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Департамент образования города Москвы

Государственное автономное образовательное учреждение


Высшего образования города Москвы
«МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОРОДСКОЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Институт гуманитарных наук
Кафедра зарубежной филологии

Казаченко О.В.

Академический дискурс
(для аспирантов, соискателей и магистрантов)

Москва – 2016
УДК 811.11

ББК 81.432.1я73

Казаченко О.В. «Академический дискурс (для аспирантов, соискателей и


магистрантов)»: Учебное пособие по подготовке к экзамену по английскому
языку. – М.: Изд-во МГПУ, 2016. – 145 с.

Данное пособие представляет собой учебное пособие с текстами и


упражнениями для подготовки к экзамену по английскому языку для
аспирантов, соискателей и магистрантов. Содержит аутентичные
англоязычные тексты по методологии научного исследования и
разработанный на их основе комплекс заданий, ориентированных на
взаимосвязанное формирование умений иноязычного чтения, письма и
говорения в контексте научно-познавательной деятельности. Пособие
состоит из 8 разделов, содержащих упражнения на выработку основных
навыков и умений. В приложение включены тренировочные тексты к
экзаменам по специальностям, образец титульного листа реферата и пример
выполненного реферата.
Предназначено для магистрантов, аспирантов и соискателей
гуманитарных и естественных специальностей, изучающих английский язык
для научных целей. Пособие включает в себя основные тематические
разделы, необходимые для подготовки к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по
английскому языку.

кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры зарубежной филологии


Казаченко Оксана Васильевна

Рецензенты:
Беляева В.Е., кандидат филологических наук, доцент, ГАОУ ВО МГПУ
Картушина Е.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент, ФГБОУ ВО
Государственный институт русского языка им. А.С. Пушкина

© О.В. Казаченко, 2016


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword…………………………………………………………………….. 4

Unit 1.My research work…………………………………………………….. 5

Unit 2. Conferences and symposia………………………………………….. 22

Unit 3. Dissertation research and writing…………………………………….. 41

Unit 4.Choosing a topic for a dissertation……………………………………. 50

Unit 5. Computer technologies in doing research……………………………. 65

Unit 6. Academic article……………………………………………………… 75

Unit 7. Reading and discussing professional literature………………………. 87

Unit 8. Plagiarism……………………………………………………………. 102

Appendix 1…………………………………………………………………… 115

Appendix 2…………………………………………………………………… 121

Appendix 3…………………………………………………………………… 137

Appendix 4…………………………………………………………………… 142

References…………………………………………………………………… 145

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Foreword
Well-educated people are the driving force behind sustainable social and
economic development. They provide a country with the highly qualified
workforce it needs and are optimally equipped to meet the needs of a global
knowledge society. Hence an efficient higher education system plays a key role in
the development process.
The book is designed for future scientists who use English as a second
language, and for individual scientists or mentors or a class setting. This work
includes review articles and the full range of research article formats, as well as
exercises for practicing and development of necessary academic skills.

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UNIT 1 MY SCIENTIFIC WORK

Полноценное общение на научной конференции предполагает, что ее


участники, с одной стороны, имеют достаточно ясное представление о
положении, занимаемом в научном мире их коллегами, а с другой – умеют
пояснять средствами английского языка свои научные позиции.
Научный статус ученого в известной степени характеризуется рядом
формальных показателей, среди которых степень, звание, место работы,
занимаемая должность, обладание специальными наградами, членство в
различных обществах и ассоциациях.
Одним из важнейших показателей научной квалификации является
степень (degree). В англоязычных странах успешное окончание трех-,
четырехлетнего курса обучения в высшем учебном заведении, как правило,
приводит к получению степени бакалавра (Bachelor’s degree): Bachelor of
Science, сокр. B.Sc./B.S. (естественные науки); Bachelor of Arts, сокр. A.B./B.A.
(гуманитарные науки); Bachelor of Fine Arts, сокр. B.F.A. (искусство);
Bachelor of Business Administration, сокр. B.B.A. (управление) и т.д. Степень
бакалавра часто называется в англоязычных странах первой степенью (first
degree). Например, ученый, изменивший свою специализацию, может сказать
так: «I got my first degree in chemistry and then I switched over to the field of
biology».
Принято считать, что степень бакалавра соответствует диплому
выпускника российского вуза с четырехлетним циклом обучения (бакалавра),
сдавшего государственные экзамены.
Студенты, продолжающие занятия после получения первой степени
(graduate/postgraduate students), могут претендовать на степень магистра
(master’s degree): Master of Science, сокр. M.S.; Master of Arts, сокр. M.A.;
Master of Fine Arts, сокр. M.F.A. и т.д. Для получения этой степени после года
или двух лет учебы и участия в исследовательской работе необходимо сдать
еще ряд экзаменов и, как правило, представить диссертацию (thesis).
Принято считать, что степень магистра соответствует диплому
выпускника российского вуза с пяти – шестилетним циклом обучения,
выполнившего и защитившего дипломный проект.
Отметим, однако, что использование слова diploma по аналогии с
русским словом диплом (свидетельство об окончании вуза) может привести к
неточному пониманию собеседником вашей мысли. Дело в том, что в
англоязычных странах завершение курса обучения получением diploma, как
правило, менее почетно, чем получение degree. Это обстоятельство можно
учесть путем обращения к слову degree, когда речь идет о высшем
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образовании. Например, обладатель диплома инженера-химика может
сказать: I have a master’s degree in chemical engineering.
Следующая степень в англоязычных странах – это степень доктора
философии (Doctor of Philosophy, сокр. Ph.D.). Она присуждается
представителям различных наук, как естественных, так и гуманитарных.
Использование слова Philosophy в данном случае носит чисто традиционный
характер и объясняется тем, что изначально оно имело более общее значение
«наука вообще». Например, обладателем этой степени может быть ботаник:
«I left English to go to Canada to be a student of advanced botany. In Canada I
earned the degree of Master of Science and also Doctor of Philosophy».
Часто степень доктора философии называют doctoral degree / doctor’s
degree / doctorate: “I attended a college in Arizona for my bachelor’s degree and
my master’s degree. Then I got my doctoral degree at the University of Hawaii”.
Претендент на эту степень должен провести оригинальное научное
исследование, как правило, в рамках специальной учебной программы (Ph.
D. program / studies), сдать ряд экзаменов и обязательно представить
диссертационную работу (doctoral thesis / dissertation). Как правило, к работе
над докторской диссертацией исследователь приступает после получения
степени магистра: «I am twenty-six years old and have just completed my
master’s degree in science. And I’m going to begin my Ph. D. program next
September in Canada».
Рассказывая о своем научном пути, ученые нередко называют степени
магистра и доктора одним из сочетаний типа advanced / graduate / higher
degree: “After graduation from Florida State University I received an advanced
degree in economics at Duke University”. Ученый может обладать несколькими
степенями в разных областях и от разных учебных заведений: «I have
graduate degrees from the American University and the University of Miami in
Florida».
Принято считать, что степень доктора философии соответствует ученой
степени кандидата наук, что позволяет российскому научному работнику
этой квалификации представляться доктором при общении на
международном уровне понятие ученая степень кандидата наук может быть
выражено, например, словом doctorate: “I got my doctorate in economics two
years ago”.
При использовании сочетаний типа candidate’s degree / candidate of
sciences или candidate of chemistry / candidate of chemical science(s) и т.п.
следует иметь в виду, что они, являясь дословным переводом с русского,
будут понятны только тем зарубежным ученым, кто знаком с научными
реалиями нашей страны, что ограничивает круг их употребления или, во
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всяком случае, требует дополнительных пояснений, например, таких: «I have
a candidate’s degree which corresponds to the Ph.D. degree in your country».
Не в пользу дословного перевода русского словосочетания кандидат
наук как candidate of science(s) без соответствующих разъяснений говорят два
обстоятельства. Во-первых, оно может быть интерпретировано носителем
английского языка по аналогии со словосочетаниями bachelor of science,
master of science и тем самым создаст впечатление, что вы работаете в
области естественных наук, а это может не соответствовать
действительности. Во-вторых, необходимо учитывать, что слово candidate
часто используется в сочетаниях Ph.D. doctoral candidate, где оно указывает,
что данный исследователь работает над соответствующей диссертацией, но
степени доктора философии еще не получил. Сочетание doctoral candidate
может быть удачным эквивалентом русскому понятию соискатель. Ср.:
Сейчас я являюсь соискателем степени кандидата экономических наук. – Now
I am a doctoral candidate in economics.
Соответственно для обозначения понятия аспирант наряду со
словосочетаниями graduate / postgraduate student можно использовать и
сочетание doctoral student особенно, если учесть, что оно точнее передает
позицию аспиранта как исследователя, работающего над диссертацией,
соответствующей докторской диссертации в англоязычных странах. Дело в
том, что сочетания graduate student (амер.) и postgraduate student (брит.)
употребляются для обозначения студентов, которые могут работать по
программам, ведущим к получению степени, как доктора философии, так и
магистра.
Наряду со степенью доктора философии в англоязычных странах есть
ряд почетных докторских степеней (honorary / higher / senior doctorates),
присуждаемых сравнительно немногим ученым за долголетнюю и
плодотворную научную деятельность. Среди них степени: Doctor of Science,
сокр. D.Sc. (естественные науки); Doctor of Letters, сокр. Litt.D.
(гуманитарные науки); Doctor of Laws, сокр. L.L.D. (юриспруденция) и ряд
других. Они не требуют проведения специальных исследований или
написания диссертации и присуждаются по совокупности заслуг известным
деятелям науки: «Dr. Green received an honorary D.Sc. in engineering from the
University of Pennsylvania for his contribution in electromechanical science».
Отметим, что ученый может быть обладателем нескольких или даже многих
почетных докторских степеней.
По-видимому, сочетание senior doctorate может быть использовано в
устной речи для передачи русского понятия степени доктора наук: «I hope to
get my senior doctorate within the next three years».
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Однако здесь обязательно нужно пояснить, что степень доктора наук в
нашей стране требует представления диссертации, а так же, как правило,
написания монографии. Например, можно сказать: «Our senior doctorate is not
an honorary degree. It requires the writing of a dissertation and the publication of
a monograph».
Использование сочетаний типа Doctor of Science / Doctor of the Sciences /
Doctor of History / Doctor of Technical science(s) и т.д. для передачи степени
доктора наук также может потребовать аналогичных разъяснений, если ваш
собеседник не ориентируется в российских научных реалиях. В частности,
можно подчеркнуть, что степень доктора наук является высшей ученой
степенью в нашей стране, а многие из ее обладателей имеют звание
профессора: «The Russian Doctor of Science degree is the highest research
degree in this country. Many scientists having that degree are professors».
Кроме исследовательских степеней (research degrees) в англоязычных
странах имеются также профессиональные докторские степени (professional
degrees), которые присваиваются специалистам определенной квалификации
в ряде областей, например: Doctor of Medicine, сокр. M.D. (медицина); Juris
Doctor, сокр. J.D. (юриспруденция). Отметим, что обладание
профессиональной степенью в англоязычных странах фактически означает,
что данный человек имеет квалификацию, отвечающую требованиям,
выдвигаемым к специалистам этого плана соответствующей
профессиональной ассоциацией. Например, для получения степени Juris
Doctor в США необходимо, как правило, сначала получить степень
бакалавра, а затем успешно закончить трехлетнюю юридическую школу (law
school); для получения степени Doctor of Medicine – степень бакалавра и
закончить четырехлетнюю медицинскую школу (medical school) и
интернатуру (internship). Таким образом, профессиональные степени в
англоязычных странах скорее соответствуют русским дипломам врачей и
юристов, хотя и требуют большего времени для их получения, и не могут
использоваться в качестве эквивалентов русским ученым степеням
кандидатов и докторов медицинских и юридических наук. Обладатели этих
степеней должны учитывать это обстоятельство и в случае необходимости
дать, например, такое пояснение: «I have a degree which we call Doctor of
Medical Science degree. It is our senior research doctoral degree in this field».
Нередко человек является обладателем профессиональной и ученой
степени, в частности, M.D. и Ph.D.
Наличие определенной ученой степени позволяет данному научному
сотруднику занимать соответствующую должность в исследовательской
организации. Например, можно прочитать такое объявление в научном
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журнале: «We are seeking a postgraduate biochemist (Ph.D.) with experience in
protein chemistry to take up an interesting position in our research laboratories».
Названия должностей, которые научные работники могут занимать в
государственных и частных исследовательских учреждениях, в том числе и в
высших учебных заведениях, в англоязычных странах весьма разнообразны.
В ряде случаев они отражают конкретную специализацию: assistant wild life
ecologist, biochemist, plant physiologist, research chemist, senior economist.
Позиции исследователей типа research assistant, senior research assistant,
research associate, senior research associate, research fellow, senior research
fellow и т.д., в названиях которых не обозначена научная дисциплина,
встречаются, как правило, в высших учебных заведениях и относящихся к
ним научных организациях. Обычно их занимают исследователи,
претендующие на получение докторской степени или обладающие ею, что
видно из следующего объявления: «Research associate: Applicants should have
submitted their Ph. D. thesis or have a recent Ph. D. degree in biochemistry or
chemistry».
Если место предназначено только для исследователя с докторской
степенью, то в названиях появляется слово postdoctoral: postdoctoral research
fellow, postdoctoral research associate, postdoctoral fellow. Еще один пример
объявления: «Postdoctoral Senior or Research Associateship: The appointment is
for three years and could start in September, 2005. Applicants must have a Ph. D.
degree, or have submitted their thesis for Ph. D. before the starting date».
Добавим также, что позиция associate выше по рангу, чем assistant, и
предполагает большую самостоятельность в научной работе.
Следует отметить, что научные сотрудники типа postdoctoral fellow или
research fellow занимаются исследовательской работой одновременно с
повышением своей научной квалификации. Для этой цели им выделяется
специальная стипендия (fellowship).
Следует отличать ученого, занимающего позицию research fellow или
postdoctoral fellow, от fellow – действительного члена научного общества:
Brown B.B., Fellow of the Royal Society.
Слово fellow также используется для обозначения членов совета
преподавателей колледжа или университета: «Grey G.G., Fellow of Balliol
College, Oxford». Такое членство может быть и почетным: «White W.W.,
Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford».
Если ученый прекращает активную научную деятельность, но не
порывает связей с университетом, его называют visiting fellow: “I’m actually
retired and now am called a visiting fellow which means I have no responsibilities
and can enjoy myself”.
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В высших учебных заведениях англоязычных стран сосредоточены
значительные научные силы. Как правило, ученые совмещают научную и
преподавательскую деятельность и нередко делят свое время пополам: «I’m a
botanist and a professor of ecology. I have what we call a fifty-fifty appointment.
Fifty percent teaching. I teach undergraduate and graduate students, and then the
remaining time is taken up with research».
Высшее ученое звание в англоязычных странах – профессор professor/
full professor (амер.): professor of oceanology, professor of economics, professor
of mathematics.
За большие заслуги перед университетом ученый может получить
звание почетного профессора (emeritus professor/professor emeritus): «Dr.
Green, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of London». Как правило,
обладатель этого звания не занимается активной научной и
преподавательской деятельностью.
Что касается позиции профессора в вузах России, то она обозначается на
английском языке словом professor. Доктора наук, имеющие это звание,
могут использовать его для уточнения своего научного статуса относительно
своих коллег с кандидатской степенью, например, при представлении
зарубежному коллеге: «I’m Professor Petrov and this is my colleague Dr.
Ivanov».
На ступеньку ниже профессора в иерархической должностной лестнице
в британских вузах стоят reader: “Brown B.B., Reader in Criminal Law,
University of Strathclyde”; principal lecturer: “Johnson J.J., Principal Lecturer in
Criminal Law. Liverpool polytechnic”; senior lecturer: “Senior Lecturer,
University of Birmingham”; в американских университетах – associate
professor: “White W.W., Associate Professor of Economics, University of Alaska”.
Вышеприведенные сочетания могут быть использованы для
приблизительной передачи позиции доцента в вузах нашей страны.
Иногда для обозначения соответствующего звания на английском языке
в европейских неанглоязычных странах употребляется слово docent. Обратим
внимание, однако, что в некоторых американских университетах этим словом
называют преподавателей младшего ранга, не являющихся постоянными
членами педагогического коллектива. Поэтому вряд ли можно считать
английское слово docent удачным эквивалентом русскому слову “доцент”.
Если же оно все-таки используется в устной речи, то не будет лишним
соответствующее пояснение: «Now I occupy the position of docent which
corresponds to associate professor or reader in English-speaking countries».
Следующая категория преподавателей в британских вузах известна как
lecturer: “Jones J.J., Lecturer in Land Law, University of East Anglia”, в
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американских – assistant professor: “Brown B.B., Assistant Professor of
Economics, University of Texas”.
В вузах России аналогичную позицию занимает старший
преподаватель. Помимо вышеприведенных аналогов для обозначения этой
должности можно употребить сочетание senior instructor. Во всяком случае,
им иногда пользуются авторы из англоязычных стран, когда они пишут о
системе образования в нашей стране.
Заметим, что дословный перевод на английский язык русского
словосочетания старший преподаватель как senior teacher может
соответственно потребовать дополнительных пояснений, ибо английское
слово teacher в основном используется в отношении школьных учителей.
Для обозначения группы младших преподавателей в англоязычных
странах используются такие сочетания, как assistant lecturer (брит.) и
instructor (амер.). В нашей стране примерно такую же позицию занимают
ассистент и преподаватель. Говоря о своей работе, они могут использовать
слово instructor: I am an instructor in English.
Профессор в англоязычных странах, как правило, является
одновременно и заведующим кафедрой (head of department): S.S. Smith, D.Sc.,
Professor and Head of Department, Department of Economics. Таким образом, в
круг его обязанностей входит административная преподавательская и
научная работа. Говорит заведующий кафедрой экономики одного из
американских университетов: «The main part of my responsibilities is
administrative, because I have been running the Department of economics. So it
takes most of my time. But in addition to that I teach courses. I also supervise the
work of graduate students and I try to find some time for my own research».
Несмотря на определенные отличия в организации и функционировании
таких подразделений, как кафедра в нашей стране и department в вузах
англоязычных стран, эти слова можно использовать в качестве ближайших
эквивалентов: кафедра физики – department of physics и наоборот: department
of modern languages – кафедра современных языков, но не факультет, как
иногда ошибочно переводят сочетания подобного типа.
Слово кафедра нельзя переводить на английский язык как chair, так как
данное слово используется лишь для обозначения поста заведующего
кафедрой или лица, занимающего эту должность: см., например, два
следующих объявления: «The Chair of Economics remains vacant»; «The
University of California College of Medicine is seeking a Chair for the Department
of Biological Chemistry».
Во главе учебного подразделения типа факультета, называемого в
британских университетах faculty (faculty of arts, faculty of science, faculty of
11
law faculty of economics, etc.), а в американских – college или school (college of
fine arts, college of arts and sciences, college of business administration, school of
law, school of pharmacy, etc.), стоит dean (декан).
Для передачи позиции декана в высших учебных заведениях можно
использовать слово dean, соответственно заместителя декана – sub-dean/
associate dean / assistant dean.
Отметим, что в американских университетах есть ряд должностей, в
названия которых входит слово dean: dean of students, dean of university, dean
of faculty и т.п., но их функции отличны от функций декана в нашем
понимании. Добавим, что в американских вузах слово faculty обозначается
основной преподавательский состав, в то время как в британских
используется сочетание academic / teaching staff. В беседе с американскими
учеными нужно иметь в виду особенность употребления слова faculty и в
случае необходимости ввести соответствующие коррективы: "When I use the
word "faculty" I mean by that a division of the university and not the teaching
staff".
Формально университет в странах с британским вариантом английского
языка возглавляет chancellor, изредка посещающий его для участия в
торжественных церемониях. Фактически университетом руководит ученый,
занимающий пост vice-chancellor. Аналогичную функцию в американском
университете выполняет president. Для передачи позиции ректора вуза кроме
вышеприведенных аналогов (vice-chancellor, president) можно
воспользоваться и словом rector, которое применяется в европейских странах
и будет понятно зарубежным ученым. В устной беседе никогда не помешает
краткое пояснение: "The rector of our university, in America you would call him
president, is a physicist by training".
По-разному в высших учебных заведениях англоязычных стран
называются должности, обладатели которых занимают ключевые
административные позиции: Vice president for academic affair, vice-president
for research, pro-vice-chancellor и т.д. Ученый, занимающий должность,
обозначенную словом provost, фактически отвечает за всю учебную и
исследовательскую работу, проводимую в институте: "I was dividing my time
between research and administration as Provost for MIT (Massachusetts Institute
of technology), a position that put me in charge of all the teaching and research
done at the Institute - everything in fact, except the Institute's financial matters and
its capital equipment."
Соответственно для обозначения на английском языке позиции
проректора в вузе можно воспользоваться сочетаниями: prorector, vice rector
или deputy vice-chancellor; проректор по учебной работе - prorector for
12
academic affairs; проректор по научной работе prorector for research.
Что касается научно-исследовательских институтов и других
организаций подобного типа, то в названиях должностей, которые занимают
их сотрудники, часто встречается слово scientist без указанной научной
дисциплины: assistant scientist, research scientist, senior research scientist,
principal scientist, senior scientist и т.п. Представляется гидролог, специалист в
области поведения рек: "I am a research scientist and my specialty is hydrology,
behavior of rivers particularly."
В названиях научных должностей в государственных учреждениях, как
правило, присутствует слово officer: scientific officer, senior scientific officer,
principle scientific officer, research officer, senior research officer, experimental
officer, senior experimental officer.
Для передачи на английском языке ученых званий младший и старший
научный сотрудник, имеющихся в научно-исследовательских организациях,
могут быть предложены различные варианты. Прежде всего, заметим, что
вряд ли целесообразно использовать в этом случае слово junior (младший),
учитывая, что оно практически не встречается в данном контексте в
англоязычных странах. Принимая это во внимание, можно предложить
следующие пары для обозначения понятий младший научный сотрудник -
старший научный сотрудник (без указания специальности): scientific
associate-senior scientific associate, research associate - senior research
associate, research scientist - senior research scientist или с указанием
специализации: research physicist - senior research physicist, research chemist -
senior research chemist.
Представителям гуманитарных наук, видимо, следует остановиться на
первом из предложенных вариантов, так как такие слова, как scientist и
research, как правило, предполагают естественно-научную тематику
исследования.
О научном статусе участника конференции можно судить и по
занимаемой им административной должности: director of institute;
deputy/associate/assistant director; head of department/division; head/chief of
laboratory; head of group; project director/leader; head of section и т.д.
Подбирая английские эквиваленты названиям руководящих научных
должностей типа заведующий отделом лабораторией руководитель группы и
т.п., можно рекомендовать нейтральное и ясное во всех контекстах слово
head: head of department, head of laboratory, head of group.
Отметим, что использование слова laboratory предполагает, что речь
идет о естественно-научной тематике исследований. Поэтому сочетание
лаборатория гуманитарных дисциплин можно передать по-английски the
13
humanities group. Добавим, что за названием laboratory/laboratories может
скрываться и крупная научная организация (Bell Telephone Laboratories), и ее
руководитель (director) соответственно имеет статус директора научно-
исследовательского института. Важным показателем научных достижений
ученого является вручение ему различных наград (medals, prizes, awards).
Особое признание его заслуг в международном масштабе отмечается
присуждением Нобелевской премии (The Nobel Prize).
Свидетельством заслуг ученого является его избрание в члены ряда
научных обществ, например, таких, как Королевское общество (The Royal
Society) в Великобритании, Американская Академия наук и искусств (The
American Academy of Arts and Sciences), Национальная академия наук (The
National Academy of Science) в США и т.п.
Соответственно в России высшие научные позиции занимают члены
Академии наук (members of the Russian Academy of Science): члены -
корреспонденты (corresponding members) и действительные члены (full
members academicians).
В заключение отметим, что научный статус участника конференции в
известной мере определяет выбор той или иной формы обращения к нему в
процессе общения.

1.1 Study the text below and answer the following questions:

My research work

I’m an economist in one of the Moscow


auditing firms. My special subject is
accounting. I combine practical work with
scientific research, so I’m a doctoral
candidate1.
I’m doing research in auditing which is
now widely accepted in all fields of economy.
This branch of knowledge has been rapidly
developing in the last two decades. The obtained results have already found wide
application in various spheres of national economy.
I’m interested in that part of auditing which includes its internal quality
control. I have been working at the problem for two years. I got interested in it
when a student.
The theme of the dissertation is “Internal quality control of audit services”.
1
соискатель
14
The subject of my thesis is the development of an effective internal quality control
system for audit firm services.
I think this problem is very important nowadays as a major portion of public
accounting practice is involved with auditing. In making decisions it is necessary
for the investors, creditors and other interested parties to know whether the
financial statements may be relied on. Hence there should be an internal control of
auditing operations for insuring the fairness of presentation.
My work is both of theoretical and practical importance. It is based on the
theory developed by my research adviser, Professor S. Petrov. He is a head of the
department at the Orenburg State University. I always consult him when I
encounter difficulties in my research. We often discuss the collected data. These
data enable me to define more precisely the theoretical model of the audit internal
quality system.
I have not completed the experimental part of my thesis yet, but I’m through
with the theoretical part. For the moment I have 4 scientific papers published. One
of them was published in the US journal.
I take part in various scientific conferences where I make reports on my
subject and participate in scientific discussions and debates.
I’m planning to finish writing the dissertation by the end of the next year and
prove it in the Scientific Council of the Moscow City Teacher Training University.
I hope to get a PhD in Economics.

1. What are you?


2. What is your special subject?
3. What field of knowledge are you doing research in?
4. Have you been working at the problem long?
5. Is your work of practical or theoretical importance?
6. Who do you collaborate with?
7. When do you consult your scientific adviser?
8. Have you completed the experimental part of your dissertation?
9. How many scientific papers have you published?
10.Do you take part in the work of scientific conferences?
11.Where and when are you going to get PhD degree?

1.2 Make up English-Russian pairs of words equivalent in meaning:

to publish, sphere, research, to include, importance, to develop, to collaborate,


enterprise, scientific adviser, scientific degree, to be awarded, department, to

15
encounter, branch, research team, data, to participate, to take post-graduate
courses, to prove a thesis (dissertation);
защищать диссертацию, обучаться в аспирантуре, публиковать, область,
быть награжденным, включать, (научное) исследование, важность, кафедра,
встречать(ся) (сталкиваться), исследовательская группа, данные
(информация), разрабатывать, сотрудничать, участвовать, ученая степень,
научный руководитель, предприятие, отрасль.

1.3 Form nouns by adding suffixes. Read and translate them:

1) – er / - or V + -er / - or → N
Example: to research → researcher; to invent → inventor
To publish, to use, to make, to investigate, to experiment, to compute, to collect, to
advise, to supervise, to report, to work, to collaborate, to write;

2) – ist N + - ist → N
Example: physics → physicist
Economy, technology, science, biology, collective, journal.

1.4 Find synonyms in the list below, arrange them in pairs:

1) device, research, technology, branch, obtain, importance, collaborator,


team, scientific adviser, to enable, thesis, journal, to prove a thesis, to collect, data,
to encounter, to be engaged in, to be through with, scientific papers, rapidly;
2) quickly, publications, instrument, technique, to finish, to be busy with,
field, to get, significance, to come across, information, to gather, coworker, group,
supervisor, to defend a dissertation, scientific magazine, dissertation, to allow,
investigation.

1.5. Find antonyms in the list below, arrange them in pairs:

1) theory, to obtain, rapidly, experimentator, to finish, to increase, new,


experienced, unknown, wide, passive, to enable, high, complicated;
2) simple, low, practice, to give, to disable, active, slowly, theoretician, narrow,
famous, to start, to decrease, old, inexperienced.

1.6 Read the text to find the answers to the following questions:
a) What does your research deal with?
b) What are you engaged in at present?
16
Taking a Post-Graduate Course
1 Last year by the decision of the Scientific Council I took post-graduate
courses to increase my knowledge in economics. I passed three entrance
examinations - in History, Philosophy, English and the special subject. So
now I am a first year post-graduate student of the Moscow City Teacher
Training University. I'm attached to the Statistics Department. In the course of
my post-graduate studies I am to pass candidate examinations in philosophy,
English and the special subject. So I attend courses of English and philosophy.
I'm sure the knowledge of English will help me in my research.
2 My research deals with economics. The theme of the dissertation (thesis) is
"Computer-Aided Tools for…" I was interested in the problem when a student
so by now I have collected some valuable data for my thesis.
3 I work in close contact with my research adviser (supervisor). He graduated
from the Moscow State University 15 years ago and got his doctoral degree at
the age of 40. He is the youngest Doctor of Sciences at our University. He has
published a great number of research papers in journals not only in this
country but also abroad. He often takes part in the work of scientific
conferences and symposia. When I encounter difficulties in my work I always
consult my research adviser.
4 At present I am engaged in collecting the necessary data. I hope it will be a
success and I will be through with my work on time.

c) Read passage 2 and answer the following questions: What is the theme of your
dissertation?
d) Read passage 3 and speak about your research adviser according to the following
plan:
1. Doctor's degree.
2. Scientific publications.
3. Participation in the work of scientific conferences.

Additional reading
1. Skim the text about the nature of research. Find an appropriate heading for
each paragraph.
a. academic definition of research
b. everyday use of the term 'research'
c. basic characteristics of research
d. basic and applied research
17
e. incorrect use of the term 'research'

1. When listening to the radio, watching the television or reading a daily


newspaper it is difficult to avoid the term ‘research’. The results of 'research' are
all around us. A debate about the findings of a recent poll of people's opinions
inevitably includes a discussion of 'research', normally referring to the way in
which the data were collected. Politicians often justify their policy decisions on the
basis of 'research'. Documentary programmes tell us about 'research findings', and
advertisers may highlight the 'results of research' to encourage you to buy a
particular product or brand. However, we believe that what these examples really
emphasize is the wide range of meanings given to the term 'research' in everyday
speech.
2. Many of these everyday uses of the term 'research' are not research in the
true meaning of the word. The ways in which the term is used wrongly are:
− just collecting facts or information with no clear purpose;
− reordering facts or information without interpretation;
− as a term to get your product or idea noticed and respected.
The first of these highlights the fact that, although research often involves the
collection of information, it is more than just reading a few books or articles,
talking to a few people or asking people questions. While collecting data may be
part of the research process, if it is not undertaken in a systematic way, on its own
and in particular with a clear purpose, it will not be seen as research. The second of
these is commonplace in many reports. Data are collected, perhaps from a variety
of different sources, and then assembled in a single document with the sources of
these data listed. However, there is no interpretation of the data collected. Again,
while the assembly of data from a variety of sources may be part of the process of
research, without interpretation it is not research. Finally, the term 'research' can be
used to get an idea or product noticed by people and to suggest that people should
have confidence in it. In such instances, when you ask for details of the research
process, these are either unclear or not forthcoming.
3. Based upon this brief discussion we can already see that research has a
number of characteristics:
• data are collected systematically;
• data are interpreted systematically;
• there is a clear purpose: to find things out.
4. We can therefore define research as something that people undertake in
order to find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge.
Two phrases are important in this definition: 'systematic research' and 'to find out
things'. 'Systematic' suggests that research is based on logical relationships and not
18
just beliefs. As part of this, your research will involve an explanation of the
methods used to collect the data, will argue why the results obtained are
meaningful, and will explain any limitations that are associated with them. ‘To find
out things’ suggests there is a multiplicity of possible purposes for your research.
These may include describing, explaining, understanding, criticizing and
analyzing. However, it also suggests that you have a clear purpose or set of 'things'
that you want to find out, such as the answer to a question or number of questions.
5. Despite the variety of purposes and contexts of research, all research projects
can be placed on a continuum. At one extreme of the continuum is research that is
undertaken purely to understand processes and outcomes. Such research is
conducted predominantly in universities as a result of an academic agenda. Its key
consumer is the academic community, with relevantly little attention being given
to its practical applications. This is often termed basic, fundamental or pure
research. At the other end of the continuum is the research which is of direct and
immediate relevance to practitioners that addresses issues they see as important
and is presented in ways they can understand and act upon. This is termed applied
research.

2. Scan the text and write the number of the paragraph where you can find the
following information. Do it as quickly as possible.
____ collecting facts without purpose
____ fundamental characteristics of research
____ purposes of research
____ pure research
____ meanings given to the term ‘research’ in everyday life
____ applied research
____ systematic study

3. Find Russian equivalents of the English words used in the text.


1 poll n. a неизбежно
2 avoid v. b подчеркивать, выделять
3 inevitably adv. c поощрять, подстрекать, ободрять
4 refer to v. d опрос, голосование, выборы
5 justify v. e спорить, убеждать, утверждать
6 highlight v. f предпринимать
7 encourage v. g относиться, приписывать, ссылаться
8 argue v. h значимость, существенность, важность
9 clear purpose n. i узнать, выяснить, докопаться до истины
10 commonplace n. j план мероприятий, программа
19
11 confidence n. k избегать
12 forthcoming a. l оправдывать, объяснять, подтверждать
13 undertake v. m преимущественно, особенно
14 find out v. n общее место
15 beliefs n. o ясная, отчетливая цель
16 explanation n. p многообразие, множественность
17 multiplicity n. q объяснение
18 agenda n. r мнения
19 relevance n. s открытый, откровенный
20 predominantly adv t доверие

4. Look through the text again and find the words which mean the same. The
paragraph numbers are given in brackets.
1) A discussion in which people or groups state different opinions about a subject
(1);
2) An occasion when a lot of people are asked their opinions about something,
usually by a company paid by a political party, television program etc (1);
3) Information that you discover or opinions that you form after doing research (1);
4) The detailed study of something in order to discover new facts, especially in a
university or scientific institution (2);
5) An explanation of the meaning or importance of something; a way of
performing a piece of music, a part in a play etc that shows how you understand it
and feel about it (2);
6) The process of gathering something (2);
7) Done according to a careful plan and in a thorough way (4);
8) To discover a fact or piece of information (4);
9) A series of events, changes, features etc that all have a particular quality to
different degrees (5).

5. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the use of
the word ′research′.

1. Xerox Corporation funded the initial research on personal computers in


their Palo Alto laboratory in California.
2. When the collaboration between IBM and Digital Research failed, IBM
turned to Bill Gates, then 25 years old, to write their operating system.
3. If you are applying for research funding, you will need to put a great deal
of time into the preparation of re-search proposal.
4. Your research philosophy depends on the way that you think about the

20
development of knowledge.
5. If you are conducting exploratory research you must be willing to change
your direction as a result of new data that appears and new insights that occur to
you.
6. We hold that research into the functions of the brain will yield revolutionary
data regarding the nature of the human mind.
7. In current research in theoretical computer science, machines are being
developed which automatically prove theorems.
8. A demand for reliable information has stimulated research into herbs and
their effects.
9. The educational area of specialization has its own theoretical orientation and
research tradition.

21
UNIT 2. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA

Ежегодно в мире организуются сотни разнообразных международных


научных встреч (scientific meetings). Большинство из них проходит в форме
конференций (conferences), симпозиумов (symposia, ед.ч. symposium)
коллоквиумов (colloquia, ед.ч. colloquium) и семинаров (seminars / workshops).
Регулярно собираются сессии (sessions) и генеральные ассамблеи (general
assemblies, ед.ч. assembly) научных обществ и союзов. Проводят свои
совещания (meetings) члены различных международных комитетов и
комиссий. Периодически международные ассоциации организуют
представительные конгрессы (congresses). Популярны среди ученых деловые
по характеру и образовательные по своей сути школы-семинары (schools /
short courses / study days / institutes / teach-ins).
Познакомимся с основными реалиями научной конференции,
включающие типичные компоненты, присущие данной форме научной
коммуникации.
Подготовка научной конференции начинается, как правило, с
определения ее темы (theme of the conference / conference theme): 15th Pacific
Science Congress. Theme: Conservation, development and utilization of the
resources of the Pacific.
Обычно формулируется основная (central / major theme), или
официальная, тема (official theme) конференции , которая может допускать
широкий выбор вопросов для обсуждения (topics for discussion): “To provide a
focus for the meeting, without in any way restricting the topics for discussion, the
ISA (International Sociological Association) Executive Committee chose an official
theme: Sociological Theory and Social Practice”.
Иногда задается общая тема конференции (general theme), которая
разбивается на несколько подтем (subthemes): “The general theme of the
Congress: “Mankind’s Future in the Pacific”. This will be developed through
seven related subthemes: “Energy and Mankind”, “Nutrition and the Future of
Mankind”, “Options for Man’s Future: A Biological View”, etc.
Устроителями научной конференции, обеспечивающим, в частности, ее
финансовую поддержку (sponsors of the conference / conference sponsors),
являются, как правило, несколько организаций (sponsoring organizations):
“The Conference is sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied
Physics, the American Physical Society and the University of Oregon”.
Многочисленные вопросы подготовки и проведения конференции, а
также обслуживания ее участников находятся в ведении организационного
комитета (organizing committee). Нередко для разработки научной программы
22
конференции, приглашения и отбора ее участников формируется
программный комитет (program committee). Встречаются и другие
разновидности комитетов: местный организационный (local organizing / local
arrangements committee), национальный организационный (national
organizing committee), дамский (ladies’ committee), ответственный за
программу для жен участников и членов их семей, и т.д.
Каждый из комитетов возглавляется председателем (chairman of the
committee / committee chairman). Один из организаторов конференции
исполняет обязанности ее руководителя в целом (general chairman). Вся
документация конференции находится в ведении ее секретаря (organizing
secretary / secretary of the conference / conference secretary). Ключевые
позиции на конгрессе занимают президент (president of the congress / congress
president) и генеральный секретарь (secretary-general).
Когда принципиальные вопросы, связанные с организацией
конференции, решены, и возможность ее проведения не вызывает сомнений,
в соответствующих научных изданиях появляется информация о
конференции в виде приглашения на присылку материалов докладов (call for
papers). В этих публикациях указываются, в частности, сроки представления
названия (title) и кратких тезисов (short abstracts) предполагаемого
сообщения: “Titles and short abstracts should be submitted no later than January
31, 2005”. В них также даются сведения о размерах тезисов и правилах их
оформления:
«A 300-word abstract, typed double-spaced (for a 15-minute presentation)
should be submitted by April 30, 2005». Далее могут следовать заверения в том,
что все тезисы будут рассмотрены, и каждый автор будет своевременно
информирован о решении организаторов конференции: «All abstracts will be
acknowledged. You will be informed by August 31, 2005 whether your abstract has
been accepted».
В ряде случаев необходимо представлять подробные тезисы (extended
abstract) или два вида материалов: тезисы и автореферат выступления
(summary of the presentation): “Each author will be expected to submit the
following material: a 50-word abstract of the paper, a summary of the
presentation (up to four pages)”.
Принятые тезисы, как правило, оформляются в виде сборника (volume of
abstracts / abstracts volume), который распространяется перед началом
конференции. В настоящее время все чаще практикуется ознакомление
участников с полными текстами докладов, отобранных для представления на
конференции. В связи с этим предварительно публикуются материалы
докладов в научных изданиях и даже выпускаются отдельные сборники
23
докладов. В этом случае в информационном сообщении указывается срок
представления рукописи доклада (manuscript of the paper): “In case your
abstract is accepted you will be required to submit a final manuscript of your
paper by December 31, 2005”.
О научной конференции можно также узнать из информационных писем
или циркуляров (announcements / circulars), рассылаемых заинтересованным
научным учреждениям и отдельным ученым. Как правило, первое такое
письмо (first announcement / circular) является одновременно и приглашением
для участия в конференции: «The International Federation for Information
Processing (IFIP) cordially invites you to the World Conference on Computers in
Education to be held in Switzerland in July 2005».
Обычно в этом циркуляре имеется специальная заявочная форма
(application / registration form), которая после заполнения отправляется по
указанному адресу:
«Please complete this form and send it to the Congress Secretary for further
information.
Name: ………………………………………………………………………….………………
Professional Title: …………………………………………………………………………..
Address: ……………………………………………………………………………………….
Country ………………………………………………………………………………………..
I hope to register for the World Conference on Computers in Education.
I intend to submit an abstract on the following topic
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
I will be accompanied by my spouse».
Ученые, откликнувшиеся на приглашение, попадают в список рассылки
(mailing list) и соответственно обеспечиваются всеми информационными
материалами по мере их публикации. Не включенные в список должны
обращаться непосредственно в организационный комитет конференции. Об
этом они могут узнать из объявления в научном журнале: «Further
information will be sent only to those who have accepted the invitation. Those who
are not included on the mailing list should contact the Organizing Committee».
Основанием для участия в конференции может быть и личное
приглашение, например, организатора (convener / organizer) секции
конгресса: “I extend to you a cordial personal invitation to participate in the
sessions of this Section and to join the Congress Symposia and other Section
meetings”.
В ряде случаев решающим подтверждением участия в конференции
помимо выражения принципиального согласия и отправки соответствующих
документов и научных материалов является внесение регистрационного
24
взноса (registration fee). Иногда важно внести этот взнос как можно раньше,
ибо число участников конференции ограничено и их регистрация проводится
в хронологическом порядке (first-come basis registration): “Participation will
be restricted to about 75 registrants in order to encourage audience interaction.
Registration will be open on a first-come basis and is scheduled to be closed on or
before I May 2005 depending on the response”.
Внесение регистрационного взноса дает участникам право
воспользоваться рядом дополнительных услуг, например, получить
экземпляр тезисов или докладов, стать обладателем билета на прием или
выставку и т.д. На что именно расходуется данный взнос, можно узнать из
информационного сообщения: «Registration fee includes: participation in the
Conference, a copy of the Proceedings and entrance to the Exhibition».
Обычно в информационном сообщении указываются рабочие языки
(working languages) конференции: «Papers may be delivered in English, French
or German, preferably English».
В бюро регистрации (registration desk) участники конференции
получают специальный комплект печатных материалов (registration kit /
package / file), в который обычно входит сборник тезисов, программа
конференции (conference program), путеводитель (guide / guidebook) или
карта-схема городских улиц (street-map), различные памятки (leaflets /
pamphlets), содержащие полезную для участников информацию.
Основные сведения о конференции обычно содержатся в буклете-
программе (program booklet). Оперативная информация размещается на
досках объявлений (notice boards) и демонстрационных щитах (bulletin
boards). На представительских научных форумах выпускаются бюллетени
новостей (news bulletins). Об их содержании и периодичности выхода можно
узнать из программы конференции: “News Bulletins will be issued as required.
Watch for them at the Registration desks. They will contain late program changes
and special announcements of interest to the delegates”.
К услугам всех прибывших на конференцию справочное бюро
(information desk), где можно получить исчерпывающую консультацию по
разным вопросам, связанным с обслуживанием участников и проведением
ими свободного времени. На это обращает внимание следующее объявление:
«The Information Desk consults the attendees for all general information
including: entertainment, dining out, sightseeing, transportation, Internet and
(photocopier) facilities».
В здании, где проходит конференция, обычно работает машинописное
бюро (typing pool), почтовое отделение (post office), транспортное агентство
(travel agency). К услугам участников различные точки питания (cafeterias /
25
snack bars / refreshment areas). Их информируют о том, где они могут вкусно
и относительно недорого поесть: «Meals will be available at the University
Cafeteria. Excellent meals in good restaurants may be obtained at reasonable
prices».
Как правило, в качестве места проведения конференции (conference
premises/sits) выбирается специально предназначенное для этого здание
(conference / congress / convention centre), отель (hotel) или территория
университета (university campus). Конференция на базе университета
(university conference), естественно, дешевле и для организаторов, и для
участников в смысле их размещения (accommodation / housing):
“Accommodation is available at the university campus in inexpensive student
rooms”.
В распоряжение участников предоставляются лекционные залы (lecture
halls), комнаты для заседаний (meeting rooms), оборудуются специальные
помещения – холлы (lounges) для неофициального общения.
На научных конференциях широко используется современное
звукоусилительное (public address system) и аудиовизуальное оборудование
(audiovisual equipment): слайдпроекторы (slide projectors), видеомагнитофоны
(video-recorders), системы презентации (power point systems). При
демонстрации экспериментов в лабораторных условиях эффективно работает
система замкнутого телевидения (closed circuit television).
Для участников научной конференции обычно разрабатываются две
программы: научная (scientific/technical program) и культурная (social
program).
Начинается конференция специальным заседанием (ceremonial
session/opening ceremony). Открывается конференция, как правило,
приветственной речью (welcome address) одного из руководителей
конференции. Нередко открытие конференции проходит в деловой
обстановке. В этом случае председательствующий на заседании
ограничивается вступительным словом (introductory / opening remarks).
На пленарных заседаниях (plenary sessions) выступающие (speakers)
представляют соответственно пленарные доклады (plenary addresses /
lectures / talks / papers) и в ряде случаев основные доклады, определяющие
ход всей конференции (keynote addresses / papers). Основной докладчик
(keynote speaker) является, как правило, известным ученым, признанным
авторитетом в своей области: «The keynote speaker will be Professor Brown, a
distinguished economist from the University of London, who will talk about the
past, present and future of economics».
Большой аудитории обычно адресуются обзорные (overview / review
26
papers) и отчетные доклады (reports).
Нередко организационный комитет предоставляет участникам
возможность провести незапланированное заседание (impromptu meeting),
если те высказывают такое пожелание. Об этом можно узнать, например, из
такого объявления: «Groups wishing to hold impromptu meetings in the evening
after the regular program may ask for room assignment from the Mexican Local
Organizing Committee».
В основном все представленные на конференцию научные доклады
(papers / scientific contributions) можно разделить на доклады по
приглашению (invited / solicited papers) и доклады, заявленные по инициативе
самих участников (contributed / free / uninvited papers). Последние, как
правило, составляют программу параллельно идущих секционных
заседаний (concurrent / parallel sessions), часто называемых симпозиумами
(symposia): “The meeting contains 90 invited papers and 230 contributed papers
organized into 24 symposia”.
Отдельные доклады могут носить образовательный (обучающий)
характер (tutorial papers): “The program will consist of invited and contributed
papers, as well as workshop sessions. Some of invited papers will be tutorial in
nature”.
Возможен и такой вариант, когда предложенные темы обсуждаются до
конференции в рабочих группах (working parties / groups), а затем
представители этих групп (reporters of working parties / groups) делают
основные доклады (lead papers) на пленарных заседаниях: «The lead papers
presented in plenary sessions represented experience in several different countries
as well as in international institutions».
При ограничении во времени, особенно при отсутствии параллельных
заседаний, один докладчик (reporter of grouped papers) представляет ряд
докладов в сгруппированном виде.
Иногда проводятся совместные заседания (joint meeting) отдельных
секций или даже конференций, чтобы их участники, представители разных
областей науки, могли обсудить общие проблемы.
На конференциях нередко устраиваются специальные лекции (special
lectures) для участников, а также публичные лекции (public lectures) для всех
желающих, с которыми выступают известные ученые или общественные
деятели.
Важным элементом любой научной конференции является обсуждение
докладов, или дискуссия (discussion), которой обычно руководит
председатель заседания (chairman of the session / session chairman).
Используется и такая форма, как обмен мнениями с участием ведущих
27
специалистов в присутствии широкой аудитории (panel discussion).
Выступающие на этой встрече (panelists / members of the panel) освещают
темы, предлагаемые ее ведущим (chairman of the panel discussion), и отвечают
на вопросы коллег. Проводятся на научных конференциях и обсуждения за
«круглым столом» (round table discussions / round tables).
В последние время стали пользоваться успехом стендовые заседания
(poster sessions), во время которых авторы-демонстраторы (presenters)
представляют так называемые стендовые сообщения (posters / poster papers /
poster presentations).
Обычно параллельно с проведением конференции организуются
тематические выставки (exhibitions / exhibits / displays), в том числе имеющие
коммерческий интерес (commercial exhibitions): “There will be a commercial
exhibition of ultrasound equipment with the conference. Companies interested in
exhibiting should contact the Conference organizer”; устраиваются
демонстрации оборудования, приборов и материалов (shows/demonstrations):
“The Physics show, where manufacturers present the latest models of research
instruments, apparatus and materials, will be organized by the American Institute
of Physics”.
Гости конференции имеют возможность принять участие в разного рода
профессиональных экскурсиях (professional / technical excursions), в том
числе полевых экскурсиях (field excursions / trips).
Успех научной конференции во многом определяется и тем, как
подготовлена культурная программа и составляющие ее разнообразные
мероприятия (social events), ибо именно в свободное время между
участниками устанавливаются контакты, столь необходимые для
плодотворного научного общения.
Гости конференции посещают местные музеи (museums), картинные
галереи (art galleries), театры (theatres) и концертные залы (concert halls).

2.1 Read the text to find out the information about a scientific conference and its
participants

Overview of Steps
1. Identify a conference or training that aligns with your
field of work
2. Submit an abstract
3. Submit the CRDF Global2 Application

2
Американский фонд гражданских исследований и развития
28
4. Create a poster presentation
5. Attend the conference or training!

Tips for applying for conference bursaries/sponsored places

As conference season has started and LIS (Library and Information Science)
people, in particular new professionals, are starting to look at how they could
attend events despite the costs, I thought it would be a good time to share some tips
for applying for bursaries and sponsored places to events. This is based on my
fairly recent experiences of winning a sponsored full place to attend Umbrella
2011 and also helping to judge the applications for a sponsored place to a
conference last year.
So you’ve found a conference you really want to attend, but you don’t think
your workplace will be able to finance it - or perhaps you’re a student, temporary
worker or currently unemployed and would need to fund yourself. Where should
you look to find opportunities to apply for bursaries or sponsored places? Mailing
lists are a really good place to find them; they are generally advertised here. In the
UK, the LIS3-LINK, LIS-AWARDS and LIS-PROFESSION are good ones to keep
an eye on. You’ll often see them Tweeted as well; follow the Twitter accounts of
your local CILIP4 branch, Special Interest Groups and CILIPInfo. Opportunities
will often be posted on the LISNPN forums so it’s worth checking those too, as
well as the webpages for your local CILIP branch and the Special Interest Groups
of which you are member, and of course those of any other professional
associations you are a part of, such as SLA. Generally you will need to be a
member of the CILIP branch or Special Interest Group to apply for the bursary, so
this does necessitate being a member of CILIP. I have many complaints about
CILIP and their membership fees, but the opportunity to apply for sponsored
places is for me a benefit of being a CILIP member. If anyone reading this is aware
of sources for bursaries for LIS events which do not require a membership to the
group or association offering it, please do add a comment below for the benefit of
those looking for them.
Once you’ve found a sponsored place or bursary that you want to apply for,
the first thing to do is to check that you are eligible. It sounds simple but do read
the instructions carefully, as it only wastes yours and others’ time if you turn out to
not be eligible. As previously mentioned, in my experience some kind of
membership is usually required, and the opportunity may be restricted to people in
certain geographical areas or at certain points in their career. It’s also helpful for

3
LIS-Library and Information Service
4
CILIP-Charted Institute of Library and Information Professionals
29
those judging if you indicate your eligibility; this doesn’t have to be in the actual
application, but do state in your covering email or letter that you are a member of
the SIG/a member of the local branch/a new professional etc.
Similarly, take some time to read exactly what they are asking for in the
application, and address this clearly. Many will simply ask for a paragraph or a
certain number of words on why you want to attend and/or what the benefits of
attendance will be for you, but others might ask you to address two or three
questions. Treat it like a job application where you need to go through the person
specification and explicitly indicate how you meet it; don’t just write a very
general paragraph if they have asked specific questions. Look for a word count and
stick to it if one is given!
In a similar vein, show that you have taken the time to find out what the
conference is about and have considered how this is suitable for you; address the
theme of the conference in your application and explain why you feel this makes
the conference an ideal or important one for you to attend. If a conference
programme is available, have a look at it and pick out the specific sessions which
you think would be most useful/ beneficial to you, and refer to these in your
application. This again shows that you have a genuine interest in the themes and
topics of this particular conference, and do not just want to go to “a conference”.
Explain what the benefits of your attendance would be – to you, to your
service/colleagues, and to any other areas of the LIS community in which you are
involved. It’s great that you’re interested in the conference, but what the judges
want to see is more than just interest, it’s the reasons why you are the person who
would actually benefit most from it, the person to whom the award would be most
useful.
Most bursaries/sponsored places have conditions attached; usually a write-up
for one of the group/branch’s publications. Mention this in your application to
indicate that you’ve registered the conditions and are willing and able to meet
them. If there are no conditions given in the guidelines, then mention your
willingness to write up your reflections or share them in any other ways that would
be useful. This demonstrates your appreciation of the opportunity and your
understanding of the importance of sharing learning and outcomes from events
with your peers.
Once your application is finished (and proofread and spell-checked!), it’s a
good idea to send it in advance of the deadline, just in case the person collating the
applications has any problems opening your document.
My final tip is to just go for it – what have you got to lose?!
Rachel Bickley
Academic Liaison Librarian
30
at the University of Bedfordshire.

2.2 Match English words and word-combinations with the corresponding


Russian ones:

1. To take place; 2. committee chairman; 3. secretary-general; 4. call for


papers; 5. short abstract; 6. extended extract; 7. summary of the presentation; 8.
manuscript of the paper; 9. attendee; 10. accommodation; 11. information desk; 12.
key-note speaker; 13. session; 14. review paper; 15. exhibition; 16. proceedings of
the conference; 17. scientific associate; 18. full member of the Academy of
Science; 19. to lecture; 20. to take the floor; 21. to take part in; 22. poster session;
23. scientific contribution; 24. contributed paper; 25. digest panel discussion.
1. Стендовое заседание; 2. справочное бюро; 3. научный доклад; 4. обзор
материалов; 5. основной докладчик; 6. занимать место, проводиться; 7.
сборник материалов конференции; 8. выступить; 9. принимать участие; 10.
читать лекцию; 11. председатель комитета; 12. автореферат; 13. участник; 14.
генеральный секретарь; 15. краткий тезис; 16. действительный член
Академии наук; 17. подробный тезис; 18. заседание; 19. выставка; 20.
научный сотрудник; 21. рукопись доклада; 22. дискуссия с участием ведущих
специалистов; 23. место проживания; 24. приглашение на присылку
материалов для публикации; 25. научный вклад.

2.3 Arrange in pairs the words which are close in meaning:

1) participant, accommodation, speaker, to take place, exhibition, scientific


associate, head, deputy director, to take the floor, to present a paper, seminar,
overview paper, concurrent session, round table discussions.
2) to submit a paper, display, assistant director, round tables, attendee,
reporter, chief, workshop, housing, research associate, review paper, parallel
session, to be held, to speak.

2.4 Arrange the following words in pairs of antonyms:

1) success, dependence, in general, interested, significance, order,


approximately, to win, up-date equipment, theoretician, formal discussion, include.
2) exclude, out-date equipment, failure, disinterested, disorder, accurately,
practitioner, independence, in particular, insignificance, to lose, informal
discussion.

31
2.5 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
Subjunctive Mood:

1. I would like to discuss the concept of free market economy in this paper. 2.
We would also welcome general summaries and reviews. 3. I would welcome any
specific ideas on the topic for discussion. 4. I would like to start not with
statements but with questions. 5. I would like to stress that this paper would not
have been written if I hadn't received critical remarks of my research adviser.

2.6 Translate the sentences below using the given word-combinations

Give a lecture (a reception, a talk, a translation)


1. Дайте перевод этого предложения. 2. Речь, произнесенная
профессором С., вызвала бурные апплодисменты. 3. В честь участников
конференции устроили прием. 4. Мне понравились лекции, прочитанные
доктором П. 5. Профессор П. выступил на открытии конгресса (in the opening
session).

Hold a conference (a meeting, a discussion, an examination, a reception)


1. Экзамен будет проведен в июне. 2 Дискуссия, проведенная на
утреннем заседании, привлекла внимание специалистов. 3. Когда состоится
собрание? 4. Председательствующий выступил на приеме, устроенном после
конференции. 5. Когда была проведена дискуссия?

Make a contribution (comment, discovery, an experiment)


1. Замечания, сделанные руководителем, очень полезны. 2. Мы
проделали серию опытов на прошлой неделе. 3. Сделанное им открытие
привлекло всеобщее внимание. 4. Адам Смит внес большой вклад в развитие
науки экономики. 5. Я не собираюсь выступать с какими-либо замечаниями.

2.7 Answer the following questions so that the answers would make a
comprehensive account of your participation in the work of some scientific
gathering:

1. Have you ever had an opportunity to be present at a large scientific


gathering? 2. Was it a regional or a national (international) conference (congress)?
3. When and where was it held? 4. Who was its president? 5. What was the most
interesting paper presented at this scientific meeting? 6. How long did this
32
conference last? 7. How many simultaneous sessions were held on the same day?
8. Was there any reception held after the final session? 9. Did you or any of your
colleagues present papers at this conference? 10. Was your paper a success? 11.
Was it discussed in detail? 12.Were there any discussions of general interest held
during this conference? 13. What is your general impression of the conference?

2.8 Read the text and give Russian equivalents to the underlined words and
word -combinations. Find the answers to the following questions:
a) What are invited and contributed papers?
b) What is the difference between an abstract and a summary of the
presentation of the paper?
c) Do you have any papers published in a Digest?

Call for Contributed Papers


The conference will contain both invited and contributed papers. A number
of contributed papers covering original unpublished work on the meeting subjects
will be accepted for presentations. Each author will be expected to submit the
following material on the paper supplied:
- A 50-word abstract of the paper for the meeting program;
- A summary of the presentation. This summary of up to four pages will be
reproduced from the material submitted by the author.
Summaries of all accepted papers will be printed as submitted in a Digest of
the meeting which will act in a lieu of a conference proceedings. The Digest is to
be distributed at the Conference.
Completed abstracts and summaries must be received by the Organizing
Committee by June 1, 2005.

2.9 Study the text below. Give Russian equivalents of the underlined words and word-
combinations.

The World Conference on Computers in Education


The World Conference on Computers in Education took place in Switzerland
last month. This Congress brought together more than 1000 people concerned with
their development and use in primary, secondary and university education, as well
as in vocational training. This Conference was organized by the Swiss Federation
of Automatic Control, on behalf of the International Federation for Information
Processing (IFIP), and had the backing of UNESCO and the Intergovernmental
Bureau for Informatics (IBI, Rome), which were offering to support participants
from developing countries, preferentially those who wished to present a paper.
33
In addition to the Congress, a youth world computer programming
tournament was being held in different countries; the national winners were invited
to present their entry at the Conference.
At the same time, an exhibition was set up to present educational material and
a range of hardware and software, going from the smallest personal computer to
the largest distributed informatics network, a concrete illustration of the multiple
resources of these techniques applied to teaching and education.
The Conference put the accent on the relations between informatics and the
teaching of other disciplines (computers in the teaching of physics, humanities at
school, engineering, economics and social sciences), on instructional techniques
(large scale experiments in computer aided learning - CAL) and on the impact of
new technologies. Moreover, the social impacts of informatics on teachers and
students, as well as on leisure were discussed during the conference.
Other contributions presented reviews of national policies and models of
computer education; a special emphasis was put on the identification of the needs
of developing countries and on the definition of the means to meet them.

2.10 Read the text again and find the answers to the following questions:

1. When did the World Conference on Computers in Education take place?


2. This Congress brought together people concerned with the development of
computers in education, didn’t it?
3. How many participants took part in the Conference?
4. The Conference was organized by the International Federation for Information
Processing (IFIP), wasn’t it?
5. What organization offered support to participants from developing countries?
6. A youth world computer programming tournament was being held in different
countries, wasn’t it?
7. The national winners of this tournament were invited to present their entry at the
Conference, were they not?
8. What exhibition was set up at the Conference?
9. What did the Conference put the accent on?
10. The social impact of informatics on teachers and students, as well as on leisure
was discussed during the Conference, wasn’t it?
11. Did other countries present reviews of national policies and models of
computer education?
12. Special emphasis was put on the needs of developing countries, wasn’t it?

2.11 Match the English word-combinations with their Russian equivalents:


34
Conference, to hold a conference, to host a conference, forthcoming conference,
participant , to run under auspices, organizing committee, to set up an organizing
committee, preliminary announcement, exchange opinions (on), to talk shop, social
program(me), to fix the date final sitting/session, closing speech

Заключительное слово, говорить на профессиональные темы, конференция,


организационный комитет, заключительное заседание, проводить
конференцию, быть принимающей стороной (устроителем) конференции,
обменяться мнениями, культурная программа, учредить организационный
комитет, предстоящая конференция, участник, установить дату, проходить
под эгидой (при содействии), информационное письмо

Additional reading
Do’s and don’ts of your talk
Professional conference organizers see great hope in the use of computers to
facilitate making contacts at conferences. This new technology can help both the
young and the more established scientists find people with similar interests.
Conference participants reregister their specific areas of interest and indicate their
preferences for meeting in small groups or on a one -to-one basis. Each participant
can also indicate the times he or she is available. The computer then matches
parties with the same interests and schedule contacts.
Conferences can be computerized by using a message processing system.
Groups of terminals could be set up at the conference site with assistance available
to help participants use them. To retrieve your messages, you would simply type
your name and registration number. All messages for you would either appear on
the terminal’s screen or be printed out. Simple messages like “You left your coat in
my car” could be stored. But, more important, a graduate student could ask, for
example, if anyone at the conference would like to discuss his or her thesis topic.
Or you could ask a question on a particular speaker that you didn’t have a chance
to ask during the session. The speaker could answer the question some time later.
You would find the answer when you interrogated the terminal the next day. This
could help young scientists participate more fully since they are often reluctant to
ask questions from the conference floor… In the meantime, young scientists
should try to discard their assumptions that eminent people are unapproachable. In
my experience, I have always found that leading scientists were willing to talk for
at least a few minutes.

35
«Keep sentences short. On the average, most sentences should be shorter than
25 words. But sentences should vary in length and structure.
Prefer the simple to the complex sentences and phrases. Write “try to find
out” rather than “endeavor to ascertain”.
Prefer the familiar word but build your vocabulary. If a reader doesn’t
understand your words, he can miss your meaning. But you may want to use long
words in some cases – to clarify your point.
Avoid words you don’t need. Extra words weaken writing. Make every word
carry its own weight.
Put action into your verbs. Passive verbs tire the reader. Write “we intend to
write clearly” not “Clarity in composition is our intention”.
Use terms your reader can picture. Choose short, concrete words your reader
can visualize, not abstract terms. Don’t say “industrial community” when you’re
describing a “factory town”.
Tie in with your reader’s experience. The reader probably won’t get your new
idea unless you link it with an old idea he already understands. If you’re describing
how a new pump works, compare its operation with that of an old, standard pump.
Write the way you talk, or at least try for a conversational tone. People rarely
use business jargon when they talk.
Make full use of variety. Vary the length of words and sentences and arrange
them in different ways. Avoid monotonous patterns of writing.
Write to Express, not to Impress. Don’t show off your vocabulary by using
needlessly complex words».
The author should always be aware of the audience and plan his/her report
according to the listeners. Here is a short part of one of the speaker: «Are you
taking yourself too seriously? Sure, your world is great and you’re fantastic, but
what about the other guy? Don’t forget, your purpose is to tell him what you know.
To do that you need to get his attention and you need to keep it.
Where most of us have trouble is in orally presenting a published paper. It is
easy to forget that you are dealing with two entirely different audiences.
Think about it. People reading your article have many devices and motions
available to them. They can underline, put aside, reread, laugh out loud at, and
(horrors!) cross out. Put those same people in an audience and all of those reactions
(or all except the yawns) must be subordinated. They are in effect your captives –
which also makes them your responsibility.
Avoid charts and graphs and prints of scopes (unless they are simple, simple,
simple, and big, big, big). Most papers have a certain idea. Find it and make it the
subject of your report. Paraphrase the paper. If lengthy explanations appear
important, put them into a handout. After all if there is interest the paper has
36
already been read or will be read in detail at a more leisurely pace later.
A ten-minute talk with detailed handouts (or the published article itself) will
be remembered. A one-hour talk requiring close listening will primarily be
remembered for its discomfort. Have you ever thought that an uncomfortable
audience does? It criticizes the speaker, that’s what the audience does. After all,
somebody is at fault for making the audience uncomfortable, and that somebody is
you!

1. Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:


a) What is the purpose of organizing a conference?
b) What is message processing system?
c) Why is it better to keep sentences short?
d) Why should the author be aware of the audience and plan his/her report
according to the listeners?
e) What are the general rules for displaying charts and graphs?
f) How long should your talk be?

6. Find Russian equivalents of the English words used in the text.

1. Express v. a) график
2. Impress v. b) раздаточный материал
3. Graph n. c) вычеркивать
4. Handout n. d) выражать
5. Attention n. e) жаргон
6. Jargon n. f) намереваться
7. Lengthy adj. g) впечатлять
8. Link n. h) цель
9. Clarity n. i) внимание
10. Intend v. j) длинный, многословный
11. Purpose n. k) монотонный, безынтересный
12. Cross out v. l) спрашивать, допрашивать
13. Reread v. m) ссылка
14. Monotonous adj. n) перечитывать
15. Interrogate av. o) ясность

3. Make up English-Russian pairs of the word groups equivalent in meaning.

37
As a matter of fact; in a matter of seconds; it does not matter;
it is a matter of common experience; it is a matter of common know-
ledge.
За какие-нибудь секунды; каждый знает из опыта, не имеет значения (не
важно); общеизвестно; фактически.

4. In the sentences below recognize the words that are semantically similar and give
their Russian equivalents.

A. Find three words meaning “точный”


1. Most of the work on stars and nebulae beyond our solar system consists of
accurate measurements. 2. Exact sciences are mathematical sciences, whose results
are precise and quantitative. 3. There may be a complete set of antiworlds, anti –
because they are exactly opposite to us.

B. Find three words meaning “разум, мозг”.


1. As all intellectual endeavour depends upon the brain, it seems to follow that
knowledge of the brain will improve intellectual endeavour. 2. A Soviet-American
symposium held in the USSR in 1971 discussed the existence of extraterrestrial
intelligence and the possibility of establishing contact with it. 3. The idealists say
that what we call the material world only exists in our minds but that is not so.

C. Find four words meaning “исследование”.


1. Science has used experimental and theoretical investigation, or research, as its
principal tool since the dawn of modern science. 2. But the exploration of what is
behind the face of Mars perhaps will remain a particular challenge for manned
Martian expeditions. 3. Soviet researchers have been engaged in the study of the
environmental effects of human activities in space for a long period of time.

D. Find four words meaning “оценивать”.


1. It is, however, easy to estimate that the Earth's shadow is much larger than the
diameter of the Moon. 2. Astronomers figure out that there are about ten thousand
million planets in the galaxy. 3. Not only do scientists obtain new results on the
origin of life but also they try to evaluate them against the background of known
facts. 4. While the future promises exciting progress in the automation of
experimentation, we have already accomplished much in data gathering and less in
data evaluation. 5. Unfortunately his work was appreciated only long after his
death.

38
E. Find three words meaning“обращаться должным образом, справляться”.
1. However, this conclusion rests upon a small sample of data and should be
treated with caution. 2. Advances in techniques for the manufacturing and handling
of a number of materials have opened up interesting technical possibilities. 3. In
this chapter we have dealt with digital computers which are widely used in
different branches of industry.

5. Translate the following free word groups into Russian.

Behind-the-scene-decision, no-more-war-actions-call, a new space satellite


communications system, non-taxable income, the research program result, the
temperature limit determination, the steam engine invention, the deep sea current
measuring device, the car speed calculation, the London underground problem, the
energy accumulation process, the thermoelectric generator development, a rocket-
propelled five ton sputnik spaceship.

SPEAKING

Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the given


plan:

– preliminary announcement;
– the conference status;
– who hosted the conference;
– who sponsored the conference;
– when was the conference held;
– number of participants;
– registration fee;
– accommodation provided;
– problem field of the conference;
– conference agenda;
– ways of presenting one’s …;
– plenary session; workshops;
– conference proceedings.

Exchange opinions with your fellow-students on the following issues:

– role of the conferences in young researchers’ lives;


– function of an organizing committee;
39
– requirements to submitted abstracts and papers;
– your personal experience in attending conferences;
– your first report delivered at a conference.

40
UNIT 3. DISSERTATION RESEARCH AND
WRITING
3.1 Study the text below and answer the following questions:
Thesis
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in
support of candidature for an academic degree or professional
qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In
some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part
of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is
normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the
reverse is true. The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to
refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. Dissertations and theses
may be considered to be grey literature. The required complexity and/or quality of
research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university and/or
programme, therefore, the required minimum study period may vary significantly
in duration.
Structure
A thesis (or dissertation) may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a
monograph, with or without appended papers respectively. An ordinary monograph
has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters
(introduction, literature review, findings, etc.), and a bibliography or (more
usually) a references section. They differ in their structure in accordance with the
many different areas of study (arts, humanities, social sciences, technology,
sciences, etc.) and the minimal differences between them. Dissertations normally
report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The
structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research
literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used and the
findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format : a)
an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as
its scope and significance; b) a literature review, reviewing relevant literature and
showing how this has informed the research issue; c) a methodology chapter,
explaining how the research has been designed and why the research
methods/population/data collection and analysis being used have been chosen; d) a
findings chapter, outlining the findings of the research itself; e) an analysis and
discussion chapter, analysing the findings and discussing them in the context of the
literature review (this chapter is often divided into two—analysis and discussion);
f) a conclusion.
Style
41
Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that
candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to
institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national,
and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses.
Some older house styles specify that front matter (title page, abstract, table of
content, etc.) uses a separate page-number sequence from the main text, using
Roman numerals. The relevant international standard and many newer style guides
recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic
document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first
page, independent of any printed page numbers. They therefore avoid the
traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence
of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page (the recto of the title
page).
Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout, type and color of
paper, use of acid-free paper (where a copy of the dissertation will become a
permanent part of the library collection), paper size, order of components, and
citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the
thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued.
However, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities,
for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page
formatting, and leave much freedom on the actual typographic details.
Thesis committee
A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a student's
dissertation. This committee, at least in the US model, usually consists of a
primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise
the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or
jury, at the oral examination of the thesis.
At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction
with his or her primary adviser, usually after completion of the comprehensive
examinations or prospectus meeting, and may consist of members of the comps
committee. The committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or
other designation) and have the task of reading the dissertation, making
suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense.
Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a
department that is different from that of the student.

3.1 Study the text below and answer the following questions:

1. What is a dissertation?
42
2. What does the applicant (author) have to present for getting an academic
degree?
3. Is there any difference between "thesis" and "dissertation"?
4. Dissertations and theses are considered to be grey literature, aren’t they?
5. What structural parts does an ordinary monograph have?
6. What does a multiple chapter format thesis imply?
7. Is there a definite standard when preparing a thesis document?
8. What is the front matter in a dissertation?
9. What are the presentation requirements?
10.What is a dissertation committee? How is it chosen?
11.Who can be the members of the dissertation committee?

3.2 Make up English-Russian pairs of words equivalent in meaning:

Author’s research, academic degree, bachelor’s degree, monograph, title


page, abstract, table of contents, bibliography, house style, the topic of study, in
accordance with, humanities, minimal difference, literature review, extended
analysis, methodology, conclusion, recommendation, page-number sequence,
Roman numerals, recto, pagination, layout, acid-free paper, dissertation committee.

Ученая степень, методология, обзор литературы, степень бакалавра,


монография, титульный лист, аннотация, оглавление, библиография,
бескислотная бумага, диссертационный совет, стиль (требования по стилю)
определенного университета, исследования автора, тема исследования, в
соответствии с, гуманитарные науки, минимальная разница, расширенный
анализ, рекомендации, последовательность пронумерованных страница,
римские цифры, первая страница, нумерация страниц, макет, заключение,.

3.3 Match terms in column A with their definitions in column B.

1. research v. a) the work that companies do when they are


developing new products, services, or methods. It
is often simply called R&D.
2. researcher b) systematic, data-based inquiry to determine the
merit or worth of a program, product, organization,
intervention, or change effort.
3. research n. c) the action or activity of gathering information
about consumers' needs and preferences:
4. research and development d) research that is not directed towards any
43
immediate or definite commercial goal, but may
have applications in the future.
5. market research e) investigate systematically; discover or verify
information for use in (a book, programme, etc.)
6. evaluation research f) the study of methods of evaluating social
programmes, training programmes, etc.
7. research ethics g) a person who carries out academic or scientific
research:
8. blue-sky research h) behaviour in relation to the rights of those who
become the subject of a research project, or who
are affected by it

3.4 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the word
in italics.

1. In traditional paper-based university libraries, higher degree theses and


research articles are viewed and treated very differently.
2. Poetry allows us to examine science in a way that purely scientific discourse
cannot be analogizing abstract concepts into concrete forms.
3. Pressures within the academic environment itself may subtly push professors
toward viewing their students as would-be clones of themselves.
4. This is the proportion by which the rate of a chemical reaction is raised by an
increase in temperature of 10 degrees on the Celsius scale.
5. The sociology of music is diverse in its approaches, its methodologies, and its
areas of focus.
6. In the past he has been an adviser to the New Zealand and Russian
Governments on pensions policy.
7. Many university prospectuses talk about ‘access’ to courses by disabled
students, but the encouragement needs to start earlier.

3.5 Substitute the words in bold with the synonyms from the text.

1. He makes his living writing term papers and dissertations before he gets
recruited by a spy agency and sent all over the world by them (paragragh 1).
2. Call the company, make the situation clear and give an estimate of the time
you will arrive (paragragh 2).
3. A more detailed survey of the structure and concepts of Jo and Gwan can be
found in the next essay, by Salia Male (paragragh 2).
4. Self-financing professional educational organizations are a challenge to
44
ethical and social values (paragragh 3).
5. As a result of these findings the overview panel put forward 14 pieces of
advice (paragragh 3).
6. If any one of these parts fail, the whole system fails, certainly in an
agricultural context (paragragh 4).
7. The Board agreed that the Applicant should not be permitted to continue as an
undergraduate of the University (paragragh 7).

3.6 Agree or disagree to the following statements:

Example: - I know (that) University trains post-graduate students.


- Yes, you are right. Besides, our University does research.
- No, I see you are misinformed. Our University does not
train post-graduate students. It trains only undergraduates.

1. I found that almost all collaborators of your department combine activities in


research with experimental work.
2. I believe you base your experiments on theoretical considerations.
3. A doctoral thesis (dissertation) is a serious effort and it must mark a
considerable advance in a given sphere of knowledge.
4. This branch of knowledge has been rapidly developing in the last two
decades.
5. Doctoral candidates are not supposed to pass their examination in a foreign
language.
6. I always discuss the obtained data with my research adviser.

3.7 Work in pairs. Give a detailed account of your University, research


and activity. The questions below may guide you in your talk.

A. Ask your fellow-student about himself:

0 Who are you?


1 Where did you study?
2 When did you graduate from the University?
3 How long have were studying at the University?
4 Where do you work?
5 How long have you been working there?
6 What is your field (occupation)?

45
7 What department do you belong to?
8 In what field do you carry on your research?

B. Talking to your fellow student find out the details about his/her University
(department). The following questions may help you.

1 Where is your University situated?


2 Is it far from the place you live in?
3 How long does it take you to get there?
4 Does your University occupy one building or several?
5 When was the University founded?
6 Who was the founder of it?
7 Is the University named after somebody?
8 Who is the head (president) of the University?
9 Is the staff of your University large?
10 Is there a Scientific Council at your University?
11 Who is the Scientific Council?
12 Does the University hold any conferences, symposia or seminars?
13 Are there any distinguished scientists at your University?
14 What kind of research does the University do?
15 Is the scope of research wide?
16 How many departments are there at your University?
17 Who is head of your department?
18 What kind of equipment do you have at your department?
19 Is it up-to-date?

C. Speak about your work. Use the questions below as a guide to your talk.

1) Are you a post graduate (a research) student?


2) When did you take your post graduate course?
3) Have you passed all your examinations yet?
4) When are you going to take your exam in English?
5) Who is your adviser (supervisor)?
6) Do you work at your thesis? Have you started working at your thesis?
7) What part of your dissertation have you completed?
8) Have you got any publications on the subject you study?
9) When are you supposed to read (prove) your thesis?
46
10) What science degree do you expect to get?

1) In what field do you do (carry on) your research?


2) Are you a theoretician or an experimentalist?
3) What problems do you investigate?
4) Do you carry on research individually or in a team?
5) What is the object of your research?
6) What methods do you use (employ) in your work?
7) Is it difficult to analyze the results (data) obtained?
8) Can you claim that the problem you studied is solved?

Additional reading

Dissertation research and writing--- not an easy task


Your dissertation research and writing should illustrate a broad
understanding of studies done in your Subject. I am going to discuss some
important points for dissertation research strategies that you should know in
order to carry out an in-depth research productively. Not knowing
these dissertation research strategies might cause frustration and even make
students give up their degrees.
You dissertation research and writing is not an easy task and require a
thorough research to complete your report. Your thorough dissertation
research will also prevent you from spending as much time with your loved-ones
as you used to. This is the sacrifice you will have to make when you do as
a professional dissertation writer.
There are 16 best dissertation research writing tips.
Basic yet powerful tips that will help you understand how to do your dissertation
writing, methodology, proposal, etc. research successfully.
Get your dissertation be completed on time and enjoy.
The world best 16 Dissertation Research and Writing strategies to help you
with a relaxing and even successful path towards your Degree.

THE STAGE OF “THINKING ABOUT” WHAT AND HOW TO


WRITE IN YOUR DISSERTATION
1. Be comprehensive with your thinking about your dissertation
writing: eliminating the ideas too quickly is not suggested. Build on different ideas
47
for your dissertation research and analyze how many different projects can be
done. Expand your thinking at this stage, and try to come up with creative ideas for
your dissertation and research writing.
2. Get your ideas written and collected for future use:
collecting all the ideas will help you to revisit or modify and change an idea for
your dissertation research and writing.
3. Not be influenced by your audience, think what you feel others also
expect from you: select a topic which is of your own interest. This will also help
you in your professional career that you have choose the topic according to your
own personality.
4. Don’t think that your dissertation research will draw international
attention to you!! Be realistic in setting your goal. Make sure your expectations
are tempered by fulfilling an academic requirement.
5. Your dissertation writing may be more important than the outcomes
of the research.
6. The whole research project should be a learning experience for you.
7. Be realistic with your time management.
Try to create a draft of a timeline. Try using the 6 Stages and put a start
and a finish time for each. Periodically update your timeline with new dates as
needed.

DISSERTATION WRITING AND RESEARCH


PROPOSAL GUIDELINES.
So you’re ready to actually prepare for writing your Dissertation Research
proposal after your Thinking about stage. Here's a final check. Does each of these
statements describe you? If they do you're ready to prepare your research
proposal; otherwise you have to go again thinking about stage. Yes/No questions:
 Familiar with other research relevant to your Dissertation Research area.
 Have a clear understanding of the steps that you will use to conduct and
write your Dissertation research.
 Have the ability to get through each of the steps to complete your dissertation
research and writing.
 Motivated and get through all of the steps in your dissertation writing and
research proposals.
Below are the guidelines for writing dissertation research Proposal
8. Go through other research proposal for samples.
Other research proposal will guide you to know that:
o What the finished dissertation research proposal should look like?
o What are the headings that have been used?
48
o How has the other proposal been organized?
o Does the other proposal seem clear?
o Does it seem to suggest that the writer knows the subject area?
o Can I model my proposal after one of the ones that I've seen?
If you can’t readily find a dissertation research proposal or two to look at,
ask your adviser to see some.
 Make sure your proposal has a comprehensive review of the
literature included. The rationale behind the literature review consists of an
argument with two lines of analysis: this research is needed and the dissertation
methodology.
 A good proposal should consist of the first three chapters of the
dissertation.
Your dissertation Research proposal should include:
o Problem / Background information i.e. Chapter no. 1
o Literature Review i.e. Chapter no. 2
o Conclusion with defining the research methodology i.e. Chapter no. 3
A dissertation research proposal should be written in a future tense since it is a
proposal. To turn a good proposal into the first three chapters of the dissertation
consists of changing the tense from future tense to past tense.
9. Specifically focus on your dissertation research while writing your
proposal. It will be easy for you to complete if your dissertation project is
narrowly and specifically defined. Don't try to solve all of the problems in this
one research project.
10. Organized your proposal around a set of questions that will guide
your dissertation research your research questions should clearly show the
relationship of your dissertation to your field of study and other research that has
preceded you.

1. Use the words in bold type in the sentences of your own.


2. Answer the following questions:
 What are your reason(s) of doing the research in your field of studies?
 Do you have a particular strategy in writing?
 What can you advice to those researchers who are just beginning their
work?
 Do you find any of the points in the text useful for you personally?

49
UNIT 4. CHOOSING A TOPIC FOR A DISSERTATION

4.1 Read different points of view of some scholars on the problem of


choosing a dissertation topic

HOW DOES ONE CHOOSE A


DISSERTATION TOPIC?
John Komlos: With considerable care. Never lose
sight of the fact that the dissertation should be the
crowning achievement of your graduate education
and will influence the direction of your career for
many years to come. It will take years to write and
might well require a couple more years of polishing to make it publishable.
Inasmuch as you are locking yourself into a project that will occupy a big chunk of
your life, this decision should not be made lightly.
Some advisors are willing to offer a choice of two or three dissertation
topics. This can be of great advantage, inasmuch as she has a better overview of
the field, knows the sources, and knows if the dissertation is doable within the
allotted time frame, and, in effect, you receive a crucial implicit promise that you
will be closely guided along the way. Of course, some professors are reluctant to
suggest thesis topics, either out of a philosophical commitment and responsibility
that go with such advice, but they may also simply want to limit their involvement
with students.
To be sure, there are those who argue for a sink-or-swim approach on the
assumption that the student will learn these skills by being forced on to choose a
dissertation topic. This point of view is surely reasonable, but my own experience
leads me to urge you to err on the side of caution if you have the opportunity
unless you have reason to think that you have already mastered such skills: the risk
of sinking is too great at this stage. As a third alternative, you may find the choice
being made through give and take with your supervisor.
If you have good reason to be confident in doing research on the topic of
your own choice of if close guidance feels too restrictive to you, then proceed, but
at least be forewarned that you can easily lead yourself on a wild goose chase. In
fact, many students do not finish their dissertation because their topic turns out to
be much too difficult for reasons that were not immediately obvious to them. In
any case, do make sure you have your mentor's full support before embarking on a
project.
It is imperative that both you and your advisor be interested in your thesis
topic. It is important that your mentor be interested in it because otherwise she
50
might be much less motivated to help you, and it is crucial that you be excited
about it because otherwise you will have enormous difficulties mustering the
momentum to succeed in completing the project. Original research is challenging
and even frustrating at times, in the sense that hundreds of obstacles need to be
overcome in the process. Unless you are truly fascinated by the topic and consider
it intrinsically valuable and rewarding to work on it, you can easily slip into
becoming an ABD5 instead of a Ph.D.!
Make sure that you do not start a dissertation on an unfamiliar topic. You
should prepare some plans, even if tentative ones well in advance and have a good
overview of the topic before you commence active research. It will be extremely
useful if you have already made preliminary excursions into various related issues
during the course of your graduate study. Having written one or two seminar
papers on some aspects of the topic, you will enter the dissertation stage already
somewhat knowledgeable about the field. You will know most of the scholars who
are writing in that field. This knowledge will help you to formulate issues and to
write up the thesis proposal in a convincing manner. Moreover, you should by now
have a sense of how interesting the topic actually is to you.
Once you have chosen your dissertation topic in collaboration with your
adviser, you should seek her active guidance to the utmost degree possible. Every
topic has imperceptible pitfalls, and your advisor can and should help you over
them. Dissertation research is multifaceted; it proceeds in complex, and
unexpected, ways, and the result is unpredictable. I have never done research that
did not hold some surprises for me, and at times, I even disapproved my initial
hypothesis. The closer your topic is to the expertise of your mentor, the more
direction you can count on, and the easier it should be for you to avoid making
mistakes or getting stuck along the way. These issues are less pertinent in the
laboratory sciences because there the graduate student usually works in a close-knit
research team, direction and funded by the mentor's own research program. In such
fields, there is more group interaction, and perhaps more cooperation and
conformity in research design.
In any case, you will need to learn who the important scholars are in the
field. Ask your advisor who is working in your area, check their respective home
pages on the Internet, and look for their working papers. Consult also the programs
of the meetings of professional organizations in your field for people interested in
related topics. Dissertations in progress are sometimes announced in the newsletter
of discipline's main professional association, or there is a centralized dissertation
registry. Though incomplete, they are certainly useful.

5
All But Dissertation (ABD)
51
Your dissertation is your first real research project, and you are not
expected to strike out on your own into completely uncharted territory. That would
be premature. You should restrict the scope of your topic as far as you can. You
will be expected to work within a paradigm; that is, you aren't required to resolve a
major controversy between two competing schools of thought in the discipline,
although you can explore a pertinent aspect of a controversy in a case study.
Dissertations are similar to the "masterpieces" that medieval guilds required for
full membership in a craft: you might think of yourself as a journeyman
demonstrating her skills to the members of a profession. In other words, the
dissertation need not be an earth-shattering contribution, but, however modest, it
must be original and demonstrate your skill in research and argument. Actually,
one of the unstated purposes of the thesis requirement is to filter out people who
will not be able to do original research in their subsequent career.

John Goldsmith: I think there is considerable variation here across disciplines and
across universities and departments as well. I can give a lot of reasons why her
advisor wants to be working on, and you've mentioned most of them already. But I
would also say that the stronger a student's intellectual abilities and strength of will
are, the more she should take seriously the notion of setting off in a radically new
direction intellectually. But I mean that only for students who are intellectually
mature enough to provide arguments that are cogent within the old paradigm for
why the new approach is superior. That's very tall order.
And in the real world, the selection of a dissertation topic is often going to
be a matter of negotiation in some respects between advisor and student. I don't
think I've ever had a student come to me with a list of three of four possible topics
to get my take on them, but that seems like a pretty good idea.

Penny Gold: Whether one takes a topic selected by an advisor or develops one's
own, I would emphasize John Komlos's comment that one has to be excited about
the topic. I think it is more likely that this will happen, if the topic is developed by
the student, and coming from questions that they really want to pursue. What
difference will it make to you if your question is answered? If the answer is "Not
much, it's just a nifty puzzle," you might want to search further. The interest has to
be deep enough to sustain you over years of difficult work. Your professional
identity will be also, shaped by association with this topic. Is this how you'd like to
be known in the field, at least for the rather long first stage of it, until you do your
next large project?

52
John Komlos: If I may turn for a moment to the more practical issue of financing
the dissertation, I would like to note that if you do not already hold a fellowship,
you should look at the many complications of available fellowships in your library.
Ask your mentor for possibilities, and consult the graduate or department secretary
as well as the university's research office. You should also be aware of what grants
other students ahead of you have perceived. Some national professional
organizations have their own list of prospective funding agencies relevant to the
discipline. In addition, the newsletters of many organizations advertise such
opportunities. You should plan ahead, start early, and write the most convincing
proposal you can. It's a good idea to apply for all the grants for which you might
conceivably qualify, since it is easier to turn down an award received than to wait a
year for the next cycle of competition if you are under-funded. Some fellowships
are not mutually exclusive, but allow you to hold other awards either
simultaneously or consecutively. The goal, of course, is not to get rich, but to
obtain enough support to complete the dissertation comfortably. Allot yourself
enough time. Be generous in your estimates, since many have a tendency to be
overly optimistic about the length of time required to complete a project. Do not
forget that this is the first time you will be doing original research. You should
anticipate unforeseen detours requiring additional time to bring the project to
completion.

4.1 What adjectives would you use in characterizing the position occupied by:
a) John Komlos, b) John Goldsmith, c) Penny Gold
 Positive  Humorous  Worried
 Favourable  Negative  Outraged
 Optimistic  Critical  Neutral
 Amused  Annoyed  Objective
 Pleased  Angry  Impersonal
 Respectful  Defiant  Instructive

4.2 Match a word in column A with its meaning in Column B


A B A B
considerable неохотно crucial значительный
achievement уместный valuable решающий
reluctant возможность scholar руководство
opportunity достижение pertinent парадигма
confident ученый paradigm ценный
guidance очевидно fellowship уверенный

53
obvious стипендия grant грант

4.3 Choose the appropriate ending to the beginning of the phrases from the text

Beginning… …Ending
loose commitment
offer topic
philosophical of will
limit contribution
Sink-or-swim the dissertation
wild issues
strength involvement
unfamiliar science
formulate sight
hold programme
laboratory approach
research choice
financing surprise
earth-shattering goose chase

4. 5 Make up singular-plural pairs

Foci, quanta, maximum, analyses, vacua, axis, maxima, radius, genii, radii, locus,
nuclei, analysis, focus, hypothesis, criteria, nucleus, quantum, crisis, theses, crises,
momenta, axes, synthesis, criterion, phenomena, genius, species, loci, hypotheses,
thesis, momentum, syntheses, phenomenon, vacuum, species.

4.6 Make up English-Russian pairs of word groups equivalent in meaning

1. to extent one’s visit for a few days; 2. to expand one’s knowledge; 3. an


extension of analysis; 4. volume expansion; 5. to a greater extent; 6. an extensive
course in English.
1. в большей степени,; 2. дальнейший анализ; 3. увеличение объема; 4.
продлить визит на несколько дней; 5. курс английского языка, рассчитанный
на длительное время; 6. расширить знания.

4.7 Find three words meaning “в настоящее время”

54
1. At present a considerable amount of effort is being devoted to the possible
use of holography in data processing.
2. The study of relations between the galaxies is usually distinguished
nowadays as the science of cosmetology.
3. Currently, the development of new techniques towards the maximum
exploitation of scientific and technical information is becoming a major
concern for many countries.

4.8 You will find some quotes by famous people about dissertations. Agree or
disagree with them. If these ideas don't mean anything to you now, revisit them after
you finish writing a dissertation.

 Sometimes a scream is better than a thesis (Manfred Eigen).


 As the facts change, change your thesis. Don't be a stubborn mule, or you'll get
killed (Barry Sternlicht).
 More people would learn from their mistakes if they weren't so busy denying them
(Harold J. Smith).
 When you give up your own truth to win at someone else’s game everyone loses
(Stephen C. Paul).
 To a great extent, the people with whom you choose to associate influence the
direction of your life.
 After great pain, a formal feeling comes (Emily Dickinson).
 A man may write at any time, if he will set himself doggedly to it (Samuel
Johnson).
 Keep right on to the end of the road (Harry Lauder).
 The average Ph.D. thesis is nothing but the transference of bones from one
graveyard to another (Frank J. Dobie).

Additional reading

How To Write A Dissertation or Bedtime Reading For


People Who Do Not Have Time To Sleep
To The Candidate:
So, you are preparing to write a Ph.D. dissertation in an experimental area of
Computer Science. Unless you have written many formal documents before, you
are in for a surprise: it's difficult!
There are two possible paths to success:
o Planning Ahead.
55
Few take this path. The few who do leave the University so quickly that they are
hardly noticed. If you want to make a lasting impression and have a long career as
a graduate student, do not choose it.
o Perseverance.
All you really have to do is outlast your doctoral committee. The good news is that
they are much older than you, so you can guess who will eventually expire first.
The bad news is that they are more practiced at this game (after all, they
persevered in the face of their doctoral committee, didn't they?).
Here are a few guidelines that may help you when you finally get serious about
writing. The list goes on forever; you probably won't want to read it all at once.
But, please read it before you write anything.
The General Idea:
1. A thesis is a hypothesis or conjecture.
2. A PhD dissertation is a lengthy, formal document that argues in defense of a
particular thesis. (So many people use the term «thesis» to refer to the document
that a current dictionary now includes it as the third meaning of «thesis»).
3. Two important adjectives used to describe a dissertation are «original» and
«substantial.» The research performed to support a thesis must be both, and the
dissertation must show it to be so. In particular, a dissertation highlights original
contributions.
4. The scientific method means starting with a hypothesis and then collecting
evidence to support or deny it. Before one can write a dissertation defending a
particular thesis, one must collect evidence that supports it. Thus, the most difficult
aspect of writing a dissertation consists of organizing the evidence and associated
discussions into a coherent form.
5. The essence of a dissertation is critical thinking, not experimental data. Analysis
and concepts form the heart of the work.
6. A dissertation concentrates on principles: it states the lessons learned, and not
merely the facts behind them.
7. In general, every statement in a dissertation must be supported either by a
reference to published scientific literature or by original work. Moreover, a
dissertation does not repeat the details of critical thinking and analysis found in
published sources; it uses the results as fact and refers the reader to the source for
further details.
8. Each sentence in a dissertation must be complete and correct in a grammatical
sense. Moreover, a dissertation must satisfy the stringent rules of formal grammar
(e.g., no contractions, no colloquialisms, no slurs, no undefined technical jargon,
no hidden jokes, and no slang, even when such terms or phrases are in common use
in the spoken language). Indeed, the writing in a dissertation must be crystal clear.
56
Shades of meaning matter; the terminology and prose must make fine distinctions.
The words must convey exactly the meaning intended, nothing more and nothing
less.
9. Each statement in a dissertation must be correct and defensible in a logical and
scientific sense. Moreover, the discussions in a dissertation must satisfy the most
stringent rules of logic applied to mathematics and science.
What One Should Learn From The Exercise:
1. All scientists need to communicate discoveries; the PhD dissertation provides
training for communication with other scientists.
2. Writing a dissertation requires a student to think deeply, to organize technical
discussion, to muster arguments that will convince other scientists, and to follow
rules for rigorous, formal presentation of the arguments and discussion.
A Rule Of Thumb:
Good writing is essential in a dissertation. However, good writing cannot
compensate for a paucity of ideas or concepts. Quite the contrary, a clear
presentation always exposes weaknesses.
Definitions and Terminology:
1. Each technical term used in a dissertation must be defined either by a reference to a
previously published definition (for standard terms with their usual meaning) or by
a precise, unambiguous definition that appears before the term is used (for a new
term or a standard term used in an unusual way).
2. Each term should be used in one and only one way throughout the dissertation.
3. The easiest way to avoid a long series of definitions is to include a statement: “the
terminology used throughout this document follows that given in [CITATION]”.
Then, only define exceptions.
4. The introductory chapter can give the intuition (i.e., informal definitions) of terms
provided they are defined more precisely later.
Terms and Phrases to Avoid:
 Adverbs. Mostly, they are very often overly used. Use strong words instead. For
example, one could say, «Writers abuse adverbs».
 jokes or puns. They have no place in a formal document.
 «bad», «good», «nice», «terrible», «stupid». A scientific dissertation does not
make moral judgments. Use «incorrect/correct» to refer to factual correctness or
errors. Use precise words or phrases to assess quality (e.g., «method A requires
less computation than method B»). In general, one should avoid all qualitative
judgements.
 «true», «pure». In the sense of «good» (it is judgmental).
 «perfect». Nothing is.
 «an ideal solution». You're judging again.
57
 «today», «modern times». Today is tomorrow's yesterday.
 «soon». How soon? Later tonight? Next decade?
 «we were surprised to learn...». Even if you were, so what?
 «seems», «seemingly». It doesn't matter how something appears;
 «would seem to show». All that matters are the facts.
 «in terms of». Usually vague.
 «based on», «X-based», «as the basis of». Careful; can be vague.
 «different». Does not mean «various»; different than what?
 «in light of». Colloquial.
 «lots of». Vague & colloquial.
 «kind of». Vague & colloquial.
 «type of». Vague & colloquial.
 «something like». Vague & colloquial.
 «just about». Vague & colloquial.
 «number of». Vague; do you mean «some», «many», or «most»? A quantative
statement is preferable.
 «due to». Colloquial.
 «probably». Only if you know the statistical probability (if you do, state it
quantatively.
 «obviously, clearly». Be careful: obvious/clear to everyone?
 «simple». Can have a negative connotation, as in «simpleton»
 «along with». Just use «with»
 «actually, really». Define terms precisely to eliminate the need to clarify
 «the fact that». Makes it a meta-sentence; rephrase
 «this», «that». As in «This causes concern.» Reason: «this» can refer to the subject
of the previous sentence, the entire previous sentence, the entire previous
paragraph, the entire previous section, etc. More important, it can be interpreted in
the concrete sense or in the meta-sense. For example, in: «X does Y. This means ...»
the reader can assume «this» refers to Y or to the fact that X does it. Even when
restricted (e.g., «this computation...»), the phrase is weak and often ambiguous.
 «You will read about...». The second person has no place in a formal dissertation.
 «I will describe...». The first person has no place in a formal dissertation. If self-
reference is essential, phrase it as «Section 10 describes...»
 «we» as in «we see that». A trap to avoid. Reason: almost any sentence can be
written to begin with «we» because «we» can refer to: the reader and author, the
author and advisor, the author and research team, experimental computer scientists,
the entire computer science community, the science community, or some other
unspecified group.

58
 «Hopefully, the program...». Computer programs don't hope, not unless they
implement AI systems. By the way, if you are writing an AI thesis, talk to someone
else: AI people have their own system of rules.
 «...a famous researcher...». It doesn't matter who said it or who did it. In fact, such
statements prejudice the reader.
 Be Careful When Using «few, most, all, any, every». A dissertation is precise. If a
sentence says «Most computer systems contain X», you must be able to defend it.
Are you sure you really know the facts? How many computers were built and sold
yesterday?
 «must», «always». Absolutely?
 «should». Who says so?
 «proof», «prove». Would a mathematician agree that it's a proof?
 «show». Used in the sense of «prove». To «show» something, you need to provide
a formal proof.
 «can/may». Your mother probably told you the difference.
Voice:
Use active constructions. For example, say «the operating system starts the
device» instead of «the device is started by the operating system».
Tense:
Write in the present tense. For example, say «The system writes a page to
the disk and then uses the frame...» instead of «The system will use the frame after
it wrote the page to disk...»
Define Negation Early:
Example: say «no data block waits on the output queue» instead of «a data
block awaiting output is not on the queue».
Grammar and Logic:
Be careful that the subject of each sentence really does what the verb says it
does. Saying «Programs must make procedure calls using the X instruction» is not
the same as saying «Programs must use the X instruction when they call a
procedure.» In fact, the first is patently false! Another example: «RPC requires
programs to transmit large packets» is not the same as «RPC requires a mechanism
that allows programs to transmit large packets.»
All computer scientists should know the rules of logic. Unfortunately the
rules are more difficult to follow when the language of discourse is English instead
of mathematical symbols. For example, the sentence «There is a compiler that
translates the N languages by...» means a single compiler exists that handles all the
languages, while the sentence «For each of the N languages, there is a compiler
that translates...» means that there may be 1 compiler, 2 compilers, or N compilers.

59
When written using mathematical symbols, the difference are obvious because «for
all» and «there exists» are reversed.
Focus On Results and Not The People/Circumstances
In Which They Were Obtained:
«After working eight hours in the lab that night, we realized...» has no place
in the dissertation. It doesn't matter when you realized it or how long you worked
to obtain the answer. Another example: «Jim and I arrived at the numbers shown in
Table 3 by measuring...» Put an acknowledgement to Jim in the dissertation, but do
not include names (even your own) in the main body. You may be tempted to
document a long series of experiments that produced nothing or a coincidence that
resulted in success. Avoid it completely. In particular, do not document seemingly
mystical influences (e.g., «if that cat had not crawled through the hole in the floor,
we might not have discovered the power supply error indicator on the network
bridge»). Never attribute such events to mystical causes or imply that strange
forces may have affected your results. Summary: stick to the plain facts. Describe
the results without dwelling on your reactions or events that helped you achieve
them.
Avoid Self-Assessment (both praise and criticism):
Both of the following examples are incorrect: «The method outlined in
Section 2 represents a major breakthrough in the design of distributed systems
because...» «Although the technique in the next section is not earthshaking...»
References to Extant Work:
One always cites papers, not authors. Thus, one uses a singular verb to refer
to a paper even though it has multiple authors. For example «Johnson and Smith
[J&S90] reports that...»
Avoid the phrase «the authors claim that X». The use of «claim» casts doubt
on «X» because it references the authors' thoughts instead of the facts. If you agree
«X» is correct, simply state «X» followed by a reference. If one absolutely must
reference a paper instead of a result, say «the paper states that...» or «Johnson and
Smith [J&S 90] presents evidence that...».
Concept vs. Instance:
A reader can become confused when a concept and an instance of it are
blurred. Common examples include: an algorithm and a particular program that
implements it, a programming language and a compiler, a general abstraction and
its particular implementation in a computer system, a data structure and a particular
instance of it in memory.
Terminology for Concepts and Abstractions
When defining the terminology for a concept, be careful to decide precisely
how the idea translates to an implementation. Consider the following discussion:
60
VM systems include a concept known as an address space. The system dynamically
creates an address space when a program needs one, and destroys an address
space when the program that created the space has finished using it. A VM system
uses a small, finite number to identify each address space. Conceptually, one
understands that each new address space should have a new identifier. However, if
a VM system executes so long that it exhausts all possible address space
identifiers, it must reuse a number.
The important point is that the discussion only makes sense because it
defines «address space» independently from «address space identifier». If one
expects to discuss the differences between a concept and its implementation, the
definitions must allow such a distinction.
Knowledge vs. Data
The facts that result from an experiment are called «data». The term
«knowledge» implies that the facts have been analyzed, condensed, or combined
with facts from other experiments to produce useful information.
Cause and Effect:
A dissertation must carefully separate cause-effect relationships from simple
statistical correlations. For example, even if all computer programs written in
Professor X's lab require more memory than the computer programs written in
Professor Y's lab, it may not have anything to do with the professors or the lab or
the programmers (e.g., maybe the people working in professor X's lab are working
on applications that require more memory than the applications in professor Y's
lab).
Drawing Only Warranted Conclusions:
One must be careful to only draw conclusions that the evidence supports.
For example, if programs run much slower on computer A than on computer B,
one cannot conclude that the processor in A is slower than the processor in B
unless one has ruled out all differences in the computers' operating systems, input
or output devices, memory size, memory cache, or internal bus bandwidth. In fact,
one must still refrain from judgment unless one has the results from a controlled
experiment (e.g., running a set of several programs many times, each when the
computer is otherwise idle). Even if the cause of some phenomenon seems
obvious, one cannot draw a conclusion without solid, supporting evidence.
Commerce and Science:
In a scientific dissertation, one never draws conclusions about the economic
viability or commercial success of an idea/method, nor does one speculate about
the history of development or origins of an idea. A scientist must remain objective
about the merits of an idea independent of its commercial popularity. In particular,
a scientist never assumes that commercial success is a valid measure of merit
61
(many popular products are neither well-designed nor well-engineered). Thus,
statements such as «over four hundred vendors make products using technique Y»
are irrelevant in a dissertation.
Politics and Science:
A scientist avoids all political influence when assessing ideas. Obviously, it
should not matter whether government bodies, political parties, religious groups, or
other organizations endorse an idea. More important and often overlooked, it does
not matter whether an idea originated with a scientist who has already won a Nobel
Prize or a first-year graduate student. One must assess the idea independent of the
source.
Canonical Organization:
In general, every dissertation must define the problem that motivated the
research, tell why that problem is important, tell what others have done, describe
the new contribution, document the experiments that validate the contribution, and
draw conclusions. There is no canonical organization for a dissertation; each is
unique. However, novices writing a dissertation in the experimental areas of CS
may find the following example a good starting point:
Chapter 1: Introduction
An overview of the problem; why it is important; a summary of extant work
and a statement of your hypothesis or specific question to be explored. Make it
readable by anyone.
Chapter 2: Definitions
New terms only. Make the definitions precise, concise, and unambiguous.
Chapter 3: Conceptual Model
Describe the central concept underlying your work. Make it a «theme» that
ties together all your arguments. It should provide an answer to the question posed
in the introduction at a conceptual level. If necessary, add another chapter to give
additional reasoning about the problem or its solution.
Chapter 4: Experimental Measurements
Describe the results of experiments that provide evidence in support of your
thesis. Usually experiments either emphasize proof-of-concept (demonstrating the
viability of a method/technique) or efficiency (demonstrating that a
method/technique provides better performance than those that exist).
Chapter 5: Corollaries and Consequences
Describe variations, extensions, or other applications of the central idea.
Chapter 6: Conclusions
Summarize what was learned and how it can be applied. Mention the
possibilities for future research.
Abstract:
62
A short (few paragraphs) summary of the dissertation. Describe the problem
and the research approach. Emphasize the original contributions.
Suggested Order For Writing:
The easiest way to build a dissertation is inside-out. Begin by writing the
chapters that describe your research (3, 4, and 5 in the above outline). Collect
terms as they arise and keep a definition for each. Define each technical term, even
if you use it in a conventional manner.
Organize the definitions into a separate chapter. Make the definitions precise
and formal. Review later chapters to verify that each use of a technical term
adheres to its definition. After reading the middle chapters to verify terminology,
write the conclusions. Write the introduction next. Finally, complete an abstract.
Key To Success:
By the way, there is a key to success: practice. No one ever learned to write by
reading essays like this. Instead, you need to practice, practice, practice. Every day.
We leave you with the following ideas to mull over.

1. What tips have you found useful?


2. What important tips are left in the text?
3. What things have you done before you read the text? Are you going to continue
doing them in your own way?
4. What point(s) do you disagree with?

1. Insert the words:


communicate field claims interesting

first example ants research

questions connections slowly

Turn Interests into Questions


Many dissertations begin as a simple desire to know more about an__________
topic. Make a note of all different topics in your__________ that interest you,
starting with the ones that inspired you to enter the field in the __________place.
For____________, famed biologist EO Wilson ___________that when he was a
boy he loved to collect _________in his backyard. This juvenile interest eventually
caused Wilson to wonder how ants ________________with each other. This
simple question prompted Wilson's dissertation____________ at Harvard which
led to him discovering that ants communicate using pheromones. When you write
freely on these topics, asking_____________ and making____________, you can
63
_________but surely winnow down your thinking from general interest to specific
research program.

64
UNIT 5 COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES
IN DOING RESEARCH
5.1 Read the text to find out the information about the role of computers in a
scientific research and answer the questions below:

ROLE OF COMPUTERS IN RESEARCH


Computers have always assisted to solve
the problems faced by the mankind. Since the
time of invention, the size of the computers has
drastically reduced from that of a room to that
can be accommodated in a human palm. The
word «computer» means “Something which
computes or a machine for performing
calculations automatically”. But, today computer means not merely a “calculator”.
It does vast variety of jobs with tremendous speed and efficiency. Today people
use computers in almost every walk of life. Computers have become a subject of
study at schools. Electronic computers have become an indispensible part of every
profession: so do research.
A computer has three basic components. They are: an input device
(keyboard and mouse); a central processing unit (CPU) and an output device
(monitor and/or printer).
Important characteristics of a computer:
1. Speed: computers can perform calculations in just a few seconds than a
human being would need weeks to do.
2. Storage: end number of data can be stored in the computer and retrieved
when needed. Whereas a human mind can remember limited information
and unimportant data can be forgot sometimes.
3. Accuracy: the computer’s accuracy is consistently high. Almost without
exceptions, the errors in computing are due to human rather than to
technological weakness, i.e. due to imprecise thinking by the programmer or
due to inaccurate data or due to poorly designed system.
4. Automation: the computer programmes are automatic in nature. Individual
instructions to perform which programme is needed sometimes.
5. Diligence: being a machine computer does not suffer from human traits of
tiredness and lack of concentration. A computer can perform n number or
calculations continuously with the same accuracy and speed.
Computers in Research
The computers are indispensible throughout the research process. The role of
65
computer becomes more important when the research is on a large sample. Data
can be stored in computers for immediate use or can be stored in auxiliary
memories like floppy discs (practically never used nowadays), compact discs,
universal serial buses (pen drives) or memory cards, so that the same can be
retrieved later. The computers assist the researcher throughout different phases of
research process.
Phases of Research Process
There are five major phases of research process. They are:
1. Conceptual phase
2. Design and planning phase
3. Empirical phase
4. Analytical phase
5. Dissemination phase
1) The Role of Computer in Conceptual Phase
The conceptual phase consists of formulation of research problem, review of
literature, theoretical frame work and formulation of hypothesis.
The Role of Computer in Literature Review: Computers help for
searching the literatures (for review of literatures) and bibliographic references
stored in the electronic databases of the World Wide Web. It can thus be used for
strong relevant published articles to be retrieved whenever needed. This has the
advantage over searching the literatures in the form of books, journals and
newsletters at the libraries which consume considerable amount of time and effort.
2) Role of Computers in Design and Planning Phase
Design and planning phase consists of research design, population, research
variables, sampling plan, reviewing research plan and pilot study.
Role of Computers for Sample Size Calculation: Several softwares
available to calculate the sample size required for a proposed study. NCSS-PASS-
GESS is such a software. The standard deviation of the data from the pilot study if
required for the sample size calculation.
3) Role of Computers in Empirical Phase
Empirical phase consists of collecting and preparing the data of analysis.
Data Storage: The data obtained from the subjects are stored in computers
as word files or excel spread sheets. This has the advantage of making necessary
corrections or editing the whole layout of the tables if needed, which is impossible
or time consuming in case of writing in papers. Thus, computers help in data entry,
data editing, data management, including follow up actions, etc. Computers also
allow for greater flexibility in recording the data while they are collected as well as
greater ease during the analysis the these data.
In research studies, the preparation and inputting data is the most labour,
66
intensive and time consuming aspect of work. Typically the data will be initially
recorded on a questionnaire or record form suitable for its acceptance by the
computer. To do this the researcher in conjunction with the statistician and the
programmer, will convert the data into Microsoft word file or excel spreadsheets.
These spreadsheets can be directly opened with statistical software for analysis.
4) Role of Computers in Data Analysis
This phase consists of statistical analysis of the data and interpretation of
results.
Data Analysis: many softwares are now available to perform the
“mathematical part” of the research process, i.e. the calculations using various
statistical methods. Softwares like SPSS, NCSS-PASS, STATA and Sysat are
some of the widely used. They can be calculating the sample size for a proposed
study, hypotheses testing and calculating the power of the study. Familiarity with
any one package will suffice to carry out the most intricate statistical analyses.
Computers are useful not only for statistical analyses, but also to monitor the
accuracy and completeness of the data as they are collected.
5) Role of Computers in Research Dissemination.
This phase is publication of the research study.
Research Publishing: The research article is typed in word format and
convert to portable data format (PDF) and stored and/or published in the World
Wide Web.
A note of caution. The above description indicated clearly the usefulness of
computer throughout the research process. Researchers using commuters make
their work faster with more accuracy and greater reliability the developments
taking place in the technology will further enhance and facilitate the use for
researchers.
In spite of all these sophistications it is wise to remember that a computer is
just a tool and a resource. It can only calculate or obey commands and cannot
think. If the methods of handling the data are to be applied efficiently, adequate
planning and suitable organization is necessary. No facility can replace this aspect
of planning. Further, it would be a disaster to replace the statistician by a computer,
no matter how powerful, since statistical analyses are built on sound principles of
design, implementation and handling of exigencies in data collection, all of which
require the expertise of a qualifies statistician. The human brain remains supreme
and will continue to be so forever.
Conclusion.
To conclude, computers are useful tools that make the research process
easier and faster with accuracy and greater reliability and fewer errors. The
programmer or the computer operator should have a thorough knowledge about
67
abilities and limitations of the softwares used for better use of computers.

1. Computers have always assisted to solve the problems faced by the


mankind, haven’t they?
2. How can a word “computer” be defined?
3. How many components are there in the computer?
4. What are the most important characteristics of a computer?
5. What five major phases of research process do you know?
6. What is NCSS-PASS-GESS?
7. Why is it important to remember that a computer is just a tool and a
resource?
8. How does a computer help you in your research?

5.2 Read the following international words and try to guess their meaning

Computer technology, result, physical format, brochure, barrier, consult,


bibliographical, electronic address, transmission, data, resource, global, distant,
communicate, climate.

5.3 Find pairs of words with the opposite meaning

reduce scarce wholly shallow


drastically minor ease slow
automatically increase flexible close
vast begin open plain
strong slightly wisely difficulty
end constant intricate foolishly
forget manually fast rigid
major remember thorough partly
variable weak

5.4 Make the following words negative adding the appropriate prefix: in – im –
ir – un – il – dis – mis – de – re

a) Dispensable, limited, important, precise, accurate, different, relevant,


advantage, suitable, acceptance, interpretation, usefulness, reliable.

b) 1) My grandfather found it ___possible to stop smoking.


2) Your answer is totally ___logical; it doesn’t make sense at all!!
68
3) I wish I spoke better English. When I travel abroad, I often ___understand what
people are saying.
4) Her parents’ divorce did ___reparable damage to her adult relationships.
5) Their choice of honeymoon destination was as yet ___decided.
6) There have been 2 train ___railments in the last 48 hours.
7) The rails were all rusty from ___use.
8) Please give me further instructions as to where I can ___load the dishwasher.
9) I have been given very ___exact information as to the distance to Esburg.
10) It is ___legal for a car to park here.
11) Yet some drivers ___obey the law.
12) The pedestrians may be at risk if the drivers are ___aware of the rules which
apply to marked-off crosswalks.

5.5 Choose the words with similar meaning

a) to restrict, to allow, option, advance, to conduct, global, significant,


primarily, to improve, environment, competition, mission.
b) right of choosing, progress, to limit, to permit, important, to direct, world-
wide, to make better, essentially, contest, surroundings, assignment.

5.6 Match up the words for proper combination


1) user-friendly a. routine
2) bibliographical b. service
3) on-line c. fiction
4) electronic d. advance
5) science e. research
6) daily f. means
7) technological g. environment

5.7 Read and translate the following word combinations and use them in your
own sentences

physical access, diverse sources, research results, technological advance, area


of information, global village, bibliographical research.

5.8 Read the text carefully and find the information about diverse access to
documents. Entitle the text. Answer the following questions

The link between information and computer technology has resulted in


69
changes that until a few years ago were restricted to science fiction. Physical
access to documents is no longer so important: on-line services, databases on CD-
ROM, the Internet, all make access possible to diverse sources of information. If
the system allows downloading, if the research results can be printed, how much
does access cost, if it is to a public source. Reading is no longer the only form of
access. Now the user has the option to format: brochures, CD-ROMs, videos,
audio-books, etc.
Technological advance provoked an earthquake in the area of information,
breaking barriers. The Global Village is a reality, changing people's daily routines,
habits and customs. It is no longer necessary to go to Washington to consult the
catalogue of the Library of Congress to conduct bibliographical research: its
electronic address is the Open Sesame for researchers and scholars.

1. Is the link between information and computer technology still science


fiction?
2. Why is physical access to documents no longer so important?
3. Why is not reading the only form of access now?
4 Why did technological advance provoke an earthquake in the area of
information?

5.9 Read and translate the following words and word combinations

to supersede, acquisition, unlimited access, capability, such as, access to


networks, significant factor, primarily, by means of.

5.10 Read and translate the text

Internet
In the last years the classical function of libraries has been more and more
superseded by various electronic information systems which enable exchange,
acquisition and transmission of information, searching, processing and storage of
data and reviewing and lending of library material. As to their resources and
unlimited access, no classical library at present can be compared with their
capabilities of providing information.
Generally speaking Internet is a global library. However, it is well known that
it enables several different services, such as e-mail and access to distant computers
and networks. So far, e-mail has been a significant factor in all areas of the
Internet. Users of Internet may search for various data, exchange information and
communicate with other users of Internet primarily by means of search engines
70
such as Excite, Magellan, Point, Inktoml, Alta Vista, InfoSeek, Lycos, Open Text
Index, Webcrawler, Yahoo, etc.

5.11 Find in the text and translate the following combinations

1 заменяется различными электронно-информационными системами;


2 накопление и передача информации;
3 поиск, обработка и хранение данных;
4 неограниченный доступ;
5 способность обеспечивать информацией;
6 вообще говоря;
7 до сих пор, пока это.

5.12 Choose the sentences in which it is said about

1 Как изменяется классическая функция библиотек.


2 Какие услуги предоставляет Internet.
3 Как могут обмениваться информацией и общаться друг с другом
пользователи Internet.

5.13 Answer the following questions

1 How has the classical function of libraries been changed?


2 What services does Internet enable?
3 What may users of Internet search?

5.14 Translate and solve the following mathematical problems


1. If 9 is subtracted from five times a certain number, the result is 21. Find the
number.
2. Twice a number plus 4 is the same as three times the number minus 2. Find
the number.
3. The number of non-smokers has gone up 60 % in the last six months. If the
number of non-smokers at our institute today is 1920, what was the number six
months ago?
4. Profits for the Hammer Company fell 14 % from the first Quarter to the
Second Quarter of the year. If the Second Quarter profits were $ 129,000, what
were the First Quarter profits.
5. Candidates A, B and C were in an election in which 1000 votes were cast.

71
Candidate A received 35% of the votes. Candidate D received 52 more votes than
candidate C. Who won the election?

Additional reading

1. Look through the text and do the tasks to it

The Internet is the latest jewel in the crown of information technology. Also
known as the information super-highway, it is an international infrastructure used
for data communication which is becoming as popular and relied upon as the
telephone.
The important characteristic of the Internet is its speed of information flow.
Hence e-mail (electronic mail) travels much faster and is thus much preferred than
traditional paper mail (also known as snail-mail). E- mail is also beginning to
replace many phone calls. This is because e-mail allows the senders the ability to
edit information before they post it. Also, e-mail allows the receiver to answer at
their own leisure.
Another beneficial feature of the Internet is that being supported mostly by
academic and nonprofit organizations, the information is free (after an initial
connection fee). This means that this technology is not greatly restricted to or
dominated by any particular economic class. In fact, the huge amount of
competition between Internet service providers means that the costs related to net-
usage are even beginning to decline. The fact that the information is free to the
end-user has also sparked a great deal of commercial interest. Many companies are
investing time and money into net-advertisements. They hope that their free
promotional material can tap into the new consumer market of the computer-user.
The Internet is also beginning to replace libraries as sources of research
information. This is because it is current, very generalized for public consumption.
The net is also better than libraries for educational reasons. Its interactive nature
encourages and motivates students more into learning. The only draw-back is that
the information is not as reliable and there are often difficulties in accessing and
collecting electronic information, e.g. the crashing of computer servers.

2. Translate the following combinations into English and use them in the
sentences of your own

известный как, полагаться на..., информационный поток, черепашья


почта, способность редактировать информацию, на досуге, огромная
72
конкуренция, потребительский рынок, общественное потребление,
единственный недостаток.

3. Translate into English

1 Интернет становится таким же популярным, как и телефон.


2 Важной особенностью Интернета является скорость информационного
потока.
3 Электронную почту чаще предпочитают традиционной бумажной.
4 Большой коммерческий интерес вызвал тот факт, что для конечного
пользователя информация бесплатна.
5 Многие компании вкладывают деньги в рекламу в Internet.
6 Бесплатный рекламный материал может использоваться на новом
потребительском рынке.
7 Информация, имеющаяся в сети не так надежна, как в библиотеке.
8 Часто возникают трудности в доступе и сборе электронной информации.

4. Speak about:

a) characteristic feature of E-mail;


b) the costs related to net-usage;
c) the problem of replacing libraries by the Internet.

5. Skim through the text and say what it is about

Unfortunately, the Internet does contain inbuilt values like most technologies.
On the Internet, English dominates, the United States of America is the source of
most information and the information is generally a product of the pro-technology
community. But despite these prejudices of the medium, the huge popularity of the
Internet has led to end-users inventing ingenious6 ways to overcome these
problems. For example, the net allows for teleporting (via telnet facilities) to other
countries. This is akin7 to having multiple3 foreign exchange students and
similarly, encourages cultural bio-diversity. Also, information on the net often
appears in other languages, of which Japanese and German are very common.

6. Read the text about the international collaboration. Translate the phrases in
bold type.
6
ingenious - оригинальный
7
akin - сродни
73
One of the most striking features of modern science is the increasing
tendency towards closer cooperation between scientists and scientific
organizations (institutions) all over the world. In fact, it is becoming more and
more evident that many of the problems that affect the world today cannot be
solved without joining scientific efforts and material resources on a world-wide
scale. The exploration of space, world finance, global environment protection
problems and the development of new sources of power are the examples of
areas of scientific research which are so costly and complicated that it is difficult
for a single country to solve them efficiently and in a short period of time.
The renewal of international scientific cooperation was demonstrated in the
sharing of data which were obtained by Russian, Japanese and European space
probes in 1986 on Halley's comet. Many countries were successfully cooperating
on a programme called Intercosmos in launching a large number of vertical
geophysical rockets and satellites.
Space exploration programmes were being conducted between Russia and
Austria, India, France, Sweden and other countries. Joint manned flights by
Russian and foreign cosmonauts included citizens from numerous countries.
Many international crews have worked on orbit and carried out a lot of
scientific experiments, Russian and the U.S. engineers are now working side by
side on the International Space Station, the largest peace time engineering project
in history. Launched from opposite sides of the world, the first International Space
Station components Zarya and Unity have begun a new era of exploration as 16
nations joined their scientific and technological resources in the first truly
international space program to improve life on Earth. Even before its launch, the
International Space Station has opened new spheres of research on Earth by
overcoming barriers of language, culture and technological differences
worldwide. Indeed, it represents unprecedented global cooperation and trust.
There is no doubt that it is the first step towards a unified «planetary civilization»
that will explore space as citizens of Earth, not of individual nations.

74
UNIT 6. ACADEMIC ARTICLE

6.1 Study the text below and answer the following questions:

ABSTRACTS
Abstract is used in scientific or
academic writing to summarize the major
content of a paper or a journal article.
An abstract communicates the scope
of an academic paper, and, in doing so, it
facilitates research. Abstracts help
scientists to locate materials that are
relevant to their research from among
published papers, and many times scientists will only read a paper’s abstract in
order to determine whether the paper will be relevant to them. Considering your
audience and their needs will help you to determine what should be included in
your abstract.
The most common type of abstract is the informative abstract. An
informative abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in
the body of the report, and provides the key facts and conclusions from the body of
the report. A good way to develop an informative abstract is to devote a sentence
or two to each of the major parts of the report. If space permits, you can provide
contextual information such as background of the problem and the significance of
the research, but you can also omit contextual information because the abstract is
not supposed to serve as an introduction to the subject matter of the report—your
introduction will serve that role. You can also omit citations for your sources in the
abstract. If you summarize information that you borrowed from other writers, you
do not have to repeat the citation in the informative abstract. You should, however,
include key numerical facts to make the informative abstract brief. Readers will not
be surprised to see numerical data in an informative abstract.
The abstract is a short summary of an article with a maximum length of 200
– 250 words. Most readers first scan the abstract in order to decide whether reading
the rest of the article would be worthwhile. The abstract, therefore, serves as an
important “window display” or “advertisement” for your work and provides an
opportunity to impress the reader.

The research article abstract


The main problem with abstracts is that they are often so vaguely written
that they do not grab the reader’s attention. One should always try to give the
75
reader enough concrete information in an abstract to get them interested in your
work.

An abstract of an academic article should include the following seven


elements:
• The abstract has to start with a brief theme sentence to orientate the reader
about the overall issue addressed in the article. This sentence should grab the
reader’s attention.
• The abstract should then indicate the main aim or purpose of the study.
• Next, the academic and/or practical importance of the study should be
explained.
• The methodology used in the study should also be briefly described.
• The main findings of the study should be summarized.
• A statement of conclusions should indicate the contribution made by the
study in filling gaps in the literature.
• Finally, the practical or managerial implications of the study’s findings
should be highlighted where appropriate.

Also consider the following principles when writing the abstract:


• Since the abstract is a summary of the article, nothing should be in it that it
not also included in the main text.
• An abstract is not an introduction. The article should be complete without the
abstract. One way to ensure this is to write the abstract after you have
completed the rest of the article.
• The abstract is normally written as a single paragraph. It is self-contained
(i.e., it should be understandable without requiring the reader to read
something else).
• The abstract should not contain any figures, tables or in-text references, just
normal text. In-text references may, however, be included when one is
replicating a previous study and this is specifically mentioned in the abstract.

Four main functions of an abstract can be recognized, three before reading


and one after you have read it.
Before reading:
f. To summarize and highlight the main points so that the potential reader can
decide whether to read the entire article or not.
g. It serves as a short version of the article for those who do not have time to read
the whole text. It should, therefore, contain key facts, key phrases and
conclusions.
76
h. To prepare the reader for reading the full text, to focus his/her attention on the
direction of the argument and so give him/her an idea of what to expect.
After reading:
− It is an aid to the reader’s memory after he has read the article. It is also serves
as a reference.
KEYWORDS
A maximum of 6-8 keywords should be included in the article directly after
the abstract. The keywords serve as hooks that draw the attention of potential
readers and are also used to locate articles in an electronic database.
The keywords should preferably reflect the discipline, sub-discipline, theme,
research design and context (industry and/or country) of the study. Where
appropriate, frequently used synonyms may be used as separate keywords.
The keywords should be typed in sentence case and in italics. Sentence case
means that only the first letter of the first keyword and the first letter of all proper
nouns are written in capital letters.

1. What is the abstract used for?


2. What is the most common type of the abstract?
3. What kind of information is provided in the abstract?
4. Can numbers be put in the abstract?
5. What is the maximum length of the abstract?
6. What is the most frequent problem of abstracts?
7. What are the elements of the abstract? What elements are new for you, if
any?
8. How many functions are there before reading abstracts?
9. How many keywords should be included in the article?
10.What do keywords reflect?

6.2 Match the following words and word-combinations used for retelling of
the article and its summarizing.

The purpose, the basic principle, the present paper, problems relating to,
similarly, in brief, on the contrary, the theme (subject-matter), at first, next, the
main (major) problem, finally.

Данная статья; тема; основная проблема; цель; основной принцип;


проблемы, связанные с; аналогично; наоборот; сначала; далее; наконец;
вкратце.

77
6.3 Finish up the sentences with the words true to one of your article.
1. The object of this paper is to …
2. The article puts forward the idea …
3. The article discusses some problems relating to …
4. The paper deals firstly with the problem of…
5. Then the author goes on to the problem of …
6. The next paragraph deals with …
7. After discussing … the author turns to …
8. It must be emphasized that…
9. The final paragraph states…
10.In my opinion…

6.4 Make a summary of any article you are interested in using the summarizing
algorithm

6.5 Correspond the Latin/Greek root with its meaning and the appropriate
derivative.
bio Time Disport
fort Go Alibi
chron Write Procession
port Life Bionics
ced Carry Synchronize
scrib Another Comfortable
ali, alter Strong Transcription

6.6 Study the following abstracts in Russian and English and compare them.
Пример 1:
В данной статье рассмотрены проблемы толкования положений Конституции
Конституционным Судом Российской Федерации. Проанализированы характерные
особенности грамматического способа толкования, использование в процессе такого
толкования различных методов лингвистического и юридического анализа (на примере
текстов постановлений Конституционного Суда РФ). Выявлена и обоснована
необходимость совместного использования методов юридического и лингвистического
анализа в процессе толкования. На основе проведенного исследования автором
предлагается выделить юридико-технический способ толкования, дается его
определение, формулируются основные характеристики лингвистического и
юридического анализа, составляющих юридико-технический способ.
Пример 2:
В статье ставится задача рассмотреть эффект сохранения и преобразования
художественного канона на примере задостойника А. А. Архангельского и
78
П. Г. Чеснокова. В результате анализа автор впервые в литературе доказывает, что в
Православном богослужебном пении существуют тексты с устойчивым
канонизированным типом структуры. Они обладают свободой музыкальной трактовки.
При сохранении единого текста и структуры произведений, использованием различных
мелодико-графических формул достигается широкое разнообразие музыкальных
произведений.
Пример 3:
На уровне концепции в данной работе предложена оптимальная модель современного
промышленного дизайна инновационной продукции. В статье рассматривается
процедура отбора и проверки определенного проектного решения. Проектная
деятельность связывается в статье с интересами как производства, так и рынка.
Модель может быть использована как основа для разработки частных методик,
необходимых для решения поставленных перед промышленным дизайном задач.

Example 1:
During the last 10 years, use of the World-Wide-Web for educational purposes has increased
dramatically. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine the
effectiveness of this use. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of
using the World-Wide-Web on an EAP writing course. Two groups of students were taught
writing by two different methods: one group was taught by a teacher in a traditional classroom,
while a second group included use of an on-line web-site in their course. The two groups were
assessed in the same way after a twelve-week period of instruction. Results of the assessment
showed significant differences between the two groups, the group that used the on-line web-site
performing much better on all aspects of the test. This suggests that the use of computer assisted
learning programmes for at least some of the teaching time available can be recommended for
EAP writing courses.
Example 2:
The paper under discussion covers the area of radio engineering and deals with a problem of
low frequency signals and their quadrature modulation. Its key idea is to introduce the basic
unconvert principles for quadrature low-frequency signals carried by means of direct digital
synthesis. The engineering approach to the problem is based on upconversion methodology to
suggest innovative solutions for low-frequency signals by means of integrated circuits. Besides,
a problem of transformation without loss of quality is thoroughly considered. The results of
laboratory studies on direct digital synthesis are analyzed in detail. Particular attention is given
to the main parameters of signals with view to their transformation characteristics. The data
obtained are backed up by the figures given to illustrate the main transformation processes and
their properties. The material presented can open new prospects for further research studies. It
seems to be interesting to those who work in the field of digital radio engineering.
Example 3:
The article contains the results of analyzing personal peculiarities of two different comparison
groups of officers. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the factors of suicidal risk.
The officers were examined when entering the service. Various factor structures of personal
characteristics were determined for each of the groups. The article also reveals the peculiarities
of reacting to psycho-traumatic situations and determines the differences in protective

79
psychological mechanisms, peculiarities of emergence and development of psychological
desadaptation states.

6.7 Translate the phrases recommended for writing abstract.

· В данной статье рассматривается проблема...


· Обосновывается идея о том, что...
· Прослеживается...
· В статье затрагивается тема...
· Даётся сравнение...
· Статья посвящена комплексному исследованию...
· Целью статьи является анализ изучения...
· В статье раскрываются проблемы...
· Особое внимание уделено...
· В статье анализируется...
· Автор приходит к выводу, что...
· Основное внимание в работе автор акцентирует на...
· Выделяются и описываются характерные особенности...
· В статье выяснены особенности...
· На основе изучения… установлено...
· Статья посвящена актуальной на сегодняшний день проблеме...
· Данная проблема мало изучена и требует дальнейших исследований.
· Автором предложены...
· Основное содержание исследования составляет анализ...
· В статье речь идет о...
· Статья посвящена детальному анализу…...
· Значительное внимание уделяется...
· В заключение раскрывается...
· Статья раскрывает содержание понятия...
· Обобщается практический опыт...
· Статья подводит некоторые итоги изучения...
· В статье излагаются взгляды на...
· В статье дан анализ научных изысканий...

6.8 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the context in


which the words in bold used
generate turn solid confirm underline
character pose nature focus

80
1. She loves to _________for photographs in front of her fabulous house.
The events_________a threat to stability in the region.
2. It was difficult to__________the camera on the flower as it was so small.
We should_________our attention on the most important issue.
3. I called the airline and_________my research.
The data_______my hypothesis that animal-lovers enjoy better health.
4. The power plant_______electricity for the whole region.
This issue always ________ a great deal of debate among the academics.
5. The murderer was_________from fingertips discovered at the scene.
In this theory of history, progress is closely__________with technology.
6. She became interested in________conversation.
The first language in the series was on the__________human
communication.
7. Jim’s very interesting_____________. I hope to meet him.
The book attempts to explain the fundamental ________of social life.
8. I saw her_______to her husband and whisper something in his ear.
Let us know_________to the subject of town planning.
9. He always_______every new word when he’s reading.
The study ________the fact that very little research exists.
10.The liquid became______as the temperature was lowered.
The study lacks_________evidence and therefore its conclusions are
doubtful.

6.9 Read and translate the sentences with numbers

1. Canada’s estimated population as of June 1 1972 was 21830000.


2. Over 2/5 of the Canada’s population is of British stock.
3. French-speaking descendants of the original French colonists constitute about
30%.
4. More than 3.6 million are of Scottish and Irish descent.
5. Many others are descended from the thousands of American colonists who
moved into Canada at the time of American Revolution (1776–1783).
6. The native peoples of Canada, the Indians and Eskimos, comprise only 1.35 of
the population.
7. There are 257619 Indians, 73% of whom live on the government reserves
occupying over 6000000 acres.
8. Canada’s 17000 Eskimos live in the Northwest Territories, northern Quebec
and Labrador.

81
9. About 75% of Canada’s population lives in urban areas concentrated within
100 miles of the United States border.
10. British attempts at settlement in Canada occurred as early as 1628 in Nova
Scotia and Newfoundland.
11. The major ethnic groups in Hawaii are Caucasian and Japanese,
approximately 35.5% of the 1970 resident population was Caucasian (including
Puerto Rican), 26.8% was Japanese, 16.2% was part Hawaiian, 7.9% was Filipino,
7.9% was mixed other than Part Hawaiian, 3.9% was Chinese, 1.0% was unmixed
Hawaiian, 0.9% Korean, 0.8% was Negro, 0.8% was Samoan, and 0.4% was other
or unknown.
12. The 1970 census reported that 59.2 percent were Hawaii-born, 23.3 percent
mainland-born, and 9.8 percent foreign-born.
13. Forty years earlier, when the foreign-born were at their absolute peak at
121209 (compared with 75595 in 1970), they accounted for almost 1/3 of the total.
14. Of 256172 Hawaii residents classified as either foreign-born or having
foreign-born parents, 4/5 were of Asiatic origin, chiefly Japanese.
15. The State had 203088 households and 170358 families in 1970.

6.10 Translate the following phrases


Spanish freezer trawler owners; Vigo-based Anamer, 170-strong freezer fleet,
Spain’s main distant water fishing region, Federal Atlantic Fisheries Adjustment
program, rock lobster egg measuring technique, pro-marine mammal and
environmental groups, long-range hot & cold water fishing operations, coastal
zone management seminar, compact on-board fish pump system, oil spill
containment and clean up equipment, 200-meter beach protection boom, the
environmentally engineered fuel system; a compact, low profile four-cylinder unit.

Additional reading
1. It may be of some interest for you to acquaint yourself with the curriculum and
post-graduate training programs in other countries. Read the text and find
some differences and similarities in the postgraduate studies in the United
Kingdom and Russia.

Postgraduate Training Programs

All further education which comes after baccalaureate can be regarded as


postgraduate education. It presupposes carrying a lot of research work, acquiring

82
knowledge of new methodologies and new trends. It may lead to either a Master’s
degree (a three-year program of study) or PhD (usually a two-year course of
study).
Postgraduate programmes are either research degrees or taught courses.
Taught courses last one or more years and are either designed so that you deepen
your knowledge gained from your first degree or for you to convert you expertise
to another field of study. Examples of these include changing to law to become a
solicitor and training to become a teacher.
Degrees by instruction are very similar to undergraduate courses in that most of
the time is devoted to attending lectures. This may take up the first eight or nine
months of the course and is followed by written examinations. A period of
research lasting from two or three months usually follows and the results of it are
presented in the form of a thesis. Finally, an oral examination is held, lasting
perhaps an hour or two, to test the knowledge accumulated throughout the year.
Most programmes, which involve classes and seminars, lead up to a dissertation.
Research course is quite a different type of study from a taught course. First of
all it lasts longer, for about three years providing Master’s or doctorate
qualifications. They allow you to conduct investigations into your own topic of
choice and are of use in jobs where there are high levels of research and
development.
The most well-known research qualification is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD,
a three-year study programme). There is a shorter version called a Master of
Philosophy (MPh) which takes the minimum amount of time of two years. Both of
these qualifications require the students to carry out a piece of innovative research
in a particular area of study. Also possible is the research based on Master of
Science (MSc.) and Master of Arts (MA) degrees. A recent development is the
Master of Research (MRes), which provides a blend of research and taught courses
in research methods and may be a taken as a precursor to a PhD.
It is a common practice for students to be registered initially for the MPhil and
to be considered for transfer to the PhD after the first year of study, subject to
satisfactory progress and to a review of the proposed research. All research degree
programmes involve an element of research training designed to ensure that
students are equipped with the necessary skills and methodological knowledge to
undertake original research in their chosen field of study. The training programme
includes the development of generic skills relevant to the degree programme and a
future career. Although the training element is not a formal part of the assessment
for the degree, it constitutes an important basis for research and may take up a
significant part of the first year.
The start of a research degree involves a very extensive survey of all previous
83
works undertaken in that area. At the same time, if a student is planning to carry
out any practical experimentations, the necessary equipment must be obtained.
This preliminary part of the study can take up to six months, but it is important
to note that the process of keeping up to date with other work going on in the
subject must continue throughout the entire period of the research.
The next stage of a research course usually involves collecting information in
some way. This might be through experimentation, in the case of arts, social
sciences or humanities degree. The important thing is that something new must be
found.
This second part of the procedure takes about two years in the case of a PhD.
The research is written up in the form of a thesis during the final six months of the
three-year period. Typically, this will contain an introduction, methodology, results
and discussion. As in the case with taught degrees, the research must then be
examined orally. Occasionally, if the examiners are not completely happy with the
work they may ask the candidate to rewrite parts of the thesis. Hopefully, a good
supervisor will make sure this does not happen!

2. Why undertake postgraduate study?


There are various reasons for choosing postgraduate studies but some reasons
are more positive than others. Look through the text below and be ready to discuss
it.

Tom Brown:
I Really Enjoy My Subject
This is a highly motivating reason to do a higher degree. It’s worth considering
the long-term implications of your choice. Does your choice of course fit in with
your long-term career plans? That does not mean that you should only consider
postgraduate programmes related to your area of work interest. All further study
programmes will enable you to develop skills that you could market to an
employer.

Emily Wright:
I Need It to Pursue My Chosen Career
This is an obvious positive reason for undertaking further study. Some career
areas do require a professional qualification, for example law, teaching, social
work, librarianship or clinical psychology. For other employment areas a
postgraduate qualification, although not essential, will provide a distinct ad-
vantage to applicants, particularly when competition for places is fierce. In any
case it will make you stand out from the crowd and get you a better job. Research
84
the area of work that interests you to identify whether a postgraduate course would
be necessary or advantageous to you.

Martin Scott:

I Don’t Know What to Do – This Will Give Me More Time to Decide


Past experience suggests undertaking a further year or more of study is unlikely
to lead to careers inspiration! If you choose a course for this reason, it is important
to use the duration of the course to decide what options are open to you, what
skills you have to offer, what you want out of a job or may be jobs, what jobs
would suit you in general.

Pamela Bain

The idea of original research can conjure up thoughts of constant intellectual


excitement and cries of ‘eureka!’ The reality may be rather different. Studying for
a research degree is very different to studying for an undergraduate degree.
Consider carefully whether or not you would enjoy the basic research techniques
you are going to use. Can you imagine counting black dots down a microscope for
weeks on end? OK spending a year, or two, building equipment before generating
a single result? Will you be happy working alone in a library for days on end? The
breakthrough, when it happens, can be euphoric, but when results refuse to come it
can be deeply disappointing.

Tom Sight
Doctorates don’t count for much outside academia – and in fact they may count
against you. If you can’t find a directly relevant area for subsequent professional
work, then many employers are likely to look at you, a 25-30 year old person with
three-six years of post-graduate work as being a strange and slightly worrying
employment prospect – they’re going to be too smart for their own good. Another
thing you won’t be told is how many people don’t complete their doctorates. I’ve
heard various figures mentioned, but I believe that around 50% of people who start
doctorates don’t get a PhD out of it. An enormous proportion of people simply
never finish the things because it’s not quite what they were expecting when they
started.

3. Apart from the above reasons you may have some others worth mentioning.
Put them down in the order of preference in writing.

85
4. There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate or doctorate
courses. Some people consider post-graduate study and doctorate a mere
waste of time and effort. Express your opinion on the problem. If you disagree
with something, debate and give your arguments.

86
UNIT 7 READING AND DISCUSSING
PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE

7.1 Study the examples below for ideas on what to include in a book review.
Give the reasons why you think the books might be useful for readers

Economic Concepts for the Social Sciences


This book presents some of the key
economic concepts that have guided economic
thinking in the last century and identifies which
concepts will continue to direct economic
thought in the coming decades. It is written in
an accessible manner and is intended for a wide
audience with little or no formal training in
economics. This treatment will interest
economists who want to reflect on the direction of the discipline and to learn about
achievements in other subfields. The author imparts his enthusiasm for the
economic way of reasoning and its wide applicability. Through the abundant use of
illustrations and examples, he makes concepts understandable and relevant. Topics
include game theory, market failures, asymmetric information, endogenous growth
theory, general equilibrium, rational expectations, and the new institutional
economics.

Gold is where you find it. This book is solid gold. Clearly, cogently, and
cleverly introducing the structure of economic analysis without mathematics,
Sandler presents a challenging and comprehensive guide to how to think about the
general problems that we face in the broad realm of politics, economics, and
policy. This book is a definite treasure for students in politics, sociology, and
economics.
Michael D. Ward, University of Washington

In a highly readable book, Todd Sandler once again demonstrates his talent
for innovative economics. Far from being content to supply new answers to
established questions, he raises suite after suite of new questions. Stimulating and
provocative from first page to last.
Norman Myers, University of Oxford

In this insightful volume Todd Sandler conveys to the general reader, first,
87
what economics has to tell us about many issues of continuing practical
importance.
In addition, by explaining cutting-edge developments such as game theory,
public choice models, and the experimental method, the author succeeds in giving
a good overview of how economists can come to valid conclusions.
Jack Hirshleifer, University of California, Los Angeles

- Complete range of basic concepts in economics made accessible for broad


audience.
- Uses numerous, timely examples and is free of an ideological standpoint.
- Author has written or edited 15 other books, including 3 for Cambridge
University Press.
Subject areas: economics, political science, sociology, philosophy.

The Judicial Application of Human Rights Law

The original human rights concepts articulated in the 1948 Universal


Declaration have evolved considerably. Nihal Jayawickrama encapsulates the
judicial interpretation of human rights law from all available sources in one
comprehensive volume, covering superior court case law of over 55 countries, the
jurisprudence of the UN Human Rights monitoring bodies, the European Court of
Human Rights, and the Inter-American system. This definitive compendium will
be essential for legal practitioners, government and non-governmental officials,
and academics and students of both constitutional law and the international law of
human rights.
- The only comprehensive statement of the substantive content of
contemporary human rights concepts.
- The only book that assembles all the available jurisprudence on human
rights law from national, regional and international sources.
- The only publication that empirically demonstrates, through an analysis of
the judicial application of human rights law, the universality of contemporary
human rights norms.
Subject areas: global human rights, international law, European Court of
Human Rights, Commonwealth law, US laws, jurisprudence.
Market: academic researchers, graduate students, professionals.

7.2 Read the following sentences and translate them into Russian paying
special attention to the underlined parts. Discuss with your fellow-student the books
described above.
88
1. This book is written mainly for politicians and economists. 2. The books
aims to acquaint the reader with the general problems that we face in the broad
realm of politics, economics and policy. 3. This originally appeared in the journal
«Jurisprudence». 4. Reference is made to judicial interpretation of human rights
law from all available sources. 5. The subject matter appears under two headings.
6. Subject areas include global human rights and international law. 7. The author
imparts his enthusiasm for the economic way of reasoning. 8. The book is highly
readable. 9. The author makes concepts understandable and relevant. 10. The
author succeeds in giving a good overview of how economics can come to valid
conclusions.

7.3 Speak about the book you are reading (or have recently read). Use the
words and word-combinations in your description.

7.4 Ask your fellow student the following questions. Work in pairs.

1. Is there an introductory part in your thesis (article, the book you are
reading)?
2. What subjects are dealt with in the introduction of your thesis (article,
book)?
3. What problems does the book acquaint us with?
4. When and how were you first introduced to this subject?

7.5 Translate into English

1. - Вы знакомы с этой статьей? - Да. Я прочитал ее вчера. - Интересная


статья? - Очень. - Меня тоже интересует эта проблема. Надо прочитать эту
статью. - Прочитайте. В вводной части автор знакомит читателя с историей
вопроса, а в последующих разделах мы знакомимся с методом исследования,
полученными данными и выводами автора.
2. Вы читали последнюю статью доктора Смита в последнем номере
журнала? - Да. - Чему она посвящена? - Самым последним методам
исследования.
3. О чем идет речь в последней статье, которую вы прочитали? - О последних
достижениях в моей области исследования.
4. О чем последние страницы работы? - О новейших результатах
исследования.
5. Чему посвящен последний журнал этого года?
89
7.6 Use the following expressions in your own sentences

1. A list of references. 2. Key references. 3. A complete set of references. 4.


To make reference to somebody (or something). 5. A reference book. 6. A work of
reference.

7.7 Ask your fellow-student the following questions. Work in pairs

1. Did you (the author) provide your (his) paper with a list of references? 2.
Whom did you (the author) make reference to? 3. Is your (the author's) list of
references complete (extensive, numerous, adequate, inadequate)? 4. What kind of
book do you consult if you need some information? 5. What reference work do you
usually consult? 6. Who is the author or editor of this work of reference?

7.8 Complete the following sentences

1. The title of the book I am reading is … . 2. The title of my professor's work


for Doctor's Degree is … . 3. The title of my friend's thesis is … . 4. The heading
of the chapter I am interested in is … . 5. The headline of the article we discussed
last time is … .

7.9 Answer the following questions

1. What is the headline of the article you are going to tell us about?
2. What is the heading of the last section?
3. Does the title describe the subject?
4. Under what headings does the subject matter appear?
5. What is the title of your paper?

7.10 Use subject or object instead of their synonyms in the following


sentences

1. The aim of my paper is to present the basic ideas of the theory in question.
2. The author treats a great variety of problems. 3. The purpose of this volume is to
analyze the character of market economy. 4. This is an excellent collection of
articles on diverse topics. 5. Other topics dealt with in this book are regularly
reviewed in scientific journals.

90
7.11 Insert the right word: subject, object or subject matter

1. The … of the textbook falls into two sections. 2. The … of my work is to


investigate this particular problem. 3. I'm engaged in one of the aspects of the
broad … of law. 4. The … of my thesis is arranged in the following way. 5. The
… of the book is of major importance. 6. The … of the paper is to give some idea
about family law.

7.12 Translate into English

1. Я хотел бы задать Вам несколько вопросов: во-первых, какова тема


статьи; во-вторых, какова ее цель; затем - каков предмет исследования, и,
наконец, о чем она (содержание)?
2. - Из скольких частей состоит ваша диссертация?
- Из двух. В первой части содержится описание истории вопроса и
метода исследования, а во второй - само исследование и его результаты.
3. - Из скольких глав состоит книга?
- Из десяти.
- И в каждой главе есть (содержатся) новые данные?
- Да. В каждой главе много новых данных.

7.13 Read the book review and be ready to answer the questions that follow

Getting the Measure of Your Business


This book provides directors, managers and consultants of manufacturing
companies with simple but effective tools to help design and implement
performance measurement systems, such as the Balanced Scorecard.
These tools and techniques have been developed over many years and honed
through application in companies such as Roll-Royce Aerospace and Federal
Mogul. The techniques are appropriate to any manufacturing company employing
fifty people or more. A CD included with the book provides much supporting
material. This book also forms part of a three volume set covering business
strategy, performance, and competencies.
- Step-by-step guide to developing and implementing strategy for
manufacturing organizations
- Developed by the Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing with major
industrial clients
- Part of three volume set covering business strategy, performance and
competencies
91
Contents: Part I Process Overview: 1 What is performance and why measure
it?; 2 What does a performance measurement system include?; 3 The process of
performance measurement system design; 4 Summary of phase 1 of the procedure;
5 Summary of phase 2 of the procedure; 6 Participation; 7 Internal participation; 8
External participation; 9 Process and project management; 10 Launching the
process; 11 Further reading; Part II Selecting a Facilitator: 12 Launching the
process; 13 The workbook; 14 What are our main customer-product groups? 15
What are our business objectives? 16 Are we achieving our business objectives?;
17 Have we chosen the right measures?; 18 Using our measures to manage the
business; 19 What can we use to drive performance towards our objectives?; 20
Which performance drivers are the most important?; 21 How do we know these
drivers are working?; 22 Have we chosen the right measures for the drivers?; 23
Using these measures to drive business performance.

Subject areas: management, business, industry. Market: professionals,


academic researchers.
Cambridge University Press, 2002

7.14 Answer the following questions about the book and review given above

1 What is the title of the book under review? 2 Who edited the book? 3 When
and where was the book published? 4 Who is the book written for? What is the
purpose of the book? 6 Judging from the review the book acquaints us with the
effective tools to help design and implement performance measurement systems,
doesn't it? 7 Does the book contain any introductory part? 8 What subjects are
included? 9 The reviewer enumerated the subjects dealt with in book. What are the
last two included? 10 Which of these subjects are you well acquainted with? 11 In
what country do almost all the contributors live and work? 12 Can you tell us how
many parts does the book consist of? 13 What provides much supporting material?
14. Under how many headings does the subject matter (contents) appear? 15 Do
you think it'll be interesting and useful for you?

7.15 Write a review of a book you would like to recommend to your fellow-
students. Bring the book to class for the students to browse through while you talk
about it. The points to be covered:

1 The title of the book. 2 The time and the place of its publication. 3 The aim
of the book. 4 The subject of the book. 5 For whom the book is written. 6 The
92
author(s) of the book. 7 The list of references. 8 The arrangement of the subject
matter. 9 The contents of each part. 10 The style and the way the book is
illustrated. 11 Your own opinion about the value of the book.

7.16 Speak about your own publications. Use the following questions as a
guide for your talk.

1. What is the subject of your thesis? 2. Have you already published any
articles? 3. Where and when did you publish them? 4. What are the titles of your
published papers? 5. What problems do you deal with in those papers? 6. What are
you going to prove in the course of your research? 7. Is there much or little
material published on the subject of your research? 8. Who are your published
papers addressed to? 9. What do you give much attention to in you published
papers? 10. What is of particular interest in your paper? 11. How many parts does
your paper consist of? 12. What is the purpose of your paper? 13. What do you
treat in your introductory part? 14. What do you say in conclusion? 15.Whom do
you makes references to?

Additional reading
Critically reviewing the literature
1. Skim the text about critical literature review. Find an appropriate
heading for each paragraph.
a. planning the literature search
b. definition of critical literature review
c. evaluating the literature found
d. what is meant by critical
e. the purpose of the critical review
f. the structure of the critical review
g. the content of the critical review
h. literature sources

1. Knowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in
relation to other people’s. Your work and your findings will be significant only to
the extent that they’re the same as, or different from, other people’s work and
findings.
You therefore need to establish what research has been published in your
chosen area and try to identify any other research that might currently be in
progress. The items you read and write about will enhance your subject knowledge
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and help you to clarify your research question(s) further. This process is called
critically reviewing the literature.
2. Your critical literature review will form the foundation on which your
research is built. Its main purpose is to help you to develop a good understanding
and insight into relevant previous research and the trends that have emerged. Your
review also has a number of other purposes:
• to help you to refine further your research question(s) and objectives;
• to highlight research possibilities that have been overlooked implicitly in
research to data;
• to discover explicit recommendations for further research. These can provide
you with a superb justification for your own research question(s) and objectives;
• to help you to avoid simply repeating work that has been done already;
• to sample current opinions in newspapers, professional journals, thereby
gaining insights into the aspects of your research question(s) and objectives that
are considered newsworthy;
• to discover and provide an insight into research approaches, strategies and
techniques that may be appropriate to your own research question(s) and
objectives.
3. As you begin to find, read and evaluate the literature, you will need to think
how to combine the academic theories and ideas it contains to form the critical
review that will appear in your project report. This will need to discuss critically
the work that has already been undertaken in your area of research, and reference
that work. It will draw out the key points and trends and present them in a logical
way. In doing this you will provide readers of your project report with the
necessary background knowledge to your research question(s) and objectives and
establish the boundaries of your own research. It will also enable the readers to see
your ideas against the background of previous published re-search in the area. This
does not necessarily mean that your ideas must extend, follow or approve those set
out in the literature. You may be highly critical of the earlier research and seek to
discredit it. However, if you wish to do this you must still review the literature,
argue clearly why it is problematic, and then justify your own ideas.
In writing your critical review you will therefore need:
• to include the key academic theories within your chosen area;
• to demonstrate that your knowledge of your chosen area is up to date;
• to show how your research relates to previous published research;
• to assess the strengths and weaknesses of previous work and take these into
account in your arguments;
• to justify your arguments by referencing previous research;
• through clear referencing, to enable those reading your research report to
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find the original work you cite.
4. Within the context of reviewing the literature, the term ‘critical’ refers to the
judgment you exercise. It there-fore describes the process of providing a detailed
and justified analysis of and commentary on the merits and faults of the key
literature within your chosen area. This means that, for your review to be critical,
you should:
• refer to work by recognized experts in your chosen area;
• consider and discuss work that supports and work that opposes your ideas;
• make reasoned judgments regarding the value of others’ work to your
research;
• support your arguments with valid evidence in a logical manner;
• distinguish clearly between fact and opinion.
5. Although there is no single structure that your critical review should take, it
is useful to think of the review as a funnel in which you:
• start at a more general level before narrowing down to your specific research
question(s) and objectives;
• provide a brief overview of key ideas;
• summarize, compare and contrast the work of the key writers;
• narrow down to highlight the work most relevant to your research;
• provide a detailed account of the findings of this work;
• highlight the issues where your research will provide fresh insights;
• lead the reader into subsequent sections of your project report, which
explore these issues.
Whichever way you structure your review you must demonstrate that you have
read, understood and evaluated the items you have located. The key to writing a
critical literature review is therefore to link together the different ideas you find in
the literature to form a coherent and cohesive argument, which set in context and
justify your research. Obviously, it should relate to your research question and
objectives. It should show a clear link from these as well as a clear link to the
empirical work that will follow.
6. The literature sources available to help you to develop a good understanding
of and insight into previous re-search can be divided into three categories: primary
(published and unpublished), secondary, and tertiary. In reality these categories
often overlap: for example, primary literature sources including conference
proceedings can appear in journals, and some books contain indexes to primary
and secondary literature.
Primary literature sources (also known as grey literature) are the first
occurrence of a piece of work. They include published sources such as reports,
conference proceedings and theses. They also include unpublished manuscript
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sources such as letters, and memos.
Secondary literature sources such as books and journals are the subsequent
publications of primary literature. These publications are aimed at a wider
audience. They are easier to locate than primary literature as they are better
covered by the tertiary literature.
Tertiary literature sources, also called search tools, are designed either to help
to locate primary and secondary literature or to introduce a topic. They therefore
include indexes and abstracts as well as encyclopedias and bibliographies.
Your use of these literature sources will depend on your research questions and
objectives. For some research projects you may use only tertiary and secondary
literature; for others you may need to locate primary literature as well.
7. It is important that you plan the literature search carefully to ensure that you
locate relevant and up-to-date literature. This will enable you to establish what
research has been previously published in your area and to relate your own
research to it. Time spent planning will be repaid in time saved when searching the
literature. As you start to plan your search, you need to beware of information
overload! Before commencing your literature search you should under-take further
planning by:
• defining the parameters of your search;
• generating key words and search terms;
• discussing your ideas as widely as possible.
Techniques to help you in this include brainstorming and relevance trees.
8. Once obtained, the literature must be evaluated for its relevance to your
research questions and objectives. The following questions provide a checklist to
help you in this process.
− How recent is the item?
− Have you seen references to this item (or its author) in other items that
were useful?
− Does the item support or contradict your arguments? For either it will
probably be worth reading!
− Does the item appear to be biased? Even if it is it may still be relevant to
your critical review!
− What are the methodological omissions within the work? Even if there
are many it still may be of relevance!
− If the precision sufficient? Even if it is imprecise it may be the only item
you can find and so still of relevance!
Your assessment of whether you have read a sufficient amount is even more
complex. It is impossible to read everything, as you would never start to write your
critical review. Yet you need to be sure that your critical review discusses what
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research has already been undertaken and that you have positioned your research
project in the wider con-text, citing the main writers in the field. One clue that you
have achieved this is when further searching provides mainly references to items
you have already read. You also need to check what constitutes an acceptable
amount of reading, in terms of both quality and quantity, with your scientific
advisor.

2. Find Russian equivalents of the English words used in the text.

1) enhance v. a) обоснование, оправдание


2) emerge v. b) отбирать образцы, пробовать
3) implicitly adv. c) увеличивать, усиливать, повышать
4) explicit a. d) набросать (план), вытягивать, извлекать
5) justification n. e) неявно, скрыто, косвенным образом
6) sample v. f) появляться, выясняться, вставать (о вопросе)
7) draw out v. g) явный, определённый, высказанный до конца
8) discredit v. h) использовать, пользоваться
9) exercise v. i) логически последовательный, когерентный
10) distinguish v. k) остерегаться
11) reference v. l) необъективный, пристрастный,
тенденциозный
12) coherent a. m) не доверять, дискредитировать
13) cohesive a. n) снабдить текст ссылками
14) beware v. o) различать(ся)
15) biased a. p) связный
16) relevance n. q) частично совпадать, перекрывать
17) overlap v. r) относимость, значимость, уместность

3. Fill in the blanks in the text using the phrases from the box.

a. critically discussing and referencing work


b. develop a thorough understanding of and insight into
c. research question(s) and objectives
d. primary literature
e. brainstorming and relevance trees
f. at a more general level
g. a logically argued way
h. following up references in articles you have already read
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i. key words and search terms

A critical review of the literature is necessary to help you to 1) ____ previous


research that relates to your research question(s) and objectives. Your review will
set your research in context by 2) ________ that has already been undertaken,
drawing out key points and presenting them in 3)_________, and highlighting
those areas where you will provide fresh insights. It will lead the reader into
subsequent sections of your project report.
There is no one correct structure for a critical review, although it is helpful to
think of it as a funnel in which you start 4) ___________ prior to narrowing down
to your specific research question(s) and objectives.
Literature sources can be divided into three categories: primary, secondary and
tertiary. In reality, these categories often overlap. Your use of these resources will
depend on your research question(s) and objectives. Some may use only tertiary
and secondary literature. For others, you may need to locate 5) __________ as
well.
When planning your literature search you need:
− to have clearly defined 6) __________;
− to define the parameters of your search;
− to generate 7) ____________;
− to discuss your ideas as widely as possible.
Techniques to help you in this include 8) ____________.
Your literature search will be undertaken using a variety of approaches in tandem.
These will include:
− searching using tertiary sources and the Internet;
− 9) ____________;
− scanning and browsing secondary literature in your library.
Once obtained, the literature must be evaluated for its relevance to your
research question(s) and objectives. This must include a consideration of each
item's currency. Each item must be read and noted. Bibliographic details, a brief
description of the content and appropriate supplementary information should also
be recorded.

4. Give adequate Russian equivalents of the italicized words:

Background– общий элемент смысла: предшествование в пространстве или


во времени. Частотные русские эквиваленты: фон, задний план; образование,
квалификация, биографические данные и т.д.

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1. This vacancy can be filled only by a scientist with outstanding record and
background. 2. This text deals with the methods of geological science, their
historical background and development. 3. People of all backgrounds and all ages
all over the world need peace. 4. What is the background of the problem!5. Much
depends on the personal interest of the student, and on his linguistic and cultural
background.

Case— общий элемент смысла совокупность конкретных условий или


обстоятельств, характеризующих ситуацию. Частотные русские эквиваленты:
случай положение дел; доводы, доказательства, аргументы и т.д.

1. In any case the results of the experiment will be of great value. 2. If this is really
the case, a true scientific breakthrough of major importance must be anticipated in
the next decade. 3. He presented a strong case against a proposed solution. 4.
Research workers in need of funds could apply for grants if they could make out a
convincing case. 5. He stated his case so well that the committee supported the
project. 6. I believe a case exists for revision of the hypothesis.

Develop, development(s)— общий элемент смысла развитие во времени,


развитие как изменение, зарождение и развитие. Частотные русские
эквиваленты: to develop–развивать(ся), разрабатывать, излагать,
раскрывать, проявляться, development–развитие разработка, изложение,
результат развития и т.д.

1. Plants develop from seeds. 2. The hypothesis gradually developed in the


scientist's mind. 3. No positive evidence has been developed to support the theory.
4. The solution of the energy problem depends on developing alternative sources
of energy. 5. Independent study is one of the best habits that a scientist can
develop. 6. Since World War II much has been done to develop national economies
of some developing countries of Asia and Africa. 7. The plasma is forced to behave
as a continuum, no instabilities developing. 8. Suddenly a development occurred
which prevented research in this area for some time. 9. This paper deals with
recent developments in theoretical physics. 10. The development of photographic
films requires a dark room.

Facilitate, facility (usuallyplural) — общий элемент смысла наилучшие


условия, возможности для осуществления чего-либо. Частотные русские
эквиваленты: to facilitate–облегчать, способствовать и т.д. facilities-
возможность, удобства, средства, оборудование, устройства и т.д.

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1. The new equipment will facilitate the experiment.2. After the student acquires
considerable facility in understanding and speaking, he learns to read and write. 3.
Novosibirsk is an industrial center offering its inhabitants many urban advantages,
educational facilities and cultural opportunities. 4. We are planning the directions
and the scope of research and the provision of experimental facilities. 5. To carry
out this task we need large engineering facilities. 6. To complete the project we
need adequate facilities for research.

Imply, implication(s), implicit— общий элемент смысла: невысказанное


словами, но логически вытекающее из чего-либо. Частотные русские
эквиваленты: to imply–подразумевать, означать, иметь ввиду; implication –
скрытый смысл, значение; что-то вытекает из чего либо и т.д.; implicit–
подразумеваемый не выраженный прямо и т.д.

1. The book does not claim to give more than the name implies. 2. People are
always talking about fundamental research, implying the existence of a nameless
opposite. 3. Recent observations of various astronomical objects together with
their theoretical implications were discussed' at the conference. 4. The cutting of
sentences into the subject and predicate groups was implicit in traditional
grammar analysis. 5. Dirac's theory implied that there should be the same number
of anti-particles as particles in the universe. 6. The speaker implies (sends out
information) and the listener infers (receives information from the implication).
7.What are the implications of this statement?

Involve— общий элемент смысла: включение в деятельность, движение или


объем. Частотные русские эквиваленты: to involve–включать в себя; влечь за
собой, вызывать; вовлекать запутывать осложнять и т.д. to be involve–
быть включенным, вовлеченным, участвующим, сложными т.д.

1. The first industrial revolution involved the replacement of human and animal
muscle power by the power of machines. 2. A technical project often starts as a
simple practical activity involving only a few scientists or engineers. 3. This
institute is involved in a research project on laser techniques. 4. The activities
involved in various, space programs have created a revolution in scientific
research. 6. The solution of the equations involved is reduced to a sequence of
basic arithmetical operations.

Matter— общий элемент смысла: нечто материальное, ощутимое,


существенное; то, что имеет значение. Частотные русские эквиваленты:

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matter–материя, вещество; материал (статьи, книги и т.п.) сущность,
предмет; дело, вопрос и т.д.; to matter–иметь значение.

1. Chemistry deals with changes in the composition of matter, physics is concerned


with changes in the location or size of matter. 2. Animal and human organisms
fight off infections and other invasions by foreign matter. 3. The subject matter of
the lecture was the influence of the climate on the development of a nation. 4. This
collection of stories provides an interesting reading matter. 5. It is no easy matter
to describe this phenomenon in detail. 6. His taking part in the discussion made the
matters worse. 7. The answer to this question, however, will hardly matter under
present conditions.

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UNIT 8 PLAGIARISM
Плагиат — умышленное присвоение авторства чужого произведения
науки или мыслей или искусства или изобретения. Плагиат может быть
нарушением авторско-правового законодательства и патентного
законодательства и в качестве таковых может повлечь за собой юридическую
ответственность (legal responsibility). С другой стороны, плагиат возможен и
в областях, на которые не распространяется действие каких-либо видов
интеллектуальной собственности (intellectual property), например, в
математике и других фундаментальных научных дисциплинах. Наиболее
часто плагиат выражается в публикации под своим именем чужого
произведения или чужих идей, а также в заимствовании фрагментов чужих
произведений без указания источника заимствования. Обязательным
признаком плагиата является присвоение авторства (the attribution of
authorship).
В зависимости от вида деятельности и области применения, плагиат
(компиляция) условно можно разделить на четыре вида, где каждый имеет
свое целевое назначение: Профессиональный – предусматривает присвоение
интеллектуальных, творческих, профессиональных достижений
(achievements) других в профессиональных целях (цель – авторитет,
заработок, награды, признание и тому подобное). Образовательно–научный
плагиат – заключается в присвоении чужого интеллектуального имущества
исключительно в процессе получения научной степени, образовательной
квалификации или признания в этих направлениях. Социальный плагиат –
возникают в бытовых отношениях. Нормативный плагиат – присвоение
законодательных, юридических, методических, научных, практических
наработок. Его разница заключается в том, что он является общим без
принадлежности к чему-то или кому-то.
В нынешнем значении слово «плагиат» в европейских языках начало
употребляться в XVII веке. В римском праве plagium означало преступную
продажу в рабство свободного человека, за что полагалось бичевание (ad
plagas). Первоначально кража литературной собственности получила
название plagium litterarium. Собственно слово «плагиат» (лат. plagiatus)
образовано от лат. plagio («похищаю»).
Понятие плагиата не имеет вполне определённого содержания (content),
и в частных случаях не всегда возможно однозначно отделить его от
сопредельных понятий: подражания, заимствования, соавторства (co-
authorship, joint authorship) и других подобных случаев сходства
произведений. Во всяком случае, совпадение отдельных идей не является
плагиатом, поскольку любые новые произведения в чём-то основаны на
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идеях, не принадлежащих автору. Между тем человек, дойдя своим умом до
чего-нибудь, часто склонен считать себя «Колумбом» истины и, не желая
знать о предшественниках, видит в любом повторении собственных мыслей
посягательство на свои права.
На самом деле, объектом плагиата является не идея, а её оформление,
внешняя оболочка. Масса литературных произведений, не заключая в себе
ничего нового по содержанию, имеет, тем не менее, своеобразную форму,
новые оттенки выражения мыслей; лишь присвоение этой, глубоко
индивидуальной стороны произведения, может быть названо плагиатом.
Поэтому нельзя считать плагиатом ни заимствование фабулы (сюжет
заимствован и во многих драмах Шекспира, и в сказках Алексея Николаевича
Толстого), ни в пользовании готовыми типами (художественный приём,
применённый Щедриным в его Ноздрёве и Молчалине), не говоря уже о
новой обработке известных во всемирной литературе характеров (Дон-Жуан,
Фауст).

Лингвистический аспект

Плагиат (речевое воровство) — одна из единиц изучения


юрислингвистики. В «Финансовом словаре» указано, что плагиат признается
независимо от того, опубликовано чужое произведение или нет, а также то,
что потерпевший от плагиата автор может прибегнуть к гражданско-
правовым мерам защиты нарушенного права авторства, в том числе
требовать возмещения убытков. Плагиат по законодательству РФ влечет
уголовную ответственность. Только заимствование темы или сюжета
произведения либо научных идей, составляющих его содержание, без
заимствования формы их выражения, не считается плагиатом. Таким
образом, необходимы чёткие критерии для того, чтобы определить, что
является плагиатом, а что нет.
Взгляды на плагиат и на то, в какой мере позволительно
использование чужих произведений, меняются со временем. То, что прежде
считалось вполне допустимым, в настоящее время нередко может быть
признано плагиатом. Древний мир был чуток к авторской славе, но при этом
разрешал заимствования довольно широко. Свободно пользовались трудами
предшественников историки и географы, даже такие, как Геродот (делавший
заимствования из Гекатея), Диодор Сицилийский, Плутарх. Вергилий горячо
жаловался на плагиат в знаменитом «Sic vos non vobis», хотя сам разрешал
себе в этом отношении многое: Макробий в 6-й книге «Сатурналий» собрал
довольно много отдельных стихов, позаимствованных Вергилием у Энния и

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Лукреция. Александрийскому философу Латину приписывают два
исследования о плагиате у Софокла и Меандра.
Открытие древней литературы в эпоху Возрождения вызвало
многочисленные попытки присвоить себе произведения классиков. Бруни
д’Ареццо опубликовал в 1444 г. под своим именем «Историю готов»
Прокопия; Перотти выдал себя за автора басен Федра; венецианец Альционо
уничтожил манускрипт трактата Цицерона «De gloria», поместив лучшие
места из него в своих сочинениях; Доменики не только выкрал из сочинения
Дони свой известный диалог «Della stampa», но вставил в него три
«инвективы», направленные против настоящего автора.
В XVII веке во Франции были даже своеобразные теоретики плагиата,
такие как Ла Мот-Ле Вайе, заявлявший, что «заимствовать у древних — всё
равно, что сделать морской набег, но обирать современников — всё равно,
что разбойничать на большой дороге», и Ришесурс, который в своей
оригинальной «Академии ораторов» и в руководстве «Masque des orateurs ou
Manière de déguiser toutes sortes de compositions, lettres, sermons etc.» среди
прочих средств компенсации недостатка творческих способностей указывал
и «плагиаризм», заключающийся в последовательной замене всех выражений
украденной фразы их синонимами. Крупнейшие писатели этой эпохи не
видели ничего плохого в заимствованиях. Мольер, перенесший в «Проделки
Скапена» почти дословно целую сцену из Сирано де Бержерака, отвечал на
упреки знаменитой фразой: «Я беру своё добро всюду, где его нахожу» (фр.
«Je prends mon bien où je le trouve»). Несколько ранее Шекспир о сцене,
целиком взятой им у другого, заметил: «Это девка, которую я нашёл в грязи
и ввёл в высший свет». Известно, что Шекспир брал у других не только
сцены, но и множество отдельных стихов.
В XVIII веке патер Барр выдал за часть своей «Histoire d’Allemagne»
отрывок в 200 страниц из «Истории Карла XII» Вольтера. Сам Вольтер тоже
позволял себе мелкие заимствования. Обвинение в плагиате было брошено и
в Руссо, но сходство между его «Contrat social» и книгой Ульриха Губерта
«De jure civitalis» не идёт далее совпадения некоторых мыслей. В 1812 г. был
раскрыт один из наиболее наглых плагиатов: перевод «Voyage d’Abdoul
Rizzak», изданный известным ориенталистом Лангле под видом собственной
работы, оказался отрывком из старого перевода сочинения того же Абдул-
Риззака; плагиатор уничтожил тетрадь с работой истинного переводчика
Галлана, не зная, что существует её дубликат. В XIX—XX веках обвинения в
плагиате не раз звучали в адрес выдающихся писателей; не избежали их
Мюссе, Золя, Доде. Более основательны были обвинения в плагиате,
направленные против Эдмонда Абу, Сарду и особенно Дюма-отца, который
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заимствовал громадные отрывки не только у неизвестных писателей, но и у
Шиллера, Вальтера Скотта, Шатобриана.

8.1 Read the text to find out the information about a very serious and
widespread problem of plagiarism.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation"
and "stealing and publication" of another author's
"language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and
the representation of them as one's own original
work. The idea remains problematic with unclear
definitions and unclear rules. The modern
concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality
as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th
century, particularly with the Romantic
Movement.
Plagiarism is considered academic
dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like
penalties, suspension, and even expulsion. Recently, cases of 'extreme plagiarism'
have been identified in academia.
Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry, it is a serious
ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement.
Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered
academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic
censure, up to and including expulsion. Many institutions use plagiarism detection
software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing.
However, the practice of plagiarizing by use of sufficient word substitutions to
elude detention software, known as rogeting8, has rapidly evolved as students and
unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software.
In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and
reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from
suspension to termination of employment. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in
academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by
failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in
scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the

8
Rogeting is a neologism created to describe the act of plagiarizing a published source by substituting synonyms
for sufficient words to fool common plagiarism detection software
105
Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of
copying the work of others much easier.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists; however,
this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common
characteristics of academic plagiarism.
According to T. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone:
1. Uses words, ideas, or work products;
2. Attributable to another identifiable person or source;
3. Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained;
4. In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship;
5. In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain this need not be monetary.
Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher
learning and universities:
 Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate
credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work,
whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research,
strategies, writing or other form."
 Yale views plagiarism as the "... use of another's work, words, or ideas without
attribution," which includes "... using a source's language without quoting, using
information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form
that stays too close to the original."
 Princeton perceives plagiarism as the "deliberate" use of "someone else's
language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without
acknowledging its source."
 Oxford College of Emory University characterizes plagiarism as the use of "a
writer's ideas or phraseology without giving due credit".

Common forms of student plagiarism


According to “The Reality and Solution of College Plagiarism” created by the
Health Informatics department of the University of Illinois at Chicago there are 10
main forms of plagiarism that students commit:
1. Submitting someone’s work as their own.
2. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.
3. Re-writing someone’s work without properly citing sources.
4. Using quotations, but not citing the source.
5. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing.
6. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited.
7. Melding together cited and incited sections of the piece.

106
8. Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the
borrowed ideas enough.
9. Inaccurately citing the source.
10.Relying too heavily on other people’s work. Fails to bring original thought into the
text.
To avoid plagiarism, all students must document sources properly using
Footnotes, Endnotes, or Parenthetical References, and must write a Bibliography,
References, or Works Cited page and place it at the end of the research paper to list
the sources used. Of the three ways to document sources - Footnotes, Endnotes, and
Parenthetical References, the simplest is using Parenthetical References, sometimes
referred to as Parenthetical Documentation or Parenthetical Citations.

1. How can plagiarism be defined?


2. Is the problem of plagiarism new?
3. What sanctions can be imposed on a person caught plagiarizing?
4. Is plagiarism a crime?
5. What is the main function of plagiarism detection software?
6. How has the internet made the situation with the plagiarism worse?
7. Is there a clear definition of the plagiarism?
8. What are the common features of the definition of the plagiarism in
different institutions?
9. What are the main forms of students’ plagiarism?
10.Have you ever rewritten somebody’s work without properly citing?
11.How to avoid plagiarism?

8.2 Match English words and word-combinations with the corresponding Russian
ones:

avoid plagiarism академическая(научная) нечестность


main forms неясные определения
original authorship избегать плагиата
not a crime per se «крайний плагиат»
'extreme plagiarism' основные формы
academic dishonesty не являться как таковым преступлением
unclear definitions сталкиваться с дисциплинарными мерами
breach of journalistic ethics нарушение журналистской этики
face disciplinary measures первоначальное авторство
has a centuries-old history иметь многовековую историю

107
8.3 Arrange in pairs the verbs which are close in meaning:

1) to evolve, to elude, to range, to claim, to obtain, to view, to submit, to


interweave, to meld, to avoid, to list, to gain, to legitimate, to breach.
2) enumerate, gain, develop, declare, mingle, violate, legalize, avoid, vary,
intertwine, consider, represent, escape, receive.

8.4 Arrange the following words from the text in pairs of antonyms:
1. Original, modern, serious, sufficient, fail, common, end, close, wrong, own,
ideal, soft, typical, appropriate, electronic, easy.
2. Old, insufficient, physical, right, not genuine, firm, frivolous, pass, begin,
uncharacteristic, foreign, imperfect, unusual, inappropriate, difficult, distant.

8.5 The following words are used with negative suffixes in the text. Find them
and add your own.
Clear, moral, honesty, cover, intentionally, accurately, ethical.

8.6 Read the following text and translate it.

Tips

 If you're worried something that you have might sound like someone else's,
it's probably because it does.
 If you are honestly writing a paper or essay, the chances of you plagiarizing
another person's content are very slim. If you are conscious of the fact that
you are copying someone else's work, then chances are that you will be
caught.
 If you must copy, do not copy whole pages or paragraphs! Instead, put
most of it into your own words, and quote the copied part. Then, cite your
source using the proper Bibliography format. Use EasyBib.com to cite your
sources in the proper format.
 If you think Something is plagiarized, go on Plagramme.com,
Grammarly.com or any other Plagiarism site.
 Cite your sources immediately when you use them, instead of later.
Otherwise you might forget to cite one (or some) and that would be
plagiarism.
 Here's one suggestion for getting things into your own words. Use Google's
language tools to take an article and translate it into another language: for
108
example, English to German. Then copy and paste Google's translation back
into Google's language tools and translate that into another language: in our
example, German to Portuguese. Then translate that back into English. You
will end up with extremely broken English that is barely understandable.
Using the knowledge of the subject that you've gained from reading the
articles and researching, now you can fix the broken English and will have
an article that has your own influence placed on it.
 Even if you do use something that is purely your own idea, it is strongly
recommended that you at least state that you came up with it. Otherwise,
your teacher might mistake it for un-cited source material and falsely accuse
you of plagiarism.
 Some schools offer programs/services that scan papers for plagiarized
content. If you are highly concerned, then you might want to consider such
services.

8.7 Translate into English.

"Плагиат" - одно из наиболее часто употребляемых начинающими


авторами слов. Здесь и страх за свои собственные произведения (works) ("А
вдруг украдут?!"), и опасение самому оказаться в неловком положении
(awkward situation) ("А вдруг я нечаянно использую в своем произведении чью-
то идею или сюжет, и меня обвинят в плагиате? " или даже "А вдруг кто-то уже
писал на эту тему? "). С тех пор как была изобретена (invent) письменность
(writing system) (а до нее существовало устное творчество), все основные
сюжеты давным-давно рассказаны и пересказаны. Антропологи находят
сходные мифы у народов, населяющих (inhabit) разные уголки нашей
небольшой планеты. Так, Шекспир заимствовал (borrow) сюжеты своих
произведений, Гете - сюжет "Фауста" и т. д.

8.8 Choose the right words:

1. The ethical implications of laboratory scientific (age, addiction, animal,


experiment, information, tools) on animals is an issue discussed worldwide.
2. The dependency to computers displayed in the behavior of certain people is
called computer (age, addiction, animal, experiment, information, tools).
3. Technological and scientific (age, addiction, animal, experiment,
information, tools) such as computers, cell phones, satellites ... may boost
the development of the third world countries.
109
4. The less people have access to (age, addiction, animal, experiment,
information, tools) technology the larger the division is.
5. Computer (age, addiction, animal, experiment, information, tools) is the era
in which computer technology has transformed our lives.

8.9 What do the underlined words from the text refer to?

1. It (paragraph 2): It is subject to sanctions like…


2. They (paragraph 4): Some individuals caught plagiarizing …
3. It (paragraph 6): Without attributing the work to the source from which it was
obtained…

8.10 Study the following list of prefixes and then match the terms at the left
below with their meanings at the right. You will not use all the meanings
listed.

Ecto-/exo- : outside Exogenous –due to external forces


Endo- : inside Endogenous – due to internal forces
Micro- : small Microscopic – too small to be seen without microscope
Macro- : large Macroscopic – large enough to be seen with the naked eye
1. ectoplasm a. the entire universe
2. endoplasm b. a little universe
3. microbe c. a minute period of time
4. microcosm d. external layer of protoplasm
5. micrometer e. internal layer of protoplasm
6. microthermal f. a very minute organism
7. microsecond g. relating to small quantities of heat
8. macronucleus h. a large dense nucleus
9. macrocosm i. an instrument for measuring distances or
angles
j. a minute cell

Additional reading

Plagiarism Is Not a Big Moral Deal


By Stanley Fish
August 9, 2010 9:00 pm August 9, 2010 9:00 pm
During my tenure as the dean of a college, I determined that an
underperforming program should be closed. My wife asked me if I had ever set
110
foot on the premises, and when I answered “no,” she said that I really should do
that before wielding the axe.
And so I did, in the company of my senior associate dean. We toured the
offices and spoke to students and staff. In the course of a conversation, one of the
program’s co-directors pressed on me his latest book. I opened it to the concluding
chapter, read the first two pages, and remarked to my associate dean, “This is
really good.”
It’s hard to get from the notion that you shouldn’t appropriate your
neighbor’s car to the notion that you should not repeat his words without citing
him.
But on the way back to the administration building, I suddenly flashed on
the pages I admired and began to suspect that the reason I liked them so much was
that I had written them. And sure enough, when I got back to my office and pulled
one of my books off the shelf, there the pages were, practically word for word. I
telephoned the co-director, and told him that I had been looking at his book, and
wanted to talk about it. He replied eagerly that he would come right over, but when
he came in I pointed him to the two books — his and mine — set out next to each
other with the relevant passages outlined by a marker.
He turned white and said that he and his co-author had divided the responsibilities
for the book’s chapters and that he had not written (perhaps “written” should be in
quotes) this one. I contacted the co-author and he wrote back to me something
about graduate student researchers who had given him material that was not
properly identified. I made a few half-hearted efforts to contact the book’s
publisher, but I didn’t persist and I pretty much forgot about it, although the
memory returns whenever I read yet another piece about the ubiquity of
plagiarism, the failure of students to understand what it is, the suspicion that they
know what it is but don’t care, and the outdatedness of notions like originality and
single authorship on which the intelligibility of plagiarism as a concept depends.
Whenever it comes up plagiarism is a hot button topic and essays about
it tend to be philosophically and morally inflated. But there are really only two
points to make. (1) Plagiarism is a learned sin. (2) Plagiarism is not a philosophical
issue.
Of course every sin is learned. Very young children do not distinguish
between themselves and the world; they assume that everything belongs to them;
only in time and through the conditioning of experience do they learn the
distinction between mine and thine9 and so come to acquire the concept of stealing.
The concept of plagiarism, however, is learned in more specialized contexts of
practice entered into only by a few.
9
A poem by William Morris with the same name
111
The rule that you not use words that were first uttered or written by another
without due attribution is less like the rule against stealing, which is at least
culturally universal, than it is like the rules of golf. I choose golf because its rules
are so much more severe and therefore so much odder than the rules of other
sports. But in golf, if you so much as move the ball accidentally while breathing
on it far away from anyone who might have seen what you did, you must
immediately report yourself and incur the penalty.
Plagiarism is breach of disciplinary decorum, not a breach of the moral
universe.
Plagiarism is like that; it’s an insider’s obsession. If you’re a professional
journalist, or an academic historian, or a philosopher, or a social scientist or a
scientist, the game you play for a living is underwritten by the assumed value of
originality and failure properly to credit the work of others is a big and obvious no-
no. But if you’re a musician or a novelist, the boundary lines are less clear
(although there certainly are some) and if you’re a politician it may not occur to
you, as it did not at one time to Joe Biden, that you’re doing anything wrong when
you appropriate the speech of a revered statesman.
And if you’re a student, plagiarism will seem to be an annoying guild
imposition without a persuasive rationale; for students, learning the rules of
plagiarism is worse than learning the irregular conjugations of a foreign language.
It takes years, and while a knowledge of irregular verbs might conceivably come in
handy if you travel, knowledge of what is and is not plagiarism in this or that
professional practice is not something that will be of very much use to you unless
you end up becoming a member of the profession yourself. It follows that students
who never quite get the concept right are by and large not committing a crime; they
are just failing to become acclimated to the conventions of the little insular world
they have, often through no choice of their own, wandered into. It’s no big moral
deal; which doesn’t mean, I hasten to add, that plagiarism shouldn’t be punished —
if you’re in our house, you’ve got to play by our rules.
Now if plagiarism is an idea that makes sense only in the precincts of
certain specialized practices and is not a normative philosophical notion, inquiries
into its philosophical underpinnings are of no practical interest or import. In recent
years there have been a number of assaults on the notion of originality, issuing
from fields as diverse as literary theory, history, cultural studies, philosophy,
anthropology, Internet studies. Single authorship, we have been told, is a recent
invention of a bourgeois culture obsessed with individualism, individual rights and
the myth of progress. All texts are palimpsests of earlier texts; there’s been nothing
new under the sun since Plato and Aristotle and they weren’t new either;
everything belongs to everybody. In earlier periods works of art were produced in
112
workshops by teams; the master artisan may have signed them, but they were
communal products. In some cultures, even contemporary ones, the imitation of
standard models is valued more than work that sets out to be path-breaking.
Arguments like these (which I am reporting, not endorsing) have been so
successful in academic circles that the very word “originality” often appears in
quotation marks, and it has seemed to many that there is a direct path from this line
of reasoning to the conclusion that plagiarism is an incoherent, even impossible,
concept and that a writer or artist accused of plagiarism is being faulted for doing
something that cannot be avoided. R.M. Howard makes the point succinctly “If
there is no originality and no literary property, there is no basis for the notion
of plagiarism” (“College English,” 1995).
That might be true or at least plausible if, in order to have a basis,
plagiarism would have to stand on some philosophical ground. But the ground
plagiarism stands on is more mundane and firm; it is the ground of disciplinary
practices and of the histories that have conferred on those practices a strong, even
undoubted (though revisable) sense of what kind of work can be appropriately
done and what kind of behavior cannot be tolerated. If it is wrong to plagiarize in
some context of practice, it is not because the idea of originality has been affirmed
by deep philosophical reasoning, but because the ensemble of activities that take
place in the practice would be unintelligible if the possibility of being original were
not presupposed.
And if there should emerge a powerful philosophical argument saying
there’s no such thing as originality, its emergence needn’t alter or even bother for a
second a practice that can only get started if originality is assumed as a baseline. It
may be (to offer another example), as I have argued elsewhere, that there’s no such
thing as free speech, but if you want to have a free speech regime because you
believe that it is essential to the maintenance of democracy, just forget what
Stanley Fish said — after all it’s just a theoretical argument — and get down to it
as lawyers and judges in fact do all the time without the benefit or hindrance of any
metaphysical rap. Everyday disciplinary practices do not rest on a foundation of
philosophy or theory; they rest on a foundation of themselves; no theory or
philosophy can either prop them up or topple them. As long as the practice is
ongoing and flourishing its conventions will command respect and allegiance and
flouting them will have negative consequences.
This brings me back to the (true) story I began with. Whether there is
something called originality or not, the two scholars who began their concluding
chapter by reproducing two of my pages are professionally culpable. They took
something from me without asking and without acknowledgment, and they profited

113
— if only in the currency of academic reputation — from work that I had done and
signed. That’s the bottom line and no fancy philosophical argument can erase it.

1. Match the words with their definitions


Attribution A law protecting the intellectual property of individuals,
giving them exclusive rights over the distribution and
reproduction of that material.
Self-plagiarism The acknowledgement that something came from another
source.
Bibliography The reproduction or appropriation of someone else's work
without proper attribution; passing off as one's own the
work of someone else
Endnotes Copying material you have previously produced and
passing it off as a new production.
Plagiarism Using words from another source
Citation A list of sources used in preparing a work
Quotation Notes at the end of a paper acknowledging sources and
providing additional references or information.
Copyright A short, formal indication of the source of information or
quoted material

2. Find the following word-combinations in the text and say I what contexts they
were used. Use them in your own sentences.
set foot on the premises hot button topic
wield the axe come in handy
tour the offices by and large
word for word become acclimated to
half-hearted efforts philosophical underpinnings
ubiquity of plagiarism path-breaking

114
Appendix 1.
Чтобы выработать навыки и умения быстро оформлять свои мысли в
предложения, т.е. to speak fluently, необходимо использовать в речи
коммуникативные клише. Во-первых, благодаря готовым коммуникативным
фразам речь красиво оформлена, предложения логично связаны, такую речь
приятно слушать. Во-вторых, доведя знание готовых речевых фраз до
автоматизма, говорящий, употребляя то или иное клише, думает над
следующей фразой. Таким образом, с помощью коммуникативных клише
очень легко избавиться от так называемого лингвистического заикания.
Можно классифицировать коммуникативные клише (в соответствии с
мотивами, ситуациями и этапами высказывания) согласно 9 группам:
1. Начало высказывания
2. Продолжение высказывания
3. Выражение своего мнения
4. Противоположная точка зрения
5. Выражение согласия
6. Выражение несогласия, сомнения
7. Прояснение ситуации, акцентирование внимания
8. Приведение примеров, фактов
9. Завершение высказывания

Клише Возможный вариант перевода


1. Начало высказывания (Opening)
I’d like to point out right at В самом начале хотел бы отметить (обратить
the beginning that… внимание), что…
How by way of introduction В качестве вступления я бы сказал (хотел бы
I would go as far as to say сказать), что…
that…
Just at the beginning I would В самом начале я бы сказал (хотел бы сказать),
go as far as to say that… что…
It should be pointed out В самом начале необходимо отметить, что…
right as the beginning that…
We very clearly remember Мы очень хорошо помним, что…
that…
Today we’ll be taking a Сегодня мы более детально рассмотрим…
closer look at…

115
Let’s talk briefly about… Давайте поговорим вкратце о…
2. Продолжение высказывания (Continuing)
But right now our attention А сейчас обратим внимание на…
turns to…
Now, let’s look at the А сейчас давайте рассмотрим эту ситуацию (напр. с
situation in… другой стороны)
And now let’s turn to… А сейчас перейдем к…
I think what we can hope to Я думаю, что сейчас мы можем надеяться
do now is… сделать… (то, на что мы можем сейчас надеяться, –
это…)
What is likely to happen Скорее всего случится следующее…
is…
Let’s move to another Давайте перейдем к следующему вопросу.
question.
Now it is going to be my Я с удовольствием (с радостью) объясню вам…
pleasure to explain to you…
3. Выражение своего мнения (Opinion phrases)
I don’t profess to be an Я не претендую на роль эксперта в этом вопросе…
expert on the subject of… (в вопросе касательно…)
No one, I think, is Думаю, ни у кого не вызывает сомнения, что…
challenging the view that…
I am tempted to think that… Я склонен к мысли, что…
I don’t honestly think that… Я, честно говоря, не считаю, что…
And now I’d prefer to talk А сейчас я бы хотел поговорить о…, а не о…
about… rather than…
It strikes me that… Меня поражает, что…
I know from personal Я по своему опыту знаю, что…
experience…
I hold the view that… Я придерживаюсь точки зрения, что…
Well, my personal feeling Мое личное мнение…
is…
It’s my firm believe that… Я твердо убежден, что…
As far as I am concerned… Что касается меня, то…
It’s been my observation По моим наблюдениям…
that…
I am not so pessimistic as to Я не настолько пессимистичен, чтобы
suggest… предположить…
116
I’ve got an impression У меня впечатление, что…
that…
4. Противоположная точка зрения (Contrasting point of view)
On the other hand… С другой стороны…
There is another side to this. Есть и другая сторона.
There are 2 ways of looking На это можно посмотреть с двух сторон.
at this…
There are different views Существуют разные мнения насчет…
of…
It would be a mistake to Было бы ошибкой (неправильно) думать, что…
think that…
It is not a final word on the Это не последнее слово в этом деле.
matter.
It doesn’t necessarily mean Это не обязательно означает, что…
that…
Well, there’s been a debate Об этом ведутся споры.
about this.
I take a different view at… У меня другое мнение насчет…
Opponents argue that… Оппоненты утверждают, что…
Many people oppose the Многие люди не поддерживают точку зрения,
viewpoint that… что…
There’s been mixed reaction Была неоднозначная реакция на…
to…
5. Выражение согласия (Agreement)
Yes, you’re quite right to Вы совершенно правы, когда сказали…
say that…
You are certainly correct to Вы абсолютно правы, когда сказали…
say that…
You’ve been very right to Вы абсолютно правильно утверждаете, что…
say that…
No questions about it. Никаких вопросов по этому поводу.
Well, exactly. That’s Совершенно верно! Это именно то, что я и хотел
precisely what I was going сказать.
to say.
I have almost no doubt У меня почти нет сомнений, что…
that…
I am 100% certain that… Я уверен на 100%, что…
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I have little doubt that… Я почти не сомневаюсь, что…
6. Выражение несогласия, сомнения (Disagreement, uncertainty)
I can disagree. Я могу не согласиться.
I express strong objection to Я крайне не согласен с мнением, что…
the idea that…
I don’t think it’s fair to say Не думаю, что справедливо утверждать…
that…
That’s where you are wrong Именно в этом вы неправы.
about it.
This does not seem to be so. Кажется, что это не так.
There is continuing Постоянно возникает разногласие относительно…
disagreement over…
There has been much Существует много разногласий относительно…
disagreement over…
It is rather questionable if… Довольно сомнительно, если…
It looks very unlikely that… Маловероятно, что…
It’s an impossible question На этот вопрос невозможно ответить.
to answer.
I have considerable doubt as Я очень сомневаюсь относительно N.
far as N. is concerned.
I doubt it very much, Я в этом очень сомневаюсь, т.к…
because…
I am rather vague about it. Я в этом не очень уверен.
7. Прояснение ситуации, акцентирование внимания (Clearing up,
emphasizing)
Nobody would want to deny Никто не станет отрицать тот факт, что…
the fact that…
And the thing that comes И особенно привлекает внимание (выделяется)
particularly strongly is… такая вещь, как…
One of the things that must Во-первых, мы должны обратить внимание на…
be of concern (importance) (Для нас имеет большое значение, во-первых…)
to us is…
I’d like to remind you that… Хотелось бы напомнить, что…
We have to bear in mind Необходимо помнить, что…
that…
One has to bear in mind… Каждый должен помнить, что…
What we have to look На что нам остается надеяться (чего нам можно
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forward to is… ожидать), так это…
It’s from this angle that one Именно с этой стороны необходимо серьезно
must seriously consider this подойти к этому вопросу.
problem.
It must be admitted that… Необходимо отметить, что…
It immediately brings to Это сразу напоминает (наталкивает на мысль) о…
mind…
But one mustn’t lose sight of Нельзя упускать из вида тот факт, что…
the fact that…
The other thing that we Следующая вещь (следующий момент), о которой
should keep in mind is… (-ом) необходимо помнить…
To go right to the heart of Переходя к сути проблемы, я хотел бы сказать,
the problem I’d like to say что…
that…
Yes, the strange thing about Да, странным в этом является то, что…
it is that…
What I was greatly struck by Что меня поразило, так это…
is…
I must make my reservation. Я должен сделать оговорку.
Reservation should be made. Необходимо сделать оговорку.
8. Приведение примеров, фактов (Giving examples, facts)
Let me give you a brief Позвольте привести краткий пример…
example…
Let me give you an example Позвольте привести пример того, что я имею в
of what I mean… виду…
Let me illustrate the point Позвольте продемонстрировать этот момент на
with the example… примере…
What we have seen now is a То, что мы сейчас увидели, – это прекрасный
kind of a perfect example пример того, что…
of…
Let me see if I can illustrate Дайте подумать, смогу ли я это пояснить.
that for you.
There is a great deal of По поводу… ведутся дискуссии.
discussion about…
It’s a problem that will only Это проблема, которая со временем только
increase in time. возрастет (усугубится).
Nobody doubts that… Никто не сомневается, что…
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This means just what it says. Это означает именно то, о чем вы подумали.
What’s more difficult to Что еще сложнее объяснить, так это…
explain is…
There’s a widely held view Существует распространенное мнение, что…
that…
There’s been a lot of Существует множество научных доказательств,
scientific evidence that… что…
There’s enough evidence Существует достаточно доказательств, что…
that…
9. Завершение высказывания (Concluding)
To draw to a close I’d like to В завершение хотел бы сказать, что…
say that…
To have the final say in the Напоследок скажу, что…
matter…
To crown it all I’d like to В довершение всего хотел бы сказать, что…
say that…
Let’s have a final look at… Давайте в последний раз рассмотрим…
It only remains for me to Мне остается только сказать, что…
say…
I would like to sum up the Хочу подытожить основные моменты сказанного.
chief points of what has just
been said.
All things considered, the Принимая все во внимание, мы можем сделать
obvious conclusion to be очевидный вывод, что…
drawn is that…
All in all, it is evident… В конечном счете, очевидно, что…
To sum it up I’d like to Подытоживая, хочу сказать…
say…
To draw to the conclusion В завершение хотел бы сказать, что…
I’d like to say that…
Summarizing, we may say Подытоживая, мы можем сказать, что…
that…
That’s where I’d like to end. На этом хочу завершить.

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Appendix 2.

Text 1. (Computer studies)


Education-oriented languages

BASIC (beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code) was designed at


Dartmouth College in the mid-1960s by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. It was
intended to be easy to learn by novices, particularly non-computer science majors,
and to run well on a time-sharing computer with many users. It had simple data
structures and notation and it was interpreted: a BASIC program was translated
line-by-line and executed as it was translated, which made it easy to locate
programming errors.
Its small size and simplicity also made BASIC a popular language for early
personal computers. Its recent forms have adopted many of the data and control
structures of other contemporary languages, which makes it more powerful but less
convenient for beginners.
Pascal. About 1970 Niklaus Wirth of Switzerland designed Pascal to teach
structured programming, which emphasized the orderly use of conditional and loop
control structures without GOTO statements. Although Pascal resembled ALGOL
in notation, it provided the ability to define data types with which to organize
complex information, a feature beyond the capabilities of ALGOL as well as
FORTRAN and COBOL. User-defined data types allowed the programmer to
introduce names for complex data, which the language translator could then check
for correct usage before running a program.
During the late 1970s and ’80s, Pascal was one of the most widely used
languages for programming instruction. It was available on nearly all computers,
and, because of its familiarity, clarity, and security, it was used for production
software as well as for education.
Logo. Logo originated in the late 1960s as a simplified LISP dialect for
education; Seymour Papert and others used it at MIT to teach mathematical
thinking to schoolchildren. It had a more conventional syntax than LISP and
featured “turtle graphics,” a simple method for generating computer graphics. (The
name came from an early project to program a turtlelike robot.) Turtle graphics
used body-centred instructions, in which an object was moved around a screen by
commands, such as “left 90” and “forward,” that specified actions relative to the
current position and orientation of the object rather than in terms of a fixed
framework. Together with recursive routines, this technique made it easy to
program intricate and attractive patterns.
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Hypertalk was designed as “programming for the rest of us” by Bill
Atkinson for Apple’s Macintosh. Using a simple English-like syntax, Hypertalk
enabled anyone to combine text, graphics, and audio quickly into “linked stacks”
that could be navigated by clicking with a mouse on standard buttons supplied by
the program. Hypertalk was particularly popular among educators in the 1980s and
early ’90s for classroom multimedia presentations. Although Hypertalk had many
features of object-oriented languages (described in the next section), Apple did not
develop it for other computer platforms and let it languish; as Apple’s market share
declined in the 1990s, a new cross-platform way of displaying multimedia left
Hypertalk all but obsolete.

Text 2. (Historic science and archeology)


Seismic Shift
Anxingdui was a Bronze Age civilization that flourished in China’s fertile
Sichuan Basin for several hundred years before mysteriously disappearing around
1100 or 1200 B.C. Around the same time, a similar civilization sprang up in
Jinsha, some 30 miles from Sanxingdui. Experts generally accept that the Jinsha
civilization is a continuation of the Sanxingdui culture, but have been puzzled by
what prompted the move. War? Floods? Now, a Chinese scientist has argued that
the actual cause was a massive earthquake that led to a landslide that diverted
Sanxingdui’s primary water source so that it flowed past Jinsha instead.
Much of what is known about Sanxingdui civilization comes from two pits
dating to around the time of its disappearance. The pits contained hundreds of jade,
bronze, and ivory objects that had been ritually broken or burned and then buried,
and their discovery in 1986 shook up the world of Chinese archaeology.
Although some jade and stone artifacts had been found in the area in 1929,
experts had thought that sophisticated Chinese civilization at the time was centered
along the Yellow River in the distant Central Plains region. But the pits, which
yielded expertly worked bronze items, including several giant masks with strangely
distorted features, made clear that the Sanxingdui civilization was quite advanced
as well. In 2001, the Jinsha site, discovered within the modern-day provincial
capital of Chengdu, was found to contain bronze items that share a similar artistic
vocabulary.
Niannian Fan, a scientist specializing in rivers at Sichuan University in
Chengdu, says his interest in the Sanxingdui-Jinsha puzzle was first piqued when
he noticed that the ravines and beds holding a number of waterways leading to and
passing the Sanxingdui site were much wider than their current rate of flow would
suggest. It seems they had once held much larger rivers. After the devastating 2008
Sichuan earthquake, Fan hypothesized that another massive earthquake had struck
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the same area more than 3,000 years ago, causing a landslide high in the mountains
that changed the course of the Minjiang River.
“The earthquake would not have destroyed Sanxingdui directly,” says Fan.
“But the water level in Sanxingdui would have decreased sharply just one or two
days after the earthquake.”
Fan has gathered preliminary evidence to back up his hypothesis. Using
Google Earth, he found that a stretch of mountainous terrain through which the old
river would have flowed on its way to Sanxingdui lacks signs of glacial erosion
that should be present, suggesting that this section may have been covered up by a
landslide. In addition, he notes, an ancient text records that an earthquake occurred
in 1099 B.C. in the capital of the Zhou Dynasty in Shaanxi Province. This is
around 300 miles from what he presumes to have been the quake’s epicenter, but
its magnitude would have ensured it was felt there. (Neither the Sanxingdui nor the
Jinsha civilization left any written records.)

Text 3. (Maths and Mechanics)


Mathematicians Solve 140-Year-Old Boltzmann Equation
Pennsylvania mathematicians have found solutions to a 140-year-old,
7dimensional equation that were not known to exist for more than a century despite
its widespread use in modeling the behavior of gases.
The study, part historical journey but mostly mathematical proof, was
conducted by Philip T. Gressman and Robert M. Strain of Penn’s Department of
Mathematics. The solution of the Boltzmann equation problem was published in
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Solutions of this equation,
beyond current computational capabilities, describe the location of gas molecules
probabilistically and predict the likelihood that a molecule will reside at any
particular location and have a particular momentum at any given time in the future.
During the late 1860s and 1870s, physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig
Boltzmann developed this equation to predict how gaseous material distributes
itself in space and how it responds to changes in things like temperature, pressure
or velocity.
The equation maintains a significant place in history because it modeled
gaseous behavior well, and the predictions it led to were backed up by
experimentation. Despite its notable leap of faith — the assumption that gases are
made of molecules, a theory yet to achieve public acceptance at the time — it was
fully adopted. It provided important predictions, the most fundamental and
intuitively natural of which was that gasses naturally settle to an equilibrium state
when they are not subject to any sort of external influence. One of the most
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important physical insights of the equation is that even when a gas appears to be
macroscopically at rest, there is a frenzy of molecular activity in the form of
collisions. While these collisions cannot be observed, they account for gas
temperature.
Gressman and Strain were intrigued by this mysterious equation that
illustrated the behavior of the physical world, yet for which its discoverers could
only find solutions for gasses in perfect equilibrium.
Using modern mathematical techniques from the fields of partial
differential equations and harmonic analysis — many of which were developed
during the last five to 50 years, and thus relatively new to mathematics — the Penn
mathematicians proved the global existence of classical solutions and rapid time
decay to equilibrium for the Boltzmann equation with long-range interactions.
Global existence and rapid decay imply that the equation correctly predicts that the
solutions will continue to fit the system’s behavior and not undergo any
mathematical catastrophes such as a breakdown of the equation’s integrity caused
by a minor change within the equation. Rapid decay to equilibrium means that the
effect of an initial small disturbance in the gas is short-lived and quickly becomes
unnoticeable.
«Even if one assumes that the equation has solutions, it is possible that the
solutions lead to a catastrophe, like how it’s theoretically possible to balance a
needle on its tip, but in practice even infinitesimal imperfections cause it to fall
over», Gressman said.
The study also provides a new understanding of the effects due to grazing
collisions, when neighboring molecules just glance off one another rather than
collide head on. These glancing collisions turn out to be dominant type of collision
for the full Boltzmann equation with long-range interactions.
«We consider it remarkable that this equation, derived by Boltzmann and
Maxwell in 1867 and 1872, grants a fundamental example where a range of
geometric fractional derivatives occur in a physical model of the natural world,»
Strain said. «The mathematical techniques needed to study such phenomena were
only developed in the modern era».

Text 4. (Earth science)


Earth sciences
Earth sciences, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth, its waters,
and the air that envelops it. Included are the geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric
sciences.
The broad aim of the Earth sciences is to understand the present features and
the past evolution of the Earth and to use this knowledge, where appropriate, for
124
the benefit of humankind. Thus the basic concerns of the Earth scientist are to
observe, describe, and classify all the features of the Earth, whether characteristic
or not, to generate hypotheses with which to explain their presence and their
development, and to devise means of checking opposing ideas for their relative
validity. In this way the most plausible, acceptable, and long-lasting ideas are
developed.
The physical environment in which humans live includes not only the
immediate surface of the solid Earth, but also the ground beneath it and the water
and air above it. Early man was more involved with the practicalities of life than
with theories, and thus his survival depended on his ability to obtain metals from
the ground to produce, for example, alloys, such as bronze from copper and tin, for
tools and armour, to find adequate water supplies for establishing dwelling sites,
and to forecast the weather, which had a far greater bearing on human life in earlier
times than it has today. Such situations represent the foundations of the three
principal component disciplines of the modern Earth sciences.
The rapid development of science as a whole over the past century and a half
has given rise to an immense number of specializations and subdisciplines, with
the result that the modern Earth scientist, perhaps unfortunately, tends to know a
great deal about a very small area of study but only a little about most other aspects
of the entire field. It is therefore very important for the layperson and the
researcher alike to be aware of the complex interlinking network of disciplines that
make up the Earth sciences today, and that is the purpose of this article. Only when
one is aware of the marvelous complexity of the Earth sciences and yet can
understand the breakdown of the component disciplines is one in a position to
select those parts of the subject that are of greatest personal interest.
It is worth emphasizing two important features that the three divisions of the
Earth sciences have in common. First is the inaccessibility of many of the objects
of study. Many rocks, as well as water and oil reservoirs, are at great depths in the
Earth, while air masses circulate at vast heights above it. Thus the Earth scientist
has to have a good three-dimensional perspective. Second, there is the fourth
dimension: time. The Earth scientist is responsible for working out how the Earth
evolved over millions of years. For example, what were the physical and chemical
conditions operating on the Earth and the Moon 3.5 billion years ago? How did the
oceans form, and how did their chemical composition change with time? How has
the atmosphere developed? And finally, how did life on Earth begin, and from
what did man evolve?

Text 5. (Education and pedagogical science)


Pedagogy: art, science or craft?
125
While there are many who argue that pedagogy can be approached as a
science (see, for example, the discussions in Kornbeck and Jensen 2009), others
look to it more as an art or craft. Donald Schön’s (1983) work on reflective
practice and his critique of the sort of ‘technical rationality’ that has been crudely
employed within more ‘scientific’ approaches to practice has been influential.
Elliot Eisner’s (1979) view of education and teaching as improvisatory and having
a significant base in process has also been looked to. He argued that the ability to
reflect, imagine and respond involves developing ‘the ideas, the sensibilities, the
skills, and the imagination to create work that is well proportioned, skillfully
executed, and imaginative, regardless of the domain in which an individual works’.
‘The highest accolade we can confer upon someone’, he continued, ‘is to say that
he or she is an artist whether as a carpenter or a surgeon, a cook or an engineer, a
physicist or a teacher’
The idea of pedagogy and teaching as a craft got a significant boost in the
1990s through the work of Brown and McIntyre (1993). Their research showed,
that day-to-day, the work of experienced teachers had a strong base in what is best
described as a ‘craft knowledge’ of ideas, routines and situations. In much the
same way that C Wright Mills talked of ‘intellectual craftsmanship’, so we can
think of pedagogy as involving certain commitments and processes.
Scholarship is a choice of how to live as well as a choice of career; whether
he knows it or not, the intellectual workman forms his own self as he works toward
the perfection of his craft; to realize his own potentialities, and any opportunities
that come his way, he constructs a character which has as its core the qualities of a
good workman.
What this means is that you must learn to use your life experience in your
intellectual work: continually to examine and interpret it. In this sense
craftsmanship is the center of yourself and you are personally involved in every
intellectual product upon which you work. (Mills 1959: 196)
There is a significant overlap between what Schön talks about as artistry and
Mills as craftsmanship – and many specialist pedagogues within the UK would be
much more at home with these ways of describing their activities, than as a
science. Certainly, it is difficult to see how the environments or conditions in
which pedagogues work can be measured and controlled in the same way that
would be normal in what we might call ‘science’. It is also next to impossible on a
day-to-day basis to assess in a scientific way the different influences on an
individual and group, and the extent to which the work of the pedagogue made a
difference.
We need to move discussions of pedagogy beyond seeing it as primarily
being about teaching – and look at those traditions of practice that flow from the
126
original pedagogues in ancient Greece. We have much to learn through exploring
through the thinking and practice of specialist pedagogues who look to accompany
learners; care for and about them; and bring learning into life. Teaching is just one
aspect of their practice.

Text 6. (Politics and regional science)


Have Political Parties Lost Their Power? Yes.
A Washington Post piece asks if our political parties have lost their power,
and then rambles on at length about whether or not they have. Right question,
wrong answer, WaPo. The correct answer is unambiguously “Yes they have.”
The Internet and the flood of transparency-inducing information it brings
eases and streamlines almost all social and economic transactions. That’s bad news
for middlemen of all kinds, whose primary function in our society has been the
easing of transactions of all kinds, generally using proprietary information to make
those transactions easier and faster. Think travel agents, stockbrokers, mortgage
brokers…and political parties.
Political parties have traditionally served as middlemen between voters and
their government, helping organize, aggregate and sort candidates, policies, and
money. And like other traditional middlemen, extracting “rent” of one kind or
another, economically speaking, from the economy at large. The value of the
parties was in finding and grooming candidates, helping develop party platforms
and policy ideas that were broadly attractive and coherent, and helping raise money
and organization support for individuals seeking office.
But today those functions are easily and efficiently accomplished online.
Obscure but compelling candidates often go viral through Facebook-shared
Youtube videos and snazzy websites. Party platforms are de facto kicked around in
the Daily Kos and RedState.com. Money flows in low double digit increments
from credit card-wielding individuals to the likes of Ron Paul and Barack Obama,
and the best organizing platforms are Twitter and MeetUp, not a state party
convention. Nothing being done by Organizing for America can be done better by
an antiquated, telephone-based organization of earnest grandmothers or laid-off
autoworkers.
The iron laws of the Information Age are bearing down on the Industrial
Age construct of political parties, just as they’re doing to other no-longer-
applicable information-brokering structures across American society. Something
tells me we’re all better off for it.

Text 7. (Psychological science)


127
Applied psychology
Applied psychology uses methods and findings of scientific psychology to
solve practical problems of human and animal behaviour and experience. A more
precise definition is impossible because the activities of applied psychology range
from laboratory experimentation through field studies to direct services for
troubled persons.
The same intellectual streams whose confluence produced psychology as an
independent discipline toward the end of the 19th century led to the later
development of applied psychology. In 1883 the publication of Inquiries into
Human Faculty and Its Development by Francis Galton foreshadowed the
measurement of individual psychological differences. In 1896 at the University of
Pennsylvania, Lightner Witmer established the world’s first psychological clinic
and in so doing originated the field of clinical psychology. Intelligence testing
began with the work of French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon in
the Paris schools in the early 1900s. Group testing, legal problems, industrial
efficiency, motivation, and delinquency were among other early areas of
application. At the Carnegie Institute of Technology, a division of applied
psychology was established as a teaching and research department in 1915. The
Journal of Applied Psychology appeared in 1917, along with Applied Psychology,
the first textbook in the field, coauthored by Harry L. Hollingworth and Albert T.
Poffenberger.
Early emphases in applied psychology included vocational testing, teaching
methods, evaluation of attitudes and morale, performance under stress, propaganda
and psychological warfare, rehabilitation, and counseling. Educational
psychologists began directing their efforts toward the early identification and
discovery of talented persons. Their research complemented the work of
counseling psychologists, who sought to help persons clarify and attain their
educational, vocational, and personal goals. Concern for the optimum utilization of
human resources contributed to the development of industrial-organizational
psychology. The development of aviation and space exploration fostered rapid
growth in the field of engineering psychology.
In response to society’s concern for treatment of the mentally ill and for
development of preventive measures against mental illness, clinical psychology
has shown tremendous growth within the broader field of psychology.
Psychologists have studied the application and effects of automation, and in
developing countries they have helped with the problems of rapid industrialization
and human resources planning.
Regardless of applied psychologists’ professional focus, their job description
is likely to overlap with those of other areas. The applied psychologist may or may
128
not teach or engage in original research. In addition to drawing on experimental
findings gleaned from psychological research, the applied psychologist uses
information from many disciplines. The scope of the field is continually
broadening as new types of problems arise. Other branches of applied psychology
include consumer, school, and community psychology. Prevention and treatment
of emotional problems have received a great deal of attention, as have medically
related areas such as sports psychology and the psychology of chronic illness.

Text 8. (Sociological science)


Contemporary economic sociology
Economic sociology experienced a remarkable revival in the 1980s. The
flurry of articles in the subfield formed what is now called the new economic
sociology. This term was coined by the economic sociologist Mark Granovetter,
who emphasized the embeddedness of economic action in concrete social relations.
Granovetter contended that institutions are actually congealed social networks,
and, because economic action takes place within these networks, social scientists
must consider interpersonal relationships when studying the economy. Markets
themselves were studied as networks of producers watching each other and trying
to carve out niches. Such network perspectives explicitly account for
interrelationships, theorizing about the implications of network structures for
economic activity and organization. Although networks have been at the core of
new economic sociology, other economic sociologists criticized network analysis
for its inability to account for the interactions of economies with politics and
culture.
Other economic sociologists began to examine cultural strains in economic
action, regulation, and organization. Sociologists have seen culture as an important
component of economic life since Weber, and this point of view gained greater
currency. Culture becomes important to economic activity through frames,
categories, scripts, and concepts as well as norms, values, and routinized practice.
For instance, one researcher examined how children were once regarded as
providing the family with a certain economic value but increasingly became seen
as without fiscal benefit, and she also examined how money is defined and
categorized socially. Another researcher examined the ways in which prior
political institutions shaped the structure of the railroad industry in the United
States, France, and Britain.
Since Polanyi, economic sociologists have contended that the birth of the
free market was an institutional transformation necessarily supported by the state.
This became generally accepted and led to the idea that development is essentially
about institutional change. Although this is generally accepted, it leads policy
129
makers in a variety of directions. Economic sociologists, however, generally point
to the impact that the relationship between local private elites and the political
elites in the state has on economic development. The interconnection of the state
and the economy does not mean that the state’s role is simply to destroy local
institutional structures, which may be perceived as a hindrance to growth, in favour
of free market structures. Instead, economic sociologists pointed to the importance
of “embedded autonomy.” The idea is that to provide an institutional environment
in which economic growth can occur, the state must be connected to local private
elites while remaining independent from them in important respects. This allows
the state to make public investments that are generally beneficial and to encourage
local investment and entrepreneurship while avoiding being captured by local
interests. The ability of states to remain simultaneously connected to and distanced
from local elites is facilitated by a dedicated, meritocratic civil service reaping
long-term rewards equal to those found in the private sector. Although related to
development, the work done by economic sociologists on market transition
constitutes its own distinct field of inquiry. Despite this separation, the conclusions
drawn are strikingly similar. Disregard for local institutions and the imposition of
market structures with the simultaneous hamstringing of state regulatory capacity
results in predatory capitalism of one sort or another.

Text 9. (Physical training and sport)


Physical education is key to improving a child's confidence,
brainpower and long-term health
One of the most important things parents can give to their children is a
physical education or involvement in organized sports activity. Physical education
has slipped in priority over the last few years, especially in our public schools.
Some schools don't even have recess anymore. They're producing children that can
(sometimes) pass standardized tests at the academic level, but who are obese,
diabetic, predisposed to heart disease and likely to live a relatively short life with
high medical costs and lots of pain and suffering to boot. But what good is an
education program that educates children on academics if those students won't live
a productive, healthy life using their academic skills?
That's why I think physical education needs to be put back into our public
schools as a top priority. Ten minutes of recess a day is not enough. Beyond recess,
parents would do well to get their kids involved in additional physical education
programs, like after-school programs or organized sports -- anything that involves
moving the body, whether it's running track, playing soccer, playing basketball,
practicing gymnastics... you name it. These are all excellent for children.

130
Healthy body, healthy mind. Why are these activities so beneficial? They
not only physically help the child's body be healthier in terms of immune system
function, circulation, strength, flexibility and hand/eye coordination, they also
greatly enhance the child's self-image. Participation in sports can dramatically
boost children's self-esteem.
When I was in grade school, we had something called the Presidential
Physical Fitness Program. As I understand it, that program no longer exists, but it
was an excellent program. It tested each grade school child in a few basic areas,
such as doing pull-ups, situps and running, and it awarded them badges for various
levels of physical achievement. One of the program's mottos, as I remember from
the badges I earned, was: "A sound body, a sound mind."
That program was right on the mark. Being physically fit is more than just
physical. It also delivers benefits to your mind. It alters your personality in a
positive way. It changes a person for the better, and being involved in an organized
social sport gives a child social skills, teamwork skills and many other socially-
oriented skills that will be a huge benefit to that child as he or she progress into
adulthood.
Silly parents. Amazingly, I've heard some parents come up with the most
unbelievable excuses for not involving their children in physical activities or
organized sports programs. One parent told me she didn't want her daughter, a
seventh-grader, to play soccer because she thought all women who played soccer
end up with bulky-looking legs, and she didn't want her daughter to have ugly,
bulky legs.
This is a case where a parent, who greatly misunderstands what physical
fitness does to the physical beauty of a person, has made a decision that will impair
her child's development in an important way. That child wants to play soccer, but
the parent is more worried about the cosmetic appeal of her daughter's legs than in
actually giving her daughter an opportunity to be physically fit and participate in a
sport that she enjoys. That kind of ignorance plays out millions of times a day
across our country and around the world, as parents who lack good information on
the benefits of sports and physical fitness make poor decisions about the activities
of their children. These poor parenting decisions negatively impact the potential of
those children for the rest of their lives.

Text 10. (Linguistics and Literature science)

What does it mean to say somebody is bilingual?


A bilingual person is someone who speaks two languages. A person who
speaks more than two languages is called 'multilingual' (although the term
131
'bilingualism' can be used for both situations). Multilingualism isn't unusual; in
fact, it's the norm for most of the world's societies. It's possible for a person to
know and use three, four, or even more languages fluently.
How do people become bilingual? People may become bilingual either by
acquiring two languages at the same time in childhood or by learning a second
language sometime after acquiring their first language.
Many bilingual people grow up speaking two languages. Often in America
such people are the children of immigrants; these children grow up speaking their
parents' native language in their childhood home while speaking English at school.
Many bilinguals, however, are not immigrants; it is not uncommon for people born
in the U.S. to speak English at school or work and another language at home.
Children can also become bilingual if their parents speak more than one
language to them, or if some other significant person in their life (such as a
grandparent or caretaker) speaks to them consistently in another language.
Sometimes a child will grow up in a household in which each parent speaks a
different language; in that case, the child may learn to speak to each parent in that
parent's language. In short, a young child who is regularly exposed to two
languages from an early age will most likely become a fluent native speaker of
both languages. The exposure must involve interaction; a child growing up in an
English-speaking household who is exposed to Spanish only through Spanish-
language television won't become a Spanish-English bilingual, but a child who is
regularly spoken to in both English and Spanish will.
It is also possible to learn a second language some-time after early
childhood, but the older you get, the harder it is to learn to speak a new language as
well as a native speaker. Many linguists believe there is a 'critical period' (lasting
roughly from birth until puberty during which a child can easily acquire any
language that he or she is regularly exposed to. Under this view, the structure of
the brain changes at puberty, and after that it becomes harder to learn a new
language. This means that it is much easier to learn a second language during
childhood than as an adult. In some countries, nearly everybody is bilingual or
multilingual. In parts of India, for example, a small child usually knows several
languages. In many European countries, children are encouraged to learn a second
language — typically English. In fact, the U.S. is quite unusual among the
countries of the world in that many of its citizens speak only English, and they are
rarely encouraged to become fluent in any other language.

Text 11. (Chemical science)


The conservation of matter

132
In reactions under normal laboratory conditions, matter is neither created nor
destroyed, and elements are not transformed into other elements. Therefore,
equations depicting reactions must be balanced; that is, the same number of atoms
of each kind must appear on opposite sides of the equation. The balanced equation
for the iron-sulfur reaction shows that one iron atom can react with one sulfur atom
to give one formula unit of iron sulfide.
Chemists ordinarily work with weighable quantities of elements and
compounds. For example, in the iron-sulfur equation the symbol Fe represents
55.845 grams of iron, S represents 32.066 grams of sulfur, and FeS represents
87.911 grams of iron sulfide. Because matter is not created or destroyed in a
chemical reaction, the total mass of reactants is the same as the total mass of
products. If some other amount of iron is used, say, one-tenth as much (5.585
grams), only one-tenth as much sulfur can be consumed (3.207 grams), and only
one-tenth as much iron sulfide is produced (8.791 grams). If 32.066 grams of
sulfur were initially present with 5.585 grams of iron, then 28.859 grams of sulfur
would be left over when the reaction was complete.
The reaction of methane (CH4, a major component of natural gas) with
molecular oxygen (O2) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water can be depicted
by the chemical equationCH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)Here another
feature of chemical equations appears. The number 2 preceding O2 and H2O is a
stoichiometric factor. (The number 1 preceding CH4 and CO2 is implied.) This
indicates that one molecule of methane reacts with two molecules of oxygen to
produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water. The equation
is balanced because the same number of atoms of each element appears on both
sides of the equation (here one carbon, four hydrogen, and four oxygen atoms).
Analogously with the iron-sulfur example, we can say that 16 grams of methane
and 64 grams of oxygen will produce 44 grams of carbon dioxide and 36 grams of
water. That is, 80 grams of reactants will lead to 80 grams of products.
The ratio of reactants and products in a chemical reaction is called chemical
stoichiometry. Stoichiometry depends on the fact that matter is conserved in
chemical processes, and calculations giving mass relationships are based on the
concept of the mole. One mole of any element or compound contains the same
number of atoms or molecules, respectively, as one mole of any other element or
compound. By international agreement, one mole of the most common isotope of
carbon (carbon-12) has a mass of exactly 12 grams (this is called the molar mass)
and represents 6.02214179 × 1023 atoms (Avogadro’s number). One mole of iron
contains 55.847 grams; one mole of methane contains 16.043 grams; one mole of
molecular oxygen is equivalent to 31.999 grams; and one mole of water is 18.015
grams. Each of these masses represents 6.0221 × 1023 molecules.
133
Text 12. (Economics)
Keynesian analysis. The problem of coordination
The problems of economic stability and instability have, naturally, been of
concern to economists for a very long time. But, as a special field of investigation,
it emerged most strongly from the confluence of two developments of the
depression decade of the 1930s. One was the development of national income
statistics; the other was the reorientation of theoretical thinking often referred to as
the “Keynesian revolution.”
If one singles out a particular household from the millions of economic units
and studies it over a period of time, one can draw up a budget of that household’s
transactions. The budget will come out as a long list of amounts sold and amounts
bought. If at any time this economic unit had tried to do something different from
what it actually did (cutting down, say, on meat purchases to buy another pair of
shoes), the solution of the economic puzzle would have been correspondingly
different. At the prevailing prices the supply of meat would have exceeded the
demand, and the demand for shoes would have exceeded the supply.
The point Keynes made, right or wrong, was that, if the economy were to
function as a coordinated system, the activities of each economic unit must be
somehow controlled—and controlled quite precisely. This is done through price
incentives. By raising the price of a good (relative to the prices of everything else),
any economic unit can, generally speaking, be made to demand less of it or to
supply more of it; by lowering the price, it can be made to demand more or to
supply less. Through the conflux of prices, an individual unit is thus led to fit its
activities into the overall puzzle of market demands and supplies. If economic units
could not be controlled in this fashion, the market-organized system could not
possibly function.
Keynesians therefore believe that in any given situation there exists,
theoretically, one and only one list of prices that will make the puzzle come out
exactly right. But the amounts that economic units choose to supply or demand of
various goods at any given price list depend on numerous factors, all of which
change over time: the size of the population and labour force; the stock of material
resources, technology, and labour skills; “tastes” for particular consumer goods;
and attitudes toward consumption as against saving, toward leisure as against
work, and so on. Government policies—tax rates, expenditures, welfare policies,
money supply, the debt—also belong among the determinants of demand and
supply. A change in any of these determinants will mean that the list of prices that
previously would have equilibrated all of the different markets must be changed

134
accordingly. If prices are “rigid,” the system cannot adjust and coordination will
break down.

Text 13. (Jurisprudence)


Methodological considerations in contemporary comparative law
The world contains a vast number of national legal systems. The United
Nations brings together representatives of more than 190 states, but these states are
far outnumbered by legal networks, since not all states—notably federal ones—
have accomplished unification within their own frontiers. It is thus an enormous
task to try to compare the laws of all the different jurisdictions. This problem,
however, should not be overly magnified. Differences between the diverse systems
are not always of the same order; some are sharp; others are so closely similar that
a specialist in one branch of a legal “family” often may easily extend his studies to
another branch of that family. For this reason, one can distinguish two types of
research in comparative law. The exponent of “microcomparison” analyzes the
laws belonging to the same legal family. By observing their differences, he will
decide whether they are justified and whether an innovation made in one country
would have value if introduced elsewhere. The researcher pledged to
“macrocomparison,” on the other hand, investigates those systems differing most
widely from each other in order to gain insight into institutions and thought
processes that are foreign to him. For the “pure jurist,” concerned mainly with
legal technicalities, microcomparison holds the greater attraction; whereas
macrocomparison is the realm of the political scientist or legal philosopher, who
sees law as a social science and is interested in its role in government and the
organization of the community.
Microcomparison demands no particular preparation. The specialist in one
national system is usually qualified to study those of various other countries of the
same general family. His chief need is access to bibliographical material. In the
United States, each state has its own statutes and, to some purposes, its own
common law. Thus, the American lawyer must be a microcomparatist as he takes
the 50 state systems and the federal law into daily account in his practice of the
law. The same is true, to a large extent, of the Australian, or Indian, or Kenyan
lawyer, who must take into account not only his own national system but also the
laws of England and of other common-law jurisdictions in the Commonwealth.
The situation differs greatly in consideration of macrocomparison. Here no
comparison is possible without previously identifying and thoroughly mastering
the fundamentals of the law systems as they differ from place to place. The jurist
must, as it were, forget his training and begin to reason according to new criteria. If
he is French, English, or American, he must recognize that in some folk societies
135
of East Asia, the upright citizen never crosses the threshold of a courtroom and
acknowledges no subjective rights; instead, the citizen’s behaviour is governed by
rites handed down from his ancestors, ensuring him the approval of the
community. Likewise, if the Western jurist is to understand Islamic law or Hindu
law, he must realize that the law is contained in rules of conduct laid down by a
religion for its followers, and for its followers only. These rules, creating
obligations and not rights, rank above all worldly matters and, in particular, are not
to be confused with the regulations that a national government may, at a given
time, enact and ratify.

136
Appendix 3.
Департамент образования города Москвы
Государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования города Москвы
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОРОДСКОЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Материалы для сдачи экзамена


кандидатского минимума
по английскому языку

Реферат по книге Д. Канемана «Мышление, быстрое и медленное»:


Kahnemann, Daniel “Thinking, Fast and Slow”. – London: Penguin Books Ltd.,
2012. – 499 pp.

Выполнил:
аспирант первого курса
кафедры методики обучения
филологическим дисциплинам
ИГН
Германов П.П.

Дата сдачи материалов 15.04.2016


____________
подпись

Проверил:
кандидат филологических наук
доцент кафедры зарубежной филологии ИГН
Иванова А.А. _______________
подпись
_______________
дата

_____________________________
оценка соответствия требованиям

Москва
2016
137
Департамент образования города Москвы
Государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования города Москвы
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОРОДСКОЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Материалы для сдачи экзамена


кандидатского минимума
по английскому языку

Глоссарий
в рамках исследуемой научной проблематики
(составлен по книге по книге Д. Канемана «Мышление, быстрое и
медленное»: Kahnemann, Daniel “Thinking, Fast and Slow”. – London: Penguin
Books Ltd., 2012. – 499 pp.)

Выполнил:
аспирант первого курса
кафедры методики обучения
филологическим дисциплинам
ИГН
Германов П.П.

Дата сдачи материалов 15.04.2016


____________
подпись

Проверил:
кандидат филологических наук
доцент кафедры зарубежной филологии ИГН
Николаева М.Н. _______________
подпись
_______________
дата

_____________________________
оценка соответствия требованиям

138
После текста глоссария:

В работе использовались словари:

1. Фёдорова Н. В., Лапчинская В. П. Англо-русский учебно-педагогический


словарь. - М.: ООО "Издат-школа", 1998. - 160с.
2. В.В. Межова Учебный англо-английский словарь психолого-
педагогических терминов. – Кемерово: КГУКИ, 2012 [электронный ресурс]
URL:
https://www.google.ru/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0ah
UKEwjq2IHHmOjLAhVo8XIKHZciCYQQFgghMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fruc
ont.ru%2Ffile.ashx%3Fguid%3D7bf59329-4a6e-4362-a411-
fd528d4c4a42&usg=AFQjCNGKcCXe5Mj1jEsOpcKPWOYmqPeHLA&bvm=bv.
118353311,d.bGQ
3.
4.

139
Appendix 4.

MY RESEARCH WORK
I am an engineer. My special subject is ... I combine practical work with
scientific research. I am doing research in ... This branch of knowledge has been
rapidly developing in the last two decades. The obtained results have already found
wide application in most varied spheres of the country's national economy.
I am particularly interested in ... which includes ... I have been working at the
problem for... years. I got interested in it when I was a student. My work is
primarily of practical importance, it is based on the theory developed by the
collaborators of our department. So I can say that I work in close cooperation with
my colleagues. We also closely collaborate with several enterprises of our republic.
There are several research teams at our department. The team I work in is headed
by Doctor of Technical sciences ... He is my scientific adviser. I always consult
him when I encounter difficulties in my research. We often discuss the obtained
data.
As I am rather an experimentator than a theoretician I make use of different
equipment .... The obtained data enabled me to define more precisely the
theoretical model of .... I have not yet completed the experimental part of my
thesis, but I am through with theoretical part. For the moment I have ... scientific
papers, some of which were published when I was a student. Two of them were
published in the journals of Japan and ...
I take part in various scientific conferences where I make reports on my
subject, I willingly participate in scientific discussions and debates. I am planning
to finish writing the thesis by the end of next year and prove it in the scientific
Council of the ... Institute, I hope to get the scientific degree of a candidate
(Master) of Technical sciences.
I. What are you?
2. What field of knowledge are you doing research in?
3. Have you been working at the problem long?
4. Who do you collaborate with?
5. Who is the team you work is headed by?
6. What kind of instruments do you make use of in your research?
7. How many scientific papers have you published?
8. When and where are you going to get your Candidate's degree?

Possible Questions
1. What higher school did you graduate from?
2. What chair do you work at?
140
3. Who (what) is your scientific supervisor (adviser)?
4. What problem is being analyzed at-present by you?
5. Have you already studied the subject thoroughly?
6. What problem are you specializing at present?
7. How long had you been working as an engineer before you started the
research work?
8. Will you manage to defend thesis in time?
9. What does your work consist in? What do you concentrate on?
10.Don't you think you could finish the work in time?
11.Are you an experimenter or a theoretic (theoretician)?
12.When did you start experimental (scientific) work?
13.What did your first experiment show?
14.Do you have any scientific publications? In what journals?
15.Did you make any reports at scientific conferences?
16.Are there any other hypotheses on the problem you are working at?
17.Could you give an example of any law in your field of research?
18.What is expected to result from your experiment (method, device)?
19.How do you propose to solve the problem?
20.What kind of work is being done at your laboratory (chair, department)?
21.What do you think is the value of your research work?
22.How long had you been doing your research work when you obtained,
practical results?
23.What kind of experiment do you do? (carry on)
24.Are you inclined to question theories or you take them all for granted?
25.What is of particular difficulty in your work?
26.Are there any similar investigations abroad?
27.Who first conceived the idea of your study? (concern)
28.What are the advantages of your method?
29.Is your work being done fey on a new method? Do you re-examine the
problem from the point of view of the new theory?
30.Are you going to work out a new method of research?
31.What method would you choose to apply?
32.Do you suppose to enrich science by new discovery?
33.Is your laboratory equipped in the most modem way? How is your
laboratory equipped; does it have any advantages over other laboratories?
34.Where arid when did you study?
35.What Regional Training Institute did you attend?
36.What degree did you receive after graduating from the academy?
37.Describe your educational background?
141
38.What's your post-secondary education?
39.What's your professional education?
40.What's your marital status?
41.Are you single or married?
42.What is the number of dependents/children?
43.What is your material status?
44.Do you have a drive license?
45.What do you do for a living? (I am in computers; I am a product manager).
46.Speak about your career development?
47.What was your first job?
48.How many times did you change jobs and why?
49.What is your present job?
50.What courses did you take during training for your present job?
51.Are you satisfied with your job?
52.How long were you in (with) your last job?
53.Would you like to change your present job?
54.What company do you work for?
55.Where is your company situated? Where is the place of your employment?
56.How do you get there?
57.How long does it take you to get there?
58.Is your company a part of a larger holding company? How is your business
registered?
59.Where are the head quarters of the company located?
60.Describe your duties. What are your responsibilities?
61.Who is the chief of your department?
62.Who do you work for?
63.What's your position in the company?
64.Who are you responsible to?
65.Who do you report to?
66.Are you doing well at your company?
67.What do you do at your company?

142
References

1. Learn to read science: Курс английского языка для аспирантов и научных


работников/ Н.И. Шахова, В.Г. Рейнгольд, В.И. Салистра и др.; отв.ред.
Е.Э. Бреховских, М.Г. Рубцова; каф. иностр. языков РАН. 2-е изд,
перераб. М.: Наука, 1993. 283 с.
2. Stanley Fish Plagiarism Is Not a Big Moral Deal The New York Times
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/author/stanley-fish/?_r=1
3. Английский язык для аспирантов = English for Post-Graduates /Учеб.-
метод. пособие для аспирантов / Авт.-сост.: О. И. Васючкова, Н. И.
Князева, Л. В. Хведченя, Т. Г. Лукша. Мн.: БГУ, 2005. 125 с.
4. Балицкая, И. В. Английский язык для аспирантов и соискателей: учебное
пособие / И. В. Балицкая, И.И. Майорова, А. Н. Рендович. Южно-
Сахалинск: изд-во СахГУ, 2012.
5. Балицкая, И. В. Английский язык для аспирантов и соискателей: учебное
пособие / И. В. Балицкая, И. Майорова, А. Н. Рендович. Южно-
Сахалинск: изд-во СахГУ, 2012.
6. Минакова Т.В. Английский язык для аспирантов и соискателей [Текст]:
учебное пособие / Т.В. Минакова. – Оренбург: ГОУ ОГУ, 2005 – 103с.
7. Никульшина Н.Л.Английский язык для исследователей: учебное пособие
/ Н.Л. Никульшина, Щ.Ф. Гливенкова. Тамбов: Изд-во Тамб. гос. техн.
Ун-та, 2009, 100 с.
8. Петрашова Т.Г. Обучение академической устной и письменной речи:
жанровый и дискурсный анализ устных и письменных текстов на примере
английского языка: практическое руководство/ Т.Г. Петрашова, Ю.Н.
Шицю. Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического университета, 2009. 78
с.

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