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Objectives:

1. To measure head loss in pipes for different water flow rates,pipe diameters and pipe
roughness.
2. To estimates the values of coefficient for pipes of different flow conditions,diameters
and roughness.
3. To study the effect of the velocity of the fluid,the size(inside diameter)of the pipe,the
roughness of the inside of the pipe on the values of loss coefficient.
4. To study the effect of sudden change in pipe diameter and flow direction on the total
energy or head losses in pipes.

Introduction:

Bernoulli's Equation relates the pressure loss in the pipe to a change in the average fluid
velocity. That equation is the fundamental equation for understanding general pipe flow. The
Reynolds number describes which flow regime is present in piping. It describes the
relationship that exists between the fluid's velocity and the density.Fluid flow in pipes
regarded as turbulent flow in which the head loss caused by friction can be determined from
the equation of Darcy-Weisback.
The head loss can also occur due to flow separation that occurs at the wall of the pipe when
the pipe cross-section of a sudden change such as the existence of expansion in the pipeline.
Theory

The frictional head loss (hf) depends on the type of flow, which can be laminar or
turbulent. In laminar flow, fluid flow in layers with orderly movement of fluid
particles while in turbulent flow fluid particles move a disorderly. Whether the flow is
laminar or turbulent is decided by a non-dimensional Reynold’s number Re which is
expressed as
Re= ρυDμ
Where ρ= fluid density, v=flow velocity, D= pipe diameter , μ= fluid viscosity
In pipes, the flow is laminar when Re<2000 and turbulent when Re>4000 with flow
transition taking place when 2000<Re<4000
For turbulent flow hf is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation,

hf = λLυ2D2g
where λ=friction factor, L=pipe length and g=acceleration due to gravity

For laminar flow,hf is determined by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation

hL=32μLV2γD2

Head loss in straight pipes


The head loss along a length L of straight pipe of constant diameter d, is given by
expression:
hL=2fLV2gd = f=hLgd2LV2
where f is a dimensionless constant (i.e. friction factor) which is a function of the
Reynolds’ number of the flow and the roughness of the internal surface of the pipe.

Head loss due to sudden changes in the area of flow


i. Sudden expansion – the head loss at a sudden expansion is given by figure
below
The expression is hL=(V1-V2)22g
ii. Sudden contraction – the head loss at a sudden contraction is given by figure
below

The expression is hL=KV222g


where K is a dimensionless coefficient which depends upon the area ratio as shown in
table below.

Table 1
d2/d1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
K 0.5 0.45 0.412 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.28 0.15 0.15 0.06 0

Head loss due to bends


The head loss due to bend is given by expression :
hB=KBV222g
where KB is a dimensionless coefficient which depends on the bend radius/ pipe
radius and the angle of the bends. It should also be noted that the loss given by this
expression is not the total loss caused by the bend but excess loss above that which
would caused by a straight pipe equal in length to the length of the pipe axis.
Head loss due to valves
The head loss due to valve is given by expression below
hL=KV222g
where the value of K depends upon the type of valve and degree of opening.

Head loss due to different type of flow


When laminar flow exists, the fluid seems to flow as several layers, one on another.
Because of the viscosity of the fluid, a shear stress id created between the layers of the
fluid. Energy is lost from the fluid by the action of overcoming the frictional forces
produced by the shear stress. As laminar flow is very regular and orderly, a
relationship between the energy loss and measurable parameters of the flow system
can be derived, that is Hagen-Poiseuille equation:
hL=32μLV2γD2
For turbulent flow of the fluid in circular pipes, it is most convenient to use Darcy’s
equation to calculate the energy loss due to friction. Turbulent flow is rather chaotic
and is constantly varying. For these reasons we must rely on experimental data to
determine the value of f.
Instead to calculate the friction loss in pipe, Bernoulli’s equation can be applied.
P1ρ1g+V122g+z1=P2ρ2g+V222g+z2

For a horizontal, constant diameter pipe the energy equation from point 1 to

point 2 is

P1 2g + V1 22g+ Z1 = P2g+ V 22 2g+ Z2 + hf

and since V1 = V2 = 0 and Z1 = Z2 =0

hf = ∆P γ

where

∆P = P1 - P2

g = weight density
hf = head loss due to friction

Also,

hf = f v2LD2g

where f is the friction factor

Figure :Graph of hL,theo and hL,exp versus Q sudden enlargement

Figure :Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for sudden contraction
Figure :Graph of Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for 90° bend.

Figure :Graph of Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for elbow

Figure: Graph of f theo and f exp versus Re(pipe 1A) for pipe 1A

Figure: Graph of f theo and f exp versus Re(pipe 1A) for pipe 1B