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Карнаухова Н.А.

Костина Д.М.
Костина Н. И.

English grammar guide.

БЕЛГОРОД

2019
ББК 81.2 Англ. Я 73
К 72

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Института


межкультурной коммуникации и международных отношений Белгородского
государственного национального исследовательского университета «БелГУ».

Карнаухова Н.А., Костина Д.М., Костина Н.И.

Цель настоящего пособия – формирование и дальнейшее


совершенствование лингвистической компетенции обучающихся в сфере
употребления видо-временных форм английского глагола (уровень В1-В2).
Коммуникативная направленность упражнений, наличие аутентичных
текстов, диалогов, стихов и песен обеспечивает речевую активность
обучающихся и прочность усвоения учебного материала.

© ИПЦ «ПОЛИТЕРРА»

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное пособие содержит комплекс грамматических упражнений,


охватывающих систему времен английского глагола, и аутентичные
материалы, позволяющие формировать языковую и речевую компетенцию
студентов. Как показывает опыт, грамматический материал, включенный в
сборник, представляет значительную трудность для студентов, изучающих
английский язык в силу того, что между глагольными системами
английского и русского языков существуют значительные отличия. Авторы
пособия постарались представить стройную систему тренировочных
(языковых и речевых) упражнений и тем самым обеспечить практику
употребления сложных грамматических явлений в различных аутентичных
контекстах.
Пособие состоит из нескольких частей. В первой части
систематизируются случаи употребления видовременных форм английского
глагола действительного залога, во второй части-страдательного залога.
Третья часть посвящена согласованию времен и косвенной речи, в четвертой
части представлены проверочные тесты по всему материалу данного
сборника. Кроме того, сборник содержит теоретические комментарии по
всем видовременным формам английского глагола (Reference Section).
При составлении пособия авторы опирались на концепцию
П.Я.Гальперина о поэтапном формировании умственных действий и понятий
и выделении языкового сознания как центрального звена во владении
иностранным языком. Родной язык в данном случае выступает как база,
необходимая для формирования языкового сознания. Большое внимание
уделяется систематизации формальных признаков видовременных форм,
особенностям их функционирования в речи, а также их сравнительному
употреблению в различных речевых ситуациях.
Авторы пособия учитывали также данные психологии о том, что
успешность обучения зависит от интереса обучающихся к содержанию
учебных материалов. Занимательность и юмористический характер текстов и
диалогов, наличие стихов и песен, содержащих тренируемый
грамматический материал, создает благоприятный психологический настрой
и положительную учебную мотивацию студентов.
Из собственного многолетнего опыта преподавательской работы авторы
сборника знают, что количество грамматических упражнений,
ориентированных на формирование языковой и речевой компетенции
обучающихся, предлагаемых любым учебником, недостаточно, и
преподаватель всегда испытывает потребность в дополнительных
упражнениях. Именно поэтому предлагаемый сборник может оказаться
уместным и полезным для работы по любому учебнику.

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UNIT 1

The Active Voice.

Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous.

A.
A1. 1) Read the dialogue and make up questions beginning with:

"What time…?",
"Where…?",
"Who…?",
"What…?"
An interview.

Robin Knight, the television reporter, is interviewing the Duchess of Wessex for
the programme ‘The English at home’.

Robin: Now, Duchess... tell us about an ordinary day in your life.


Duchess: Well, I wake up at seven o’clock...
Robin: Really? Do you get up then?
Duchess: No, of course I don’t get up at that time. I have breakfast in bed and I
read ‘The Times’.
Robin: What time do you get up?
Duchess: I get up at ten.
Robin: What do you do then?
Duchess: I read my letters and dictate the replies to my secretary.
Robin: ... and then?
Duchess: At eleven I walk in the garden with Philip.
Robin: Oh? Who’s Philip?
Duchess: Philip’s my dog.
Robin: What time do you have lunch?
Duchess: I have lunch at twelve thirty.
Robin: And after lunch?
Duchess: Oh, I rest until six o’clock.
Robin: ... and at six? What do you do at six?
Duchess: I dress for dinner. We have dinner at eight o’clock.
Robin: What time do you go to bed?
Duchess: Well, I have a bath at nine thirty, and I go to bed at ten.
Robin: Thank you, Duchess... you certainly have a busy and interesting life.

2) Act out the dialogue.


3) Make your own dialogue after the pattern.

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A 2. Read the story and say what your friend does every day.

Every day.

1. Alan’s a lorry driver.


2. He’s twenty-five years old.
3. He works five days a week.
4. He gets up at six o’clock every day.
5. He eats an enormous breakfast.
6. He drinks two cups of tea.
7. Then he kisses his wife.
8. He leaves for work at half past six.
9. He has lunch in a transport café.
10.He comes home at five o’clock.
11.In the evening he goes to the pub.
12.He goes to bed at ten o’clock.
A 3. 1) Ask questions about the following people using Present Simple.

Judith.

1. a secretary
2. 18
3. the office/5 days a week
4. 7.30
5. nothing
6. orange-juice
7. parents
8. the office/8.15
9. in the canteen
10.home/5.30
11.evening classes
12.eleven o’clock

Peter and Paul.


1. schoolboys
2. 12
3. school/5 days a week
4. eight o’clock
5. cornflakes
6. milk
7. mother
8. school/8.45
9. school
10.home/four o’clock
11.television
12.nine o’clock
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Cecil.
1. a playboy
2. 42
3. not/work/5 days a week
4. eleven o/clock
5. caviar
6. beer
7. girl-friend
8. the pub/twelve o’clock
9. in a pub
10.not/come home
11.casino
12.five o’clock in the morning.

2) Make up your own stories or dialogues about your friends, relatives or


celebrities.

A 4. Read the poem. Mind the use of Present Continuous.

I’m sailing

I am sailing, I am sailing
Home again across the sea.
I am sailing storming waters
To be near you, to be free.

I am flying, I am flying
Like a bird across the sky.
I am flying passing high clouds
To be near you, to be free.

Can you hear me?


Can you hear me
Through the dark night far away?
I’m dying, forever crying
To be with you who can save.

We are sailing, we are sailing


Home again across the sea.
We are sailing storming waters
To be near you, to be free.
Oh, my Lord, to be near you, to be free.

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A 5. 1) Read the dialogue and ask questions beginning with:

"Who…?"
"What…?"
"Why…?"

Mary: Hello, George! How are you feeling this morning?


George: Not very well. I’ve got a headache
Mary: Why are you limping?
George: I’ve sprained my ankle. Why are you smiling? It’s nothing to smile
about.
Mary: I’m not smiling at you. The sun’s in my eyes.
George: Why aren’t you working?
Mary: I’m not feeling too well.
George: What’s wrong?
Mary: My shoulders are hurting me.
George: Whose coat are you wearing?
Mary: My own, of course. Why are you laughing?
George: Because you’ve forgotten... to remove the coat-hanger.

2) Act the dialogue out.


3) Make your own dialogue after the pattern.

A 6. 1)Read the text and say what Julia and Godfrey are wearing

The fashion show.

... and now here’s Julia. Julia’s wearing a white cotton blouse and a black
nylon skirt. She’s wearing orange shoes and she’s carrying an orange leather
handbag. Thank you, Julia!
Now, Godfrey’s wearing dark-blue flared trousers and a light-blue woollen
jacket. He’s wearing a yellow shirt and a red tie. Thank you, Godfrey!

2) What are you and your group-mates wearing today?

A 7. 1) Read the dialogue and make up questions beginning with:

"Who…?",
"What…?"
"Why…?"
“How long…?”

John: How long have you been waiting?


Mary: I’ve been waiting for half an hour. I’ve been waiting since ten o’clock.
What have you been doing?
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John: I’ve been resting. I’ve been sleeping.
Mary: And I’ve been standing here! I’ve been standing in the rain. I’ve been
getting wetter and wetter.
John: I’m very sorry. I’ve been feeling so tired recently. What have you been
doing since you cаme here?
Mary: I’ve been visiting friends. I’ve been shopping. What have you been doing?
John: I’ve been trying to finish an article for the newspaper.
Mary: How long have you been working at this Publishing House?
John: I’ve been working here for two years. I’ve been working here since 2016.
Where are you staying?
Mary: I’m staying at the Grand Hotel.
John: How long have you been staying there?
Mary: I’ve been staying there since Friday.
John: I’ve been meaning to phone you.

2) Act the dialogue out.


3) Make your own dialogue after the pattern.

B.

Comparative usage:

We use Present Simple for:


1. things that happen repeatedly.
2. routine or permanent situations.
3. natural or scientific laws.
4. future calendar or timetable events.
5. future meaning after if, when, until, etc.

We use Present Continuous for:


1. something happening as you speak.
2. temporary situation in a given time period.
3. changes, development and progress.
4. definite intentions for the future.
5. irritating things that often happen.

We use Present Perfect Continuous for:


1. actions or situations that began in the past and which are still continuing.
2. to emphasize how long something has been happening
3. when you can still see the results of the action or situation.

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B 1. Match sentences 1-13 with the definitions.

1. They live in a very nice cottage.


2. Holidays abroad are becoming increasingly popular.
3. I’m out of breath because I’ve been running to get here in time.
4. I watch television most weekends.
5. I’m always making silly mistakes.
6. The Volga flows into the Caspian Sea.
7. They have obviously been making careful preparations for this performance.
8. We are staying in the hotel near the Olympic stadium.
9. I’ll tell him when I see him.
10. It’s raining at the moment.
11. I’m leaving in two days.
12. We have been looking forward to this moment for months.
13. The match starts at half past seven.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column.
1. She is packing things ... - never
2. George repairs his car himself ... - since last year
3. They are making the experiment ... - still
4. She has been working on this air line - today
5. Professor Manson receives patients... - every month/week/day
6. They have been discussing the problem... - in the morning/evening
7. We are staying at the hotel... - at the present moment
8. I take a holiday in autumn ... - the whole day
9. I have been teaching at this college... -usually/often/always
- for 2 hours
- since I returned from Italy

B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1. I (to wait) for you


a) usually, b) still, c) the whole morning.
2. The children (to sleep)
a) don’t be noisy, b) very soundly, c) for two hours.
3. Tom and Ann (to have) a long conversation ... I wonder what they (to talk) about
a) since they returned from the bar, b) don’t bother them, c) always.
4. …it (to rain)?
a) how long ... b) still, c) ever.

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B 4. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences:
Model:
Uncle John is watching TV.
- Is uncle John still watching TV?
- Yes, he usually watches TV at that time.
- How long has he been watching it?
- I think for half an hour already.

1) James is playing the piano.


2) Helen is dusting the rugs.
3) Martin is painting his cottage.
4) Alice is planting the trees in the garden.
5) Donald is washing his car.

B 5. Put the verbs into the correct form: Present Simple, Present Continuous,
Present Perfect Continuous.

Model:
- Let’s go out. It (a)…isn’t raining now.
a) isn’t raining, b) doesn’t rain, c) hasn’t been raining.
- Julia is very good at languages. She (b)… speaks four languages very well.
a) has been speaking, b) speaks, c) is speaking.
- I (b)have been waiting for you for ages. Where have you been?
a) wait, b) have been waiting, c) am waiting.

1. Hurry up! Everybody … for you.


a) wait, b) is waiting, c) have been waiting.
2. …you … to the radio?’ ‘No, you can turn it off.’
a) do you listen, b) are you listening, c) have you been listening.
3. …you … to the radio every day?’ ‘No, just occasionally.’
a) do you listen, b) are you listening, c) have you been listening
4. Poor Linda! She … that essay for 2 hours and hasn’t finished yet.
a) is writing, b) has been writing, c) writes.
5. ‘How is your English?’ ‘Not bad. It … slowly.’
a) improves, b) is improving, c) has been improving.
6. “Why is your hair wet?” “I…
a) am swimming, b) swim, c) have been swimming
7. I … to get in touch with Jenny all morning, but I can’t find her
anywhere.
a) am trying, b) have been trying, c) try
8. ‘Can you drive?’ ‘I …. My father … me.
a) learn/teaches, b) am learning/is teaching, c) have been learning /has
been teaching.
9. We … here for the last six years.
a) live, b) have been living, c) are living
10. My parents … in Bristol. They were born there and have never lived anywhere
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else. Where … your parents …?
a) live, b) have been living, c) are living
11. Sonia … for a place to live. She … with her sister until she finds something to live.
a) is looking/staying, b) looks/stays, c) has been looking/staying
12. The streets are all wet. It ….
a) is raining. B) has been raining, c) rains.

B 6. Decide whether these sentences are talking about the permanent or


temporary situation. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets
into Present Simple or Present Continuous.

Model:
My wife normally works at home, but she is spending this month in Nottingham.
She is teaching in a summer school there. (work) (spend) (teach).

1. Ron is in London at the moment. He (stay) at the Park Hotel. He always(stay)


there when he’s in London
2. Most days, John (cycle) to work, but since it (rain) today he (take) his car to
work. So, Mary (do) her shopping at the local shop instead of the supermarket
where she usually (go).
3. A: What work your husband (do)? B: He (teach) French and German, and this
term he (teach) English as well.
4.We usually (watch) the news on TV at seven o’clock, but tonight we (watch) that
new soap opera.
5. Tom usually (play) football but today he (play) tennis.
6. I (feel) Nick (want) to know where you (live) now

B 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Use Present Simple or
Present Continuous.

1. My friend always (tell) me the truth, but I see that she (tell) a lie now.
2. “I usually (drive) to my work. -Be careful! You (drive) too fast.”
3. As a rule she (wear) smart hats. But today she (wear) a funny-looking one.
4. “Every Sunday Mr. Gray (watch) birds in the forest.”- “Be quiet, the
photographer (watch) that bird. He (want) to take a picture.”
5. You (remember) where he (work)?
6. She (not understand) what the teacher (explain).
7. Shе (say) now that she (love) him very much.
8. I (not recognize) the man who (give) a talk.
9. You usually (not drink) coffee at this time? What is that you (drink) now?
10. “Look, it (rain) again. - Yes, it (rain) most days at this time of year”.
11. “Where are the children?” – “They (play) in the garden. They (get) at home
from school at about four and usually (go) straight out to play with their friends.”
12. What language they (speak) in Holland? What language he (speak) now?

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B 8. Complete the conversation using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Mind the difference in usage of state verbs and action verbs.

Emma: Hi, Matthew. What do you (look/ are you looking) at?
Matthew: Oh, hi. These are photos of me when I was a child.
Emma: Oh, look at this one. I (think/am thinking) you look lovely, Matthew
Matthew: I (have/am having) some more photos here.
Emma: Look at this. Why such a big coat?
Matthew: It is my brother’s. That’s why it (doesn’t fit/isn’t fitting) properly.
Emma: Oh, I (see/ am seeing). And you (have/ are having) your tea here. And
in this one you (think/are thinking) about something very serious.
Matthew: This is a photo of the village I (come/am coming) from.
Emma: Oh, that’s nice.
Matthew: And now look, this fish which I caught (weighs/ is weighing) about
half a kilo.
Emma: What a nice little boy! And what a sentimental old thing you are now!

B 9. Use Present Continuous or Present Perfect Continuous.

1. It (snow) heavily. It (snow) since Monday. The heavy snowfalls (make) the
roads impassable.
2. She speaks a very good English. No wonder, she (study) English since her
childhood.
3. Where is Mike? He (pack) his kit-bag. Oh dear, isn't he ready yet? He (pack) it
since the very morning.
4. I (listen) to this record for half an hour but I can't understand all the words yet.
5. Your friend is fond of you. He (talk) of you very much these days.
6. Look! My son (drive) a car for the first time in his life.
7. What a lovely smell! Mary (make) jam.
8. I (polish) this table all the morning and my mother isn't satisfied with it yet.
9. Peter, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You
(help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you?
10. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour.

B 10. Use Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous.

1. The Browns (go) to the seaside every summer.


2. You (go) in my direction? I can give you a lift.
3. What you (do) with yourself, Peter, since I saw you last.
4. Even if he (hate) me I shall never do him any harm.
5. He (write) a new play now.
6. It (snow) since yesterday.
7.Will you wait a minute while I (look) through the article?
8. Ken and I (dine) at home by ourselves tonight.
9. Why all these cups? Why cucumber sandwiches? Who (come) to tea?
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10. Is it true that in England the grass (remain) green all the year round.
11. The book (lie) on the table for weeks. Are you going to read it some day?
12. I am angry with Ann; she always (keep) me waiting for her for hours.
13.You’d better stay in. It (rain) heavily.
14. “You (come) often to these parties?” asked Jordon the girl beside her.
15. I (look) out for your white dress for the last ten minutes.

B 11. Read this conversation between Brian and Sarah. Put the verbs into the
correct form.

Sarah: Brian! How nice to see you! What …you (do) these days?
Brian: I (train) to be a supermarket manager.
Sarah: Really? What’s it like? …you (enjoy) it?
Brian: It’s all right. What about you?
Sarah: Well, actually I (not/work) at the moment. I (try) to find a job but it’s not
easy. But I’m very busy. I (decorate) my flat.
Brian: …you (do) it alone?
Sarah: No, some friends of mine (help) me.

B 12. Choose the correct form of the verbs. Use Present Simple, Present
Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous.

Dear Karen,
At last I am here, in England. I (dream/ I have been dreaming) about it all my life.
(I’m having / I have) a great time here. (I stay/ I have been staying) here for two
months already. My university term (isn’t starting/ doesn’t start) until the autumn,
so (I’m taking / I take) the opportunity to improve my English. (I’m staying / I
stay) with some English friends who (are owning / own) a farm. On weekdays (I’m
catching / I catch) a bus into Torquay to go to language classes. (I’m making / I
make) a good progress, I think. My friends (say / are saying) my pronunciation
(obviously improves/has obviously been improving) since I arrived, and (I’m
understanding / I understand) almost everything now. At weekends (I’m helping /
I help) on the farm. At the moment (they’re harvesting / they harvest) the corn and
(they’re needing / they need) all the help they can get. It’s quite hard work, but
(I’m liking it / I like) it. And (I’m developing / I develop) some strong muscles!
(Do you come / Are you coming) to visit me at Christmas? (I’m spending / I spend)
the winter holiday here at the farm. My friends (are wanting / want) to meet you
and there’s plenty of space. But you must bring your warmest clothes. (It’s getting
/ it gets) very cold here in the winter.
Let me know as soon as (you’re deciding / you decide). And tell me what (you’re
doing / you do) these days.
Do you miss me?
Love,
Paul

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B 13. Complete the conversations using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Use Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous.
I.
Pam: Eric! Call the waiter again!
Eric: I (try) to call him.
Pam: Eric! We (sit) here for twenty minutes…and I am not going to wait any
longer!
Eric: I’m sorry, dear… but he (talk) to that girl.
Pam: Yes, he (talk) to her since we came in.
Eric: Waiter!
Waiter: … you (want) the bill?
Eric: The bill! We haven’t seen the menu, yet.

II.
Mrs Baker: Hello, Mrs Parker. …(wait) to see Doctor Savage?
Mrs Parker: Hello, Mrs Baker. Yes, I am.
Mrs Baker: How long you (wait)?
Mrs Parker: I (wait) since nine o’clock.
Mrs Baker: Ah, you (not wait) long. It’s only ten past nine now.
Mrs Parker: No, no, I (…not). I (read) this magazine. It’s very interesting.
There is an article about operations.

III.
Diane: Hello, Judy. You (sit) here for an hour!
Where is your husband?
Judy: Oh, he (dance) with Mrs Winston
Diane: Oh, yes … he (dance) very well. He (dance) all evening?
Judy: Yes, he has… but he (not dance) with me.

IV.
Jenny: I (look) for you. How long you (watch) TV?
Paul: I (sit) here for more than an hour.
Jenny: I was lucky to find you here. I (want) to talk to you.

C.

C 1. Translate the sentences into English, using appropriate tenses (Present


Simple, Present Continuous):

1. Эти люди так пристально смотрят на вас. Вы их знаете?


2. Достаньте билет. Контролер как раз проверяет билеты.
3. Не входите в аудиторию. Студенты сдают там экзамены.
4. Ты еще дома? Я же жду тебя около библиотеки.
5. Я не понимаю, что он говорит.
6. Ты видишь женщину за столиком в углу? Да, она ест мороженое.
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7. Ты идешь в моем направлении? Я могу тебя подвезти (to give a lift).
8. Женщина, которая разговаривает с моей сестрой во дворе, наша соседка.
Она живет через дорогу.
9. Он не любит кофе с молоком, он пьет черный кофе.
10.Не шевелитесь! Фотограф уже снимает Вас.
11.Нелл спрашивает, понимаешь ли ты ее сейчас.
12.Никто никогда мне ничего не говорит.
13.Кто утром приносит газеты? Папа. Он всегда покупает их утром.
14.Она должна заняться спортом. Она толстеет (to get fat).

C2. Translate the sentences into English, using appropriate tenses (Present
Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous):

1. Он все еще смотрит телевизор. По-моему, он смотрит его с утра.


2. Погода ужасная, целую неделю идут дожди.
3. Мы все утро упаковывали вещи и теперь ждем такси.
4. Она все еще говорит по телефону? Да, она уже полчаса с кем-то говорит.
Она постоянно с кем-то болтает по телефону.
5. Анна - опытная медсестра (nurse). Она работает в больнице уже 15 лет.
6. “Мы ждем его уже 20 минут.” – “Не волнуйтесь, он как раз подъезжает к
дому.”
7. Он работает над книгой с тех пор, как живет в этом городе.
8. Не выходи. Идет сильный снег, он идет уже с утра.
9. “Возьми трубку.” – “Я не могу. Я как раз принимаю душ.”
10. Где моя ручка? Я ищу ее уже 15 минут.

C 3. Translate the sentences into English, using appropriate tenses (Present


Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous):

1. Дождь все еще идет. Я вижу дождевые капли на стекле.


2. Этот человек, конечно, очень хорошо говорит на английском языке,
но мне трудно понимать его, так как он говорит очень быстро, а я
знаю язык не очень хорошо.
3. Что вы стоите в дверях? Мы как раз пьем чай, выпейте с нами
чашечку.
4. У нее красные глаза. Не удивительно, она проплакала все утро.
5. Где мистер Браун? Он обедает. Давно он обедает? Да, он обедает
уже полчаса. Он всегда ест в это время.
6. Эта книга не очень интересная. Сколько времени он ее читает?
7. Я звоню вам с утра, но все время занято.
8. Перед моим домом есть красивая церковь. Они реставрируют ее
уже много лет.
9. Я очень устала, ведь я работаю с утра.
10. Советы моих родителей, конечно же, правильны, но не думаю,
что я могу воспользоваться ими.
11. “Интересно, что они строят в самом центре города?”- “Они
строят новый кинотеатр.”
12. Когда солнце встает в Москве, в Мексике еще ночь.
15
UNIT 2

Past Simple, Present Perfect.

A.

A1. Read the song and learn it by heart. Comment on the use of Past Simple.

Yesterday.
Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away.
Now it looks as though they’re here to stay,
oh, I believe in yesterday.
Suddenly I’m not half the man I used to be,
There’s a shadow hanging over me,
Oh, yesterday came suddenly.
Why she had to go I don’t know she wouldn’t say,
I said something wrong, now I long for yesterday.
Yesterday love was such an easy game to play,
Now I need a place to hide away.
Oh, I believe in yesterday.

A2. 1) Read the poem and say what made the day so awfully bad.
2) Ask what, why, where... questions:

A bad day.
I overslept and missed my train,
Slipped on the sidewalk in the pouring rain,
Sprained my ankle,
Skinned my knees,
Broke my glasses,
Lost my keys,
Got stuck in the elevator,
It wouldn’t go,
Kicked it twice and stubbed my toe,
Bought a pen that didn’t write,
Took it back and had a fight,
Went home angry,
Locked the door,
Crawled into bed,
Couldn’t take any more.

3) Tell other students about a bad day in your life.

16
A3.1) Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the box.
2) Say what helped Juliana survive in the air crash.
Escape from the jungle.
On Christmas Eve 1971 Juliana Koepke, a seventeen-year-old German girl,
(1).... Lima by air with her mother. They (2).... on their way to Pucallpa, another
town in Peru, to spend Christmas with Juliana’s father. Forty-five minutes later the
plane(3) .... up in a storm, and Juliana (4).... 3,000 metres, strapped in her seat. She
was not killed when the seat(5) .... the ground (perhaps because trees broke her
fall), but she (6).... all night unconscious.
The next morning Juliana(7) .... for pieces of the plane, and (8).... for her
mother. Nobody answered, and she(9) .... nothing except a small plastic bag of
sweets.
Juliana’s collar bone was broken, one knee was badly hurt and she had deep
cuts on her arms and legs. She had no shoes; her glasses were broken (so she could
not (10).... snakes or spiders, for example); and she was wearing only a very short
dress, which was badly torn. But she decided to try to(11) .... out of the jungle,
because she (12).... that if she stayed there she would die.
So, Juliana (13).... to walk. She did not(14) .... anything to eat, and as the
days went by she got weaker and weaker. She was also in bad trouble from insect
bites. She (15).... helicopters, but could not see them above the trees, and of course
they could not see her. One day she(16) .... three seats and (17).... that they had
dead bodies in them, but she did not recognise the people.
After four days she (18).... to a river. She saw caimans and piranhas, but she
(19).... that they do not usually attack people. So, Juliana walked and(20) .... down
the river for another five days. At last she(21) .... to a hut. Nobody was there, but
the next afternoon, four men arrived. They (22).... her to a doctor in the next
village.
Juliana (23).... afterwards that there were at least three other people who
were not killed in the crash. But she was the only one who (24).... out of the jungle.
It took her ten days.

be break call fall


find hit leave lie look
find find get hear
know see see start
come come get
know learn swim take

A 4. 1)Read the text. Mind the use of the construction “ used to do”.

When Paul was a child his native place used to be very small and boring.
There used to be only some small shops, a cinema house and a post office. There
used to be neither theatre nor café. There even didn’t use to be a stadium! They
used to play football in the school sports ground.
What a boring life!
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2) Explain what made the life boring in the town.
3) Say how things used to be in your childhood.

A 5. 1) Read the text. Mind the use of Present Perfect.

Things have changed greatly since that time. A large plant was built and
since then the town has grown rapidly. A lot of supermarkets, fitness centres,
cinema houses, concert halls, galleries, cafes and restaurants have appeared for the
last decades. The town has even got two stadiums recently! What an interesting
life!

2) Explain how the things have changed since Paul’s childhood.


3) Say how things have changed in your native place since your childhood.

A6.Read the poem. Mind the use of Present Perfect in negative and interrogative
sentences.
The beaches of Mexico.
Have you ever seen the beaches of Mexico?
Have you ever walked the streets of San Juan?
Have you ever been to Haiti?
Have you ever been to Spain?
Have you ever walked barefoot in a heavy rain?
Have you ever been in trouble?
Have you ever been in pain?
Have you ever been in love?
Would you do it all again?
Well, I’ve never seen the beaches of Mexico.
I’ve never walked the streets of San Juan.
I’ve never been to Haiti.
I’ve never been to Spain.
I’ve never walked barefoot in a heavy rain.
But I’ve sure been in trouble
I’ve sure been in pain.
I’ve sure been in love.
I’ll do it all again.

A7. 1) Read the dialogue, ask questions beginning with:


"Who…?",
"What…?",
"Why…?"

I.
John: Where have you been?
Mary: I’ve been in the canteen.
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John: Have you seen George?
Mary: Yes, I have.
John: Has he taken my car?
Mary: Yes, he has.
John: Has he got a licence?
Mary: No, he hasn’t.
John: Why hasn’t he taken a test?
Mary: He hasn’t had time.
John: Where has he gone?
Mary: He’s gone into the town.
John: Has he done any work this morning?
Mary: Yes, he has.
John: What’s he done?
Mary: He’s answered an email.

II.
John: How long have you been in this place?
Mary: I’ve been here since 2006.
John: How long has George been here?
Mary: He’s been here for six years. He’s been here since 2013.
John: How long have you known him?
Mary: I’ve known him for ten years, since our last year at school.

2) Act out the dialogues.


3) Make up your own dialogue after the pattern.

A 8. 1) Read the dialogues and comment on the use of Present Perfect and Past
Simple.
I.
John: What time is it?
Mary: Half past four.
John: What have you done this afternoon?
Mary: I’ve pressed your trousers. I’ve done the flat. I’ve baked a cake.
John: What did you do this morning?
Mary: I went shopping. I bought meat and vegetables. I paid the grocery bill.
John: Oh, honey, you have been as busy as a bee today!

II.
John: By the way, have you seen this new film?
Mary: Yes, I have.
John: When did you see it?
Mary: I saw it last week. Have you seen it?
John: No, I haven’t. Who did you go with?
Mary: I went with George.

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III.
John: Have you been on holiday?
Mary: Yes, I have. I went to Scotland. We went skiing.
John: Where did you stay?
Mary: At our friends in a little village. Have you ever been there?
John: Yes, I went there last year.
Mary: Did you go skiing?
John: No, I didn’t. I’ve never tried it.

2) Act out the dialogue.


3) Make up your own dialogue after the pattern.

A 9. Read the text and describe the lives of the 4 schoolmates. Ask questions
about the story.
Four lives.
Herbert Burke, James Stephens, Mary Foot, and Charlie Phillips all used to
go to the same school. They left school in 1980, and they’ve had very different
careers.
Herbert Burke became a politician ten years ago. He’s very successful. He
bought a country house five years ago, and bought a Jaguar at the same time. He’s
been a Member of Parliament for ten years. He’s had his house and car for five
years.
James Stephens is a criminal. He robbed a bank in 1991, and escaped to a
Pacific island. He bought a luxury yacht the same year. He’s still on the island.
He’s been there since 1991. He’s had the yacht since 1991.
Mary Foot and Charlie Phillips fell in love at school. He gave her a ring
when they left school. She wears it every day, and she’s never taken it off. They
got married in 1983 and they are still in love. They moved to Australia in 1988.

B.

Comparative usage:

We use Past Simple for:


a) actions or events in the past in a period which is finished
b) a state in the past in a period which is finished
c) one action after another
We use used to do something for:
d) habits in the past
e) something that happened regularly in the past but no longer goes on.

We use Present Perfect for:


f) a state which has gone on up to the present;
g) a complete action/actions in the past in a time period up to the present;
h) the event that happened recently and we can see the result of it now.
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B 1. Match sentences 1-8 with the definitions a-h:

1.Look! I have found the remote control!


2.They were friends when they lived on that remote island.
3.I didn’t use to like fish, but I prefer it to meat now.
4.We have already been to the cinema twice this week.
5.After the telephone call Laura put back the receiver and sat silently. Then she
walked quickly out of the room.
6.We used to play tennis when we were younger. Unfortunately, we don’t
have time for sport nowadays.
7.We usually went to the cinema twice a week last winter.
8.We have known each other since our childhood.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right
-hand column.

They have made a lot of friends... - years ago


Did you often call him …? -when I lived here earlier
Have they heard the news...? -last month
He registered his luggage... -since they moved to our town
They looked for a specialist -ever
To fill the vacancy...
... he was very poor.
He has become very rich... - in summer
It’s the most interesting - and waited for the flight to be
Book I’ve...read announced.
What did you do...? - yet
There used to be a dance hall here - since then

B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). I (to know) him


a) since January, b) when we were in college together
2). Robert (to find) a job...
a) already, b) yesterday
3). You (to write) a research paper...?
a) when, b) yet.
4). Mr Dobson (to be) in charge for the department...
a) for 2 years, b) 2 years ago.
5). Robert (to make) his experiment...
a) just, b) in the morning

21
B4. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences. Use Past Simple, Present
Perfect, Present Continuous Tenses.

Model: Donald is writing the article.


- Is Donald still writing the article?
- No, he has already written it.
- When did he write it?
- Yesterday.

1). Ann is painting a picture.


2). They are playing tennis.
3). I’m working at the project.
4). It’s raining heavily outside.
5). She is watching TV.

B5. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into Past Simple( positive or negative).

Model:
-It was warm, so I took off my coat. (take)
-The film wasn’t very good. I didn’t enjoy it very much. (enjoy)

1). I knew Sarah was very busy, so I (disturb) her.


2). I was very tired, so I (go) to bed early.
3). The bed was very uncomfortable. I (sleep) very well.
4). Sue wasn’t hungry, so she (eat) anything.
5). We went to Kate’s house but she (be) at home.
6). It was a funny situation but nobody (laugh).
7). The window was open and a bird (fly) into the room.
8). The hotel wasn’t very expensive. It (cost) very much.
9). I was in a hurry, so I (have) time to phone you
10). It was hard work carrying the bags. They (be) very heavy.

B6. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself
and other people. Use the given words to make sentences, use Present
Perfect.

Dear Chris,
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
1. I (buy) a new car I’ve bought a new car.
2. My father (start) a new job.
3. I (give up) smoking.
4. Charles and Sarah (go) to Brazil.
5. Suzanne (have) a baby.
6. Mary (move) to a new flat.
22
7. My mom (leave) for Brighton.
8. Jack (get) a grant at the University.
9. Tom and Mary (build) a new house
10.Fred (break) his leg.

B 7. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Perfect or Past Simple.

1). ‘Where’s your key?’ ‘I don’t know. I (lose) it.


2). I was very tired, so I (lie) down on the bed and (fall) asleep.
3). Mary (go) to Australia for a while but she’s back again now.
4). ‘Where’s Ken?’ ‘He (go) out. He’ll be back in about an hour.’
5). I did German at school but I (forget) most of it.
6). I meant to phone Diane last night but I (forget).
7). I (have) a headache earlier but I feel fine now.
8). Look! There’s an ambulance over there. There (be) an accident.
9). They’re still building the new road. They (not/finish) it.
10). ‘Is Helen still here?’ ‘No, she (just/go) out.’
11). The police (arrest) three people but later they let them go.
12). Ann (give) me her address but I’m afraid I (lose) it.
13). Where’s my bike? It (be) outside the house. It (disappear)!
14). What do you think of my English? Do you think I (improve)?

B 8. Put the verb into Present Perfect or Past Simple.


1). A: Look! Somebody (spill) coffee on the carpet.
B: Well, it (not/be) me. I (not/do) it.
2). A: Ben (break) his leg.
B: Really? How (that/happen)?
3). A: Your hair looks nice…. you(have) a haircut?
B: Yes.
A: Who (cut) it? …you (go) to the hairdresser?
B: No, a friend of mine (do) it for me.
4). I don’t know where Amy is. …you (see) her?
5). When I (get) home last night I (be) very tired and I (go) straight to bed.
6). Your car looks very clean. …you(wash) it?
7). George (not/be) very well last week.
8). Mr Clark (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
9). Molly lives in Dublin. She (live) there all her life.
10). ‘…you (go) to the cinema last night?’ ‘Yes, but it (be) a mistake.
The film (be) awful.’
11). My grandfather (die) 30 years ago. I (never/meet) him.
12). I don’t know Carol’s husband. I (never/meet) him.

23
B 9. Use Past Simple or Present Perfect.

1). He (forget) his French since he (leave) Paris.


2). Years ago he (be) very poor, and (not know) how to live. He (become) very rich
now.
3). I can reach my work easily now, as I (buy) a new car.
4). The man you see there is the man to whom I (lend) the money. When you
(lend)
it to him? I (do) it yesterday.
5). I (lose) my keys and cannot remember where I (see) them last.
6). He cannot see well as he (become) short-sighted.
7). He is a man who (live) a remarkable life.
8). What you (do) last night?
9). What you (do) since I last (see) you?
10). I (not play) much football since I (leave) school.
11). “You (hear) from Jane lately?” – “Yes, I (get) a message from her last night”.
12). I (get) a fax from Boston an hour ago, but I (not answer) it yet.
13). It’s the most delicious cake I ever (taste). When and where you (buy) it?
14). When you (get) this wonderful ring? - I don’t remember. I (have) it for years.
15). “How’s Jack? When you (see) him?” – “Oh, I (not meet) him for ages.”

B10. Put the verb into Present Perfect or Past Simple. Make up the dialogues of
your own.

1). A: Is your father at home?


B: No, I’m afraid he (go) out.
A: When exactly (he/go) out?
B: About 10 minutes ago.

2). A: Where are you from?


B: I’m from Boston.
A: How long (you/live) there?
B: For five years, actually
A: And where (you/live) before?
B: In Chicago.
A: And how long (you/live) in Chicago?
B: For two years.

24
B11. Alex wants to go to an art college and is being interviewed by Tom Smith,
one of the lecturers. Complete the questions which Tom asks him. Read the
whole conversation before you start. Find suitable verbs to fill in the gaps.

Tom: Right, Alex, let’s find out something about you. You’re obviously not a
teenager, so when did you leave school?
Alex: Five years ago, actually.
Tom: And where have you been since then?
Alex: Well I’ve had several jobs.
Tom: What (1)... first?
Alex: I worked in a cafe for about a year. I needed to save some money.
Tom: Why(2)... money?
Alex: I wanted to travel a bit before I started studying.
Tom: Where (3)... to go?
Alex: Well, the Middle East, Latin America, Australia.
Tom: Good Lord! And (4).. all those places?
Alex: No, not yet. I’ve been to Brazil and Peru so far. And I spent some months
in Turkey.
Tom: What (5)... there?
Alex: I stayed with some friends near Izmir. It was wonderful.
Tom: You’re very lucky. And now you want to come to college.(6) ... some
pictures to show me?
Alex: Um, yes, I have a small portfolio here.
Tom: Where (7)...these works?
Alex: Mostly in Turkey.
Tom: Why (8)... any in South America?
Alex: I didn’t have time really. And I was travelling light, I just (9)…some
pencil sketches.
Tom: (10)... them here with you?
Alex: They’re at the back of the portfolio.
Tom: Well, Alex, I’m very impressed. When (11)... interested in painting and
drawing?
Alex: I think I always have been.
Tom: I can believe that. Will you come with me? I want to show this work to my
colleagues right away.
Alex: Of course. Thank you very much.

25
C.

C1. Translate into English, using appropriate tenses Use Past Simple, Present
Perfect.

1.В моей библиотеке так много прекрасных книг, но я прочитала только


половину из них.
2.Вы когда-нибудь говорили с ним? Да, я поговорила с ним вчера.
3.Когда ты купила новые туфли? Они уже не новые. Я купила их в прошлом
году.
4.Мне так нравится твое кольцо. Оно у тебя давно? О, оно у меня уже много
лет. Мои родители подарили его мне, когда я окончила школу.
5.Я умираю от голода. Я с утра ничего не ел.
6.В моей жизни так много проблем, и я еще не решила, что мне делать.
7. Вы еще учите английский язык? Да, и учитель говорит, что я сделала
успехи.
8. Ты уже закончил работу, не правда ли?
9. Ничего не произошло, и я счастлив.
10. Я очень рад, что она приняла мое предложение.
11. Я знаю его много лет. Он всегда был хорошим другом.
12. Мы знаем друг друга с тех пор, как окончили школу.
13. Я в последнее время редко разговаривал с Дженни.
14. В детстве мы обычно играли в футбол на этом стадионе.
15. Раньше он всегда ходил на работу пешком, а в прошлом году он купил
машину.

26
UNIT 3.

Past Simple, Past Continuous.

A.

A1. Read the poem. Comment on the use of Past Continuous.

A Surprise Party.
When I reached my house at seven,
Max was playing the guitar,
Jane was sitting at the table
Eating pickles from a jar.
Ted was sitting at the piano,
Playing sonatas to Louise,
And my parrot Paul was singing
All the songs and melodies.
Bob was sleeping under the table,
He couldn’t even stay awake,
And my dog was in the kitchen
Eating off the birthday cake.

A2. 1) Read the dialogue and ask questions beginning with:

"Who…?",
"What…?",
"Why…?"
John: What were you doing when I phoned this morning?
Mary: I was getting up.
John: What were you doing at 10 o’clock on Monday?
Mary: I was playing tennis. What were you doing?
John: While you were playing tennis, I was sweating in the office.
Mary: Were you working?
John: Of course, I was working.
Mary: But you weren’t working when I phoned. You said you were sleeping.
John: I wasn’t sleeping. I was sweeping. When you phoned I was sweeping the
floor.
Mary: What was the office boy doing while you were sweeping the floor?
John: He was visiting a sick aunt. When I arrived, he was crying. So, I gave him
the day off.
Mary: I am glad his aunt is better.
John: What do you mean?
Mary: When I saw him at 11 he was playing poker.

27
2) Act out the dialogue.
3) Make up your own dialogue after the pattern.
4) Make up a story on the basis of the dialogue.

Comparative usage:

We use Past Simple:


a) for a complete action in the past.
b) when one action in the past comes after another.
c) for an action which occupied a period of time which has no connection
with present
d) for a shorter action which came in the middle of a longer one.

We use Past Continuous:


e) for an action that we were in the middle of.
f) to describe the background
g) to describe gradual development
h) for parallel actions

B 1. Match sentences 1-8 with the definitions a-h.

1) When we saw the accident, we stopped the car.


2) As we were driving down the hill, a strange object appeared in the sky.
3) It was getting darker.
4) He worked in that bank for four years.
5) Yesterday at 3 o’clock I was still having my classes.
6) The night was dark. The stars were twinkling…
7) While driving the car he was thinking the matter over.
8) They arrived at midnight.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column

1) When we saw Rachel …. - while she was reading his letter


2) I was reading the paper … - she waved to us
3) I left the house …. - the inflation was rising
4) He wrote a lot of books… - at half past ten
5) The night was wonderful… - when he lived in Australia
6) She was dreaming about the voyage.. - the light wind was blowing
7) The stagnation began… - when the bell rang

28
B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1) The sun (shine)


a) when we arrived at the beach b) after we arrived at the beach
2) Mike (put up) the tent
a) while Harriet was unloading the car b) when Harriet unloaded the car
3) Where you (go)
a) at this time yesterday? b) when I left you?

B 4. Look at the sentences and choose the right answer

1) The boys were discussing the film when Nancy spoke to them.
Which took more time, a) what the boys said, or b) what Nancy said?
2) Sarah phoned the office and drove to the airport.
What did she do first, a) phoned the office, or b) drove to the airport?
3) When Alice arrived, Tom was working at the computer.
Which started earlier, a) Alice’s arrival, or b) Tom’s working?

B 5. Use your own ideas to complete sentences 1-7. Use an appropriate tense
form.

1). When I woke up that morning….


2). While I was travelling round Europe….
3). Sue was waiting for us…
4). I saw you in the park yesterday. You …
5). I was enjoying the party but Lucy…
6). She was sitting in the room and reading a letter. The wind outside…
7). She read a letter and…

B 6 . Put the verbs into the correct form. Use Past Continuous or Past Simple.

1). My sister and I (stay) at our grandparents’ house when we (meet) Helen for the
first time. She (be) from Leeds and she (look) for a job at that time, but when
we (see) her two months later she already (work) at a publishing house.
2). I first (notice) her when she (dance) at Suisan’s party. It (be) obvious that she
(enjoy) herself a lot. I (be) introduced to her and then we (have) a long talk. As
we (talk) Suisan suddenly (call) me saying that somebody (wait) for me.
3). John (cycle) home yesterday when suddenly a girl (step) out into the road in
front of him. He (go) quite fast but, luckily, he (manage) to stop in time and
(not hit) the girl.

29
C

C 1. Translate sentences 1-7 from Russian into English.

1. Что ты делал в это время вчера? –Я был на концерте. А мы с Полом играли


в теннис. Он выиграл партию 3:2.
2. Салли была вчера на вечеринке и выглядела потрясающе! Она была в
черном бархатном платье, а в руках она держала веер.- Да, она выглядела
как настоящая леди!
3. Когда Мартин приехал домой, Анна разговаривала с кем-то по телефону.
Мартин пошел на кухню и приготовил кофе, а Анна продолжала говорить
по телефону.
4. Они познакомились, когда жили в Италии. Они прожили в Италии пять лет
и затем переехали во Францию.
5. Как только я вошел в комнату, он встал и поздоровался.
6. Утро было великолепным! Солнце сияло, дул легкий ветерок и звонко
пели птицы.
7. Во второй половине прошлого века климат начал постепенно меняться.

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UNIT 4.

Past Simple, Past Perfect.

A.

A 1. 1) Read the dialogue, comment on the use of Past Simple and Past Perfect.

Mary: I thought you said there’d been an accident.


John: There had.
Mary: Where’s the body?
John: By the time I got here they’d already taken it away.
Mary: What happened?
John: The lorry driver had forgotten that this was a one-way street. He said he’d
turned right without thinking. The driver of the car said he’d tried to
swerve. But before he had time to do so, the lorry had hit him. It was a
new car, too. The man had bought it only two days before. Unfortunately,
he hadn’t insured it. A doctor examined the lorry driver and said he’d
been drinking.
Mary: But I thought you said they’d taken away a body.
John: They did.
Mary: Whose?
John: George’s. He fainted.

2) Recast the dialogue into a story.

A 2. 1) Read the dialogue and ask questions beginning with:

"Who…?",
"What…?",
"Why…?"

John: Was George on time?


Mary: No, he was late. By the time he arrived I’d opened an email, I’d answered
the most important letters, I’d translated the article and sent it to Mr. Brim
John: Why was he late?
Mary: He had five excuses. He said that he’d overslept, his watch had stopped,
he’d forgotten his money, he’d missed his bus and that he’d lost his keys.
John: What had he done before you left?
Mary: Nothing much.
John: Had he counted the money?
Mary: He hadn’t even opened the safe.
John: Had he surfed the Internet for the information?
Mary: No, he hadn’t.
John: Had he answered an e-mail?
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Mary: No, he hadn’t even switched the computer on. I told you that when I left
he’d done practically nothing. He’d only just finished reading the paper.
John: Where is he now?
Mary: In the hospital.
John: What’s happened?
Mary: The doctor phoned me a few minutes ago and said that George had had an
accident. He said he’d sprained his right ankle and he’d bruised his left
hip. He also said that a policeman had found him lying in a ditch.
John: How did he get there?
Mary: According to the policeman he’d fallen off his bicycle.
John: Any bones broken?
Mary: Yes, two.
John: Which ones?
Mary: The ones he’d bought for the dog’s dinner.

2) Recast the dialogue into a story.

A 3. 1) Read and reproduce:

a) Patty was upset because she had planned to have a party last weekend.
She had been getting ready for the party for a long time. She had invited all of her
friends. She had cooked lots of food. And she had cleaned her apartment from top
to bottom. But at the last minute, she got sick and had to cancel her party. Poor
Patty! She was really disappointed.
b) Michael said he had planned to ask his boss for a promotion. He had been
preparing to ask his boss for a promotion for a long time. He had come to work
early for several weeks. He had worked late at the office every night. And he had
even bought a new suit to wear to the appointment with his boss. Unfortunately,
before Michael could ask for a promotion, his boss fired him.
c) John and Julia had planned to get married. They had been planning their
wedding for several months, and all of their friends and relatives had been looking
forward to the ceremony. Julia had bought a beautiful wedding gown. John had
rented a fancy tuxedo. And they had sent invitations to 150 people. But at the last
minute, John “got cold feet” * and they had to cancel the wedding.
*You can also say: got scared.

2) Talk with other students in your class about the plans you had had that “fell
through”:

- What had you planned to do?


- How long had you been planning to do it?
- What had you done beforehand?
- What went wrong? (What happened?)
- Were you upset? disappointed?

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B.

Comparative usage

We use Past Simple:


a) to talk about a past situation when one past action follows another;
b) with after that, when, then, afterwards before the second action;
c) when one action is the immediate result of another;

We use Past Perfect:


d) for things that happened before another past action;
e) in time clauses with time links when, before, after, as soon as, till, until,
by, since when we want to emphasize that the first action was completed
before the second one started;
f) when one thing happened immediately after another with time links
hardly… when, scarcely…when, no sooner… than
g) for things that happened before the time in the past.

B 1. Match sentences 1-7 with the definitions a-g.

1) When he opened the window, the bird flew out.


2) As soon as I had booked a ticket I phoned Bill
3) I felt very tired when I got home, so I went straight to bed
4) The woman was a complete stranger to me. I had never seen her before.
5) By that time, I had already known all about him
6) The inspector examined my suitcase carefully, then he turned to another
passenger.
7) Peter, who had waited for James since ten o’clock, got angry.
8) Hardly had they got to know each other when they became the best friends.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column
1. He parked his car... …last year
2. He had parked his car... …yesterday
3. What did you do in the garden... …when I arrived
4. They had written the letter... …by that time
5. The train hadn’t arrived yet... …an hour ago
6. I read this book... …by 10
7. He broke his leg …the other day
in a skiing accident... …on Tuesday
8. He had finished cleaning his car …when I was at school
9. I first met George... …before I came
10.What had you done
in the garden...? …before the midnight

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B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). They (publish) the results of the experiment ...


a) last year, b) by the end of November.
2). I (send) an e-mail to the company...
a) a fortnight ago, b) before lunch.
3). The film (to start).
a) five minutes ago, b) when I got to the cinema.
4). The doctor (to have a talk) with the mother...
a) before he (to examine) the child, b) then he (to examine) the child
5). My friend (to go) out...
a) long ago, b) before I came.

B 4. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences. Use Present Continuous,


Past Simple, Past Perfect, Present Perfect.

Model: I’m repairing my car.

- What are you doing?


- I’m repairing my car.
- Haven’t you repaired it yet? Then what did you do yesterday?
- Oh, I was busy the whole day yesterday. And before that I had been away. I had
visited my sick aunt.
1). The teacher is still examining the students.
2). They are still decorating the apartment.
3). Nan is still washing the window.
4). The producer is still making the film.
5). They are still discussing the article.

B5. Read about each situation and choose the correct answer.

1). When I got on the train, it started.


Did I a) catch, or b) miss the train?
2). When I arrived at the station the train had started.
Did I a) catch, or b) miss a train ?
3). Jim got an invitation to the party but he had arranged meeting with his
solicitor.
Which came first, a) an invitation, or b) an arrangement for the meeting?
4). Tom wasn’t at home when I arrived. He had just gone to the court.
Did I come a) before, or b) after Tom’s leaving?

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B6. Use Past Simple or Past Perfect.
1). There was nobody in the sitting-room when I (get) home. Everybody (go) to
bed.
2). The house was very quiet when I (get) home, so I (go) straight to bed.
3). She gave him the book his teacher (recommend).
4). They (finish) the translation by five o’clock.
5). She got a message saying he (pass) the exam.
6). At six o’clock he (know) they were not coming.
7). She (go on) with the story where her mother (stop).
8). Margaret was late for work. Her friend (be) very surprised. She never (be) late
before.
9). I didn’t recognize him. He (change) a lot.

B 7. Join the sentences with the time links: before, as soon as, when, after, by,
till, until. Use Past Simple or Past Perfect.

1). We (arrive) at the club at last. The party (finish).


2). We (not take) Paul to the theatre. He (see) this play a dozen more times
3). The teacher was a stranger to me. I never (see) her.
4). They (leave). We (feel) happier.
5). We (go) for a walk. It (stop) raining.
6). It (grow) dark. I (go) home.
7). The storm (stop). They (leave) the village.

B 8. Use Present Perfect (things that have happened before now) or Past Perfect
(things that had happened before then).

1). He looked at the girl and understood he (see) her somewhere before.
2). “I think John (miss) his 7.30 train. That’s why he isn’t here now.”
– “Looks like him. He (not/come) home in time since he started to work.”
3). When the three bears came home they saw that someone (eat) Baby Bear’s
porridge.
4). John is hungry because he (have) nothing to eat since morning.
5). Mrs Brown lives next door but she never (say) more than “good morning” to
me.
6). They (buy) the apples in the market.
7). He just (see) his friend arrive.
8). It (stop) raining and the sun is shining.
9). She said they (walk) 3 miles.
10). They just (walk) in the park.
11). I wondered what he (do) since we last met?
12). There (be) no post all this week.
13). Nick hoped there (be) no post since Friday.

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B9. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Simple or Past Perfect.

Last Monday Angie 1) …got up..(get up) for work as usual and 2)…(go) to
the kitchen to have some breakfast. But when she 3)…(open) the fridge, she
4)…(find) that her flatmate Lucy 5)…(drink) all the milk – not a good start to the
day! So she 6)…(have) a quick cup of black coffee, 7)…(get) dressed and 8)…(go)
out to the car. However, when she 9)… (turn) the key, nothing 10)…( happen)!
Someone 11)…(leave) the headlights and the battery 12)…(go) flat. She 13) …(be)
furious as Lucy 14)…(use) the car last night and it 15)…(be) her who 16)…(forget)
to switch off the lights. Angie 17)…(head) for the bus stop to wait in the freezing
cold.

B 10. Use Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.

1). When ... the ceremony (take place)?


2). Two cars (stand by) for an hour ready to start.
3). I could read from his face that he (hesitate) to tell the truth.
4). She (lead) him to the cab that (wait) at the door.
5). My father (be) forty and (be) a widower for fifteen years.
6). He (stand up) quickly and (clasp) his hands which (tremble).
7). I (meet) him for the first time the day before yesterday.
8). He asked her where she (stay) because he (want) to see her again.
9). Hardly ... we (take) our seats when he (come over).
10). Watson (know) that his friend always (smoke) pipe after pipe when he (think)
over a difficult problem.

B 11. Use Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect.

1). Tom (sit) in a corner with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light.
2). When I (arrive) the lecture already (start).
3). Unfortunately, when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few
words.
4). When we (reach) the field, the game already (start).
5). You (look) very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do) ?
6). I (call) Раul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up.
7). The children (come) to the party at 4 o'clock yesterday; but before that Mr. and
Mrs. Green (decorate) the room, Mrs. Green (bake) cakes, and Mr. Green (buy)
a small present for very little guest.
8). While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain.
9). Richard (get) a new exercise-book yesterday because he (fill) his old one.
10). Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself.
11). When Margaret (finish) her homework she (turn) on the radio.

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C

C 1. Translate into English, using appropriate tense forms (Past Simple, Past
Perfect, Present Perfect):

1). Служащий напомнил нам, что фирма оплатила все счета.


2). Когда дети вышли из дома, они вспомнили, что забыли выключить
телевизор.
3). Вы когда-нибудь пробовали японскую еду?
4). Шел дождь, когда мы расстались, но когда мы подъехали к дому, дождь
прекратился.
5). Когда я пришел в университет, я узнал, что профессор заболел.
6). Он потерял ключ и не может попасть в дом.
7). Он потерял ключ и не мог попасть в дом.
8). Когда он вышел из магазина, то обнаружил, что кто-то украл велосипед.
9). Полиция арестовала этого человека, так как он несколько раз пытался
ограбить банк.
10). Я просмотрела все журналы, но не нашла статью, которая меня
интересует.
11). Нам пришлось вернуться домой, так как мы пропустили последний
автобус.
12). Наконец мы прибыли в Лондон! Я всегда хотел посетить столицу
Великобритании.
13). Все было готово к отъезду, но машина еще не пришла.
14). Они закончили все приготовления к 6 часам.
15). Все были уже на вокзале, но Том еще не пришел.

37
UNIT 5.

Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous.

A.

A 1. Read the poem. Comment on the use of Past Continuous and Past Perfect
Continuous.

My honey, oh, my honey,


What had you been doing before I saw you?
I had been living without you, I had been living without you
I had been living without you before you saw me.
My honey, oh, my honey,
What had you been doing before I met you?
I had been dreaming about you, I had been dreaming about you
I had been dreaming about you before we met.
My honey, oh, my honey,
What had you been doing before I came?
I had been waiting for you, I had been waiting for you,
I had been waiting for you before you came.
My darling, oh, my darling,
What were you doing while I was living without you?
I was looking for you,
I was looking for you all that time.
My darling, oh, my darling,
What were you doing while I was dreaming about you?
I was calling you,
I was calling you all that time.
My darling, oh, my darling,
What were you doing while I was waiting for you?
I was hurrying to you, I was hurrying to you
While you were dreaming and waiting for me.

A2. Compose your own poem using Past Continuous and Past Perfect
Continuous.

38
B

Comparative usage

We use Past Continuous.


a) to talk about action in the middle of happening at a stated past time.
b). to talk about simultaneous past actions.
c). to talk about past action in progress interrupted by another past action.

We use Past Perfect Continuous.


d). to talk about past action of certain duration with visible results in the past
e). to talk about action continuing over a period to a specific time in the past.

B 1. Match sentences 1-4 with the definitions a-e.

1). They were playing tennis at 5p.m. yesterday.


2). They had been playing tennis for half an hour before the rain started.
3). They were wet because they had been playing tennis in the rain.
4). They were playing tennis when the rain started.
5). While it was raining they were having tea instead of playing tennis.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column.

1.It was snowing... …by the time we came.


2.It had been snowing heavily for two days... …at that time yesterday.
3.I was working hard... …so he was very tired when he arrived.
4.I had been working at the plant for 5 years... …from 5till 7.
5. Dan was driving the car… …when I saw him.
6.Dan had been driving all day… …before I could enter the University.
7. The child was sleeping… …still…when I got to the place.
8. The child had been sleeping for half an hour… …before our arrival.

B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). She (to cry).


a) Her eyes were red, b) when he came in.
2). Nick and Fred (to drive) along the road...
a) all the morning, b) all the morning before they reached the lake.
3). We (to walk) in silence for 5 minutes...
a) by the time we reached the village, b) then he spoke.
4). It (to happen)...
a) when you (to talk) to your secretary, b) after you (to talk) to your
secretary for half an hour.
5). It (to rain) ...
a) from 5 till 7 yesterday, b) for the whole week when they (arrive).

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B 4. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences. Use Past Continuous, Past
Perfect Continuous.

Model: I was preparing for my exams.


- Were you still preparing for your exams when he came?
- Yes, I was still busy doing it.
- How long had you been preparing for them?
- I think I had been doing it for 2 hours.

1). The child was sleeping.


2). Ben was playing the piano.
3). They were repairing the car.
4). The actors were rehearsing the play.
5). They were testing the apparatus.

B 5. React to the following according to the pattern.

A pattern:
A. I heard that……. Is it true?
B. Yes, it is ... and it’s really a nuisance. He/She/They…..for a long time.

Model: Arnold failed his driving test. (practise)


A. I heard that Arnold had failed his driver’s test. Is it true?
B. Yes, it is ... and it’s really a shame. He had been practising for a long time.

I heard that ...


1). Lucy lost her job at the bank (work there)
2). Boris lost the chess match (practise)
3). Ted and Carol broke up (go together)
4). Robert did poorly on his English examination (study for it)
5). Sally had to cancel her trip to Canada (plan it)
6). Dick and Janet cancelled their wedding (plan to get married)
7). Mrs. Gold had another heart attack (feel better)
8). Mr. and Mrs. Hardy moved (live in this neighbourhood)
9). Roger caught a cold and couldn’t go camping (look forward to it)

B 6. Read the situations and make sentences using the words in brackets.

Model: I was very tired when I arrived home. (I/work/hard all day)
I had been working hard all day.
1). The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very
tired. (They/play/football)
2). There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes.
(Somebody/smoke/in the room)
3). Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn’t know
where she was. (She/dream)
4). When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off.
(He/watch/TV)
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B 7. Use Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous.

1). Ann didn’t see me wave to her. She (look) in the other direction.
2). Yesterday afternoon Sharon went to the station to meet Paul. When she got
there, Paul (already wait) for her.
3). When I got home, Bill (lie) on the sofa. The television was on but he (not
watch) it. He had fallen asleep (snore) loudly. I turned the television off and
just then he woke up.
4). I met George and Linda yesterday as I (walk) through the park. They had been
to the Sports Centre where they (play) tennis. They (go) to a cafe for a drink
and invited me to join them.
5). Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn’t know where I was. I (dream).
6). When she finally came, Peter (read) a book, Mary (cook) dinner. We (wait) for
her for 4 hours but she didn’t even say she was sorry.

B 8. Use Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous.

I). Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor, he (look) for his pen.
2). When I arrived she (wait) for me. But she looked angry as she (wait) for a very
long time.
3). They still (walk) when it started snowing.
4). The children looked tired. They (walk) since early morning.
5). The magnificent car (wait) at the door. It (wait) for two hours.
6). The sun (shine) all day long yesterday.
7). She (cry) for a few minutes more before she could stop.
8). John (drive) the car when the accident happened.
9). The sky (clear) though it (rain) still.
10). The telephone (ring) for a few minutes before somebody picked up the
receiver.

B 9. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous.

When Jack Brown returned home from a long- term safari, he realised that nobody
1) …(wait) for him. He 2) …(travel) in Africa for 15 years and, of course, nobody
remembered him here. The town 3) …(live) it’s usual life. People 4) …(hurry)
along the streets as 15 years before, kids with their nursemaids 5) …(play) in the
park, housekeepers 6) …(carry) their baskets with products from the market.
Everything looked as before and the acute sense of missing that peaceful life
possessed him. Only then he realised that he 7) …(dream) about that day all the
time. He 8) …(discover) new lands, 9) …(hunt) lions, 10) …(race) horses but all
the time he 11) …(think) about his returning home. And now he was there at last.

41
UNIT 6.

Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous.

A.

A 1. 1). Read the dialogue. Comment on the use of Past Perfect and Past Perfect
Continuous.

John: Has George come at last?


Mary: Yes, he has. But he was late.
John: Again? What was the matter with him, I wonder?
Mary: He said he had been waiting for the telephone call from the Publishing
House about his new book.
John: Really? Had he had a conversation with the Editor?
Mary: Oh, yes, and he was happy because they had been speaking long enough to
discuss all the problems about his new book.
John: But he didn’t say he had finished it!
Mary: Upon my word he had. The point is, the terms of the contract had expired
before last Monday. So, he was quite in time.
John: Who could have thought that he is so punctual!

A2. Compose your own dialogue using Past Perfect and Past Perfect
Continuous.
.
B

We use Past Perfect Continuous


a). to talk about past action of certain duration with visible results in the past
b). to talk about action continuing over a period to a specific time in the past.

We use Past Perfect


c). to talk about past action which occurred before another action or before a
stated past time.
d). to talk about complete past action which had visible result in the past.

B 1. Match sentences 1-4 with the definitions a-d.

1). He had left by the time I got there.


2). She had been working as a clerk four 15 years before she resigned.
3). They were wet because they had been walking in the rain.
4). She was happy because she had passed her exams.
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B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column.
1.
2. We were good friends. We had known each other… … She had already left.
1. She wasn’t in her office. … … and he felt tired.
2. He had been working hard all morning…. … for a long time.
3. He couldn’t pay the bill. … ... He had been swimming.
4. Don was cold. … …She had been dancing.
5. Her feet ached last Monday. … … He had lost his wallet.

B 3. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). I already (clean) the car…


a) …when he arrived b) … for an hour when he arrived
2). What you (do) in the garden …
a) … before I came? b) … for so long before I came?
3). It (rain)…
a) …for the whole night and the roads were dirty. b) … before our
arrival
4). Emma (swim) in the pool …
a) … and she was tired b) …before the sunset.
5). …as he (drive)
a) Henry was stopped by the police…too fast.
b) Henry could hardly walk … a thousand miles.

B 4. Put the verb into Past Continuous (I was doing), Past Perfect (I had done)
or Past Perfect Continuous (I had been doing).

1). It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours were having (have) a party.
2). John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he
(walk) so fast.
3). Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She (run).
4). When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full.
They (eat).
5). When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their
mouths were empty but their stomachs were full. They (eat).
6). Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He (look) for his contact lens.
7). When I arrived, Kate (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I
was late and she (wait) for a very long time.
8). I was sad when I sold my car. I (have) it for a very long time.
9). We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We (travel) for more than
24 hours.

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B5. Use Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous

1). We (talk) for some time when the bell (ring).


2). That day the sun (shine) since morning and the sky (be) blue.
3). I (tell) him what I (do) and he (tell) me what he (do) in the last three months.
4). They (walk) along the street for half an hour before they (see) a cafe.
5). I (have) breakfast when the telephone (ring).
6). How long you (know) Mike before you (get married)?
7). She (cook) dinner when her husband (return) home.
8). She (cook) dinner for half an hour when she (remember) that she (run out) of
bread.
9). She (thank) me for what I (do).
10). The children (clean) the front step for more than an hour before their mother
(call) them to dinner.
11). The front step (look) very clean after the children (scrub) it.
12). The family (watch) TV when I (come) home.

C1. Translate the sentences into English, using appropriate tenses (Past Simple,
Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous):

1). Когда я вошел в зал, студенты все еще обсуждали первый доклад.
2). В поезде было немного народа. Некоторые читали, другие спали, дети
смотрели в окно.
3). Шел дождь, когда мы расстались.
4). Пока она гладила брюки, он слушал радио.
5). Она как раз открывала дверь, когда зазвонил телефон.
6). Джим вошел в кухню, налил себе кофе и включил телевизор.
7). Она работала уже несколько лет, но управляющий не собирался повышать
ей зарплату.
8). Он заявил, что ждет нас уже полтора часа и не будет ждать ни минуты
больше.
9). Когда я вернулся, он сидел у камина и читал журнал.
10). Мы шли по дороге уже несколько часов, когда начался дождь.
11). Они ехали очень долго, прежде чем увидели огни города.
12). Они жили в этом доме больше 10 лет, когда землетрясение разрушило
его.
13). Они обсуждали эту проблему 2 часа, прежде чем пришли к соглашению.
14). Джейн печатала рассказ уже несколько часов и выглядела усталой.
15). Утро было прекрасное: ярко светило солнце и громко пели птицы.

44
UNIT 7
Present Tenses for the Future.

A 1. Read the dialogue. Comment on the use of Present Tenses for the future

Liz: Hi, Sarah, are you doing anything tonight?


Sarah: Yes, I’m meeting Tom and Claire. We are going to the cinema to see that
new French film.
Liz: When does the film finish?
Sarah: Oh, it finishes quite early.
Liz: And what are you going to do after that?
Sarah: I don’t know, perhaps we’ll go to the pizza place.

We use Present Continuous.


a) to talk about arrangements, plans for the future
We use be going to
b) to talk about planed decisions, intentions and arrangements
c) to make predictions about the immediate future when there is some
evidence to show what is going to happen.
We use be about
d) to speak about the very near future.
We use Present Simple.
e) for a timetable, programs, etc.

B 1. Match sentences 1-4 with the definitions a-e.

1). The Browns are visiting us tonight.


2). I know about the Browns’ visit. I’m going to meet them at the station.
3). The plane leaves at 12.30
4). The plane is at the end of the runway. It’s about to take off.
5). Look at the dark clouds in the sky. It’s going to rain in a minute.

B 2. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts from the right-
hand column.

1) I…. a new car tomorrow. …is about to start


2) I…. my doctor this morning …am going to buy
3) Look out! The dog …. you! … departs
4) Be quiet! The cat … hunting! … am seeing
5) The bus for Brighton …. in an hour. … is going to bite

45
B3. Read each pair of sentences and then answer questions about them.

1). a) I’m going to Samara. I’m waiting for a connecting train.


b) I’m going to get a train to Samara, changing at Moscow.
Which is spoken during the journey?
2). a) I’m doing two exams this year.
b) I’m doing some work at the moment.
In which sentence has the action already started?
3). a) We are off at last. We arrive in Munich at 5.
b) The train is never on time. We always arrive late.
Which action refers to the future?

46
UNIT 8

Present Tenses for the Future and Future simple

A 1. Read the poem. Comment on the use of Future Indefinite.

When I was just a little girl


I asked my mother:
“What will I be?
Will I be pretty?
Will I be rich?”
Here’s what she said to me:
“Que sera, sera
Whatever will be - will be,
The future’s not ours to see.
Que sera, sera
What will be - will be.”
When I grew up
And fell in love
I asked my sweetheart:
“What lies ahead?
Will we have rainbows
Day after day?”
Here’s what my sweetheart said:
“Que sera, sera
Whatever will be - will be.
The future’s not ours to see.
Que sera, sera
What will be - will be.”
Now I have children of my own,
They ask their mother:
“What will I be?
Will I be handsome?
Will I be rich?”
I tell them tenderly:
“Que sera, sera
Whatever will be - will be.
The future’s not ours to see.
Que sera, sera
What will be - will be.”

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A 2. 1) Read the superstitions. Comment on the use of if-clauses.

Superstitions.

Many people believe that:


you’ll have GOOD luck
-if you find a four-leaf clover.
-if you find a horseshoe.
-if you give a new pair of shoes to a poor person.

you’ll have BAD luck


-if a black cat walks in front of you.
-if you walk under a ladder.
-if you open an umbrella in your house.
-if you put your shoes on a table.
-if you light three cigarettes with one match.

Here are some other superstitions:


-If your right eye itches, you’ll laugh soon.
-If your left eye itches, you’ll cry soon.
-If your right ear itches, somebody is saying good things about
you.
-If your left ear itches, somebody is saying bad things about you.
-If a knife falls, a man will visit soon.
-If a fork falls, a woman will visit soon.
-If a spoon falls, a baby or a fool will visit soon.
-If you break a mirror, you’ll have bad luck for seven years.
-If you spill salt, you should throw a little over your left shoulder.
-If you don’t, you’ll have bad luck.
2) Do you know any superstitions? Share them with other students in your class.

We use Future Simple


a) to talk about actions which may(not) happen in the future (the neutral
future.
b) to talk about decisions taken at the moment of speaking. (an instant
decision)
c) to talk about predictions about the future
d) to talk about a less certain prediction or decision usually after the verbs
expressing hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions,
requests, comments, etc., such as I expect…/think/hope /believe; I’m sure…/
afraid; probably
e) in complex sentences, but only in the main clause, if the subordinate
clauses are of time or condition (introducing with the conjunctions if,
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in case, when, while, as soon as, after, before, etc.). But in an
if-clause or a time clause we don’t use the future tenses even when
the meaning is future.
f) when if means whether, particularly after the expressions I don’t
know…; I doubt…; I wonder… we can use future forms both in the
main clause and in if-or when- clause.

B 1. Match sentences 1-6 with the definitions a-f.

1). This time next year I’ll be in France.


2). The manager will see you when/if he comes
3). Steve will become a civil engineer after graduating from the University
4). I had no idea you were waiting for me. I’ll be there in five minutes.
5). I don’t know when John will come and if he will come at all.
6). I hope there’ll be no wars anywhere in the world.

B2. Choose the correct form of the verb to express future meaning.

1). I’m hungry. I think I (have) something to eat.


a) have b) ‘ll have c) am having
2). We’ve arranged to go to the cinema. We (meet) near the cinema later.
a) ‘ll meet b) meet c) are meeting
3). You say you (go) to the station tonight. What time the train (arrive)?
a) are going b) go c) ‘ll go
a) is arriving b) does arrive c) will arrive
4). The prices probably (fall)
a) fall b) are falling c) will fall
5). If he (come) in time, they (go) to the picnic
a) come b) comes c) ‘ll come
a) go b) are going c) ‘ll go
6). There (be) drinks at the reception tonight, but there (not be) any food.
a) are b) will be c) are going to be
a) aren’t b) won’t be c) aren’t be
7). Look, the ladder is moving! David (fall)!
a) will fall b) falls c) is going to fall
8). I know when he (come)
a) ‘ll come b) come c) comes
9). Don’t worry about exams. You (pass) them all right.
a) are going to pass b) ‘ll pass c) pass

49
B3. Read each pair of sentences and then answer questions about them.

1). a) We’ll know the results of the test next week.


b) We’ll probably know the results of the test next week.
Which sentence is more certain?
2). a) What time will we arrive in Swansea?
b) What time do we arrive in Swansea?
What question is more likely if you are travelling by car?
3). a) I’m eating at the Chineese restaurant tonight.
b) I’ll eat at the Chineese restaurant tonight.
Which would you say if you’ve booked a table?

B 4. Future Simple or Present Continuous?

1). Where you (go) for your next holiday?


2). I (give) you a lift to work tomorrow if you like.
3). Do you know Ann (come) at the end of the week?
4) “I’m afraid I’m not quite ready.” – “Never mind. I (wait).”
5). “We have some very nice strawberries.” - “All right. I (have) a pound.”
6). We (have) a party next Saturday night. You (come)?
7). “Why you (take) the carpets down? You (paint) the walls?” – “No, I (take) the
carpets to the cleaner’s.”
8). “There are a lot of mistakes in this document.” – “All right. I (type) it again.”
9). Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) it when they (come).
10). He (leave) for London tomorrow night.
11). “What about this camera? You (try) to take photos? It’s not allowed, you
know ...” – “No, I (try) to sell the camera.”
12). He says he (meet) us at the bus stop, but I’m sure he (forget) about it.
13). He (come) if you ask him.
14) “You (do) anything special tomorrow?” – “Yes, my nephews (come) and I
(show) them round London.
15). I hear you (go) to the regatta tomorrow. You (sail) in it?

B5. Read the story and fill in the gaps with the verbs in the appropriate tense
form expressing future.

A Penguin Joke!
One day a man and his wife were walking down the street when they came across
a penguin.
“Oh!” exclaimed the man. “What a surprise! What we (do) with it?”
“I know,” said his wife. We (ask) a policeman.”
So, they found a policeman and explained what had happened.
“Mmm,” said the policeman, I think the best thing is to take it to the zoo.”
“What a good idea!” said the woman. We (go) there straight away.”

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The next morning the policeman was walking down the same street when he saw
the couple again with the penguin. “I thought I told you to take that penguin to
the zoo,” the policeman said.
“Well, we did,” said the man. “We took it to the zoo and we all had a really good
time.
So, this afternoon we (take) it to the cinema, and this evening we (have) a meal in
a fish restaurant.”

B6. Read the dialogue and put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense
form expressing future.

John: I (go) to the shops soon. Do you want anything?


Ann: No, I don’t think so. Oh, hang on. We haven’t got any sugar left.
John: It’s all right. It’s on my list. I (buy) some.
Ann: What about bread? We haven’t got any bread.
John: OK. I (go) to the backer’s and I (buy) a loaf.
Ann: I (be) at work when you get back.
John: I (see) you later, then. Don’t forget Jo and Andy (come) round for a drink
tonight.
Ann: Ah, right. Bye.
John: Bye, honey.

B7. 1). Read the stories and put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense
form expressing future.

Too bad

A. Ronald wants to stay up late to watch a movie tonight, but he knows he


shouldn’t.
If he (stay) up late to watch a movie, he (not to go) to bed until after
midnight. If he (not to go) to bed until after midnight, he probably (be) very
tired in the morning. He might oversleep. If he (oversleep), he (be) late for
work. If he (be) late for work, his boss (be) angry and (fire) him. So, even
though Ronald wants to stay up late to watch a movie tonight, he isn’t going to.
Too bad!
B. Mr and Mrs Watson want to move to Arizona, but they know they
shouldn’t. If they (move) to Arizona, they (be) away from their children in New
Jersey. If they (be) away from their children and grandchildren in New Jersey,
they (not to see) them very often. If they (not to see) them very often, they (feel)
lonely and depressed. So, even though Mr and Mrs Watson want to move to
Arizona, they aren’t going to. Too bad!

2). Make up your own stories with if-clauses.

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UNIT 9

Future Simple, Future Continuous.

A 1. Read the song. Comment on the use of Future Continuous.

She'll Be Coming Round the Mountain.

She'll be coming round the mountain, when she comes,


She'll be coming round the mountain, when she comes.
She'll be coming round the mountain, coming round the mountain,
Coming round the mountain, when she comes.
She'll be driving six white horses, when she comes,
She'll be driving six white horses, when she comes,
She'll be driving six white horses, driving six white horses,
Driving six white horses, when she comes.
And we'll all go out to meet her, when she comes,
And we'll all go out to meet her, when she comes,
And we'll all go out to meet her, all go out to meet her,
All go out to meet her, when she comes.
And we'll all have chicken dumplings, when she comes,
And we'll all have chicken dumplings, when she comes,
And we'll all have chicken dumplings, all have chicken dumplings,
All have chicken dumplings, when she comes.

A 2. 1) Read the dialogue. Mind the use of Future Continuous.

John: What’ll you be doing this time next week?


Mary: I’ll be flying to London. What’ll you be doing?
John: I’ll be making a speech at the Rotary Club dinner.
Mary: Will you be working tonight?
John: Yes, I will. I’ll be preparing my speech. Will you be coming over this
evening?
Mary: I’d like to. But won’t I be disturbing you?
John: No, you won’t.
Mary: Won’t you be writing your speech?
John: By the time you arrive I hope I’ll have finished it.

2) Act the dialogue out.


3) Make your own dialogue after the pattern.

A 3. 1) Read the story. Ask and answer questions:

52
Happy Thanksgiving.

Thanksgiving is this week and several of our relatives from out of town will be
staying with us during the long holiday weekend.
Uncle Frank will be staying for a few days. He’ll be sleeping on the couch in the
living-room. My wife’s parents will be staying until next Monday. They’ll be
sleeping in the guest room over garage. And Ñousin Bertha will be staying for a
week or more. She’ll be sleeping on a cot in the children’s bedroom. My wife and I
will be busy for the next few days. She’ll be preparing Thanksgiving dinner and
I’ll be cleaning the house from top to bottom.
We’re looking forward to the holiday but we know we’ll be happy when it’s over.
Happy Thanksgiving.

2) Retell the text

We use Future Continuous.


a) to talk about actions in progress at a stated future time.
b) to talk about actions over a period of time
c) to talk about actions which are the result of a routine
d) to talk about actions which happen in the course of events.
e) to ask politely about someone’s plans/arrangements

B 1. Match sentences 1- with the definitions a-e.

1). I’ll be having lunch with my parents as usual on Sunday.


2). Will you be going to the chemistry? Will you buy some medicine for me?
3). We will be flying to Australia this time next month.
4). While in Prague she will be visiting some new museums too.
5). Will Betty be staying with you this Easter?

B2. Answer the questions. You are saying what you will be doing as part of
your routing.

Model: -When are you going to the fitness centre?


(I go there every Wednesday)
-I will be going there on Wednesday
1). Are you likely to see Alice tomorrow?
(I see Alice every day at the lectures.)
2). Are you going to the Alps again soon?
(I usually spend a couple of weeks in winter in the Alps).
3). When are you going to do shopping again?
(I usually do shopping at the weekend)
4). When are you next having lunch in the canteen?
(I have lunch in the canteen every day)
53
B3. Ask your friend politely about his plans. Then ask him to do something for
you if it’s convenient for him. Use the verbs in brackets.

Model: You want to have a look at your friend’s magazine tonight. (read)
Will you be reading your magazine tonight? Can I take it till
tomorrow?

1). You want your friend to give the important papers to the manager. (see)
2). You want to use your dad’s car. (drive)
3). You want your friend to give you a lift to the festival. (drive)
4). You want your friend to give a message to your football coach. (phone)

B4. Put the verb into Future Simple (will do) or Future Continuous
( will be doing).

1). I’m going on holiday on Saturday. This time next week I (lie) on a beach
or (swim) in the sea.
2). This time tomorrow I (be) at home. You may come around. But do not
come late at night. From 9 to 11 p.m. I (meet) some special people.
3). You (pass) the post office when you’re out?
4). “If you see Sally, can you ask her to phone me?” – “Sure. I (see) her this
evening, so I’ll tell her.
5). “You (use) your bicycle this evening?” – “No. Do you want to borrow it?”
6). Don’t call me at 10 a.m. I (be) in my office. I (work).
7). Let’s wait for Mary to arrive and we (have) dinner.
8). Don’t phone me between 7 and 8. We (have) dinner.

B5. Match two parts of the dialogues (1-9 with a-i). Put the verbs in brackets
into the necessary tense forms expressing future: Present tenses, Future
Simple and Future Continuous.

1). “I’m sure Tom (get) the job”.


2). “I can’t meet you this evening.
3). “I (go) to the city centre later.”
4). “What would you like to drink- tea or coffee?”
5). “… you (use) your bicycle this evening?”
6). “Where are you going to spend your holiday?”
7). “What time the next train to London (leave)? “
8). “May I come and see you next Friday?”
9). “Tom doesn’t know anything about the picnic.
…you (tell) him when/if he (come)?

a) “I (have) coffee, please”


b) “We (spend) it in Spain as usual.”
c) A friend of mine (come) to see me.”
54
d) “ But I never know when/if he (come)!”
e) “Can I get you anything?”
f) “Don’t worry. The trains to London (leave) every ten minutes.”
g) “ Oh, yes, he has a lot of experience.”
h) “Unfortunately, no! This time next Friday I (fly) to Los Angeles!
i) “ No, you can take it.”

C1. Translate into English, using tenses expressing future:

1. -Что ты будешь делать в это время в воскресенье?


-Я буду смотреть фигурное катание. А ты что будешь делать?
- Я буду сажать цветы в саду.
2. -Ты увидишь Анну до ее отъезда?
-Да. Я буду помогать ей паковать вещи.
-Скажи ей, что я буду ждать ее в зале ожидания.
3. -Ты придешь к нам сегодня? Мой приятель будет рассказывать о
своей поездке в Англию.
-С удовольствием.
4.-Никуда не уходи. Мы будем обсуждать новую книгу.
5. –Не звони ей в 15.00, она будет кормить ребенка.
6. -В следующую пятницу приезжают родители моего мужа. Они
будут спать в комнате для гостей. Завтра я буду готовить ее для них.
.

55
UNIT 10

Future Simple, Future Perfect.

A 1. 1)Read the conversation. Comment on the use of Future Perfect.

Nancy: Will you have finished your course paper by the end of the term?
Alice: I hope I will. I think I’ll have written the first part by Sunday and then
I’ll have completed everything before the next month.
Nancy: Perhaps you’ll need some time to consult your tutor.
Alice: I expect we’ll have discussed all the problems before deadline.

2)Make up your own dialogues using Future Perfect

We use Future Perfect


1. for actions which will be finished before a stated future time which is
indicated by time expressions: by, by the time, before, before then,
till/until (in the negative sentences).

B 1. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts fro the right-hand
column. Mind the use of Future Simple and Future Perfect.

1. I shall have translated all the articles... …by the time we get to the station
2. We shall know the results... …before the teacher comes
3. The students will have discussed
the problem... …next year
4. The train will have left... …never
5. I shall remember this day... …by next winter
6. He will come again... …all my life
7. I shall have finished this book... …in a week
8. They will forgive me... …by ten o’clock
9. My friend will be a teacher... …by tomorrow evening
10. I shall have saved the necessary …forever
sum of money... …in two days

56
B 2. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). He (to finish) school...


a) in three days, b) by the next June.
2). You (to come) back...
a) by that time, b) in a month.
3). The president (to sign) the bill...
a) in two weeks, b) by the beginning of the session.
4). I (to pack) the things...
a) by the time you (to call) for me, b) tomorrow.
5). We (to send) him a message...
a) before he (return), b) when I (to be) free.

B 3. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences. Use Future Simple,


Future Perfect. Use the verbs in brackets.

Model: Has Jack returned or is he still making a tour round the country? (be back)
- Has Jack returned or is he still making a tour round the country?
- I believe he is still travelling.
- When do you think he will be back?
- If nothing keeps him he will have been back by next Sunday.

1). Has Albert made a film about his travel or is he still making one? (make)
2). Have they shown the play or is he still rehearsing it? (be ready)
3). Have they carried out the experiment or are they still preparing it? (conduct)
4). Has Donald written his article or is he still collecting the material? (finish)
5). Has Miss Radcliff translated the article or is she still working at it? (finish)

57
UNIT 11

Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous.

A 1. 1) Read the conversation. Comment on the use of Future Perfect


Continuous.

July: Carol is a perfect dancer!


Lucy: No wonder, next year she’ll have been dancing professionally for
seventing years.
July: How long has she been performing on the stage of the ballet and opera
theatre?
Lucy: In two months she’ll have been performing in Bolshoi Theatre for ten years.

A2. Make up your own dialogues using Future Perfect Continuous.

We use Future Continuous


a) to talk about actions in progress at a stated future time.
b) to talk about actions over a period of time

We use Future Perfect Continuous.


c) to state duration of an action up to a certain time in the future.

B 1. Complete the following sentences using the suitable parts fromthe right-
hand column. Mind the use of Future Continuous, Future Perfect
Continuous.

1. I shall be travelling round Europe... …by the end of the month


2. I shall have been translating
an article for an hour. …when you return from the cinema
3. ...we shall have been living in
this house for 25years. …when you return next Monday
4. ...she will be putting her
children to bed. … by the first of September
5. I shall be working in the library... … this time next month
6. Will you be listening to
your favourite programme...? …when you come
7. I shall have been watching
a TV set for an hour... …don’t ring her up at ten
58
8. ...she will have been teaching
at this school for 25 years... …from 2 till 3 tomorrow
9. I shall be doing my homework... …at 2 o’clock tomorrow
10. It’ll have been raining for 2 weeks... …before you come

B 2. Change the following sentences according to the indicator:

1). We (to pack) things ...


a) at that time tomorrow, b) the whole morning when you (to call) for us.
2). Alex (to prepare) for his exam...
a) the whole day tomorrow, b) for three days before he (to get) ready.
3). The actors (to rehearse) the play...
a) from 3 till 5 tomorrow, b) for 2 hours before the performance.
4). Mr. Graves (to work) at the novel...
a) still...next week, b) for 2 months by February.
5). Richard (to make) his experiment...
a) at 3 o’clock tomorrow, b) for 3 days before he (to get) the results.

B 3. Make up dialogues based on the key sentences. Use Present Continuous, to


be going to, Future Perfect, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous.

Model: Has Melany cooked the dinner or is she still cooking it?

Jack: Hi, Melany. Remember, we’ll be having dinner with the Browns tonight.
Have you cooked the dinner?
Melany: - No, I’m still cooking it. When are you going to get back, by the way?
Jack: - I expect at 7p.m.
Melany: - By the time you return I’ll have been cooking dinner for2 hours. But I’ll
have finished cooking and laid the table by that time.

1). Has Albert made a film about his travel or is he still making one?
2). Have they shown the play or are they still rehearsing it?
3). Have they made the experiment or are they still preparing it?
4). Has Donald written his article or is he still collecting the material?
5). Has Miss Radcliff translated the novel or is she still working at it?

B 4. Put the verb into Future Continuous ( will be doing) or Future Perfect( will
have done).

Model: Don’t phone me between 7 and 8. We’ll be having (have) dinner then.
Phone me after 8 o ‘clock. We’ll have finished (finish) dinner by then.

1). Tomorrow afternoon we’re going to play tennis from 3 o’clock until 4.30. So,
at 4 o’clock, we (play) tennis.
2). ''Can we meet tomorrow afternoon?’’- “Not in the afternoon. I (work).”
59
3). Ben has to go to a meeting which begins in two hours. It (finish) by 11.30.
4). Tom is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues
like this, he (spend) all his money before the end of his holiday.
5). Chuck came to Britain from the USA nearly three years ago. Next Monday it
will be exactly three years. So, on Monday, he (be) in Britain for exactly three
years.
6). Do you think you still (do) the same job in ten years’ time?
7). Jane is from New Zealand. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. So
far, she has travelled about 1,000 miles. By the end of the trip, she (travel) more
than 3,000 miles.
8). If you need to contact me, I (stay) at the Lion Hotel until Friday.
9). A: You (see) Laura tomorrow?
B: Yes, probably. Why?
A: I borrowed this book from her. Can you give it back to her?

B 5. Put the verb into the correct tense form expressing the future

1). I feel a bit hungry. I think I (have) something to eat.


2). Why are you putting on your coat? …you (go) somewhere?
3). What time I (phone) you this evening? About 7.30?
4). Look! That plane is flying towards the airport. It (land).
5). We must do something soon, before it (be) too late.
6). I’m sorry you’ve decided to leave the company. I (miss) you when you (go).
7). I (give) you my address? If I (give) you my address, you (write) to me?
8). Are you still watching that programme? What time it (end)?
9). I (go) to London next weekend for a wedding. My sister get (married).
10). I’m not ready yet. I (tell) when I (be) ready. I promise I (not to be) very long.
11). She was very rude to me. I refuse to speak to her until she (apologise).
12). I wonder where we (live) ten years from now?
13). What do you plan to do when you (finish) your course at college?

B 6. Put the verb into the required tense form expressing the future.

1). I hope you (not forget) all this by tomorrow.


2). I think she (cook) dinner by the time Mother (come) home.
3). Не (be) а pensioner for ten years by next spring.
4). I hope they (tell) her the news by the time we (come).
5). Ask him when he (finish) packing.
6). What ... you (do) when I (call) on you at 5 tomorrow?
7). He (search) every comer of your room before he (leave).
8). The plane (approach) Moscow at this time tomorrow.
9). By the time you (get) home we (prepare) everything for the party.
10). They (come) to see us next Sunday.
11). By the end of the year we (be) through with our experimental work.
12). The doctor (examine) his last patient at this time tomorrow.
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B 7. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the
same.
Model: I don't suppose he’ll still be on his tour next month.

He will have returned by next month. / He won’t be travelling next month.

1). The Prime Minister expects a victory for his party.


The Prime Minister believes that.................
2). A new manager will take Mr. Brown's place in the new year.
Mr. Brown is...................
3). I've been in this company for three years, come the end of the month.
By the end of the month I....................
4). Why don't you come to see us during lunch?
Why don't you come to see us when we..................?
5). What exactly do you intend to do?
What exactly are you.....................
6). The arrival of the train has been delayed. I'm afraid.
The train will......................
7). Let's leave at the end of the next lecture.
As soon as.....................
8). There will be a team members' meeting tomorrow.
The team members.....................
9). This book will take me two years to write.
In two years’, time.....................

B 8. Fill in the correct present or future forms to express future.


Dear Mum,
By the time you receive this letter I (1- finish) …will have finished… my final
exams and, whether they went well or not, I …(2-celebrate). I…(3- start) looking
for a job at the end of the summer because I…(4-go) on holiday around Europe for
a month, starting next week. Sue…(5-probably come) with me, although she’s not
sure yet. If she does, I’m sure we…(6-have) a great time. I …(7-see) her this
evening as usual, so I expect she…(8-tell) me her decision then. Anyway, my first
exam… (9- start) at 9 o’clock tomorrow so I …(10-drive) down to the library to do
some last-minute revision. Even though I…(11-study) Russian for four years by
the time this exam is over, I feel I’ve still got a lot to learn about the language.
Give my love to Sam and Rover.
Yours,
Jason

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C

C 1. Translate into English, using appropriate tenses (Future Simple, Future


Perfect, Future Continuous):
1). Я узнаю результаты через неделю.
2). Интересно, сколько из нас все еще будут жить здесь через 5 лет.
3). К концу месяца более 5 тысяч человек осмотрят эту выставку.
4). Не звони ей в 6. У нее будет урок музыки.
5). Мама поведет своего сына к доктору завтра.
6). К концу следующей недели мы сдадим все экзамены.
7). Он закончит строительство до осени, если будет достаточно денег.
8). Через месяц в это время я буду лежать на пляже и загорать.
9). К концу года я прочитаю все сонеты Шекспира.
10). “Я приду в 6.”- “Хорошо. Я буду ждать тебя.”
11). Я делаю доклад в следующий вторник.
12). У вас будет время помочь мне завтра?
13). К концу недели я дочитаю книгу до конца и верну ее вам.
14). Мой брат поведет меня в зоопарк в воскресенье.
15). Мы там прекрасно проведем время.
16). Завтра в это время мы будем пересекать Ла-Манш.
17). Я обязательно напишу вам, как только вернусь.
18). Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, когда мы приедем на станцию.
19). Мы сделаем все упражнения до того, как он придет.
20). Она помоет посуду, если ты ее попросишь.

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UNIT 12

The Passive Voice


A

A 1. 1). Read the poem. Comment the use of Passive Voice

What are little boys made of?


What are little boys made of?
Frogs and snails
And puppy-dogs' tails
That's what little boys are made of.
What are little girls made of?
What are little girls made of?
Sugar and spice
And all things nice,
That's what little girls are made of.

2). Memorize the poem

A 2. Analyse the forms of the passive voice. Match the verb tense in the report
with the form of the verb.

After a UFO (1)had been seen in the sky above London, it (2)was
reported to the police. A helicopter (3)was sent by the army to look at it more
closely. While the photos (4)were being taken by the pilots, the helicopter (5)was
shot down by the UFO and both men in it (6)were wounded. The photographs of
the UFO(7) have been given to the police. They (8)are being looked at by the
experts now. The results of their investigation (9)will be published in the scientific
journal
a) Present Simple passive
b) Present Continuous passive
c) Present Perfect passive
d) Past Simple passive
e) Past Continuous passive
f) Past Perfect passive
g)Future Simple passive

1) had been seen


2) was reported
. 3) was sent
4) were being taken
5) was shot down
6) were wounded
7) have been given
8) are being looked at
9) will be published
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A3. Complete the information from the article with the given verbs. Put them
into the corresponding tense-form

1-report (Present Simple active)


2-steal (Present Perfect passive)
3-see (Past Simple passive)
4-play(Past Continuous passive)
5 -notice(Past Simple passive)
6 –see( Past Perfect passive)
7- search( Present Continuous passive)
8 -use (Present Simple passive)

The newspaper (1 ) that the bus (2) from outside the school. The thief (3) by some
children. They (4) nearby when they (5) a stranger. This man never (6) in that
place before. The bus (7) by the police now. The children’s description (8) to
catch the thief.

Comments

Using the active or passive form of the verb depends on the subject of the
sentence.
a) when the subject is the person or thing doing the action (the agent), an active
form of the verb is used.
Ex.: We must learn the use of Passive. ( we is the subject and the
agent of the sentence).
b) when the subject is not the agent ( is not doing the action), a passive form of the
verb is used.
Ex.: The Passive must be learnt and used. (The Passive is the
subject but not the agent of the sentence)
c) In a passive sentence the agent can be mentioned (if it is important for the
meaning or add some more information) or not mentioned (if it is not important
for the meaning ). The agent is used with by
Ex.: The Passive must be learnt and used by us. (The Passive is
the subject, by us is the agent)

B1. Read the poem. Find the agent in each sentence. See whether the subject
and the agent is the same thing or not. Comment the use of Active and Passive.

We must learn the use of Passive


The Passive must be learnt and used.
The wind shook the house
The house was shaken
We took what we could
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But not everything was taken.
Some men brought boats
When the boats were brought
They went to buy clothing
And clothing was bought.
We found all the children
The children were found
But the wind threw the house down
It was thrown to the ground.
We built a new house
It was built too fast to tell
We did the work together
It was done very well.
We finished the work
On Saturday night
And when it was finished
We were happy and bright.

B2. In each of these sentences underline the agent. State active and passive.

Model: They are redecorating the café. (they is the agent. Active)
1). The potato was brought to Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh.
2). The water was pouring out of the hole.
3). A photo was taken by my brother.
4). The teacher has been checking the tests the whole day.
5). The teacher has been listened to by the students with great attention.

B3. Choose the correct form of the verb-active or passive.

1). The photo was taken /has taken by my brother.


2). I think my mobile has been stealing/has been stolen
3). When I came to them the dinner was making/ was being made
4). He told me his car had been repaired/ had been repairing
5). Can you give me a lift?- No, I can’t. My car is repairing/ is being repaired.
6). We’ll send/ be sent them a message tomorrow.

B4. Reply to what people say. Use the subject in brackets. Change the voice of
the verb.

Model.: - The taxes have been increased. (they)


- You mean they’ve increased taxes again!

1). -The Internet is used for getting more information. ( people)


- Yes, I agree. …
2). – Another chemical element was discovered. ( someone)
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- What? Did you say that….
3). – The concert is going to be held next Sunday. (the students)
- Really? I didn’t know that ….
4). – Why isn’t litter put in the bin? ( people)
- I also wonder why …..
5). – The article must be translated by tomorrow. (I)
- But no one told me that …

B5. Transform the sentences from Active into Passive.

1). They didn’t look after the children properly.


2). A Japanese firm makes these television sets.
3). They are watching my house.
4). The examiner will read the passage three times.
5). They searched his house and found a number of stolen articles.
6). They returned my keys to me; someone had picked them up in the street.
7). They were still insisting on that plan.

B6. Put the verb into the correct form, active or passive.

1). My house is quite old. It (build) over 100 years ago.


2). My grandfather was a builder. He (build) this house many years ago.
3). Is your car still for sale? - No, I (sell) it.
4). Is that house still for sale? – No, it (sell).
5). Can you give me a lift?- No, I can’t. My car (repair).
6). This week I’m busy. I (repair) my house.
7). Somebody (walk) behind us. It was clear, we (follow).
8). Paul (not to go) to the party last week. He (not to invite).
9). We (send) them a message tomorrow.
10_. A lot of flowers (give) to her at the birthday party next week.

B7. Make up your own dialogues using the following ones as a pattern.
Use the prompts from the box

Model:
I.
A.- Have you heard about Harry?
B. -No, I haven’t. What happened?
A. -He was fired last week! (That’s terrible! That’s too bad!) That’s the second
time he’s been fired this year!
B.- What a shame.
II.
A. Have you heard about Helen?
B. No, I haven’t. What happened?
A. She was given a raise last week.
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B. That’s great! (That’s fantastic! That’s wonderful!) That’s the second time she’s
been given a raise this year!
1. Mr and Mrs Wilson (robbed)
2. Uncle John (invited) to the White House
3. Larry (hurt) in a car accident)
4. Maria (promoted)
5. Our mailman (bitten) by a dog
6. The man across the street (arrested)
7. Claudia (sent) to Honolulu on business
8. Mrs Miller (taken) to the hospital
9. Arthur (rejected) by the army
10. Lana (offered) a movie contract)
11. Walter (chosen) “an employee of the month”
III
A: Margaret is very happy today.
B: Is she? Why?
A: Because she's been paid a compliment.

IV
A: Have you heard the latest news?
B: I don't think I have. What is it?
A: Tom was given a notice yesterday.

1. Mr and Mrs Wilson (given) a nice present.


2. Tom (praised) by his teacher.
3. Larry (reproved) by his boss.
4. Mary (paid )a compliment.
5. John (made )captain of the football team.
6. Uncle John (given )a cheque for £ 1000.
V.
A: I've got news for you.
B: What news?
A: You'll be granted a scholarship next year.

1. Your husband (offered) a better job.


2. Your group (taken) to the cinema.
3. Your dad (promoted) to a higher post.
4. Your son (granted) a British visa.
5. You (taken )to a dance.

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B 8. Use Present Simple Passive or Present Continuous Passive.

1). Papers (deliver) usually at 8 in the morning, they (look through) at the moment
and you'll gel yours soon.
2). “What strange sounds!” – “Oh, our piano (tune).”
3). “Where is your car?”– “It (fill) in the garage at the moment”.
4). The witness (question) by the police-inspector now.
5). The old motorway (use) by many people, but it's not very convenient, that's
why a new ring-road (build) in the city.
6). Our luggage (examine) at the Customs now. Any luggage going abroad (check)
usually here.
7). We (give) a lot of advice by our parents.
8). You'll have your copy soon, the contract (type).
9). You can't use the fax now. It (fix).
10). Lots of people (operate on) in this clinic. And now unfortunately my uncle
John (operate) on here.

B 9. Use Past Simple Passive or Past Continuous Passive.

1). The helicopter (construct) in Russia.


2). The pop singers arrived at the airport and (welcome) by thousands of fans.
Flowers (throw) at them all the way to the exit.
3). The exposition (open) when we drove up to the picture gallery.
4). He couldn't go out as his suit and shirt (clean).
5). The policeman noticed that the suitcase (carry) by the porter in a most strange
way.
6). The naughty boy (teach) a very good lesson by his friends.
7). His cousins (fine) for exceeding speed limit yesterday.
8). I drove up to the shop just as it (close), but the owner was kind enough to let me
in.
9). They (award) the highest prize.
10). When I came into the kitchen I smelt something delicious. My favorite
cookies (bake) in the oven.

B 10. Use Past Simple Passive or Present Perfect Passive.

1). The decorations (complete) an hour ago.


2). The preparations for the party just (finish) and the guests are already arriving.
3). The baby (feed) an hour ago.
4). Christopher (feed) yet? – Not yet.
5). He (not to see) for a week already.
6). The suit (not to wear) for a long time.
7). This fact (not to mention) in his last speech.
8). I'm happy as I just (allow) to slay here for an extra day.
9). You ever (teach) how to play chess''
10). The sportsmen (give) instructions before the match.

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B 11. Use Future Simple Passive or Future in the Past Passive

1). The child hopes he (give) a computer by Santa Claus, but his parents made up
their minds that the boy (present) with a new scooter.
2). Get your passports ready, they (examine) by the officer. Do you remember we
were warned that our papers (examine) here?
3). The whole nation hoped he (elect) Prime-Minister.
4). I wonder when my project paper (publish).
5). The child (bring up) in a respectable family.
6). They made sure that the child (bring up) by decent people.
7). Don't leave your bicycle outside. It (steal).
8). When he turns up he (tell) the truth.
9). No one expected that the flight (delay).
10). We felt happy that the car (repair) the next day.

B 12. Complete the sentences in the passive

Model: She is feeling poorly (send for the doctor).


She is feeling poorly that's why the doctor has been sent for.

1). The children look strong, and healthy because (look after well).
2). 'The book is very interesting that's why (talk about much).
3). He often says amusing things which (laugh at).
4). I respect him very much because (rely on).
5). The house looks very nice because (look after well).
6). The climate in England is not very good that's why (complain about).
7). The book is very popular with our students because (touch upon many
problems)
8). She felt lonely and unhappy because (not to care for).
9). The discussion was very long but at last (arrive at an agreement).
10). He always says clever things that's why (listen to).
11). Sunday was our day off that's why (agree upon as…).
12). She works very hard that's why (think well of).
13). He won some prizes at the musical festivals that's why (look upon as...).

B 13. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate passive tense form .

Model: The boxes (not pack) yet.


The boxes have not been packed yet.

1). Your food still (prepare).


2). The new ship (launch) next week.
3). Luckily by the time we got there the painting (not sell).
4). We had to go on holiday because our house (decorate).
5). I'm afraid that the next week's meeting (cancel).
69
6). If we don't hurry, all the tickets (sell) by the time we get there.
7). All main courses (serve) with vegetables or salad.
8). The second goal (score) by Hughes in the 41st minute.
9). The cathedral (build) in the fourteenth century.

B 14. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate passive tense form.

1). Nothing has been seen (see) of Pauline since her car (find) abandoned near
Newbury last week.
2). As our new furniture (deliver) on Monday morning I'll have to stay at home to
check that it (not damage) during transit.
3). The new Alhambra hatchback, which in this country (sell) under the name
‘Challenger’, (fit) with electric windows as standard.
4). For the past few days I (work) in Jacks office, as my own office (redecorate).
5). The last time I went sailing with friends the boat (sink) in a gale. Luckily I (not
invite) again since then!
6). It (announce) that the proposed new office block (not build) now because of the
current economic situation.
7). A major new deposit of oil (discover) in the North Sea. It (think) to be nearly
twice the size of the largest existing field.
8). Pictures of the surface of the planet Venus (receive) yesterday from the space
probe 'Explorer' which (launch) last year.
9). A large sum (raise) for the Fund by a recent charity concert but the target of
£250.000 still (not reach).
10). No decision (make) about any future appointment until all suitable candidates
(interview).

B 15. Put each verb in brackets into an appropriate passive tense form.

1). I'm not wearing my black shoes today. They (mend).


2). This copy (not read). The pages (not cut).
3). Why the car (not lock) or (put) into the garage?
4). The damaged ship (tow) into harbour when the towline broke.
5). This room (use) only on special occasions.
6). Bicycles must not (leave) in the hall.
7). He was taken to hospital this afternoon, and (operate on) tomorrow morning.
8). It was a lonely road, and the girl was afraid; she thought she (follow).
9). The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month.
10). The little girl is an only child, and she (spoil) by her parents and grandparents.
11). Normally this street (sweep) every day, but it (not sweep) yesterday.
12). It was very cold yesterday afternoon, but we couldn't light a fire in the sitting-
room; the chimney (sweep).
13). This purse (to leave) in a classroom yesterday, it (find) by the cleaner.
14). Thousands of new houses (build) every year.
15). When I saw the car, it (drive) at over fifty miles an hour.
70
16). This room (not use) for ages.
17). The children are very excited this morning. They (take) to the circus this
afternoon.
18). My keys (return) to me; they (pick up) in the street.
19). Dogs must (keep) on leads in the gardens.
20). Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination.

B 16. Rewrite the text using the passive where possible and so that the words
underlined do not appear.

Model: Nobody knows exactly when someone invented gunpowder.


Nobody knows exactly when gunpowder was invented

People know for a fact that the Chinese made rockets and fireworks long before
people used gunpowder in Europe, which occurred at about the beginning of the
thirteenth century. We generally believe that gunpowder brought to an end the
‘Age of Chivalry’, since anyone with a firearm could bring down a mounted
knight. In fact, people did not develop efficient firearms until the sixteenth century.
They used gunpowder mainly in siege cannon when people first introduced it.
Later they used it in engineering work and in mining, but they found that it was
extremely dangerous. Modern explosives have now replaced gunpowder, but we
still use it for making fireworks, just as the Chinese did.

B 17. Choose the right form (Active or Passive)

1). The children are being played/are playing football on the sports ground.
2). The children have been put to bed/ will put to bed rather late.
3). All my questions were answered/had answered after classes.
4). The car is being repaired/ is repairing just now.
5). The fact mentioned/was mentioned in the newspapers.
6). The train had started/had been started before we got to the station.
7). When he felt/ was felt unwell the doctor had sent for/was sent for.
8). She didn’t approve of/ wasn’t approved of his behaviour.
9). My things were packing/were being packed when the taxi arrived.

B18. Put the vebs in brackets in the required tense and voice form.

1). The children (bring up) in the country.


2). He (collect) a lot of material before he (start) to work on the report.
3). Since then they (visit) their native town very often.
4). The children (teach) music for 5 years already.
5). I hope you (return ) today not so late as yesterday.
6). I (introduce) to him last month but I ( not recognise) him when we (meet)
yesterday.
7). After all funny jokes and anecdotes (tell) people (feel) dull again.
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8). Christmas presents ( send) to them every year.
9). Everybody (respect) him as he can (rely) on.

B19. Read the letter. Put the verb in a suitable tense form, active or passive.

Dear Sally,
How are you? We’ve been having a lovely time. We very well (0)…(look) after by
our hosts. We (1)…(take) sightseeing and we (2)…(introduce) to some other
friends, who (3)…(make) us feel very welcome. Last night we (4)…(show) round
the castle, by the owner! Most of the land in this area (5 (belong) to his family for
about five hundred years.Apparently, this land (6)…(give) to them after one of his
ancestors (7)…(kill) while trying to save the king’s life. Quite romantic, isn’t it?
The castle itself was a little bit disappointing, to be absolutely honest. The owner
told us that it (8)… (suffer) serious damage during a fire about thirty years ago.
When it (9)…(restore) they (10)… (add) central heating and things like that. So
once you are inside it (11)…(not seem) much different to another large, old house.
But the owner is a real character. He told us lots of stories about things that
(12)…(happen) to him when he was young. He kept us laughing for hours. I hope
he (13)…(invite) here before we (14)…(leave) and we (15)…(look forward) to this
moment.
I’ll tell you lots more when we (16)…(get back).
Take care.
Yours affectionately
Ann.

C1. Translate the sentences into English using the Passive Voice.

1). Лучшие новости всегда печатаются в утренних газетах.


2). Эта церковь была построена в 18 веке. Она недавно была
отреставрирована.
3). Туристы были довольны, так как программа была очень хорошо
спланирована гидом.
4). Дом был построен в 18 веке, но за ним так хорошо присматривают, что он
выглядит замечательно.
5). Мы слышали, что его новый роман был только что опубликован.
6). Мы не могли перейти речку в этом месте, так как новый мост через нее
все еще строился.

7). Интересно, какие деревья сажают в центре города.


8). Этого человека арестовали, потому что он несколько раз пытался ограбить
банк.
9). Об этом режиссере сейчас так много говорят. Он действительно так
талантлив.
72
10). Масло делают из молока.
11). Когда была написана эта картина? - Я думаю, ее написали в 16 веке.
12). Второй завтрак подают в 12.00.
13). Ему сказали, что машина на вокзал еще не прибыла.
14). За доктором обязательно пошлют.
15). Задавали ли вам вопросы на экзамене?
16). Не заходи в аудиторию, там экзаменуют студентов.
17). Когда она вошла, комнату все еще убирали.

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UNIT13.

Sequence of Tenses

A 1 1) Read the letter and comment on the sequence of tenses

Hi, Alice,
I’m writing to say that at last my dream has realized! It’s evident now that I’ve
done everything to use the chance of getting this job and believe me that I’m still
doing my best to get as much experience, as possible. I hope I’ll be a success and
soon will be promoted. But when I was preparing for the interview I once thought
that I had never even dreamed to become a reporter. At that time, I wasn’t sure that
it was a chance of my life and I would be so glad when I got it. But now I believe
my life is going to change and I will write to you about everything.
Let me know what you think about it.
Write soon.
Take care,
Karin
B

Comments.

Sequence of tenses isn’t observed in complex sentences when the verb in the main
clause is in one of the present tenses.
Ex: - I think it often rains here.
-They are just reporting it is raining now.
-I think it has already rained and we can go out now.
-I’ve heard it rained yesterday. …
Sequence of tenses is observed in complex sentences when the predicate of a main
sentence is in the past tense. In this case the verbs in subordinate clauses are
normally in the past tenses as well.
In such cases
a)- the verb in Past Simple in the subordinate clause denotes an action
simultaneous to the action of the main clause;
b)- the verb in Past Continuous in the subordinate clause denotes an action
which was happening just at the moment when the action of the main
clause was developing;
c)- the verb in Past Perfect in the subordinate clause denotes an action prior
to the action of the main clause;
d) - the verb in Past Perfect Continuous in the subordinate clause denotes an
action which lasted a certain time before the action of the main clause;
e) - the verb in Future- in- the Past in the subordinate clause denotes an
action next to the action of the main clause;
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B1. Match the sentence (1-4) with the definition (a-e).

1). He hoped that Mary had finished his translation


2). Jane knew that her brother worked at English hard.
3). John knew that he would see Peter at my place.
4). I knew that they had been arguing the whole day before you came.
5). I knew that everybody was just having lunch in the café.

B2. What’s the difference in meaning in the following sentences?

1). Jack knew that Moira lived in Bristol.


Jack knew that Moira had lived in Bristol.
2). Jack thought that she’d return to London.
Jack thought that she’d returned to London.
3). Jack hoped that she loved him.
Jack hoped that she’d love him.

B3. Choose the required verb from the brackets.

1). He thinks that it (will/would) rain.


2). He thought that it (will/would) rain.
3). He sees that he (has/had made) a mistake.
4). He saw that he (has/had made) a mistake.
5). I work so hard that I (am /was always tired).
6. I worked so hard that I (am /was always tired).
7). He has done all that (is/was necessary).
8). He had done all that (is/was necessary).
9). He says that he (is/was going) to eat it.
10). He said that he (is/was going) to eat it.

B4. Make up sentences according to the pattern.

Model: The children are playing in the yard. (She thought)


She thought that the children were playing in the yard.

1). Her friend will come to see her. (She hoped)


2). Father has repaired his bicycle. (He thought)
3). She knows English very well. (I supposed)
4). Our sportsmen will win the game. (We were sure)
5). She made no mistakes in her dictation. (She was glad)
6). He works at his English hard. (I knew)
7). She dances better than anybody else. (I was told)
8). My cousin has received a very interesting offer from his firm. (I learnt)
9). She will come to stay with us. (My aunt wrote in her letter)
10). He is painting a new picture. (We heard)
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B5. Put each verb in brackets into the appropriate tense form.

1). He said he (to leave) tomorrow morning.


2). She says she already (to find) the book.
3). He stopped and listened: the clock (to strike) five.
4). She said she (can) not tell me the right time, her watch (to be) wrong.
5). I asked my neighbour if he ever (to travel) by air before.
6). The policeman asked George where he (to run) so early.
7). The delegates were told that the guide just (to go) out and (to be) back in ten
minutes.
8). I knew they (to wait) for me at the metro station and I decided to hurry.
9). I didn't know that you already (to wind) up the clock.
10). I was afraid that the little girl (not to be) able to unlock the front door and (to
go) upstairs to help her.
11). He says that he (to know) the laws of the country.

С 1. Translate the sentences into English.

1). Все были уверены, что Борис хорошо сдаст экзамены.


2). Он уверял, что Лев Толстой его любимый писатель.
3). Я знал, что вы живете в Москве, но не знал вашего адреса.
4). Он сказал, что бросит курить.
5). Все знали, что она поедет в Рим.
6). Простите, мы не думали, что вы ждете нас.
7). Я не знал, что вы тоже любите футбол.
8). Я был уверен, что он будет выдающимся артистом.
9). Я боялся, что вы не последуете моему совету.
10). Я думал, что он подождет меня.
11). Я не знал, что ты будешь работать в читальном зале.
12). Он боялся, что ему будет трудно сделать доклад.
13). Он вспомнил, что когда он вошел в комнату, его друг уже сидел нa
диване и читал газету.
14). Мы надеялись, что она скоро придет.
15). Он сказал, что не знает, когда начнется конференция.
16). Я был уверен, что, если мы поспешим, мы не опоздаем на поезд.

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UNIT 14

Reported Speech.

A.

A 1 1) Read the dialogue and analyse sequence of tenses in reported speech.

Mary: Yesterday was George’s birthday. He invited me to ten but I couldn’t go


because I had a headache.
John: Did you tell him you had a headache?
Mary: No, I told you to tell him.
John: I don’t remember. When did you tell me?
Mary: We were in the garden. I said I hadn’t had a wink of sleep that night and I
wasn’t feeling well. You said you’d tell him. I told you not to forget. I
even told you to write it down.
John: I’m very sorry. I’ll tell him when I see him this evening.
Mary: Now tell me what happened at the party.
John: It started at eight. He gave us whiskey. We drank to his health. We wished
him good luck. I asked him how old he was.
Mary: What did he say?
John: He said he was thirty-four.
Mary: He told me he was twenty-nine.
John: Then he asked me how old I was.
Mary: What did you tell him?
John: I told him I was thirty. “Have another drink”, he said. “No, thanks,” I
replied, and in any case I said “thirty”, not “thirsty”. He told me I looked
at least forty.
Mary: What did you say to that?
John: I said it was because I’d been working too hard.
Mary: Did he believe you?
John: No, he said I wasn’t telling the truth. He said I was telling a deliberate lie.
Mary: Were you?
John: Yes.

2) Act the dialogue out.


3) Make up your own dialogue after the pattern.

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B.

Comments

I. Reported speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in the
direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense according to
the sequence of tenses.

B1. Match the corresponding tense forms showing how direct speech is changed
into reported one.

1. present simple is changed into….


2. present continuous
3. present perfect
4. present perfect continuous
5. past simple
6. past continuous
7. future simple
8. future continuous
9. future perfect
10. future perfect continuous

a) past perfect continuous


b) future perfect in the past
c) past continuous
d) past simple
e) past perfect
f) future simple in the past

B 2. Complete the conversation.

A is talking to B about their friend, George. B has not heard the same as A.

Model: A: George doesn’t like his new job.


B: But he told me he loved it! (love)

A: He loves living in London.


B: But he told me …….! (hate)
A: He’s moving to Canada.
B: But he told me …….! (Australia)
A: His girlfriend has left him.
B: But he told me …….! (he/ leave/ her)
A: He’ll be thirty next week.
B: But he told me …….! (twenty-one)
A: He went to Spain for his last holidays.
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B: But he told me …….! (Barbados)
A: He can’t give up smoking.
B: But he told me …….! (three years ago)
A: He was given the sack last week.
B: But he told me …….! (promotion)
A: He’s fallen in love with a French girl.
B: But he told me …….! (with me)

II. Changes are also made to the pronouns, the words referring to time and place
and sometimes to word order.

B 3. Choose the proper adverb or adverbial phrase.

1). Ann said they were going on a trip (next week/ the following week)
2). Ben’s going to take his camera along (tomorrow/ the next day)
3). He told us that he had sold his car (two weeks ago/ two weeks before)
4). The weather was wonderful (two weeks ago/ two weeks before).
5). He told me that Jane would return (the day after tomorrow/ in two days time)
6). The secretary said that Mr. Smith was having a visitor (now/ then).
7). She said that her husband had been away for a week (then/ now)
8). Peter told me that he had been to the picture’s gallery (yesterday/ the previous
day).
9). I bought tickets for a cup game (yesterday/ the previous day).

III. There are many reporting verbs apart from say and tell which are more
descriptive: demand, insist on, admit, complain, interrupt, explain, warn, deny,
boast, suggest, etc.

Model: 1) He said, “I can’t go with you because I’m busy with my report”
He explained that he couldn’t go with me because he was busy with his
report.
2) He said, “Let’s go to the theatre tomorrow.”
He suggested going to the theatre the next day.

IV. Sometimes we report the idea rather than the actual words. Then the reporting
verbs like offer, promise, refuse, agree, allow, etc. with the following infinitive are
used.

Model: 1) “I’ll lend you some money.”


He offered/ promised to lend me some money.
2) “I won’t go with you.”
He refused to go with me.

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V. There are groups of verbs after which either infinitive, or gerund or that-clause
are used:
1)refuse 2) insist on 3) complain
offer accuse of explain
agree to do apologize for doing exclaim that…
promise deny agree
allow admit promise

Model: 1) “Ok, I’ll go with you.”


He agreed to go with me.
2) “You ought to tell her the news.”
He insisted on my telling her the news.
3) “You never ask my opinion.”
He complained that I never asked his opinion.

B4. Think about the appropriate reporting verb and report the idea.

Model: “Shall I help you?” (offer)


He offered to help me.

1). “I didn’t’ steal the money.”


2). “I’ll tidy up when I return home.”
3). “Yes, It was a very exciting film.”
4). “I never tell anybody about your affairs.”
5). “Let’s spend Christmas holidays in the mountains.”
6). “You must spend Christmas with us.”
7). “Don’t forget to tell Ann.”
8). “Can you pass me the salt, please?”
9). “I’m sorry, I insulted you.”
10). “You should go to the doctor.”

B5. Report the sentences using the reporting verbs mentioned above.

1). “Okay, I’ll lend you my camera, but return it in two days,” Tom said to Mary.
2). “Yes, It was me. I broke the window,” said Ken.
3). “But I didn’t wear your jeans,” Kate said to Angela.
4). “I can translate from any European language,” said he proudly.
5). “ I won’t tell anybody, honest I won’t,” Ann said to me.
6). “ I have a sore throat,” Tom said to the doctor.
7). “ I won’t give you any money,” Dan said to his son.
8). “ I’ll give you a lift to the station, if you like,” Peter said to me.
9). “Let’s go to the cinema tonight,” Dan said to Megan.

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VI. Reported commands and advice are formed with a verb followed the
noun/pronoun and infinitve. The reporting verbs in this case are: ask...,
tell...,order..., warn..., invite.., remind.., advise smb to do smth/ not to do smth

Model: 1) “Come and have dinner with us”, Sarah said to Tom
Sara invited Tom to come and have dinner with them.
2) “Don’t forget to buy some bread”, she said to him
She reminded him to buy some bread.
3) I said to him, “Meet me outside the cinema at 6 o’clock.”
I asked him to meet me outside the cinema at 6 o’clock
4) The doctor said to her, «Don’t go back to work for a fortnight”
The doctor told her not to go back to work for a fortnight.

B6. Choose the most appropriate verb to report the sentences.

Model: If I were you, I would spend my holidays in Italy.


He advised me to spend my holidays in Italy.

1). “Hand in your tests, please,” -the teacher said to the pupils.
2). “Leave me alone!”- she said to him
3). “Don’t walk on the grass!”- the park keeper told the boys.
4). “Please, don’t go!”- he asked her.
5). “Don’t go out without your coat,”- she said to her daughter
6). “Take this medicine and stay in bed for two days,”- the doctor said

VII. Questions in the reporting speech become indirect questions where the direct
word order is preserved. They are usually introduced with the following words and
phrases: ask, wonder, want to know, inquire. Say is never used as a reporting verb
in reported questions. If the direct question begins with a question word (when,
where, why, who, how etc.) the question word is repeated in the reported question.
In case there is no question word, if or whether is used in the reported question (the
reported question starts with if or whether). If is the more usual case while whether
can emphasize that a choice has to be made.

Model: 1. He said, “Why did you come so late on Monday?”


He asked why I had come so late on Monday.
2. He said, “Do you often play tennis?”
He wanted to know if I often played tennis.
3. I asked her, “Did you throw away the magazine or keep it?
I asked her whether she had thrown away the magazine or kept it

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B7. Report the following questions

Model: “What are you doing”


She asked me what I was doing.
1). “Do you want to go out for the meal?”
2). “Why are you so busy?”
3). “Can I see you later?”
4). “What have you cooked for dinner?”
5). “Who were you looking at?”
6). “Why didn’t you answer my letter?”
7). “Will you be back early?’
8). “Is the baby asleep or awake?”
9). “Did you sleep well?”
10). “How do you feel after your holiday?”

B 8. Complete the dialogue translating the remarks given in Russian into


English. Use the appropriate tense.

A. Is that the Embassy Hotel?


B. What did you say? I can’t hear you. The line is bad.
A. I asked ... (гостиница ли это).
B. Yes, that’s right. What can I do for you?
A. Can I book a single room with bath?
B. Pardon?
A. I wondered….
B. Sure. For how long do you require accommodation?
A. Sorry, I can’t hear you.
B. I asked ... (на какое время Вам нужен номер).
A. For three nights.
B. When will you arrive?
A. What did you say
B. I wanted to know ... (когда Вы приедете).
A. Tomorrow early in the morning. Will you be able to book a room on the
third floor?
B. Pardon?
A. I asked ... (можете ли Вы забронировать номер на 3 этаже).
B. Sure.
A. What’s the charge?
B. Say it again, please.
A. I just wanted to know ... (сколько это стоит).
B. It’s £ 10 a night.
A. All right. Thank you.

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B9. Report the following conversation.

Sally: “How do you like your course, Megan?”


Megan: “I didn’t like it at first, but I’m really enjoying it now.”
Sally: “ Why did you have doubts about it?”
Megan: “Well, there was too much reading and some students weren’t very
friendly. But now I’ve got used to it and I like it a lot. What about your
course, Sally?”
Sally: “Well, the course is all right, though I’m not as interested in History as
I thought I was.”
Megan: “Why don’t you study something else, then? What about studying
English?”
Sally: That is a great idea, Megan. Then we could help each other with our
work.”

B10. Report the following conversation expressing the idea rather than the
actual words.

Kate: “Mum, please, will you let me stay at Ann’s house tonight?”
Mum: “No, I won’t.”
Kate: “Why?”
Mum: “The last time you stayed there, you stayed up late and you were too tired to
go to school the next day.”
Kate: “That’s true. But we won’t do that again.”
Mum: “And you were both smoking cigarettes.
Kate: “That’s not true! I’ve never smoked in my life.
Mum: “Well, all right then, you can go, but only if you promise to behave.

Start like this: Kate begged her mother to let her stay at Ann’s house that night but
her mother refused…

B11. Read the story and make up a conversation in the actual words.

Tim met Mary in the street. Tim noticed that Mary looked pale. He
wondered why? Mary explained that she hadn’t been sleeping enough for the
whole month. Tim asked if she had fallen ill. Mary said that it was because she had
taken a kitten. She complained that she had got a lot of problems with it. She also
said that though the kitten was very touchy and funny it was rather naughty and
noisy. That’s why instead of working at her report she was going to the shop for
some food for her kitten. Tim agreed that sometimes it was a nuisance to have a
little pet in the house. He was sure it was because little creatures needed much
attention. He advised Mary to spend more time with her pet and not to punish it for
its naughtiness. In the end he promised to help her with her report.

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B12. Translate from Russian into English:

1. Пит напомнил Рику, что у них нет домашнего задания на следующий день
и предложил сходить в кино, сказав, что давно не видел ни одного фильма.
2. Оказалось, что у Рика нет денег. Тогда Пит сказал, что у него достаточно
денег для них обоих. Рик поблагодарил его и пообещал вернуть деньги в
понедельник.
3. В этот момент появился их приятель Джон.
4. Он спросил, куда они идут, и Пит ответил, что они идут в кино.
5. Джон поинтересовался, какой фильм они собираются посмотреть.
6. Пит сказал, что они собираются смотреть Войну и мир.
7. Джон заметил, что его родители уже видели этот фильм, и он им очень
понравился.
8. Рик спросил, почему он не посмотрел фильм вместе с родителями, и Джон
объяснил, что он был очень занят в тот день.
9. Когда Рик спросил Джона, хочет ли он пойти вместе с ними в кино, Джон
ответил, что да, но только он обещал отцу помочь починить автомобиль.
Рик предложил Джону пойти вместе в кино и пообещал, что после фильма
они пойдут к нему и помогут ему с автомобилем.
10.Джон поблагодарил своих друзей и спросил, когда начинается фильм.
11.Рик ответил, что он начинается в 12.30, и мальчики поторопились в
кинотеатр.
12.Разговаривая о погоде, Пит заметил, что день великолепен, Джейн
согласилась, сказав, что это первый поистине теплый день этой весной, так
как погода была неважной в последнее время.
13.Пит возразил, сказав, что каждый день было немного солнца.
14.Джейн иронично заметила, что каждый день был также и дождь.
15.Пит назвал ее пессимисткой.
16.Потом он предложил ей устроить пикник.
17.Джейн воскликнула с сожалением, что она не может, т.к. ей надо
готовиться к экзаменам.
18.Пит предложил ей поехать за город в выходные, но она отказалась.
19.Пит был разочарован.

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PROGRESS TESTS

TEST PAPER 1
(PRESENT SIMPLE-PRESENT CONTINUOUS)

I.In the following letter fill in the gaps with the correct tense form of the verbs
(Present Simple or Present Continuous).)

Dear Malcolm,
At last I’m here in New York. I’m very excited – everything is so big and people
…(1)( move) so fast. At the moment I ..(2)( stay) at the hotel. It ‘s not too
expensive and near the centre, which is very convenient. It’s quiet here, so I..(3)
(sleep) all right. I ..(4)( think) of looking for a small flat to rent. I ..(5)( prefer) to
live in a flat rather than in a hotel. I (6)( not think) hotels are very nice places to
stay for more than a few days and in a flat you… (7)( feel) more comfortable.
As for my job I ..(8)( work) three days a week as a receptionist at another hotel. A
lot of people who ..(9)( work) in the hotel are Spanish or German and their English
is not very good, either!
… you (10)( come) to visit me at Christmas? Let me know as soon as you ..(11)
(decide).
I ..(12)( look) forward to hearing from you.
Regards,
Ann Marie

II .Complete the following pairs of sentences using the given verb twice: in
Present Simple and in Present Cont.

1) see
a) …. you … what I mean?
b) What time …you … the bank manager?

2) not enjoy
a) We … this party at all. The music is too loud.
b) We … going to big parties

3) use
a) We usually …. this room for big meetings.
b) Today we ….it for a birthday party.

III. Complete the conversation using “always” + Present Simple or Present


Continuous.
1)-I’ve left my homework at home again
-I don’t believe it! You …
2). –I always walk to work.
- I don’t. It’s too far to walk. I…
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3)–My car’s old but it never breaks down.
-You are lucky. My car’s not as old as yours and it…

IV. Match to make sentences.

1. I think… a. darker hair than her sister.


2. I’m thinking… b. I’m going to buy some new CDs.
3. Phil’s looking… c. a haircut at the moment.
4. Phil looks… d. for his glasses. Have you seen them?
5. Clare has… e. not old enough to drive a car.
6. Clare is having… f. of getting Dad a CD for his birthday.
7. Andy is… g. very annoying at the moment.
8. Andy is being… h. like he needs a holiday.

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TEST PAPER 2
(PRESENT SIMPLE-PRESENT CONTINUOUS-
-PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS)

I. Fill in the gaps with the required tense form. (Present Simple, Present
Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous).
Dear Francesca,
We… (1)(have) a wonderful time here in New York. We’ve been here for five
days now and we …(2)(plan) to stay for the rest of the week because we …(3)
(enjoy) ourselves so much. We’ve visited the Cathedral and the Castle Museum
and this morning we…(4)(walk) around the little old-fashioned streets, looking at
the shops and cafes.
I …(5)(write) this while we stop for a cold drink before lunch. The weather has
been very good so far and the countryside around York is so lovely that we …(6)
(take) some lovely long walks lately. But people …(7)(say) it can be very cold and
it often …(8)(rain) for days.
What you …(9)(do) with yourself all this time? How you…(10)(plan) to spend
your vocations?
I …(10)(hope) to see you soon.
Roberta.

II. Match two pairs of sentences.

1. What do you do…? a) They won’t be back until May.


2. What are you doing…? b) So, it’s always cold here in winter
3. What have you been doing…? c) I’m taking English classes this term
4. You are stupid. d) for a living?
5. You are being stupid. e) for the last two days.
6. A strong wind has been blowing f) on your hands and knees?
7.A strong wind is blowing. g) You aren’t usually
8. Strong winds blow here. h) You always are.
9. They are going on holiday to Spain. i) You can’t go into the sea.
10. My English is improving. j) since I last saw you?

III. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1). “Sorry I am late.” -‘That’s all right. I (not wait) long.


2). Ken (look) for a job this week .He is very busy.
3). “…. it (rain) long?”-“ Not very long. But it still (rain). We can’t go out.”
4). Angela (not visit) us very often.
5). We (walk)for hours and I need a rest.
6). Mr. Reed (see) his manager tomorrow.
7). I (see) what you mean.

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TEST PAPER 3
(PRESENT SIMPLE- PRESENT CONTINUOUS-
PRESENT PERFECT - PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS)
.

I. Match the tense with its form.

1) Present Perfect Continuous a) is doing


2) Present Perfect b) do/does
3) Present Continuous c) have/has done
4) Present Simple d)have/has been doing

II. Match the two parts of the sentences.

1). I can’t go to the disco because…


2). I’ve finished my report.
3). Where is Tom?
4). The flat is clean now because…
5). Don’t make any noise.

a). I (write) it for two weeks.


b). The child (sleep).
c). I (wait) for Lucy.
d). Perhaps, on the court. He always (play) tennis on Saturday.
e). Helen (do) all the housework

III. Write a second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first. Begin
with the word in brackets.

Ex.: My friend is a winner of the competition. (He…)


He has won the competition

1). We’ve had ten hours of rain. (It…)


2). The sofa is in different place now. (We…)
3). The game of badminton is always in Tuesday. (They…)
4). The President hasn’t finished his speech yet. (He…)

IV. Use the correct indicator: for the last two weeks; yet; since; still; always;
already; since

1). The people have been at the hotel … Friday.


2). You haven’t done your project…, I suppose.
3). Are you… looking for a job?
4). Does he… play golf at the weekend?
5). It hasn’t been raining….
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6). Mr. Green is… in Ireland. He hasn’t returned….
7). Why are you serving the Internet again? Have you…. done you homework?

V. Ask questions
1. My mother often speaks about family matters (alt.,sp.)
2. Nick has already collected material for his scientific work. (gen., sp.)
3. It has been freezing for the last two hours. (disj., sp., alt.)

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TEST PAPER 4.
(ALL PRESENT AND PAST SIMPLE)

I. Match two parts of the sentences 1-5 and the definition a-n of the tense form.

Ex. We use Present Simple for routine or permanent situations(1c)

1). We use Present Simple for


2). We use Present Continuous for
3). We use Present Perfect Continuous for
4). We use Present Perfect for
5). We use Past simple for

a) the event that happened recently and we can see the result of it now
b) something happening as you are speaking.
c) routine or permanent situations.
d) actions or situations that began in the past and which are still continuing
e) the cases of the activity or situation which ends just before now but you can still
see the results of it.
f) things that happen repeatedly.
g) a completed action in the past but in a time period that still continuous.
h) temporary situation in a given time period.
i) definite intentions for the future.
j) to show how long something has been happening.
k) things that happened regularly in the past but stopped in present.
l) natural or scientific laws.
m) future calendar or timetable events.
n) something in the past which is finished.

II. Put the verbs into the necessary tense form and match it with the definition
mentioned above.

Ex.: I’m staying in the hotel (2h)

1). She (play) tennis since her childhood.


2). Winter (not to be) warm this year.
3). He (travel) in South Africa for two years. Then he (return) home.
4). It (rain) hard this week.
5). He (travel) a lot in his youth but (not to travel) any more.
6). What do you think about your holidays? –Oh, we (go) to Spain.
7). I (do) all the house work. The flat is clean now.
8). Water (boil) at 100 degrees C.
9). I (stay) in the Savoy Hotel for two weeks. I (leave) in two days.
10). My parents (work) from Monday till Friday.
11). We always (do) our shopping at Greenway.
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12). Why are your clothes so dirty? What you (do)?
13). Don’t make any noise. The child (sleep).
14). Hurry up or we’ll be late! The match (start) at 5p.m.

III. Fill in the gaps with the necessary tense form.


Dear Mr Aziz,
I would like to apply for the job of a shop manager which I… (1)(see) advertised in
the local paper some days ago.
I am twenty years old. I …(2)(be born) in France but my family …(3)( move) to
England when I was twelve and I …(4)( live) here ever since. I …(5)( leave) school
three years ago. After that I …(6)( take) a training course for a year and since then
I …(7)( have) several jobs in shop. For the past six months I …(8)( work) in Halls
department store. I …(9)( do) the job of the senior salesman now and the manager
is going to give me a reference.
I …(10)( speak) English and French fluently and I …(11)( learn) German since I
left school, so I …(12)( speak) German a little too.
I hope you will consider my application.
Yours sincerely,
Caroline Brett.

IV. Write a second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first. Begin
with the word in brackets.

Ex.: Our trip to Africa was in October. (We…)


We went to Africa in October.

1). We’ve had ten hours of rain. (It…)


2). The sofa is in different place now. (We…)
3). The game of badminton is always on Tuesday. (They…)
4). It’s twenty minutes since Susan rang. (We…)
5). Their last visit today was to Louvre. (They…)
6). The President hasn’t finished his speech yet. (He…)

V. Use the correct indicator: for the last two weeks, already, still, constantly,
ago, since, always, last time, so far, yet, since,
1. The people have been at the hotel… Friday.
2. You haven’t done your project…, I suppose.
3. Are you …looking for a job?
4. Does he …play golf at the weekend?
5. It hasn’t been raining… .
6. It’s ages… I saw him… .
7. Mr. Green went to Ireland three years… and he hasn’t returned… .
8. Have you finished cleaning the room…? That was too quick!
9. You are …asking me these silly questions . It’s so annoying!
10. I saw Tom yesterday but I haven’t seen him … today.
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TEST PAPER 5.
( PRESENT AND PAST TENSES)

I. Match the tense with its form ...

1) Past Continuous a) is doing


2) Present Perfect Continuous b) did
3) Present Perfect c) do/does
4) Past Perfect d) have/has done
5) Present Continuous e) had been doing
6) Past Simple f) had done
7) Present Simple g) was/were doing
8) Past Perfect Continuous h) have/has been doing

II. Match the two parts of the sentences.

1). When she looked out of the window…


2). I’ve finished my report…
3). We had been walking along the road for 20 minutes…
4). I bought a new house last year…
5). When they were crossing the street…
6). She was going to post the letter…
7). I didn’t call him because…
8). I can’t go to the disco because…
9). I wonder…

a) …I have been writing it for two weeks.


b) …where he spends his weekends.
c) …I thought he was busy.
d) …it was raining heavily.
e) …I’m leaving tonight...
f) …when a car stopped and the driver offered us a lift.
g) ...she had just written.
h) …a strong wind was blowing.
j) …I haven’t sold my house yet

III. Match the sentences 1-10 with the uses A-J.

A). A definite arrangement for the future.


B). Past action that happened before another past action.
C). To emphasize how long smth has been happening up to the present.
D). Past action in progress when smth else happened.
E). Completed action which has a result in present (positive or negative)
F). Actions or events in the past.
G). Something that happen repeatedly.
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H). Simultaneous continuous actions in the past
J). To emphasize how long smth had been happening before another past action.

IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.

Dear Juli
I (1- arrive) in England three days ago. I (2-stay) with a family in a village near
York. They are really nice. Mr Jones (3-work) in York. Mrs Jones just (4-have) a
baby so she (5-not work) at the moment. I (6-not ask) what she does yet but I (7-
think) she is a secretary.
I (8-have) a good time here. My course in the college (9-start) only in a week.
So yesterday I (10-take) a bus to the sea shore to enjoy the warm and sunny day. I
thought I (11- make) good arrangements for my journey, but as soon as I (12-set
off) I (13-realize) that I (14-not plan) enough. The beach (15-look) very attractive,
but I had to miss the opportunity to go swimming as I (16-not bring) the bathing
costume with me. I was very upset as the people around (17-lie) in the sun and (18-
swim) in the sea.

V. Translate the rest of this letter from Russian into English.

Позднее, когда я возвращалась домой, я встретила Фрэнка. Ты помнишь его?


Когда мы виделись с ним в последний раз три года назад, он работал в банке.
В то время мы частенько играли с ним в теннис. Сейчас он тоже изучает
здесь английский. Мы учимся в одном колледже.
Он учится здесь уже 2 месяца. Вчера вечером мы ходили с ним в кино.
Фильм нам очень понравился.
Мы договорились поехать в Альпы на зимние каникулы. А ты? Что ты
будешь делать? Может быть поедешь с нами?
С нетерпением жду от тебя ответа.
Твоя Алиса.

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TEST PAPER 6.
(FUTURE TENSES.)

I. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

1). –What time does your English class finish/ is your English class finishing?
- Half past nine.
- Shall I come / Do I come and collect you?
-Thanks, but I meet/ I am meeting my sister for drink.

2). – Jenny ‘s had her baby


-Really? That’s wonderful! I am sending/ I’ll send her some flowers.
- I ‘ll visit / am going to visit her this afternoon. I am giving/ I’ll give them for
you if you want.
-Do/will you? Thanks very much. Then I’ll go/ am going and buy them right
now

II. Complete each sentence with the suitable form of the verb.

1). I (cook) dinner by the time you get home.


2). This time next week I (take) my English exam.
3). In a few minutes I (wait) for George for over two hours. Where can he be?
4). I (help) you with your homework if you like.
5). I think, in future people (spend) their vocations on other planets.
6). Why all these cups? Why cucumber sandwiches? Who (come) to tea?
7). Think of me while you (travel) to the Moon!
8). We (let) you know as soon as he (receive) the results of the experiment.

III. Complete each second sentence using the word given so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
1). We’ll save enough money and then we’ll buy a computer. (as soon as)
We ‘ll buy a computer…………saved enough money.
2). The scientists will find a cure for cancer. It will be wonderful. (when)
It will be wonderful…… a cure for cancer.
3). He’ll be translating this article. They’ll be discussing the problem. (while)
He’ll be translating this article………. the problem.
4). The conference starts at 10a.m. tomorrow. (making)
At 11a.m tomorrow I …. a report.
5) It’s 3 p.m. and we are still flying to London. I hope we’ll land at11p.m..(been)
We…….8 hours before our arrival to London.

IV. Translate from Russian into English.


1). Я делаю доклад в следующий понедельник.
2). Она не собирается здесь оставаться.
3). У вас будет время помочь мне завтра?
94
4). Я не пойду гулять, пока не кончится дождь.
5). В это время на следующей неделе я буду отдыхать у моря.
6). К концу месяца я прочитаю книгу до конца.
7). Пока он будет загорать на берегу, мы будем сдавать экзамены.
8). Вы почувствуете себя лучше после того, как примете лекарство.

95
TEST PAPER 7.
(ALL TENSES. ACTIVE VOICE.)

I. Put the verb ‘ to teach’ into the following tense forms:

1). Past Continuous


2). Present Perfect Continuous
3). Present Perfect
4). Past Perfect
5). Present Continuous
6). Past Simple
7). Future Continuous
8). Future Perfect
9). Present Simple
10). Past Perfect Continuous
11). Future Simple
12). Future Perfect Continuous

II. Complete each second sentence using the word given so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
Put the verb into the necessary tense form.

1). She owns all this land now (belong)


All…………. now.
2). I have arranged a brief meeting with him tonight. (see)
I………. tonight.
3). I’ll finish this job and then I’ll phone you back. (finish).
I’ll phone you back as soon….
4). Is that the place where you lived before? (use)
Did you ……….place?
5). Our conversation was interrupted by a phone call. (have)
A phone call interrupted us while……. .. a conversation.
6). Tom started to clean his car two hours before Sam came. (clean)
Tom……the car… two hours.
7). It’s three miles work from Bob’s house to the city centre. He started an hour
ago and has just reached it. (walk)
He ……. an hour and …………three miles.
8). It’s April and they are still working on their project. They know that the end of
April is the dead line. (complete)
They ……….by the end of April.
9). I ‘m going to stay in the hotel the whole week. (stay)
I……. in the hotel from Monday till Sunday.

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III. Correct the mistakes in the sentences.

1). How long do you know the teacher?


2). What have you done last night?
3). When they arrived at the theatre the play have already started
4). If I’ll win a million pounds, I’ll buy a Rolls Royce.
5). I know they worked on this project since Christmas.
6). On weekdays they are usually getting up at six thirty.
7) The car always breaks down. It’s so annoying!

VI. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tens form.

Dear Paul
My stay in England is coming to an end. In ten days’ time I (1-be) back in Italy. I
can hardly believe that I (2-be) in Bristol for three months. The time (3-go) so
quickly! Yesterday I (4-take) my final exams. As soon as I (5-get) the results, I (6-
let) you know.
I’d really like to have a holiday when the course (7-finish), but I have to go straight
back to Italy. Unfortunately, I (8-not see) much of Britain– I even (9-not be) to
London yet!
Nevertheless, I (10-have) a good time here. Yesterday I (11-take) a train to York to
do some sightseeing. Something really very embarrassing (12-happen) when I was
there. After I (13-visit) the Viking museum, I (14-decide) to do some shopping.
Earlier in the day I (15-see) a beautiful sweater in a department store, so I (16-go)
back to buy it. The shop assistant (17-put) it into a bag when I (18-realize) that I
(19-leave) my credit card at home. So, unfortunately, I couldn’t buy it after all.
My host family (20-be) really nice to me. They (21-look) after me very well. I (22-
miss) them. But I (23-look) forward to seeing my family again. I often (24-dream)
that this time in two weeks I (25-sit) in my room and (26-tell) my parents about
this visit. I also (27-make) a party and (27-invite) all my friends to it.
Anyway, I (28-not book) my plane ticket yet, so I must go into town now and do
that. See you next week. I (29-give) you a ring when I (30-arrive) home.
Take care. Best wishes.
Alberto

97
TEST PAPER 8.
(PASSIVE)

I. Put the verb ‘develop’ into the necessary tense form in Passive.

1). Past Continuous


2). Present Perfect
3). Past Perfect
4). Present Continuous
5). Past Simple
6). Future Perfect
7). Present Simple
8). Future Simple

II. Transform Active into Passive.

1). Students often refer to this article.


2). They haven’t stamped the letter.
3). She didn’t introduce me to her mother.
4). We called in the police.
5). A frightful crash wakened me at 4 a.m.
6). When they have widened this street the roar of the traffic will keep residents
awake all night.
7). We were looking for the ring everywhere in the house.

III. Complete using the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1). The Earth (hold) by the gravity of the Sun and orbits around it.
2). The first feature-length comedy film (create) by Charlie Chaplin.
3). The award for the best video (present) later this evening.
4). By the time you read this, I (arrested) for murder.
5). I don’t know whether our tests (mark) yet or not.
6). You wouldn’t think it to look at him now, but Jack (bully) when he was at
school.

IV. Write sentences in the passive.

1). Our car/ service/ a mechanic/ at the moment.


2). Gunpowder/ invent/ the Chinese.
3). I went to see it because I/ tell/ it was a good film/ all my friends.
4). A man/ shoot/ an air gun/ outside the petrol station last night.

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V. Write a second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first. Use the
word in brackets.

1). The doctor began to work at six o’clock and is still working. (yet)
The work…
2). Rupert didn’t have his credit card. (forgotten)
His...
3). Nancy had been writing a report. It was ready when I came. (written)
The report…
4). I didn’t know the plan of the game. (told)
I….

VI. Transform Active into Passive.

After some people had seen a UFO in the sky above London, they reported it to the
police. The army sent a helicopter to look at it more closely. While the pilots in the
helicopter were taking photos, the UFO shot the helicopter down and wounded
both men in it. People have given photographs of the UFO to the police. Experts
are looking at them now. They will publish the results in the scientific journal.

VII. Read the newspaper report and put the verbs into the most suitable passive
form.

A Shop robbery.
In Pixham yesterday a shop assistant (1)(force) to hand over $500. The man
escaped in a car which (2)(steal) earlier in the day. The car later (3)(find) in a car
park where it (4)(abandon) by the thief. A man already (5)( arrest) and still (6)
(question) by the police.

99
TEST PAPER 9
(ACTIVE AND PASSIVE)

I. Put the verb ‘to catch’ into the following tense forms:

1). Present perfect continuous, active


2). Past continuous, passive
3). Past perfect, passive
4). Future perfect, active
5). Present continuous, active
6). Future simple, passive

II. Read the letter. Put the verbs in brackets in a suitable tense form, active or
passive.
Dear Sally,
How are you? We’ve been having a lovely time. We very well (0) …
(look) after by our hosts. We (1) …(take) sightseeing and we (2) …(introduce)
to some other friends, who (3) …(make) us feel very welcome. Last night we
(4) …(show) round the castle, by the owner! Most of the land in this area (5)
(belong) to his family for about five hundred years. Apparently, this land
(6)…(give) to them after one of his ancestors (7)…(kill) while trying to save the
king’s life. Quite romantic, isn’t it? The castle itself was a little bit disappointing,
to be absolutely honest. The owner told us that it (8)… (suffer) serious damage
during a fire about thirty years ago. When it (9)…(restore) they (10)… (add)central
heating and things like that. So once you are inside it (11)…(not seem) much
different to another large, old house. But the owner is a real character. He told us
lots of stories about things that (12)…(happen) to him when he was young. He
kept us laughing for hours. I hope he (13)…(invite) here before we (14)…(leave)
and we (15)…(look forward) to this moment. I’ll tell you lots more when we
(16)…(get back).
Take care.
Yours affectionately
Ann.

III. Choose the correct form of the verb (active or passive).

1). Jonathan was/has chosen to play the lead role in the school play.
2). I’m sleeping downstairs because my bedroom is being painted/has been
painting.
3). This picture was/has probably taken during the winter.
4). Someone was/has left their wallet on the floor.
5). Treasure Island was/has written by Robert Louis Stevenson.
6). When we got to the airport, we learned that our flight had delayed/had been
delayed.
7). Your parents have/were paid the tickets for you.
100
IV. Complete using the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1). Radio waves (discover) by Marconi.


2). Your application (consider) and we will let you know as soon as we’ve made a
decision.
3). The roof of the car can (lower) by pressing this button here.
4). Chess (play) for around two thousand years now.
5). Our tent (blow) over in the night by the wind before we returned.
6). On his way home he felt that he (follow).

V. Write sentences in the active or passive.

1). This photograph / take/ my grandfather.


2). At the surgery yesterday, I / examine/ Dr. Peterson/ and I/ give/ a prescription.
3). Our teacher / tell /us/ / take /our favourite book/ to school tomorrow.
4). It looked like the window/ break/ a hammer/ some time before.
5). Your cheque/ send/ last Friday and/ should/ deliver/ to you tomorrow.
6). He/ probably /take / this picture /during the winter.

VI. Translate sentences from Russian into English

1). Экскурсия будет закончена через два часа.


2). Я не знал, что наш разговор записывают.
3). В статье затронуты очень важные вопросы.
4). Когда мы увидели этот дом, мы поняли, что в нем давно не жили.
5). Их необходимо навестить немедленно.

101
TEST PAPER 10.
(REPORTED SPEECH).

I. Change the following sentences from direct into indirect speech:

1). “I’m going fishing with mother this afternoon”, said the small boy, “and we are
going into the garden now to dig for worms”.
2). “If you want to smoke you’ll have to go upstairs”, said the bus conductor.
3). “Remember to insure your luggage”, my father said.
4). “Don’t smoke near the petrol pump”, said the mechanic.
5). “Let’s stay here till the storm has passed”, I said.
6). “How can I get from the station to the airport?” said Bill.
7). “Have you done this sort of work before?” said his new employer.

II. Complete the second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first
one. Use the word in brackets. Write between two and five words in each gap
including the word given.
1). “What went wrong, Frankie?” said Paul. (asked)
Paul ……. wrong.
2). “Can I stay here for a couple of days, Jude?” Said Phil (there)
Phil asked Jude………for a couple of days
3). “Yes, I went there on my own,” Haskins said. (gone)
Haskins admitted that he……. own.
4). “Don’t mention this ever again, Chris,” said Brenda (to)
Brenda told Chris…….again.
5). “I think, Joe, you should tell her about it,” said Mr. Green (advised)
Mr. Green ……. her about it.
6). “What time does this pub close at weekends, Jack?” said Alexis (time)
Alexis asked Jack……. at weekends.
7). “You will ask for a receipt, won’t you?” Anna said to Steve (reminded)
Anna…….. a receipt.
8). “We are going tomorrow,” said Liza (going)
Liza said that………. day.
9). “ Don’t touch this cable,” he said to us.(touch)
He warned…………….. cable.

III. You work for a tour operator and have been travelling with a group of
tourists. Back at the office you wrote down some of the comments you heard.
Report what people said, using each of these verbs once only:

Admit, advise, ask, complain, enquire, promise, refuse, suggest, request, tell,
threaten, demand, want to know, wonder, offer

Ex: “The weather’s a lot better here.”


He said the weather was a lot better there.
102
1). “To be honest I don’t think much of the food”
2). “You should give out free local maps to the guests.”
3). “Do you have similar accommodation in Italy?”
4). “This is the worst flight I’ve ever been on.”
5). “We are not paying extra for deckchairs.”
6). “Could you arrange taxis from the airport?”
7). “I’ve thoroughly enjoyed this holiday.”
8). “Refund my money or I’ll take you to court!”
9). “Yes, I’ll definitely tell him to come next year.”
10). “Please, tell your staff how wonderful they’ve been.
11). “Let’s go shopping together”
12). “I can help you with the luggage.”
13). “How did you spend yesterday afternoon?”
14). “What shall we be doing at this time tomorrow?”

IV. Turn the following into Direct speech.

There was an accident on the road. The policeman asked the driver if he had been
speeding. At first the driver denied that he had been speeding but then he admitted
that he had been driving a bit fast. Mr Brown wanted to know if anyone had called
an ambulance. Mr Jones informed that the ambulance was coming. Tim was
wounded and complained that his leg hurt. Mr Smith asked if he could move his
leg. Doctor Baker warned Tim not to try to stand up.

103
REFERENCE SECTION.

• Reference Section is for learners of English who want to speak and write
more correctly. It contains short clear explanation of the use of different
tense forms and peculiarities of their use after various conjunctions,
prepositions, and adverbs and examples of correct use.
• All the material is given in an alphabetical order to make the use of it easier
and more effective. You can find more complete explanations of some
points in grammar books mentioned in the book list.

After -is the conjunction which joins two clauses into a sentence. It introduces an
adverbial clause of time and different tense forms can be used in the tense
clauses.
1) “After” can’t be followed by a future tense. Instead, we use the present simple
to express a future meaning.
Ex.: I’ll work in the company afterI graduate from the University

2) The present perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “after”
to denote an action completed before a definite moment in the future.
Ex.: I’ll come round to your place after I’ve finished my work.

But with the verbs of sense perception and motion the present simple, instead
of the present perfect, is mostly used.
Ex.: You will be very much surprised after you hear this news.

3) When we speak about the order of events in the past, we use the past simple in
both clauses – the main and subordinate ones.
Ex.: After she finished school, she went to China.

4) But the past perfect is used in the adverbial clauses of time introduced by
“after” to show that something was completely finished before the action of
the main clause.
Ex.: After I had finished the report, I realized that it was too late to post it.

5) In the adverbial clauses of time introduced by “after”, the past perfect is also
used to denote a future action viewed from the past and completed before
the action of the main clause.
Ex.: She said she would see you after she had settled everything with him.

Already – is an “indefinite” time adverb, an indicator of the present perfect, which


means “at any time up to now” or “by now”. It always goes with the verb
and denotes that something has happened.
Ex.: “You must go to Scotland .” – “We’ve already been there”.

104
Always - is an adverb of frequency. It can be used as an indicator of different tense
forms.

1) When it means “with no exceptions”, it is an indicator of simple tense forms.


Ex.: I always have a boiled egg for breakfast.

2) When it means “through the past until now”, it is usually used with the present
perfect.
Ex.: I’ve always believed he was innocent.

3) When we want to say that something happens often and unexpectedly,


continuous tense forms are used.
Ex.: She is always giving people little presents.

4) And when we talk about irritating, annoying things that happen frequently,
continuous tense forms are also used.
Ex.: He is always asking me for money.

5) The present continuous is also used to denote (for the sake of emphasis) actions
in progress referring to all or any time.
Ex.: The Earth is always rotating around the Sun.

As- (like “when” or “while”)is a conjunction which introduces the adverbial


clause of time and different tense forms can be used in both main and
subordinate clauses.

1) When we talk about two simultaneously developing or changing situations,


simple tenses are most commonly used in both main and adverbial clause
of time introduced by “as”.
Ex.: As I get older, I get more optimistic.

2) When actions or situations in both clauses are simultaneous, the continuous


tense form is used in the sentence introduced by“as” if it denotes the longer
“background” situation, which started before the shorter event of the main
clause and perhaps went on after it.
Ex.: As I was crossing down the street, I saw her.

3) Sometimes continuous tense forms are found in the main clause while the
simple forms are in the subordinate one.
Ex.: He is working. But at the same time as he works he is exercising.

4) The past simple is used when two short actions happen at the same time.
Ex.: George arrived as Sue left.

105
5) It should be noted that “as” is used only if two things happen at the same time.
Ex.: As I walked into the room, the phone started ringing.
But If one thing happens after another, “when” is used to join two sentences
into one.
Ex.: When I got home, I had a bath.

6) The present simple or the future simple are used in the adverbial clause of
comparison introduced by “as” when the action refers to the future.
Ex.: She’ll probably be on the same plane as I am(or will be) tomorrow.

7)”As”( like “since”) is a conjunction which introduces the adverbial clauses of


cause. In this case it is used to give the reason for an action or a situation
and any tense according to the situation can be used in the subordinate
clause after “as”.
Ex.: We took an umbrella as it was going to rain.

As-clauses usually introduce less important information and most often go at the
beginning of the sentence.

As soon as -is a conjunction which introduces the adverbial clause of time and
different tense forms are used in these clauses.

1)The present simple is used in the adverbial clause of time after “as soon as” to
denote a future action.
Ex.: I’ll tell you as soon as I know

2) The present perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “as
soon as” to underline the completion of a future action before a definite
moment in the future.
Ex.: I’ll meet you as soon as I have finished the report.

3) The past simple is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “as soon
as” (like “after”, “before”, “when”), if the relation between actions
approaches succession and the idea of completion is of no importance.
Ex.: As soon as we got tickets, we went aboard the plane.

4) If we want to underline the completion of the action before another action in the
past, the past perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by
“as soon as”.
Ex.: She tore up the letter as soon as she had read it.

5) When we are talking about people’s immediate reactions, we use the past
simple, not the past perfect after “as soon as”.
Ex.: I got a real shock as soon as I opened the box.

106
6) The past perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “as soon
as” to denote a future action viewed from the past and completed before the
action of the main clause.
Ex.: I felt sure he would come as soon as he had finished his work.

As long as – is a conjunction, which introduces an adverbial clause of time or


condition.

1) In the meaning of “for” it shows the period of duration. Future tenses are never
used after “as long as”.
Ex.: You will stay here as long as three weeks but no longer.
You may keep it as long as you need it.
I shall remember that day as long as I live.

2) In the meaning of “provided that” the conjunction “as long as” is often used to
make conditions.
Ex.: I’ll lend you the book as long as you keep it clean.
No future tenses are possible here.

Before - (I) is a conjunction which introduces an adverbial clause of time and


different tense forms are used in both parts of the sentence.

1) The present simple is used in the adverbial clause of time after “before” to
denote a future action.
Ex.: Come and see us before you go away.

2) The present perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by


“before” to denote a future action completed before a definite moment in
the future.
Ex.: We won’t start working before we have studied all the instructions.

3) The present perfect is also used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by
“before”to show that the action has been completed “at any time up to now”
or “by now”.
Ex.: He never argues before he has listened to all the arguments.

4) The past simple is used both in the main and in the adverbial clauses of time
introduced by“before” when we speak about the order of events in the past.
In this case “before” is used in the meaning of “then”.
Ex.: He worked as a salesman before he got married.

5) The past perfect is used in the complex sentences with the adverbial clause of
time introduced by “before”. It can denote either the priority or the
completion of the action. If it is used in the main clause, it denotes priority
(i.e. the action of the main clause took place before the action, expressed in
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the adverbial clause).
Ex.: We hadn’t gone thirty yards before a great black opening loomed in
the wall.
They had been friends for some ten yards before I met them.
If the past perfect is used in the adverbial clause, it underlines the completion
of the action (i.e. the action of the adverbial clause was completed or not
after the action of the main clause expressed by the verb in the past simple).
Ex.: I refused to give a definite answer before I had received a letter from
him.

II. In the sentence with “before” used as an adverb or a preposition,

1) the present perfect is used when the event takes place “at any time up to now”
or “by now”.
Ex.: I’m sure we’ve met before.

2) the past perfect is used in the sentence when the event had taken place “at any
time by then”.
Ex.: I was sure I had lost this photo long before.

3) the past simple is used when we speak about the order of events.
Ex.: I know his face but I can’t think where I saw him before.

Constantly - see “always”, items 4,5.


Ex.: She is constantly grumbling.

During – is a preposition. It’s followed by a noun, a noun phrase or a pronoun.

1) It is used to denote when something happened. It means at some point, in a


period of time. The simple tense forms are usually used in this case.
Ex.: We stayed in the camp during the summer.

2) With the meaning “for a period of time” in case the period of time is not
completed, perfect or perfect continuous tense forms can be used in the
sentence,.
Ex.: During the last few years unemployment has been increasing.

Ever - is an adverb of frequency. It can be an indicator of different tense forms.

1) When it means “at any time up to now” it is an indicator of the present perfect.
Ex.: Have you ever been in a submarine?

2) When the action refers to any time at present, the past simple or the future
simple tense forms are used in this case.
Ex.: If you ever do that again, I’ll be very annoyed.
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3) When it means “at any time before then” the past perfect is used.
Ex.: She asked me if I had ever been in trouble with the police.

Ever since – see “since”

For – is a preposition.

1) It is used to say how long an action or a situation lasts. In this case the simple
tense forms (present, past or future) are used.
Ex.: I once studied the guitar for three weeks.
We go to the seaside for a week every August.
My boss will be away for the next ten days.

2) The past simple is also used when we say how long the action or a situation
lasted before something happened.
Ex.: He was ill for three years before he died. (It means that illness lasted
three years.)

3) When “for” is used to denote a period of time, continuing up to the moment of


speaking, it is an indicator of the perfect or perfect continuous tense forms
(present, past or future).
Ex.: I’ve known her for a long time.
When she arrived, I had been waiting for two weeks.
By next Christmas I’ll have been here for seven years.

For the first time – is an adverbial phrase. The simple tense forms are usually
used with this expression.
Ex.: I’m here for the first time.

For a while – is used to say that the action or a situation lasts for some time or
lasted before the other action. The simple tense forms are usually used
with this expression.
Ex.: He stood for a while then went slowly upstairs.

From – is a preposition.

1) It denotes when an action or the situation starts or started. The simple tense
forms are usually used in these cases.
Ex.: He studied the piano from the age of three.

2) If we can say when the action starts and when it finishes we use “from… to” o
“from… till/until”. In this case the verb is used either in a simple or a
continuous tense form.
Ex.: I was asleep from three to six.
I was working from three to six.
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3) When we mean “from a time in the past until now”, “since” not “for” is used
with the verb in the perfect tense forms.
Ex.: I have known her since my childhood.

Hardly –is an adverb. (It is almost negative in meaning). In the meaning “едва ли”
it is used with simple tense forms.
Ex.: Hardly anyone wears hats nowadays.

Hardly…when – (like “scarcely… when” and “no sooner…than”) can be used


to suggest that one thing happened very soon after another. The past perfect
is usually used in the first part of the sentence, the past simple is used in the
second part.
Ex.: I had hardly closed my eyes when the telephone rang.
“Hardly” and “scarcely” are followed by a when-clause, “no sooner” by a
than-clause. This structure can be used with the inverted word order.
Ex.: Hardly had I arrived when I had a new problem to cope with.

It’s…since – simple tense forms are used in this structure.


Ex.: It's a long time since the last meeting.
It was ages since my last meal and I was very hungry.
It’s two years since he moved.

Just – is an adverb of relative time.

1) It’s an indicator of the present perfect when it means “in the very recent time”,
“not long ago”, “some time before now”.
Ex.: “Where is Eric?” – “He has just gone out”.

2) In the meaning “at the very moment” it is used with the continuous tense forms.
Ex.: I’m just going your direction. I can give you a lift.

Just as –means

1) that two short actions or events both happened at the same time. The past simple
is used with this expression.“Just as”is used here in the meaning of “when”.
Ex.: Just as he caught a boll there was a tearing sound.

2) It can also be used in the meaning of “точно так, как”.


Ex.: He told me the story just as he remembered it.

3) In the meaning of “exactly at the moment when something is happening”,


continuous tense forms are usually used.
Ex.: I got home just as the sun was setting.

Just after- (like “just before” and “just when”) suggests closeness to the time in
question.

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Ex.: I saw him just after lunch. (=very soon after lunch).

Just now-
1) When it means “a moment ago” it is used with the past simple.
Ex.: I felt a sudden pain just now.

2) When it means “at this moment”, the present simple is used


Ex.: “She isn’t in just now”- “Can I leave a message?”

Never – is an adverb of frequency

1) In the meaning of “at no time” is used in the simple tense forms.


Ex.: I never go to the skating rink.
I’ll never see him again.

2) In the meaning of “at no time up to now” the present perfect is used.


Ex.: You’ve never been here before, have you?

No sooner… than – see “hardly… when”.

Scarcely… when – see “hardly… when”.

Since (often with ever…)

1) As an adverb or a preposition, “since” is used to give the starting point of


actions and situations that continue up to the moment of speaking (or finish
just before it). The present perfect (simple or continuous) is used in this
case.
Ex.: I haven’t seen her since.
I’ve lived here since 1980.
It’s been raining non-stop since Tuesday.

2) As a conjunction, it introduces the adverbial clause of time, the verb of which


indicates the starting point of an action or a situation, continuing up to the
moment of speaking. The perfect tense forms (simple or continuous) are
used in the main clause, the past simple is usually used in the adverbial
clause.
Ex.: Where have you been since I saw you last? I met her last Christmas
but I’d known her by sight since we came to that settlement.

3) But when the verb in the adverbial clause of time after “since” indicates activity
having duration up to the moment of speaking, the verb is put in one of the
perfect or perfect continuous tense forms.
Ex.: Since we have lived here we have made many friends.
I’ve loved you since I’ve known you.
He has been writing his thesis since he has been working in our
university.
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4)“Since” can be used with a simple tense forms in the structure “It is… since…”.
Ex.: It’s ages since we went to the cinema.
How long is it since you last saw Joe?

5)“Since” in the meaning of “because”. See “as”, item 7.


Ex.: I’ll wait for him since I have some time.

Still – is an adverb of relative time

1) It is used to talk about the continuation of the situation or an action that started
in the past, especially when we are expecting it to stop some time soon, or
we are surprised that it has not stopped. So, it’s an indicator of the
continuous tense forms.
Ex.: Oh, hell, it’s still raining.

2)“Still” can also be used to speak about actions and events that were going on, or
are expected, around a particular past or future tense. Simple tense forms
are used in this case.
Ex.: Will you still love me when I’m old and gray?
I still didn’t decide, so I asked George what he thought.

This is the first time…


This/ that is the only…
This/ that is the best (finest, worst) …

1) The present perfect is usually used after the following expressions.


Ex.: This is the first time I’ve heard her sing.
This is the only party I’ve ever enjoyed in my life.
It’s one of the most interesting books I’ve ever read.

2) Talking about the past we use the past perfect tense.


Ex.: It was the third time he had been in love this year.

Till/ until

1) the conjunctions which mark the end point of a period of time. They are
associated with a verb denoting an action or the lack of the action, which
can continue during the period ending at that point. Simple tense forms are
used in this case.
Ex.: Wait here till I come back.

2) With “till/until” the perfect tense forms denote not only the priority but also the
completion of the action before the definite moment in the present, past or
future. In this case the simple past action may precede the past perfect
action.
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- The present perfect is used in the adverbial clauses of time introduced by “till/
until” (and other conjunctions of time) to denote a future action completed
before a certain moment in the future.
Ex.: I’ll stay with you until you’ve finished everything.
- The past perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “till/until”
to denote the completion or expected completion of the action.
Ex.: I waited until the rain had stopped.
- The past perfect is also used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “till/
until” to denote a future action viewed from the past and completed before
the action of the main clause.
Ex.: She said she wouldn’t discuss the problem until she had investigated
the case.

3) But when we speak about the priority of the action, the perfect or perfect
continuous forms are used in the main clause.
Ex.: The violinist had been practicing the passage hour after hour until he
mastered it at last.

Than – when used as a relative pronoun, it introduces the adverbial clause of


comparison with the verb in the present simple though the action refers to
the future.
Ex.: We’ll probably drive faster than you do, so we’ll get there first and
buy the tickets.

Then- an adverb of time.

1) When we speak about the order of events in the past we use the past simple in
both clauses.
Ex.: We came to the station, then the train arrived.

2) It’s used to refer the action or the situation to a particular past or future.
Ex.: Life was harder then as neither of us had a job.
I’ll see you on Friday. We can discuss it then.

What/ where/ whether/ who are relative pronouns. The verb after them is used in
the present simple though the action refers to the future.
Ex.: I’ll have a good time whether I win or lose.
I’ll go where you go.
I’ll always do what I think is best for everybody.

When – is a conjunction, which joins two clauses into a sentence.


I. 1) When it introduces the adverbial object clause, the future simple is used after
“when” or “if” when the action refers to the future.
Ex.: I don’t know when/ if he will come.
II. If it introduces an adverbial clause of time, different tense forms can be used in
these clauses.

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1)The present simple is used in the adverbial clauses of time with future meaning.
Ex.: I’ll ring you up when he comes.

2) The present perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time to denote an action
completed before the definite moment in the future.
Ex.: I’ll let you go only when you have finished your work.

3). But with the verb of sense perception and motion the present simple instead of
the present perfect is mostly used.
Ex.: You will be interested in this when you see it with your own eyes.

4) When we speak about the order of events in the present, past or future and the
idea of completion is of no importance, the simple tense forms are usually
used.
Ex.: When the light changes into green, the passers-by cross the road.
When the sun rose, they began to work.
When he finishes school, he will try to apply for the University.

5) The past perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “when” to
show that something was completely finished before the action of the main
clause.
Ex.: When I’d finished all my letters, I did some gardening.

6) The past simple, not the past perfect is usually used when we are talking about
people’s immediate reaction.
Ex.: When he saw Alice before him, he got embarrassed.
When she saw the mouse, she screamed.

7) The past perfect is used in the adverbial clause of time introduced by “when” to
denote a future action viewed from the past and completed before the
action of the main clause.
Ex.: I felt sure he would come when he had finished his work.

II. When/ while – When we speak about actions or situations which happen
simultaneously, the simple or continuous tense forms are used in the
sentence.

1) When the actions in both parts of the sentence are simultaneous, the continuous
tense form is used in the adverbial clause of time if it denotes the
“background” situation which started before a shorter event of the main
clause and perhaps went on after it.
Ex.: When/ While I was walking down the street I noticed a police car in
front of the house.

114
2) “While” is most often used in the sentence to talk about two long simultaneous
actions. Both simple and continuous tense forms are used in this case in
both parts of the sentence.
Ex.: While they were talking, the boy was waiting outside.
John cooked supper while I watched TV.

3) The continuous tense forms can be used either in the principle or in the
adverbial clause of time.
Ex.: When I was working there I played in the local jazz band.
They were talking inside while he stood watching the path.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Unit 1. The Active Voice. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect
Continuous. _______________________________________________ 2-14__
Unit 2. Past Simple, Present Perfect. ____________________________15-25___
Unit 3. Past Simple, Past Continuous. ___________________________26-29___
Unit 4. Past Simple, Past Perfect. ______________________________30-36____
Unit 5. Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous. _________________ 37-40___
Unit 6. Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous. _____________________41-43____
Unit 7. Present Tenses for the Future. ___________________________44-45___
Unit 8. Present Tenses for the Future and Future Simple. ____________50______
Unit 9. Future Simple, Future Continuous. ___________________ 51-54
Unit 10. Future Simple, Future Perfect. __________________________55-56___
Unit 11. Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous. _____________57-61
Unit 12. The Passive Voise___ 62-72
Unit 13. Sequence of Tenses. __________________________________73-75
Unit 14. Reported Speech 76-83
Progress Test.______________________________________________84-102__
Reference Section. __________________________________________103-114_
Table of Contents. ___________________________________________115____
References. 116-

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REFERENCES.

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М,: Просвещение, 1979
4. Крылова И.П., Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка.
– М,: "Университет", 2000
5.Утевская Н.Л. Грамматика английского языка: Учебное пособие. -
СПб.:Антология, 2007
6. Хитон Дж.Б., Тэртон Н.Д. Словарь типичных ошибок английского языка. –
М,: Русский язык, 1991
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"Инко", 1992
8. Христорождественская Л.П. Практический курс английского языка. Ч.1. –
Минск: "Аурика", 1993
9. Христорождественская Л.П. Английский язык. Практический курс Ч.2-
Мн.: ООО ‘Харвест’, 2001
10. Неаton J.В., Turton N.D. Longman Dictionary of Соmmon Еrrors. – Longman
Group UK Limited of London, 1987
11. John Eastwood. Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate.-Oxford University
Press, 2008
12. Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. Second Edition, 1994
13. Реtеrson Р.W. Changing Тimes, Changing Теnses. – Washington, DС, 1996
14. Soars L. New Нeadway, Intermediate. – Oxford University Press, 1996
15. Soars L. Нeadway, Upper-Intermediate. – Oxford University Press, 1987
16. Swan M., Walter C. Нow English Works. – Oxford University Press, 1997
17. Swan M. Practical English Usage. – Oxford University Press, 1996
18. Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford
University Press, 1999
19. Vince М., Advanced Language Practice. – Heinemann, 1994

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