you know.

7. Найдите условное предложение 1 типа.


A. If you heat ice, it melts.
B. If it rains today, you will get wet.

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C. If I spoke Italian, I would be working in Italy.

8. Найдите условное предложение 2 типа.


A. If she were younger, she would definitely climb Everest.
B. If I hadn’t been so busy yesterday, I would have phoned you.
C. If we miss the bus, we can catch the next one.

9. Найдите условное предложение 3 типа.


A. If I get his number, I might phone him.
B. If the weather was fine, we would go out for a walk.
C. If you had read that book, you would have learnt a lot of information.

10. Выберете правильный вариант – We would take a kitty if we … a dog at home.


A. don’t have
B. wouldn’t have
C. didn’t have

11. Выберете правильный вариант – If you heat plastic, it … .


A. melts
B. will melt
C. melt

12. Выберете правильный вариант – If we hurry, we … right on time.


A. were
B. will be
C. would be

13. Выберете правильный вариант – People … happier if they didn’t start wars.
A. would be
B. are
C. were

14. Выберете правильный вариант – If you … the lectures, you would have passed
that exam successfully.
A. didn’t miss
B. hadn’t missed
C. wouldn’t miss

15. Выберете правильный вариант – You’ll be late if you … up.


A. won’t hurry
B. didn’t hurry
C. don’t hurry

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16. Выберите правильный вариант – If you … to the party, I will be happy.
A. come
B. will come
C. would come

17. Выберите правильный вариант – When you sleep, your breath … down.
A. will slow
B. slow
C. slows

18. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – If you tidy up your room, you
will find your book.
A. Если бы ты навел порядок в своей комнате, то нашел бы свою книгу.
B. Если ты наведешь порядок в своей комнате, то найдешь свою книгу.
C. Если ты наводишь порядок в своей комнате, ты всегда находишь книгу.

19. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – If I have time, I usually go to the


movies.
A. Если у меня есть время, я обычно хожу в кино.
B. Если бы у меня было время, я бы пошел в кино.
C. Если у меня будет время, я пойду в кино.

20. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – If he tries hard, he will succeed.


A. Если он старается, он добивается успеха.
B. Если он будет стараться, он добьется успеха.
C. Если бы он старался, он бы добился успеха.

21. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – He would buy the car if he won
the lottery.
A. Он купит машину, если выиграет в лотерею.
B. Он купает машину, потому что выиграл в лотерею.
C. Он бы купил машину, если бы выиграл в лотерею.

22. Выберите правильный перевод предложения – he would have succeeded if she


had heard his advice.
A. Она бы добилась успеха, если бы послушала его совет.
B. Она бы добилась успеха, если бы не послушала его совет.
C. Она добьется успеха, если послушает его совет.

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ПОУРОЧНЫЙ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК

Lesson 1

§ 1. Глагол to be
Значение глагола to be – «быть, находиться». В отличие от других
английских глаголов, глагол to be спрягается (т.е. изменяется по лицам и
числам). В английском языке глагол to be никогда не опускается, поскольку
английское предложение имеет строго фиксированный порядок слов:
подлежащее (subject) + сказуемое (verb) + дополнение (object).
I am a doctor. Я врач. (Я есть врач)
The weather is bad. Погода плохая.
They are from Paris. Они из Парижа.
Глагол to be не требует вспомогательного глагола для образования
вопросительной или отрицательной формы. Чтобы задать вопрос, нужно
поставить глагол to be перед подлежащим. Для образования отрицательной
формы достаточно поставить отрицательную частицу not после глагола to be.
В разговорной речи отрицательная частица not часто сливается с
глаголом to be, образуя сокращения:
is not = isn’t
are not = aren’t
was not = wasn’t
were not = weren’t
will not = won’t
They aren’t students. Они не студенты.
He wasn’t in Moscow. Он не был в Москве.
She won’t be a singer. Она не будет певицей.
Также глагол to be может сокращаться, сливаясь с личным
местоимением:
I am = I’m
We are = we’re
He is = he’s
We will = we’ll
He’s at home. Он дома.
They’re abroad. Они заграницей.
He’ll be a scientist. Он будет ученым.

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Формы глагола to be в настоящем времени
Утвердительное Отрицательное Вопросительное
предложение предложение предложение
I am I am not Am I ...?
You are You are not Are you ... ?
He / She / It is He / She / It is not Is he / she / it ... ?
We are We are not Are we ... ?
You are You are not Are you ... ?
They are They are not Are they ... ?
He is happy. Он счастлив.
They aren’t angry. Они не сердятся.
Are you at home? Ты дома?

Формы глагола to be в прошедшем времени


Утвердительное Отрицательное Вопросительное
предложение предложение предложение
I was I was not Was I ...?
You were You were not Were you ... ?
He / She / It was He / She / It was not Was he / she / it ... ?
We were We were not Were we ... ?
You were You were not Were you ... ?
They were They were not Were they ... ?
He was happy. Он был счастлив.
They weren’t angry. Они не рассердились.
Were you at home? Ты был дома?

Формы глагола to be в будущем времени


Утвердительное Отрицательное Вопросительное
предложение предложение предложение
I will be I will not be Will I be ...?
You will be You will not be Will you be ... ?
He / She / It will be He / She / It will not be Will he / she / it be ... ?
We will be We will not be Will we be ... ?
You will be You will not be Will you be ... ?
They will be They will not be Will they be ... ?
He will be happy. Он будет счастлив.
They will not be angry. Они не рассердятся.
Will you be at home? Ты будешь дома?

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Функции глагола to be

1. Смысловой глагол
(be + предлог + существительное)
Перевод: находиться, быть
The book is on the table. Книга находится на столе.
Everything is in constant motion. Все находится в постоянном
движении.
2. Глагол-связка
(be + существительное, прилагательное, инфинитив или числительное)
Перевод: быть, являться, это или отсутствие перевода.
Существительное:
He is a student. Он – студент.
English is an international language. Английский является
международным языком.
Важно: При переводе словосочетаний типа to be of interest, to be of
importance, в которых глагол be стоит перед существительным с предлогом
of, следует использовать глаголы типа иметь, представлять, оказывать:
This work is of great importance. Эта работа имеет огромное
The program is of some interest. значение.
Программа представляет
некоторый интерес.
Прилагательное:
This statement is true. Это утверждение является
правильным.
The speed of an electric car was not high. Скорость электромобиля была
невысокая.
Инфинитив:
Our task is to raise temperature. Наша задача заключается в том,
чтобы поднять температуру.
То do this is to spoil the device. Сделать это значит испортить
прибор.
Числительное:
The number of participants is twenty five. Число участников (составляeт)
двадцать пять человек.
3. Вспомогательный глагол
Continuous Tenses (be + Ving)
Не is writing a new article now. Он пишет новую статью сейчас.

Passive Voice (be + V2/ Ved)


The article is written by our professor. Статья написана нашим
профессором.

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4. Эквивалент модального глагола
(be + to + V)
Перевод: должен
Не is to do the work well. Он должен сделать эту работу
хорошо.

§ 2. Оборот There + be
Оборот there + be употребляется в тех случаях, когда говорящий хочет
подчеркнуть факт наличия (отсутствия) какого-либо предмета или явления, а
не место, в котором находится. Оборот переводится словами «есть, имеется,
существует». Такие предложения строятся по схеме:
There be Подлежащее Обстоятельство
места
There is a table in the room.
There was a library in the new building.
There will be students there.
В составе оборота there + be слово there является формальным
элементом и на русский язык не переводится. По правилам предложения
переводятся с конца с обстоятельства места:
There are a few students in the В классе (есть) несколько
classroom. студентов.
Если обстоятельства места нет, при переводе предложение начинается со
слов есть, имеется, существует и т. п.:
There are some books to be read. Есть несколько книг, которые нужно
прочесть.
В составе оборота there + be вспомогательный глагол to be всегда
выражен формой 3-го лица: is, was (в единственном числе), are, were (во
множественном числе), will be (в единственном и множественном числе).
Прошедшее
Число Настоящее время Будущее время
время
Единственное There is There was There will be
Множественное There are There were There will be
Если в предложении есть несколько подлежащих, то глагол to be обычно
согласуется с подлежащим, следующим непосредственно за оборотом:
There is a table and five chairs in the В комнате стол и пять стульев.
room.
There are five chairs and a table in the В комнате пять стульев и стол.
room.

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При образовании вопросительной формы глагол to be ставится перед
словом there. Краткий утвердительный ответ на такой вопрос состоит из
слова Yes (да), за которым следуют there и глагол to be в соответствующей
форме.
Краткий отрицательный ответ состоит из слова No (нет), за которым
следуют there и глагол to be в соответствующей форме с отрицательной
частицей not:
Were there many mistakes in his В его домашней работе было много
homework? – Yes, there were. ошибок? – Да.
Are there any tables in the hall? – No, В зале есть столы? – Нет.
there are not.
При постановке вопроса к определению подлежащего используются
вопросительные слова how many, how much (сколько) и вопросительное
местоимение what, которые предшествуют подлежащему:
How much money was there in your Сколько денег было у вас в сумке?
bag?
What books were there on your table? Какие книги лежали на вашем столе?
Отрицательная форма может строиться двумя способами:
1. С помощью частицы not;
2. С помощью местоимения no.
Если после not идет исчисляемое существительное в единственном
числе, перед ним стоит неопределенный артикль:
There isn’t a chair here. Здесь нет стула.
Если после not идет исчисляемое существительное во множественном
числе или неисчисляемое существительное, то добавляется местоимение any
– not any:
There aren’t any chairs here. Здесь нет стульев.
There isn’t any oil here. Здесь нет нефти.
После no идет существительное без артикля или местоимения any:
There is no chair (chairs) in the room. В комнате нет стула (стульев).

§ 3. Порядок слов в утвердительном предложении

В каждом английском предложении есть два обязательных элемента:


подлежащее – главное действующее лицо предложения (отвечает на вопрос
«кто?», «что?»), сказуемое – то, что делает подлежащее (отвечает на вопрос
«что делать?»).
Подлежащее может выражаться местоимением (я, ты, они, все и т. д.)
или существительным (мама, кот, работа, яблоко и т. д.). Как правило, оно
стоит на первом месте в предложении. Сказуемое выражается глаголом

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(идти, писать, думать, падать и т. д.) и следует за подлежащим, то есть стоит
на втором месте в предложении:
(Кто?) Они (что делали?) думали. They thought.
(Кто?) Он (что делает?) читает. He is reading.
(Что?) Яблоко (что сделает?) упадет. The apple will fall.
Сказуемое показывает, что происходит, произошло или произойдет.
Английское сказуемое может состоять из двух элементов: основного глагола
– смыслового глагола, который показывает, что делает подлежащее, и
вспомогательного глагола – глагола, который помогает различать времена.
Дополнение стоит после сказуемого и отвечает на любой падежный
вопрос, кроме вопросов именительного падежа. Дополнение бывает прямым
и косвенным. Прямое дополнение отвечает на вопросы винительного падежа:
«кого?», «что?». Косвенное дополнение отвечает на все остальные
падежные вопросы: «кого?», «чего?», «кому?», «чему?» и т. д. Как правило,
в предложении сначала следует прямое дополнение, потом косвенное:
Я вижу (кого?) девушку (с кем?) с I see a girl with him.
ним.
Она читает (что?) книгу (кому?) She is reading a book to the children.
детям.
Определение стоит рядом с подлежащим или дополнением и описывает
его свойства, то есть отвечает на вопрос «какой?», «чей?»:
Я вижу (какую?) красивую девушку с I see a beautiful girl with him.
ним.
(Чей?) Мой (какой?) белый кот My white cat is sitting on the sofa.
сидит на диване.
Обстоятельство может находиться в начале или в конце предложения,
сообщает «где?», «когда?», «как?», «почему?» произошло какое-то действие:
Моя мама (где?) дома. My Mom is at home.
(Когда?) Вчера я видел ее с ним. Yesterday I saw her with him.
Он вел себя (как?) по-другому. He behaved differently.

Порядок слов в утвердительном предложении


Прямой порядок слов в английском предложении выглядит следующим
образом: 1. Подлежащее на первом месте; 2. Сказуемое на втором месте;
3. Дополнение на третьем месте; 4. Обстоятельство на четвертом месте, но в
некоторых случаях обстоятельство может стоять и на первом месте.
В английском предложении у основного глагола может появиться
вспомогательный глагол. Но вспомогательный глагол это часть сказуемого,
поэтому даже с ним порядок слов остается прямым.

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Обстоятельство Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство
(возможно с (возможно с
определением) определением)
Yesterday I learnt English words. ___

Вчера я учил английские ___


слова
___ My little sister will visit me in three days.

___ Моя младшая навестит меня через три дня.


сестра

§ 4. Типы вопросов

В английском всего 5 типов вопросов. Вопрос может начинаться с


вопросительного слова или вспомогательного глагола (кроме разделительных
вопросов), потом идет подлежащее, сказуемое, дополнение и остальные
члены предложения.
Тип вопроса Пример
1. Общий вопрос Are you at home? – Ты дома?
Do you go home? – Ты идешь домой?
2. Специальный вопрос Where are you? – Где ты?
Where do you go? – Куда ты идешь?
3. Альтернативный вопрос Are you at home or at university? –
Ты дома или в университете?
Do you go home or to the park? –
Ты идешь домой или в парк?
4. Разделительный вопрос You are at home, aren’t you? –
Ты дома, не так ли?
You go home, don’t you? –
Ты идешь домой, не так ли?
5. Вопрос к подлежащему Who is at home? – Кто дома?
Who goes home? – Кто идет домой?

Общий вопрос (yes/no question or general question)


Общими называются вопросы, на которые можно ответить «да» или
«нет», отсюда их название «yes/no questions». Такие вопросы задают ко всему
предложению, а не к отдельному члену предложения.

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Схема образования общего вопроса

обстоятельство
подлежащее

дополнение
сказуемое
Вспомогательный/
модальный глагол

Do you play football every day?

Can you do it? ----

Общие вопросы могут стоять в отрицательной форме, когда частица not


ставится сразу после вспомогательного глагола. Такие вопросы выражают
сомнение или удивление:
Don’t you know this rule? Разве ты не знаешь это правило?
Hasn’t he met Tom before? Неужели он не встречал Тома
раньше?
Aren’t they supposed to be at school? Разве они не должны быть в школе?

Специальный вопрос (Wh-question or special question)


Тип вопроса, который используется для получения дополнительной
информации, выяснения какого-либо факта или обстоятельства. На
специальные вопросы нельзя ответить «да» или «нет».
Специальные вопросы всегда начинаются с определенного
вопросительного слова (why, where, what, which, whom, whose и т.д.). После
вопросительного слова идет такой же порядок слов, как и в общем вопросе.

Схема построения специального вопроса обстоятельство


подлежащее

дополнение
сказуемое

Вопросительное вспомогательный/
слово модальный глагол

When do you play football? --

What can you do for me? --

Where are you going? -- --

Where was he -- -- yesterday?

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Альтернативный вопрос (alternative question)
Вопрос, который дает выбор между несколькими вариантами. Части
альтернативного вопроса соединяются с помощью союза or (или), первая
часть вопроса произносится с восходящей интонацией, а вторая – с
нисходящей. Такой вопрос можно задать к любому члену предложения.
Альтернативный вопрос может быть как общим, так и специальным:
Do you want some coffee, tea or just Ты хочешь кофе, чай или просто
water? воду?
Do Mark and Daniel live in New York Марк и Дэниел живут в Нью-Йорке
or in Washington? или Вашингтоне?
Will you buy this little black dress or Ты купишь это маленькое черное
those blue jeans? платье или те синие джинсы?
When did you arrive: on Sunday or Когда ты приехал: в воскресенье или
Monday? понедельник?

Разделительный вопрос (disjunctive or tag-question)


Особый тип вопроса, который состоит из повествовательного
предложения (утвердительного или отрицательного) и краткого общего
вопроса. Такие вопросы требуют ответа «да» или «нет». Если разделительный
вопрос начинается с утвердительной части, то вопросительная часть будет
cстоять в отрицательной форме. Если разделительный вопрос начинается с
повествовательной отрицательной части, то вопросительная часть будет
стоять в утвердительной форме. В вопросительной части такого вопроса в
качестве подлежащего всегда используются местоимения, повторяющее
подлежащее повествовательной части. На русский язык разделительная часть
переводится так: «не так ли?» / «не правда ли?» / «да?».
Способы образования разделительного вопроса в английском языке
1. Начало предложения Краткий отрицательный вопрос
утвердительное
He reads a book, doesn’t he?
His friend is German, isn’t he?
He will be an engineer, won’t he?
She sent him an invitation, didn’t she?
2. Начало предложения отрицательное Краткий положительный ответ
He doesn’t read a book, does he?
His friend isn’t German, is he?
He won’t be an engineer, will he?
She didn’t send him an invitation, did she?

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Вопрос к подлежащему (question to the subject)
Этот тип вопроса в английском языке задается к подлежащему и
содержит вопросительное слово. Обычно это Who, Whose, Whom, What и т.д.
Особенность заключается в том, что такое вопросительное предложение
имеет прямой порядок слов и не нуждается во вспомогательных глаголах.
Есть лишь один нюанс – в настоящем времени прибавляем окончание –s к
глаголу.
Общая схема построения вопроса к подлежащему
Вопросительное сказуемое дополнение обстоятельство
слово
Who invites guests for the party?
Who is making a test? --
What happened to them? --

Ответы на вопросы
Вопросительное предложение и ответ на него всегда взаимосвязаны:
форма ответа определяется самим вопросом и его типом. В ответе
используется то же грамматическое время, что и в вопросе.
Если это общий или разделительный вопрос, то он требует
отрицательного или положительного ответа. Часто в кратком ответе
используется только вспомогательный или модальный глагол без
смыслового:
Did you like this book? – Yes, I did. Тебе понравилась эта книга? – Да,
понравилась.
Do you read newspapers? – Yes, I do. Ты читаешь газеты? – Да, читаю.
Are you hungry? – No, I’m not. Ты голоден? – Нет, не голоден.
Kate doesn’t want to go with us, does Кейт не хочет пойти с нами, ведь
she? – No, I don’t think she wants. так? – Нет, я не думаю, что она
хочет.
Если это специальный или альтернативный вопрос, то в ответе надо
дать конкретную информацию о том, о чем спрашивают:
Who was that? – It was me. Кто это был? – Это был я.
Where do your friends live? – They live Где они живут? – Они живут в этом
in this small house. маленьком доме.
Did you watch this movie yesterday or Ты смотрел этот фильм вчера или в
on Sunday? – I watched it on Sunday. воскресенье? – Я посмотрел его в
воскресенье.

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Lesson 2

§ 5. Местоимения в английском языке


Слово, обозначающее предмет или признак предмета, но не называющее
его, является местоимением. Местоимения делятся на несколько групп,
каждая из которых имеет свои собственные грамматические характеристики.

Личные местоимения (Personal pronouns)


Личные местоимения в английском языке бывают двух видов:
субъектные (subject pronouns) и объектные (object pronouns). Субъектные
выступают подлежащим (subject) в предложении и отвечают на вопросы
кто? что? Объектные выступают дополнением (object) и отвечают на
вопросы падежей: кого? чего? кому? чему? кем? чем?

Субъектные местоимения
Единственное число Множественное число
1-е лицо I я we мы
2-е лицо you ты you вы
3-е лицо he он
she она they они
it оно
Местоимение “I” всегда пишется с большой буквы. Местоимение “they”
употребляется как в отношении одушевленных, так и неодушевленных
предметов. Местоимения “he / she” употребляются в отношении
одушевленных лиц; “it” – в отношении неодушевленных предметов,
абстрактных понятий и животных. Местоимение it также может
использоваться по отношению к людям, когда говорящий пытается
установить личность собеседника:

It was John I gave the book to, not Я дал книгу Джону, а не Гарри.
Harry.
Is that your sister? – No, it isn’t. Это твоя сестра? – Нет, это не она.
Объектные местоимения (Object pronouns)
Главная отличительная особенность объектных местоимений от
субъектных заключается в том, что первые никогда не будут являться
подлежащим в английском предложении. Данный тип местоимений
выполняет роль дополнения и никогда не отвечает на вопросы кто? и что?
Object pronouns, как правило, отвечают на вопросы кому? кем? о ком?
кого?
Личные местоимения и, происходящие от них, объектные местоимения

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Личные
Объектные местоимения
местоимения
I me меня, мне, мной/мною, обо мне
тебя, тебе, тобой, о тебе; вас, вам, вами, о
you you
вас
he him его/него, ему/нему, его, им/ним, о нем
she her ее/нее, ей/ней, о ней
it it его/него, ему/нему, им/ним, о нем
we us нас, нам, нами, о нас
they them их/них, им, ими/ними, о них
I don’t know what to tell him. Я не знаю, что сказать ему.
They didn’t want to listen to her. Они не хотели слушать ее.
Last Monday this man helped us with В прошлый понедельник этот
luggage. мужчина помог нам с багажом.
Where did you see them? Где вы их видели?
This book is exciting. I really enjoyed it.
Эта книга захватывающая. Я
действительно насладился ей.
When I entered the room I saw her near Когда я вошел в комнату, я увидел ее
the window. She looked at me and возле окна. Она посмотрела на меня и
smiled. улыбнулась.

Притяжательные местоимения (Possessive pronouns)


Притяжательные местоимения в английском языке выражают
принадлежность и отвечают на вопрос «Чей?». Притяжательные местоимения
могут принимать относительную и абсолютную формы.
Притяжательные местоимения
Относительная форма Абсолютная форма Перевод
my mine мой
your yours твой
his his его
her hers ее
it its его / ее
our ours наш
their theirs их
Относительная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется в
сочетании со словом, к которому относится, обычно c существительным.
Такая форма местоимения выполняет в предложении функцию определения.
Притяжательные местоимения в относительной форме также иногда
называются притяжательными прилагательными (Possessive Adjectives).
My friends will come soon. Мои друзья скоро придут.
Where is your family? Где твоя семья?

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His ideas are not new. Его идеи не новы.
Their daughter is beautiful. Их дочь красивая.
Английские притяжательные местоимения не переводятся на русский
язык, когда они сочетаются с существительными, обозначающими части тела
или личные вещи обладателя.
Mark came in with his coat in his hands. Марк вошел, держа плащ в руках.
Kate braided her hair. Кейт заплела волосы в косу.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется
самостоятельно, без последующего существительного. Такая форма
выступает в предложении в функции подлежащего, именной части
сказуемого или дополнения.
These are not my books. Mine were on Это не мои книги. Мои лежали на
the table. столе. (Mine – подлежащее)
Whose shoes are these? - They are hers. Чья это обувь? - Ее. (Hers – именная
часть сказуемого)
Mike’s flat is smaller than yours. Квартира Майка меньше твоей.
(Yours – дополнение)
В русском языке есть универсальное слово «свой», которое мы просто
изменяем по числам и лицам. На английский язык слова «свой», «свои»,
«свое» надо переводить как «мой», «наши», «его»/«ее», соответственно.

Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative pronouns)


Единственное число Множественное число
this – этот, эта, это these – эти
that – тот, та, то those – те
Указательные местоимения this и these
This употребляется с существительными в единственном числе,
местоимение these – с существительными во множественном числе. Эти
местоимения нужно употреблять в следующих случаях:
1. Когда мы говорим о людях или вещах, которые расположены рядом с
нами. Иногда в предложениях с this и these употребляется наречие here
(здесь), которое тоже показывает на близость предмета к нам.
This table is wooden. Этот стол деревянный.
These books belong to me. Эти книги принадлежат мне.
This girl is here and she is waiting for Эта девушка здесь, и она ждет вас.
you.
2. Когда ситуация происходит в настоящем или в будущем времени, мы
описываем эту ситуацию с помощью this / these.
We are going to meet this week. Мы собираемся встретиться на

206
этой неделе.
This month you are making a great В этом месяце ты делаешь огромные
progress. успехи.
3. Когда мы несколько раз говорим об одном и том же и хотим избежать
повтора.
I don’t want to discuss this but I have Я не хочу это обсуждать, но я
to. должен. (Это событие уже
называлось ранее, таким образом,
избегают повторения)
Look at this! He seems to be looking for Посмотри на это! Кажется, он
his keys. ищет свои ключт. (Местоимение
указывает на ситуацию, описанную
во втором предложении)
This is the main goal in my life. Это главная цель в моей жизни.
4. Когда мы знакомим людей или представляемся в телефонном
разговоре.
Jim, these are my brothers, Tom and Джим, это мои братья, Том и Карл.
Carl.
Hello! This is Kate speaking! Can I Привет. Это Кейт. Я могу
speak to Mary? поговорить с Мэри?

Указательные местоимения that и those


Указательное местоимение that употребляется с существительными в
единственном числе, местоимение those – с существительными во
множественном. Эти местоимения нужно употреблять в следующих случаях:
1. Когда речь идет о людях или вещах, расположенных далеко от нас.
Иногда в предложениях с указательными местоимениями that и those
используется наречие there (там).
I don’t like this piece of cake. Give me Мне не нравится этот кусок торта.
that one, please. Дай мне тот, пожалуйста.
Those ships are too far. I can’t see their Те корабли слишком далеко. Я не
names. вижу их названий.
Look at that! There’s a camel. Посмотри туда! Вон там верблюд.
2. Когда речь идет о ситуации, имевшей место в прошлом.
Those days people didn’t have cars. В те времена у людей не было машин.
We made only four kilometers that day. В тот день мы прошли только
четыре километра.

207
Вопросительные местоимения (Interrogative pronouns)
К вопросительным местоимениям в английском языке относятся
местоимения who – кто, what – что, какой, whose – чей, which – который,
какой. Они указывают на лицо, предмет, признак или число, о которых
задается вопрос.
Вопросительное местоимение who (whom)
Английское вопросительное местоимение who имеет два падежа:
именительный падеж и объектный падеж.
Местоимение who в именительном падеже употребляется в следующих
функциях:
1. В функции подлежащего (сочетается с глаголами в единственном
числе, как и в русском языке);
2. В функции именной части сказуемого (глагол-связка to be согласуется
в числе с подлежащим).
Who has done it? Кто это сделал? (в функции
подлежащего)
Who is he? He is Mr. Rogers. Кто он? Он – мистер Роджерс. (в
функции именной части сказуемого)
Who are these boys? They are my Кто эти мальчики? Они мои братья.
brothers. (в функции именной части
сказуемого)
Местоимение who в объектном падеже (whom) употребляется в функции
дополнения:
Whom did you see there? Кого вы там видели?
Whom did you give your book? Кому ты дал свою книгу?

Вопросительное местоимение what и whose


Вопросительное местоимение what употребляется как местоимение-
существительное и имеет перевод «что», а также употребляется как
местоимение-прилагательное и имеет перевод «какой», «какая», «какое».
Если местоимение what и местоимение whose употребляются как
местоимения-прилагательные, тогда артикль перед существительным, в таком
случае не употребляется.
What has happened? Что случилось?
What books are you reading? Какие книги вы читаете?
Иногда местоимение what употребляется с предлогом, который обычно
ставится в конце вопросительного предложения.
What are you looking at? На что вы смотрите?
What are you talking about? О чем вы говорите?

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Вопросительное местоимение which
Вопросительное местоимение which переводится словами «который»,
«какой», «кто», «что», когда речь идет о выборе из ограниченного числа лиц,
предметов или явлений.
Which color is more popular for iPhone Какой цвет популярнее для iPhone 5:
5: black or white? черный или белый?
Which do you like more: skating or Что ты больше любишь: кататься
skiing? на коньках или на лыжах?
Which of you speaks French? Кто из вас (который) говорит по-
французски?

Lesson 3

§ 6. Времена группы Simple (Active)

Present Simple – простое настоящее время


Время Present Simple обозначает действие в настоящем в широком
смысле слова. Оно употребляется для обозначения обычных, регулярно
повторяющихся или постоянных действий, например, когда мы говорим о
чьих-либо привычках, режиме дня, расписании. Present Simple часто
употребляется со словами always (всегда), usually (обычно), often (часто),
every day (каждый день) и т.д.
Образование Present Simple

V1 (I, you, we, they)


V1 +(e)s (he, she, it)
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I play I do not play Do I play?
You play You do not play Do you play?
He / she / it plays He / she / it does not play Does he / she / it play?
We play We do not play Do we play?
They play They do not play Do they play?
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы в Present Simple образуются с
помощью вспомогательного глагола do / does. В вопросительном
предложении вспомогательный глагол употребляется перед подлежащим, а в
отрицательной форме – после подлежащего с отрицательной частицей not.
Do you study English? Вы изучаете английский?
Does he study English? Он изучает английский?
We do not study English. Мы не изучаем английский.
He does not study English. Он не изучает английский.

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Важно: Вспомогательный глагол do / does может стоять в
утвердительных предложениях. Тогда предложение приобретает большую
экспрессивность, глагол оказывается эмоционально выделен:
I do want to help you. Я на самом деле хочу тебе помочь.
Jane does know how to cook. Джейн действительно умеет
готовить.
Английский глагол во временной форме Present Simple совпадает со
своей начальной, то есть указанной в словаре, формой без частицы to. В 3-ем
лице единственного числа к ней нужно прибавить окончание -s: I work – he
works. Если глагол оканчивается на -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, то к нему
прибавляется окончание -es: I wish – he wishes. К глаголам на -y с
предшествующей согласной прибавляется окончание -es, а -y заменяется на -
i-: I try – he tries. Если же глагол оканчивается на -y с предшествующей
гласной, то -y сохраняется и добавляется только окончание -s: I play – he
plays.
Случаи употребления Present Simple
1. Регулярные, повторяющиеся действия:
I often go to the park. Я часто хожу в парк.
They play tennis every day. Каждый день они играют в теннис.
2. Действие в настоящем в широком смысле слова (не обязательно в
момент речи):
Jim studies French. Джим изучает французский.
We live in Boston. Мы живем в Бостоне.
3. Общеизвестные факты:
The Earth is round. Земля – круглая.
The Volga is the longest river in Europe. Волга – самая длинная река в Европе.
4. Перечисление последовательности действий:
We analyse what our clients may need, Мы анализируем, что может
develop a new product, produce a понадобиться нашим клиентам,
sample, improve it and sell it. разрабатываем новый продукт,
изготавливаем образец,
дорабатываем его и продаем.
5. Некоторые случаи указания на будущее время (если имеется в виду
некое расписание или план действий, а также в придаточных предложениях
времени и условия):
The airplane takes off at 2.30 p.m. Самолет взлетает в 14:30.
When you see a big green house, turn Когда вы увидите большой зеленый
left. дом, поверните налево.

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Past Simple – простое прошедшее время
Время Past Simple используется для обозначения действия, которое
произошло в прошлом и время совершения которого уже истекло. Для
уточнения времени совершения действия в прошлом при использовании
времени Past Simple обычно используются такие слова, как: five days ago
(пять дней назад), last year (в прошлом году), yesterday (вчера), in 1980 (в 1980
году).
Образование Past Simple

V2
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I played I did not play Did I play?
You played You did not play Did you play?
He / she / it played He / she / it did not play Did he / she / it play?
We played We did not play Did we play?
They played They did not play Did they play?
Для того, чтобы поставить английский глагол во время Past Simple,
нужно использовать его вторую форму V2. Для большинства глаголов она
образуется прибавлением окончания -ed: examine – examined, enjoy – enjoyed,
close – closed. Однако есть также достаточно большая группа неправильных
английских глаголов, которые образуют форму прошедшего времени не по
общим правилам, для них форму прошедшего времени нужно просто
запомнить.
В вопросительном предложении перед подлежащим нужно
использовать вспомогательный глагол did, а после подлежащего поставить
основной, смысловой глагол в начальной форме. В отрицательных
предложениях перед глаголом нужно поставить вспомогательный глагол did
и отрицательную частицу not:
Did he enter the university? Он поступил в университет?
I did not understand this question. Я не понял этот вопрос.

Случаи употребления Past Simple


1. Указание на простое действие в прошлом:
I saw Jeremy in the bank. Я видел Джереми в банке.
2. Регулярные, повторяющиеся действия в прошлом:
The old man often visited me. Старик часто меня навещал.
3. Перечисление последовательности действий в прошлом:
I heard a sound, looked back and saw a Я услышал звук, обернулся и увидел
huge cat sitting on the table. огромного кота, сидящего на столе.

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Future Simple – простое будущее время
Время Future Simple ссылается на действие, которое совершится в
неопределенном или отдаленном будущем. Простое будущее время в
английском языке обычно используется с обстоятельствами: tomorrow
(завтра), next year (в следующем году), in five years (через пять лет), in 2095 (в
2095 году) и т.д.
Образование Future Simple

will +V1
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I will play I will not play Will I play?
You will play You will not play Will you play?
He / she / it will play He / she / it will not play Will he / she / it play?
We will play We will not play Will we play?
They will play They will not play Will they play?
Для того, чтобы поставить глагол во временную форму Future Simple,
нужно использовать его начальную форму и вспомогательный глагол will. В
устной речи will чаще всего сокращается до формы ’ll, которая может
использоваться во всех лицах.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол will ставится
перед подлежащим. Смысловой глагол остается после подлежащего в своей
начальной форме. В отрицательных предложениях за вспомогательным
глаголом следует отрицательная частица not. Вместе они могут быть
сокращены до формы won’t:
Will we go to the library? Мы пойдем в библиотеку?
I will not go to the library. Я не пойду в библиотеку.

Случаи употребления Future Simple


1. Указание на простое действие в будущем:
We’ll return in 4 hours. Мы вернемся через 4 часа.
It will not be easy to convince him. Его будет нелегко убедить.
2. Регулярные, повторяющиеся действия в будущем:
I promise I’ll visit you every day. Обещаю, что буду навещать тебя
каждый день.
3. При перечислении последовательности действий в будущем:
I cannot wait for my vacation. I will go Не могу дождаться своего отпуска.
to the river, swim and fish every day. Буду каждый день ходить к речке,
купаться и ловить рыбу.

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§ 7. Времена группы Simple (Passive)
В английском языке выделяют два вида залога: действительный залог
(Active Voice) и страдательный залог (Passive Voice).
Действительный залог (Active voice) – действующее лицо само
совершает действие. Страдательный залог (Passive voice) – действующее лицо
испытывает на себе действие другого лица.
Действительный залог Страдательный залог
A student does his homework. – Homework is done by a student. –
Студент выполняет домашнее
Домашнее задание выполнено
задание. студентом.
He wrote a book. – Он написал книгу.
A book was written. – Книга была
написана.
They will send her a letter. – Они A letter will be sent to her. – Ей будет
отпрвят ей письмо. отправлено письмо.
Образование Simple Passive
to be + Participle II (V3)
The bread is baked every
Present Simple am / is / are + V3 morning. – Этот хлеб
выпекают каждое утро.
These rooms were cleaned
yesterday. – В этих
Past Simple was / were + V3
комнатах убрались
вчера.
Our dinner will be cooked
Future Simple will be + V3 by mom. – Наш ужин
приготовит мама.

Способы перевода страдательного залога на русский язык


Существует три способа перевода страдательного залога на русский
язык:
1. При помощи глагола «быть» + краткая форма причастия:
His books were translated into Russian. Его книги были переведены на
русский язык.
2. Глаголами, оканчивающимися на -ся:
Letters are delivered by mailmen. Письма доставляются
почтальонами.
3. Неопределенно-личным оборотом (этот способ перевода возможен в
тех случаях, когда в английском предложении не упоминается исполнитель
действия):

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They were taught French last year. Их учили французскому языку в
прошлом году.
Использование by в страдательном залоге
Если нужно указать, кем было сделано действие, добавляется предлог
by, который стоит в конце предложения, а после него идет действующее
лицо, которое совершает само действие:
This book was written by Jack London. Эта книга была написана Джеком
Лондоном.
Использование with в страдательном залоге
Если мы говорим об инструменте, с помощью которого совершено
действие, мы используем предлог with. Его мы ставим в конце предложения,
а после него идет инструмент:
The letter was signed with a pencil. Письмо было подписано карандашом.

§ 8. Функции и перевод it
Местоимение it выполняет в предложении разнообразные функции, от
которых и зависит его перевод.
1. Как личное местоимение в функциях подлежащего и дополнения. В
качестве подлежащего it переводится он, она, оно; в качестве прямого
дополнения – его, ее.
I have a book. It is interesting. У меня есть книга. Она интересная.
Read it. Прочтите ее.
I want to speak with you about it. Я хочу поговорить с вами о ней. (о
книге)
2. Как указательное местоимение (переводится словом это):
It is our new laboratory. Это наша новая лаборатория.
What is this? It is a table. Что это? Это стол.
It was a 5-kilometre run. Это был пятикилометровый пробег.
3. Как формальное подлежащее (на русский язык не переводится). Такие
предложения соответствуют русским безличным или неопределенно-личным
предложениям. В этой функции it употребляется в выражениях типа:
It is dark. Темно.
It is nine o’clock. Девять часов.
It is snowing. Идет снег.
It seems that … Кажется, что …
It is high time to … Самое время …
It is known that … Известно, что …
It is necessary to … Необходимо …

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4. Как формальное дополнение после ряда глаголов (to think, to
consider, to believe, to find и др.). В таких случаях it на русский язык не
переводится:
We find it necessary to repeat the Мы считаем необходимым
experiment. повторить этот эксперимент.
I consider it important to answer the Я считаю важным ответить на
letter at once. письмо сразу.
We believe it possible to take part in this Мы считаем возможным принять
discussion. участие в этом обсуждении.
5. В составе усилительной конструкции It is (was) … that. Такие
предложения переводятся на русский язык простым распространенным
предложением с добавлением слов именно, только:
It was this book that I wanted to read. Именно эту книгу я и хотел
прочесть.
It was only at noon that the travelers Путешественники достигли города
reached the town. только в полдень.
It is Petrov whom I want to send to the Я хочу послать в библиотеку именно
library. Петрова.

§ 9. Функции и перевод one


One может иметь следующие значения и функции:
1. Числительное. В этом случае one стоит перед существительным в
единственном числе, является его определением и переводится словом один:
I have only one dictionary. У меня только один словарь.
2. Неопределенно-личное местоимение. Обычно употребляется в
функции подлежащего. В этом случае one на русский язык не переводится:
One does not know how to act in such Не знаешь, как действовать в таких
circumstances. случаях.
One should be careful. Нужно быть осторожным.
One can read such a text without a Можно читать такой текст без
dictionary. словаря.
3. Заменитель существительного. One может употребляться для замены
ранее упомянутого существительного в единственном (one) или
множественном числе (ones). В этой функции one (ones) переводится либо
существительным, которое оно заменяет, либо не переводится:
You may take my dictionary. – Thank Вы можете взять мой словарь. –
you, I have got one. Благодарю вас, у меня есть (словарь).
Last summer I read many English books, Прошлым летом я прочитал много
and my friend read some German ones. английских книг, а мой друг -
несколько немецких (книг).

215
One может также употребляться после местоимений this, that, another,
the other для замены существительного в единственном числе, а после
местоимения which – для замены существительного как в единственном, так
и во множественном числе:
I have read this book, give me another Я прочел эту книгу, дайте мне
one. другую.
I will show you some books and you will Я покажу вам несколько книг, и вы
tell me which ones you would like to скажете мне, какие вы хотели бы
read. прочитать.
One в притяжательном падеже переводится местоимением свой:
One should never forget one’s promise. Никогда не следует забывать своего
обещания.

§ 10. Функции и перевод that


That может быть:
1. Указательным местоимением. В данном случае that стоит перед
существительным и является определением. Во множественном числе
употребляется слово those. На русский язык that (those) переводится словами
тот, та, то, те или этот, эта, это, эти:
That house was built in 1955. Тот дом был построен в 1955 году.
Can you repeat all those examples Можете ли вы повторить все те
which he gave at the lecture? примеры, которые он дал на лекции?
2. Относительным местоимением. В этом случае that стоит после
существительного, вводит определительные придаточные предложения,
заменяет which, who, whom и переводится который:
The girl that is reading the timetable is Девушка, которая читает
our student. pacписание, наша студентка.
You must know the abbreviations that Вы должны знать сокращения,
are used in technical articles. которые употребляются в
технических статьях.
3. Союзом дополнительного придаточного предложения. В этом случае
that стоит после глагола и переводится словом что:
He said that he would finish his Он сказал, что закончит свои опыты
experiments in a month. через месяц.
4. Союзом подлежащего придаточного предложения. В этом случае that
стоит в начале предложения и переводится словами то, что:
That he didn’t to take part in our То, что он не принял участие в нашей
conference surprised everybody. конференции, удивило всех.

216
5. Союзом сказуемого придаточного предложения. В этом случае that
стоит после глагола to be и переводится словами то, что:
The fact is that I can’t find this book Дело в том, что я нигде не могу
anywhere. найти эту книгу.
6. Частью усилительной конструкции It is (was) … that, где that не
переводится. Такие предложения переводятся на русский язык простым
распространенным предложением с добавлением слов именно, только:
It was you that said so. Именно вы так сказали.
It was the invention of radio that Именно изобретение радио
revolutionized the world. коренным образом изменило мир.
7. Заменителем существительного. That (those) переводится этим
существительным, либо совсем не переводится:
The efficiency of the new engine is much Коэффициент полезного действия
higher than that of the old one. нового двигателя гораздо выше КПД
старого.
We have received some new machine- Мы получили несколько новых
tools similar to those installed in your станков, таких же, как станки,
laboratory. установленные в вашей лаборатории.
Важно. Словосочетание that is вводит приложение и переводится то есть:
What do you know about the physics of Что вы знаете о физике атомного
the atomic nucleus, that is about nuclear ядра, то есть об атомной физике?
physics?

§ 11. Степени сравнения прилагательных


Имя прилагательное в английском языке имеет три степени сравнения:
1. Положительная степень (positive degree) – обозначает качество
предмета без сравнения.
This car is new. Эта машина новая.
This chair is comfortable. Это кресло удобное.
2. Сравнительная степень (comparative degree) выражает сравнение
между двумя предметами или действиями, другими признаками.
Сравнительная степень образуется с помощью суффикса -er или слова more
(более).
This car is newer than that car. Эта машина новее, чем та машина.
This chair is more comfortable than that Это кресло удобнее, чем то кресло.
one.
3. Превосходная степень (superlative degree) используется для сравнения
нескольких предметов, действий, из которых один выделяется больше
остальных. Эта форма указывает на высшую степень определенного

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признака. Превосходная степень образуется с помощью суффикса -est или
слова most с определенным артиклем the.
This is the newest car I have ever seen. Это самая новая машина, которую я
когда-либо видел.
This chair is the most comfortable. Это кресло самое удобное.

Односложные и двусложные прилагательные


Сравнительная степень односложных и двусложных прилагательных
образуется при помощи прибавления суффикса -er.
Превосходная степень односложных и двусложных прилагательных
образуется при помощи прибавления суффикса -est и определенного артикля
the.
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная Примеры
степень степень степень
cheap cheaper the cheapest My car is cheaper than
дешевый дешевле самый дешевый yours. – Моя машина
дешевле твоей.
My car is the cheapest. –
Моя машина самая
дешевая.
large larger the largest My house is larger than
большой больше самый большой yours. – Мой дом больше
твоего.
I need the largest size of
shoes – Мне нужен самый
большой размер туфель.
fast faster the fastest You must swim faster. –
быстрый быстрее самый Тебе нужно плыть
быстрый быстрее.
You were the fastest so you
won. – Ты был самым
быстрым, поэтому
победил.
narrow narrower the narrowest Streets here are narrower
узкий уже самый узкий than in Moscow. – Улицы
здесь более узкие, чем в
Москве.
Streets here are the
narrowest in this city. –
Улицы здесь самые узкие в
городе.
easy easier the easiest Sometimes it’s easier to
легкий легче самый легкий agree than to argue – Иногда
легче согласиться, чем

218
спорить.
He thought this was the
easiest way to get rich. – Он
считал это самым лёгким
способом разбогатеть.
Если односложные прилагательные оканчиваются на одну согласную
букву, перед которой стоит одна гласная буква, то перед суффиксами -er и -
est конечная согласная удваивается. Однако, конечная буква «w» не
удваивается: big – bigger – the biggest; low – lower – the lowest. Если
односложные прилагательные оканчиваются на немую букву «e», эта гласная
буква выпадает перед суффиксами -er и –est: сute – cuter – the cutest. Если
односложные прилагательные оканчиваются на гласную -y, перед которой
стоит согласная, -y меняется на -i перед суффиксами -er и -est. Но конечная
гласная -y не меняется, если перед ней стоит другая гласная буква: dry – drier
– the driest.
Многосложные прилагательные
Сравнительная степень многосложных прилагательных образуется при
помощи слова more (более).
Превосходная степень многосложных прилагательных образуется при
помощи слова most и определенного артикля the (the most – самый).
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная Примеры
степень степень степень
modern more modern the most modern Her new flat is more
современный современнее, самый modern than ours. – Ее
более современный новая квартира более
современный современная, чем наша.
They live in one of the
most modern cities in the
world. – Они живут в
одном из самых
современных городов
мира.
careful more careful the most careful You’ll have to be more
заботливый, заботливее, самый careful next time. – В
осторожный осторожнее заботливый, следующий раз вам
осторожный придется быть
осторожнее.
He is the most careful
driver. – Он самый
осторожный
водитель.
useful more useful the most useful It’ll be more useful
полезный полезнее самый полезный for you to spend time

219
outside. – Полезнее для
тебя будет проводить
время на природе.
It was the most useful
advice. – Это был
самый полезный совет.
Некоторые прилагательные образуют степени сравнения не по общему
правилу:
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная
степень степень степень
good better the best
хороший лучше самый лучший
bad worse the worst
плохой хуже самый худший
little less the least
маленький меньше самый маленький, меньше всего
many, much more the most
много больше наибольший, больше всех
far farther the farthest
далекий более далекий, дальше самый далекий, дальнейший
(о расстоянии) (о расстоянии)
further the furthest
дальше (о времени и самый далекий, дальнейший
расстоянии) (о времени и расстоянии)
late later the latest (о времени)
поздний, более поздний the last (о порядке следования)
последний самый последний, поздний
near nearer the nearest
близкий ближе ближайший (о расстоянии)
the next
ближайший, самый близкий
(о порядке следования)

Союзы сравнения и сравнительные обороты


Союз Пример
than – чем My son is younger than yours. –
Мой сын моложе вашего (= чем
При сравнении двух предметов неравного ваш).
качества всегда употребляется союз than,
который следует за прилагательным или
наречием в сравнительной степени.
as … as – такой же, как He is as old as my grandfather. –
Ему столько же лет, сколько

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При сравнении равных качеств используется моему деду. (= Он такой же
парный союз as… as… . Прилагательное или старый, как мой дед.)
наречие стоит в положительной степени.
not so … as – не такой, как Your house is not so big as ours.–
Ваш дом не такой большой, как
При отрицании равенства качеств двух наш.
предметов используется парный союз not so…
as. Прилагательное или наречие стоит в
положительной степени.
the… , the … – чем… , тем… . The more we read, the more we
know. – Чем больше мы читаем,
Употребляется с прилагательными или тем больше мы знаем.
наречиями в сравнительной степени.

Lesson 4

§ 12. Времена группы Continuous (Active)


Present Continuous – настоящее длительное время
Времена группы Continuous образуются по формуле: to be + Ving.
Данная группа времен указывает на процесс, который происходит в
определенный момент в прошлом, настоящем или будущем. Время Present
Continuous обычно указывает на процесс, который происходит
непосредственно в момент речи. На это могут указывать контекст или такие
слова, как: now (сейчас), at the moment (в текущий момент) и т.д.

Образование Present Continuous

am / is / are + Ving
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I am playing I am not playing Am I playing?
You are playing You are not playing Are you playing?
He / she / it is playing He / she / it is not playing Is he / she / it playing?
We are playing We are not playing Are we playing?
They are playing They are not playing Are they playing?
Для того, чтобы поставить глагол в форму времени Present Continuous,
требуется вспомогательный to be в настоящем времени (am / is / are) и
причастие настоящего времени (Participle I) смыслового глагола.
Личные местоимения и вспомогательный глагол часто сокращаются до
I’m, he’s, she’s, it’s, we’re, you’re, they’re. Причастие настоящего времени
(Participle I) можно получить, прибавив к начальной форме смыслового
глагола окончание -ing: jump – jumping; live – living.

221
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол выносится на
место перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол остается после него. В
отрицательных предложениях за вспомогательным глаголом следует
отрицательная частица not. Формы is и are при этом могут быть сокращены
до isn’t и aren’t соответственно.
Why are you laughing? Почему ты смеешься?
Are you using this dictionary? Вы используете этот словарь?
She is not reading now. Она не читает сейчас.
Radio isn’t working. Радио не работает.
Случаи употребления Present Continuous
1. Указание на процесс, происходящий непосредственно в момент
разговора:
The teacher is explaining a new Учитель сейчас объясняет новое
grammar rule now. правило по грамматике.
He is talking on the phone at the В настоящий момент он
moment. разговаривает по телефону.
2. Действие, находящееся в процессе своего развития, но необязательно
происходящее в момент разговора:
Are you still working in London? Ты все еще работаешь в Лондоне?
A scientist is investigating this Ученый исследует это явление.
phenomenon.
3. Описание повторяющихся действий с использованием слов always,
constantly, forever. Как правило, это относится к характерным свойствам и
поведению людей, часто с негативной окраской:
Why are you always interrupting Почему ты вечно перебиваешь
people? людей?
He is constantly complaining about his Он постоянно жалуется на своего
brother. брата.
4. Запланированное действие в будущем, часто с глаголами движения:
We are landing in Heathrow in 20 Мы приземляемся в Хитроу через 20
minutes. минут.
He is speaking at the conference this Он выступает на конференции этим
evening. вечером.
Важно: Английские глаголы, связанные с восприятием (to notice
замечать, to hear слышать, to see видеть, to feel чувствовать и т.д.),
эмоциями (to love любить, to hate ненавидеть, to like нравиться и т.д.),
процессами умственной деятельности (to think думать, to believe верить, to
understand понимать и т.д.), владением (to have иметь, to possess обладать
и т.д.) не используются во временах группы Continuous, потому что они сами
по себе обозначают процесс. Вместо них используется время Present Simple:

222
I hear you, don’t shout. Я слышу тебя, не кричи.
I love tea. Я люблю чай.

Past Continuous – прошедшее длительное время


Время Past Continuous указывает на процесс, длившийся в
определенный момент или период в прошлом. В отличие от времени Past
Simple, этот момент в прошлом должен быть назван прямо, например,
yesterday at 5 o’clock (вчера в 5 часов), when you called (когда ты позвонил),
when rain started (когда начался дождь)) или быть очевидным из контекста.
Образование Past Continuous

was / were + Ving


Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I was playing I was not playing Was I playing?
You were playing You were not playing Were you playing?
He / she / it was playing He / she / it was not playing Was he / she / it playing?
We were playing We were not playing Were we playing?
They were playing They were not playing Were they playing?
Для того, чтобы поставить глагол в форму Past Continuous, нужен
вспомогательный глагол to be (was / were) в прошедшем времени и
смысловой глагол с окончанием ing.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол выносится на
место перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол остается после него. В
отрицательных предложениях за вспомогательным глаголом следует
отрицательная частица not. Формы was и were при этом могут быть
сокращены до wasn’t и weren’t соответственно.
Were you sleeping when I called? Ты спал, когда я позвонил?
We were not playing chess when you Мы не играли в шахматы, когда ты
called. звонил.
In the morning our elevator wasn’t Утром наш лифт не работал.
working.
Случаи употребления Past Continuous
1. Указание на процесс, происходивший в конкретный момент времени в
прошлом:
I was sleeping when someone knocked Когда я спал, кто-то постучал в
at the door. дверь.

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Future Continuous – будущее длительное время
Время Future Continuous указывает на процесс, который будет длиться
в определенный момент в будущем. В отличие от времени Future Simple, этот
момент в будущем должен быть назван прямо: tomorrow at 4 o’clock (завтра в
4 часа), when we meet (когда мы встретимся) или быть очевидным из
контекста.
Образование Future Continuous

will be + Ving
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I will be playing I will not be playing Will I be playing?
You will be playing You will not be playing Will you be playing?
He / she / it will be He / she / it will not be Will l he / she / it be
playing playing playing?
We will be playing We will not be playing Will we be playing?
They will be playing They will not be playing Will they be playing?
Для того, чтобы поставить глагол в форму Future Continuous, нужен
вспомогательный глагол to be в будущем времени и причастие настоящего
времени (Participle I) смыслового глагола.
Личные местоимения и вспомогательный глагол часто сокращаются до
I’ll, he’ll, they’ll и т. д.
В вопросительном предложении will выносится на место перед
подлежащим, а be и смысловой глагол остаются после него. В
отрицательных предложениях после will ставится отрицательная частица
not. Вместе они могут быть сокращены до формы won’t:
Why did you bring an album? Will we Зачем Вы принесли альбом? Мы
be studying painting? будем изучать живопись?
I won’t be sleeping at 6. В шесть я не буду спать.
Случаи употребления Future Continuous
1. Указание на процесс, который будет происходить в определенный
момент в будущем:
At 7 o’clock we’ll be having barbecue, В семь часов у нас будет барбекю,
you are welcome to join. приглашаем зайти.

§ 13. Времена группы Continuous (Passive)


В английском языке выделяют два вида залога: действительный залог
(Active Voice) и страдательный залог (Passive Voice).

224
Действительный залог (Active voice) – действующее лицо само
совершает действие. Страдательный залог (Passive voice) – действующее лицо
испытывает на себе действие другого лица.
Действительный залог Страдательный залог
He is writing a book now. – Он пишет A book is being written now. – Книга в
книгу сейчас. процессе написания.
He was doing his homework yesterday Homework was being done yesterday at
at 4 p.m. 4 p.m. – Домашнее задание было в
процессе выполнения вчера в 4 вечера.
They will be reading books tomorrow in Books will be read tomorrow in the
the evening. – Они будут читать evening. – Книги будут прочитаны
книги завтра вечером. завтра вечером.
Образование Continuous Passive
to be + being + Participle II (V3)
An important experiment is
being carried out by one
am / is / are + being +
Present Continuous student. – Важный
V3
эксперимент проводится
одним студентом.
During the experiment the air
in the laboratory was being
purified by two ventilators. –
Past Continuous was / were + being + V3 Во время эксперимента
воздух в лаборатории
очищался двумя
вентиляторами.
Future Continuous Our dinner will be cooked by
Данной формы не mom. – Наш ужин
существует. Вместо приготовит мама.
will be + V3
нее используется
форма Future Simple
Passive

§ 14. Предлоги места и направления


Предлоги места в английском языке обозначают положение и
нахождение предмета/человека в пространстве. Обычно такие предлоги
отвечают на вопрос где?
Предлоги направления используются, чтобы показать направление
движения человека или предмета. Обычно такие предлоги отвечают на
вопрос где? куда? откуда?

225
Предлог Значение Пример
в пределах какого-либо in the kitchen (на кухне)
пространства, объекта или in London (в Лондоне)
in предмета in the book (в книге)
in the car (в машине)
in the world (в мире)
нахождение (у чего-либо, в, at the station (на вокзале)
при, на, за) at the table (за столом)
at the party (на вечере)
at
at the cinema (в кинотеатре)
может означать близость at the door (у двери, рядом с
объекта (рядом с, недалеко от) дверью)
на какой-либо поверхности, на the picture on the wall (картина на
чем-либо стене)
London lies on the Thames (Лондон
расположен на Темзе)
on the table (на столе)
on для обозначения стороны on the left (слева, на левой
(левая, правая) стороне)
на каком-либо этаже здания on the first floor (на первом
этаже)
со словами радио, телевидение on TV (по телевизору)
on the radio (по радио)
в непосредственной близости Jane is standing by / next to / beside
by, next to,
от кого-либо или чего-либо the car. (Джейн стоит рядом с
beside
машиной.)
под или ниже чего-либо The bag is under the table (сумка
under
под столом)
ниже уровня чего-либо The fish are below the surface
below
(рыба под водой)
положение поверх чего-либо Put on a jacket over your shirt
(надень куртку поверх рубашки)
движение поверх чего-либо fly over the ocean (лететь над
over
океаном)
поверх и через что-либо climb over the wall (перелезть
через стену)
выше чего-либо a path above the lake (тропа над
above
озером)
на другой стороне или на swim across the river (плыть через
across
другую сторону реку)
проходить сквозь, входить с drive through the tunnel
одной, а выходить с (проезжать через тоннель)
through
противоположной стороны
чего-либо
to в направлении кого-либо или go to the cinema (идти в

226
чего-либо кинотеатр)
go to London (ехать в Лондон)
into движение внутрь чего-либо go into the house (войти в дом)
идти в направлении чего-либо go 5 steps towards the house
towards или кого-либо, без достижения (пройти 5 шагов в направлении
цели дома)
движение к вершине чего-либо jump onto the table (прыгнуть на
onto
стол)
исходная точка, из, от a flower from the garden (цветок
from
из сада)

Lesson 5

§ 15. Времена группы Perfect (Active)


Present Perfect – настоящее совершенное время
Время Present Perfect обозначает действие, которое завершилось к
настоящему моменту или завершено в период настоящего времени. Часто
употребляется со словами already (уже), just (только что), yet (еще), since (с
каких-то пор), for (на протяжении какого-то времени), before (прежде) и т.д.
Образование Present Perfect

have / has + V3
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I have played I have not played Have I played?
You have played You have not played Have you played?
He / she / it has played He / she / it has not played Has he / she / it played?
We have played We have not played Have we played?
They have played They have not played Have they played?
Время Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
to have в настоящем времени (have / has) и причастия прошедшего времени
смыслового глагола, то есть его «третьей формы» V3.
Личные местоимения и вспомогательный глагол часто сокращаются до
he’s, they’ve и т. п. Причастие второе, или причастие прошедшего времени
(Participle II), можно получить, прибавив к начальной форме смыслового
глагола окончание -ed: examine – examined; enjoy – enjoyed. Однако есть также
достаточно большая группа неправильных английских глаголов, которые
образуют форму прошедшего времени не по общим правилам. Для них форму
причастия прошедшего времени нужно запомнить.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол выносится на
место перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол остается после него. В
отрицательных предложениях за вспомогательным глаголом следует

227
отрицательная частица not. Формы have и has при этом могут быть
сокращены до haven’t и hasn’t соответственно:
Have you seen this film? Ты смотрел этот фильм?
Has she come yet? Она еще не пришла?
I haven’t seen him since then. С тех пор я его так и не видел.
Случаи употребления Present Perfect
1. Если говорящему важен сам результат произошедшего действия, а не
время или обстоятельства:
I have been to Paris. Я был в Париже.
People have walked on the moon. Люди ходили по луне.
Если время события имеет значение, то нужно использовать время Past
Simple:
I went to Paris last year. Я был в Париже в прошлом году.
2. Если период, в который произошло действие, еще не закончился:
I have finished reading the novel this На этой неделе я закончил читать
week. роман.
В противном случае используется время Past Simple:
I finished reading the novel 2 weeks Я закончил читать роман две недели
ago. назад.
3. Для обозначения действий, которые начались в прошлом и
продолжаются до текущего момента:
I’ve studied Spanish since childhood. Я учил испанский с детства.
I haven’t seen my hometown for 45 Я не видел свой родной город 45 лет.
years.

Past Perfect – прошедшее совершенное время


Время Past Perfect обозначает действие, которое завершилось до
определенного момента в прошлом.
Образование Past Perfect

had + V3
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I had played I had not played Had I played?
You had played You had not played Had you played?
He / she / it had played He / she / it had not played Had he / she / it played?
We had played We had not played Had we played?
They had played They had not played Had they played?

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Время Past Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to
have в прошедшем времени и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового
глагола, то есть его «третьей формы» V3. To have в прошедшем времени
имеет единственную форму had.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол выносится на
место перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол остается после него. В
отрицательных предложениях за вспомогательным глаголом следует
отрицательная частица not. При этом они могут быть сокращены до формы
hadn’t.
Had you brushed your teeth before you Ты почистил зубы, прежде чем
went to bed? пойти спать?
I had not finished my work when he Я не закончил свою работу, когда он
came here. сюда пришел.
Случаи употребления Past Perfect
1. Действие, закончившееся до определенного момента в прошлом, на
которое может указывать точная дата или час, начало другого действия или
контекст. Этот момент может обозначаться обстоятельством времени с
предлогом by (by the beginning of, by the end of, by 5 o’clock) или другим
прошедшим действием в Past Simple:
He had written an article by the end of Он написал статью к концу месяца.
the month.
They had translated the article when he Они перевели статью, когда рн
came. пришел.

Future Perfect – будущее совершенное время


Время Future Perfect обозначает действие, которое закончится до
определенного момента или начала другого действия в будущем или будет
происходить после него.
Образование Future Perfect

will have + V3
Утвердительные Отрицательные Вопросительные
предложения предложения предложения
I will have played I will not have played Will I have played?
You will have played You will not have played Will you have played?
He / she / it will have He / she / it will not have Will he / she / it have
played played played?
We will have played We will not have played Will we have played?
They will have played They will not have played Will they have played?

229
Время Future Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
to have в будущем времени и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового
глагола, то есть его «третьей формы» V3. To have в будущем времени имеет
форму will have.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол will
выносится на место перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол вместе с
глаголом have остается после него. В отрицательных предложениях за
вспомогательным глаголом will следует отрицательная частица not. При этом
они могут быть сокращены до формы won’t:
Will you have read all these books by Ты прочтешь все эти книги до начала
the exam time? экзаменов?
Next year we will have been married for В следующем году мы будем женаты
30 years. уже 30 лет.
Случаи употребления Future Perfect
1. Действие, которое начнется и закончится до определенного момента в
будущем:
I will have done all my work by 7 К 7 часам я уже сделаю всю свою
o’clock. работу.
They will have covered 30 km by sunset. К закату они пройдут 30 км.

§ 16. Времена группы Perfect (Passive)


В английском языке выделяют два вида залога: действительный залог
(Active Voice) и страдательный залог (Passive Voice).
Действительный залог (Active voice) – действующее лицо само
совершает действие. Страдательный залог (Passive voice) – действующее лицо
испытывает на себе действие другого лица.

Действительный залог Страдательный залог


He has written a book. – Он написал A book has been written. – Книгу
книгу. написали.
They had read books by evening. – Они Books had been read by the evening. –
прочитали книги к вечеру. Книги были прочитаны к вечеру.
He will have done his homework Homework will have been done
tomorrow by 4 p.m. – Он выполнит tomorrow by 4 p.m. – Домашнее
домашнее задание завтра к 4 вечера. задание будет выполнено завтра к 4
вечера.

230
Образование Perfect Passive
to have + been + Participle II (V3)
An important experiment has been
Present Perfect have / has + been + V3 done. – Был проведен важный
эксперимент
An important experiment had been
done and fihished by 5 p.m.
Past Perfect had + been + V3 yesterday. – Важный эксперимент
был проведен и закончен к 5 вечера
вчера.
An important experiment will have
been done and fihished by 5 p.m.
Future Perfect will have + been + V3 tomorrow. – Важный эксперимент
будет проведен и закончен к 5
вечера завтра.

§ 17. Предлоги времени


Предлоги времени в английском языке могут указывать на точное время
или период времени и на время начала и конца действия.
Предлог Значение Пример
даты, дни недели on the 5-th of May (пятого мая)
on
on Monday (в понедельник)
месяцы, сезоны in August (в августе)
in winter (зимой)
время суток (кроме ночи) in the morning (утром)
in
годы in 2006 (в 2006)
через некоторый промежуток in an hour (через час)
времени
со словом night (ночь) at night (ночью)
со словом weekend (конец at the weekend (в выходные)
at недели, выходные)
точное время (в значении at half past nine (в полдесятого)
«Когда?»)
в течение, на протяжении during the night (в течение ночи)
during
какого-то периода времени
с какого-то момента в прошлом since 1980 (с 1980 года)
since
вплоть до настоящего момента
в течение какого-то промежутка We’ve had a lot of things to do for /
времени вплоть до настоящего over the last few months. (За
момента последние несколько месяцев у нас
for, over
было много дел.)
в течение какого-то промежутка We expect a rise in sales over the next
времени в будущем (for в этом few months. (В течение следующих

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значении не используется) нескольких месяцев мы ожидаем
увеличения продаж.)
ранее какого-то момента before 2004 (до 2004 года)
before
времени
указание минут, когда ten to six (без десяти (минут)
to
говорится время шесть)
past, после, позже (при указании ten past / after six (десять минут
after часа) седьмого)
при обозначении начала и конца from Monday to / till / until Friday (с
to, till,
периода времени времени, в понедельника по пятницу)
until
сочетании с from
указывает на конец периода He is on holiday till / until Friday.
till, until
времени (Он в отпуске до пятницы.)
не позднее, чем I will be back by six o’clock. (Я
вернусь до шести часов.)
by до какого-то момента времени By 11 o’clock I had read five pages.
(К одиннадцати часам я прочитал
пять страниц.)

Lesson 6

§ 18. Модальные глаголы


Модальные глаголы выражают не само действие или состояние, а
отношение к ним со стороны говорящего. С помощью модальных глаголов
можно показать, что действие возможно или невозможно, является
обязательным или не нужным и т.д. Модальные глаголы являются
недостаточными глаголами (Defective Verbs), так как они не имеют всех форм,
какие есть у других глаголов.
Особенности модальных глаголов
Особенность Пример
1. Не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице He can do it. – Он может сделать это.
ед. числа настоящего времени. He must go there. – Он должен пойти
туда.
2. Употребляются только в I must read it. – Я должен прочитать
сочетании с инфинитивом это.
смыслового глагола без частицы to You needn’t do it. – Вам не нужно делать
(кроме ought и иногда need), образуя этого.
составное модальное сказуемое.
3. Вопросительная и отрицательная Can you do it? – Ты можешь это
формы модальных глаголов сделать?
образуются без вспомогательного May I take a book? – Можно я возьму
глагола: в вопросительных книгу?
предложениях модальный глагол Must he go there? – Он должен пойти

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ставится перед подлежащим, в туда?
отрицательных – после него ставится You must not use computer for more than 6
отрицание not. hours straight. – Нельзя сидеть за
компьютером больше 6 часов подряд.
4. Не имеют формы прошедшего She could do it when she was three. – Она
времени (кроме can – could, may – умела это делать, когда ей было 3
might) и форм будущего времени, годика.
продолженного вида, перфектных He might go there. – Он мог пойти туда.
форм и форм страдательного залога. You had to do it. – Он должен был
Вместо отсутствующих форм сделать это. (have to – эквивалент
используются эквиваленты глагола must)
модальных глаголов.
5. Не имеют неличных форм
-----
(инфинитива, герундия и причастия).

Употребление модальных глаголов


Can
Глагол can имеет значение мочь, уметь и ряд других значений.
Прошедшая форма глагола can – could. Сочетание be able to (быть в
состоянии что-то сделать) с последующим глаголом в V1 является
эквивалентом глагола can и восполняет его недостающие формы.
Характерное значение Пример
способность What weight can he lift? – Какой вес он может
(физическая или умственная) поднять?
просьба Could (Can) I take your umbrella? – Могу ли я
взять твой зонтик?
запрет You cannot walk on the grass. – Нельзя ходить
по газону.
разрешение Can I try on that coat? – Можно я примерю то
пальто?
общая возможность; They can hardly lose one another in the crowd. –
вероятность Они едва ли смогут потерять друг друга в
(сомнение, недоверие и др.) толпе.
He cannot feel embarrassed. – Не может
быть, чтобы он был смущен, мы же ему всё
рассказали.
эквивалент – be able to I can do it = I am able to do it
(быть в состоянии что-то
сделать)

May
Глагол may имеет значение разрешения и возможности. Прошедшая
форма глагола may – might. Сочетание be allowed to и be permitted to (мочь,

233
иметь разрешение) с последующим глаголом в V1 является эквивалентом
глагола may и восполняет его недостающие формы.
Характерное значение Пример
разрешение (более официально) You may leave. – Вы можете идти.
предположение или Peter may come today. – Может быть,
возможность сегодня придет Питер.
большая степень неуверенности The weather might be better tomorrow. –
(употребляется might) Может, завтра погода улучшится.
упрек You might have carried my suitcase. – Мог бы и
(употребляется might) отнести мой чемодан.
эквивалент – be allowed to/be He may come = He is allowed to come
permitted to (разрешается)

Must
Глагол must имеет общее значение долженствования и употребляется
для выражения необходимости совершения действия в силу определенных
обстоятельств, а также для выражения морального долга, приказания или
совета. Глагол must имеет только одну форму настоящего времени.
Сочетание have to (должен в силу обстоятельств) и be to (должен в силу
запланированности действия) с последующим глаголом в V1 является
эквивалентом глагола must и восполняет его недостающие формы.
Характерное значение Пример
необходимость в виду личного I’m sure, that you must talk with your professor.
убеждения – Я уверен, что ты должен побеседовать со
своим профессором.
предположение They must be at the railway station now. – Они
наверняка должны быть на вокзале сейчас.
необходимость совершения Must we start this project? – Мы должны
действия (в вопросах) начинать этот проект?
категорический запрет Hunters must not go here. – Охотникам
запрещено ходить здесь.
эквивалент – have to / be to It was raining heavily and we had to stay at
(должен) home. – Шел сильный дождь, и мы должны
были остаться дома.
He is to take his exam in June. – Он должен
сдавать этот экзамен в июне.

Should
Глагол should выражает совет, рекомендацию. На русский язык
переводится, как следует, обязан.
Характерное значение Пример
моральное обязательство We should think about nature more often. –

234
Нам нужно чаще задумываться о природе.
совет и инструкции They should visit this city. It is very beautiful. –
Им следует посетить этот город. Он очень
красивый.
упрек, сожаление He shouldn’t have exceeded the speed limit.
(с глаголом во времени Perfect) Не стоило ему превышать скорость.

Ought to
Глагол ought to имеет значение, схожее с модальным глаголом should, но
употребляется значительно реже. Он имеет только одну форму и требует
после себя инфинитива глагола с частицей to.
Характерное значение Пример
необходимость в виду убеждения Everyone ought to take care of nature. –
третьих лиц, отражение Каждый должен беречь природу.
общепринятых истин
совет You ought to change this subject. – Вам
следует сменить тему.

Need
Модальный глагол need отличается тем, что может быть и достаточным
(иметь формы отрицания, вопроса и прошедшего времени), и недостаточным
(иметь только одну форму и требовать после себя инфинитив). Как правило,
недостаточная форма используется для указания на единовременное
действие, а полная – на повторяющееся:
Характерное значение Пример
отсутствие необходимости You needn’t buy mineral water, we have plenty. –
(в отрицательных Не надо покупать минеральную воду, у нас ее
предложениях) еще много.

сомнение (в вопросах) Need I go with you? I’m so tired. – Мне нужно


идти с тобой? Я так устал.

Would
Глагол would в качестве модального глагола может выражать:
Характерное значение Пример
вежливая просьба Would you open the window, please? – Не могли
бы Вы открыть окно?
вежливое предложение Would you like tea or coffee? – Вы хотите чай
или кофе?
привычное действие в прошлом When I was young, I would always go to the
beach. – Когда я был молод, я всегда ходил на
пляж.

235
догадки или предположения That would be Amy’s nephew. – Это, наверно,
племянник Эми.
упорное нежелание выполнять I asked him to do it but he wouldn’t. – Я его
какое-либо действие попросил сделать это, но он ни за что не
хотел.
присущее свойство (часто в Paper would burn. – Бумага хорошо горит.
технической литературе)

§ 19. Предлоги причины и цели


Предлоги причины и цели нужны нам, чтобы сказать, почему или для
чего произошло какое-либо действие.
Предлог Значение Пример
из-за He left because of you. Он уехал из-за
because of
тебя.
исходя из, по From his behavior, I understood he was
from nervous. – По его поведению я понял,
что он нервничал.
от, из-за, по The economy is the cause of the crisis. –
(как правило в Экономика стала причиной кризиса.
of
отрицательном
значении)
для, за, из-за I have bought him a cake for his
- для определенной целиbirthday. – Я купил ему торт для его
for
вечеринки.
- из-за или в результате
чего-либо We could hardly see for the mist. Мы
едва могли видеть из-за тумана.
из-за, благодаря She lost her final test through illness. –
through Она пропустила последний тест из-
за болезни.
из-за The match was canceled due to a bad
due to (с негативным оттенком) weather. – Матч был отменен из-за
плохой погоды.
из-за, благодаря I found the way thanks to your help. –
thanks to (с положительным Благодаря твоей помощи, я нашел
оттенком) дорогу.
в соответствии с In accordance to this contract clause, we
(по определенному have to deliver the goods on Sunday. – В
in accordance
правилу) соответствии с этим пунктом
with
договора, мы должны доставить
товар в воскресенье.
вследствие, из-за We couldn’t sleep on account of the
on account of (проблем или noise. – Мы не могли спать из-за
трудностей) шума.

236
Lesson 7

§ 20. Согласование времен


Характерная особенность английского языка заключается в так
называемом согласовании времен: время глагола придаточного предложения
зависит от времени главного предложения.
Если глагол главного предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем
времени, то глагол придаточного предложения остается в том же времени, в
каком он был в прямой речи:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
He says, “I know the answer” – Он He says that he knows the answer. – Он
говорит: «Я знаю ответ». говорит, что он знает ответ.
He says, “I saw him" – Он говорит: «Я He says that he saw him on Monday. –
видел его». Он говорит, что он видел его.
He says, “I am reading” – Он говорит: He says that he is reading. – Он
«Я читаю». говорит, что он читает.
Правила согласования времен часто используются для передачи
косвенной речи.
Правило согласования времен заключается в том, что если в
сложноподчиненном предложении глагол главного предложения стоит в
одном из прошедших времен (чаще всего в Past Simple), то и глагол
придаточного предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен или
во времени Future in the Past, то есть в придаточных предложениях не могут
употребляться формы настоящего и будущего времени глаголов, хотя речь
идет о действиях, которые совершаются в настоящем или будут совершаться
в будущем.
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
They told us, “We are going to the They told us they were going to the
library.” – Они сказали нам: «Мы library. – Они сказали нам, что идут
идем в библиотеку». в библиотеку.
She said: “I will try to get the highest She said she would try to get the highest
mark on the exam.” – Она сказала: «Я mark on the exam. – Она сказала, что
постараюсь заработать на экзамене постарается заработать на
лучшую оценку». экзамене лучшую оценку.

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Таблица согласования времен в английском языке
Время в прямой речи Время в косвенной речи
Present Simple play / plays Past Simple played
Present Continuous am / is / are playing Past Continuous was / were playing

Present Perfect have / has played Past Perfect had played


Past Simple played Past Perfect had played
Present Continuous was / were playing Past Perfect had been playing
Continuous
Past Perfect had played Past Perfect had played
Future Simple will play Future Simple would play
in the Past
Future Continuous will be playing Future Continuous would be playing
in the Past
Future Perfect will have played Future Perfect would have played
in the Past
Модальные глаголы can, may при согласовании времен используются в
формах could, might. Глагол must часто заменяется на had to, а модальные
глаголы сould, might, ought to, should, would не изменяются:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Mike said, “I can help you” – Майк Mike said he could help us. – Майк
сказал: «Я могу вам помочь». сказал, что он может помочь нам.
I thought, “I must do everything by I thought I had to do everything by
myself” – Я думал, «Я должен делать myself. – Я думал, что я должен
все в одиночку». делать все в одиночку.
The teacher said, “You may come in” – The teacher said you might come in. –
Учитель сказал, «Ты можешь Учитель сказал, что ты можешь
войти». войти.
Важно: Время в придаточном предложении может остаться без изменения,
если:
1. указано точное время:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
He told us, “I took part in the Moscow He told us he took part in the Moscow
Olympic games in 1980.” – Он сказал Olympic games in 1980. – Он
нам: «Я принимал участие в рассказал нам, что в 1980 году
Московских Олимпийских играх 1980 принимал участие в Московских
года». Олимпийских играх.
2. в сложноподчиненном предложении используются определительные
придаточные предложения, придаточные предложения причины,
результата, сравнения:

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Yesterday I bought a book that is Вчера я купил книгу, которая
believed to be a bestseller. считается бестселлером.
(определение)
Paul didn’t go to the party last night Пол не пошел на вечеринку прошлым
because he will have exams in two days. вечером, потому что через два дня у
него экзамены. (причина)
He studied so much last week that he Он так много учился на прошлой
still has a headache. неделе, что у него до сих пор болит
голова. (результат)
Charles traveled more last year than he Чарльз путешествовал в прошлом
does this year. году больше, чем в этом. (сравнение)
3. в сложноподчиненном предложении выражается определенная
общеизвестная информация, законы:
Newton proved that bodies attract each Ньютон доказал, что тела
other. притягивают друг друга.
4. описывается привычное часто повторяемое действие, чья-то
характеристика или также в политической речи:
The delegate said that people want Делегат сказал, что люди хотят
peace. мира.
I asked when the first train usually Я спросил, когда обычно
leaves. отправляется первый поезд.
We didn’t know hummingbirds can fly Мы не знали, что колибри могут
backwards. летать назад.
Все указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места в
придаточном предложении должны быть изменены по смыслу предложения:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
this —> that
these —> those
now —> then
today —> that day
tomorrow —> the next day
the day after tomorrow —> 2 days later
next week —> the following week
yesterday —> the day before
the day before yesterday —> 2 days before
last week —> the previous day
ago —> before
here —> there

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Прямая речь Косвенная речь
She told me, “I will come to see you She told me she would come to see me
tomorrow.” – Она сказала мне: the next day. – Она сказала, что на
«Завтра я приду тебя проведать». следующий день придет меня
проведать.

Вопросы в косвенной речи


В косвенной речи вопросы имеют прямой порядок слов, а
вопросительный знак в конце предложения заменяется точкой.
Общие вопросы вводятся союзами if и whether:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
I asked, “Have you seen my pen?” – I asked him if he had seen my pen. –
Я спросил: «Ты видел мою ручку?» Я спросил, видел ли он мою ручку.
He asked me, “Will you be here He asked me whether I would be there
tomorrow?” – Он спросил меня: «Ты the next day. – Он спросил меня, приду
придешь сюда завтра?» ли я туда на следующий день.
Краткий ответ на вопрос косвенной речи вводится союзом that без слов
yes/no:
Прямая речь Косвеная речь
She answered, “Yes, I do.” – She answered that she did. –
Она ответила: «Да». Она ответила утвердительно.
Специальные вопросы вводятся вопросительными словами:
Прямая речь Косвеная речь
He asked, “What is your name?” – Он He asked me what my name was. – Он
спросил: «Как тебя зовут?» спросил меня, как меня зовут.
He asked, “When did you see him?” – He asked when I had seen him. – Он
Он спросил: «Когда ты его видел?» спросил, когда я его видел.
Повелительные предложения в косвенной речи
Такие предложения используются со словами to say, to tell, to order, to
ask, to beg, а глагол в повелительном наклонении изменяется в форму
инфинитива:
Прямая речь Косвеная речь
Mom told me, “Clean your room.” Mom told me to clean my room. –
Мама сказала мне: «Прибери свою Мама сказала мне прибрать свою
комнату». комнату.
He said to me, “Don’t go there” – Он He told me not to go there. – Он велел
сказал мне: «Не ходи туда». мне не ходить туда.

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Lesson 8

§ 21. Причастие
Причастие – это неличная форма английского глагола, которая обладает
свойствами глагола, наречия и прилагательного.
Английские причастия делятся на причастие настоящего времени
(Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II).
Participle I имеет две формы:
– Present Participle Simple образуется при помощи окончания -ing,
отвечает на вопросы «что делающий?», «что делая?»: reading – читающий,
читая, resting – отдыхающий, отдыхая;
– Present Participle Perfect образуется при помощи having и третьей
формы глагола, отвечает на вопрос «что сделав?»: having written – написав,
having read – прочитав.
Participle II образуется при помощи третьей формы глагола, отвечает на
вопросы: «какой?», «что сделанный?»: opened – открытый, dressed –
одетый, made – сделанный.
Формы причастий
Participle Active Passive
Participle I asking being asked
спрашивающий, спрашиваемый
спрашивая
Participle I asked
----
спрашиваемый
Perfect Participle having asked having been asked
спросив (уже) был спрошен

Функции причастия в предложении. Основные способы перевода


Participle I в английском языке может выполнять в предложении
несколько функций и быть:
1. Определением (как и русское причастие), которое стоит перед
существительным или после него:
I saw her smiling face in the window. Я увидел ее улыбающееся лицо в окне.
The girl smiling to see her friends is my Девочка, заулыбавшаяся при виде
sister. друзей – моя сестренка.
2. Обстоятельством (образа действия, причины, времени). Причастие
в этой функции обычно стоит в начале предложения, то есть перед
подлежащим или следует за группой сказуемого. В данном случае перед
причастием могут стоять союзы when, while, if, though и пр. Причастие (с

241
союзом или без) переводится на русский язык или полным придаточным
предложением, или деепричастием:
Knowing English perfectly he was able Зная английский в совершенстве, он
to watch foreign movies. мог смотреть иностранные фильмы.
Crossing the road first look to the left. Переходя дорогу, посмотрите
сначала налево.
When crossing the road, first look to the Когда переходите (при переходе)
left. дорогу, посмотрите сначала налево.
Present Participle Perfect употребляется для выражения действия,
предшествующего действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым, и
употребляется только в функции обстоятельства:
Having finished the test he put down Закончив тестирование, он записал
the results. результаты.
Having done his homework he went for Сделав домашнее задания, он пошел
a walk. гулять.
Participle II в английском языке может выполнять в предложении
несколько функций и быть:
1. Определением, которое стоит перед существительным или после него:
The discussed problems are interesting. Обсуждаемые проблемы интересны.
They spoke of the problems discussed. Они говорили об обсуждаемых
проблемах.
The problems discussed at the Проблемы, обсуждаемые на
conference are interesting. конференции, интересны.
2. Обстоятельством (часто с предшествующими союзами when, if, unless):
Written in pencil, the article was Написанную карандашом статью
difficult to read. трудно было читать.
When asked, he looked at us and was Когда его спрашивали, он смотрел на
silent. нас и молчал.
If invited, I’ll go there. Если меня пригласят, я поеду туда.
They will leave, unless stopped. Они уйдут, если их не остановить.

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§ 22. Даты и время в английском языке

Даты
Правило Пример
1. В годах до 2000-го четыре цифры 1876 = eighteen seventy six
разделяются на две пары. 1542 = fifteen forty two
1984 = ninetten eighty-four
1985 делится на 19 и 85 и 1765 = seventeen sixty-five
произносится как «девятнадцать
восемьдесят пять» – nineteen eighty-
five
2. Такие даты как 1800 1800 = eighteen hundred
или 1900 читаются с использованием 1900 = nineteen hundred
слова hundred
3. Для обозначения одного нуля 1902 г. = nineteen oh two
используется oh 1903 г. = nineteen oh three
4. 2000 г. часто произносят с 2000 = two thousand
использованием слова thousand
5. Годы с 2000 по 2009, как правило, 2001 = two thousand and one
читаются следующим образом 2002 = two thousand and two
6. Начиная с 2010 г. мы можем 2015 = twenty fifteen / two thousand and
произносить даты или с fifteen
использованием слова thousand, как 2025 = twenty twenty-five / two thousand
two thousand and ten, или разделять and twenty-five
их на две пары чисел, как twenty ten.
7. Полные даты читаются с March 1 = the first of March
использованием порядковых 25. 12. 1973 = the twenty fifth of December,
числительных и предлогом of перед nineteen seventy–three
названием месяца
8. Мы используем предлог on, когда on Monday(s) (в понедельник(и))
говорим о дне или о дате. on 14 July 1972 (в июле 1972)
on my birthday (в мой день рождения)
9. Предлог in используется, когда in December (в декабре)
речь идет о длительных периодах in spring (весной)
времени. in 1972 (в 1972 году)
in the 16th century (в 16-ом веке)
in the past (в прошлом)
in the future (в будущем)

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Время
1. Слова a.m. и p.m. (от лат. «ante The match is starting at 4 p. m. –
meridiem» и «post meridiem») Матч начинается в 4 вечера (16:00).
обозначают время до и после полудня I usually get up at 7 a. m. –
аналогично русским «утра» и Я обычно встаю в семь утра (7:00).
«вечера»:
2. Слово o’clock используется только This happened at six o’clock. –
для обозначения целого часа (без Это произошло в шесть часов.
минут). Оно не используется вместе со
словами am/pm или после цифр «.00»
3. В большинстве ситуаций время The train departs at seven fifty-two. –
можно прочитать двумя способами: Поезд отправляется в 7:52.
<часы> <минуты> The shop will be closed at quarter to six. –
Магазин закроется без пятнадцати
<минуты> past/to <часы> шесть.
4. Past используется для обозначения I came here at quarter past nine.
части часа от нуля до 30 минут Я пришел сюда в 9:15.
(буквально значит «после»)
5. To обозначает время от 30 до 59 The plane takes off at ten minutes to
минут («до») twelve.
Самолет взлетает без десяти
двенадцать.
6. at + время при указании времени The bus arrives at midday (12:00). –
конкретного события Автобус отправляется в полдень.

Lesson 9

§ 23. Герундий
Герундий – это неличная форма английского глагола с суффиксом -ing,
соединяющая в себе черты существительного и глагола и несущая в себе
оттенок значения некого процесса: playing – игра; reading – чтение; walking –
прогулка.
В русском языке формы, аналогичной герундию, нет. Ближе всего к
герундию по смыслу в русском языке – отглагольные существительные с
суффиксами -(е) ние, -тие, -ка, -ство и др., а также глаголы в неопределенной
форме: singing – пение, петь; rubbing – трение, тереть; waiting – ожидание,
ожидать.
Герундий никогда не имеет артикля и формы множественного числа, и
этим он отличается от существительного. Различие между существительным
с окончанием -ing и герундием заключается в том, что существительное с -ing
обозначает предмет, а герундий передает процесс (-ание, -ение):

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Герундий Существительным с окончанием -ing
Finding a new method is the only way The findings were of great importance.
out. (герундий) (существительное)
Нахождение (чего?) нового метода – Эти находки имели огромное
единственный выход. значение.
Формы герундия

Tense Active Passive


Simple driving being driven
Perfect having driven having been driven
Формы герундия совпадают с формами причастия настоящего времени и
перфектного причастия. Simple Gerund выражает действие, одновременное с
действием глагола-сказуемого. Perfect Gerund выражает действие, которое
предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. На русский язык
герундий переводится существительным, неопределенной формой глагола,
деепричастием, глаголом в личной форме или придаточным предложением:
Функции герундия
Функция Пример
1. Подлежащее Reading gives you Чтение приносит вам
knowledge. знание.
His having read that article То, что он прочел эту
helped him with his term статью, помогло ему с
work. курсовой работой.
2. Часть составного Seeing is believing. Увидеть – значит поверить.
сказуемого
3. Дополнение He likes reading. Он любит чтение (читать).
(прямое, The teacher has aimed at Учитель поставил цель
предложное) teaching students to speak научить учащихся правильно
in correct English. говорить на английском
языке.
4. Определение The difficulties of rebuilding Трудности, связанные с
(с предлогом of) the plant were successfully перестройкой завода, были
overcome. успешно преодолены.
5. Обстоятельство You can help him by Вы можете помочь ему тем,
(с предлогами after, supporting him. что поддержите его.
before, on, at, in, by)

§ 24. Заглавные буквы в английском языке


Заглавная буква в английском языке используется в следующих
случаях:
1. В словах, начинающих предложение, независимо от части речи, к
которой относится это слово.

245
There is my house. Это мой дом.
Are you free tomorrow? Ты свободен завтра?
Yesterday I went shopping. Вчера я ходила за покупками.
2. Личное местоимение I (я) независимо от его места в предложении.
I want to visit this city. Я хочу поехать в этот город.
Next week I will come back. На следующей неделе я возвращаюсь.
3. Все имена собственные (имена и фамилии, названия семей, прозвища
людей, клички животных).
This is my friend Richard. Это мой друг Ричард.
The Browns are very friendly. Семья Браунов очень дружелюбная.
Know-it-all Jane. Всезнайка Джейн.
My cat Alex is very lazy. Мой кот Алекс очень ленивый.
4. Названия дней недели, месяцев и праздников.
We met on Sunday. Мы встретились в воскресенье.
I was born in January. Я родился в январе.
He likes Christmas. Он любит Рождество.
5. Названия континентов, стран, городов, улиц и площадей.
Oxford Street is one of the Europe’s Оксфорд-стрит – одна из самых
busiest shopping streets. оживленных торговых улиц Европы.
Lenin Square in Khabarovsk is the Площадь Ленина в Хабаровске –
second biggest square in Russia after вторая по величине площадь в России
Moscow’s Red Square. после Красной площади в Москве.
6. Названия рек, морей, океанов, гор и горных массивов, а также
названия планет и астрономических объектов.
The Black Sea affects the climate in Черное море оказывает влияние на
Crimea. климат в Крыму.
The Ural Mountains block air from the Уральские горы преграждают путь
west, from the European part of Russia. массам воздуха, поступающим с
запада, из европейской части России.
There are about a hundred billion stars В галактике Млечный Путь около
in the Milky Way Galaxy. ста миллиардов звезд.
7. Звания, должности и их сокращения.
We should call Dr James. Мы должны позвонить доктору
Джеймсу.
Have you seen Professor Smith today? Ты видел сегодня профессора Смита?
Let me introduce you to Mr and Mrs Разреши мне представить тебя г-ну
Spoon. и г-же Спун.
Once I have met Prince William in Однажды я встретилась в Лондоне с
London. принцем Уильямом.

246
8. Названия национальностей и языков.
Anna is French. Анна – француженка.
Americans are really proud of their Американцы очень гордятся своей
country. страной.
Susan can speak Arabic. Сьюзан может говорить по-арабски.
9. Исторические периоды
We watched a film about World War II. Мы посмотрели фильм о Второй
мировой войне.
10. Названия газет, журналов, заголовки.
The political views of The Washington Политические взгляды «Вашингтон
Times are described as conservative. таймс» рассматриваются как
консервативные.
The Economist ran a cover headline Журнал опубликовал заголовок,
reading “Indonesia at a Crossroads”. озаглавленный «Индонезия на
перепутье».
11. Приветствие и концовка в официальных письмах.
Sincerely yours Искренне ваш
Best Regards С уважением

Lesson 10
§ 25. Условные предложения
Условные предложения или придаточные предложения условия
(Conditionals) – это сложноподчиненные предложения, состоящие из главного
предложения (Main clause) и придаточного условия (if-clause), которое часто
вводится союзом if. Условные предложения используются для описания
реальных или нереальных ситуаций.
Zero Conditional – условные предложения нулевого типа
Этот тип показывает условие, которое всегда будет правдой: научные
факты, законы природы, общепринятые или очевидные утверждения. Обычно
предложения с Zero Conditional переводятся настоящим временем, поскольку
они всегда являются правдой.
Условие Результат

If + Present Simple, Present Simple


If the temperature rises above zero, snow melts.
Если t0 поднимается выше нуля, снег тает
If you heat water, it boils.
Если нагреть воду, она закипит.

247
First Conditional – условные предложения первого типа
Условное предложение первого типа называют еще «реальным»
условным, ведь оно показывает действие, которое с большой вероятностью
случится, если выполнить условие. Такие предложения описывают ситуацию,
которая произойдет в будущем времени.
При построении подобных предложений в русском языке мы используем
в условии и в результате будущее время, но в английском только в результате
будет будущее время, а в условии – настоящее.

Условие Результат

If + Present Simple, Future Simple


If you drink much coffee, you won’t sleep at night.
Если ты будешь пить много кофе, то не будешь спать ночью.
If the weather is good, we will walk our dogs in the park.
Если погода будет хорошей, мы пойдем выгуливать собак в парке.

Second Conditional – условные предложения второго типа


Этот тип условных предложений называется «нереальным настоящим».
Он показывает маловероятную или воображаемую ситуацию, которая
относится к настоящему или будущему времени. Такая ситуация обычно не
соответствует фактам в настоящем. То есть шанс того, что это действие
произойдет, невелик, но не исключен совсем.

Условие Результат

If + Past Simple, would + V1


If I were a billionaire, I would buy an island.
Если бы я был миллиардером, я бы купил остров.
If I lived in the countryside, I would walk in the forest every day.
Если бы я жил за городом, я бы гулял в лесу каждый день.
Обратите внимание на использование формы were для единственного и
множественного числа.
If I were you I would never do this. Если бы я был на твоем месте, я бы
никогда этого не сделал.

Third Conditional – условные предложения третьего типа


Третий тип называется «нереальным прошлым». Он выражает сожаление о
прошлом. Кроме того, его можно использовать, когда речь идет о хороших
событиях, которые произошли в прошлом и положительно повлияли на
настоящее.

248
Условие Результат

If + Past Perfect, would have + V3


If you had listened carefully, you wouldn’t have made mistakes.
Если бы ты внимательно слушал, ты бы не допустил ошибок.
If he hadn’t done precise calculations, he wouldn’t have made this discovery.
Если бы он не сделал очень точные он не совершил бы это открытие.
расчеты,

Сводная таблица
Как образуется
Тип условного Пример
Условие Результат
If a cat sees a dog, it runs
If + away. –
0 Conditional Present Simple
Present Simple, Если кот видит собаку,
Реальное всегда он убегает.
If I have a break, I will
st
1 Conditional have a cup of coffee. –
If + Я выпью чашечку кофе,
Future Simple
Реальное Present Simple, если у меня будет
настоящее или перерыв.
будущее
If I had vacation in
nd
2 Conditional summer, I would spend it
If + in Athens. –
would + V1
Маловероятное Past Simple, Если бы у меня был
настоящее или отпуск летом, я бы
будущее провел его в Афинах.

If we had taken a taxi, we


3rd Conditional wouldn't have missed the
If + Past would have +
plane. –
Perfect, V3
Нереальное Если бы мы взяли такси,
прошлое то не опоздали бы на
самолет.

249
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Орловская, И.В. Учебник английского языка для студентов технических


университетов и вузов / И.В. Орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева.
– 10-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М. : Изд-во МГТУ им. Баумана, 2009. – 448 с.

2. Основы технического перевода : учебное пособие / Министерство


образования и науки Российской Федерации, Ульян. гос. техн. ун-т; сост.:
Ю. В. Титова, Т. В. Капустина. – Ульяновск : УлГТУ, 2016. – 169 с.

3. English in Mechanical Engineering : учебное пособие / сост. : Ю.В.


Жукова, Н.Ю. Рогова; Министерство образования и науки РФ, Ульян. гос.
техн. ун-т. – Ульяновск : УлГТУ, 2017. – 176 с.

4. Martin Hewings: Advanced Grammar in Use with Answers and eBook.


A Self-study Reference and Practictice Book. – Third Edition. Cambridge, 2016.
– 296 с.
5. Raymond Murphy: Basic Grammar in Use – The third edition. Cambridge
University Press, 2017. – 272 с.

250
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