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1. To measure head loss in pipes for different water flow rates,pipe diameters and pipe

roughness.

2. To estimates the values of coefficient for pipes of different flow conditions,diameters

and roughness.

3. To study the effect of the velocity of the fluid,the size(inside diameter)of the pipe,the

roughness of the inside of the pipe on the values of loss coefficient.

4. To study the effect of sudden change in pipe diameter and flow direction on the total

energy or head losses in pipes.

Introduction:

Bernoulli's Equation relates the pressure loss in the pipe to a change in the average fluid

velocity. That equation is the fundamental equation for understanding general pipe flow. The

Reynolds number describes which flow regime is present in piping. It describes the

relationship that exists between the fluid's velocity and the density.Fluid flow in pipes

regarded as turbulent flow in which the head loss caused by friction can be determined from

the equation of Darcy-Weisback.

The head loss can also occur due to flow separation that occurs at the wall of the pipe when

the pipe cross-section of a sudden change such as the existence of expansion in the pipeline.

Theory

The frictional head loss (hf) depends on the type of flow, which can be laminar or

turbulent. In laminar flow, fluid flow in layers with orderly movement of fluid

particles while in turbulent flow fluid particles move a disorderly. Whether the flow is

laminar or turbulent is decided by a non-dimensional Reynold’s number Re which is

expressed as

Re= ρυDμ

Where ρ= fluid density, v=flow velocity, D= pipe diameter , μ= fluid viscosity

In pipes, the flow is laminar when Re<2000 and turbulent when Re>4000 with flow

transition taking place when 2000<Re<4000

For turbulent flow hf is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation,

hf = λLυ2D2g

where λ=friction factor, L=pipe length and g=acceleration due to gravity

hL=32μLV2γD2

The head loss along a length L of straight pipe of constant diameter d, is given by

expression:

hL=2fLV2gd = f=hLgd2LV2

where f is a dimensionless constant (i.e. friction factor) which is a function of the

Reynolds’ number of the flow and the roughness of the internal surface of the pipe.

i. Sudden expansion – the head loss at a sudden expansion is given by figure

below

The expression is hL=(V1-V2)22g

ii. Sudden contraction – the head loss at a sudden contraction is given by figure

below

where K is a dimensionless coefficient which depends upon the area ratio as shown in

table below.

Table 1

d2/d1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

K 0.5 0.45 0.412 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.28 0.15 0.15 0.06 0

The head loss due to bend is given by expression :

hB=KBV222g

where KB is a dimensionless coefficient which depends on the bend radius/ pipe

radius and the angle of the bends. It should also be noted that the loss given by this

expression is not the total loss caused by the bend but excess loss above that which

would caused by a straight pipe equal in length to the length of the pipe axis.

Head loss due to valves

The head loss due to valve is given by expression below

hL=KV222g

where the value of K depends upon the type of valve and degree of opening.

When laminar flow exists, the fluid seems to flow as several layers, one on another.

Because of the viscosity of the fluid, a shear stress id created between the layers of the

fluid. Energy is lost from the fluid by the action of overcoming the frictional forces

produced by the shear stress. As laminar flow is very regular and orderly, a

relationship between the energy loss and measurable parameters of the flow system

can be derived, that is Hagen-Poiseuille equation:

hL=32μLV2γD2

For turbulent flow of the fluid in circular pipes, it is most convenient to use Darcy’s

equation to calculate the energy loss due to friction. Turbulent flow is rather chaotic

and is constantly varying. For these reasons we must rely on experimental data to

determine the value of f.

Instead to calculate the friction loss in pipe, Bernoulli’s equation can be applied.

P1ρ1g+V122g+z1=P2ρ2g+V222g+z2

For a horizontal, constant diameter pipe the energy equation from point 1 to

point 2 is

hf = ∆P γ

where

∆P = P1 - P2

g = weight density

hf = head loss due to friction

Also,

hf = f v2LD2g

Figure :Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for sudden contraction

Figure :Graph of Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for 90° bend.

Figure :Graph of Graph of hL, theo and hL, exp versus Q for elbow

Figure: Graph of f theo and f exp versus Re(pipe 1A) for pipe 1A

Figure: Graph of f theo and f exp versus Re(pipe 1A) for pipe 1B

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