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0 . И.

Беляева
л.Ф.жеребятьева

The Realm of
Physics and
Technology
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

О. И. Беляева Л. Ф. Жеребятьева

В МИРЕ ФИЗИКИ И ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ

THE REALM OF PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY

Учебное пособие

Санкт-Петербург
Издательство Политехнического университета
2009
УДК 53:6 =111(075.8)
ББК 22.3:30.6 я73
Б 44

Беляева О. И. В мире ф изики и технологий. The Realm of Physics and Technology :


учеб, пособие / О. И. Беляева, Л. Ф. Жеребятьева. - СПб. : Изд-во Политехи, ун-та, 2009. -
240 с.

Книга представляет собой попытку создания комплексного пособия, предназначенного для


студентов второго курса, специализирующихся в области физики и механики. Каждая из 30 глав
пособия содержит несколько текстов разного уровня сложности, которые сопровождаются упраж­
нениями, направленными на проверку понимания их содержания, работу над общенаучной и
терминологической лексикой. Каждая глава содержит упражнения по определённому разделу
грамматики, соответствующему учебной программе второго курса технического вуза (от неличных
форм глагола до употребления эмфатических конструкций). Кроме того, многие главы содержат
материалы на русском языке, что помогает контролировать степень усвоения студентом материала
главы.
Задачей пособия является развитие у студентов всех видов компетенций, предусмотренных
государственным образовательным стандартом по иностранному языку. Помимо развития языковой
и коммуникативной компетенции большое внимание уделяется развитию у студентов социо­
культурной компетенции за счёт использования материалов, описывающих знаменитые физические
лаборатории, университеты или научные общества, специальные журналы или биографии
знаменитых физиков.
Все тексты и упражнения составлены на основе аутентичных материалов. Пособие снабжено
грамматическим комментарием по основным разделам грамматики. В случае грамматических и
лексических трудностей даётся русское соответствие.
В приложении даются правила чтения формул, список сокращений, наиболее часто встречаемых
в английской научной и технической литературе, а также словообразовательные элементы (суффиксы
и префиксы), используемые в общенаучной и терминологической лексике.
Ключи к упражнениям, подробный план распределения дидактических единиц и тексты заданий
по аудированию (typescripts) прилагаются к пособию в виде в виде отдельной брошюры.
Пособие может быть также использовано для занятий в группах магистров и аспирантов
физических и технических специальностей.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Санкт-Петербургского госу­


дарственного политехнического университета.

© Беляева О.И., Жеребятьева Л.Ф., 2009


© Санкт-Петербургский государственный
ISBN 978-5-7422-2335-1 политехнический университет, 2009
Данная книга представляет собой попытку создания комплексного пособия,
отвечающего требованиям государственного стандарта преподавания иностранных языков
в высшей школе. Основываясь на перечне дидактических единиц программы обучения
иностранному языку в вузе, авторы в каждой главе, помимо текстов на основе аутентичных
материалов, дают задания по развитию компетенций, необходимых будущим выпускникам
политехнического университета. Этим задачам посвящены разделы, имеющиеся практически
в каждой главе пособия под соответствующими рубриками:
• Grammar Practice (лингвистическая компетенция: упражнения по основным
разделам грамматики)
• Vocabulary Study (лексический минимум общенаучной и профессиональной
лексики)
• Talking Point (коммуникативная компетенция: обсуждение научных проблем и
общение на профессиональные темы)
• It’s Interesting to Know (социо-культурная компетенция: информация о научных
обществах, журналах, университетах и т.д.)
• Listening Comprehension (понимание устной речи в аудиозаписи)
• Writing (продуцирование письменных сообщений: тезисов докладов, статей,
ведение переписки)
• Word Formation (словообразовательная система общенаучной лексики)
• Mind Your Pronunciation (произношение слов латинского и греческого
происхождения)
Кроме того, в пособии содержатся задания, направленные на овладение студентами
основами публичной речи (сообщения, доклады, презентации). При этом стимулируется
обращение студента к Интернет-ресурсам и использование современной техники Power­
Point. По наблюдениям авторов, такой современный междисциплинарный подход
импонирует студентам технических вузов.
Особое внимание уделяется работе над лексическими и грамматическими явлениями,
затрудняющими адекватное понимание английской речи. Этому посвящены упражнения
под рубрикой Confusables, это также нашло отражение в общем принципе составления
грамматических и лексических упражнений, в которых явления, чаще всего вызывающие
затруднения у студентов, даны в противопоставлении.
Очень часто грамматические и сопутствующие им лексические явления даются в одной
и той же главе, однако упражнения по грамматике не всегда привязаны к теме главы,
вынесенной в её заголовок. Такой подход позволяет преподавателю использовать
упражнения по грамматике и общенаучной лексике в сочетании с основным текстовым
материалом различных глав в соответствии с планом работы в группах конкретных
специальностей. Поскольку упражнения по грамматике и общенаучной лексике составлены
на основе самодостаточных высказываний по общенаучной тематике, их понимания не
вызывает затруднений у студентов. Тесты, данные в приложении, представляют собой
более простые в семантическом плане предложения и могут быть использованы как для
контроля, так и для тренировки учебного материала.
Пособие состоит из 30 глав, каждая из которых имеет приблизительно одинаковую
структуру и содержит перечисленные выше рубрики. Первые десять глав пособия
посвящены общенаучным проблемам, истории науки и структуре научного процесса
(«Эксперименты», «Уравнения в физике», «Наука и техника» и др.). Они могут
использоваться в различных группах и обычно являются основой для подготовки устных
ответов на экзамене на втором курсе. Следует отметить, что первые десять глав содержат
тексты более высокого уровня сложности, чем последующие главы. Авторы пособия
осознают, что это противоречит традиционному принципу методики «от простого к
сложному», однако они выбрали такой подход в связи со спецификой дисциплины
«физика», охватывающей различные разделы от ядерной физики до биофизики. В этих
главах закладывается общенаучный словарный запас студентов, корректируется
произношение некоторых слов научного лексикона. Лексика, относящаяся к активному
словарному запасу студентов, дается в пособии в рамках, таблицах или выделяется жирным
шрифтом.
Главы с 11 по 29 посвящены отдельным направления физики, механики, математики и
современным технологиям, в основе которых лежат достижения этих наук. В этих главах
наряду с работой над общенаучной лексикой большое внимание уделяется работе над
терминологическими словами и словосочетаниями, характерными для конкретных областей
науки и техники.
Каждая глава начинается с текстов различного уровня сложности, сопровождаемых
упражнениями, направленными на проверку понимания содержания текста, работу над
лексикой текста и его обсуждение. Эти задания не имеют рубрик Reading и Talking Point, т.к.
их принадлежность к соответствующим дидактическим единицам представляется очевидной.
В пособии последовательно выдерживается принцип двуязычия, что является
необходимым для аспекта «язык для специальных целей» (Language fo r Special Purposes).
Основной текст пособия и приложения содержат много комментариев на русском языке.
Материалы на русском языке в главах пособия, содержащие информацию о достижениях
российских учёных, служат цели порождения собственных высказываний на английском
языке. Из них часто виден приоритет российской науки, что способствует также
патриотическому воспитанию будущих учёных.
Пособие снабжено грамматическим комментарием, где грамматический материал
представлен в основном в виде таблиц и снабжён переводом на русский язык.
В приложении даются правила чтения формул, список сокращений и иностранных
выражений, наиболее часто встречаемых в английской научной и технической литературе,
а также словообразовательные элементы (суффиксы и префиксы), используемые в
общенаучной и терминологической лексике.
Ключи к упражнениям, тексты заданий по аудированию (typescripts) и подробный план
распределения по главам по различных дидактических единиц (The Map of the Book)
прилагаются к пособию в виде отдельной брошюры (Teachers’ Resource).
Авторы хотят выразить искреннюю благодарность коллегам, ценные замечания и
предложения которых оказали большую помощь при написании данного пособия: декану
факультета иностранных языков д.п.н. М.А.Акоповой, зав.кафедрой «Английский язык-1»
к.п.н Т.Н. Крепкой, зав.кафедрой «Английский язык-2» к.ф.н. В.И. Быкановой, доцентам
С.А. Амахиной, Р.М. Арбинской, Т.В. Большаковой, Т.А. Быстровой, проф.Н.В.Поповой.

Авторы
UNIT 1 Polytecnical Education in Russia and the USA
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Passive-I. Transitive/Intransitive Verbs 7

UNIT 2 Scope of Physics


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Passive-П 15

UNIT 3 Advance of Science


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Causation 72

UNIT 4 Science and W orld Outlook


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Functions of the Infinitive 26

UNITS Equations and Laws of Nature


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Subject - 1 34

UNIT 6 Language of Science


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Subject-II 42

UNIT 7 Theory and Experiment


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Object 48

UNIT 8 Physics and Mathematics


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: For-to-Infmitive Construction 56

UNIT 9 Science , Technology , Engineering


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Modality 61

UNIT 10 Units of Measurement


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Modals + Perfect Infinitives 67

UNIT 11 The E arth


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Functions of Gerund 74

UNIT 12 Astrophysics
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Gerund or Infinitive
Reported Speech-I 80

UNIT 13 Thermal Physics


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Participle I/II as an Attribute 85

UNIT 14 Superconductivity
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Participle I/П as an Adverbial Modifier 92
Functions of ing-form.

UNIT 15 Lasers and Masers


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Absolute Participial Construction 97

UNIT 16 Physics and Information Technology


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Negation 103

UNIT 17 Nobel Prizes in Physics


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Comparison 109
UNIT 18 Nanotechnology
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Compound Participles
Conversion 116

UNIT 19 Big Bang, Singularity, Supernovae


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Linking Words-I 122

UNIT 20 Black Holes


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Linking Words-П 128

UNIT 21 Large Hadron Collider


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Phrasal Verbs 136

UNIT 22 Pure and Applied Mathematics


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Conditionals-I 143

UNIT 23 Brain - the most Powerful Computer


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Conditionals-П 149

UNIT 24 Biophysics and Bioengineering


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Relative Clause
Noun Attribute 154

UNIT 25 Environmental Hazards


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Subjunctive Mood
Reported speech-П 160

UNIT 26 Medical Technology


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Inversion. Emphasis 168

UNIT 27 Engineering
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Wishes 174

UNIT 28 Computer and the Internet


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Auxiliary Verbs and Noun Substitutes 180

UNIT 29 Future and Technology


GRAMMAR PRACTICE :TextO rganizers-I 186

UNIT 30 Careers in Science and Engineering


GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Text Organizers-II 192

Gram m ar Reference 199


List of Gram m ar Terms (English/Russian) 199
Model Tests 212
Appendix 1 Communication in Science (Useful W ords and Expressions) 226
Appendix 2 Word Formation: Prefixes 229
Appendix 3 Word Formation: Suffixes 231
Appendix 4 How to Read Formulae 232
Appendix 5 Abbreviations 234
Appendix 6 Foreign Expressions 235
Appendix 7 Imperial and Metric Conversion Tables 236
Appendix 8 Physics Timeline 237
Appendix 9 Time Line of Scientific Technology 238
References 239
UNIT 1
POLITECHNICAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AND THE USA

1. Read the text and compare the two universities.


The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research
university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT consists of five schools and one
college, comprising 34 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary centers and
programs. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of
America, MIT's mission and culture continue to emphasize teaching and research
grounded in practical applications of science and technology. MIT graduates and
faculty are also noted for their entrepreneurial spirit: a 1997 report by MIT claimed
that the aggregated revenues produced by the 4,000 companies founded by MIT and
its graduates would make it the twenty-fourth largest economy in the world.
Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University or
Polytech is a major Russian technical university. It was
founded in 1899 as the most advanced engineering
school in Russia. The main person promoting the idea of
establishing a first-class engineering school was the
Minister of Finance Count Sergei Witte who realized it
was an important step towards the industrialization of
Russia. Invariably it retained its outstanding position of
one of the most highly regarded engineering educational centers. Nowadays it
comprises 20 departments which educate engineers, economists and managers for
105 specialties. The hallmark of Polytechnic bears significance of the highest
standard in teaching and research.
Both institutes were organized as research and development centers of their
countries. During World War II, their highly skilled scientists developed defense-
related technologies that later became integral to computers, radar, and inertial
guidance. After the war, the universities continued to have a high profile throughout
the Space Race and Cold War. Nowadays both Universities give education to
approximately the same number of students - about 15,000 annually.
Each University has a library, which house many books and other materials. The
MIT Libraries' collections include more than 5 million items, with 2.7 million
volumes of print material and over 2.5 million items in extensive holdings of
microforms, maps, images, musical scores, sound recordings, and videotapes. They
offer workshops on library resources and in-depth consultations on research projects.
Personal assistance is available from library staff at each location.
The Fundamental Library of Polytech has a rich collection of 2.9 million books in
Russian and in many foreign languages with titles in every branch of science and
technology. Prescribed text-books and manuals are reserved for immediate use
available for staff and students who can consult them or borrow.. A copying service
is available. Computers in the Library reading room are also available to visitors.
MIT Library and Polytech Library have many electronic journal titles licensed for
access on the Institutions’ network and full-text online databases. Nowadays both
libraries have their websites, which include useful information about collections of
items. Both Universities are located in big cities, MIT in Boston, Polytech in Saint-
Petersburg. The Polytech campus site occupies beautiful wooden area of Sosnovka to
the North of the city. The park-like and restful character of the campus is stimulating
and contrasting to the urban surroundings in the vicinity. The Polytech campus has all
amenities on site that are easily accessible: the Fundamental Library, the House of
Scientists in Lesnoye, hostels, a hotel, the post-office, the Medical Center, the
Students' Club, cafes and cafeterias, sporting grounds with two soccer fields, a
stadium, an in-door swimming pool, etc.
The MIT campus is larger than Polytech. It is located on 168 acres that extend for
more than a mile along the Cambridge side of the Charles River Basin. The central
group of interconnecting MIT's campus buildings, was designed to permit easy
communication among schools and departments. The subsequent growth of the
campus saw the construction of landmark. Sculptures and paintings are found
throughout the campus, including works by Pablo Picasso. Today, to meet the
changing needs of teaching and research, the Institute is adding a remarkable array of
new facilities designed by distinguished architects.
Comparing these two universities we can see that there are a lot of similarities
between them, although they are located in different countries. In spite of the fact that
each university has its own peculiarities, students and teachers of both universities
have much in common. That’s why when at the turn of 21st century there appeared
the possibility to work together specialists of some departments of the two
institutions started to communicate and work for common projects.

2. In the text find equivalents to the following phrases:


- междисциплинарные лаборатории;
- центры исследований и развития;
- технологии, связанные с обороной;
- доскональные консультации по научно-исследовательским проектам;
- удовлетворять изменяющимся требованиям преподавания и исследований;
- работать над совместными проектами.

TALKING POINT
3. Discuss in pairs:
• the importance of establishing a first-class engineering school in Russia;
• the possibilities available in Politech library;
• the advantages and disadvantages of the Polytech campus location;
• issues, common for both institutions.
4. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:
- младший/старший научный работник, учёный
- преподаватель, доцент, академик
- учебный план, учебная программа
- зачёт, зачётка
- декан, зам. декана, деканат
- аспирант, аспирантура, диссертация
- бакалавр, магистр, кандидат технических наук
- дневное, вечернее и заочное обучение
- кафедра, заведующий кафедрой

Students’ Life in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University


Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University is one the oldest and best-reputed
technological universities of Russia. It was founded in 1899. Many outstanding
scientists took part in its foundation. Originally the university (formerly- institute)
consisted of four departments. Nowadays it comprises over twenty faculties that
provide instruction in science, engineering and humanities. The Faculty of Technical
Cybernetics, the Civil Engineering Faculty, the Department o f Physics and
Mechanics, The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, the Faculty of Electrical
Engineering are very popular among school-leavers. The University trains electrical
and mechanical engineers, theoretical and experimental scientists, IT specialists and
programmers, managers and PR specialists and many other academics and
professionals.
Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University not rates only as one of Russia’s
best educational institutions of science and technology but it is also a major research
center. Many outstanding scientists with international reputation are among the
graduates and the teaching staff of the university. A number of research institutes and
centers work in close cooperation with SPbSPU. Among them one can name such
major research centers as Vedineyev Hydraulic Research Institute, Ioffe Research
Institute of Physics and Technology, the Research and Development Center of
Robotics.
The teaching staff of the university includes experienced lecturers, professors,
associate professors, academicians. Most of them are also engaged in research in
various fields of science. The university provides tuition in three forms: full-time,
part-time and extra-mural instruction. Nowadays e-leaming is getting more and more
popular.
Each faculty is headed by a dean who is usually an outstanding scholar. He is
assisted by several deputy deans who are responsible for various aspects of university
life: academic process, research, extracurricular activity, students’ accommodation.
The dean’s office coordinates the faculty’s activities, it issues matriculation books,
arranges curriculum and syllabus, sets exam and credit schedule for every term.
For most students the tuition is free and they receive a scholarship.
Beside scholarship they enjoy various benefits: low hostel rent, discount on
monthly transportation cards and entrance tickets to museums. For example, the
entrance to the world’s greatest museum the Hermitage is free for all students.
Students’ curriculum includes both fundamental and applied sciences. In the first two
years they study mathematics, calculus, physics, chemistry and a number of humanity
subjects such as the history of Russia and English.
After four years of tuition students are awarded their first scholarly degree:
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) or Engineering (B. Eng.). If they continue their study
they may get Master’s degree (M. Sc.). There are a lot of opportunities for SPSPU
graduates: they may join a research institute and fill a position of junior research
associate or work at Research and Development (R&D) department of an industrial
company. Those who are interested in research prefer to stay at SPSPU and take a
post-graduate course.
A post-graduate has three years to do research on a particular subject under the
guidance of a scientific supervisor. If he or she defends his/her PhD thesis they are
addressed as Doctors. The university provides young scientists doing their PhD and
post-doc research an opportunity to work under the guidance of prominent scholars.
The Polytechnic is involved in major Russian and international research programs
including students and post-graduates’ exchange programs.
A lot of conferences, seminars and symposia on various subjects are held here
every year, which enables scientists to present their findings to the international
scientific community, to share, exchange and discuss their views on vital problems of
modem science with their colleagues from Russian and foreign universities.
The university has its own publishing house that prints books, professional
journals and proceedings of conferences, which enables the Polytech scientists to
have their findings regularly published.

5. Read the text paying attention the words and expressions in bold.
Going to University in Britain
The system of education is basically the same in most European countries, with
division into primary, secondary and tertiary (higher) school. In Britain after getting
General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) school-leavers apply to several
universities through UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admission Service) and
receive offers of a place on condition that they achieve certain grades in their “A”
levels. Most universities are state-funded and receive some money from the state. The
oldest and the most famous are Oxford and Cambridge. Other much respected
universities include London, Durham and St. Andrew’s. Some universities such as
Birmingham and Manchester are so-called “red-brick” universities because they
were built in the 19th century with brick rather than stone. The newer universities
have their buildings grouped together on a campus.
A first degree which is usually an honor’s degree, generally takes three years.
Most courses end with exams called finals. Results are given as classes: the first is
the highest class, seconds are often split between upper second and lower second, and
below that is a third. Graduates may add letters BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc
(Bachelor of Science) after their names. Some students go on to study for a further
degree, often a Master’s (MSc/MA/MBA) or a doctorate (PhD).
Students in Britain formerly had their tuition fees paid by the state and received a
government grant to help pay their living expenses. Now they get only a loan and
have to pay 1000 pounds a year to cover their tuition fees.

Going to College in the USA


Americans talk about going to college even if the institution they attend is a
university. Most colleges offer classes only for undergraduate students studying for
bachelor’s degree. Community college offers two-year courses leading to an
associate’s degree. Universities offer courses for graduate students who study in
graduate schools, e.g. a medical school or a law school.
American high school students who want to study at a college or university have to
take a standardized test, e.g. the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) or the ACT
(American College Test). Students from countries outside the USA who are not
native speakers of English must take the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign
Language), with each college deciding on the minimum score.
Students apply direct to between three and six colleges in their last year of high
school. Each college has its own application form and most include a question for
which the student must write an essay. The student has also to send a script (an
official list of all the subjects studied and grades received) and letters of reference.
All universities charge tuition and students pay extra for room and board. Students
whose families cannot afford to pay a full amount apply for financial aid. Many
students receive a financial aid package which may be a combination of grants from
the government, a scholarship, a student loan and work-study (a part-time job at a
college). The most famous American universities are those in the “Ivy League”,
including Harvard and Yale. Caltech, Princeton and MIT are among the most
renowned centers of education and research.
The US academic year may be divided into two semesters of about 15 weeks or
three quarters of about 10 weeks each. Students take courses in a variety of liberal
arts curriculum regardless of their main subject (major). They choose their major at
the end of their sophomore year and sometimes take a minor which they study for
two years. Students’ academic progress is assessed in grades, from A to F, F
meaning that a student failed the course and will not be given credit for it. To check
a student’s overall progress the university calculates a grade point average (GPA).
Graduates with the best GPA are awarded Latin honours, of which the highest is
summa cum laude.
TALKING POINT
6. Make up dialogues. You may use additional information from ex. 15 It’s
interesting to know.
1. Your friend spent a term as an exchange student at MIT.
Ask him about his experiences. Ask him to explain the meaning of the following
expressions liberal arts curriculum, major, work-study, financial aid package,
script, sophomore GPA, summa cum laude, Latin honours, “Ivy League”.
2. You have called a British placement agency in order to get some information about
the degrees awarded by different university programs. Ask the requirements for
enrollment at British universities.

WRITING: Semi-formal letter


7. You want to apply for a place at university as an international student. You have
got some information from the Internet. Now you have more specific questions
concerning degrees awarded by different university programs. Ask about the course
duration, tuition fees, accommodation and living expenses. Write a letter of inquiry
to one o f the British or American universities.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Passive-I (Grammar Reference GR-2,3 p.199)


8. Convert the following sentences into passive.
Example: All universities charge tuition and students pay extra money for room
and board. Tuition is charged by all universities and extra money is paid for room
and board.
1. Most universities are state-funded.
2. School-leavers receive offers of a place at particular universities through UCAS.
3. Graduates may add letters BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science)
after their names.
4. Nowadays the University comprises over twenty faculties that provide instruction
in science, engineering and humanities.
5. The University trains electrical and mechanical engineers, theoretical and
experimental scientists, IT specialists and programmers, managers and PR specialists.
6. The dean’s office coordinates the faculty’s activities, it issues matriculation books,
arranges curriculum and syllabus, sets exam and credit schedule for every term.
7. School-leavers should achieve certain grades in their “A” levels.
Students choose their major at the end of their sophomore year
8. Community college offers two-year courses leading to an associate’s degree.

9. Put in the suitable preposition.


for, to (2), to as, to for, upon (2), with
Example: The statement of the board of directors was not commented upon.

1. He objected .. .being called a great scholar.


2. The conference website is to be referred ... further information.
3. During the experiment the substance was subjected ... heating for 5 hours.
4. The subject will only be touched ... during the report at the conference.
5. All the problems arising during the conference will be dealt ... by the organizing
committee.
6. This scientist is often referred... as the founder of this field.
7. These phenomena can be accounted ... by Newtonian laws.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Translator’s False Friends-I


10. Choose the suitable word.
University and Education
1. In 1867 Mendeleev was made a professor of general chemistry at St. Petersburg
University - the institution/institute that had rejected him 17 years before.
2. At the age of 20, Copernicus went to the University of Krakow to study the
liberal/human arts, including astrology and astronomy.
3. He returned to Munich and obtained his doctoral/candidate degree in 1879 at the
age of 21 with the thesis on the second law of thermodynamics.
4. The female membership issue caused a stir in the press and in high society, and the
meeting was attended by 162 academics/academicians, about twice the usual
number.
5. A wet plate in BecquereTs hands was one of the proofs that nature did not behave
at all in the way in which physicians/physicists had worked out in minute detail.
6. A common thread through Lavoisier’s life was his interest in public works, and
when he was admitted to the academy /academia at the young age of 23, it was
partly for a brilliant paper of the way to light the streets of Paris.
7. At the time she was a 24-year-old PhD/R&D student at Cambridge, doing a
routine monitoring job.
8. As a pure mathematician/mathematics Newton reached his climax in the
invention of the calculus, an invention also made independently by Leibniz.
9. Bohr’s academic/academician promise and fine personality was evident early in
his life.
10. In 1905, a paper was published in a German scientific journal/magazine,
describing the Special Theory of Relativity.

11. Distribute the nouns into the following categories:


teachers opponents great scientists friends titles scientists

People in Science and Education

academic academician advisor advocate apostle assistant professor bachelor,


candidate, champion colleague competitor corresponding member councilor doctor
doyen exponent evangelist dean, deputy dean don fellow founder mandarin
master mogul rival pundit rival titan tycoon sage
WORD FORMATION: Suffixes of agents /people -er/or, -cian, -ic, -ist
12. Form nouns describing people
________________________________ Table 1 People in Science and Technology
academia - academy - biology -
education - chemistry - experiment -
exploration - industry - investigation -
lecture — mathematics - mechanics -
philosophy - physics - physiology -
research - science - technology - theory -
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
13. In which words can you hear the following sounds?
Ik] [s]
1. academician 2. concentrate 3.mathematician
4. particles 5. principal 6 . process

14. It’s interesting to know!


• Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a US university known
especially for its science courses. It was established in 1861 to Boston and
moved in 1916 to Cambridge, Massachusetts, close to Harvard University.
The mission of the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) is to expand
human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education.
The stuff investigates the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and
technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating
outstanding students to become creative members of society. Its alumni and the stuff
has won 32 Nobel prizes.
Applied Physics option at Caltech offers a multidisciplinary graduate program
spanning engineering and physics in which fundamental physical principles are used
to address research issues of technological importance at the frontiers of engineering
and science.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION
15. You will hear two people speaking about education. Complete the sentences.
A. Speaker 1
1. Teacher are good a t ...
2. Three types of learning are ...
3. Information technology is used to...

В Speaker 2
1. Teachers should develop students’ interest in....
2. Students should see themselves as ...
• 3. Education should have two objectives:...
UNIT 2 SCOPE OF PHYSICS

1. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true о false.

1. The scope of physics is clearly defined.


2. Physical laws rely on observation and experiment.
3. The subject of physics is very broad.
4. Physics is interrelated with other sciences.
5. Physicists collect all the necessary data and conduct the experiments before
forming a working hypothesis.
6. Most physical findings can be directly applied to improve quality of human life.
7. The approach of a physicist is to ignore many aspects of a phenomenon in order to
arrive to a generalization.

Theoretical and Applied Physics


Physics is often defined as the science of mater and energy and of the
relationship between them. As a science physics is rooted in and grounded in
observation and experiment. And the validity of its laws must stand the test of
continuing with quantitative results of observation and experiment.
The domain of physics includes matter in all its forms - solids, liquids, gases,
plasmas, molecules, atoms and the particles out of which atoms are made. It also
includes energy in all its forms - mechanical energy, electromagnetic energy, nuclear
energy - and manifestations of these basic kinds of energy in the form of heat, sound,
light, gravitation and chemical energy. This is what we mean when we say that
physics is the science of matter and energy. Still, such a definition does not clearly
distinguish physics from other disciplines since chemistry is also a science which
deals with molecules and atoms, and electrical engineering is concerned with
production, transmission and control of electromagnetic energy. How then can we
arrive at a clearer picture of the scope of physics?
First, physics is the oldest and the most basic of the sciences, since it attempts to
study and explain the different kinds of particles and radiations which make up the
universe. Over the course of history other sciences branched off from physics to
become the sciences in their own right. Nevertheless, the findings of physics are still
often used to elucidate the findings in other sciences.
A CAT (computerized axial tomography) scanner is used for producing 3-D X-ray
image of the interior of the human body. For the work in developing the CAT
scanner the American physicist A. Cormack received a share of Noble Prize for
physiology and medicine.
Physics is one of the so-called hard sciences, not because it is difficult, but because it
is based on hard, quantitative data and makes predictions in quantitative (i.e.
numerical) form. These predictions can then be checked against measurements made
in the laboratory. The so-called soft sciences include disciplines like psychology and
sociology in which human behavior plays a crucial role and in which the precision
that is characteristic of physics does not play a major role. The physicists are able to
extract quantitative data from nature only by focusing on the purely physical and
quantitative aspects of a problem to the exclusion of other considerations. This
fundamental in some ways oversimplified approach does not take into account the
interaction of physical processes with the economy, political events, or the quality of
human life, but concentrates on matter and energy and their physical
interrelationships. This is both the secret o f great success physics enjoyed and the
reason its applicability to real life problems involving human being and other living
creatures is limited.
Once a reasonable amount of experimental data has been collected in a physics
research laboratory, physicists try to develop a theory to correlate and explain these
data. But occasionally one gets a man like Enrico Fermi, the Italian genius, who rose
to fame in 1927 as a theoretician and surprised us all by breathtaking results of his
experiments with neutrons and finally by engineering the first nuclear reactor. On
December 2 1942, he started the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction initiated
by man and thus became the Prometheus of the Atomic Age.
Physics today is divided into many special fields, themselves subdivided manifold.
The principal of these are acoustics, electricity and magnetism, mechanics, nuclear
physics, optics, quantum mechanics, relativity and thermodynamics.

2. Read the text and discuss the connection of physics with other sciences.

Physics and Other Sciences


The biologist studies the matter which possesses the property we call life. The
physicist has no interest in living matter as such, even though physics is concerned a
great deal with particles from which the matter is constructed. Physicists have
made important contributions to biology and medicine by uncovering the physical
principles underlying the biological sciences, and by developing sensitive instruments
of great utility in biology and medicine, such as electron microscope and CAT
scanner. Some eminent biologists such as F. Crick, one o f the developers of the
Watson-Crick double-helix theory of DNA and Rosalin Yalow, the winner of Noble
prize for medicine were trained as physicists. She shared the Nobel Prize for her part
in creating the technique of radioimmunoassay which uses radioactive tracers to
locate antibodies and other biologically active substances that are present in the
human bodies in quantities so minute that they are detectable in no other way. Also
medical doctors like J. Mayer and H. Helmholz made significant contributions to
physics by research done while still engaged in medical practices.
A biologist studies the matter which possesses the property we call life. The
physicist has no interest in living matter as such, even though physics is concerned a
great deal with particles from which the matter is constructed. Physicists have made
important contributions to biology and medicine by uncovering the physical
principles underlying the biological sciences, and by developing instruments of great
utility in biology and medicine, such as electron microscope and CAT scanner. Some
eminent biologists such as F. Crick, one of the developers of the Watson-Crick
double-helix theory of DNA and Rosalin Yalow, the winner of Noble prize for
medicine were trained as physicists. She shared the Nobel Prize for her part in
creating the technique of radioimmunoassay which uses radioactive tracers to locate
antibodies and other biologically active substances that are present in the human
bodies in quantities so minute that they are detectable in no other way. Also medical
doctors like J. Mayer and H. Helmholz made significant contributions to physics by
research done while still engaged in medical practices.
The closest discipline to physics in interest and approach is chemistry. The main
difference is that chemistry deals with matter at the molecular level and with
molecular interactions whereas physics is more concerned with atoms which make up
molecules, with the protons, neutrons, and electrons out of which atoms are
constructed and with macroscopic properties of the matter. In recent years much of
physics has separated further from chemistry by devoting its attention chiefly to the
reactions which occur at very high energies and which produce particles that play no
role in chemical reactions. The detectable of flourishing hybrid disciplines like
physical chemistiy and chemical physics testify to the close relationship between
physics and chemistry.
Mathematics as a discipline is more concerned with the proper ordering of
mathematical concepts and constructs than with physical reality. Physics takes many
o f the results of mathematics and uses them to better describe the reality, but is more
concerned with the application of mathematical ideas than with the ideas themselves.
Theoretical physicists use advanced mathematics continually in their work, but they
use it as a tool to understand the physical universe and not as a road to further
mathematical discoveries. In some cases (as with Einstein’s general theory of
relativity) new branches of mathematics have been created to fill a need in physical
research.
Engineering stands somewhat in the same relationships to physics as does physics
to mathematics. Just as physics uses mathematics to elucidate the physical universe,
so engineering applies the laws and discoveries of physics to develop practical
devices like automobiles, computers, electric generators, nuclear reactors, bridges,
tunnels and space shuttles. All modem engineering is rooted in the laws of physics,
but physicists are interested in discovering these laws, not applying them. Since
technology is engineering applied to large-scale production processes physics has
essentially the same relationship to technology as it does to engineering. Physicists
uncover the data and develop physical theories and laws which technologists then
apply to society’s needs.
The distinctions made above may help somehow to clarify the scope of physics
compared with other sciences. These distinctions will never be perfectly sharp,
however, and hence the scope of physics will never be perfectly clear. There will
always be mathematical physicists, chemical physicists, bioengineering physicists,
applied physicists, and space physicists, to render the dividing line between physics
and other disciplines fuzzy and uncertain. But despite this ambiguities and
uncertainties, our definition of physics as a science of mater and energy and of the
relations between them is still useful one.
TALKING POINT
3. Discuss in pairs the following issues.
• the subject of physics;
• common points of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering;
• different approaches of physicists, mathematicians, chemists, biologist.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Academic English


4. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use the dictionary when
necessary._______ ________________________ _____________________ Table 2
verb norm adjective
distinguish
observation
explain
image 1. 2. 3.
construct
develop
detectable
difference
separate
create 1. 2
elucidate
clarify
definition
measurement
quantitative
consideration
significant
compare
MIND YOUR PRONOUNCIATION
5. In which of the following words can you hear these sounds?
[k] [tj]

1. chemistry 2. characteristic 3. mechanical 4. chaos 5. chance 6.chief

6. Read the text and give definitions to various branches of mechanics.

Classical and Modern Mechanics

Mechanics is traditionally one of the central branches of physics, divided into


dynamics, statics, and kinematics, that is concerned with the motion and equilibrium
of bodies in a particular frame of reference.
Quantum mechanics is a mathematical physical theory that grew out of Planck’s
quantum theory and deals with the mechanics of atomic and related systems that can
be measured. The subject developed in several mathematical forms, including wave
mechanics (Schrodinger) and matrix mechanics (Bom and Heisenberg).
Wave mechanics emerged due to de Broglie and was extended by Schrodinger,
Dirac and many others. It originated in the suggestion that light consists of particles
as well as of waves and the consequent suggestion that all elementary particles are
associated with waves. Wave mechanics is based on the Schrodinger wave equation
describing the wave properties of matter.
Matrix mechanics originated simultaneously but independently of wave
mechanics. In it the wave functions of the wave mechanics are replaced by vectors in
the suitable space (Hilbert space) and the observable things of the physical world,
such as energy, coordinates, momenta, etc. are represented by matrices.

MAKING PRESENTATIONS
7. Find material and make Power Point presentations about life and contributions
of the physicists mentioned in the text (Planck, Schrodinger, Bom, Heisenberg,
Dirac, Hilbert)

CONFUSABLES (transitive and intransitive verbs)

rise (расти, подниматься) give rise (вызывать)


arise (возникать) arouse (возбуждать)
raise (поднимать; собрать деньги)
8. Fill the gaps using the words in the box in the correct from.
Example: Planck rose the status of the subject immensely and supported the work of
many younger physicists, including Einstein.

1. The story of Newton and the falling apple ... Gauss’ indignation as he knew
tremendous efforts some of his own masterpieces had cost him.
2. The Nobel prize winners are greeted in bed by girls dressed like Saint Lucia who
is a patron saint of light and vision and is thus much celebrated in a place where the
winter sun barely ... above the horizon.
3. An old man, when Nazi ... to power, Bohr forthrightly opposed the dismissal of
his Jewish colleagues.
4. Meloney promised Curie that she would ... the money in America to buy the
necessity resources.
5. The dominating force opposing motion therefore... from viscosity rather than
inertia.
6. The differences among these theories have ... to controversy, but the theories are
perhaps not contradictory so much as complementary.
lie (лежать; лгать); lay (класть, закладывать)
underlie (лежать в основе); lay a bet ( держать пари)
7. By using words we can ... not only to one another but to ourselves; that’s one of
the prices we pay for language.
8. The equations that ... the workings of the universe are in the some sense “out
there”, independent of human existence, so that scientists are cosmic archeologists,
trying to unearth laws th at... hidden since time began.
9. No other fertile period for individual scientific accomplishment can be found
except the original annus mirabilis, when Isaac Newton was confined to his country
home to escape plague, started to ... the basis for calculus, his law of gravitation and
his theory of colors.
10. There could of course be nothing on it, since the crystal ... in the sun and could
not therefore absorb energy to emit radiation.
11. Another great physicist, Lord Raleigh, invited Kelvin to ... for five shillings that
before six months had passed he would declare Rutherford to have been right.
12. It was also due to Becquerel, Madame Curie, Planck, Einstein, Rutherford and
Bohr that new foundations were..., making possible a sound restoration of the
structure of science.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Passive-II


9. Convert the following sentences into passive and write questions to the subject
and object of the sentences.

Physics before Newton


Example: 1. c. 400 BC Democritus put forward the first atomic theory.
a) The first atomic theory was put forward by Democritus.
b) Who put forward the first atomic theory?
c) Who was the first atomic theory put forward by?
2. c. 250 BC Archimedes’ came up with the principle of buoyancy.
3. c. 1610 Galileo established the principle of falling bodies.
4. 1643 Blaise Pascal put forward the principles of hydraulics.
5.1643 Evangelista Torricelli devised mercury barometer.
6.1656 Christian Huygens invented a pendulum clock.
7.1662 Robert Boyle formulated the law describing the behavior of gases.

10. Functions of have. Choose sentences corresponding to the following ones:


1. The newer universities have their buildings grouped together on a campus.
a) Architects planned the lay-out of universities with all their buildings located on the
campus.
b) Universities concentrated their buildings on the campus.
2. Students in Britain formerly had their tuition fees paid by the state.
a) Students in Britain had paid their tuition fees through the bank.
b) Students in Britain used to be funded by the state.
3. Now students get only a loan and have to pay 1000 pounds a year to cover their
tuition fees.
a) Nowadays students are paid 1000 pounds a year to cover their tuition fees.
b) Nowadays students are to pay 1000 pounds a year to cover their tuition fees.
4. American high school students who want to study at a college or university have
their knowledge tested in a standardized test.
a) American high school students who want to study at a college or university have
tested their knowledge in a standardized test.
b) American high school students who want to study at a college or university have to
take a standardized test to assess their knowledge.
5. Each college has its own application form and most include a question for which
the student must write an essay.
a) An application form of each college includes a question for which students have
to write an essay.
b) Each college makes the applicants to write an essay and fill a special application
form.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Studying at University

11. You will hear two people speaking about exam assessment.
a) What can you say about their approach to exam assessment?
b) Speak about advantages and disadvantages of their approaches.
UNIT3 ADVANCE OF SCIENCE

1. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or
false (F).
1. Science is an evolutionary process and relies on gradual accumulation of
knowledge.
2. New ideas shock scientists who are reluctant to readjust.
3. A new paradigm provides a different perspective to the existing problems.
4. Paradigm shift does not necessarily lead to a number of ground-breaking
discoveries.
5. Paradigm shift is usually opposed to the prevailing contemporary theory.
6. Only a few o f the listed greatest paradigm shifts are the domain of physics.
7. Science seems to have reached its boundaries.
8. An increasing number of people are involved in research.

Paradigm Shift
Many people think of scientific discovery as a process of gradual accumulation of
new knowledge, which is added to a pile of the existing knowledge. This what one
might call the sand castle view of science, which sees individual scientists, no matter
how eminent and adventurous, as children digging on a beach, adding their
contributions to the pile of sand that has already been accumulated. This might
describe 98 per cent of what we call scientific advance. But we need another image to
convey the nature of the other 1 or 2 per cent.
A recurring theme of the history of science has been the shock of new ideas, and
the readjustment of scientific thought they bring about. This process of readjustment
was the subject of the book published in 1962 entitled The Structure o f Scientific
Revolution, by Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996), professor of linguistics and philosophy
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Kuhn’s thesis was that scientific discovery is for most of the time a process of
gradual accumulation of knowledge and understanding within the limits of what he
called “normal science”. But once in a while, “a new paradigm” - a revolutionary
new model - is put forward, which offers a dramatically changed view of the
underlying reality a particular science is trying to explain.
If the new model proves successful in explaining the hitherto mysterious
phenomena, a period of upheaval ensues, as scientists try to come to terms with its
implications. This leads to a reorientation of the science in question, which Kuhn
called a” paradigm shift”. In due course the new paradigm meets with general
acceptance, and there follows a period of exceptionally fruitful enquiry, which may
last for two or three centuries, as scientists explore the territory the new field has
opened up. Paradigm shifts need not be destructive. To return to the children on the
beach, a major scientific breakthrough need not mean the flattening of the sand castle.
It would be more like someone saying, “Why don’t we build an ocean liner instead?”
If it seems like a good idea, it generates a burst of enthusiasm, construction that the
original plain sand castle could never have produced.
The following is just a selection of some notable scientific revolutions of the past
600 years. All of them represent paradigm shifts of the kind Kuhn had in mind. And
all of them were followed by a quickening of pace of scientific discovery that
continued for a long time.
The sun-centered Model o f the Solar System
The Law of Universal Gravitation
The Periodic Table o f Elements
Evolution by Natural Selection
The Planetary Model of the Atom
Special and General Relativity
The Expanding Universe
The Structure of DNA Plate Tectonics
The next 50 years in science will see a greater accumulation of scientific
knowledge than any half- century, and that there are still new paradigms to be
constructed. We are better placed to seek out answers than ever in history. Where
past ages had a handful of leisured gentlemen amateurs or academics, we have
hundreds of thousands of full-time paid scientists, male and female.
As a result of recent developments in telecommunications - and above all, the
Internet, - the opportunities for networking and the speed of diffusion of new
knowledge, far exceed anything known even a quarter of a century ago. The
technology available to us, especially in computing power, is immeasurably more
powerful than that available to our predecessors.
And, despite a few dark comers, the freedom to pursue enquiry, and the cultural
imperative to do so, are built-in characteristics of our modem world. O f course, we
might happen to be living at the time when most of what there is to be discovered has
been discovered. But the history of science is littered with stories of eminent
scientists who felt sure that they too were living at such a time. And how wrong they
prove to be!
It has been a rather private party so far. For nearly 500 years, from Copernicus to
the Human Genome Project, Europe and North America, where the money was, had a
virtual monopoly of science. Now, at long last, China, India, and a score of other
countries have a chance to show what they can do; and the consequence can only be a
further quickening of the pace of scientific advance.

2. In the text find the equivalents to the phrases:


- повторяющаяся тема
- реальность, лежащая в основе
- до сих пор загадочные явления
- наука, о которой идёт речь
- исключительно плодотворное исследование
- предложение может быть вполне обоснованным
• намного превосходить
■в распоряжении предшественников
■характеристики, присущие современному миру
■ дальнейшее ускорение темпа научного прогресса

WORD FORMATION

3. Form adjectives describing nationalities.


International Hall of Fame (Physics)
L. Avogadro Amadeo Carlo (1776-1856) (Italy) was one of
.he founders of physical chemistry.
2. Becquerel Henry (1852-1908) (France) discovered
aenetrating radiation coming from uranium salts, the first Niels Bohr
indication of radioactivity.
3. Bohr Niels (1885-1962) (Denmark) developed a new model of atomic structure. 4.
Boltzman Ludwig (1844-1906) (Austria) studied kinetic theory of gases.
5. Boyle Robert (1627-1691) (Ireland) was a pioneer in the use of experiment and
scientific method.
5. Brewster Davis (1781-1868) (Scotland) made discoveries about the diffraction and
polarization of light.
7. Chadwick James (1891-1974) (England) discovered the neutron in the atom.
8. Skladovska-Curie Marie (1867-1934) (Poland/France)
discovered two new radioactive elements- polonium and radium.
9. Fahrenheit Daniel (1686-1736) (Poland/the Netherlands)
invented the first accurate thermometer.
10. Otto Hahn (1879-1968) (Germany) won a Nobel Prize for
his discovery of nuclear fission.
11. Landau Lev ((1908-1968) (Russia) was awarded a Nobel
Prize for his work on condensed matter.
12. Meitner Lisa (1878-1968)
(Jew/Austria/Sweden) was the first
Nikola Tesla to realize that together with Otto Hahn they
inadvertently achieved fission of uranium.
13. Pauli Wolfgang (1900-1958) (Austria/ Switzerland) originated
the “exclusion principle”.
14. Salam Adbus (1926-1996) (Pakistan) proposed the theory
linking the electromagnetic and weak interactions of atomic
particles.
15. Szilard Leo (1898-1964) (Hungary/the USA) was one of the
first scientists to realize the importance of nuclear fission. Lisa Meitner
16. Tesla Nikola (1856-1943) (Croatia/the USA)
Tesla invented the induction motor and alternating current supply system.
17. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (India) and William Fowler (the USA) discovered
processes involved in evolution of stars.

MAKING PRESENTATIONS
4. Use the Internet resources and make Power Point presentations about the
greatest achievements in science and the contribution of the relevant scientists.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Causation (GR-5 p. 200)


5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of make

1. An ink pen running at regular intervals over a paper chart was a hint leading
Jocelyn Bell Burnell to make an astonishing discovery about the universe. Nobody
yelled “eureka”.
2. In the early 1920s, the British scientist Alexander Fleming reported that a product
in human tears could make bacterial cells dissolve.
3. The telescope consisted of two lenses in a tube and could make a distant steeple
look as if it as just across the street.
4. Unlike Brahe Kepler did accept Copemican model, and what is more, in a brilliant
feat of mathematical inspiration, he found a way to make it fit the facts, using
Brahe’s observations.
5. Leonardo observed exactly what happened to muscles when they moved the body
in different ways, how muscles in the face made people smile or frown, and much
more.
6. An Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) was using electricity to make the
legs of the dead frog twitch.

6. Match the two parts of the sentences

1. We had to check the device because ...


2. We had checked it before the mechanic came,
3. We had the mechanic to check the device ...
4. The device had to be removed and replaced...
5. We had the device replaced ....
4. We had to have it replaced as it was not possible to repair it.
6. We have had it replaced twice in the last two years by the manufactures and ...

a) as we did not manage on our own.


b) but could not identify the problem.
c) by the manufacturing company last week
d) because it broke down.
e) by a new one as it was beyond repair.
f) each time it was free.
LISTENING COMPREHENSION Subject of Science
7. Listen to the introductory lecture on the history of science and answer the
following questions.

1. Why is history of science important?


2. What is the subject of science?
3. What determines the definition of science?
4. When did the word science originate?
5. When did scientific revolution begin?

WRITING
8. Write an essay with your own definition of science using the ideas of the
lecture.

UNIT 4 SCIENCE AND WORLD OUTLOOK

1. Read the text and give the synonyms to the adverbs in bold.

Natural Philosophy
Until the “scientific revolution” of the Renaissance, physics was merely
(1) a branch of philosophy dealing with the natures of things, thus its other
name - natural philosophy. The physics of heavens was, for instance,
completely (2) separate (and often conflicted with) the descriptions of
mathematical and positional astronomy. But from the time of Galileo, and
particularly (3) through the efforts of Huygens and Newton, physics
gradually (4) became identified with the rigorously (5) mathematical
description of nature; occult qualities were eventually (6) banished from
physical science.
Firm on its Newtonian foundation, classical physics gathered increasingly (7)
more phenomena under its wing until, by the late 19th century, comparatively
(8) few phenomena seemed to defy explanation. But the interpretation of these
effects (notably (9) blackbody radiation and the photoelectric effect) in terms
of new concepts due to Plank and Einstein involved thoroughgoing reformation
of the most (10) fundamental principles of physical science.
2. Read the text and fill the gaps with the clauses listed below.
a) adding and subtracting numbers
b) Starting with what he believed to be irreducible and self-evident axioms
c) must have seemed a natural marriage at the dawn of the Enlightenment.
d) with Rene Descartes revitalizing the ancient Greek atomic theory and Isaac
Newton soon to be admitted to Trinity College in Cambridge
e) upsetting about such an idea
f) including people
g) with secrets residing in nothing more than the extreme interconnectedness of
its billions of biological switches

Mechanical World-View

Copernicus had been fortunate to develop his heliocentric theory in the


early 16th century, manuscript, circulated around 1530, even received papal
sanction. How Galileo fared against papal authority when he placed
Copernicus’s ideas on firmer footing is the stuff of legend. The inquisition
condemned him in 1616 and forced him to recant in 1633. But by the middle of
the 17th century, _______(1), the banishment of magic and superstition by
mechanistic science seems in retrospect inevitable.
Hobbes’s masterwork, Leviathan, was an attempt to develop a political
theory out of this mechanical world-view. The goal that sounds absurdly
ambitious to-day,_______(2) Hobbes wanted to deduce, by logic and reason,
no less rigorous than that used by Galileo to understand the laws for motion,
how humankind should govern itself.
In 1636, Hobbes traveled to Florence to meet the great man and became
convinced that the law of inertia was the axiom he had been seeking. Constant
motion was the natural state of all things - _____(3). He pictured a person as
sophisticated mechanism acted upon by external forces.
Such machines were popular in the 17th century: the Scottish mathematician
John Napier (1550-1617) devised one, as did the French philosopher and
mathematician Blaise Pascal. (1623-1662). They were mechanical devices
for______ (4). The body, meanwhile, is merely a system of jointed limbs
moved by the strings and pulleys of muscles and nerves. Man is am automaton.
To Hobbes there was nothing mysterious or______ (5). Others were less
sanguine: the Spanish Inquisition imprisoned some makers of automata on the
grounds that they were dabbling in witchcraft and black magic. If we shudder
at this concept of humanity today, it is partly because we regard mechanical,
clockwork devices as crude and clumsy.
There are now many materialist scientists who believe that the brain is a
kind of vast and squishy computer, _____(6). As a superior vision of our most
advanced cultural artifact, this view of the brain is neither unusual nor
eccentric. To the intellectuals of the 17th century the same was true of the
clock, which was reliable timekeeper and a rather recent innovation. In that age
there was nothing inelegant about a mechanical picture of humanity; on the
contrary, it showed just how wonderfully wrought people were.
____(7), Hobbes aimed to develop a science of human interactions, politics and
society. Hobbes aimed to apply the method of the theoretical scientist: to
stipulate fundamental first principles and to see where they lead him.

WORD FORMATION
3. Form the appropriate words to fill the gaps.

Break-down of the Mechanical View of the Universe

The mechanical view of nature, beautifully (1 quantity) in Newton’s laws, is


based on three precepts. The first is strict (2 cause): every effect results from a
cause. The second is (3 precise): in principle, any physical process can be
measured to an arbitrarily high degree of accuracy. The third is (4 object): each
event can be described in one and only one entirely factual way, upon which all
(observe 5) everywhere can agree.
Quantum physics reveals that all three (6 suppose)
fail when we interrogate nature on the subatomic
scale. There, (7 part) because one cannot even in
principle keep track of trillions of subatomic
particles, strict causation is replaced by the statistics
of (8 probable ). Moreover, owing to Werner
Heisenberg’s (9 uncertain ) principle, all
observations are seen to be afflicted with a small but
(10 reduce) degree of imprecision. And classical
objectivity gives way to the (11 realize) that the
conduct of the (experiment 12) can affect the
outcome of the experiment,
sir Isaac Newton Perhaps because it was so strenuously resisted by
Einstein, who was revered as both a scientist and a (13 philosophy), the
fall of the Newtonian clockwork model of nature is sometimes described in
terms of lamentation more (14 suit) to the end of the world. But Newtonian
mechanics works on the small scale and general (15 relate) on the large scale.
The task now facing science is to find an over-arching set of laws that embraces
all three realms. What it will have to say about causation, precision and
objectivity remains to be seen.
4. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or
false.
1. Sadi Carnot is considered to be the founder of a new science.
2. Few people realize the significance of thermal dynamics for our world
outlook.
3. The third law of thermal dynamics is one the most important generalizations.
4. Most well-educated people are aware of the second law of thermal dynamics.
5. People perceive time as a one-way process.
6. The greater the enthropy, the less ordered is the system.
7. Universal law of dissipation of energy implies
global warming.

Thermodynamics (Engineering, Science,


Philosophy)
In a short life terminated prematurely by cholera, a
French scientist Nicholas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-
1832) busied himself with the problem of optimizing
the fuel efficiency of the steam engine. In a coal-fired
gas turbine, heat produced by burning fuel is
transferred from the burner to the gas. The steam
engine, often referred to as the Sadi Carnot
workhorse of the industrial revolution, likewise used the expansion of a hot gas:
water vapor. To develop his argument, Carnot considered an engine in which
heat flow allowed a gas to expand (when heated) and contract (when cooled),
driving a piston in a cyclic process now known as the Carnot cycle. His
analysis laid the cornerstone of a new discipline called thermodynamics, -
literally, “heat movement”.
Thermodynamics is one of the most astonishing theories of science. It is a field
of study initiated to help 19th century engineers make better engines, and it
turns out to produce some of the grandest and most fundamental statements
about the way the entire universe works. Physicist Erwin Schrodinger is
probably right to point out that thermodynamics owes more to steam engine
than steam engines to
The theory has practical implications, no doubt, but it soon leads us into
discussions verging on the metaphysical. Thermodynamics, like Newtonian
theory of motion has three laws. The third is hardly worth knowing unless you
are a physicist; the first two should be engraved in the mind of anyone who
wants to understand science. The First Law is the easiest: energy is never
destroyed but only transformed. Photovoltaic panels gobble up the energy of
sunlight and turn it - some of it, not all, with most of solar energy being, alas,
wasted as heat - into electrical energy.
The Second Law is more remarkable, and some scientists think that we still
don’t fully understand it. A testament to its importance is C.P. Snow’s famous
complaint in his book “The Two Cultures”: “A good many times I have been
present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture,
are thought highly educated and who have been expressing their surprise at the
illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked to and have asked
the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of
Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was
asking something which is about the scientific equivalent of: ’’Have you read a
work of Shakespeare’s?”
There are several ways of expressing it. When a German physicist
Rudolph Claudius (1832-1888) first did so in 1850, he said something along the
lines that heat always flows from hot to cold. What he really meant was that
there are processes that go only one way, which are irreversible. This
innocuous statement is really the secret of all change. If there are irreversible
processes, then time has an arrow, - a singular direction defined by such
processes. The Second Law connects to our perception that we are always
moving forward in time, never back.
Claudius conceived the concept that enabled a mathematical theory of
change and irreversibility: enthropy. Crudely speaking, enthropy is a measure
of amount of disorder in a system. The Second Law reduces to the statement
that in all processes of spontaneous change (such as heat flowing from hot to
cold), enthropy increases.
In 1852 William Thomson (1824-1907), later Lord Kelvin, noticed that
there is “a universal tendency in nature to dissipation of energy”. In 1854,
German physicist Hermann von Helmholz (1821-1894) perceived the
consequences of this inevitable dissipation: the universe will end up as a
uniform, tepid reservoir of heat. No further change would then be possible
because there was nowhere colder for the heat to flow. “Thus, he said, the
universe would ultimately die a ”heat death”. In the behaviour of steam engines
we can read the fate of all creation ultimately.

VOCABULARY STUDY
5. In the text find the equivalents to the following phrases:
- преждевременно прерванный
- практические выводы
- граничить с метафизикой
- свидетельство важности
- что-то вроде
- как это бывает после кульминации
- невинное утверждение
- грубо говоря
- осознавать последствия
6. Read the text and choose the heading for each paragraph:
A. Eternal dream
B. New prospects for the physics theory
C. Chaos reigns the human world
D. Unusual methods
E New interpretation of the old theory

Three Cs (chaos, catastrophe, complexity)

____ 1. Over the past two decades, something extraordinary has been happening in
science. Tools, methods and ideas developed to understand how blind material fabric
of the universe behaves are finding application in the arenas for which they were
never designed, and for which they might at first glance appear ridiculously
inappropriate. Physics is finding its place in a science of society.
____ 2. Chaos theory, which matured in the 1980s, has so far proved rather
robust supplying insights into how complicated and ever-shifting (“dynamical”)
systems rapidly cease to be precisely predictable even if their initial states are known
in great detail. Chaos theory has been advocated as a model for market economics,
and its notion of stable dynamical states, called attractors, seemed to prove more
explanation for why certain models of social behavior or organization remain
immune to small perturbations.
____ 3. The current vogue is for the third of these three Cs: complexity. The
buzzwords are now “emergence”, and “self-organization”, as complexity heory seeks
to understand how order and stability arise from the interaction of many agents
according to a few simple rules. But what often passes today for ’’complexity
science” is really something much older, dressed up in a fashionable apparel. The
main themes of complexity theory have been studied by physicists or over a hundred
years, and these scientists have evolved a toolkit of concepts and techniques to which
complexity studies have added barely a handful of items. At the root of this sort of
physics is a phenomenon which immediately explains why the discipline may have
something to say about society: it is a science of collective behavior. At face value it
is not obvious how the bulk properties of insensate particles of matter should bear
any relation to how humans behave en mass. Yet physicists have discovered that
systems whose component parts have a capacity to act collectively often show
recurrent features, even though they might seem to have nothing at all in common
with one another.
____ 4. Physics deals with systems of many components, all interacting with
one another at once, and explains how regular and predictable behavior emerges in
statistical form from such seeming chaos. It is possible to see how physics is used to
understand some aspects of behavior of economic markets and to reveal the hidden
structure in networks of social and business contacts, thus uncovering physics of a
sort in the politics of conflict and cooperation. Scientists are beginning to realize that
theoretical framework that underpins contemporary physics can be adapted to
describe social structures and behavour ranging from how traffic flows to how the
economy fluctuates and how businesses are organized.
____ 5. Underlying all of this is a more difficult question: does physics simply
help to explain and understand, or can it be used to anticipate and thereby avoid
problems, to improve our societies, to make a better and safer world? Or is it merely
another dream destined for the already overflowing graveyard of utopias of the past?

WORD FORMATION: Academic English


7. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary when
necessary.________________________________________________ Table 3
verb noun adjective
implication
complicated
1. notion 2.
emergence
evolve
behavior
anticipate
destine 1. 2.
compression
quantity
cause 1. cause 2.
observe 1. 2.
suppose
realize
destroy
terminate
1. 2. efficiency 1. 2.
consider
8. MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
In which words can you hear the following sounds?
[s] [k] Iks]
1. science 2. decades 3. current 4. cease 5. exceed 6. assess 7. access 8. success

WORD FORMATION
9. Form the suitable words from the words given in each line.
Computer View of Science
Some digit streams have no redundancy and are ... (1). compress
They are called ...(2) or algorithmically random. reduce
Scientific laws and facts can be viewed ... (3). similar
The basic ...(4) is a software view of science: sight
a ... (5) theory is like a computer program science
that predicts our ...(6), the experimental data. observe
Two fundamental principles... (7) this viewpoint. pin
...(8) two facts that explain the data, the simplest give
theory is ...(9). Second is Leibnitz ‘s insight, prefer
...(10) in modem terms: if a theory is the same size express
as the data it explains, it is ...(11). A useful theory worth
is a compression of the data; ...(12) is compression. comprehend
You compress things into computer programs, algorithmic descriptions.
The simpler the theory, the better you understand something.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Functions of the Infinitive (GR-7,8 p.200)


10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of the infinitive.

1. Galileo was the first to turn the newly invented telescope to the heavens and was
among the earliest observers of sun spots and the phases of Venus.
2. The practitioners of religion seem all too eager to resort to threats, intimidation
and even assassination in order to avoid hearing opinions of scientists.
3. In the survey aimed at depicting a typical scientist 70 per cent of the scientists
pictured by the students needed glasses, 58 per cent wore lab coats, and 52 per cent
had facial hair or ‘extravagant hairdos’ - a number that may actually be too low to
attract the MTV generation. Only 16 per cent were clearly female.
4. Galileo is erroneously believed to have invented the telescope and have done
physics experiments at the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
5. Electronic mail is bound to have produced a sort of computer logorrhrea, with
everything going through this international rumor mill.
6. James Chadwick (1891-1974), who was to win a Nobel Prize for the discovery of
the neutron, kept boredom at bay in a German prison camp by experimenting in an
improvised laboratory.
7. Perhaps surprisingly, Planck’s school accomplishments in science and maths were
not very impressive whereas Planck seemed to display more talent for music.
8. It’s a common practice for everyone involved in the research to be named in the
article describing the findings.
9. The natural philosophers of the Enlightenment frequently sought to safeguard
their claims to a discovery, while minimizing the risk of public error, by depositing
their dated observations in an archive or by concealing them in a cipher.
10. The natural world was no longer considered quite so mysterious and magical, but
something to be catalogued, studied and probed with help from the growing body
of scientific knowledge.
1. Read the text and give headings to the numbered paragraphs.
a. The concept of beauty is
basically he same in all spheres
of life.
b. Dirac stressed the link between
validity of physical laws and their
mathematical beauty.
c. Einstein and Dirac had rather
different approach to science.
d. According to Einstein the
beauty of the theory was more
Albert Einstein Paul Dirac important than its correctness.
e. Objectivity is a crucial feature of science.

It Must be Beautiful
1. ______ Of the hundreds of thousands of research scientists who have ever lived,
very few have an important scientific equations to their name. Two scientists who
were adept at discovering fundamental equations and especially perceptive about the
role of mathematics in science were Albert Einstein and the almost comparably
brilliant English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. Neither was a mathematician per
se, but both were remarkable in their ability to write down new equations that were so
fecund as the greatest poetry. And both were captivated by the belief that the
fundamental equations of physics must be beautiful.
2 . ______ This may sound strange. The subjective concept of beauty is unwelcome
in polite intellectual circles, and certainly has no place in academic critique of high
art. Yet it is a word that comes readily to the lips of all of us - even the most pedantic
critics when we are moved by the sight of a smiling baby, a mountain vista, an
exquisitely formed garden.
3 . ______What does it mean to say that the equation is beautiful? Fundamentally, it
means that the equation can evoke the same rapture as other things that many of us
describe as beautiful. Much like the great work of art, a beautiful equation has among
its attributes much more than mere attractiveness - it will have universality,
simplicity, inevitability, and an elemental power. Think of the masterpieces like
Cezanne’s Apples and Pears, Ella Fitzgerald’s recordings of “Manhattan". During
your first experience of each of them, you soon realized that you are in the presence
of something monumental in conception, fundamentally pure, free of excrescence and
crafted so carefully that its power would be diminished if anything in it were
changed. An additional quality of a good scientific equation is that it has utilitarian
beauty. It must tally with the results of every relevant experiment and, even better,
make predictions that no one has made before. This aspect of an equation’s
effectiveness is akin to the beauty of a finely engineered machine.
4. _____ The concept of beauty was especially important to Einstein, the twentieth
century’ quintessential scientific aesthete. According to his elder son Hans, “He had a
character more like that of an artist than a scientist as we usually think of them. For
instance, the highest praise for a good theory or a good piece of work was not that it
was correct, nor that it was exact but that it was beautiful.” He once went so far as to
say that “the only physical theories that we are willing to accept are the beautiful
ones” taking for granted that a good theory must concur with experiment.
5. ___ Dirac was even more emphatic than Einstein in his belief in mathematical
beauty as a criterion for the quality of fundamental theories and even averred that it
was for him a kind of religion. In the later part of his career, he spent a good deal of
time touring the world, giving packed-out lectures on the origins of the great
equation that bears his name, continually stressing that the pursuit of beauty had
always been a lodestar and a source of inspiration. During the seminar in Moscow
University in 1955, when asked to summarize his philosophy of physics, he wrote on
the blackboard in capital letters, ’’Physical laws should have mathematical beauty”.
For lesser mortals, such aestheticism is a tough and unproductive credo. Science is
littered with the remains of theories that were once perceived as beautiful but turned
out to be wrong. In 1921, Einstein correctly referred to astrophysicist Arthur
Eddington’s new theory of gravitation as “beautiful but physically meaningless”.

2. In the text find the equivalents to the following expressions:


- почти такой же блестящий - сродни красоте
- увлечённый идеей - принимать как должное
- не приветствуется - стремление к красоте
- первое приходит на ум - путеводная звезда
- вызывать восторг - источник вдохновения
- полно и тонко выраженный - обычные смертные
- совпадать с результатами - замусорены остатками теорий

3. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Researchers put their generalizations in form of characters standing for measurable
quantities.
2. A mathematical equation proved to be the most powerful device in the scientists’
toolkit thanks to symbolic presentation.
3. Similarly to other great equations E = me2 states the equality between evident
things.
4. Great equations have much in common with the best poetry.
5. In contrast to poets, scientists’ primary goal is to avoid ambiguity.
6. There is also no explanation for the absolute necessity of mathematical laws.
7. A popular phrase that God is a mathematician shifts the accent of scholarly
discussion.
Equations and Laws of Nature
Poetry of science is in some sense embodied in its great equations. An equation
is fundamentally an expression of perfect balance. For the mathematician - usually
unconcerned with science - an equation is an abstract statement, having nothing to do
with concrete realities of the real world. It is perfectly possible to imagine a universe
in which mathematical equations have nothing to do with the workings of nature.
Yet the marvelous thing is that they do. Physicists routinely cast their laws in the
form of equations featuring symbols that each represents a quantity experimenters
can measure. It is through this symbolic representation that the mathematical
equation has become one of the most powerful weapons in scientists’ armory.
Best known of all scientific equations is E = me2, was first suggested by Einstein
in 1905. Like all great equations, it asserts a surprising equality between things that
superficially appear to be quite different - energy, mass and speed of light in a
vacuum. Like all other equations E = me2 balances two quantities, in the same way as
a pair of weighing scales, with the = sign serving as the pivot. But whereas the scales
balance weights, most equations balance other quantities. E = mc2, for example,
balances energies. This celebrated equation began its life as a confident Einstein’s
speculation, and only decades later became part of the corpus of scientific
knowledge, after experimenters had shown that it does indeed concur with nature.
Now a twentieth century icon E = me2 is one of the few things about science that
every TV quiz participants are expected to know.
Great equations also share with the finest poetry an extraordinary power - poetry
is the most concise and highly charged form of the language, just as the great
equations of science are the most succinct form of understanding of the aspect of
physical reality they describe E = me2 is itself enormously powerful; its few symbols
encapsulate knowledge that can be applied to every energy conversion, from ones in
every cell of every living thing on Earth, to the most distant cosmic explosion. Better
yet, it seems to have held good since the beginning of time.
In the same way as close study of a great equation gradually enables scientists to
see things they initially missed, so repeated readings of a great poem stir new
emotions and associations. The great equations are just as rich a stimulus as poetry to
the prepared imagination. Shakespeare could no more have foreseen the multiple
meanings readers have perceived in his poems than Einstein could have predicted the
myriad consequences of his equations of relativity.
None of this is to imply that poetry and scientific equations are the same. Every
poem is written in a particular language and loses its magic in translation, whereas an
equation an equation expressed in the universal language of mathematics is the same
in English as it is in Urdu. Also, poets seek multiple meanings and interactions
between the words whereas scientists intend their equations to convey a single logical
meaning. The meaning great scientific equations usually furnish us with is called a
law of nature.
WORD FORMATION: Academic English
4. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary when
necessary.________ _______________________ _____________ Table 4
verb noun adjective
intend
perceive
multiple
predict
explosion
conception
attractiveness
imply
association
confident
simplicity
exponent
invariable
respond
existence
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
5. In which words can you hear the following sounds?
[u] M
1. course 2. routinely 3. pure 4. put 5. poor 6. quality 7. guide

WORD FORMATION
6. Form the appropriate word for each italicized word in the line

The Enigma of Scientific Laws


Armies o f... (1) have been defeated by the enigma of think
why most... (2) laws of nature can be written down science
so ... (3) as equations. Nor is it clear why convenience
fundamental laws exist at all. A popular...(4) explain
is that God is a ...(5) replaces profound mathematics
questions with a doubly...(6) proposition. verify
Yet divine design has long been an ...(7) justify
of the efficacy of equation in science. Witness the ...(8) quote
on the ...(9) bust of America’s first memory
professional woman ...(10) Maria Mitchell astronomy
in the Bronx Hall of Fame: “Every formula which expresses
a law of nature is a hymn of praise to God”, words written by Mitchell in 1866.
VOCABULARY STUDY
7. Choose the suitable word.
Even more contentious than the provenance of scientific ... (1) is the questions of
whether they are ... (2) or discovered. The Indian-American astrophysicist
Subramayan Chandrasekhhar probably ... (3) for most great theoreticians when he ...
(4) that when he found some new fact or insight, it appeared to him to be something
“that had always been there and that I had ... (5) to pick it up”. According to this
view, the equations that ... (6) the workings of the universe are in the some sense
“out there”, ... (7) of human existence, so that scientists are cosmic archeologists,
trying to ... (8) laws that ... (9) hidden since time began. The origin of the laws ...
(10) a complete mystery.

1. a) equilibrium b) equivalence c) equality d) equations


2. a) invested b) invented c) invited d)investigated
3. a) spoke b) told c) said d) talked
4. a) remarked b) noted c) notice d) marked
5. a) accidentally b) chance c) opportunity d )chanced
6. a) underline b) undermine c) underlie d) understand
7. a) irrelevant b) independent c) unrelated d) regardless
8. a) open b) unearth c) reveal d) uncover
9. a) laid b) lied c) have laid d) have lain
10. a) reminds b) remains c) retains d) rests

7. Fill the gaps to form the well-known word combinations describing the
achievement in science and technology,
a) algebra b) cell c) counter d) cycle e) coordinates f) Daltonism
g) dog h) effect i) hypothesis j) lines k) modulus
1) movement m) Pasteurization n) pendulum o) system p) waves
• Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was a Danish astronomer, the greatest exponent of
naked eye positional astronomy. Brahe is remembered for the Tychonic... (1),
in which planets circled the sun, which in turn cycled the stationary earth.
• Cartesian ... (2) is the most commonly used system of rectangular coordinates
employed in analytical geometry. The term is used after Rene Descartes
(1596-1650), a French mathematician, physicist and philosopher.
• 1800 Alexandra Volta invented the Voltaic ... (3).
• 1801 Interference of light was discovered by Thomas Young (1773-1829), a
British linguist, physician and physicist. His most significant achievement was
to resurrect the wave theory of light which had been occulted by Newton’s
particle theory. He also suggested the eye responded to mixture of primary
three colours and proposed modulus of elasticity known as Young’s ... (4).
• 1808 The “modern” atomic theory was propounded
by John Dalton. The word (5) is used both to
describe the atomic theory and a health disorder.
• Fraunhofer... (6) in the solar system were mapped
by Joseph von Fraunhofer.
• 1824 Thermodynamics as a branch of physics was
proposed by Sadi Carnot. Carnot ... (7) postulates
that the efficiency of a heat engine does not depend
on its mode of operation but only of the temperature
at which it accepts and discards heat energy. Thomas Young
• 1827 Brownian ... (8) resulting from vibrations was observed by Robert
Brown.
• George Boole (1815-1864) was a British
mathematician and logician, chiefly
remembered for devising Boolean... (9),
which allowed mathematical methods to be
applied to nonquantifiable entities such as
logical propositions. In the 20th century it
became important in the design of
telecommunications systems and logic
circuits, and hence in computer
George Boole technology.
• 1851 The rotation of Earth was demonstrated by Jean Foucault. The
Foucault... (10) used to be fixed on top of the tallest St. Petersburg’s cathedral
- St. Isaac’s as the replication of the famous experiment.
• Christian Doppler (1803-1853) (Austria) enunciated
the so-called “Doppler... (11)”, which explains
frequency variations observed when a vibrating
source of waves approach or recede from one another.
• Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) invented a process for
partially sterilizing milk originally by for improving
the storage qualities of wine known as ... (12).
• 1887 The existence of radio waves was predicted by
Heinrich Hertz. The research of Herzian ... (12) by
other scientists culminated in invention of the modem
radio. Christian Doppler
• The Geiger ... (13) was invented by Hans Geiger.
• Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, (the 1904 Nobel Prize
winner) is best known for his work on the conditioned reflex. Regularly, over
long periods, hearing a bell just to feed dogs, and found eventually they
produced saliva on hearing the bell, even when there was no food forthcoming.
In modem English Pavlov’s ... (14) is used to describe a person doing
something out of habit.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Subject - 1 (GR-10 p. 201)


9. Put the verb in the brackets into the correct form
Example: Hooke is known (collaborate) with most of the great scientists of his day
- Boyle, Newton, Huygens, Leeuwenhoek.
Hooke is known to have collaborated with most o f the great scientists o f his day -
Boyle, Newton, Huygens, Leeuwenhoek.

1. Now a twentieth century icon E=mc12 is one of the few things about science that
every TV quiz participants (expect) to know.
2. The famous Monument of the Fire in London, the world’s tallest Greek-style
column, is thought (design) by Hooke.
3. Linus Pauling (consider) to be the most influential chemist since Lavoisier and the
founding father of molecular biology.
4. Owing to Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, all observations are seen
(affect) with a small but irreducible degree of imprecision.
5. Lavoisier was tried and found guilty, and when his achievements were brought to
the attention of the judge in an attempt of his friends to save him, the judge is said (to
reply), ‘The Republic has no need for scientists’
6. Western style development is known (bring) the third world accelerated depletion
of natural resources.
7. Scientists (know) to complain of a want of candor in their confreres, in pursuit of
patents or merely priority.

WORD FORMATION: Suffixes of abstract nouns


(-al, -ance, -cation,-ment, -sion -tion)
10. Form nouns from the following verbs:
prove - proof improve - approve -
assume - assumption presume - resume -
include - exclude - conclude -
apply - 1. 2. imply - comply -
suppose - expose - dispose -

11. Use some of the nouns from Ex. 10 to fill the gaps.
Example: The structure can be stated in terms of concepts in relations. The whole
structure rests on observations and theoretical assumptions.

1. In scientific studies ..., reasoning and estimations are normally complemented by


evidence from controlled experiments.
2. What we learned at school years ago - or what we you read just last year - doesn’t
necessarily correspond to today’s scientific ....
3. The... of theory of relativity were so profound that they would overturn classical
physics and transform the scientific view of such things as space, time, matter, energy
and light.
4. In the early years of radiation research physicists were ignorant of adverse effects
of long ... to radioactivity.

CONFUSABLES: verbs/nouns
12. Choose the word and put in the correct form to fill the gaps,
to devise/device
Mechanical machines were popular in the 17th century: the Scottish mathematician
John Napier (1550-1617) ... one, as did the French philosopher and mathematician
Blaise Pascal. (1623-1662). They were mechanical ... for adding and subtracting
numbers.
to advise/advice
Mendel duly followed his ..., did experiments and published the paper on his
unsuccessful resul.
to test/ a test; to taste/taste
The oddest manner in which a new sweetener came to light was when Shashkant
Phadnis, a foreign research student at King’s College in London misheard the
instructions of his supervisor, professor L. Hough. Hough asked him to ... the
substance, but his ear being imperfectly attuned to the language, Phadnis instead ...
it. The resulting artificial sweetener, sucralose, as it became known, can replace
sucrose at less than one-thousandth of the concentration,
to extend/extent
But they all rely on physical laws that have been, to some ... and at some point,
experimentally tested.
to emphasize/ emphasis
MIT's mission and culture continue ... teaching and research grounded in practical
applications of science and technology.
to analyse/ analysis
Carnot’s ... laid the cornerstone of a new discipline called thermodynamics, -
literally, “heat movement”.
to breathe /breath
The contruction of LHC is really a ...-taking achievement,
to weigh/weight
Mendeleyev decided to ... those substances who atomic ... seemed wrong to him.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Music and Mathematics


13. Listen to the lecture and answer the following questions.
I. How did Leibniz define the relationship between music and math?
2. What mathematical parameters are involved in the composition of music?
3. What do music and mathematics have in common?
4. How are the perception of music and mathematics related in terms of brain
activity?
5. What kind of freedom do mathematics and music share?

UNIT 6 THE LANGUAGE OF SCIENCE

1. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or
false (F).
1.I t is essential for the modem science, specifically physics, that the discovered laws
can be written in the form of mathematical formulae.
2. Physicists believe that there should be an equation underpinning every
fundamental laws of nature.
3. Equations are part of every modem science.
4. Physics heavily relies on equations as its tool.
5. The most efficient approach of a physicist is to reduce complex things to then-
simple underlying structures.
6. The importance of equations varies in different sciences.

Equations in Science

The idea that science advances through a combination of experiment and


mathematically based theory is relatively new. Since Galileo’s time, science has
become more mathematical. Equations are now hugely important scientific tool and it
is virtually an a article of faith for most theoreticians - certainly for most physicists -
that there exists a fundamental equation to describe the phenomenon they are
studying or that someone some day will find a suitable equation. Yet, as Feynman
was fond of speculating, it may eventually turn out that fundamental laws of nature
do not need to be stated mathematically and that they are better expressed in other
ways, like the rules governing a game of chess.
For now, it seems that equations offer the most effective way of expressing most
fundamental scientific laws. But equations are not the preoccupation of all scientists,
many of whom do well with only rudimentary acquaintance of mathematics. This
point is made in the joke about physicist, an engineer, and a biologist when someone
asks each of them about the numerical value of pi. The mathematician responds
crisply that it is equal to the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter”. The
physicist counters that it is 3,141593, give or take 0.000001”. The engineer says it is
“about 3”. The biologists ask, “What’s pH”
This is of course a caricature. Some physicists have little mathematics, some
engineers are brilliant at in their ability to apply mathematics to their work, and some
theoretical biologists are hotshot mathematicians. However, like all caricatures, it has
a kernel of truth. Engineers tend to have a utilitarian attitude to mathematics, and
place a high premium on making good approximations. And of all sciences, physics
is the most mathematical, biology the least.
Since Galileo’s time, physicists have flourished mainly by keeping things
simple, by breaking down the complexities of the everyday world into their simplest
component parts. Such reductionism is not always an option for biologists, whose
subject is the hugely complicated living world, with its interrelated communities of
organisms, every one of which has a hugely complex structure in molecular terms.
And let us not forget that the unifying theory of biology is, superficially at least, non-
mathematical - The Origin of Species, Darwin’s account of his theory of evolution
by natural selection, does not contain a single equation. The same is true for
geologists’ theory of continental drift, whose early papers (published soon after
World War I ) were virtually an equation-free zone.
Mathematical equations are not the only type of equations used by scientists.
Chemists, for example, use equations that are not written solely in terms of
mathematical symbols but in terms of letters representing atoms, molecules and their
subatomic relatives. A huge amount of industrial activity is based on chemical
equations like this, each one describing an interaction whose details can be inferred
but almost never observed with a naked eye.

2. Give synonyms to the following words:

relatively precise rudimentary infer


originate entire kernel almost
scientist hugely speculate breaking down
proceeds offer solely
range

3. Read the text and give headings to the numbered paragraphs.


A. Scientific Vocabulary and Politics
B. Greek and Latin as a Conventional Basis for Scientific Neologisms
C. An anecdote in the Spirit of Time
D. You should stick either to Latin or to Greek

The Language of Science


1. Science has generated its own vocabulary, loosely rooted in the classical
languages. But neologisms today are less scrupulously coined than in the era when
the ancient languages were universally taught. Mixed derivations, in those more
learned days, were an anathema. An Oxford historian was supposed to have remarked
when television arrived that no good would ever come of an invention the name of
which was half Latin and half in Greek.
2 . ____ In the old age Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), who wrote and
theorized widely about science, and is now remembered for his elaborate, but
incorrect theory of color vision, was reported to have had the following illuminating
exchange with his disciple, Johann Peter Eckermann. The latter related to him one
day that he had been present at the demonstration of a remarkable new invention. It
was a steam carriage, or automobile, which could propel itself without horses. Goethe
pondered long over this remarkable apparition, and then summoned Eckermann
again. It was surely, he pronounced, Eckermann’s little joke, for if such thing had
been ever invented it could not have been given so grotesque a name: it would have
been called an autokineticon, or otherwise perhaps an ipsomobile.
3 . ____ An echo of these purist scruples found its way into the columns of Nature
70 years after Goethe’s death, when one reader was reported to have deplored in an
article in scientific journal that barbarous usages had crept into the language; he did
not care for the word motor, and was even more incensed by the Latin-Greek hybrid,
automotor (an early form, perhaps, of automobile). They should be replaced, he
urged by kion and autokion.
4. ____ There have been occasional assaults on scientific vocabulary from
altogether less fastidious motives than respect for the classical niceties.
German nationalism, for instance, spawned a movement to expunge all but Germanic
stems from the language. And so a telephone became a Fernsprecher, and during the
Third Reich there was a movement to construct a wholly Teutonic vocabulary for the
physical sciences.

VOCABULARY STUDY
4. Choose the correct word:
Definition, Classification, Description
Nearly half the mail authors ...(1) has to do, not with something they wrote, but
with something the correspondent thinks they wrote, so strong is our tendency to read
our own thoughts on the printed page.
In this respect ... (2) are essential for science as scientifically speaking, to define
means to state, in known terms, a clear ... (3) or a concept or the limits of a concept,
and to give a new ... (4) a specific term, which allows the members of the scientific
group to discuss the concept without misunderstanding. Definitions, together with
classifications and descriptions can be ... (5) to as basic types of statements in
science.
Mathematicians are fond of saying that mathematics is the key to it all. “God is a
mathematician,” ... (6) the mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. But while
it is unquestionably true that mathematics works, it ... (7) a mystery just why this
should be so. ... (8) is the curious fact that rules of number developed here on Earth -
in the work of ancient Egyptian rope-stretchers surveying the Nile, and of college
professors today who use computers to ... (9) theorems beyond the reach of human
calculation - should also enable us to generate nuclear power and calculate the mass
of the Magellanic Clouds. As the Hungarian mathematician Eugene Paul Wigner
wrote, “The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the
formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift, which we neither understand
n o r... (10)”

1. a) deceive b) conceive c) perceive d) receive


2. a) definitions b) determination c) identification d) specification
3. a) ascription b) description c) prescription d) subscription
4. a) concept b) conception c) deception d) perception
5 a) conferred b) inferred c) preferred d) referred
6. a) explained b) declared c) proclaimed d) exclaimed
7. a) reminds b) retains c) retains d) remains
8. a) disprove b) approve c) improve d) prove
9. a) unexplained b) inexplicable c) unacceptable d) unperceivable
10. a) serve b) preserve c ) reserve d) deserve

WORD FORMATION: Academic English


5. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary when
necessary.__________________________________________Table 5
verb noun adjective
originator
productive
speculate
govern
preoccupation
approximation
conception
symbol
option
theorize
invention
movement
correspondent
deceive
identification
specification
refer
prefer
respond
6. MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
In which of the following words can you hear these sounds?
[g] [dg] [gju]

1. ambiguity 2.analogy 3. analogous 4. geologist 5. general


6. genius 7. guide 8. huge 9. sign 10. significant

CONFUSABLES: Translator’s False Friends-II


7. Translate the following words into Russian and fill the gaps,
accurate - champion - conservation -
construction — credit — decade —
design - disputes - dramatic -
elements (2) - to form - instrument -
substance (2) - universal -

1. A talented publicist, Galileo helped to popularize the pursuit of science. However,


his quarrelsome nature led him into an unfortunate ... (1) with the Church.
2. It is Bacon writing in the first... (2) of the seventeenth century, who is usually ...
(3) with proposing the principles of empirical science and the role that experiments
should play in hypothesis testing.
3. To discover what ideas could be used ... (4) a certain basis for a priori science,
Descartes introduced the method o f ... (5) doubt; he questioned everything.
4. Lavoisier’s experiment put ... (6) scientific measurement firmly at the heart of
chemistry and it showed th a t... (7) do not change or vanish even in a s ... (8) process
as burning; they swap places.
5. Lavoiser was a meticulous experimenter who was the ... (9) of exact measurement
and the idea o f ... (10) of mass, implying that whatever changes ... (9) undergo in an
experiment, no mass is ever lost.
6. Before and after the war, Hubble played a central role in the ... (II) and ... (12)
of Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories in California.
7. Hubble Telescope ... (13) detect not only visible light, but also ultraviolet and
infrared light.
8. It is not for nothing that we continue to speak of ‘the’ ... (14) when we talk about
the storm at sea in which ‘the ... (15) are let loose’.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Subject-II (GR-11 p.201)


8. Translate the sentences paying attention to the verbs in bold.

Example: Great ideas seldom appeared in the history of science.


Великие идеи редко появлялись в истории науки.
At first revolutionary ideas appear to attract little attention.
Сначала революционные идеи, как кажется, привлекают мало внимания.
1. Like all great equations, E = me2 asserts a surprising equality between things that
superficially appear to be quite different - energy, mass and speed of light in a
vacuum.
2. ‘I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have
been like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then
finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of
truth lay all undiscovered before me‘. I. Newton
3. In mathematics, too, something like this happens - mathematicians compress their
computational experiments into mathematical axiom, and they then show how to
deduce theorems from these axioms.
4. Newton died on 20 March 1723 and was buried with a grand funeral at
Westminster Abbey. Voltaire who happened to be visiting London at that time,
wrote: ’England honors a mathematician as other nations honor a king who has done
well by his subjects.’
5. Once Hubble was in orbit and it became evident that the mirror had been ground
incorrectly, they attempted to justify their prior oversights by claiming that to have
tested the mirror in the first place would have cost millions of dollars.
6. No statement can be proved true but some statements can be proved false.
Science is defined by this falsifiability: it is the fact that they can be proved false, but
have not been, which gives accepted scientific statements their value.
7. Sometimes factors that scientists haven’t even considered turn out to be the main
drivers.
8. Everyone was pleased with the way the apparatus turned out.
9. Some sciences, such as astronomy, tend to concern themselves more with
observation than experiment as such.
10. Crick and Watson were asked to stop their study of the DNA structure. They
pretended to comply.
11. The reliability people have come to expect from natural sciences comes, in large
part from experiments.
12. Einstein came to see Hubble personally in Mt. Wilson Observatory.
UNIT 7 THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

1. Read the text. Identify the topic and the main idea of each paragraph. Which
paragraphs contain description, classification or definitions?

Hypothesis, Laws and Theories in Science

1. Scientific theories are absolutely fundamental to Western science-based culture


and civilization. A theory is deduced as a plausible explanation of facts derived from
observation or experiment. A theory gains credibility through the further
accumulation of evidence or predictions. It gains in credibility if new evidence was
not anticipated by rival theories.
2. A theory is a structure in which each step depends on preceding steps. This
structure can be stated in terms of concepts in relations. The whole structure rests on
observations and theoretical assumptions. The advantage of a scientific theory is that
it can be used for the description, classification and the explanation of the observed
events. It can also be used for prediction of future events.
3. A theory is discredited when there is a statement with, or without evidence
that a theory is inadequate or invalid. For example, the theory that the earth was the
center of the universe was discredited by Galileo using the evidence from
Copernicus, thus Galileo showed from the evidence that the original theory was
invalid.
4. Principles are hypotheses that are accepted as starting points for theoretical
work, for example, the principle of conservation of energy. A principle becomes a
law if what before could not be observed becomes observable by the virtue of some
advance in experimental technique. For example, Avogadro’s hypothesis is now
known as Avogadro’s Principle as it is used now as a starting point for theoretical
work on gases. Many scientific laws and principles are preceded by the names of
people who discovered them.
5. A law is an empirical generalization, either affirmative or conditional that is
accepted as true. An example of an affirmative statement is Hooke’s law: an
extension of a string is proportional to the load. Boyle’s law is an example of a
conditional law: for a given mass of gas if the temperatures remain constant, then the
volume of the gas is inversely proportional to the pressure.

2. Match the words to the definitions.*123

a) assumptions b) concept c) generalization


d) hypothesis e) law_____ f) principle g) theory

1. a set of general principle that a particular subject is based on.


2. explanation of natural or social processes
3. an idea of something that exists
4. scientific theory or basic natural law that explains the way in which something
works.
5. a statement that is true in most situations
6. an idea that attempts to explain something but has not tested or proved to be
correct
7. something a person considers true even if there is no direct evidence or proof.

3. Read the text.


The Danger of a Faulty Hypothesis

People who have not studied the process of scientific discovery often suppose
that the scientific method consists of collecting facts, and then forming a hypothesis
to explain them. If this can explain other facts and support predictions, it is promoted
to the status of a theory, which may be subsequently embodied in the form of a
physical law. This will be accepted as valid until it is disproved, or modified, as a
result of later discoveries.
In fact, when great scientists go looking for facts, or when they conduct
experiments, they are usually looking for evidence to support or disprove a
hypothesis that is already at least half-formed in their heads. If they did not know the
makings of the hypothesis, they would not know where to look, or what to look for.
A good example of the true process of scientific discovery is the way in which
Charles Darwin arrived at his theory of evolution by natural selection. He did not
spend 20 years assembling facts about the natural world, and then look for hypothesis
to explain them. The similarities between birds on various islands o f the Galapagos,
and the similarities between past and present life forms in South America, suggested
to him that they had arisen as a result of a process of evolution. He then spent 20
years collecting a mass of evidence to support his initial hypothesis.
This approach had been the source of some of the most important discoveries in
the history of science. Unfortunately, if a hypothesis is both faulty and widely
supported, it can result in a lot of misguided effort, which may hold rather than
advance, science. This was what happened to chemistry in the eighteenth century,
when phlogiston theory was literally a burning issue. This theory was advocated by
many scientists, yet, the word was coined in 1697 by a German chemist Ernst Stahl.

4. Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences referring to the text.
1. Normally accumulation of facts precedes/ proceeds hypothesizing.
2. The results of the controlled experiments are usually anticipated/ apprehended
by the scientists.
3. The idea of natural selection occurred to Darwin prior to/ as a consequence of the
body of evidence collected by him.
4. Instead of /Owing to advancing science a faulty hypothesis can impede it.
WORD FORMATION: Academic English
5. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary when
necessary.
Table 6
verb noun adjective
deduce
derive
assumption
invalid
hypothesis
extension
indivisible
promising
converge
comprehensive
single
indicate
resemble
survive
sufficient
contradictory
complementary
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
6. In which of the following words can you hear these sounds?
W [f] [s]

1. crucial 2. special 3. social 4. society 5. sociology 6. initiate 7. partial

7. Read the text.


Experimentum crucis vs. Exploratory Experiments

The idea that science advances through a combination of experiment and


mathematically based theory is relatively new. It originated in Florence only 350
years ago, yesterday in comparison with span of human history. The originator was
Galileo, the first modem scientist, who saw that science proceeds by considering a
narrow range of phenomena and that the result will be laws that can be described in
precise mathematical terms. This was among the greatest and most productive
discoveries in the entire history of ideas.
Actually Galileo is said to perform his famous experiment at the Leaning Tower
of Pizza only in his mind - it was a so-called thought experiment. Unlike this
famous experiment, a field experiment is carried out in real circumstances.
Experimental evidence is crucial for establishing a hypothesis as a law. Unlike the
method of observation a controlled experiment restricts the aspects of the
phenomenon under study to a manageable number.
It is common practice in the scientific community to share the findings of the
research in articles and presentations so that the experiments might be reproduced or
replicated by other scientists under the same conditions and by the same techniques
thus proving the validity of the obtained data.
Experiments are designed with previously formulated theories in mind and serve
primarily to test or demonstrate them. The theoretician puts certain definite questions
to the experimenter, and the latter, by his experiments tries to give a decisive answer
о them. It makes sense to perform an isolated experiment, and in particular,
experimentum crucis, designed to judge between the competing hypotheses. Newton
followed such an approach in his experiments on color.
Such was the case of the ether experiment, in which the answer was definitely
“No”: such substance on which existence a lot of scientific theories depended merely
did not exist. Thus, negative results of controlled experiments designed to test a
hypothesis or theory are as important as positive ones. By contrast, the defining
characteristic of exploratory experimentation is the systematic and extensive variation
of experimental conditions to discover which of them influences or are necessary the
phenomenon under study.
Textbook accounts of the history of physics usually highlight discoveries
involving simple systems, that is, those consisting of relatively few interacting
elements. Such systems lend themselves to study by means of isolated experiments
designed to demonstrate directly the underlying physical principle. Most of the
celebrated experiments in physics, from Galileo’s with balls on inclined planes to
Robert Millikan’s with oil drops are of this type. The physicist studying a simple
system deliberately removes the complicating influences.
Physicists studying complex systems that consist of numerous interacting
elements face a task different from that confronting Newton. They often start with a
multitude of empirical findings whose interconnections and underlying principle s are
unclear. They must use the experiments to develop concepts needed to make sense of
multiplicity. The student of complexity must be an explorer, performing numerous
laboratory or numerical experiments under different conditions.
Exploratory experimentation has proved successful not only in optics, but also
in other fileds of physics. In the field of electricity and magnetism the work of a. von
Humboldt can be noted. It was a reaction to L. Galvani’s discovery of animal
electricity in 1890s. W. Roentgen’s investigations of X-rays are also an example of
exploratory experiments. In his methodological essay The experiment as a Mediator
between Object and Subject Goethe described the result of exploratory
experimentation approach as “ a series of experiments that border on one another
closely and touch each other directly “. Such experiments often result in establishing
the hierarchy within the realm of phenomena. By contrast, isolated experiments are
not very informative, let alone, demonstrative, as they well might be theory-oriented
work. However, Newton’s point of view is nicely expressed: “try only the
experimentum crucis, for where one will do, what need for many?”

TALKING POINT
8. Discuss in pairs:
• types of experiments
• most famous experiments in physics

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Newton’s experiments


9. a) Listen to the lecture and give an account of Newton’s experiments with
light using the key words.
colour prism experimentum crucis yes/no question
crossroads angles aberration reflecting telescope reflection/refraction
double-edged sword criticism animosity
seclusion vortexes celestial bodies Principia

b) What do these figures and dates refer to:


13 years 1684 1687 ЬоокЗ 3 main things

CONFUSABLES
10. Translate the following words that are often confused and use them to write
your own sentences.
1. subsequently - consequently -
2. embody - incorporate -
4. disproved — disapprove —
5. m isguided- misleading-
6. famous - notorious -
7. dead-end - deadline -
8. commonplace - commonsense -

11. Read the text and put the opening sentences in the numbered paragraphs.

A. Some theories may arouse doubt if they lack obvious evidence to support them.
B. Spacetime behavior suggests the underlying fine structure not unlike that of
atoms.
C. The theory of relativity embraces everything physical, including the fine structure
of spacetime.
D. It may take physicists long time to get confirmation to their theories.
E. The loop theory employs the procedures similar to theory of electromagnetism.
F. The goal of modem physics is to choose the most comprehensive theory from the
existing ones.
G. A viable spacetime theory must reflect the active aspect of spacetime.
Modern Cosmology Theories. Big Bang or Big Bounce?
1. _______Atoms are now such a commonplace idea that it is hard to remember
how radical they used to seem. When scientists first hypothesized atoms centuries
ago, many questioned whether the concept of atoms could even be called scientific.
Gradually, however, evidence for atoms accumulated and reached the tipping point
with Albert Einstein’s 1905 analysis of Brownian movement, the random jittering of
dust grains in a fluid. Even then, it took another twenty years for physicists to
develop a theory explaining atoms - namely, quantum mechanics - and another 30
years for physicist Erwin Mueller to make the first microscopic images of them.
2 . ___ Physicists’ understanding of the composition of space and time is following
a similar path, but several steps behind. Just as the behavior of materials indicates
that they consist of atoms, the behavior of space and time suggests they, too, have
some fine-scale structure - either a mosaic of spacetime ‘atoms” or some other
filigree work. Similarly to material atoms, the space atoms are the smallest indivisible
units of distance. They are generally thought to be about 10'35 meter in size, far too
tiny to be seen by today’s most powerful instruments, which probe distances as short
as 10 "l8 meter. Consequently, many scientists question whether the concept of atomic
spacetime can even be called scientific. Undeterred, other researchers are coming up
with possible ways to detect such atoms indirectly.
3 . _____ The most promising involve observations of the cosmos. If we imagine
rewinding the expansion o f the universe back in time, the galaxies we see all seem to
converge on a single infinitesimal point: the big bang singularity. At this point our
current theory of gravity - Einstein’s general theory o f relativity - predicts that the
universe had an infinite density and temperature. This moment is sometimes sold as
the beginning of the universe, the birth of matter, space and time. Such an
interpretation, however, goes too far. To explain what really happened at the big
bang, physicists must transcend relativity, we must develop a theory of quantum
gravity, which would capture the fine structure of spacetime to which relativity is
blind.
4. ___ The details of that structure came into play under dense conditions o f the
primordial universe, and traces of it may survive in the present-day arrangements of
matter and radiation. In short, if spacetime atoms exist, it will not take centuries to
find evidence, as it did for material atoms. With some luck, we may know within the
coming decade.
5. __ Physicists have devised several theories of quantum gravity, each applying
quantum principles in a distinct way. The theory of loop quantum gravity (“loop
gravity”, for short) was developed using a two-step procedure. First, theorists
mathematically reformulated general relativity to resemble the classical theory of
electromagnetism: eponymous “loops” of the theory are analogous of electric and
magnetic lines. Second, following innovative procedures, some that are akin to the
mathematics o f knots they applied quantum principles to the loops. The resulting
quantum gravity theory predicts the existence of spacetime atoms.
6. __ Other approaches, such as string theory and so-called causal dynamical
triangulations, do not predict spacetime atoms per se but suggest other ways that
sufficiently short distances might be indivisible. The differences among these theories
have given rise to controversy, but the theories are perhaps not contradictory so much
as complementary.
7. ____ The theory’s power is its ability to capture the fluidity of spacetime.
Einstein’s great insight was that spacetime is no mere stage at which the drama of the
universe unfolds. It is an actor in its own right. It not only determines the motion of
bodies within the universe, but it evolves. A complicated interplay between matter
and spacetime ensues. Space can grow and shrink.

12. Fill the gaps with the words:


a) equation b) hypothesis c) law
d) principle_______ e) theory_______________
Physics timeline
1787 Charles’s ... (1) relating the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas was
established by Jacques Charles.
1811 Avogadro’s ... (2) relating volumes and numbers of molecules of gases was
proposed by Amedeo Avogadro.
1904 The ... (3) of radioactivity was put forward by Ernst Rutherford and Frederick
Soddy.
1926 Wave mechanics was introduced by Erwin Schrodinger. Schrodinger (1887-
1961) is an Austrian-born Irish physicist and philosopher of science who shared with
Paul Dirac the 1933 Nobel prize for physics for his elucidation of the Schrodinger
wave ...(4) which is of fundamental importance in studies of quantum mechanics.
1927 The uncertainty... (5) of quantum physics was established by Werner
Heisenberg.

WORD FORMATION: Suffices of Adjectives (-al, -ant, -ic, -ive, -ous)


13. Form adjectives from the following nouns._____________
1) atom - 2) importance -
3) hypothesis - 4) fame -
5) nucleus - 6) number -
7) radiation 8) statistics -
14. Fill the gaps using the adjectives from the exercise 14.

How Fermi’s Ccontribution was Ccommemorated

Fermi Enrico (1901-1951) an Italian ... (1) physicist who was awarded a Nobel Prize
in 1938. His first ...(2) contribution was his examination of the properties of the
...(3) gas whose particles obeyed Pauli’s exclusion principle. The laws he derived
can be applied to the electrons in a metal, and explain ... (4) properties of metals.
Later he showed that most elements may have
isotopes produced by neutron bombardment.
Fermium
(Fm) is a ... (5) transuranium element
found in the debris from the first hydrogen bomb.
Fermi was also co-discoverer of the ... (6) Fermi-
Dirac statistics. In quantum mechanics it describes
the ... (7) behavior of indistinguishable particles with
a number of ... (8) states, each of which may be
occupied at any one time by a single particle only. Such particles are
Enrico Fermi termed fermions.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Complex Object (GR-9 p.201)


15. Translate the sentences paying attention to Complex Object:
1. The great Thales of Miletus proposed that the prime substance was water;
Anaxagoras believed it to be air while Xenophanes proposed the rather less
glamorous option of mud.
2. Newton showed Kepler’s laws to be a consequence of the theory of universal
gravitation.
3. Abbe George Lamaitre said that the investigations revealed the age of the
earth to be about 4,5 billion years.
4. Only a few substances that we now know to be elements, twelve to be exact,
were known in 1630.
5. Eco-friendly firms are willing to put themselves at the disadvantage by allowing
their competitors to get away with environmental pollution. These firms are as
keen as eco-cops to see stiff anti-pollution laws approved and enforced.
6. Examination with X-rays shows halogens to possess diatomic molecules even
in the solid state.
7. We can hardly expect the public to permit many mistakes in a field that aims
to alter the skein of life upon which our existence depends.
8. They discovered phosphorus fumes to enter the body, causing necrosis to
develop in the lower jawbone.
UNIT 8 MATHEMATICS - THE LANUAGE OF SCIENCE

1. Read the text and compare physics and mathematics specifying similarities
and differences.
Physics and Mathematics
The traditional view is that physics and mathematics are quite different.
However, many scientists, especially working in both fields, find that there is no big
difference between the two fields. It is a matter of degree, of emphasis, not an
absolute difference. After all, mathematics and physics coevolved. For mathematics
to progress you actually need new ideas and plenty of room for creativity.
Mathematicians should not isolate themselves. They should not cut themselves off
from rich sources of new ideas.
Physics describes the universe and depends on experiment and observation.
The particular laws that govern our universe - whether Newton’s laws of motion or
Standard Model of particle physics - must be determined empirically and then
asserted like axioms that cannot be logically proved, merely verified.
Mathematics, in contrast, is somehow independent of the universe. Results and
theorems, such as the properties of the integers and real numbers, do not depend in
any way on the particular nature of reality in which we find ourselves. Mathematical
truths would be true in any universes.
Yet both fields are similar. In physics and indeed in science generally, scientists
compress their experimental observations into scientific laws. They often show how
their observations can be deduced from these laws. In mathematics, too, something
like this happens - mathematicians compress their computational experiments into
mathematical axiom, and they then show how to deduce theorems from these axioms.
An emerging field of science is experimental mathematics. In this area there are
many similarities: the discovery of new mathematical results by looking at many
examples using a computer. Whereas this approach is not persuasive as a short proof,
it can be more convincing that a long and extremely complicated proof, and for some
purposes it is quite sufficient. Extensive computer calculations can be extremely
persuasive, but do they render proof unnecessary? Yes and no. In fact, they provide a
different kind of evidence. In important situations both kinds of evidence are
required, as proofs may be flawed, and computer searchers may have the bad luck to
stop just before encountering a counterexample that disproves the conjectured result.
Mathematics differs from physics that is truly empirical but perhaps is not as
different as most people tend to think. A Hungarian-born scientist Imre Lakatos came
up with an expression quasi-empirical, which means that even though there are no
true experiments that can be carried out in mathematics, something similar does take
place. Some conjectures are arrived at experimentally, by noting empirically what is
true for certain sets of numbers. Some conjectures have not been proved yet, but
verified to a certain degree.
2. Translate the following words and find their synonyms in the text.

1. advance - 2. space - 3. rule —


4. experimentally - 5. confirm — 6. derive-
7. new - 8. convincing - 9. make -
10. faulty - 11. meet - 12. refute -
13. suggest - 14. perform - 15. extent-

3. Read the text. Give the headings to the numbered paragraphs:


a. The idea of algorithmic information undermines Leibniz’ views
b. Origin of reasoning
c. Leibniz and the first computer
d. The emergence of the first feasible computer
e. The theory o f sufficient reason
f. Logical, mathematical and computational irreducibility
Mathematics and Scientific Laws
1 .______ Despite living 250 years before the invention of the computer program,
Leibniz came very close to the modem idea of algorithmic information. He had all
the key elements. He knew that everything can be represented
by binary information, he built one of the first calculating
machines, he represented the power of computation, and he
discussed complexity and randomness.
2 .______ If Leibniz had put it all together, he might have
questioned one of the key pillars of his philosophy, namely,
the principle of sufficient reason - that everything happens for
a reason. Furthermore, if something is true, it must be true for
a reason. That may be hard to believe sometimes in the chaos Gottfried Leibniz
and confusion of everyday life, in the contingent ebb and flow of human history. But
even if we cannot always see the reason (perhaps because the chain of reasoning is
long and subtle), Leibniz asserted, God can see the reason. It is there. In that he
agrees with ancient Greeks, who had originated the idea.
3. ______ Mathematicians certainly believe in reason and in Leibniz’s principle
of sufficient reason, because they always try to prove everything. No matter how
much evidence there is for a theory, such as million of demonstrated examples,
mathematicians demand a proof of a general case. And here is where the concept of
algorithmic information can make its surprising contribution to the philosophical
discussion of the origins of limits of knowledge. It reveals that certain mathematical
facts are true for no reason, the discovery that flies in the face of the principle of
sufficient reason.
4. _______ Indeed, it turns out an infinite number of mathematical facts are
irreducible, which means no theory can explain why they are true. These facts are not
just computationally irreducible, they are logically irreducible. The only way to prove
these facts is to
assume them directly as new axioms, without using any reasoning at all. The concept
of an “axiom” is closely related to the idea of logical irreducibility. Axioms are
mathematical facts that we take as self-evident and do no try to prove them from
simpler principles. All formal mathematical theories start with axioms and then
deduce the consequences of these axioms, which are called theorems. That is how
Euclid did things in Alexandria two millennia ago, and
his treatise on geometry is the classical model for
mathematical exposition.
5. In ancient Greece, if you wanted to
convince your fellow citizens to vote with you on some
issue, you had to reason with them - which probably how
the Greek came up with idea that in mathematics you
have to prove things rather than discover them
experimentally. In contrast, previous cultures in
Mesopotamia and Egypt apparently relied on experiment.
Using reason has certainly been extremely fruitful
approach, leading to modem mathematics and
Alan m . Turing mathematical physics and all that goes with them,
including the technology for building that highly logical and mathematical machine,
the computer. Actually this approach that science and mathematics have been using
for more than two millennia seems to crash now.
6 . ______ In a 1936 issue of the Proceedings of the London Mathematical
Society, Alan M. Turing began the computer age by presenting a mathematical model
of a simple, general-purpose, programmable digital computer. He then asked: ’’Can
we determine whether or not a computer program will ever halt?” This is Turing’s
famous halting problem. Of course, by running a program you can eventually
discover that it halts, if it halts. The problem, and it is an extremely fundamental one,
is to decide when to give up on the program that does not halt. A great many special
cases can be solved, but Turing showed that a general solution is impossible. No
algorithm, no mathematical theory, can ever tell us which programs will halt and
which will not.

WORD FORMATION: Academic English


4. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary when
necessary.__________________________________________ Table 7
verb noun adjective
emphasis
progress
isolate
rich
verify
persuasive
necessary
confusion
reveal
exposition
rely
decide
solution
replace
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
5. In which words is letter h not pronounced?
1. hour 2. honor 3. dishonest 4. homogeneity 5. hemisphere

CONFUSABLES
6. Translate the following words that are often confused and use them to write
your own sentences.
1. close - to close -
2. complexity - complication -
3. namely - literally -
4. furthermore - further on -
5. confusion - embarrassment -
6. mean - means —
7. principle - principal -
8. sequences - consequences -
9. decide - solve -
10. case - occasion —
11. accident - incident -
12. occurrence - happening-

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: For-to-Infinitive Construction (GR-12 p. 202)


7. Use the following verbs to complete the sentences.
a) cooled b) to develop c) to do
d) to exist e) to have f) to hit
g)to progress h) to revert i) to survive

1. If rationality were the criterion for things..., the world would be one gigantic field
of soya beans.
2. Among other consequences, the discovery of radioactivity unlocked puzzle that
had tormented Charles Darwin in the last decades of his life: the age of the Earth,
inferred from the fossil record, vastly exceeded the calculated time required for earth
... from its temperature (that of the Sun) when formed.
3. It’s possible for a cam el... without drinking water for up to two weeks.
4. For mathematics... you actually need new ideas and plenty of room for creativity.
5. By the end of the 19th century many wise people believed that there was nothing
much left for science ....
6. It took twenty years for physicists... a theory explaining atoms - namely, quantum
mechanics, - and another 30 years for physicist Erwin Mueller to make the first
microscopic images of them.
7. Rusting represents the natural tendency for iron ... from the unstable condition
8. A slow molecule is a nearly stationary target for other molecules ....

VOCABULARY STUDY
8. Fill in the gaps with suitable words.
______________________ Complexity and Scientific Laws
a) arbitrarily b)argued c) back d) complicated
e)conversely f) distinguish g) lawless h) measuring
i) notions j) otherwise k) quantitative 1) random
Modem research based on ... (1) information shows that some mathematical facts
cannot be compressed into theoiy because they are too ... (2). The relationship
between complexity and scientific laws goes ... (3) to the 17th century when G.W.
Leibniz in his Discourse on Metaphysics ... (4) that one could ... (5) between facts
that can be described by some laws and those that are ... (6), irregular facts. Leibniz
states that theory has to be simpler than the data it explains, ... (7) it does not
describe anything. The concept of a law becomes vacuous if ... (8) high
mathematical complexity is permitted, because then one can always construct a law
no matter how ... (9) and patternless the data really are. ... (10), if the only law that
describes some data is an extremely complicated one, then the data are actually
lawless. Today the ... (11) of complexity and simplicity are put in precise ... (12)
terms by a modem branch of mathematics called algorithmic information theory.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION How Science Develops


8. Listen to the professor giving a talk about the advance in science,
a) Write a summary of the talk you have heard. Use the key expressions:
Newtonian century Newtonian synthesis opponents to Newtonian ideas
replacement of Aristotelian ideas extend to other fields
chemical and electrical attraction unified theory of everything
attraction and separation god as a geometer order and symmetry

b) In what connection were the following names mentioned in the lecture?


Decartes Plato Galileo Aristotle Bacon
UNIT 9 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Read the text and arrange the paragraphs in the correct order:

Popov and Marconi et al. A Sense of Urgency


1. a) The story of radio begins with James Clerk Maxwell, professor of experimental
physics at Cambridge University. In 1864, Maxwell proved mathematically that an
electrical disturbance was capable of producing a
remote effect by electromagnetic propagation. His
calculations which concluded that these radio waves
move at the same speed as visible light, were put to
test in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist.
However, he said that he did not see any useful
purpose for this mysterious, invisible
Gugiieimo Marconi electromagnetic energy.
b) Popov thoroughly enjoyed his research but he did not approach it with a sense of
urgency. Marconi, in contrast, was determined to develop wireless telegraph into a
profitable technology, lest someone else achieve it first. When an Italian government
shov/ed no interest in his apparatus, Marconi set sail for England, where he was
granted a patent for “a system of telegraphy using Hertzian waves, dating June 2
1896. From that point on, the future of the early radio belonged to Marconi.
c) The birth of radio communication came in 1895, when Alexander Stepanovich
Popov, a Russian, and Gugiieimo Marconi, whose father was an Italian nobleman and
his mother Irish, separately sent and received radio signals
over distance.
d) Two years after, Edouard Branly, a French scientist,
noticed that the electrical resistance of a tube of fine metal
particles decreased dramatically when a spark discharged
nearby, but the particles had to be shaken loose after each
discharge in order to detect the next spark.
e) Both men used similar equipment, including an antenna,
and both had studied the work of Hertz. Popov had read
Lodge’s work in scientific journals, and he further Alexander S. Popov
improved the sensitivity of the coherer.
f) Then, in 1892 Oliver Lodge, an English physicist, noticed that when a spark
discharged near two barely touching metal spheres, the spheres fused together and
current would flow easily through the junction. Lodge called this phenomenon
“coherer” and realized that it could be used to detect electromagnetic waves produced
by a distant spark discharge.
g) Marconi’s experiments became increasingly successful. In 1897, the Wireless
Telegraph and Signal Company was formed with Marconi as its major shareholder.
A year later, the Italian navy adopted Marconi’s wireless, the press used wireless,
Queen Victoria communicated with the Prince of Wales on board the Royal yacht, and
Lord Kelvin sent the first telegram by wireless.
h) Popov felt no personal resentment towards Marconi. In 1902 when Marconi visited
Kronstadt, Popov met him and the two had a cordial discussion. Marconi later received
a silver samovar and a sealskin coat from Popov as a wedding present. Popov’s work
won him a Grand Gold medal at the Paris International Exhibition of 1900. (Marconi’s
gained him a share of the 1909 Nobel Prize for physics.
i) In 1902, Valdemar Poulse, a Dane, invented the first high-frequency generator
without moving parts. By generating continuous waves, it enabled transmitters to be
fine tuned and minimized signal disturbance between stations. Radio came of age.

VOCABULARY STUDY
2. Read the text and choose the correct word.
Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
Research is the use of appropriate methods in attempting to discover new
knowledge or to develop new applications of existing knowledge or to explore
relationships between ideas or events. Scientific discoveries, technical/ technological
(1) achievements and scholarly publications are all fruits of research. Every discipline
develops tools and technology/techniques (2) appropriate to its subject mater, but
whether undertaken by scholar, technician/technologist (3) or a scientist, research
always involves three basic steps: the formulation of the problem, the collection of
relevant information and a concerted attempt to discover a solution or otherwise resolve
the problem in a manner dictated by the available evidence.
In the field of science and technology/techniques (4) fundamental (or properly
scientific) research aims at enlarging man’s understanding of observable phenomena;
the search is for general explanatory principles. Unlike applied or technological research
fundamental research is not explicitly directed to the solution of a practical problem,
although its results may, and usually do, suggest new technical /technological (5)
possibilities. Knowledge of the atomic structure is a goal of fundamental research;
possible applications of this knowledge - nuclear power plants and weapons - demand
technological research and development. In practice, however, the distinction is less
clear-cut: accidental scientific discoveries are often done by research workers pursuing
a practical goal in industry and engineering.

3. Read the text and fill the gaps with the following verbs.____________
a) arranged b) concluded c) christened d) greeted
e) ironed f) noticed g) presented h) published i) related
j) repeated k) retired 1) tried m) wondered n) worked______

Newlands and Mendeleyev


In March 1866, an English sugar refiner and amateur chemist named John
Newlands presented a paper to the Chemical Society with his own idea for bringing
order to the elements. He ... (1) that when elements were arranged in order of
increasing atomic weight, every eighth element w as... (2) - or had properties similar tc
the first element in the group. Elements, he ... (3), were multiples of 8, like notes in ar
octave. He therefore ...(4) his system the ‘Law of Octaves’.
Perhaps it was the manner of his presentation, or the fact that he was
an amateur, but sadly for Newlands, his idea was ... (5) with general
derision and mockery. One chemist sarcastically commented that he
might just as easily have ... (6) the elements alphabetically - implying
that his system was based on coincidence. His system had its faults,
but given time and encouragement he could have ... (7) them out
However, he was so disheartened by his reception that he gave up the
idea and ... (8) from chemistry for good.n 1867, as he ... (9) on his
Principles of Chemistry, Mendeleyev was unaware of the efforts oi
Newlands. He simply was trying to solve the D.i.Mcndeieyev problerr
with the structure of his book. He ... (10) if there might be a relationship between the
atomic weights and the properties of elements. He ... (11) ordering them by atomic
weights in groups of seven, and began to notice a pattern; he saw that the properties ...
(12) themselves periodically, which was how the Periodic Table got its name. In 1869
it was formally ... (13) to the Russian Chemical Society.
In 1870, Julius Lothar Meyer (1830-1895), a German chemist, who independent!}
from Mendeleev drew up the periodic table, ... (14) his version, showing the periodicit}
of chemical properties.

WORD FORMATION: Academic English


4. Read the texts of the unit again and fill the table. Use a dictionary wher
necessary.______ _________________________ _______________ Table 8
verb noun adjective
successful
disturbance
mysterious
resistance

resentment
continuous
coincidence
encouragement
marvelous
persist
retain
sustain
maintain
propel
expel
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
5. In which words is letterp not pronounced?
1. pneumatic 2. psychology 3. phenomenon 4. pump 5. pneumonia

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Modal Verbs (GR-18 p. 205)


6. Choose the correct modal verb.
a) can b) cannot c) could d) had e) may
f) must g) need h) needed i) ought j) was
1. Bacon simply set the scene from his armchair and told scientists how they ... to
proceed.
2. Einstein would ... to provide some physical proof before the world would be
ready to accept General Relativity.
3. Gauss finally decided for mathematics; the study of languages ... to remain his
lifelong hobby.
4. As his mother brought up her three children on her own Pauling ... to work from
the age of 13 to help support his family.
5. Scientists in the field of bioengineering ... sense that solutions to major problems,
from starvation to crippling birth defects, lie almost within their grasp.
6. About one person in every thousand ... have the complaint diabetes caused
by a malfunction in the pancreas gland - the gland producing the enzyme insulin.
7. Mathematics had just entered its modem phase with Descartes’ publication of
Analytical Geometry in 1647, and was still for many years to be of such modest
extent that a gifted man ... reasonably hope to do good work in both the pure and
applied divisions.
8. With mathematical proofs, Newton showed that this force ... be the same
everywhere, and that the pull between two things depends on their mass (the amount
of matter in them) and the square of distance between them.
9. After a series of cimento - many involving rolling balls down slopes - Galileo
realized that force was not... to keep something moving.
10. Fermat’s marvelous work in the theory of numbers and in mathematics generally
... be traced to his schooling.

VOCABULARY STUDY
7. Fill the table.________ ______ Modality Words
Adjective Negative Noun Negative Verb Negative
adjective noun verb
manage fail
able unable ability disable
capable(of) capability incapability
possible impossible possibility
certain uncertain
probable improbable
8. Study the table and choose the right word.

1. Zwicky was able /capable of startling insights.


2. He used the possibility /opportunity to work in the USA.
3. He was incapable/unable to provide scientific basis for his insights.
4. There is opportunity/probability that Zwicky was right about cosmic rays.
5. Zwicky was able/capable to realize the possibiiity/probability of dark matter.
6. Unfortunately, some of Zwicky’s ideas failed/managed to attract attention for
several decades.
7. Zwicky’s inability/unability to get on with his colleagues had negative effect on
his career.
8. It seems improbable/impossible that Oppenheimer did not discuss science with
Zwicky though they worked in the same building.
9. Somehow Oppenheimer failed/managed to mention it.
10. A very short report was able/possible to convey Zwicky’s main ideas.

WORD FORMATION: suffixes -able/-ible (smth that can be done)


prefix un/in ...+ suffixes able/ible (smth that cannot be done)

9. Form the adjectives using the pattern


Example: Something that can be predicted is predictable.
1. Something that can be observed is ...
2. Something that can be recovered is ... .
3. Something that can be understood is ... .
4. Something that cannot be divided is ...
5. Something that can be compared is ... .

VOCABULARY STUDY
10. Fill the gaps using the derived adjectives from Ex. 7.

1. Even the historian Joseph Needham, who admired Chinese achievements in


technology, confessed himself puzzled by their failure to make ... progress in
science.
2. Material atoms are the smallest... units of chemical compounds;
3. A principle becomes a law if what before could not be observed becomes... by the
virtue of some advance in experimental technique.
4. Scientists calculate mathematically what is ... in the same way as with the most
common things.
5. Scientists do not worry whether what they find is ‘logical’ and ... ‘or ‘possible’.
6. For decades Hawking had debated with other scientists over the ‘information
paradox’mwas the question of whether or not data might be ... from the black holes.
11. Match the symbols with the Russian and English names of elements and
symbols.
Elements

1) As 2) C 3) H 4) Hg S) Fe 6) К 7) Mn 8) N 9) Na 10) Pb 11) Sb 12) Sn

а) азот б) водород в) железо г) калий д) марганец е) мышьяк


ё)натрий ж)олово з)ртуть и)свинец к)сурьма л)углерод

a) antimony b) arsenic с) carbon d) hydrogen f) iron g) lead


h) manganese i) mercury j) nitrogen k) potassium 1) sodium m) tin

12. Fill the gaps with the names of appropriate elements. The first is done for
you.
1 ...C (carbon)., is non-metal. It is unique among elements because a whole branch
o f chemistry (organic chemistry) is devoted to it.
2. Metallic ... is the main constituent of the earth crust, but it is rarely found in its
core. It is found in meteorites. Its deficiency in the human body causes anemia
3. .. .compounds are used in the manufacture of medicines, paints, explosives and
fireproofing materials
4 . . .. is used in roofing, water pipes, radiation shields and alloys including solder. It
is added to to gasoline as antiknock agent.
5 . . .. oxide or white arsenic is used as a poison.
6. ... It is also known as quick silver. The metal is used to form amalgams, for
electrodes, in barometers, thermometers.
7. The compound of... with oxygen referred to as laughing gas is used as a weak
anesthetic, sometimes producing mild hysteria and as an aerosol propellant.
8 . . .. has one natural radioactive isotope with half-life of 1.28 bln. years and can be
used to date ancient rocks. The salts of this element are essential to plant life (hence
their use as fertilizers) and important for animals for the transmission of impulses
through the nervous system.
9. ...is the sixth most common element and occurs naturally in common salt and
many other important minerals such as cryolite.
10. ...is used as a protective coating for steel, and in alloys including solder, bronze,
pewter, Babbitt metal.
11. The oxide of...is used as a bleach, disinfectant and powerful oxidizing agent.
12. The atoms o f ... make up 90% of the universe, on earth it occurs combined with
oxygen as water or with carbon as hydrocarbons (e.g. petroleum).
UNIT 10 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS, CONSTANTS

1. Read the text and give headings to the numbered paragraphs.

Forces
1 . __ Some words in physics have a meaning that is more closely defined than the
word’s meaning in everyday use. There is a multitude of words in the English
language that represent force. Some examples of these words are: push, pull, hit,
knock, shove, effort, load, pressure, strength, power, and vigour. In science it is
essential to be careful in the use of words, so that when a word is used its meaning is
clear. For instance, in the above list, some of the terms are scientifically inaccurate.
Power means the wok done per time, it does not mean force. Pressure means force
per unit area; this is different from force. Other words in the list are simply
descriptions of particular situations where force occurs; tension, load and effort come
into this category.
2. When dealing with types of force, however, we find, surprisingly, that outside
the nucleus of atoms there are only two possible types of force, which are
electromagnetic and gravitational. Electromagnetic forces exist between moving or
stationary charges. Since all atoms have charged particles within them, it is
electromagnetic forces that bind atoms together in solids and liquids. On some
occasions the electrical nature of a force is important, while sometimes the magnetic
nature is important. In these cases there is not usually any problem pinpointing where
the force exists.
3. ___ In the vast majority of mechanics problems, however, it is the
electromagnetic forces between atoms that are of prime importance. Whenever
the atoms of one object are close to the atoms of another object, there will be a
contact force between them. All forces of contact are electromagnetic forces. In the
list given above push, pull, hit, knock, shove, effort are all examples of
electromagnetic forces. Tension is also a contact force, but is used in a rather special
way involving internal electromagnetic between atoms in a string as well as the
contact force between the string and the object to which it is attached.
4. ____ Gravitational forces exist between any two masses and can usually be
neglected unless one of those masses is very large. The gravitational force that a car
exerts on a caravan is negligible; the electromagnetic force of contact that the car
exerts on the caravan is the force that pulls the caravan along. In practice, the only
gravitational force that usually concerns us is the gravitational attraction of the Earth.
One of the results of the work of Newton is the introduction of the concept of gravity.
Gravity is a very mysterious force. How one mass exerts force on another when there
is no contact between them and nothing in the space between them is the mystery. As
gravity is such a familiar force, its strangeness is often overlooked.
VOCABULARY STUDY
2. Match physical quantities with their definitions.

a) energy b) equilibrium c) momentum


d) power e) work
1. the product of mass and linear velocity of a body. It is thus a vector quantity.
2. a state in which mechanical, thermodynamic or other systems will remain if
undisturbed.
3. alternative name for energy, used particularly in discussing mechanical processes.
4. to the economist, a synonym for fuel; to the physicist, one of the fundamental
modes of existence, equivalent and interconvertible with matter.
5. the rate at which work is performed, or energy dissipated. Frequently in
engineering (and particularly in transportation) contexts, what matters is the power
that a given machine can deliver or utilize - the rate at which it can handle energy -
and not the absolute energies involved.

3. Fill the gaps with the following words.

The Importance of Measurements in Physics

a)acquire b)apparent c)considering d)improved


e)magnitude f)meaningless g)measurable h)necessitate
i)numerical j)percentage k)reading l)reliable
m)resulted ^sophisticated______ o)taking_________
Accurate measurement is central to the development of any science. The importance
of measurement was ... (1) to ancient civilizations. Throughout history the accuracy
with which measurements could be made has been ... (2) by the use of more and
more sophisticated instruments. At almost every stage, improved measuring
techniques have ... (3) in new concepts and ideas.
The science of physics, like all other sciences, is based on ... (4) measurements. All
scientific laws and theorems must be tested experimentally, and all experiments ...
(5) making measurements. One of the reasons for the development of physics as a
science is that the measurements that are made in physics are usually more ... (6)
than the measurements made in other sciences.
Physical quantity is the term that is used to include ... (7) features of many different
items. The area of a playing field, the mass of a bag of sugar and the speed of an
aeroplane are all physical quantities.
In quoting any measurement of a physical quantity, two items need to be stated. The
first is the ... (8) value of the quantity, sometimes called the ...(9), and the second is
its unit. It is important at all times to think of and to write the value and the unit of
any quantity together. Apart from technical accuracy of writing in this way, it will
also help you to ... (10) mental appreciation of the size of the quantity you are ...
( 11).
For instance, if the diameter o f the wire is found to be 1,46 meters, then something is
wrong. A value stated as simply 1,46 is ... (12). Realizing if the particular value is
possible or not is something that comes with experience, but it is only by thinking
about the sizes of physical quantities that this experience is gained.
Whenever a measurement of a physical quantity is made, some measuring instrument
has to be used. The instrument may be as ordinary as a ruler or as ... (13) as a
modem mass spectrometer. In using the instrument an experimenter has to make use
of his or her own skills to obtain as accurate ... (14) as possible. Built-in to the
instrument however is a limit of accuracy. The result of this is that the experimenter
takes has a degree of uncertainty. The size of uncertainty needs to be considered
together with the size of the quantity being measured. Uncertainties can be described
as absolute, fractional and ... (15) uncertainties.

4. WORD FORMATION: Academic English


Fill the table. Use a dictionary when necessary.
Dimensions and Parameters Table 96

verb noun adjective


magnitude
measure
length

wide
deepen
high
strength
weight
prolong
large
MIND YOUR PRONUNCIATION
5. In which words is the letter b not pronounced?
1. doubt 2. debt 3. bomb 4. bombing 5. undoubtedly

6. Read the text. Match names and symbols of units with their definitions.
As the nineteenth century drew to a close, scientists could reflect with
satisfaction that they had pinned down most of the mysteries of the physical world:
electricity, magnetism, gases, optics, acoustics, kinetics, and statistical mechanics, to
name just a few, all had fallen into order before them. They had discovered the X-
ray, the cathode ray, the electron, and radioactivity, invented the ohm, the watt, the
Kelvin, the joule, the amp, and the little erg.
If a thing could be oscillated, accelerated, perturbed, distilled, combined,
weighed, or made gaseous scientists had done it, and in the process produced a body
of universal laws so weighty and majestic that we still tend to write them out in
capitals: the Electromagnetic Field Theory of Light, Richter’s Law of Reciprocal
Proportions, Charles’s Law of Gases, the Law of Combining Volumes, the Zeroth
Law, the Valence Concept, the Laws of Mass Actions, and others beyond counting.
The whole world clanged and chuffed with the machinery and instruments that their
ingenuity had produced. Many wise people believed that there was nothing much left
for science to do.
Units named after scientists
1. Ampere (A) a) a unit o f force
2. Becquerel (Bq) b) a unit of pressure, stress
3. Coulobm (C) c) a unit of frequency
4. Farad (F) d ) unit of energy, work, quantity of heat
5. Joul (J) e) a unit of electric capacitance
6. Flerzt (Hz) f) a unit of electric charge, quantity of electricity
7. Kelvin (K) g) unit of power
8. Newton (N) h) a unit of electrical current
9. Pascal (Pa) i) a unit of activity of a radionuclide
10. Watt (W) j) unit of thermodynamic temperature

7. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false:

Constants
1. The constants depend on the accurate measurements.
2. Physicists have been fascinated by the nature of constants.
3. There have been considerable insights of the nature of constants lately.
4. Modem scientists come up with plausible explanation of constants.

Some things never change. Physicists call them constants of nature. Such
quantities as the velocity of light c, Newton’s constant of gravitation, G, and the mass
of the electron, nt (e) are assumed to be the same at all places and times at the
universe. They form the scaffolding around which the theories of physics are erected,
and they define the fabric of our universe. Physics has progressed by making ever
more accurate measurements of their values.
And yet, remarkably, no one has ever successfully predicted or explained any of the
constants. Physicists have no idea why they take into account the special numerical
values that they do. The only thread running through the values is that if many of
them were even slightly different, complex atomic structures such as living beings
would not be possible. The desire to explain the constants has been one of the driving
forces behind the effort to develop a complete unified description of nature, or
“theory of everything”. Physicists have hoped that such a theory would show that
each of the constants of nature could have only one logically possible value. It would
reveal an underlying order to the seeming arbitrariness of nature.
In recent years the status of constants has grown more muddled, not less. Researchers
have found that the best candidates for a theory of everything, the variant of string
theory called m-theory, is self-consistent only if the universe has more than four
dimensions of space and time - as many as seven more. One implication is that the
constants we observe may not, in fact, be the truly fundamental ones. Those live in
the full higher-dimensional space, and we see only their three-dimensional
“shadows”.
Meanwhile physicists have also come to appreciate that the values of many of the
constants may be the result of mere happenstance, acquired during random events and
elementary particle process early in the history of the universe.
No further explanation would be possible for many of our numerical constants other
than they constitute a rare combination that permits consciousness to evolve. Our
observable universe could be one of many isolated oases surrounded by an infinity of
lifeless space - a surreal place where different forces of nature hold sway and
particles such as electrons or structures such as carbon atoms could be impossibilities.
If you tried to venture into that outside world, you would cease to be.
Thus, string theory gives with one hand and takes with the left. It was devised in part
to explain the seemingly arbitrary values of the physical constants, and the basic
equations of theory contain few arbitrary parameters. Yet so far string theory offers
no explanation for the observed values of the constants.

VOCABULARY STUDY
8. Form the word from the given one in each line:

Physical Constants

Constant is a mathematical quantity that is not__(1). vary


Constants occur in almost all polynomials in the form of_ (2) efficient
or addends. Constant addends are (3) by с, С, к or K. symbol
Some constants occur (4). One such constant is nature
P i , which is o f _ (5) importance in mensuration consider
(a branch of geometry dealing with measurement o f__(6), long
area and volume), another is e ( (7) or Euler’s number, exponent
the base of natural algorithms). Physical quantities whose__ (8) scale
magnitude is constant, such as c, the velocity of light (the__(9) electromagnet
constant) or G, the universal__(10) constant, gravity
are termed physical constants.
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Modals + Infinitives (GR-13 p.203)
9. Rewrite the following sentences using the given words.

1. The first DNA model made by Watson and Crick was widely off the mark. A
better knowledge of chemistry might have saved them from the humiliating mistake.
perhaps.... would have...

2. But if Bacon genuinely thought this, it must have been because he never bothered
to read Aristotle at first hand.
........... certainly.......

3. Maxwell realized that the theory had profound philosophical implications, and he
may not have risked publishing it had there not already been good precedent.
............... perhaps....... didn’t...

4. If Boyle was right, then elements could only be mixed together, not changed - and
the idea of the four elements might have to be abandoned.
..............would ....probably..........

5. As a boy, Louis Pasteur had more talent for art than science, and it was said that he
could have been a great painter.
..... probably ... would have....

6. Rutherford, however, provided experimental evidence that Nagaoka might have


been right after all.
.... quite possible ... was....
7. The story of the falling apple may have had some foundation in truth, or at least
stemmed from Newton himself, and his admirer, Voltaire, had it from Newton’s
niece.
....likely... have...

8. Singularly little is known about Fermat’s student years, though he must have
been a brilliant student as his accomplishments in his maturity suggest.
..... no doubt... was ....

CONFUSABLES10

alike, like, likely, unlike,


unlikely, likewise, look like

10. Translate the following sentences.

1. Helicopters, tanks, cars, aero planes, bicycles, parachutes - all appear on


Leonardo’ pages, 500 years before they became a reality. It seems unlikely that
anyone else even knew about them except the few who acquired his notebooks.
2. Ten years before his death Leonardo designed a glider that had a genuine control
system not unlike modern hang gliders.
3. Leonardo also designed a helicopter to climb vertically into the air carrying men on
a platform beneath it. Unlike modem helicopters, it did not have rotor blades, but a
spiral screw.
4. Galileo had the insight to use the telescope to look at the night sky and make
impressive discoveries there including the mountains on the Moon’s surface; the
moons of Jupiter; the fact that Venus has phases like the Moon.
5. In a coal-fired gas turbine, heat produced by burning fuel is transferred from the
burner to the gas. The steam engine, often referred to as the workhorse o f the
industrial revolution, likewise used the expansion of a hot gas: water vapor.
6. One attempt to buff up scientists image and make them look like actors (the most
important people in society) was a calendar featuring bulging biceps of beefcake Ph.
Ds.
7. Darwin’s publication of his famous book On the Origin o f Species, in which he
outlined his ideas of evolution supported by a wealth of evidence aroused great
debates among scientists, clergy and laymen alike.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION The force of I. Newton


11. You will hear a part of the lecture devoted to I. Newton’s life, interests and
contributions in science. Write a summary using the following headings.

I. Recognized and recognizable 2. Less known interest


3. Revolutionary Newtonian Synthesis 4. Before and after Newton
5. Early Life Seeds 6. Amazing Coincidence
7. Unhappy experiences 8. Family Decision
9. Cambridge 10. Calculus controversy
II . Research in Optics 12. Other Theories
UNIT 11 THE EARTH
1. Read the text:
4500 million years ago, the Earth was a ball of molten rock which has slowly
cooled. During this period, heavier metals sunk to the centre of the Earth forming a
core of dense, partly solid, partly molten iron, nickel and sulphur at about 4000°C .
The core is surrounded by a thick layer of moderately dense solid and molten rock in
the mantle at temperatures between 1500 and 4000°C.
Less dense material collected on the surface of the Earth forming a thin, solid
crust about 50 km thick. Where the crust is thickest, its surface is above sea level.
The rocks in the crust are mainly carbonates and silicates. Outside and above the
Earth is the atmosphere - a layer of gases about 100 km deep. At about 6 km above
sea level, the air becomes too thin for us to survive. The oceans are about 6 km deep,
so almost all life on Earth exists in a relatively thin band about 12 km thick.
While the Earth was still forming, the atmosphere was mainly hydrogen and
helium. These gases had such small molecules that they escaped from the Earth's
.gravitational attraction into outer space. Once volcanic activity started, other gases
were added as rocks decomposed and elements reacted. These gases included water
vapour, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and nitrogen. As the
temperature dropped still further, water vapour condensed to form rivers, lakes and
oceans.
When plants appeared, 3500 million years ago, they formed oxygen from water
and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. At the same time, plants used up the oxygen
during respiration reforming water and carbon dioxide. Flammable gases such as
hydrogen, methane and hydrogen sulphide burnt in this oxygen forming water,
carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. In time, animals evolved and used the oxygen for
respiration. This further helped to keep a balance between the production and
removal of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The composition of the
atmosphere has remained more or less constant for the last 500 million years. The
main constituents in dry air are nitrogen (about 4/5ths), oxygen (about l/5th) and
argon (about 1%) with traces of other noble gases and carbon dioxide.
The carbon cycle also helps to maintain the composition of the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide and water vapour are removed from the atmosphere by
photosynthesis, but returned to the atmosphere when animals and plants respire and
during the combustion of carbon compounds.
During the last century, an increase in the burning of fossil fuels has led to a small
but steady increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This increase
in the amount and concentration of carbon dioxide has been recognised as a possible
cause of global warming, although the evidence is far from conclusive. The
composition of the oceans, like that of the atmosphere, is also more or less constant.
In this case there is a balance between the input of dissolved salts in river water from
the weathering of rocks and the removal of dissolved salts by processes such as: the
formation of shells by marine organisms, crystallization of salt from sea water in hot
countries, the deposition of sea-floor sediments.
WORD fORMATION
2. Form nouns from these words and translate them:
to form, to melt, to exist, to attract, to decompose, to condense, to evolve, to respire,
to breathe, to compose, to concentrate, to crystallize, to expose, to absorb, to react, to
contain, to maintain.

3. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- расплавленная порода;
- слишком тонкий слой для выживания;
- водяные пары конденсируются, образуя реки, озера и океаны;
- круговорот углерода помогает под держивать состав атмосферы;
- постоянное увеличение количества углекислого газа в атмосфере;
- выветривание скальных пород;
- появляется напряжение, которое приводит к трещине в скале;
- лед плавится и проникает глубже в скалу;
- полевой пшат медленно реагирует с водой и образует глину.

4. Translate the following words and phrases:


constitute, constituting, constituents;
approximate, approximately, an approximation;
melt, melting, melting of the ice; molten metal;
vapour, evaporate, evaporating, latent heat of evaporation;
condense, condensing, condensation of a gas, condenser;
earth, earthquakes, earthlings;
long, length, longitude, long waves, longitudinal waves, transverse waves.

5. Find the words from a - r which have opposite meaning to 1-17:

1. long, 2. high, 3. wide, 4. shallow, 5. to melt, 6. to evaporate, 7. to heat,


8. to destroy, 9. to accelerate, 10. to attract, 11. to start, 12. to multiply,
13. to add, 14. to understand, 15. to allow, 16. visible, 17. rapid.

a) slow, b) to forbid, c) invisible (non-visible), d) to misunderstand,


e) to build, f) to finish, g) to divide, h) to repel, i) to condense, j) to subtract,
k) deep, 1) narrow, m) short, n) low, o) to cool, p) to decelerate, r) to crystallize.

TALKING POINT
6. Discuss in pairs:
• the atmosphere of the Earth while it was still forming;
• the reason gases escaped into outer space;
• the formation of rivers, lakes and oceans;
• the importance of plants’ appearance on the Earth;
• the way the evolution of animals influenced the atmosphere;
• the cause of a steady increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere during the last century;
• the reason for the water composition of the oceans being constant.

VOCABULARY STUDY
7. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Give a suitable title.

a) composed b) solid c) consists d) land e) inside


1) concentric g) compounds h) gaseous i) rigid j) molten
k) outermost 1) approximately m) inner n) mantle
The Earth is a ... (1) sphere. It is made up of three ...(2) spheres or layers. They are
known to be the core, the mantle and the crust. The solid sphere is surrounded by a
...(3) one, which is known as atmosphere. The scientists know most about the crust
of the Earth which is the ...(4) sphere. This layer is very thin compared with the core
and the mantle. It is only about 10 km thick under the ocean and about 30 km thick
on ...(5). These are usually in ...(6) called oxides, containing oxygen, or sulphides,
containing sulphur.
The ... (7) is much thicker than the crust. It is about 300 km thick. I t ... (8) mainly of
rocks, but we do not know much about their composition. The core, which is situated
... (9) the mantle, seems to be divided into two parts. The ... (10) core is about 2800
km in diameter. We believe that it is mainly ...(11) of iron, but it also contains about
10% of nickel. The layer surrounding the inner core is called the outer core and is
...(12) 2000 km thick. It is probably composed o f ... (13) iron and nickel. However,
the metals in the inner core seem to be ... (14), and therefore solid, in spite of the
high temperatures at the centre of the Earth.8*

8. Read the text again and say whether these statements are true or false.
a) The core is spherical in shape.
b) We know more about the composition of the crust than the composition of the
mantle.
c) The crust consists of minerals.
d) Iron oxide contains sulphur.
e) The inner core is situated at the centre of the Earth.
f) The outer and the inner cores consist of iron.
g) We know that the inner core is solid while the outer core is liquid.
h) At the center of the Earth, temperature and pressure are both very high.
9. Read the text and give a summary.
The Earth's interior
The Earth's interior is as inaccessible as the most distant galaxies in space. The
deepest wells go down only a few kilometers, barely penetrating the surface of our
planet. However, geologists have deduced the basic properties of the Earth's interior
by studying earthquakes.
Over the centuries, stresses build up in the Earth's crust. Occasionally, these
stresses are relieved with a sudden vibratory motion called an earthquake. The exact
origin of an earthquake, called its focus, is usually deep within the Earth's crust.
The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus is called the earthquake's
epicenter.
Earthquakes produce three different kinds of seismic waves that travel around
or through the Earth in different ways and at different speeds. Geologists use
sensitive seismographs to detect and record these vibratory motions. The rolling
motion that people feel near an epicenter is caused by L waves, which travel only
over the Earth's surface and are analogous to water-waves on the surface of the
ocean. The two remaining kinds of waves, called primary or P waves and
secondary or S waves, travel through the Earth. P waves are said to be longitudinal
waves because their oscillations are parallel to the direction o f wave motion, like a
spring that is alternately pushed and pulled. In contrast, S waves are said to be
transverse waves because their vibrations are perpendicular to the direction in which
the waves are moving. S waves arc analogous to waves produced by a person
shaking a rope up and down (P waves travel almost twice as fast as S waves).
Consequently, P waves from an earthquake always arrive at a seismographic station
before S waves do. By measuring the time delay between the arrivals of these two
kinds of waves, geologists can deduce the distance to the earthquake's epicenter.
Seismic waves do not travel along straight lines through the Earth. Because of the
varying density and composition of the Earth's interior, both S waves and P waves
are bent, or refracted. By studying how these waves are bent, geologists can map
out the general structure of the Earth's interior.
When an earthquake occurs in the Earth's crust, seismographs within a few
thousand kilometers of the epicenter are able to record both S waves and P waves.
However, on the “Opposite” side of the Earth, only P waves can be recorded at
seismographic stations. This absence of S waves was first explained in 1906 by the
geologist R. D. Oldham, who noted that transverse vibrations such as S waves
cannot travel far through liquids. Scientists therefore concluded that our planet has
a molten core.10

10. Translate into English:


1.Эпицентр землетрясения может быть обнаружен с помощью сейсмографов.
2.Сейсмографы могут также зафиксировать сотрясение Земли в результате
взрыва. З.Таким образом, невозможно взорвать ядерную бомбу или даже
запустить ракету, чтобы это оказалось незамеченным на сейсмических
станциях по всему миру. 4.Сейсмографы широко используются в геологии. 5.
Благодаря им геологи больше не должны сверлить глубокие шахты, чтобы
обнаружить залежи минералов. 6. Если мы взорвем динамит в пустой шахте,
то передвижной геологический сейсмограф, расположенный неподалеку,
сможет записать как изменилась волна при ее прохождении от места взрыва и
определить, какие слои расположены на какой глубине. 7. Таким же образом
геологи зондируют Землю в местах, где нужно построить плотину или
большой промышленный завод.

11. It is interesting !
According to National Science Foundation News Paul Butler of the Carnegie
Institution in Washington spoke about Gliese 876 - a small, red star with about one-
third the mass of the sun that it was the smallest extrasolar planet yet detected and
the first of a new class of rocky terrestrial planets. He said that it was like Earth's
bigger cousin.
Geoffrey Marcy, professor of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley,
adds: "Over 2,000 years ago, the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Epicurus argued
about whether there were other Earth-like planets. Now, for the first time, we have
evidence for a rocky planet around a normal star."
Though the researchers have no direct proof that the new planet is rocky, its mass
means it is not a giant gas planet like Jupiter, they said. They estimated the planet's
mass as 5.9 to 7.5 times that of Earth. It is orbiting a star called Gliese 876, 15 light
years from Earth, with an orbit time of just 1.94 Earth days. They estimated the
surface temperature on the new planet to be between 400 degrees and 750 degrees
Fahrenheit. Gliese 876 is a small, red star with about one-third the mass of the sun.
The researchers said this is the smallest star around which planets have been
discovered. In addition to the newly found planet the star has two large gas planets
around it.
Butler says the researchers think that the most probable composition of the planet
is similar to inner planets of this solar system - a nickel/iron rock. Gregory Laughlin
of the Lick Observatory at the University of California, Santa Cruz, says a planet of
this mass could have enough gravity to hold onto an atmosphere. "It would still be
considered a rocky planet, probably with an iron core and a silicon mantle. It could
even have a dense steamy water layer." Three other extrasolar planets believed to be
of rocky composition have been reported, but they orbit a pulsar - the flashing corpse
of an exploded star - rather than a normal type of star.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Functions of Gerund (GR-17, 20, p. 206)


12. Identify the function of-ing form (Gerund or Participle)
1. The natural philosophers of the Enlightenment frequently sought to safeguard their
claims to a discovery, while minimizing the risk of public error, by depositing their
dated observations in an archive or by concealing them in a cipher.
2. By connecting thermodynamics with the properties of atoms in motion, statistical
mechanics describes the behavior of matter from bottom up.
3. Meitner, a skilled mathematician with a canny grasp of nuclear physics, found the
answer. Talking with her nephew that night, she realized that Hahn was splitting
uranium nuclei, thus producing barium and releasing energy.
5. All the day he sat in his laboratory, vainly hoping that the sight of all the familiar
apparatus would jolt his memory, and trying without success to understand the
scribbled note of the night before.
6. In 1939 Einstein alerted President Roosevelt to the danger of Germany’s
development of an atomic bomb (A-bomb), thus contributing to setting up of the
Manhattan project.
7. Twentieth century astronomy had been dominated by professionals. Using giant
telescopes that cost millions they studied distant galaxies, while amateurs were
relegated for the most part, to charting the brightness of variable stars and making
drawings of the Moon, Mars, and Saturn rings.

13. Rewrite the following sentences using Gerund.


Example: They arrived at definite conclusions because the made a lot of controlled
experiments.
They arrived at definite conclusions by making a lot o f controlled experiments.

1. Since Galileo’s time, physicists have flourished mainly because kept things simple
and broke down the complexities of the everyday world into their simplest
component parts.
2. Both scientists and theologians began to ask just how all these species had come
about, and why each seemed so perfectly suited to the environment in which it lived -
fish can swim in the sea, birds can fly in the sky, and so on.
3. One of Gauss’s disciples used to put the book under his pillow before he went to
bed in the hope - frequently fulfilled - that he would wake up in the night to find that
a re-reading made things clear.

VOCABULARY STUDY
14. Choose the correct form (noun or participle). Check up the meaning of the
words in the Grammar Reference (GR-17 p. 204).

Example: Human being/beings can be considered the only species endowed with the
gift of reason.
Human beings (человеческие существа/люди) can be considered the only species
endowed with the gift o f reason.
1. It’s worth examining the shortcoming/shortcomings of Drexler's original vision
because this may give clues as to how we might make radical nanotechnology
feasible.
2. The working/workings of the world inspire curiosity of scientists.
3. The teaching/teachings of Aristotle and his commentators were the basis of
medieval science.
4. Fermat’s earning/earnings as a civil servant enabled him to pursue mathematics in
his spare time.
5. Glass making/makings at his mother’s glass factory fascinated young Dmitri
Mendeleyev as his first encounter with practical chemistry.
6. Hooke’s superb drawing/drawings appeared in his book Micrographia in 1665.
7. Firmer footing/footings to Copernicus’s ideas appeared only in Galileo’ s time.
8. In a 1936 the Proceeding/Proceedings of the London mathematical society
published a ground-breaking article by Alan M. Turing.
9. Hubble’s dramatic finding/findings attracted the attention of the famous physicist
Albert Einstein.
10. So-called a priori reasoning/reasonings in science prevailed in medieval
science.
11. Mendeleyev’s being/beings the first in his class brought him a gold medal when
he qualified as a teacher in 1855.
12. Working/workings closely with radioactive materials without realizing the
dangers involved was typical of Curies’ practices.
13. Gathering/gatherings of scientists in the form of workshops and symposia
provide them an opportunity to exchange ideas. 1
14. Leonardo’s belonging/belongings, including 13,000 priceless pages of his notes,
were shipped to Italy after his death

UNIT 12 ASTROPHYSICS

1. Read the text:


Quest to Uncover the Secrets of Venus
“A voyage to Venus involves acid clouds, searing heat and intense pressure.
The reward”, writes Peter Bond,” may be the survival of our own planet”.
The Magelan spacecraft were to arrive at Venus on Friday after a 15-month cruise
from Earth. For the next 243 Earth days a single day for the slowly rotating Venus -
Magellan had to drop close to the surface, then soar away to transmit a stream of data
back to Earth.
Despite visits from more than 20 spacecraft, including a dozen landings over the
preceding 30 years, Venus had successfully withheld her innermost secrets from
curious Earthlings. A formidable battery of defenses is arrayed against the best that
modem technology could produce.
First is the thick blanket of pale yellow cloud, which envelops the entire planet.
Before the advent of the Space Age, astronomers believed they were seeing clouds of
water droplets comparable to those on Earth. However, spacecraft analysis soon made
it clear that they were composed of a mixture of sulphur particles and concentrated
sulphuric acid.
Then beneath the layers of cloud is an atmosphere almost entirely of carbon
dioxide. Surface pressure is 90 times that on Earth, equivalent to the pressure felt at a
depth of 1 km in the ocean. This extremely dense atmosphere retains much of the
heat from the Sun, creating a scorching environment with day and night temperatures
of around 480C, hot enough for lead to run like liquid. Small wonder that the Soviet
craft, which were the first to land on the barren rocky plains, were able to send back
data for only a few hours before they succumbed to the hostile conditions. Scientists
hoped that the highly sensitive radar on board Magellan would enable them to see
Venus for the first time in as much detail as had been achieved for the other rocky
planets.
Why was this mission so important? Venus and Earth were bom in the same part
of the solar system, and have almost the same size, density and internal composition.
Many scientists believe that we can learn a lot about Earth from studying what went
wrong with its planetary neighbour. Scientists generally agree that our world is
threatened by catastrophic global warming due to the increase in gases such as carbon
dioxide and methane. Venus is a natural laboratory in which to examine theories
related to the so-called greenhouse effect.
Analysts disagree about the original composition of Earth and Venus. Some
suggest that Venus started off much drier than our planet because it formed in a
region of the solar nebula which was closer to the sun. Water vapour was unable to
condense and be incorporated into the planet. Others believe that there was sufficient
mixing within the cloud to distribute water fairly evenly between Venus, Earth and
Mars.
Whichever version is the closest to the truth, there is no doubt that both planets
underwent intense bombardment from comets and asteroids in their evolution. Craters
on the Moon, Mercury and Mars bear witness to this saturation shelling. These
incoming visitors brought with them vast amounts of water, which was added to the
original planetary inventory. Yet today Venus is bone dry while Earth is covered with
vast oceans. How could it happen?

2. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- удерживать свои секреты от любопытных землян;
- чрезвычайно плотная атмосфера;
- удерживать тепло;
- преодолеть неблагоприятные условия;
- высокочувствительный радар;
- планеты подвергались интенсивным бомбардировкам;
- распределить воду весьма равномерно;
- быть свидетелем;
- извержение вулкана;
- концентрированная серная кислота;
- до тех пор, пока цикл не выйдет из-под контроля;
- выдвигать теорию.
3. Complete sentences 1-4 with one of the phrases a-g:
1) Scientists still find Venus difficult to explore ...
2) Scientists particularly wanted to know more about Venus ...
3) Scientists disagree about the early history of Venus ...
4) Scientists made errors about Venus until spacecraft got there ...
because
a) it actually looks rather like Earth.
b) it has such a hostile environment.
c) they cannot be sure how wet it was originally.
d) it may have had a dense moist atmosphere.
e) because there is no water to remove the carbon dioxide.
f) because it may have experienced .something like global warming.
g) because they had been unable to land a craft there till Magellan spacecraft

WORD FORMATION
4. Translate the following words and phrases into Russian:
to saturate, saturated, saturation;
to scorch, scorching, scorching environment;
a threat, threaten, to be threatened; the world is threatened
to control, to get out of control; a cycle gets out of control;
a witness, to witness, to bear witness;
sense, highly sensitive device, the sensitivity of a device;
inevitable, inevitably, inevitably cause;
data, a stream of data, to transmit a stream of data back to Earth;
even, even number, evenly, to distribute evenly.

TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs:
• difficulties scientists encountered with while trying to explore Venus.
• the reason of the fact that we had known little about Venus before Magellan;
• the atmosphere on Venus;
• if we should study Venus;
• whether analysts agree about the original composition of Earth and Venus.

VOCABULARY STUDY
6. Complete the sentences using the words from the box:
a) radiation b) carbon dioxide c) concentration d)eruptions
e) atmosphere f) theory g)environments h) theories

There are two competing ... (1) about the origin of Venus. The traditional view
of scientists is that Venus was bom relatively dry and with a massive ... (2). The
planet was already so hot that no oceans were able to form, and a dense water vapour
- carbon dioxide atmosphere was created.
A different ... (3) has been put forward by other scientists. They believe that
Venus was formed with plenty of water. So Venus and Earth may have enjoyed
similar... (4) for several hundred million years.
Unfortunately for Venus, as its water molecules were broken down by solar
... (5) and lost into space, the oceans evaporated and disappeared. Without water
there was no mechanism to remove the sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide which
were continually being added to the atmosphere by volcanic ... (6). For most of its
life, Venus has been the barren inferno we see today.
Earth escaped this runaway greenhouse effect because it was cool enough to
retain its oceans and because living organisms evolved which were able to remove
the ... (7). But modem human activity may be creating the nightmare which nature
avoided. Greater ... (8) of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases
emitted by burning fossil fuels will inevitably cause a rise in global temperature.
This, in turn, will lead to more evaporation from the oceans. Since water vapour itself
is a very efficient greenhouse gas, the temperature will rise still further until the cycle
gets out of control.
According to this scenario, Earth will rapidly become another Venus, a world
totally alien to all forms of life. An unlikely chain of events?

7. Give a summary to the text in English:


Beaaieг 2 июня 2003 на космодроме Байконур
состоялся
.. Панель _ ц
запуск АМС «Mars Express»
С Б (сложена)
ради атора ЕврО П вИ С К О ГО КОСМИЧвСКОГО
агентства« Mars Express» - первая
СБ планетная миссия ЕКА, и вся Европа
|(сло«и)следИла за ее полетом, затаив дыхание.
Заметим, что «Mars Express» - была
первой ласточкой. Вслед за ней на Марс
прибыли американские марсоходы
«Spirit» и «Opportunity». Два
американских спутника - «Mars Global
оборудован^urveyQr» и «odyssey« - уже находились
Оотронаправленная
антенэ HGA Нижняяпанель на околомарсианских орбитах.
Конструкция межпланетной Исследования Марса занимают особое
станции Mars Express место в изучении Солнечной системы по
следующим причинам. С точки зрения практического интереса к изучению
Земли, исследования планет земной группы наиболее приоритетны. Марс
наряду с Венерой во многом похож на Землю. Известно, что за время своей
эволюции Марс и его атмосфера претерпели кардинальные изменения.
Изучение этих изменений и причин, их вызвавших, имеет огромное значение
для понимания прошлой и будущей эволюции Земли, а также исследования
влияния антропогенной нагрузки на Землю и ее атмосферу.
На Марсе, возможно, имеются признаки биосферы, современной или
реликтовой. Их обнаружение было бы очень важным для решения проблемы
происхождения жизни. - Марс, несомненно, будет первой планетой, на
которую отправятся космонавты. Но прежде чем посылать туда людей,
необходимо тщательно изучить планету при помощи автоматов. Научная
программа проекта «Mars Express» является очередным шагом в длительных
исследованиях поверхности, атмосферы и климата Марса, проводимых с целью
понять эволюцию планеты.

WORD FORMATION: Verbs and Nouns of Reporting


8. Form nouns from the following verbs and use them in E x.ll

refuse - refusal demand - offer - promise -


agree - threaten - claim - warn -
encourage — prohibit - invite — admit -
permit - d en y - complain - discourage -

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Gerund or Infinitive (GR-19, 206)


9. Choose Gerund or Infinitive to complete the sentences.

1. They did not agree to repeat/repeating the experiment.


2. The head of the laboratory did not allow the staff to have/having lunch time when
they like.
3. The technician didn’t admit to use/using the wrong spare parts.
4. They did not promise to deliver the equipment free of charge.
5. The administration of the research institute does not encourage employees to
take/taking their vacations in August.

10. Rewrite the sentences using the verbs of opposite meaning.

Example: They did not agree to repeat the experiment.


They refused to repeat/repeating the experiment.

WRITING
10. Write a letter of complaint about the faulty equipment delivered at your
laboratory . Use verbs and nouns from ex. 7.
CONFUSABLES
11. Translate the sentences paying attention to the meaning of the words in the
box.
used used to do
used to doing get used to
1. In June 1997 Andrew Wiles received the prestigious Wolfkehl prize. The reward -
established in 1908 by a German industrialist for cracking the baffling Fermat’s last
theorem - used to be worth $ 2 million. By the summer of 1997 it reduced to mere $
50.000 resulting from the hyperinflation.
2. Mendeleyev’s intuition had been right, however, and atomic number was used
successfully to assign a place in an expanded table for the noble gases - helium,
neon, krypton, radon, and xenon - which were discovered in the 1890s.
3. Fermat’s contemporary mathematicians got used to being challenged with
theorems which he claimed to have solved.

UNIT 13 THERMAL PHYSICS

1. Read the text and decide whether the following sentences are true or false:
a) . Liquids are poorer conductors of heat than gases.
b) . Vacuum is the best insulator
c) . How well a substance conducts heat doesn’t depend on its structure and its
molecular bonds.
Heat Conduction
We know that heat is accomplished by three methods: conduction, convection and
radiation. If heat energy is transferred through space by means of electromagnetic
waves, the process is known as radiation. When heat exchange is caused by the bulk
motion of gas or liquid, we say that it happens due to convection. Though there is the
third way - conduction.
If a silver and a wooden spoon are dipped simultaneously into a glass with hot
water, in two minutes you will not be able to touch the handle of a silver spoon as it
will be hot, but that will not be the case with the handle of the wooden one. Why?
The reason is that the kinetic energy of the molecules at the hot end of the silver
spoon is readily transferred from one molecule to the next. That is, the kinetic energy
of molecules is transferred from one molecule to another through collisions.
However, this is not the case with wood. The transfer of heat from one molecule to
the next is known as conduction. When heat is transferred in this way, it is said to be
conducted. Materials in which this occurs readily are said to be good conductors of
heat.
All metals are good conductors of heat. In metals, in addition to molecular
collisions, there are a large number of “free” electrons (not permanently bound) that
can move and that can take part in the transfer of heat. These electrons contribute
significantly to heat transfer in metals.
Liquids and gases are in general relatively poor thermal conductors. Liquids are
better conductors of heat than gases because their molecules are closer together and
collide more often. Gases are poor conductors because their molecules are relatively
far apart and collisions do not occur as often. Substances that are poor thermal
conductors are known as thermal insulators, they prevent heat from escaping because
their molecules do not transfer heat readily from one to the next. Still air is one of the
poorest conductors: consequently it is one of the best insulators.. It has been noticed,
that any material which encloses plenty of air (is porous) is a good insulator, for
example: cork, wood, fibre-glass, asbestos, plastic foam (Styrofoam).
How are these properties of materials used in our everyday life? We make
cooking pots and pans from metals, because they conduct heat readily to the foods
inside, while the handles are made from the wood or plastic, thus preventing our
hands from burning. Pot holders are also made of cloth, a poor thermal conductor, for
the same reason. Fibre-glass insulation is used in the walls and attics of our houses.
Another example is a double window in our house: there is a layer of still air between
two glasses, as still air is a good insulator, subsequently, the double window prevents
the heat from escaping.
It is evident that the process of conduction as well as convection requires some
medium, while radiation can take place in both, gas and vacuum.

2. In the text find equivalents to the following phrases:


- тепло передается таким образом
- говорят, что оно передается за счет теплопроводности
- электроны вносят значительный вклад в теплопроводность металлов
- относительно плохие проводники тепла
- вещество, которое содержит много воздуха
- окна с двойными рамами хорошо удерживают тепло
- стекловата используется для утепления стен и чердаков наших домов
- неподвижный воздух является хорошим изолятором тепла

VOCABULARY STUDY
3. Translate the following words and word combinations:
conduct, conduction, conductive, heat conductivity, electrical conductivity;
penetrate, penetrative, penetration;
relate, relation, relative, relatively, relativity, theory of relativity;
insulate, insulator, insulating, insulation;
prevent, preventive, prevention, to prevent heat from escaping;
radiate, radiating, radiation, radiator;
heat, heating, central heating system;
5. Match synonyms to the underlined words:

a) artificial b) admit c) enormous d) feature


e) evident f) permanent g) simultaneously
1. In winter our houses need a continuing supply of heat.
2. It is clear that the results of this experiment are positive.
3. Man-made lakes are formed behind the dams.
4. You have to start two motions at the same time.
5. The characteristic property of the wood is its poor conductivity of heat.
6. Dams are very huge structures.
7. We have to notice that this law is valid under these conditions.

6. Read the following text and write a summary.


At age 17, Nickey Naumovich became the president of his own company Parsec
inc. Parsec makes a product called Thermo-Brite. Thermo-Brite was invented by
Nickey to cut down on heat loss by houses. Builders say Thermo-Brite could save a
homeowner thousands of dollars in energy bills over many years.
Many houses lose heat through cracks or gaps in walls. For example, air could flow
through a gap between the boards in wood siding. In winter, warm air moves through
the gaps. Because heat is escaping, more energy is needed to heat the house. One way
to prevent this heat loss is to seal the cracks. Sheets of Thermo-Brite are used to seal
the cracks. One side has a shiny aluminium surface. The other side is covered with a
sticky substance. Sheets of Thermo-Brite are stuck onto the frame before the brick or
wood walls are put on.
When Thermo-Brite is placed between the outer wall and the frame, it cuts down
the amount of air that leaks through cracks. In winter the aluminium helps to prevent
the heat from escaping. During summer, heat from the sun penetrating the walls is
reflected to keep the house cool.
Nickey developed Thermo-Brite because of his interest in conservation. With the
help of his own computer, Nickey tackled the problem of energy conservation in
homes. He began by studying typical houses. He recorded the type and thickness of
the walls for each house. He determined the amount of dead-air space between the
inside and outside walls. The size and numbers of windows and the size and location
of the houses were also recorded. All this information was fed into his computer.
Nickey found that about forty percent of all energy used to heat or cool a house is
lost through air leaks. Something was needed to seal up a house and stop the leaks.
That was how Nickey came up with Thermo-Brite. How does he feel about his
success? “I’ve been lucky,” he says. “I’ve had the right tools to put together the
information I needed. These tools, such as the small computer, just were not available
to an earlier generation”
7. Choose the word which best completes each sentence.
1. Many houses lose heat through cracks or gaps ... walls,
a) in b) inside c) between
2. For example, air could ... through a gap between the boards in wood siding,
a) enter b) escape c) flow
3. In winter ... air moves through the gaps,
a) cold b) cool c) warm
4. Because heat is . . . , more energy is needed to heat the house,
a) escaping b) leaving c) entering
5. One way to ... this heat loss is to seal the cracks. Sheets of Thermo-Brite are used
to seal the cracks.
a) increase b) reduce c) prevent
6. One side has a ... aluminium surface,
a) shiny b) dull c) bright
7. The other side is covered with a ... substance,
a) smooth b) rough c) sticky
8. Sheets of Thermo-Brite are ... onto the frame before the brick or wood walls are
put on.
a) stuck b) stick c) placed
9. During summer, heat from the sun ... the walls is reflected to keep the house cool,
a) penetrating b) entering c) leaving

8. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Statistical approach proved to be fruitful in many fields outside physics.


2. Maxwell parted with Newtonian approach to science.
3. Maxwell relied on rigorous mathematical proofs rather than on intuition.
4. In his article Boltzman analyzed a special case of water molecules.
5. Boltzman further developed Maxwellian theory to provide it credibility.

Statistics and Probability in Physics


Maxwell’s contribution to the kinetic energy of gases made physics statistical,
saying that what matters when we are dealing with huge numbers of virtually
identical moving objects is not the detailed behavior of individuals but the average
motions, as well as the deviation from those averages. If we are asking about, say,
the behavior of lump of matter, we are typically dealing with billions and billions of
molecules, and the statistical behavior is utterly reproducible from one experiment to
another. In other words, for two jars of identical gas at the same temperature the
Maxwellian distributions of velocities is absolutely identical.
Along with the introduction of statistics comes the notion of probability. The
most probable speed is the average speed. Maxwell evinced a certain uneasiness
about his kinetic theory, acknowledging that it broke with the mechanistic tradition of
using Newtonian laws of motion to deduce the exact trajectories of a system’s
components, as one does for example to explain planetary motions. This was, in
other words, a new way of doing science.
Maxwell realized that the theory had profound philosophical implications, and
he may not have risked publishing it had there not already been good precedent.
Maxwell’s “probability distribution” of the speeds of gas particles was a seminal
contribution to the kinetic theory, but the truth was that he deduced it using a strong
dose of informed guesswork rather than exact mathematics. The job was done
rigorously by a troubled Austrian Physicist, Ludwig Boltzman.
When someone, who scans the scientific regularly for news stories, comes across
an article with a title that begins “Further researches on...”, he passes over with
alacrity. It tends to be science-speak for “The odds and ends we did not think worth
pursuing in our last paper”. So it is humbling to be reminded that a good editor in
1872, would have missed one of the most explosive papers of the century. In “Further
researches on thermal equilibrium of gas molecules”, Boltzman not only made
Maxwell’s case watertight but also proved that there truly exist irreversible
processes, as the Second Law of Thermodynamics stipulates - and showed why.
Maxwell proved that gas particles, once they achieve a Maxwellian distribution of
speeds, will stay that way. But he did not show how they get to that state in the first
place. This was what Boltzman did, by developing a way to calculate how probability
distributions change over time. He demonstrated that, for particles moving at random,
“whatever the initial distribution of kinetic energy may have been, it must always be
necessary approach the Maxwellian form after a very long time has elapsed”.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE : Participle WI (-ing/ed)


Participle WI as an Attribute
9. Choose the correct form of the participle (Participle WI as an Attribute)
1. Julius Wagner-Jauregg was a psychiatrist who introduced one of the most
alarming/alarmed medical therapies, basing/based on physiological theorizing.
2. W. Bateson who coined the word genetics and several other terms is one of the
most intriguing1/ intrigued figures in the recent history of biology
3. G.Eiffel’s amazing/amazed engineering achievement, the Tower overshadowed
appreciation of his other pioneering work in structural design, aeronautics,
telecommunication and meteorology.
4. The daughter of the great short-lived Lord Byron, Ada Lovelace,
fascinating/fascinated with mathematics and is credited with writing the first
computing programs, the fact reflected in the first programming language being
named Ada after her.10

10. Translate the sentences and identify the functions of the words in bold
(Participle II or Past Indefinite).
1. What distinguished Rutherford from his colleagues - and the reason why he is
remembered today as one of the greatest experimental physicists of all time - was his
special qualities as a scientist.
2. Sir Neville Mott (1905-1998) was a distinguished theoretical physicist and
Cavendish professor in Cambridge, best remembered for his contributions to solid-
state physics.
3. In 1636, Hobbes traveled to Florence to meet the great man and became
convinced that the law of inertia was the axiom he had been seeking.
4. It was while studying for his Ph.D. at Indiana University that Watson became
interested in genetics.
5. Kekule was a noted teacher, but is now mainly remembered for his celebrated
dreams, in which came to him the two inspirations that changed the face of
chemistry.
6. Scornful of tradition, Babbage infuriated and bewildered his elders.
7. Noise annoyed Babbage and he campaigned against organ grinders; irritated
neighbors responded by paying street musicians to play outside his window.

11. Match the response from column В to the statements from column A.
Example: l . I a m puzzled by this problem, c) Ask Peter. He is likely to help you
A В
1.1 am puzzled by this problem a) Amazingly, I don’t feel sleepy.
2. Pr. Brown’s lectures are difficult. b) But it is embarrassing to call at 1a.m..
3. It is difficult to combine work and study, c) Ask Peter. He is likely to help you.
4. Arm is likely to have notes on maths. d) Yes, his explanations are confusing.
5. You must be exhausted after staying up all night, f) Thrilled? I am scared!
6 .1 couldn’t help laughing at his jokes. e) I am surprised that I manage to cope.
7 .1 am thrilled about the exam. g) Shocking, you mean.
8. The test results are rather disappointing, h) Yes, his jokes are always amusing.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Participle I/П as Adjectives


12. Complete the sentences using the words from the box:

a) complicated b) emerging c) presiding


d) sobering e) sophisticated f) tantalizing
g) towering h) upsetting i) unyielding

Example An (b) emerging field of science is experimental mathematics: the


discovery of new mathematical results by looking at many examples using a
computer.
1. Hobbes pictured a person as ... mechanism acted upon by external forces.
2. To Hobbes there was nothing mysterious or ... about such an idea of man is an
automaton.
3. The striving of scientists to reach beyond the current limits of human learning is
constant a n d . ...
4. Scheele discovered oxygen in 1772, but for various heart-breakingly ... reasons
could not get his paper published in a timely manner.
5. James Clerk Maxwell was a ... genius of nineteenth-century physics.
6. Alexander Eiffel was a ... engineering genius.
7. The physical form of a material can affect its toxicity. One... example is asbestos,
with two chemically identical forms - serpentine and chrysotile asbestos.
8. Marie Curie was determined to isolate this element, which proved an incredibly
difficult task. The problem was so ... that her husband joined her in her quest.

13. Distribute the participial adjectives according to the feelings, reactions and
attitudes they express.
alarming amazing amusing annoying appalling astonishing
baffling bewildering boring bothering challenging confusing
daunting disappointing dazzling disgusting disturbing
embarrassing exciting exhausting fascinating frightening frustrating
humiliating impressing intriguing infuriating irritating mortifying
overwhelming puzzling scaring startling stunning
tantalizing terrifying thrilling tiring unnerving
1. bitter feeling of humiliation or despair
2. feelings of anxiety
3. feeling of fear
4. admiration mixed with surprise
5. describing something difficult but interesting
6. describing the sensation of excitement
7. describing something inexplicable
8. describing something that causes irritation
9. describing something that causes disgust
10. other meanings

WORD FORMATION ( suffixes of abstract nouns)


14. Fill the table
Verb Participle I Participle I Noun
amazing
annoyed
astonishing
bored
confusing
disappointed
disturbing
embarrassed
frustrating
humiliating
UNIT 14 SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

1. Read the text:


From the History of Supercondustivity
Superconductors, materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity, are
one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery. Not only have the limits of
superconductivity not yet been reached, but the theories that explain superconductor
behavior seem to be constantly under review. In 1911 superconductivity was first
observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of Leiden
University. When he cooled it to the temperature of liquid helium, 4 degrees Kelvin
(-269°C), its resistance suddenly disappeared. The Kelvin scale represents an
“absolute” scale of temperature. Thus, it was necessary for Onnes to come within 4
degrees of the coldest temperature that is theoretically attainable to witness the
phenomenon of superconductivity. Later, in 1913, he won a Nobel Prize in physics
for his research in this area.
The next great milestone in understanding how matter behaves at extreme cold
temperatures occurred in 1933. German researchers Walter Meissner and Robert
Ochsenfeld discovered that a superconducting material will repell a magnetic field. A
magnet moving by a conductor induces currents in the conductor. This is the
principle upon which the electric generator operates. But in a superconductor the
induced currents exactly mirror the field that would have otherwise penetrated the
superconducting material - causing the magnet to be repulsed. This phenomenon is
known as strong diamagnetism and is today often referred to as the “Meissner effect”.
The Meissner effect is so strong that a magnet can actually be levitated over a
superconducting material.
In subsequent decades other superconducting metals and compounds were
discovered. But the first widely-accepted theoretical understanding of
superconductivity was advanced in 1957 by American physicists John Bardeen, Leon
Cooper, and John Schrieffer. Their Theory of Superconductivity became known as
BCS theory, derived from the first letters of each man’s last name - and won them a
Nobel Prize in 1972.
Another significant theoretical advancement came in 1962 when Brian D. Josephson,
a graduate student at Cambridge University, predicted that electrical current would
flow between 2 superconducting materials - even when they are separated by a non­
superconductor or insulator. His prediction was later confirmed and won him a share
of the 1973 Nobel Prize in physics. This tunneling phenomenon is today known as
the “Josephson effect” and has been applied to electric devices such as
SQUIDfsuperconducting quantum interference device), an instrument capable of
detecting the weakest magnetic field.
A truly breakthrough discovery was made in the field of superconductivity
in 1986. Alex Miller and Georg Bednorz, researchers at the IBM Research Laboratory
in Ruschlicon (Switzerland), created a brittle ceramic compound that superconducted
at the highest temperature then known: 30K. What made this discovery so remarkable
was that ceramics are normally insulators. The Lanthanum, Barium, Copper and
Oxygen compound that the scientists synthesized, behaved in a not-yet-understood
way. The discovery of this first of the superconducting copper-oxides (cuprates) won
the 2 men a Noble Prize the following year. It was later found that tiny amounts of
this material were actually superconducting at 58 K, due to a small amount of lead
having been added as a calibration standard - making the discovery even more
noteworthy.
Muller and Bednorz’s discovery triggered a flurry of activity in the field of
superconductivity. Researchers around the world began “cooking” up ceramics of
every imaginable combination in a quest for higher and higher Tc’s.
Note: SQUID - сверхпроводящий квантовый интерференционный датчик,
СКВИД

2. In the text find equivalents to the following phrases:


- передний край научных открытий;
- постоянно пересматривать;
- теоретически достижимый;
- следующая значительная веха;
- отталкивать магнитное поле;
- значительное теоретическое продвижение;
- его предсказание было позднее подтверждено;
- хрупкое керамическое соединение;
- вести себя непонятным образом;
- из-за небольшого количества добавленного свинца;
- положить начало бурной деятельности

3. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-1! with the words a-k and
translate:

1. induced 2. breakthrough 3, weakest 4. subsequent 5. superconducting


6. widely-accepted 7. electric 8. ceramic 9. strong 10. tiny 11. theoretical

a) amount b) decades c) current d) materials e) generator


f) understanding g) diamagnetism h) magnetic field i) compound
j) discovery k) advancement4*

4. Write sentences using the words:


1. explain/ The theories / superconductor/ that / seem to be constantly/ behavior /
under review.
2. decades /other superconducting metals/ In subsequent /and compounds/ were
discovered.
3. moving by a conductor /А magnet /currents /induces / in the conductor.
4. strong diamagnetism/ This/ is known /phenomenon /as
TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs:
• materials known as superconductors
• the limits of superconductivity
• the first observation of superconductivity
• Kamerlingh Onnes’ discovery
• theoretical understanding of superconductivity
• the importance of Muller and Bednorz’s discovery

VOCABULARY STUDY
6. Complete the sentences with words from the box.

a) current b) prevent c) basic d) visible e) theory f) detector


______g) junction h) probability i) insulator j) radiation

The heart of a superconducting tunnel... (1) consists of a thin layer of insulating


material sandwiched between two superconductors. Such a sandwich of a
superconductor, ...(2) and superconductor is known as a superconducting tunnel
junction.
Now, according to the law of classic physics, the insulator should ...(3) an electric
current from flowing through the junction. Quantum mechanics provides a loophole.
According to this important ...(4), an electron is represented as a probability wave:
its position is therefore indeterminate. As a result there is a small ...(5) that an
electron in one superconductor can appear in the other superconductor, as if had
tunneled through the insulator.
In the operation of a superconducting tunnel detector radio waves are directed
onto a superconducting tunnel ...(6) Electrons in the superconductors absorb the
energy of the radiation. Higher-energy electrons have a far greater probability of
tunneling through the insulator. The amount of electric ...(7) passing through the
insulator therefore increases with the amount ant type of radio waves striking the
junction. By measuring the current one can infer the nature of the electromagnetic
...(8) exciting the device. In spite of the rather exotic properties of the
superconducting tunnel detector, its ...(9) principle of operation - electrical
conduction induced by incident radiation - is the same as that underlying the
conventional detectors used in observatories for measuring ...(10) radiation.7*

7. Write the following sentences in English:


В 1911 г. К. Оннес обнаружил, что при Т=4,2 К ртуть полностью теряет
сопротивление электрическому току. Уменьшение сопротивления происходит
очень резко в интервале нескольких сотых градуса. В дальнейшем потеря
сопротивления наблюдалась и у других чистых веществ и у многих сплавов.
Само явление получило название сверхпроводимости. Температуры перехода
(transition) в сверхпроводящее состояние различны. Но всегда очень низки.
Изучая фазовые переходы, великий советский физик-теоретик Л.Д. Ландау
вместе с В. Л. Гинзбургом создал феноменологическую теорию
сверхпроводимости. Эта теория дала возможность объяснить ряд существенных
свойств сверхпроводников и впоследствии стала основой для создания теории
сверхпроводников II рода и теории сверхпроводящих сплавов.

VOCABULARY STUDY
8. Fill the gaps with adverbs formed from participles

a) appealingly b) dazzlingly c) heart - breakingly d) increasingly (2)


e) seemingly f) stunningly_____ g) overwhelmingly_____________________

1. Scheele discovered oxygen in 1772, but for various ... (1) complicated reasons
could not get his paper published in a timely manner.
2. Two things were notable about the ... (2) simple Avogadro’s principle: first, it
provided a basis for more accurate measuring the size and weight of atoms. And
second, almost no one knew about it for almost fifty years.
3. As he aged Mendeleev became ... (3) eccentric - he refused to acknowledge the
existence of radiation or the electron or anything else much that was new - and
difficult.
4. In 1936, the economist Keynes bought a trunk of Newton’s papers at auction and
discovered that they were ... (4) preoccupied not with optics or planetary motions,
but with a single-minded quest to turn base metals into precious ones.
5. In 1875-8, Hibbs produced a series of papers which ... (5) elucidated the
thermodynamic principles of, well, nearly everything.
6. Roemer’s observations gave the speed of light as 28 000 kilometers per second.
This is a ... (6) close to the modem value given that it was the first measurement.
7. While Hooke continued to contribute to ... (7) endless stream of ideas to almost
every field of science, he began to become ... (8) bitter and isolated as other
scientists started to take the credit for theories he had either suggested or proved with
practical demonstrations, or experiments.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Functions of the ing-form: gerund/attribute


participle/adverbial modifier (GR-15, 16 p.204)9

9. Transform the clauses in bold into participial structures with function of


adverbial modifiers into clauses
Example: One day, while he was thinking over the problem in the bath,
Archimedes suddenly noticed how the water rose as he sank deeper into the bath.
One day, while thinking over the problem in the bath, Archimedes suddenly noticed
how the water rose as he sank deeper into the bath.
1. The story goes that Archimedes leaped straight out of his bath and ran to the king;
he shouted at the top of his voice: “Eureka! Eureka!”
2. After he realized that he had to get the names of the plants in place, Linnaeus
gave a binomial label to every known animal species.
3. Pauli and Heisenberg claimed to have solved all the unsolved problems in
elementary particle theory, after they had reduced everything to a single equation.
4. Scientists enjoy their 15 minutes of fame as much as everybody else. But next
week the prize-winners will be back in their laboratories and offices and will do what
they do best - push out the frontiers of human understanding.
5. In spring 1898 Marie and Pierre discovered polonium, an extraordinary element
that glowed in the dark when it was mixed with water. She named after her native
county Poland.

10. Explain functions of the ing-form.


Write sentences using the words in bold in different functions
Example: a. The striving o f scientists to reach beyond the current limits o f human
learning is constant and unyielding, a persistent tapping at the obscuring shield that
lies at the edge o f the unknown.
b. Scientists striving to reach beyond the current limits o f human learning
c. Striving to reach beyond the current limits o f human learning.

1. a. The high standing of a French physicist Rene Prosper Blondot encouraged


physicists to take seriously his claim of discovery of new electromagnetic rays.
2. a. The task of copying even life's simplest mechanisms is formidably hard.
Proteins, for example, function so well as enzymes because the particular sequence of
amino acids has been selected by evolution from a myriad of possibilities.
3. So when designing synthetic molecules, we need to take note of how evolution
achieved this.
UNIT 15 LASERS AND MASERS

1. Read the test:


A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very
intense beam. The letters LASER stand for Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation. The light emitted by a laser is much more intense than
ordinary light. With ordinary light, all the light waves are of different lengths. With
lasers, all the light waves have the same length, i.e. it is monochromatic, and this
increases the intensity or it can be said that it is amplified. Another its peculiarity is a
small divergence of its light beam.
Atoms are made up of electrons and nuclei. The electrons circle round the
protons and neutrons. In a laser, the electrons are "excited" to a high energy level.
As the electrons fall back from their "excited" state to their normal state, they
give off energy. This energy is given off as light which can be seen. A number of
materials have this property including some gases, liquids, solids and
semiconductors. Thus a number of different types of lasers have been developed.
There are lasers which use luminicent crystals, for example, the crystal of
synthetic ruby, a mixture of various gases and finally semiconductors. Scientists of
the Lebedev Institute of Physics have first succeeded to develop a laser on the basis
of a gallium arsenide semiconductor in 1962.
Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. The
thin beam of light gives a lot of heat and it is used to join metal when a very small
joint is needed. The beam can also be used as a drill, to make holes in steel, or
even in diamonds. Because the beam is so small, it's very important in delicate
surgery and is used in eye operations.
Lasers are also used in holography. A hologram is a three-dimensional image, a
bit like a photograph. It's different from a photograph because it looks solid. As
you walk round a hologram, it changes, as if it were real. Now holography is used
for testing engineering ideas. An engineer can use a hologram to build up and
check a new building such as a bridge. He can find out all about it before he builds
it.
The word MASER is also an acronym for Microwave Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The maser is operated on the same principle as
the laser except that the wavelengths generated are much longer and therefore the
energy jumps involved are smaller. The excited bodies in a maser are molecules
rather than atomic electrons and the beam generated is a coherent beam of
microwaves, which is not visible to the eye.
Masers have made revolutionary advance possible in a number o f different
fields. They are up to 1.000 times more sensitive than any other type of
amplifiers. Maser amplifiers mounted on radio telescopes can increase their range
by a factor of 10, allowing us to reach out to the bounds of the known universe.
Because of the very constant frequency with which masers can be made to oscillate
they can be used as master controls for atomic clocks of unbelievable accuracy; an
error not exceeding 1 second in 10.000 years has already been achieved.
The idea of using stimulated emission o f radiation for amplification of very
short waves belongs to A. Prokhorov and N. Basov of the Lebedev Institute in
Moscow.

2. In the text find equivalents to the following phrases:


- очень сильный пучок;
- с малым расхождением пучка;
- мазер работает на тех же принципах,
- атомы состоят из электронов и ядер;
- энергия излучается в виде видимого света;
- погрешность, не превышающая 1 секунду в ...;
- трехмерное изображение;
- когерентный пучок микроволн;
- в 1,000 раз более чувствительные;
- увеличить в 10 раз;
- выйти за границы изученной вселенной

TALKING POINT
3. Discuss in pairs:
• the peculiar properties of a laser beam;
• the scope of laser application;
• fields of science and technology where the use of masers is highly promising.

VOCABULARY STUDY
4. Translate the following word combinations (compound nouns) into Russian;
current oscillation, wave length, signal feed,
quantum amplifiers, semiconductor laser, ruby crystal,
pulsed laser, power efficiency, power generation,
long distance communication, semiconductor quantum generators,
light wave energy, miniature radio stations, optic quantum generators,
high frequency radiation, superspeed computers, luminescent ciystal lasers,
transmission band frequency, small divergence beam,
radio frequency quantum generator, decimeter wave radio receiver.

5. Read the text and put the verbs in the appropriate form:

About sixty years ago, neither laser installations nor the very word laser ... 1 (to
be) in existence. Today the field of laser applications ... 2 (to expand) very rapidly.
Lasers ...3 (to use) in electronics, medicine, engineering, communications, the
automobile and aircraft industry, agricultural machine building, and other fields of
the economy and science. Let us point out only a few uses of the laser such as micro
welding, resistor trimming, etc., something that can ...4 (to perform) perfectly well
today.
Laser radiation ...5 (to have) the property of selective excitation o f atoms
and molecules, enabling laser isolation of isotopes. The first successful experiment in
separating isotopes by laser was performed in our country at the Institute of
Spectroscopy of the USSR Academy of Sciences, in 1972. This work ... 6 (to
regard) by specialists as highly promising for power engineering and production
of superpure materials.
The use of laser technology ...7 (to increase) considerably the resolution and
sensitivity of the spectroscopic methods. Without the laser beam, there could be no
optical electronics which computer specialists use as to make high-speed and small-
size computers. Optical electronic instruments for recording, storing and processing
information ...8 (to use) a laser beam. Lasers can quickly record and read out
information, with recording density being 100 times higher than in the most
advanced magnetic system used in computers of old generations. It is evident that
it is due to lasers that centralized archives ...9 (to set up) allowing us to display
any required information on a home TV screen.
We ...10 (to succeed) in designing a new information carrier which can be
used for multiple recording of light signals, similar to the magnetic tape recording,
Great importance ...11 (to give) today to the use of lasers in medicine. Lasers
have been successfully used in eye treatment.
Thus the laser today comes in handy in solving process and quality control
problems, in medicine, communications and computer technology. High-power
lasers ...12 (to use) now for long-distance space communications. It can do hundreds
of jobs; the number ...13 (to increase) constantly, and is becoming a customary and
indispensable assistant in most professions.6*

6. Read the following text and answer the questions:


a) What was the idea suggested by specialists of the quantum radiophysics
laboratory?
b) How is the distance to the Moon measured?
Laser at Work
In a department of the Lebedev Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of
Sciences (FIAN) scientists from the quantum radiophysics laboratory have
suggested the idea o f laser-controlled thermonuclear fusion and obtained priority
results in this field. Experiments in heating and condensing plasma to receive
thermonuclear fusion are being conducted at one of the world's biggest laser
thermonuclear installations "Delfin" (Dolphin).
The Institute carries out research in developing new types of lasers,
studying the interaction of coherent radiation with matter, in lasei
thermonuclear fusion and in optoelectronics.
The results of this fundamental research find wide application in the
development of new instruments and technological processes, in the evolvement
of substances with new properties in medicine, in metrology and in the latest
methods of information processing.
What's more, lasers are being used for very important and interesting
explorations, such as measuring the distance to the Moon. Power lasers send very
short light pulses to the Moon. There are targets, or angle light reflectors, installed in
five different places there, able to reflect the incident light in a precisely reverse
direction. As with radar, the distance to the Moon is estimated by measuring the time
signal takes to reach the target and return.
In the 70th of the XXth century scientists of FIAN’s observation station in the
Crimea built Laser range finder complexes. They measured the distance to the Moon
with an error of not more than one or two centimeters. This precision has allowed the
laser measurement of distances to the Moon to become a new method for exploring
the Earth-Moon system. Compared with other methods, laser measurements of many
basic geometric and dynamic characteristics of the Earth-Moon system offer
precision several factors higher and enable more delicate geodynamic phenomena to
be explored, and geodetic constructions to be performed with high degree of
precision. It gives us better understanding of the laws governing the movements of
the Earth and the Moon.
Note: laser range finder - лазерное устройство для измерения расстояний

7. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-10 with the words a-k:

1. pulsed 2. thermonuclear 3. interesting 4. laser 5. delicate


6. degree of 7. better 8. wide 9. information 10. fundamental

a) precision b) surgery c) fusion d) laser e) research f) application


g) measurement h) exploration i) understanding k) processing8

8. Translate the text into English.


Лазер - это источник монохроматического когерентного света с малым
расхождением светового луча светового пучка. Слово «лазер» составлено из
первых букв английского словосочетания, означающего «усиление света в
результате вынужденного излучения». Действительно, основной физический
процесс, лежащий в основе действия лазера, это вынужденное испускание
излучения. Оно происходит при взаимодействии фотона с возбужденным
атомом при точном совпадении энергии фотона с энергией возбуждения атома
(или молекулы). В результате этого взаимодействия возбужденный атом
переходит в невозбужденное состояние, а избыток энергии излучается в виде
нового фотона с точно такой же энергией, направлением распространения и
поляризацией, как и у первичного фотона.
В настоящее время созданы лазеры на самых различных средах - газах,
жидкостях, стеклах, кристаллах. Лазеры нашли широкое применение в науке,
тромышленности, медицине. Так, например, были разработаны технологии
сверления тонких отверстий (диаметром 1-10мкм и глубиной 10-100мкм) с
томощью лазеров средней мощности. Основная область применения
маломощных импульсных (pulsed) лазеров связана с резкой и сваркой (welding)
миниатюрных деталей в микроэлектронике и электровакуумной
тромышленности.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Absolute Participial Construction


). Translate the following sentences.

1. By early summer Blondot published twenty papers, Charpantier twenty, Becquerel


;en, all describing new properties and sources of the rays.
1. His mother living in poverty, Pauling had to work full time while studying. From
1919 to 1920 he taught the course in analysis that he had just finished taking, earning
the epithet ‘The boy professor’.
3. Plants grown in the dark are always colourless, chlorophyll becoming green only
when affected by light.
4. This approach called “massively parallel processing” turns the computer into a
factory, with thousands of parallel assembly lines churning out calculations and
swapping results back and forth.
5. About 700 tons of graphite and 70 tons of uranium fuel from the core of the
reactor, all being lethally radioactive, spewed onto the tarmac and the roof of the
turbine hall in Chernobyl.
6. Ada (the daughter of the great short-lived Lord Byron) was fascinated with
mathematics and is credited with writing the first computing programs, the fact
reflected in the first programming language being named Ada after her.

10. Convert the following complex sentences into simple ones using Absolute
Participial Construction.

Example-. It’s easy to feel sad about the world, since a billion people are still poor,
the earth’s population is doubling* the environment is being damaged.
It's easy to feel sad about the world, with a billion people still being poor, the earth’s
population doublings the environment being damaged.

1. Up to 30 per cent of underground storage tanks and pipelines leak and one gallon
of petrol contaminates millions of gallons of groundwater.
2. There are three Rs in environmental waste management - reduce, reuse and
recycle; actually reuse and reduce are being neglected.
3. When Linnaeus completed his work on plant kingdom, he turned his attention to
the animal kingdom.
4. There are thousands of cables required to carry all the channels of data from the
detectors in the LHC and every cable is individually labeled and needs to be
painstakingly matched up to the correct socket and tested.
5. Mendel’s prediction came true in 1900, when three European botanists, each of
whom worked independently, obtained results that showed how plant heredity was
governed.
6. Physicists have devised several theories of quantum gravity and each theory
applied quantum principles in a distinct way.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Participles as linking words


11. Insert the words from the box into the following sentences.

given /supposed/supposing - при условии;


following- после;
depending - в зависимости; owing to - благодаря;
according to- согласно______________

1. ...advanced instruments are used accurate measurements of the size and weight of
atoms can be obtained.
2. Many cognitive scientists suggest that a kind of high-speed Darwinism takes place
in the neocortex - a process in which original ideas crop up at random and then
survive or fail in microseconds, ...upon their fitness for rapidly-changing
electrochemical environments produced by surrounding brain activity.
3. ...their experiments of bombarding uranium with neutrons, Meitner collaborated
with her nephew, Otto Frisch, to discover nuclear fission and predict the chain
reaction.
4. ...to Thome, “Zwicky did not understand the laws of physics well enough to be
able to substantiate his ideas.”
5. Roemer’s observations gave the speed of light as 28 000 kilometers per second was
stunningly close to the modem value ... that it was the first measurement, ever, of
this speed.
6.... two facts that explain the data, the simplest theory is preferred.
UNIT 16 PHYSICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

KUNCL.
я VETENSKAPSAKADEMIEN
THE RQYAl SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Information Department P.O. Box 50005. SE-104 05 Stockholm Sweden


Phone: +46 S 673 95 GO, Fax: +46 8 15 56 70. E-mail: infoigkva.se. Web site: www.kva.se
The Nobel Prize in Physics, 2000
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for
2000"for basic work on information and communication technology"
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to
Zhores I. Alferov, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and
Herbert Kroemer, University of California at Santa Barbara, California, USA,
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto­
electronics" and one half to Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA
"for his part in the invention o f the integrated circuit"

1. Read the text and write a summary

Advances in Physics and IT


Information technology, IT, which comprises electronic computer technology
and telecommunications technology, has in a few decades changed our society
radically. Behind this development lies a very advanced scientific and technical
development originating largely from fundamental scientific inventions in physics.
The rapid development of electronic computer technology really started with the
invention of the integrated circuit around 1960 and the microprocessor in the 1970s,
when the number of components on a chip became sufficiently large to allow the
creation of a complete micro computer. The rapid increase in the number of
components was formulated as a prediction in "Moore's law": the number of
components on a chip will double every eighteen months. This happened in the
1960s and today there are chips with millions of separate components, at prices that
are largely unchanged.
Chip development has been matched by equally dynamic and powerful
developments in telecommunications technology. Just as the integrated circuit has
been and is a prime mover for electronic computer technology, ultra-rapid transistors
and semiconductor lasers based on heterostructures of semiconductors are playing a
decisive part in modem telecommunications.

Heterostructures in mobile telephones, CD-players, bar-code readers, brake­


lights.
Electronic components are commonly made of semiconductors, i.e. material that is
something between a conductor and an insulator. A measure of whether a
semiconductor most resembles a conductor or an insulator is given in the band gap -
the amount of energy needed to produce moving charge-bearers in the form of
electrons and "holes".
Most semiconductor components are made of silicon, but composite
semiconductors of type gallium arsenide are growing in importance. A
semiconductor, consisting of several thin layers with differing band gaps is termed a
heterostructured semiconductor. The layers can have a thickness varying from a few
atom layers to micrometres and may consist of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and
aluminium gallium arsenide (AIGaAs). The layers are generally selected so that their
crystal structures fit one another and the charge-bearers can move almost freely at the
interface. It is this property of heterostructures that can be exploited in a number of
different ways.
Heterostructures are very important in technology. Low-noise high-frequency
amplifiers using heterotransistors are used in satellite communications and for
improving the signal-to-noise ratio in mobile telephony. Semiconductor lasers based
on heterostructures are used in fibre-optical communication, in optical data storage,
as reading heads in CD players, as bar-code readers and laser markers, etc.
Heterostructure-based light-emitting diodes are used in car brake-lights and other
warning signals and may one day replace electric bulbs.
Heterostructures have also been of great importance for scientific research. A
property of what is called a two-dimensional electron gas formed in the interface
layer between semiconductors was the starting point for the study of the quantised
Hall effects (Nobel Prize in Physics 1985 to Klaus von Klitzing and 1998 to Robert
B. Laughlin, Horst L. Stormer and Daniel C.Tsui). Quantised conductance has also
been studied in one-dimensional channels and point contacts, artificial atoms and
molecules based on "quantum dots" with a limited number of free conduction
electrons enclosed in very small spaces, one-electron components, etc.
Heterotransistor
The first worked-out proposal for a heterostructure transistor was published in
1957 by Herbert Kroemer, then working at RCA (Radio Corporation of America) in
Princeton, USA. His theoretical work showed that a heterotransistor can be superior
to a conventional transistor, particularly for current amplification and high-frequency
applications. A frequency as high as 600 GHz has been measured in a heterotransistor
i.e. about 100 times higher than the best ordinary transistors. In addition, the noise is
low in amplifiers based on these components.
Heterostructu reLaser
Heterostructures have been crucially important for the development of
semiconductor lasers. Zhores I. Alferov of the Ioffe Institute of the Russian Academy
of Sciences in what was then Leningrad and Herbert Kroemer then at Varian in Palo
Alto proposed in 1963, independently of each other, the principle for the
heterostructure laser, an invention that is probably as significant as that of the
heterotransistor. Alferov was the first to succeed in producing a lattice-adapted
heterostructure (AlGaAs/GaAs, 1969) with clear borders between the layers.
Alferov's research team succeeded in rapidly developing many types of components
built up of heterostructures, including the injection laser which Alferov patented in
1963. A technological breakthrough occurred around 1970 when heterostructure
lasers became able to work continuously at room temperatures. These properties
have, for example, made fibre-optic communications practically possible.
Note:
the band gap - запретная зона; low-noise high-frequency amplifiers низко­
шумовые высокочастотные усилители; the signal-to-noise ratio отношение
«сигнал/помеха»; lattice-adapted heterostructure - гетероструктура со встроенной
решеткой

2. Find equivalents to the following phrases in the text:


- число компонентов на чипе;
- число компонентов на чипе удваивается каждые восемнадцать месяцев;
- мощное развитие телекоммуникационных технологий;
- сверхбыстрые транзисторы и полупроводниковые лазеры;
- полупроводниковые гетероструктуры;
- создать гетероструктуру со встроенной решеткой;
- оптоволоконная коммуникация.

VOCABULARY STUDY
3. Match two words from 1-9 with the words a-i and translate:
1. lattice-adapted 2. development 3. number of 4. rapid
5. integrated 6. semiconductor 7. fibre-optic
8. technological 9. ultra-rapid___________________________
a) transistors b) breakthrough c) communication
d) laser e) circuit f) chip g) increase*45
h) components_____ ’ heterostructure

TALKING POINT
4. Discuss in pairs and make a dialogue:
• the reason of the rapid development in Information Technology;
• the rapid development of electronic computer technology;
• the number of components on a chip today;
• a decisive part for modem telecommunications;
• the structure o f a composite semiconductor;
• the significance of heterostructures’ invention;
• range of heterostructures’s application;
• Zhores I. Alferov and his team’ success.

5. Read the text given below and give it a title.

The invention of the transistor just before Christmas 1947 is usually taken to
mark the start o f the development of modem semiconductor technology (Nobel Prize
in Physics 1956 to William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter H.Brattain). With
the transistor there came a component that was considerably smaller, more reliable
and less energy-consuming than the radio valve, which thus lost its importance. The
increasing complexity of a system using more and more radio valves meant that a
practical limit had been reached with around a thousand valves. By soldering
individual transistors together on a printed-circuit board the system could be
increased to over ten thousand transistors. Even though the transistor permitted
an increase in the complexity of a system of individual components soldered together
it soon became clear that the number of transistors was the limiting factor in meeting
the needs of the emerging computer industry. As early as the beginning of the 1950s
there were ideas and thoughts about manufacturing transistors, resistors and
condensers in a composite semiconductor block, an integrated circuit.
The people who were to demonstrate the practical possibility of an integrated
circuit were two young engineers, Jack S. Kilby and Robert Noyce, working
independently of each other. Kilby, however, was the first with his patent application
and Noyce knew of this work when he filed his own application. The integrated
circuit is more of a technical invention than a discovery in physics. However it is
evident that it embraces many physical issues. One example is the question of how
aluminum and gold, which are part of an integrated circuit, differ regarding their
adhesion to silicon. Another question is how to produce dense layers that are only a
few atoms thick.
It is thus obvious that the development of the integrated circuit prompted
enormous investment in research and development in solid-state physics. This has not
only led to development in semiconductor technology but also to gigantic
development of apparatus and instruments. Continual miniaturisation, moreover, has
come up against a number of material-physical limitations and problems that have
had to be solved. The notion of an integrated circuit was there. But ten years were to
pass from the invention of the transistor before the technology involved had matured
sufficiently to allow the various elements to be fabricated in one and the same basic
material and in one piece. The invention is one in a series of many that have made
possible the great development of information technology. The integrated circuit is
still, after 40 years, in a dynamic phase of development with no sign of flagging.6*

6. Choose the correct form of each verb in this paragraph.


Jack S. Kilby and Robert Noyce are both 1... (to consider) as the inventors of the
integrated circuit. Kilby was the one who built the first circuit. Noyce developed the
circuit as it 2 ... (to be) later to be manufactured in practice with silicon and silicon
dioxide as semiconductor and insulator and with aluminum as the electrically
conductive element. Both 3... (to receive) on a number of occasions prizes and
distinctions. Robert Noyce died in 1990. He 4 ... (to honour) then as one of the
most important founders of Silicon Valley and for the leading role his company 5...
(to play) in the development of information technology, with the integrated circuit as
a cornerstone. Jack S. Kilby 6... (to continue) his career as an inventor, with some
60 patents. Among other things, he is co-inventor of the pocket calculator, one of the
first applications of the integrated circuit. A market survey run before the start of
planning for its manufacture 7... (to show) that interest in a pocket calculator was
negligible. After all, people had slide-rulers!

7. It is interesting to know!
The Ioffe Institute is one of Russia's largest institutions for research in physics
and technology with a wide variety of operating projects. It was founded in 1918 and
run for several decades by Abram F. Ioffe. So it is quite natural that the Institute
bears the name of this outstanding scholar and manager. The Institute is affiliated
with the Russian Academy of Sciences. It comprises the departments of Physics,
Solid State Electronics, Solid State Physics, Plasma Physics, Atomic Physics,
Astrophysics, of Dielectric and Semiconductors and the Centre of
Nanoheterostructure.
The Centre of Nanostructure of the Ioffe Theoretical Physics Institute is involved
in research in the following areas
- physics and technology of silicon and III-V semiconductor heterostructures,
especially nanoheterostructures (quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots);
- medicine electron materials science and characterization (transmission and
scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and
topography, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, deep
level transient spectroscopy);
- optoelectronics, nanoelectronics (low-dimensional heterostructures);
- theory of electrical, optical and quantum coherent phenomena in semiconductors;
- ultrafast processes and nonlinear optic phenomena;
- semiconductor laser diodes (CW, DFB, and picosecond heterostructure lasers),
photodetectors and solar cells;
- pulse power III-V semiconductor devices;
It has 206 researchers, including 30 Doctors of Science and 121 PhDs on the staff.8

8. Read the text and give a summary in English.

Алферов Жорес Иванович родился 15 марта 1930 года в


Витебске. В 1952 году с отличием окончил Ленинградский
электротехнический институт имени В.И.Ульянова (Ленина)
по специальности "электровакуумная техника".
Работал в Физико-техническом институте имени А.Ф.Иоффе АН СССР
инженером, младшим, старшим научным сотрудником, заведующим сектором,
заведующим отделом. С 1987 года - директор института. Главный редактор
журнала "Физика и техника полупроводников". Он является круп-нейшим
российским ученым, основоположником нового направления в физике
полупроводников и полупроводниковой электронике - полупровод-никовые
гетероструктуры и приборы на их основе.
Ему присуждены золотая медаль С.Баллантайна Франклиновским
институтом (США), премия "Хьюлетт-Паккард" Европейского физического
общества, Международная премия симпозиума по арсениду галлия и золотая
медаль Х.Велькера, премия имени А.П.Карпинского (ФРГ).
Иностранный член Польской академии наук, Франклиновского института
(США), Национальной академии наук и Национальной инженерной академии
США, почетный профессор Гаванского университета (Куба).
Лауреат Нобелевской премии 2000 года.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Negation


9. Translate the sentences paying attention to the ways of expressing negation.

1. Unlike his physics, Aristotle’s biology is marked by extreme emphasis on


observation.
2. Aristotle’s biology has stood the test of time in a way that his physics (which very
conspicuously lacks an empirical dimension) has not.
3. Even the historian Joseph Needham, who opened the world’s eyes to Chinese
achievements in technology, confessed himself puzzled by their failure to make
comparable progress in science.
4. Einstein held no academic post, had no access to a laboratory or university library.
As the physicist C.P. Snow has written, ‘it was as if he reached his conclusions by
pure thought, unaided.’
5. The sense of Hobbes’ philippic against Wallis hardly matters, nor did it win
Hobbes the argument.
6. A few weeks later when he was sitting rummaging in his desk, he found the
contraption again. And without knowing why, he decided to develop the plate.
7. In 1854, German physicist Hermann von Helmholz (1821-1894) perceived the
consequences of this inevitable dissipation: the universe will end up as a uniform,
tepid reservoir of heat. No further change would then be possible because there was
nowhere colder for the heat to flow.
8. What Michelson and Morley did, without actually intending to, was undermine a
longstanding belief in something called the luminiferous
9. If nobody ever said anything unless he knew what he was talking about, a ghastly
hush would descend upon the earth.
10. Newton was accepted at Cambridge in 1661, but by this time he was so absorbed
in his own research that he barely bothered with the course work and was almost
failed.

Double negation
11. To define means to state a clear description or a concept or the limits of a
concept, which allows the members of the scientific group to discuss the concept
without misunderstanding.
12. Lord Kelvin, though a physicist, was also no mean mathematician.
Prodigious numerical facility seems to be not uncommon among the best
mathematicians.
i. No new technology invokes Faust more forcefully than does genetic engineering.
1. It was not until 1913, some six years after Mendeleyev’s death that Henry
oseley showed that the position of an element in the Table is governed not by its
omic weight but by its atomic number.

ORD FORMATION: Negative prefixes (dis-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-)
I. Form words with negative meaning
Significantly, while Einstein’s relativity had played a key role in both the ‘Big
mg’ and Black Holes theory, the other revolutionary idea, quantum physics,
emed almost to have been sidelined as irrelevant to cosmology.
Thorium (2) integrated into a gas, which eventually turned into an (3) known
;ment that was extremely radioactive.
It seems (4) likely that Leonardo tried out many of his amazing ideas.
How (5) appropriate the Greek word ‘atomon ’, literally translated as ‘indivisible ’
is would not be recognized until demonstrated in a spectacular fashion by Ernst
itherford in the twentieth century.
Galileo was one of those rare thinkers who can arrive at the right answer when the
perimental data are (6) leading.
(7) violent action works much better than violence. The war is viewed as (8) moral by
) just by the vast majority of scientists. Lifting o f the sanctions for compliance
going monitoring violence would be (10) increased.
Ether was supposed to be a stable, (11) visible, (12) friction and (13) fortunately
roily imaginary medium that was thought to permeate the universe.
Watson and Crick built a model based on Watson’s (14) perfect recollection of
anklin’s evidence which showed the molecule as a triple helix.

Ч1Т 17 NOBEL PRIZES IN PHYSICS

Read the text and write a summary.

Three Share Physics Nobel

STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 7, 2003


Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J.
Leggett won the 2003 Nobel Prize in physics.
The trio was awarded the prize for their work in quantum physics concerning
perconductivity and superfluidity. Superconductivity allows certain materials at
:ry low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. Superconducting
aterial is used, as an example, in magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, and can
ve deeper insight into the ways in which matter behaves in its lowest and most
dered state, the Academy said in its citation.
The award came a day after Paul C. Lauterbur of the University of Illinois and
Sir Peter Mansfield from Britain were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for their
work in developing MRL Gunnar Oequist, Secretary-General of the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, called it a coincidence that the physics prize was similar to the
medicine prize. "Certainly the MRI camera is a major application of it and I think it's
an interesting coincidence that the medical prize goes to an application whereas our
prize goes to the discoveries that made application development possible," he told
The Associated Press.
Abrikosov, 75, a Russian and American citizen; Ginzburg, 87, a Russian; and
Leggett, 65, a British and American citizen, worked to improve knowledge of
superconductivity and superfluidity. These days Abrikosov works in the Argonne
National Laboratory, Illinois. Ginzburg, was the former head of the theory group at
the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow. Leggett is a professor at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the United States.
The prize includes a check for 10 million kronas, or $1.3 million.
Alfred Nobel, the wealthy Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite who
endowed the prizes, left only vague guidelines for the selection committee. In his will
he said the prize revealed Tuesday should be given to those who "shall have
conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" and "shall have made the most important
discovery or invention within the field of physics." The Academy, which also
chooses the chemistry and economics winners, invited nominators of the previous
year and experts in the fields before cutting down its choices.
A Japanese and two American astrophysicists won last year's prize for using some of
the most obscure particles and waves in nature to increase understanding of the
universe.
Riccardo Giacconi, 71, of the Associated Universities Inc. in Washington,
D.C., was cited for his role in "pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have
led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources." Raymond Davis Jr., 87, of the
University of Pennsylvania and Japanese scientist Masatoshi Koshiba, 76, of the
University of Tokyo, were awarded for their construction of giant underground
chambers to detect neutrinos, elusive particles that stream from the sun by the billion.
The prizes, which include a gold medal and a diploma, are presented on December 10
the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896.
NOTE: obscure - тусклый, неясный, непонятный, elusive - неуловимый,
эфемерный, to confer a degree - присуждать ученую степень, to bestow honours -
воздавать почести, endow - завещать

2. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- при очень низкой температуре;
- сверхпроводящее вещество;
- магнитно-резонансное изображение;
- исследовательский вклад в астрофизику;
- открытие источников космических рентгеновских лучей;
- подземные камеры для обнаружения нейтрино;
- нечеткие указания;
- пропускать электрический ток без сопротивления;
- заглянуть глубже;
- упорядоченное состояние

VOCABULARY STUDY
3. Translate the following words and expressions into the Russian language:
fluid, fluidity, superfluidity, superfluid material;
pioneer, pioneering, pioneering contribution;
integer, integral, integrate, integration, integrity, integrator;
circle, circular, circular motion, circulation of the current;
destroy, destroyer, destruction, destructive, destructive magnetic field;
alternate, alternative, alternating, alternating current

4. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-10 with the words
a-j and translate:

a) opaque, b) superfluid, c) invisible, d) haphazard, e) magnetic,


f) gravitation, g) Nobel, h) alternate, i) superconductive, j) pressure.

1. field, 2. prize, 3. light, 4. liquid, 5.atmospheric, 6. substance,


7.motion, 8. material, 9. current, lO.acceleration

TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs:
• works of the three Nobel Prize winners in 2003;
• material used in MRI;
• the phenomenon of superconductivity;
• Nobel Prize foundation;
• Nobel Prize Commitee

MAKING PRESENTATIONS:
6. Find material and make Power Point presentation about life and
contributions into science of one of the Nobel Prize winners.

WORD FORMATION
7. Read the following text and fill in the gaps with an appropriate form of the
words in brackets.

Nobels Awarded For MRI Advances


STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 6, 2003
Americans won the 2003 Nobel Prize for medicine
The pair received the prize for their discoveries in magnetic resonance ...1
(image), a technique that reveals the brain and inner organs in breathtaking detail.
Lauterbur, 74, discovered the ...2 (possible) of creating a two-dimensional picture by
producing variations in a ...3 (magnet) field, the key to the MRI technique. He is
professor of chemistry, biophysics, ...4 (compute) biology and bioengineering at the
University of Illinois’s Center for Advanced Study. Lauterbur said he had worked
with MRI since 1971. "You have to be patient and you have to be optimistic to be
... 5 (success) in any new thing," he said.
Mansfield, 70, showed how the signals the body emits in ...6 (respond) to the
magnetic field could be ...7 (mathematics) analyzed, which made it possible to
develop a useful imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how ...8 (extreme) fast
imaging could be achievable. This became ...9 (technique) possible within
medicine a decade later. MRI allows precise imaging of internal organs without
having to do surgery, and it is important for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.
Worldwide, more than 60 million ...10 (investigate) with MRI are performed each
year, the Nobel Assembly said.
MRI represents "a breakthrough in medical diagnostics and research," the
Assembly said. It is used to examine practically all organs of the body, and is ...11
(special) valuable for getting ...12 (detail) images of the brain and spinal cord, the
Assembly said.
Essentially, the technique turns hydrogen atoms in the body's tissues into tiny
radio transmitters. Hydrogen atoms are ... 13 (plenty) because they are found in
water molecules, which are very widespread in the body. By ...14 (track) where
those atoms are, an MRI machine can build up a picture of internal organs. It's a little
like ... 15 (fly) over a city at night, and discerning its outlines by noticing where the
lights are.
The prize includes a check for 10 million kronas, or $ 1.3 million, and bestows
a ...16 (deep) sense of academic and medical integrity upon the winners.
There are no set guidelines for ...17 (decide) who wins. Alfred Nobel, who endowed
the awards that bear his name, simply said the ...18 (win) "shall have made the most
important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine." The assembly,
which selects the medicine prize winner, invites ...19 (nominate) of the previous
year, professors of medicine and other professionals worldwide before whittling
down its choices in the fall. The previous year’s winners were Sydney Brenner
(Britain) and John E. Sulston, and H. Robert Horvitz (American) for their discoveries
about how genes regulate organ growth and a process of ... 20 (program) cell
suicide. Their findings shed light on the ... 21 (develop) of many illnesses, including
AIDS and strokes.

8. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)?

1. Superconductivity allows certain materials at very low temperatures to conduct


electricity without resistance.
2. Superconducting material is used MRI, and can give deeper insight into the ways in
which matter behaves in its highest and most disordered state.
3. Alfred Nobel, the wealthy Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite who
endowed the prizes, left quite strict guidelines for the selection committee.
4. The Academy, invites nominators of the previous year and experts in the fields befor
cutting down its choices.
5. The prize includes a check for 12 million kronor, or $1.3 million.
6. The previous year’s winners were Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston (Britain),
and H. Robert Horvitz (America) for their discoveries about how genes regulate
organ growth and a process of programmed cell suicide.
7. The Nobel Prizes in physics for the works concerning superfluidity and
superconduction and in medicine for MRI in 2003 is a simple coincidence.

9. Translate the text into English:


При низких температурах некоторые металлы и сплавы перестают
оказывать сопротивление электрическому току... По замкнутой цепи из
сверхпроводящего материала ток может циркулировать сколь угодно долго без
потерь. Это явление называется сверхпроводимостью, оно было открыто
нидерландским ученым Х.Камерлинг-Оннесом в 1911 году, но получило
теоретическое объяснение лишь в 1967 г. в работах американских ученых Дж.
Бардина, Л.Купера, Дж. Шриффера и советского ученого Н.Н.Боголюбова.
Сверхпроводник не только идеальный проводник, но и идеальный диамагнетик.
Магнитное поле полностью выталкивается из сверхпроводника. В сильных
магнитных полях сверхпроводимость разрушается, и магнитное поле проникает
в металл. Сверхпроводящие сплавы, выдерживающие магнитные поля более
десяти тесла, широко применяются для создания сильных магнитных полей.
Возможности использования сверхпроводимости в науке и технике
значительно расширятся, если удастся найти вещества, которые обладают этим
свойством при не слишком низких температурах.
Свойство некоторых жидкостей при низких температурах течь без трения
было впервые обнаружено в 1938 г. советским ученым П.Л.Капицей в жидком
гелии. Так, при температуре ниже 2,17 К вязкость гелия обращается в нуль, и
он свободно протекает через очень узкие капилляры. Это явление получило
название сверхтекучести. Теоретическое объяснение явления сверхтекучести
было дано в 1941 г. советским ученым Л.Д.Ландау.

10. Read the text and give a summary in English.

Пётр Леонидович Капица (1894-1984), советский физик;


удостоен в 1978 Нобелевской премии за фундаментальные открытия и
изобретения в области физики низких температур. Родился 26 июня (8 июля)
1894 в Кронштадте. Окончил Петроградский политехнический институт (1918).
Руководителем дипломной работы Капицы был академик А.Ф.Иоффе. На его
же кафедре Капица остался работать после окончания института.
Работал в Кембриджском университете у Э.Резерфорда. Там он выполю
исследования по а- и b-излучению, создал метод получения сильных магнитив
полей. За эти работы он в 1923 получил премию им. Дж. Максвел
лаборатории. В 1929 был избран членом Лондонского королевского общества
членом-корреспондентом АН СССР. Наибольшую известность Капи
принесли его новаторские экспериментальные исследования в области физи:
низких температур, создание техники для получения импульсш
сверхсильных магнитных полей, работы по физике плазмы. В 1938 откр5
необычное свойство жидкого гелия - резкое уменьшение вязкости (viscosil
при температуре ниже критической (2,19 К), получившее назван
сверхтекучести. Эти исследования стимулировали развитие квантовой теор
жидкого гелия, разработанной Л.Ландау.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Comparison

11. Translate the following sentences paying attention to comparison.


1. If one consults the archeological record, it seems clear that the Babylonian a
Sumerian civilizations had rather more than rudimentary grasp of medicii
astronomy and applied mathematics, not to mention engineering.
2. Thales proposed that the prime substance was water; Anaxagoras believed it to
air while Xenophanes proposed the rather less glamorous option of mud.
3. In the works of pre-Socratic philosophers we see glimmerings of the scienti
method and the search for causes and principles based on observation and reason,
truth became a province of thinkers, rather than priests.
4. Aristotelian physics and cosmology were less successful although none the 1
influential: his views dominated the mind of science down to the Renaissance.
5. Yet, in some ways his inventions were the least of his achievements.
6. Sociology is a science with greatest number of methods and the least results.
7. One key idea that emerges in Ada’s notes is the notion that the Engine might h:
far wider applications than purely mathematical ones.
8. The great equations are just as rich a stimulus as poetry to the prepa
imagination.
9. Just as gravity pulls the apple to the Earth, so gravity keeps the Moon in its о
round the earth and the planets round the Sun.
10. Archimedes immersed in water a piece of gold that weighed the same as
wreath and pointed out the subsequent rise in the water level.

12. Fill the gaps using the following words. Translate the sentences.
a) better b) greater c) insatiable
d) possible e) short____________________

Example-. The degree of one’s emotion varies inversely with one’s knowledge of
facts - the less you know, the hotter you get. B. Russell
Степень эмоций человека обратно пропорциональна его знанию фактов -
меньше вы знаете, тем больше вы горячитесь.
1. Today’s most powerful instruments probe distances as ... as 10 '18 meter.
2. Ada was convinced of her mathematical prowess, writing to Babbage that ‘the
more I study the more... I feel my genius for it to be’.
3. You compress things into computer programs, into concise algorithmic
descriptions. The simpler the theory, the... you understand something.
4. In using the instrument an experimenter has to make use of his or her own skills to
obtain as accurate reading as....
5. According to Einstein’s General Theory, objects with mass create distortions, or
curvatures, in space-time, and the larger the object, the ... the distortion

CONFUSABLES: Comparatives
13. Choose the right word.

1. Hooke and Huygens made their own telescopes, especially Huygens whose
telescopes were technically superior/inferior to anything that had been done before.
2. Models by definition are less/lesser than the reality they represent, and for models
of the Universe this constraint obviously must be particularly stringent.
3. Hypothesis is any sentence that has as a consequence at least/lest one empirical
generalization.
4. A theory is deduced as a plausible explanation of facts derived from observation or
experiment. A theory gains credibility through the farther/further accumulation of
evidence or predictions.
5. As Hooke grew elder/older, he became increasingly depressed and withdrawn.
6. As early/late as 1909, the great British physicist J. J. Thomson was insisting: “The
ether is not a fantastic creation of the speculative philosopher; it is as essential to us
as the air we breathe” — this more than four years after it was pretty incontestably
established that it didn’t exist.

14. It’s interesting to know


• The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge
(The Royal Society) was the premier English scientific society. Probably the
most famous scientific society in the world, it has a claim to be the oldest
surviving. It has its origin in the weekly meetings of scientists in London in the
1640s and was granted a royal charter by Charles II in 1660. Past presidents
include Sir I. Newton and Lord Rutherford.
• The Royal Institution is the English scientific society founded in 1799 by В
Thompson to encourage scientific study and the spread of scientific
knowledge. It has association with many eminent men of science, including H.
Davy and M. Faraday.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION: The Rise of the Royal Society of London


15. Listen to the talk and complete the following sentences

1. Founding fathers of the Royal Society of London were ...


2. The role of Bacon...
3. The meetings of the society include...
4. The society’s work included...
5. Hook was very clever a t ...
6. The name of the first scientific journal was ...
7. Correspondence between scientists included...
8. Most of articles were published ...
9. The journal played a great role in...
10. To collect information through questionnaires belonged to ...

UNIT 18 NANOTECHNOLOGY

1. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Popular view of nanotechnology is optimistic though naive.
2. Nanotechnology has already delivered products that have revolutionized our life.
3. The field of nanotechnology can be subdivided into four areas.
4. Drexler’s view represented radical nanotechnology.
5. The behavior of things at nanoscale is governed by a different kind of physics.
6. Drexler's original "diamondoid" visions of nanoworld are shared by most scientists.

Engines of Creation or Grey Goo?

Nanotechnology is slowly creeping into popular culture, but not in a way that
most scientists will like. Scientists expect that nanotechnology will lead to tiny
robotic submarines navigating our bloodstream is ubiquitous, and images like that are
frequently used to illustrate stories about nanotechnology in the press. Yet today's
products of nanotechnology are much more mundane - stain-resistant trousers, better
sun creams and tennis rackets reinforced with carbon nanotubes. There is an almost
surreal gap between what the technology is believed to promise and what it actually
delivers.
The reason for this disparity is that most definitions of nanotechnology are
impossibly broad. They assume that any branch of technology that results from our
ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be counted
as nanotechnology. However, many successes that are attributed to nanotechnology
are merely the result of years of research into conventional fields like materials or
colloid science. It is therefore helpiul to break up the definition of nanotechnology a
little.
What we could call "incremental nanotechnology" involves improving the
properties of many materials by controlling their nano-scale structure. These are the
sorts of commercially available products that are said to be based on nanotechnology.
However, they do not really represent a decisive break from the past.
In "evolutionary nanotechnology" we move beyond simple materials that have been
redesigned at the nano-scale to actual nano-scale devices that can, for example, sense
the environment, process information or convert energy from one form to another.
Taken together, incremental and evolutionary nanotechnology are driving the current
excitement in industry and academia for all things nano-scale.
But where does this leave the original vision of nanotechnology as articulated by Eric
Drexler? Back in 1986 Drexler published an influential book called Engines of
Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, in which he imagined sophisticated
nano-scale machines that could operate with atomic precision. We might call this
goal "radical nanotechnology". Drexler envisaged a particular way of achieving
radical nanotechnology, which involved using hard materials like diamond to
fabricate complex nano-scale structures by moving reactive molecular fragments into
position. His approach was essentially mechanical, whereby tiny cogs, gears and
bearings are integrated to make tiny robot factories, probes and vehicles.
Drexler's most compelling argument that radical nanotechnology must be
possible is that cell biology gives us endless examples of sophisticated nano-scale
machines. Drexler argued that if biology works as well as it does, researchers ought
to be able to do much better. Surely we can create what are, in effect, synthetic life
forms that can reproduce and adapt to the environment and overcome "normal" life in
the competition for resources.
Drexler's book raised one big spectre. By engineering a synthetic life form that
could create runaway self-replicating machines, we might eventually render all
normal life extinct. This scary possibility was dubbed by Drexler as the "grey goo"
scenario. It is what triggered much of the public's doubts about nanotechnology. It is
nevertheless worth examining the shortcomings of Drexler's original vision because
this may give clues as to how we might make radical nanotechnology feasible.
Designs that function well in our macroscopic world will work less and less well as
they shrink in size.
Scientists almost always greatly overestimate how much can be done over a 10
year period, but underestimate what can be done in 50 years. Which design
philosophy of radical nanotechnology will prevail - Drexler's original "diamondoid"
visions or something closer to the marvellous contrivances of cell biology?

2. Read the text and discuss the following statements:


a) Scientists are looking for the ways to use nano-materials for ultra-powerful
computers.
b) Nanotubes have 100 times the tensile strength of steel.
c) Nano-materials are supposed to be vastly used in space.

Nanotechnology in Space
Nanotechnology could lead to radical improvements for space exploration.
When itcomes to taking the next "giant leap" in space exploration, scientists are
thinking small -really small. In laboratories around the world, governments are
supporting the burgeoning science of nanotechnology. The basic idea is to learn to
deal with matter at the atomic scale - to be able to control individual atoms and
molecules well enough to design molecule-size machines, advanced electronics and
"smart" materials.
Nanotechnology could lead to robots you can hold on your fingertip, self-healing
spacesuits, space elevators and other fantastic devices. Some of these things may take
more than 20 years to fully develop, others are taking shape in the laboratory today.
Nanotechnology could provide the very high-strength, low-weight fibers that would
be needed to build the cable of a space elevator. Simply making things smaller has its
advantages. Imagine, for example, if the Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity could
havebeen made as small as a beetle, and could scurry over rocks and gravel as a
beetle can, sampling minerals and searching for clues to the history of water on Mars.
Hundreds or thousands of these diminutive robots could have been sent in the same
capsules that carried the two desk-size rovers, enabling scientists to explore much
more of the planet's surface - and increasing the odds of stumbling across a fossilized
Martian bacteria!
But nanotech is about more than just shrinking things. When scientists can
deliberately order and structure matter at the molecular level, amazing new properties
sometimes emerge. An excellent example is that darling of the nanotech world, the
carbon nanotube. Carbon occurs naturally as graphite - the soft, black material often
used in pencil leads - and as diamond. The only difference between the two is the
arrangement of the carbon atoms. When scientists arrange the same carbon atoms into
a "chicken wire" pattern and roll them up into miniscule tubes only 10 atoms across,
the resulting "nanotubes" acquire some rather extraordinary traits.
Nanotubes have 100 times the tensile strength of steel, but only 1/6 the weight, are
40 times stronger than graphite fibers, conduct electricity better than copper, can be
either conductors or semiconductors (like computer chips), depending on the
arrangement of atoms and are excellent conductors of heat.
Much of current nanotechnology research worldwide focuses on these nanotubes.
Scientists have proposed using them for a wide range of applications: in the high-
strength, low-weight cable needed for a space elevator; as molecular wires for nano­
scale electronics; embedded in microprocessors to help siphon off heat; and as tiny
rods and gears in nano-scale machines, just to name a few. Scientists are looking at
how nano-materials could be used for advanced life support, ultra-powerful
computers, and tiny sensors for chemicals or even sensors for cancer."
A chemical sensor using nanotubes can detect as little as a few parts per billion of
specific chemicals - like toxic gases - making it useful for both space exploration
and homeland defense. Tomorrow's spacecraft will be built using advanced nano­
materials. Molecule-size sensors inside astronauts' cells could warn of health impacts
from space radiation.

3. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- радикальное улучшение в исследовании космоса;
- научиться иметь дело с веществом на уровне атомов;
- зарождающаяся наука нанотехнологии;
- очень легкие, высокопрочные на разрыв волокна;
-строить вещество на молекулярном уровне;
- самое главное в мире нанотехнологии - углеродная нанотрубка;
- мельчайшие трубки, диаметром всего в 10 атомов;
- большая часть современных исследований в области нанотехнологии;

4. Translate the following phrases into Russian:


- to design molecule-size machines;
- nanotechnology can provide very high-strength fibre;
- enabling scientists to explore much more of the planet's surface;
- carbon occurs naturally as graphite;
- the arrangement of the carbon atoms;
- nanotubes have 100 times the tensile strength of steel;
- a wide range of applications;
- nanotubes can detect as little as a few parts per billion of specific chemicals

5. Match the words from the top line with an appropriate word from the bottom
line and translate:

1) siphon off, 2) molecule-size, 3) tensile, 4) low-weight, 5) smart,


6) burgeoning, 7) fossilized, 8) ultra-powerful, 9) wide range of, 10) radical,

a) sensors, b) applications, c) heat d) material, e) science, f) strength,


g) fiber h) improvements i) computers j) bacterium

TALKING POINT
6. Discuss in pairs:
• the basic idea of nanotechnology;
• the focus of current nanotechnology research;
• application of nanotechnology in space exploration;
• extraordinary traits of nanotubes;
• manufacturering nanotubes with extraordinary properties;
• the advantages and use of a chemical sensor based on nanotubes
• a wide range of applications of nanotechnology.

WORD FORMATION
7. Form the word to fill the gap in each line.
Potential Dangers of Nanotechnology

The physical form of a material can drastically... (1) its toxicity. effect
One sobering example is asbestos, which comes in two ... (2) chemistry
forms - serpentine and chrysotile asbestos. While the former is a ... (3) harm
mineral that consists of flat sheets of atoms, the latter exists... (4) form, tube
... (5) to these nano-scale tubes has killed many people from lung cancer Expose
and other diseases. Carbon nanotubes are rolled-up version of a sheet...(6) form
mineral that itself is not toxic. Though we have no definitive ... (7) evident
that carbon nanotubes are dangerously toxic,... (8)surely prudent
suggests that we should be ... (9) when handling them. After all, care
every new material has the potential to be... (10). toxicity
But it is the wrong ... (11) that all nano-scale materials are assume
... (12) dangerous. Imposing a blanket ban would be absurd inherent
and ... (13). If we wanted to avoid nanoparticles completely, enforce
we would have to give up drinking milk, full as it is of nano-scale casein particles.

8. Give nouns, corresponding to the following verbs:

to embed — to sense — to defend —


to order - to occur - to excel

VOCABULARY PRACTICE
8. Choose the word which best completes each sentence.
Light-emitting nanostructures are widely used for optical, photonic, chemical, and
biological ... (1). For example, fluorescent nanoparticles are useful for biological
assays and as tumor markers, chemical sensors, and organic lasers, whereas one­
dimensional luminescent nanowires are exploited for novel nanoscale photonic
devices such as nano-lasers and nanowire scanning ... (2). While several methods to
prepare organic, inorganic, and polymeric light-emitting nanostructures have been
...(3), the fabrication of luminescent nanoarchitectures with a tailored morphology
and pattern is still challenging. Researchers in Korea have discovered that non-
luminescent polystyrene can be ...(4) into a luminescent organic material whose
emitting color can be tuned from deep blue to white by electron irradiation. They
demonstrated that luminescent nanopattems are readily...(5) only by irradiating an
electron beam to the selected regions of polystyrene. In addition, the top-down
irradiation approach in conjunction with self-assembled polystyrene nanostructures
... (6), fabrication of diverse and complex luminescent nanoarchitectures.
1. a) tools b) devices c) apparatus
2. a) microscopy b) spectrometry c) photography
3. a) developed b) examined c) exploited
4. a) learned b) explored c) converted
5. a) fabricated b) manufactured c) beamed
6. a) uses b) allows c) enables

9. Translate the text into English.


H llll «Квант» разработал уникальную нанотехнологию трехкаскадного
аморфного кремния (three-stage amorphous silicon), применяемого в
безотказных(геНаЫе, faultless) солнечных батареях для космоса и военных
целей. Использование нанотехнологий - новый этап развития науки, оборонной
и военной промышленности. Аморфный кремний - это малая энергетика.
Солнечные батареи из аморфного кремния не боятся ни снега, ни дождя, ни
пыли. Они подходят для того, чтобы в полевых условиях обеспечить
электроэнергией ту электронику, которая необходима для работы: спутниковую
связь, компьютер, беспилотную систему и пр. Системы с использованием
аморфного кремния способны обеспечить на неосвоенных (undeveloped)
территориях электроэнергией военных, ведущих боевые и разведоперации,
погранвойска, МЧС (Ministry of emergency), спецслужбы и другие структуры.

WORD FORMATION: Conversion. The same word - different functions


10. Identify and translate the words that can be used both as nouns/adjectives
and verbs. Write your own sentences with these words.
1. We can out-engineer evolution by making an entirely synthetic form of life that is
better adapted to the Earth's environment than life itself is.
2. The experience we will gain in manipulating matter on the nano-scale in industrial
quantities is going to be invaluable.
3. Another approach would be to start with a whole, living organism - probably a
simple bacterium - and then genetically engineer a stripped-down version that
contains only the components that we are interested in.
4. There are two key concerns as far as the public is concerned.
5. Evolutionary nanotechnology is certainly going to lead to far-reaching changes. It
will allow computing that is so cheap and powerful that every product or gadget - no
matter the price - will be able to process, sense and transmit information.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Compound Participles


11. Replace the clauses in bold with complex participles.
Example: Radiation lasts so long that the papers of Mine Curie from the 1890s are
too dangerous to handle clothing.
Radiation so long-lasting that even now...
1. Visions of nanomachines that replicate themselves (1) that could devour the
Earth in a "grey goo" are probably wide off the mark, but "radical nanotechnology"
could still deliver great benefits to society.
2. Industry has shown extraordinary ingenuity in overcoming seemingly
insurmountable barriers already - new ultraviolet light sources and masks that shift
phases (2) have made feature sizes below 100 mn a commercial reality.
3. Carbon nanotubes, like chrysotile, are the rolled-up version of a mineral that
forms sheets (3) that itself is not toxic - in this case, graphite.
4. Evolutionary nanotechnology is certainly going to lead to changes that reach far
in society, which we should get to grips with now.
5. By replacing living parts of the body with artifacts that are made by man (5), are
we blurring the line between man and machine?
6-7. Were the world just and spoke Swedish (6), Scheele would have enjoyed
universal acclaim. As it is, the plaudits have tended to go to more celebrated
chemists, mostly from the world who speak English (7).
8. In the nineteenth century there was hardly a molecule that was uniformly
represented everywhere. Chemists used a bewildering variety of symbols and
abbreviations, that were often invented by themselves (8).
1. Read the text. Find the sentences justifying the following statements.
1. Inflation theoiy deals with the early universe.
2. The emergence of elementaiy particles was followed by appearance of various
forces, namely gravity and electromagnetism.
3. Some scientists argue that there might have been several big bangs.
4. There is no reasonable explanation why space developed the way it is to
eventually enable living beings to appear on Earth.
5. Cosmologists compare the fact that the universe is so perfectly suited for man to
Goldilocks, fairy tale character, the pretty girl, whose appearance is perfect.
6. The theory of relativity postulates that the universe is infinite.

Big Bang
The Big Bang theoiy isn’t about the bang itself but about what happened after the
bang. By doing a lot of math and watching carefully what goes on in particle
accelerators, scientists believe they can look back to 10-43 seconds after the moment
of creation, when the universe was still so small that you would have needed a
microscope to find it. Most of what we know about the early moments of the
universe is thanks to an idea called inflation theory first propounded in 1979 by a
junior particle physicist, then at Stanford named Alan Guth. He would probably never
have had his great theory except that he happened to attend a lecture on the Big Bang
given by Robert Dicke. The lecture inspired Guth to take an interest in cosmology,
and in particular in the birth of the universe.
The eventual result was the inflation theory, which holds that a fraction of a
moment after the dawn of creation, the universe underwent a sudden dramatic
expansion. It inflated - in effect ran away with itself, doubling in size every 10-
34seconds. Inflation theoiy explains the ripples and eddies that make our universe
possible. Without it, there would be no clumps of matter and thus no stars, just
drifting gas and everlasting darkness.
According to Guth’s theory, at one ten-millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a
billionth of a second, gravity emerged. After another ludicrously brief interval it was
joined by electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces. These were
joined an instant later by swarms of elementary particles. From nothing at all,
suddenly there were swarms of photons, protons, electrons, neutrons, and much else
- between 1079and 1089of each. In a single instant there was a vast universe - at
least a hundred billion light-years across and perfectly arrayed for the creation of
stars, galaxies, and other complex systems. Wiat is extraordinary is how well it
turned out for us.
This is one reason that some experts believe there may have been many other big
bangs, perhaps billions and billions of them, spread through the mighty span of
eternity, and that the reason we exist in this particular one is that this is one we could
exist in.
In the long term, gravity may turn out to be a little too strong, and one day it may halt
the expansion of the universe and bring it collapsing in upon itself, till it crushes itself
down into another singularity, possibly to start the whole process over again. On the
other hand it may be too weak and the universe will keep racing away forever until
everything is so far apart that there is no chance of material interactions, so that the
universe becomes a place that is inert and dead, but very keep racing away. The third
option is that gravity is just right - “critical density” is the cosmologists’ term for it
- and that it will hold the universe together at just the right dimensions to allow
things to go on indefinitely. Cosmologists in their lighter moments sometimes call
this the Goldilocks effect - that everything is just right.
You can never get to the edge of the universe. That’s not because it would take
too long to get there —though of course it would - but because even if you traveled
outward and outward in a straight line, indefinitely and pugnaciously, you would
never arrive at an outer boundary. Instead, you would come back to where you began
(at which point, presumably, you would rather lose heart in the exercise and give up).
The reason for this is that the universe bends, in a way we can’t adequately imagine,
in conformance with Einstein’s theory of relativity.
For a long time the Big Bang theory had one gaping hole that troubled a lot of
people - namely, that it couldn’t explain how we got here. Although 98 percent of all
the matter that exists was created with the Big Bang, that matter consisted exclusively
of light gases: the helium, hydrogen, and lithium. Not one particle of the heavy stuff
so vital to our own being - carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and all the rest - emerged from
the gaseous brew of creation. But - and here’s the troubling point - to forge these
heavy elements, you need the kind of heat and energy of a Big Bang. Yet there has
been only one Big Bang and it didn’t produce them.

2. In the text find equivalents to the following words and phrases:


- случайно оказаться
- заинтересоваться
- начало мира
- претерпеть внезапное колоссальное расширение
- вечная тьма
- ещё один смехотворно короткий интервал
- оказаться, сложиться
- продолжать разбегаться
- просторный
- находясь в шутливом настроении

3. Read the text and choose the correct word:

Singularity
In a single blinding pulse, a moment of glory much too swift and
expansive/expensive (1) for any form of words, the singularity assumes heavenly
dimensions, space beyond conception. In the first second (a second that many
cosmologists will devote careers to shaving into ever-finer wafers) gravity and the
other forces that control/govern (2) physics were produced. In less than a minute the
universe became a million billion miles across and was growing fast. In three
minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever be was
manufactured/produced (3). And it was all done in about the time it takes to make a
sandwich.
When this moment happened/occurred (4) is a matter of some debate.
Cosmologists have long argued over whether the moment of creation was 10 billion
years ago or twice that or something in between. The consensus seems to be heading
for a figure of about 13.7 billion years, but these things are famously/notoriously (5)
difficult to measure.All that can really be said is that at some
indefinite/indeterminate (6) point in the very distant past, for reasons unknown,
there came the moment known to science as t = 0.
The notation/notion (7) of the Big Bang is quite a recent one. The idea had been
around since the 1920s, when Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian priest-scholar, first
tentatively/preliminarily (8) proposed it, but it didn’t really become an active notion
in cosmology until the mid-1960s when two young radio astronomers made an
extraordinary and inadvertent discovery. In 1965, Amo Penzias and Robert Wilson
were trying to make use of a large communications antenna owed/owned (9) by Bell
Laboratories at Holmdel, New Jersey, but they were troubled by a
persistent/resistant (10) background noise — a steady, steamy hiss that made any
experimental work impossible. The noise was unrelenting and unfocused. It came
from every point in the sky, day and night, through every season. For a year the
young astronomers did everything they could think of to track down and
destroy/eliminate (11) the noise: they tested every electrical system, they rebuilt
instruments, checked circuits, thoroughly cleaned the antenna. Nothing they tried
functioned/worked (12).
Unknown to them, just thirty miles away at Princeton University, a team of
scientists led by Robert Dicke were working on how to find the very thing they were
trying so deliberately/diligently (13) to get rid of. The Princeton researchers were
persisting/pursuing (14) an idea that had been suggested in the 1940s by the
Russian-born astrophysicist George Gamow that if you looked deep enough into
space you should find some cosmic background radiation left over from the Big
Bang. Gamow calculated that by the time it crossed the vastness of the cosmos, the
radiation would reach Earth in the form of microwaves. In a more recent paper he had
even proposed/suggested (15) an instrument that might do the job: the Bell antenna
at Holmdel. Unfortunately, neither Penzias and Wilson, nor any of the Princeton
team, had read Gamow’s paper.
The noise that Penzias and Wilson were hearing was the noise that Gamow had
postulated. They had found the edge of the universe, or at least the obvious/visible
(16) part of it, 90 billion trillion miles away. They were “seeing” the first photons -
the most ancient light in the universe - though time and distance had
converted/conveyed (17) them to microwaves, just as Gamow had predicted. Still
unaware of what caused the noise, Wilson and Penzias phoned Dicke at Princeton
and described their problem to him in the hope that he might suggest a solution.
Dicke realized/released (18) at once what the two young men had found.
Soon afterward the Astrophysical Journal published two articles: one by Penzias
and Wilson describing their experience/experiment (19) with the hiss, the other by
Dicke’s team explaining its nature. Although Penzias and Wilson had not been
looking for cosmic background radiation, didn’t know what it was when they had
found it, and hadn’t described or interpreted its character in any paper, they
obtained/received (20) the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics. Neither Penzias nor Wilson
altogether understood the significance of what they had found until they read about it
in the New York Times. The Princeton researchers got only sympathy.

4. Fill the gaps with suitable adverbs:_____________________________________


a) convincingly b) correctly c) incomprehensively d) improbably
e) interestingly f) literally g) memorably h) nearly
i) recently j) spectacularly k) unfortunately 1) unimaginably
Supernovae

Supemovae occur when a giant star, one much bigger than our own Sun,
collapses and then ... (1) explodes, releasing in an instant the energy of a hundred
billion suns, burning for a time brighter than all the stars in its galaxy. In fact, most
are so ... (2) distant that their light reaches us as no more than the faintest twinkle.
For the month or so that they are visible, all that distinguishes them from the other
stars in the sky is that they occupy a point of space that wasn’t filled before.
The term supernova was coined in the 1930s by a ... (3) odd astrophysicist named
Fritz Zwicky. Bom in Bulgaria and raised in Switzerland, Zwicky came to the
California Institute of Technology in the 1920s and there at once distinguished
himself by his abrasive personality and erratic talents. But Zwicky was also capable
of insights of the most startling brilliance.
In the early 1930s, he turned his attention to a question that had long troubled
astronomers: the appearance in the sky of occasional unexplained points of light, new
stars. ... (4) he wondered if the neutron — the subatomic particle that had just been
discovered in England by James Chadwick, and was thus both novel and rather
fashionable - might be at the heart of things. It occurred to him that if a star collapsed
to the sort of densities found in the core of atoms, the result would be an ...(5)
compacted core. Atoms would ... (6) be crushed together, their electrons forced into
the nucleus, forming neutrons and a neutron star. After the collapse of such a star
there would be a huge amount of energy left over - enough to make the biggest bang
in the universe. He called these resultant explosions supemovae. They would be -
they are - the biggest events in creation.
On January 15, 1934, the journal Physical Review published a very concise
abstract of a presentation that had been conducted by Zwicky and Baade at Stanford
University. Despite its extreme brevity - one paragraph of twenty-four lines - the
abstract contained an enormous amount of new science: it provided the first reference
to supemovae and to neutron stars;... (7) explained their method of formation;... (8)
calculated the scale of their explosiveness; and, as a kind of concluding bonus,
connected supernova explosions to the production of a mysterious new phenomenon
called cosmic rays, which had ... (9) been found swarming through the universe.
These ideas were revolutionary, to say the least. Neutron stars wouldn’t be
confirmed for thirty-four years. The cosmic rays notion, though considered plausible,
hasn’t been verified yet. Altogether, the abstract was, in the words of Caltech
astrophysicist Kip S. Thome, “one of the most prescient documents in the history of
physics and astronomy.”
... (10), Zwicky had almost no understanding of why any of this would happen.
According to Thome, “he did not understand the laws of physics well enough to be
able to substantiate his ideas.” Zwicky’s talent was for big ideas. Others - Baade
mostly - were left to do the mathematical sweeping up. Zwicky also was the first to
recognize that there wasn’t ... ( 11) enough visible mass in the universe to hold
galaxies together and that there must be some other gravitational influence - what we
now call dark matter. One thing he failed to see was that if a neutron star shrank
enough it would become so dense that even light couldn’t escape its immense
gravitational pull. You would have a black hole.
... (12), Zwicky was held in such disdain by most of his colleagues that his ideas
attracted almost no notice. When, five years later, the great Robert Oppenheimer
turned his attention to neutron stars in a landmark paper, he made not a single
reference to any of Zwicky’s work even though Zwicky had been working for years
on the same problem in an office just down the hall. Zwicky’s deductions concerning
dark matter wouldn’t attract serious attention for nearly four decades.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Linking Words-I (conjunctions and prepositions)


Contrast (however nevertheless, still, yet)
Concession (though, although, despite/in spite of /regardless of)
Consequence ( thus, therefore, so, that’s why)
Purpose ( so that, lest, in order, so a s ) GR-21 p.207
5. Translate the following sentences.
1. Robert Oppenheimer did not make any reference to Zwicky’s work even though
Zwicky had been working for years on the same problem in the same building.
2. Babbage’s Difference machine No.l was a tremendously ambitious project. No
calculator had ever worked with numbers bigger than four digits, yet Babbage
planned to build a machine that could handle numbers of up to fifty.
3. Scientists have not yet come up with the explanation why many laws hold,
nevertheless they do.
4. Although his friends petitioned for him Lavoisier was guillotined on 8 May 1794..
5. Yet for all this progress, no one knew just what an element was - and no one had
thought to connect them with atoms in any way.
6. These ideas were revolutionaiy, and thus neutron stars wouldn’t be confirmed for
thirty-four years.
7. As a woman she was barred from higher education in her native Poland, and so she
planned to go to the Sorbonne in Paris.
8. Scientists of Renaissance turned to Arabian mathematicians so that Archimedes’
work could be translated.
9. This crucial insight not only helped Lavoisier prove the true nature of combustion,
but still underpins all experiments with matter even today.

6. Insert the suitable linking word: though still despite yet


1. ... (1) we may find much to agree with the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein’s
condemnation of the worship of science and the lionization of scientists, ...(2) there
is a lot to admire in the scientific point of view and in the character of many leading
scientists.
2. Mendel received a polite hearing from the audience, ... (3) no one present
appeared to acknowledge that his discoveries broke a new ground....
3...„(4) the society published Mendel’s paper ‘Experiments with plant Hybrates’ in
1866 and sent it to all major libraries in Europe and America, hardly any scientist
wrote to him. ... (5) a wider audience his work...(6) had little impact.
4. Charles Darwin was unsentimental enough to formulate a theory of evolution as
revolutionary as any that has ... (7) upset the world, even ... (8) he owned an
enormously warm-hearted love to nature.

7. Convert the following sentences into simple ones using verbal structures.
Example: Although Descartes’ vortex theory of the solar system was celebrated,
it was ultimately unsuccessful. Despite being celebrated Descartes’ vortex theory of
the solar system was unsuccessful.

1. Marie Curie spent a lot of effort and time, so that she could isolate radium.
2. Although the story about the apple is often dismissed as a legend Newton himself
claimed it was so.
3. Although Darwin’s ideas grew by slow accumulation, there was one ‘Eureka!’
moment, when he read An Essay on the Principle o f Population by T.Malthus.
4. The astrophysicists did everything so that the hiss would disappear.
5. Though Penzias and Wilson did not understood the significance of their discovery
they received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics.

8. It’s interesting to know Famous Research Observatories

• Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in 1675 at Greenwich near


London. Its many famous directors, “astronomers royal” included J. Flamstead, E.
Halley and G. Airy. The original Observatory building designed by Sir C. Wren is
now a museum. The Observatory was moved to Succex in 1948-1957., thus it is
no longer situate on the Greenwich meridian, the international zero of longitude.
• Before and after the war, Hubble played a central role in the design and
construction of Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories in California.
Completed in 1948, they were renamed in 1970 the Hale observatories for
George Hale who discovered magnetic fields of sunspots. The 5, 08 m Hale
telescope remained the largest telescope on Earth for the next 40 years. Hubble
had the honor of being the first to use it. Asked by a reporter what he expected to
find, Hubble replied: “We hope to fmd something that we hadn’t expected.”
UNIT 20 BLACK HOLES

1. Read the text and give it a title:


The notion of black hole, a gravitational field so strong that it literally tears a
hole in space has been around since 1798 when French physicist Pierre Laplace
discussed the phenomenon in the theoretical framework of Newton's mechanics and
gravity. Shortly after Albert Einstein formulated his general relativity theory in 1916,
the German astrophysicist Karl Schwartzschild reformulated the phenomenon in
terms of this new theory of gravity. Real interest in black holes was generally
lacking, however, until the late 1960s when astronomical observations of pulsars
(rotating neutron stars) showed that black holes might indeed exist in nature and not
just in our theoretical constructs.
Perhaps the easiest way to imagine a black hole is to consider (as Laplace did) the
escape velocity, vc - the velocity one body needs to escape from the gravitational
field of another. Newtonian physics shows that for a special planet mass m and radius
r, v„ =\J2Gm/r, where G is the universal gravitational constant. For earth vc =11.2
km/s (about 7 ml/s). For example, this is the speed, which rockets need to break the
bonds of earth’s gravity. As either the mass increases or the radius decreases, the
escape velocity increases; it has a limit, though - the speed of light, c. When the
escape velocity equals the speed of light we have a black hole. Note that the radius rs,
of the black hole depends only on its mass, rs=2G»i/c2, called the Schwartzschild
radius. Using rs, in the expression for escape velocity, and setting this velocity to c,
we see that the sun would become a black hole if it were shrunk to a diameter of 6
km. The earth would be a black hole if it were about 2 cm in diameter instead of
13,000 km. Since the escape velocity at the Schwartzschild radius equals the speed
of light, nothing, not even light can escape the strong gravity and, for this reason, we
call the object a black hole. No information about what is inside the black hole can
ever come out; all we know of what's inside is the mass, not what the mass consists of
(e.g., matter, anti-matter, or the type of particles that make up the matter). Actually
there are two more pieces of information about the black hole that we can know;
these are its electric charge and its angular momentum. Otherwise we have no
knowledge of its interior.
Black holes are thought to form in nature when a star of at least about 30 solar masses
finishes its nuclear burning. No outward pressure mechanism is able to overcome the
inward gravitational pull and much of the core of the star-probably at least 2 to 5
solar masses - collapses into a black hole while most of the outer parts of the star get
blown into space in a supernova explosion.
Note: escape velocity - вторая космическая скорость; angular momentum -
момент импульса; event horizon - горизонт событий; distortion of space-time -
возмущение пространства и времени; temporal dimension - временная
составляющая

2. Find in the text equivalents to the phrases:


- в рамках Ньютоновской теории механики и гравитации;
- общая теория относительности;
- преодолеть земное притяжение;
- полагая скорость равной с;
- солнце стало бы черной дырой;
- пространство-время вблизи черной дыры сильно возмущено;
- пространство разорвано;
- влияние на временную составляющую пространства-времени

3. Give nouns corresponding to the following words:

to attract, to repel, to equal, to distort, relative, gravitational, to escape, to approach,


to observe, to illustrate, to inform, accelerate, angular, to guess, to explode, nuclear,
to emit.

4. Match the words from the top line with their antonyms from the bottom line:

1) to attract; 2) to increase; 3) to expand; 4) to divide; 5) to subtract; 6) to freeze;


7) to condense; 8) to accelerate; 9) to acquire; 10) to construct; 11) to absorb

a) to decelerate; b) to lose; c) to contract; d) to release; e) to melt; f) to destroy;


g) to evaporate; h) to decrease; i) to repel; j) to add; k) to multiply

4. Translate the following words and phrases into Russian:

to neglect, negligible, negligibly small;


to repel, the force of repulsion, to experience the force of repulsion;
to accelerate, acceleration, free-fall acceleration.
to weigh, weight, weightless, weightlessness; to experience weightlessness;

TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs and make up a dialogue:
• the appearance of a black hole notion;
• who introduced the notion of a black hole;
• the available information about black holes;
• the reformulation of the phenomenon of a black hole in terms of the new
general theory of relativity.

VOCABULARY STUDY
6. Complete the sentences using the words from the box:
a) luminosity b) mass c) evolution d) event horizon e) cluster
f) exotica gravity h) supermassive black holes g) fuel i) growth

When a star runs out of nuclear... (1), it will collapse. If the core, or central region
of the star, has a ... (2) that is greater than three suns, no known nuclear forces can
prevent the core from forming a black hole.
Anything that comes within a certain distance of the black hole, called the ...
(3), cannot escape, not even light. The radius of the event horizon (proportional to the
mass) is very small, only 30 kilometers for a non-spinning black hole with the mass of
the sun. The extreme ... (4) around black holes will produce X-rays when infalling gas
is heated to millions of degrees. The best places to look for black holes are regions
where large supplies of gas are available, such as double star systems, star forming
regions, or the centers of galaxies.
There is strong evidence for two types of black holes: stellar black holes with
masses of a dozen suns, and ... (5) with masses of many millions of suns. Stellar black
holes are formed as a natural consequence of the ... (6) of massive stars. The origin of
supermassive black holes is a mystery. They are found only in the centers of galaxies. It
is not known whether they are formed in the initial collapse of the gas cloud that
formed the galaxy, or from the gradual growth of a stellar mass black hole, or from
the merger of a centrally located ... (7) of black holes, or by some other mechanism.
The mass of a stellar black hole can be deduced by observing the orbital
acceleration of a star as it .orbits its unseen companion. Likewise, the mass of a
supermassive black hole can be determined by using the orbital acceleration of gas
clouds swirling around the central black hole. When orbital acceleration cannot be
used to establish the mass of a black hole, astronomers can place a lower limit on its
mass by measuring the X-ray ... (8) due to matter falling into a black hole. The
pressure of the X-rays must be less than the pull of the black hole’s gravity. In the case
of the black hole discovered in M82 this limits its mass to greater than 500 suns. The
M82 black hole is much larger than known stellar black holes, and much smaller than
supermassive black holes, thus it is called a "mid-mass" black hole.
Astrophysicists believe that galactic centers were the “only places where
conditions were right for the formation and ... (9) of large or very large black holes”.
The discovery of a large, mid-mass black hole away from the galaxy's center shows that
somehow - and it is not an easy task theoretically - black holes much more massive
than ordinary stellar black holes can form in dense star clusters. Current possible
explanations for the formation of mid-mass black holes include such ... ( 10) as black
hole mergers or the collapse of a hyperstar. An intriguing implication is that mid-mass
black holes could prove to be a common feature in star forming regions of galaxies.
Note: merger -поглощение; luminosity -светимость; implication - вывод,
следствие.

WORD FORMATION
7. Use the words in brackets in the right form:
Space-time in the vicinity of a black hole is ... 1 (severe) distorted, so much so
that time is stopped and space is ripped open, for we can't cross the radius
successfully. The effects on the temporal dimension of space-time can be... 2
(illustrate) by considering a journey into a black hole. You and your robot (the one
who'll make the journey which you ... 3 (observation) from afar) synchronize your
watches before beginning: you monitor the journey on your robot's watch, which you
see through your telescope. As your robot falls toward the black hole you notice that
the light emitted by its watch is ... 4 (redshift) - it appears more red than it did
before the robot left. This occurs not only because it is ... 5 (accelerate) to high
speeds as it falls in but also because the intense ... 6 (gravitation) field induces a
redshift on the light. Even if the robot were to somehow stop in its tracks, the light
from it would be redshifted by the gravity. Furthermore the time from its clock, as
read by you, is earlier than what is given by your watch. In other words, time for the
robot has slowed down as you see it. As it gets ... 7(close) to the black hole the
slowdown is greater, so much so that, if noon were the time you calculated that the
robot would reach the Schwartzschild radius, then you would see its watch approach
noon but never reach it, just as you would notice the robot approach the
Schwartzschild radius but never get there.
For the robot things are different: as - it falls toward the black hole it notices the
horizon (the boundary of the black hole as ... 8 (observe) by the robot) to rise up
into the sky and shrink into a smaller and smaller circle overhead until it finally ...
9 (vanish) when the robot reaches the Schwartzschild radius (when its clock reads
noontime). Now the robot sees nothing of the outside world; for this reason the
Schwartzschild radius is also called the "event horizon." What happens inside the
black hole is anybody's guess and is not properly describable by someone outside.
Perhaps the robot falls immediately to the center and is crushed by the infinite
gravity, perhaps it comes out into another universe where robots aren't ... 10
(subject) to such cruel and unusual experimentation; perhaps something else. Notice
that you, on the outside, never see the robot pass the Schwartzschild radius - just
approach it - but the robot notices that it fell in; this is an example of the severe
distortion of space-time, quite literally a hole in space.

8. Write a summary in English to the text below:


Великий ученый Альберт Эйнштейн в общей теории относительности
доказал возможность существования черных дыр. И хотя они еще до сих пор не
обнаружены, есть факты, подтверждающие эту гипотезу. Звезды находятся в
постоянном развитии. Постепенно термоядерное топливо (thermonuclear ftial) в
них выгорает и звезда "стареет". Чем больше масса звезды, тем короче ее жизнь
и тем быстрее она становится красным гигантом, а затем может превратиться в
белый карлик(а white dwarf) и очень медленно остывать. Под действием
гравитационного поля эта звезда может сжаться до ядерной плотности, став
нейтронной звездой, или же взорваться, как сверхновая, или же стать звездой-
невидимкой под названием "черная дыра".
Из теории относительности Эйнштейна существование этих необычных
объектов следует с неизбежностью. Силы тяготения связаны с физическими
свойствами самого пространства. Оказывается, любое тело не просто
существует в пространстве само по себе, но изменяет вокруг себя его
геометрию.
9. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Scientific American was founded to provide technical help and legal advice to
inventors.
2. It reported the hallmarks of science and technology during the Industrial
Revolution.
3. Many of the would-be Nobel Prize winners were among its contributors.
4. The journal has a limited edition due to its highly professional nature.

Scientific American
Scientific American, the oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S., has
been bringing its readers unique insights about developments in science and
technology for more than 150 years. In 1845 Rufus Porter founded the publication as
a weekly broadsheet subtitled "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise, and Journal
of Mechanical and Other Improvements." A restless inventor, Porter soon turned to
other ventures, and after 10 months sold Scientific American —for the sum of $800 -
to Orson Desaix Munn and Alfred Ely Beach.
In an era of rapid innovation Scientific American founded the first branch of the
U.S. Patent Agency to provide technical help and legal advice to inventors. A
Washington, D.C. branch was added in 1859. By 1900 more than 100,000 inventions
had been patented thanks to Scientific American.
For a century, Munn & Company retained ownership of the journal, which
chronicled the major discoveries and inventions of the Industrial Revolution,
including the Bessemer steel converter, the telephone and the incandescent lightbulb.
Edison presented the prototype of the phonograph for inspection by the editors, and
Samuel Morse, father of the telegraph, and Elias Howe, inventor of the sewing
machine, were frequent visitors to the offices in downtown New York City.
By 1904 journal had established its hallmark for pinpointing emerging trends
before news of them reached the general population. Articles on Marconi's
experiments appeared two decades before the advent of radio. With ahead-of-the-
curve reporting, Scientific American continued to cover groundbreaking events in
science and technology. More than 120 Nobel laureates have written for Scientific
American, most of whom wrote about their prize-winning works years before being
recognized by the Nobel Committee. In addition to the likes of Albert Einstein,
Francis Crick, Jonas Salk and Linus Pauling, Scientific American continues to attract
esteemed authors from many fields:
Scientific American is a truly global enterprise. The journal publishes 15 foreign
language editions and has a total of more than 1,000,000 copies in circulation
worldwide. Scientific American understood early on the importance of the Internet,
so in March 1996, it launched its own Web site at www.SciAm.com. Scientific
American has distinguished itself by looking ahead for more than 150 years. More
relevant and topical than ever, it is a powerful tool for forward-thinking readers.
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Linking Words-II ( Multiple Meaning)
10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the function oiyet, while, for,
since, onc,e thus

1. F leming ’s finding, which he called lysozyme, would prove to be a dead end in the
search for efficacious antibiotic, since it typically destroyed nonpathogenic bacterial
cells as well as harmful ones.
2. The alchemists still believed in the same four basic elements as the Greek
philosophers, while the chemists leaned to the ideas of Robert Boyle.
3. While he was working at McGill University in Canada Rutherford concluded that
radioactivity was a process in which the atoms of one element spontaneously changed
into atoms of a different element, which was also radioactive.
4. Viewed by such lights, the old question of whether the intricate beauty of
biological systems could have been produced by mere chance is turned on its head,
and we are prompted to ask whether design could have done as good a job as chance
evidently has.
5. The ceremonies (white ties and tails, of course, tuxedoes are so declasses) are
occasions for ladies to show off their finery. And they had better. For the television
broadcast includes the fashion commentary, and woe betide the lady, whose couture
is not haute enough.
6. The Copemican revolution was in full swing all over the Europe. However, it
would be another 200 years before the Catholic Church lifted its ban on De
Revolutionibus.
7. For all its brevity - one paragraph of twenty-four lines - the abstract contained an
enormous amount of new science.
8. However battered and bruised it may at times have been, at the end of the
twentieth century science emerged as a victor, as the key intellectual discipline for
the twenty first century and beyond.
9. The less appetizing the reality, the more inclined we are to resort to euphemisms,
thus comforting ourselves by denying ourselves the truth.
10. In the previous half century, Kepler had shown that planets have elliptical orbits,
and Galileo had shown that things accelerate at an even pace as they fall towards the
ground.
11. A problem once grasped was never released till Gauss had conquered it, although
several other might be in the foreground of his attention simultaneously.
12. Einstein once went so far as to say that ‘the only physical theories that we are
willing to accept are the beautiful ones” taking for granted that a good theory must
concur with experiment.

11. Use the suitable linking word to fill the gaps.


1. The General Theory of Relativity stated that gravity is not a force - ... physicists
had believed ... Newton - but a distortion in space-time, created by the presence of
mass.
.2. B u t... all this progress, no one knew just what an element was - and no one had
thought to connect them with atoms in any way.
3. Over the next half a century, scientists began mathematically to wind back the
clock of the expanding universe, and they realized that, although it is now big, i t ...
must have been very small.
4. Zwicky wondered if the neutron—the subatomic particle that had just been
discovered in England by James Chadwick, and was ...both novel and rather
fashionable—might be at the heart of thin
5. In 1830 Thomas Young and Augustine Fresnel showed that light did not travel as
particles,... Newton had said, but ...waves or vibrations.
6. As a woman Skladovska was barred from higher education in her native Poland,
and ... she planned to go to the Sorbonne in Paris.
7. Even more contentious than the provenance of scientific equations is the questions
o f... they are invented or discovered.
8— this story is true or not, it is typical of Archimedes’s amazingly neat and elegant
scientific solutions to awkward questions - and of how a small practical problem led
him on to crucial theoretical insights.

CONFUSABLES
12.FH1 the gaps with the words from the box.

a) however b) whenever c) whereas d) wherever


e) wherein f) therefore g) thereafter

1. B u t... the scales balance weights, most equations balance other quantities.
2. ... a man does a thoroughly stupid thing, it is always from the noblest of motives.
O. Wilde
3. At the start of the 20th century Paul Wolfkehl, a German industrialist, bequeathed
100,000 marks to ... could meet Fermat’s challenge.
4. Mendeleev was said to have been inspired by the card game known as solitaire in
North America and patience elsewhere, ... cards are arranged in by suit horizontally
and by number vertically.
5. The only absolute, according to Einstein, is the speed of light, which is the same ...
and ... it is measured.
6. The dominating force opposing motion... arises from viscosity rather than inertia.
7. The fact that an opinion is widely held is no evidence ... that it is not utterly
absurd. B. Russell
8. Opponents fear that in tinkering with DNA, the coded essence of life, science may
unleash dark forces that it cannot... contain.

13. It is interesting to know! Physical Journals


In 1913, the APS (the American Physics Society) took over the operation of the
Physical Review, which had been founded in 1893 at Cornell University. The
Physical Review was followed by Reviews o f Modern Physics in 1929, and by
Physical Review Letters in 1958. Over the years, Physical Review has subdivided
into five separate sections as the fields of physics proliferated and the number of
submissions grew. The journals of the APS embody the mission of the Society “to
advance and diffuse the knowledge of Physics. We strive to produce journals of the
highest quality, and at the same time, to keep our journals accessible to researchers
and students at institutions of all types, everywhere in the world, through ongoing
efforts to reduce production costs and through policies such as tiered pricing and
reduced-price or free subscriptions for developing countries.”

• Virtual Journals {Physical Review) are online publications that collect


relevant papers from a broad range of physical science journals. The present
series of five Virtual Journals offers researchers quick, convenient access to
the latest developments.
• Physics Today, the flagship publication of The American Institute of
Physics, is the most influential and closely followed physics journal in the
world, informing readers about science and its place in the world with
authoritative features, full news coverage and analysis, and fresh perspectives
on technological advances and ground-breaking research.
• Physics Today Online (www.physicstoday.org) serves as Physics Today's
home on the Internet, presenting the journal's digital edition and continually
building a valuable online archive. In addition, PTOL extends the journal's
coverage of the physical sciences with links to related articles and news stories
from around the web.

14. Write an abstract of an article to one of on-line engineering journals:


Aeronautics, Aerospace Engineering, Automobiles, Energy, Mechanics,
Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Process Monitoring, Manufacturing
Technology, Nanotechnology, Techniques and Systems, Reliability
and Risk Analysis

15. Translate into English.


“Журнал технической физики” - один из старейших физических журналов
России. Он был основан в 1931 году академиком А.Ф.Иоффе и по своему
содержанию с самого начала служил аналогом американского Journal o f
Applied Physics , основанного одновременно. С момента организации журнала
его лицо многократно изменялось в соответствии с бурным развитием физики в
нашем веке. Несмотря на образование, в том числе и на базе ЖТФ, ряда
специализированных журналов (“Физика твердого тела”, “Физика и техника
полупроводников”, “Письма в ЖТФ”, “Радиотехника и электроника”,
“Физика плазмы”, “Квантовая электроника” и др.) все разделы современной
прикладной физики, которым посвящены эти журналы, находят отражение и на
страницах ЖТФ. Традиционным для журнала является раздел "Теоретическая
и математическая физика". Значительное место уделяется исследованиям
физики поверхности, атомной и молекулярной физике, различным свойствам
материалов. Систематически публикуются результаты работ по созданию
новых приборов и развитию методики физического эксперимента. В настоящее
время номера журнала на русском и английском языках ежемесячно выходят в
свет одновременно.

UNIT 21 LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

1. Read the text and give the headings to the numbered paragraphs.
a. Sophisticated yet manageable and controllable
b. Aspirations and expectations
c. A machine of superlatives
d. Long-awaited facility
e. Hurdles and failures

Large Hadron Collider: The Discovery Machine

1- _____ The mammoth machine, Large Hadron Collider, after a nine-year


construction period, is scheduled (touch wood) to begin producing its beams of
particles later this year. The commissioning process is planned to proceed from one
beam to two beams etc; from lower energies to the terascale; from weaker test
intensities to stronger ones suitable for producing data at useful rates. Each step along
the way will produce challenges to be overcome by the more than 5,000 scientists,
engineers and students collaborating on the gargantuan effort. To break into the new
territory that is the terascale, the LHC’s basic parameters outdo those of previous
colliders in almost every respect. Its nearly 7,000 magnets, chilled by liquid helium to
less than two kelvins to make them superconducting, will steer and focus two beams
of protons traveling within a millionth of a percent of the speed of light. Each proton
will have about 7 TeV of energy - 7,000 times as much energy as a proton at rest has
embodied in its mass.
2- ___ That is about seven times the energy of the reigning record holder, the
Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, 111.. The
protons will travel in nearly 3,000 bunches, spaced all around the 27-kilometer
circumference of the collider. Each bunch of up to 100 billion protons will be the size
of a needle, just a few centimeters long and squeezed down to 16 microns in diameter
(about the same as the thinnest of human hairs) at the collision points. Four giant
detectors - the largest would roughly half-fill the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris, and
the heaviest contains more iron than the Eiffel Tower - will track and measure the
thousands of particles spewed out by each collision occurring at their centers. Despite
the detectors’ vast size, some elements of them must be positioned with a precision of
50 microns. A “farm” of a few thousand computers at CERN will turn the filtered
raw data into more compact data sets organized for physicists to comb through
3. ___ As the full commissioning of the accelerator proceeds in measured step-by-
step fashion, problems are sure to come up. The big unknown is how long the
engineers and scientists will take to overcome each challenge. If a sector has to be
brought back to room temperature for repairs, it will add months. When everything is
working together, the task faced by the detectors and the data-processing systems will
be Herculean. At the design luminosity, as many as 20 events will occur, with each
crossing of the needlelike bunches of protons. The millions of channels of data
streaming away from the detector produce about a megabyte of data from each event:
a petabyte, or a billion megabytes, of it every two seconds.
The trigger system that will reduce this flood of data to manageable proportions has
multiple levels. The data passed to Tier 0 by the four LHC experiments’ data-
acquisition systems will be archived on magnetic tape. That may sound old-fashioned
and low-tech in this age of DVD-RAM disks and flash drives, but the experts of the
CERN Computing Center think it turns out to be the most cost-effective and secure
approach.
4 . ______ With all the novel technologies being prepared to come online, it is not
surprising that the LHC has experienced some hiccups - and some more serious
setbacks - along the way. Last March a magnet suffered a “serious failure” during a
test of its ability to stand up against the kind of significant forces that could occur if,
for instance, the magnet’s coils lost their superconductivity during operation of the
beam (a mishap called quenching). Part of the supports of the magnet had collapsed
under the pressure of the test, producing a loud bang like an explosion and releasing
helium gas. The problem was a design flaw: the magnet designers (researchers at
Fermilab) had failed to take account of all the kinds of forces the magnets had to
withstand. CERN and Fermilab researchers worked feverishly, identifying the
problem and coming up with a strategy to fix the undamaged magnets in the
accelerator tunnel.
5. _____ The seemingly ever receding start-up date is a concern because the
longer the LHC takes to begin producing sizable quantities of data, the more
opportunity the Tevatron has - it is still running - to scoop it. The Tevatron could
find evidence of the Higgs boson or something equally exciting if nature has played a
cruel trick and given it just enough mass for it to show up only now in Fermilab’s
growing mountain of data. Holdups also can cause personal woes through the price
individual students and scientists pay as they fall behind with stages of their career s
waiting for data. However, for a machine of this complexity, things are going
remarkably smoothly, and everyone is looking forward to doing physics with the
LHC very soon.

2. In the text find phrasal verbs and nouns corresponding to the words below.
appear- anticipate - arise - collisions -
consist - delay - delays - perform -
postpone - prove - readings - return -
select- suggest- resist/withstand -
3. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false:
a) Physicists hope that the LHC will enhance their ability to answer many scientific
questions;
b) LHC-like collisions are very scarce in nature;
c) All people around the world are eagerly awaiting the LHC to start operating.

The L HC - the answer to cosmological puzzles or the Apocalypse?


The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a huge international science and
engineering project exploring the boundaries of our knowledge and theories about the
world we live in. It is an excellent example of how science works in the real world
and a great opportunity to use a current and topical project as a resource for topics in
physics, particle physics and engineering.
The LHC is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator complex,
intended to collide opposing beams of protons with very high kinetic energy. Each of
the two beams contains just a billionth of a gram of matter. The material is moving so
fast that one billionth of a gram has the momentum of a freight train going at a speed
of 190 km/hr squeezed into two 27 km long circular streams each thinner than a
human hair.You could think of it as the biggest, most powerful microscope in the
history of science. The LHC completed underneath a circle of countryside and
villages a short drive from Geneva, will peer into the physics of the shortest distances
(down to a nano-nanometer) and the highest energies ever probed. For a decade or
more, particle physicists have been eagerly awaiting a chance to explore that domain,
sometimes called the terascale because of the energy range involved. Significant new
physics is expected to occur at these energies, such as the elusive Higgs particle
(believed to be responsible for imbuing other particles with mass) and the particle
that constitutes the dark matter that makes up most of the material in the universe.
Physicists hope that the LHC will enhance their ability to answer the following
questions:
- Is the Higgs mechanism for generating elementary particle masses in the Standard
Model indeed realized in nature? If so, how many Higgs bosons are there, and what
are their masses?
- Are electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force just
different manifestations of a single unified force, as predicted by various Grand
Unification Theories?
- Why is gravity so many orders of magnitude weaker than the other three
fundamental forces?
- Is Supersymmetry realized in nature, implying that the known Standard Model
particles have supersymmetric partners?
- Will the more precise measurements of the masses and decays of the quarks
continue to be mutually consistent within the Standard Model?
- Why are there apparent violations of the symmetry between matter and antimatter?
- What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy?
- Are there extra dimensions, as predicted by various models inspired by string
theory, and can we detect them?
Several people are suing to try and get the LHC project cancelled. Critics have
contended that the machine could produce a black hole that could consume the Earth
or something equally catastrophic. Experiments with a black hole have always been
considered very dangerous as it absorbs everything around itself. The electron and
proton constantly aspire to merge. This is prevented by a strong shell of the proton.
However, if at some point of the matter’s existence there arises something super­
powerful (like extreme pressure, extreme temperature and etc, including the hadron
collider), which can break the proton, then the shell around the energy hole within the
proton may collapse. And then one of the electrons, which are always plentiful in the
environment, gets an opportunity to return to the place, where it was once pulled out
from into existence by the force of the super-vacuum. As a result, the two primary
particles disappear and a micro “black hole” of absolute emptiness arises, which
immediately becomes a draw for all the particles in its proximity. The hill energy,
which is emitted during the annihilation of a proton and electron, becomes sufficient
to destroy, melt the shells of the nearby protons. Via the chain reaction the "black
hole" instantly expands, sucking in all accessible matter until the continuous extent of
matter is interrupted. Presented theory strictly proves that the collider experiments
have a real potential to destroy the planet Earth.
On the other hand, the USA Santa Barbara Physics Professor Steve Giddings
claims that if they appear at all, these “black holes” would exist for about a
nanosecond. Nature is continuously creating LHC-like collisions when much higher-
energy cosmic rays collide with the Earth's atmosphere, with the Sun, and with other
objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars. If such collisions posed a danger, the
consequences for Earth or these astronomical objects would have become evident
already.
However the first beam in the LHC at CERN1 was successfully steered around
the full 27 kilometers on the 10 September 2008. During commissioning (without
beam) of the final LHC sector, an incident occurred at mid-day on Friday 19
September resulting in a large helium leak into the tunnel. Preliminary investigations
indicate that the most likely cause of the problem was a faulty electrical connection
between two magnets, which probably melted at high current leading to mechanical
failure. CERN’s strict safety regulations ensured that at no time was there any risk to
people. Now The LHC is scheduled to start operating the following spring. Not only
scientists, but all people all over the world are waiting the answer we are going to
have from LHC.

4. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- противоположно направленные пучки протонов;
- шанс исследовать эту область;
- неуловимая частица Хиггса;
- частица, которая представляет темное вещество;
- непрерывная протяженность материи;
- предварительное расследование;
- во время ввода в эксплуатацию.
- строгие правила безопасности
5. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-9 with the words a-i:
1. accelerator 2. opposing 3. neutron 4. powerful
5. energy 6. elusive 7. nuclear 8. extreme
9. real 10. mechanical

a) star b) range c) potential d) force e) failure f) beams


g) microscope h) particle i) complex k) temperature

TALKING POINT
6. Discuss in pairs:
• the objective of the LHC project;
• the opportunities for physicists with the start of LHC;
• the appearance of tiniest black holes during the LHC operation;
• fears of the public concerning the LHC experiments;
• the discussion around the LHC project

7. Translate the text into English.


Существует немало вопросов, ответы на которые могут быть найдены с
помощью ускорителя БАК. Но история уже показала, что выдающиеся
открытия в науке часто бывают непредсказуемы. Хотя у ученых есть
представление о том, что они хотят найти с помощью БАК, природа может
преподнести людям очередной сюрприз. Так или иначе, он изменит наше
миропонимание (world-view). Ускоритель БАК будет работать на основе
эффекта сверхпроводимости, т.е. способности определенных материалов
проводить электричество без сопротивления или потери энергии, обычно при
очень низких температурах. Чтобы удержать пучок частиц на его кольцевом
треке, необходимы более сильные магнитные поля, чем те, которые
использовались ранее в других ускорителях ЦЕРН. Сверхпроводимость
позволяет получить такие поля, но никогда ранее не строилась такая большая
"сверхпроводящая" установка.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Phrasal verbs


8. Insert the suitable particle: across in on (2) out (3) round through up

1. After finishing her degree, R. Franklin spent a year in research at Cambridge, but
gave i t ... to work in industry studying the physical structure of coal.
2. And it is in his biology that Aristotle’s genius shines . . . .
3. Our lungs take ... the oxygen we need from the air and expel carbon dioxide.
4. The first certitude Descartes discovered was his famous cogito ergo sum, and on
the basis of this, the existence of everything, he worked ...his philosophy.
5 .1. Newton applied the law to the Moon, showing that the Moon tries to carry ... in
a straight line, but gravity pulls it into an orbit.
6. When Michelson carried ... his experiment, in Chicago in 1887, all the streetcars
in the city were stopped in order to avoid the slightest disturbance.
7. Helicopter toys had actually been ... for centuries, but Leonardo was the first to
try and design one as a means for lifting people.
8. As Babbage was poring over statistic tables, he came... error after error made by
the ‘computers’, the poorly paid human calculators who worked out such figures.
9. While electrical hysteria was going ..., rapid and serous advances were being
made by experimental scientists towards understanding the true nature of electricity.
10. It turned ... that Kelvin was mistaken about how fast the earth is cooling; further
calculations showed that the world was over 4 billion years old.

9. Insert the suitable verb: came do done drew get ironed pointed sort spelling
turned
1. It is Bacon writing in the first decades of the seventeenth century, who is usually
credited with ...out the principles of empirical science and the role that experiments
should play in hypothesis testing.
2. When Newton made his theory of light and color known in 1672, Hooke... out that
what was right in Newton’s theory had been suggested by him seven years previously
3. Newland’s system had its faults, but given time and encouragement he could have
them ...out.
4. In 1870, Julius Lothar Meyer (1830-1895), a German chemist, who independently
from Mendeleev ... up the periodic table, published his version.
5. The row over who had been the first to think of Calculus became so bitter that the
Royal Society held an inquiry to ... out the mess.
6. In 1755 Linnaeus ... down the offer from the King of Spain to come and live at the
Spanish court with a very handsome salary.
7. The occult qualities of late scholastic science were to be ... away with; the only
ideas which were clear and distinct were to be employed.
8. To answer the question about what transfers vibration, scientists ... up with the
idea of a weightless matter called ‘ether’.
9. Romans did n o t... round to inventing paper or gunpowder, but when it came to
technology and administration of a great empire they were equal to the Chinese.
10. For young Gauss whose inhuman memory enabled him to ... without a table of
logarithms, all the endless arithmetics was the sport of an infant.

WORD FORMATION Phrasal nouns


10. Add the suitable particle: back by down (2) in out (4) through to form
nouns and fdl the gaps.

1. Tax farms was a sound financial investment and helped Lavoisier to get wealthy,
but it would also prove in time to be his ...fall, for the tax farmers were not popular
with the people.
2. A major set... occurred in 1862, when the Scottish physicist W. Thomson, later
Lord Kelvin, estimated the age of the Earth scientifically. Kelvin declared the Earth
could be no older than 40 million years old and possibly only 20 million years old.
3. As a ...-product of his work, Rutherford had made a significant discovery in an
entirely different field, and pioneered a new science - radiometric dating.
4. The ...come was the development of the first nuclear bomb, which, ironically, was
detonated on Japan after the fall of Germany.
5. In 1514, Copernicus published a little handwritten book for his friends. Called
Commentariolus, it gave the first ...line of his revolutionary theory.
6. Fleming’s discovery was one of the medicine’s greatest ...throughs.
7. The ...break of the First World War prevented Bohr from taking up a
professorship in theoretical physics in Copenhagen.
8. Darwin’s ...sight was to focus on individuals, not species and he showed how
individuals evolve by natural selection.
9. -10. If the reaction in the heat-producing core of a nuclear power station goes out of
control, there may be a melt-... causing a radioactive material to release into the
environment radiation in the form of radioactivity and radioactive fall-....

WRITING: informal letter

ll.W rite a letter to a foreign colleague. Use the following phrasal verbs

check up get round to look forward pick up put off, put up come

Here is the plan of the letter.


1. apology for the delayed response to his previous letter
2. explanation for the delay (problems with the experiment)
3. discovery of a new approach
4. complaint about being tired
5. thanks for the offer to meet at the airport and provide accommodation
6. desire to see the friends soon

12. It’s Interesting to Know


Famous Research Institutions

• In 1921 Bohr became president of the newly established Institute for


Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (sponsored by the Carlsberg brewery),
which he petitioned to open. He held this post until his death, and the
institute was later renamed in his honor. His son Aage succeeded him as
director in 1963 .Bohr was a leading figure in the foundation of CERN, the
Centre for Nuclear and Particle Physics Research in Switzerland, founded
in 1954.
• Princeton Institute of Advanced Studies is a private US research center. It
was established in 1933 and has four departments: History, Mathematics,
Natural studies and Social sciences. Bout 160 financial awards are given for
research work each year to members from many countries. A. Einstein was
one of the first members. The Institute has a close but independent
relationship with Princeton University.
13.Write it in English:

Институт теоретической физики имени Л. Д. Ландау РАН РФ


Институт теоретической физики имени Л.Д. Ландау Российской Академии
Наук был образован в 1964 году. Он расположен в городе Черноголовка
Московской области, где располагается один из Научно-исследовательских
центров Академии. К тематике научных исследований ИТФ РАН относятся:
1. Физика конденсированного состояния.
2. Низкоразмерные и мезоскопические системы.
3. Нелинейная динамика.
4. Квантовая теория поля.
5. Релятивистская астрофизика и космология.
6. Физика квантовых вычислений.
7. Математическая физика.
8. Вычислительная физика и сетевые исследования.

UNIT 22 PURE AND APPLIED MATHEMTICS

1. Read the text and say whether the following statements are true or false:
1. The theorem known as the Poincare conjecture was first postulated by French
mathematician Henri Poincare 150 years ago.
2. It was very easy to prove the Poincare conjecture theorem.
3. Perelman’s work withstood two years of scrutiny before he became eligible for the
prize.
Perelman proved Poincare’s Conjecture
The Poincare conjecture had a $l-million reward on offer for its proof: it is one
of seven such “Millenium Problems” singled out in 2000 by the Clay Mathematics
Institute in Cambridge, Mass.
The branch of mathematics that studies manifolds is topology. Among the funda­
mental questions topologists can ask about 3-manifolds are: What is the simplest type
of 3-manifold, the one with the least complicated structure? Does it have many
cousins that are equally simple, or is it unique? What kinds of 3-manifolds are there?
The answer to the first of those questions has long been known: a space called the 3-
sphere is the simplest compact 3-manifold. (Noncompact manifolds can be thought of
as being infinite or having an edge. Hereafter only compact manifolds are being
considered.) The other two questions have been up for grabs for a century but have
been answered in 2002 by Grigori ("Grisha") Perelman, a Russian mathematician
who has proved a theorem known as the Poincare conjecture.
First postulated by French mathematician Henri Poincare exactly 100 years ago,
the conjecture holds that the 3-sphere is unique among 3-manifolds; no other 3-
manifold shares the properties that make it so simple. The 3-manifolds that are more
complicated than the 3-sphere have boundaries that you can run up against like a
brick wall, or multiple connections from one region to another, like a path through
the woods that splits and later rejoins. The Poincare conjecture states that the 3-
sphere is the only compact 3-manifold that lacks all those complications. Any three-
dimensional object that shares those properties with the sphere can therefore be
morphed into the same shape as a 3-sphere; so far as topologists are concerned, the
object is just another copy of the 3-sphere. Perelman's proof also answers the third of
the above mentioned questions: it completes work that classifies all the types of 3-
manifolds that exist.
It takes some mental gymnastics to imagine what a 3-sphere is like - it is not simply a
sphere in the everyday sense of the word. But it has many properties in common with
the 2-sphere, which we are all familiar with: If you take a spherical balloon, the
rubber of the balloon forms a 2- sphere. The 2-sphere is two-dimensional because
only two coordinates - latitude and longitude - are needed to specify a point on it.
Also, if you take a very small disk of the balloon and examine it with a magnifying
glass, the disk looks a lot like one cut from a flat two-dimensional plane of rubber. It
just has a slight curvature. To a tiny insect crawling on the balloon, it would seem
like a flat plane. Yet if the insect travelled far enough in what would seem to it to be a
straight line, eventually it would arrive back at its starting point.
Similarly, a gnat in a 3-sphere - or a person in one as big as our universe! - perceives
itself to be in “ordinary” three-dimensional space. But if it flies far enough in a
straight line in any direction, it will eventually circumnavigate the 3-sphere and find
itself back where it started, just like the insect on the balloon or someone taking a trip
around the world. Spheres exist for dimensions other than three as well. The 1-sphere
is also familiar to you: it is just a circle (the rim of a disk, not the disk itself). The n-
dimensional sphere is called an n-sphere.
After Poincare proposed his conjecture about the 3-sphere, many scientists tried to
prove it, but a major step in closing the three-dimensional problem came in
November 2002, when Grigory Perelman, a mathematician at the Steclov Institute of
Mathematics in St.Petersburg, posted a paper on the www.arxiv.org Web server that
is widely used by physicists and mathematicians as a clearinghouse of new research.
Perelman’s work extends and completes a program of research that Richard S.
Hamilton of Columbia University explored in the 1990s. Perelman’s calculations and
analysis blew away several roadblocks that Hamilton had run into and could not
overcome. Perelman’s work withstood two years of scrutiny before he became
eligible for the prize.

2. Find in the text equivalents to the phrases:

- 3-х мерное многообразие с наименее сложной структурой;


- никакое другое многообразие не имеет таких же свойств;
- проблема Пуанкаре гласит;
- некомпактные многообразия
- край диска;
- очень маленькая кривизна;
- своеобразный информационный центр по обсуждению нового исследования

3. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-9 with the words a-i:

1. fundamental 2.starting 3. magnifying 4. a slight 5. far


6. n-dimensional 7. crawling 8. conjecture 9. tiny

a) insect b) glass c) enough d) holds e) sphere


f) curvature g) questions h) insect i) point.

TALKING POINT
4. Discuss in pairs:
• questions topology concerns with;
• the Poincare conjecture problem;
• attempts to prove the Poincare conjecture;
• difficulties withstood by Perelman before he was offered the award.

VOCABULARY STUDY
5. Choose the word to complete the text:
To mathematicians, Grigori Perelman's ... (1) of the Poincare conjecture
qualifies at least as the Breakthrough of the Decade. But it has taken them a good
part of that decade to ... (2) themselves that it was for real. In 2006, nearly 4 years
after the Russian mathematician released the first of three papers ... (3) the proof,
researchers finally reached a consensus that Perelman had solved one of the subject's
most venerable problems. But the solution touched off a storm of controversy and
drama that threatened to overshadow the brilliant work.
Perelman's proof has fundamentally ... (4) two distinct branches of mathematics.
First, it solved a problem that for more than a century was the indigestible seed at the
core o f... (5), the mathematical study of abstract shape. Most mathematicians expect
that the work will lead to a much broader result, a proof of the geometrization
conjecture: essentially, a "periodic table" that brings clarity to the study of three-
dimensional spaces, much as Mendeleev's table did for ... (6).
While bringing new results to topology, Perelman's work brought new ... (7) to
geometry. It cemented the central role of geometric evolution equations, powerful
machinery for transforming hard-to-work-with spaces into more-manageable ones.
Earlier studies of such equations always ran into "singularities" at which the
equations break down. Perelman dynamited that roadblock.
"This is the first time that mathematicians have been able to understand the
structure of singularities and the ... (8) of such a complicated system," said Shing-
Tung Yau of Harvard University at a lecture in Beijing this summer. "The methods
developed ... should shed light on many natural systems, such as the Navier-Stokes
equation (of fluid dynamics) and the Einstein equation (of general relativity)."
1. a) theory b) proof c) idea
2. a) confine b) concern c) convince
3. a) outlining b) declaring c) claiming
4. a) altered b) diverted c) proved
5. a) fluid dynamics b) mechanics c) topology
6. a) biology b) chemistry c) geometry
7. a) techniques b) tools c) methodology
8. a) development b) organization c) structure

6. Read the text.

M. Poincare was a mathematician, geometer, philosopher, and man of


letters, who was a kind of poet of the infinite, a kind of bard of science,
(quotation from an address at the funeral)

Henri Poincare's was bom in Nancy where his father was Professor of Medicine at
the University. Henri was “... ambidextrous and was nearsighted”; during his
childhood he had poor muscular coordination and was seriously ill for a time with
diphtheria. He received special instruction from his gifted mother and excelled in
written composition while still in elementary school.
In 1862 Henri entered the Lycee in Nancy (now renamed the Lycee Henri
Poincare in his honour). He spent eleven years at the Lycee and during this time he
proved to be one of the top students in every topic he studied. Henri was described by
his mathematics teacher as a "monster of mathematics" and he won first prizes in the
concours general, a competition between the top pupils from all the Lycees across
France.
Poincare entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1873, graduating in 1875. He was
well ahead of all the other students in mathematics but, perhaps not surprisingly
given his poor coordination, performed no better than average in physical exercise
and in art. Music was another of his interests but, although he enjoyed listening to it,
his attempts to learn the piano while he was at the Ecole Polytechnique were not
successful. His memory was remarkable and he retained much from all the texts he
read but not in the manner of learning by rote, rather by linking the ideas he was
assimilating particularly in a visual way. His ability to visualise what he heard proved
particularly useful when he attended lectures since his eyesight was so poor that he
could not see the symbols properly that Iris lecturers were writing on the blackboard.
After graduating from the Ecole Polytechnique, Poincare continued his studies at the
Ecole des Mines.
After completing his studies at the Ecole des Mines Poincare spent a short while as
a mining engineer at Vesoul while completing his doctoral work.. Immediately after
receiving his doctorate, Poincare was appointed to teach mathematical analysis at the
University of Caen. He was to remain there for only two years before being appointed
to a chair in the Faculty of Science in Paris in 1881. In 1886 Poincare was nominated
for the chair of mathematical physics and probability at the Sorbonne and he also was
appointed to a chair at the Ecole Polytechnique. Poincare held these chairs in Paris
until his death at the early age of 58.
Poincare was a scientist preoccupied by many aspects of mathematics, physics and
philosophy, and he is often described as the last universalist in mathematics. He made
contributions to numerous branches of mathematics, celestial mechanics, fluid
mechanics, the special theory of relativity and the philosophy of science.
Poincare's Analysis situs, published in 1895, is an early systematic treatment of
topology. He can be said to have been the originator of algebraic topology and, in
1901, he claimed that his researches in many different areas such as differential
equations and multiple integrals had all led him to topology. For 40 years after
Ротсагё published tire first of his six papers on algebraic topology in 1894,
essentially all of the ideas and techniques in the subject were based on his work.
Poincare conjecture remained for many years as one of the most baffling and
challenging unsolved problems in algebraic topology.
In applied mathematics he studied optics, electricity, telegraphy, capillarity,
elasticity, thermodynamics, potential theory, quantum theory, theory of relativity and
cosmology. In the field of celestial mechanics he studied the three-body-problem, and
the theories of light and of electromagnetic waves. He is acknowledged as a co­
discoverer, with Albert Einstein and Hendrik Lorentz, of the special theory of
relativity. Poincare achieved the highest honours for his contributions of true genius.
He was elected to the Academie des Sciences in 1887 and in 1906 was elected
President of the Academy. The breadth of his research led him to being the only
member elected to every one of the five sections of the Academy, namely the
geometry, mechanics, physics, geography and navigation sections. He won numerous
prizes, medals and awards.

7. Say whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F):
a) During his childhood Poincare had poor muscular coordination.
b) He received special instruction from his gifted mother and excelled in written-
composition while still in elementary school.
c) Immediately after receiving his doctorate, Poincare was appointed to teach
mathematical analysis at the University of Berkely.
d) Poincare was a scientist preoccupied by only one aspect of mathematics -
topology.
e) Poincare conjecture remained for many years as one of the most baffling and
challenging unsolved problems in algebraic topology.
f) He was acknowledged as a co-discoverer, with Albert Einstein and Hendrik
Lorentz, of the special theory of relativity.

8. Translate into English


Свойства двумерных многообразий были хорошо известны уже в середине
девятнадцатого века. Однако оставалось неясным, справедливо ли для трех
измерений то, что истинно в случае двух измерений. Пуанкаре предположил,
что все замкнутые односвязные трехмерные многообразия (финитные
многообразия без дырок) - являются сферами. Эта гипотеза имела особенно
важное значение для ученых, исследующих самое большое трехмерное
многообразие - нашу вселенную. Математическое доказательство этой
гипотезы было, тем не менее, совсем не легким. Большинство попыток вело
исследователей в тупик (to lead to a deadlock), но некоторые послужили
источником важных математических открытий, таких как лемма (lemma) Дена,
теорема сферы и теорема о петле, ставших базовыми теоремами современной
топологии. 22 августа 2006 г. Григорию Перельману присуждена
международная премия «Медаль Филдса» за решение гипотезы Пуанкаре.
Однако российский учёный отказался от присутствия на церемонии вручения
премии.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Conditionals - I (GR-23 p.209)

9. Identify the type of the conditional clause.


1. If you want to make the world’s most compact computer memory, perhaps the
smallest thing you could use to represent a bit of information would be one electron.
2. Should the traces of life be found on the solar system planets thiswill booster the
investments in space research.
3. If spacetime atoms exist, it will not take centuries to find evidence, as it did for
material atoms. With some luck, we may know within the coming decade.
4. In terms of science, to predict something means to give a description of future
events in which certain principles and conditions are assumed to be valid. If these
principles or conditions are fulfilled then the event will follow.
5. What would happen if you traveled out to the edge of the universe and put your
head through the curtains? Where would your head be if it were no longer in the
universe?
6. Had gravity been a trifle stronger, the universe itself might have collapsed like a
badly erected tent, without precisely the right values to give it the right dimensions
and density and component parts.
7. If the universe had been formed just a tiny bit differently - if gravity were
fractionally stronger or weaker, if the expansion had proceeded just a little more
slowly or swiftly - then there might never have been stable elements to make you
and me and the ground we stand on.
8. Perhaps if doctor had freedom to hand out crystals and amulets and placebo
potions far less harm would be done. A placebo often achieves the results as good as
‘real medicine’. Many survival manuals recommend administering anything that
looks like a medicine to someone bitten by a snake if no antivenin is at hand.

10. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Art and Science. Subjectivity vs. Objectivity

Although both art and science are human activities, they are thought about in
different ways. Monet’s Palazzo do Mula and Mozart’s Die Zauberflote are regarded
as wondrous acts of creativity.

1. We value variety in, say, art or biology. Nobody thinks the world would be better
if Eduard Manet (be) more like Mark Chagall, or fish like fowl.
2. Would the world now be different if Albert Einstein (...) never (live)?
3. Had Monet not lived, the world (be) different because the Palazzo do Mula never
(paint).
4. Had Mozart not (live), the world (be) different because the opera Die Zauberflote
never would have been composed.
5. It is indeed likely that if Einstein (not create) the Special Theory of Relativity,
someone else would have created something equivalent to Einstein's theory.

UNIT 23 BRAIN - THE MOST POWERFUL COMPUTER

1. Read the text and give it a title:


Man has a lot to learn about the most powerful and complex part of the body -
the brain. In the ancient times people did not think that the brain was the centre of
mental activity. The great ancient philosopher of Greece Aristotle thought that the
mind was based in the heart. It was not until the 18th century that people realized the
brain to be involved in the mental process of the mind.
During recent years, research has shown that the brain is a much more intelligent than
we ever imagined. Even the commonly known statement that, on average, we use only
one per cent of our brain may well be wrong. It now seams that we can use even less
than one per cent which means that we have to learn how to use an enormous part of
our brain.
In the past 50 years chemists and biologists have found that the way the brain
works
is far more complicated than they had thought. For example, over 100,000 chemical
reactions take place in the brain every second. However, the more scientists know, the
more questions appear to be answered.
Marian C. Diamond, one of the respected scientists of the University of California
at Berkeley examined a small slice of Albert Einstein”s brain but found nothing
unusual about the number or size of its neurons (nerve cells). But in the association
cortex, responsible for high-level cognition, she did discover a surprisingly large
number of nonneuronal cells known as glia - a much greater concentration than that
found in the average Albert's head. An odd curiosity? Perhaps not. A growing body
of evidence suggests that glial cells play a far more important role than historically
presumed. For decades, physiologists focused on neurons as the brain's prime
communicators. Glia, even though they outnumber nerve cells nine to one, was
thought to have only a maintenance role: bringing nutrients from blood vessels to
neurons, maintaining a healthy balance of ions in the brain, and warding off pathogens
that evaded the immune system. Propped up by glia, neurons were free to
communicate across tiny contact points called synapses and to establish a web of
connections that allow us to think, remember and jump for joy.
That long-held model of brain function could change dramatically if new findings
about glia pan out. In the past several years, sensitive imaging tests have shown that
neurons and glia engage in a two-way dialogue from embryonic development through
old age. Glias influence the formation of synapses and help to determine which neural
connections get stronger or weaker over time; such changes are essential to learning
and to storing long-term memories. And the most recent work shows that glia also
communicate among themselves, in a separate but parallel network to the neural
network, influencing how well the brain performs. Neuroscientists are cautious about
assigning new prominence to glia too quickly, yet they are excited by the prospect that
more than half the brain has gone largely unexplored and may contain a trove of
information about how the mind works.

2. Find in the text equivalents to the phrases:


- центр умственной активности;
- вскрытие трупа;
- скупо выделять небольшие срезы мозга;
- изучать ткань (мозга),
- в попытках разгадать причину гениальности Эйнштейна;
- давно существующая модель функции мозга;
- с момента развития эмбриона вплоть до преклонного возраста;
- хранение давних воспоминаний;
- паутина связей;
- работа нейронов;
- приписывать выдающуюся роль;
- кладезь информации

3. Translate into Russian the following words and phrases:


mind, minded, mindful, mindless, mind-reader; mental, mental activity, mental
process, mental deficiency, mentality;
intellection, intellectual, intellectual property, intelligent, intelligence, intelligible;
cognition, cognitional, cognitive, cognitively, cognizable;
neuron, neuronal, neuropathology, neurophysiology, neurophysiological,
neurophysiologist, neuropsychology, neuropsychological.

TALKING POINT
4. Make a dialogue, asking your partner:
- if we know everything about the brain;
- interesting facts Marian C. Daimond discovered about Albert Einstain’s brain;
- how recent works have changed the understanding of glia’s role for brain function.

5. Translate into Russian:


The mental picture most people have of our nervous system resembles a tangle of
wires that connect neurons. Each neuron has a long, outstretched branch - an axon -
that carries electrical signals to buds at its end. Each bud emits neurotransmitters -
chemical messenger molecules - across a short synaptic gap to a twiglike receptor, or
dendrite, on an adjacent neuron. But packed around the neurons and axons is a
diverse population of glial cells. By the time of Einstein's death, neuroscientists
suspected that glial cells might contribute to information processing, but convincing
evidence eluded them. They eventually demoted glia, and research on these cells slid
into the backwater of science for a long time.

6. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-11 with the words a-к and transla

1) glial, 2) twiglike, 3) nervous, 4) information, 5) adjacent, 6) outstretched,


7) a tangle, 8) synaptic, 9) brain, 10) high- level, 11) immune

a) system, b) system, c) neuron, d) cell, e) receptor, f) of wires,


g) slice, h) cognition, i) branch, j) gap, k) processing

WORD FORMATION

7. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate form of the words in brackets:


If you wake up feeling hazy, wait for the fog to clear before you make any big
decision, according to a new study. 1... (research) at the university of Colorado and
at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston found that people just wake from eight
hours of sound sleep have weaker 2 ... (cognise) skills than people who have had no
sleep for more than 24 hours. The small study, which is outlined in research letter in
an issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, found that people had
diminished short-term memory, counting skills and cognitive abilities during the
groggy period upon 3 ... (awake), a period known as sleep inertia. “This is the first
time anyone has quantified the effects of sleep inertia”, said Kenneth Wright, the
study’s leader. “For a short period, at least, the effects of sleep inertia may be as bad
as or worse than being legally drunk.” The researchers said that the most severe
effects of sleep inertia generally dissipated within the first 10 minutes, although its
effects are often 4 ... (detect) for up to two hours. The researchers said the findings
are important for doctors and other 5 ... (profession) who have quick transitions
from sleep mode to “on” mode. They also said the study illuminates the challenges
faced by everyday people who are forced to make crucial 6 ... (decide) following an
abrupt awakening. “If a person is awakened suddenly by a fire alarm, for example, 7
... (motivate) alone may be insufficient to overcome the effects of sleep inertia”,
Wright said in a news release.

TALKING POINT
8. Discuss in pairs:
• possibility to make crucial decisions right after awakening after sound sleep?
• time necessary to regain cognitive skills upon awakening?
WRITING
9. Write a summary to the text below.

How your mother affected your memory


A new study in mice suggests that a mother’s childhood experiences may affect
the brain function of her offspring. Researchers found that mice moms, who were
physically active, stimulated and changed their living arrangements frequently as
youngsters gave birth to babies with better memory than those bom to mothers raised
in dull environments. “How well mice remember when they were young is influenced
by exposures to stimuli of their mothers when they were young,” says Larry Feig, a
biochemist at Tuffs University Medical School in Boston and senior author of the
study that will published tomorrow in The Journal o f Neuroscience.
This study adds to an accumulating body of evidence that not all the physiological
characteristics passed from parents to offspring are genetic, Feig notes. Is it possible
the same is true for humans? “The best we could say is if this occurs in humans,” he
says, “it would suggest that experiences your mother had during adolescence could
influence your memory.” Feig”s team
previously showed that stimulating environments trigger a biochemical cascade in
mice that enhances their recall by fostering a communication between nerve cells in
the hippocampus, a region of the brain that controls memories In this study , the
researchers were trying to determine whether mothers and fathers could pass along
this enhanced memory to their offspring.
Feig says that he and his colleagues spilt several hundred pre-adolescent (15-day-
old) mice, genetically engineered to have poor memories, into two groups: half spent
their “adolescence” (two weeks) living good life in large cages with about a
dozen other mice and filled with plastic tubes, toys, cardboard boxes and running
wheels. The researchers regularly rearranged the toys in their cages and placed novel
objects in them. The other group of mice, meanwhile, was put in sparse, small cages
with fewer companions and nothing but a bed of pine chips. There were no toys or
treadmills - and nothing was rearranged during their stay. When the mice reached
sexual maturity (two month later), the researchers allowed them to mate and then
studied the brain activity of their offspring. The offspring of mice housed in the
exciting digs performed better than their peers in the small, boring quarters on
memory tests and showed enhanced brain activity.
In fact, Feig says, the offspring of the stimulated moms had such good memories
that they performed as well as mice that did not carry the engineered genetic defect.
Unfortunately, he said, their sharp recall faded after around three months and their
kids did not appear to benefit. Dads - no offence, but the researchers found that
fathers’ upbringing apparently plays no role in the memory abilities of their young.

10. Translate the text into English:

Кровоснабжение головного мозга обеспечивают в первую очередь


сонные артерии; у основания мозга они разделяются на крупные ветви,
идущие к различным его отделам. Хотя вес мозга составляет всего 2,5%
веса тела, к нему постоянно, днем и ночью, поступает 20% циркулирующей
в организме крови и соответственно кислорода. Энергетические запасы
самого мозга крайне невелики, так что он чрезвычайно зависим от
снабжения кислородом. Существуют защитные механизмы, способные
поддержать мозговой кровоток в случае кровотечения или травмы.
Особенностью мозгового кровообращения является также наличие т.н.
гематоэнцефалического барьера. Он состоит из нескольких мембран,
ограничивающих проницаемость сосудистых стенок и поступление многих
соединений из крови в вещество мозга; таким образом, этот барьер
выполняет защитные функции. Через него не проникают, например, многие
лекарственные вещества.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Conditionals-П


11. Fill the gaps with the synonyms of if.

a) as long as b) in case c) provided


d) suppose______e) unless________

1. Prophesy, like poetry can teach us about ourselves. ..., of course, that we abandon
the notion that it predicts anything.
2. The first law was the idea of inertia or momentum. It basically means that things
keep moving at the same speed in a straight line... something pushes on them - that
is, a force.
3. In 1742 Leonard Euler, the greatest number theorist of the 18th century, became
so frustrated by his inability to prove Fermat’s last theorem, that he asked a friend to
search Fermat’s house... some vital scrap of paper was left behind.
4. The theory had not been confirmed, but merely not falsified; it could however be
worked with provisionally ... new tests did not discredit it.

12. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to functions of if.


1. Max Planck did not display an outstanding aptitude for science and math at the
early age. If anything, he showed more promise in music. He was blessed with the
gift of perfect pitch, and was a talented pianist and organist.
2. Despite the difficulties, nanotechnology will let us do some useful - if crude -
things.
3. Scientists study the phenomena, dream up a hypothetical explanation, deduce some
consequences of this explanation, and then devise experiments to see if these
consequences were reflected in nature. If they were, they considered the theory
(hypothesis) confirmed.

13. Choose the correct conjunction until or unless


1. Democritus, astonishingly, proposed the first atomic theory - the word atom comes
from the Greek ‘atomon ’, literally translated as ‘indivisible Just how inappropriate
the word was would not be recognized unless/until demonstrated in spectacular
fashion by Ernst Rutherford in the twentieth century.
2. The search was fruitless until/unless Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo, on the opening
day of the nineteenth century, observed what he at first mistook for a small comet
approaching the Sun, but which was presently recognized as a new planet - later
named Ceres, the first of the minor planets known today.
3. Exactly the opposite is true: something will keep on moving at the same speed
unless/until it down.
4. Today an amateur using a home-made telescope hooked up to a CCD cameras and
a PC - a rig that typically costs no more than a decent motorcycle - can explore the
depths of space to a range that until/unless now was attainable solely at the
legendary Palomar observatory.

14. Translate the following sentences paying attention to functions of but/butfor.


1. “If others would but reflect on mathematical truths as deeply and continuously as I
have they would make my discoveries.’
2. But for all its elegant simplicity, the double helix is only part of the story. The
helix itself still holds a few surprises. The fact that it can conduct electricity means
DNA has an in-built shield against gene mutations.
3. The highest wisdom has but one science - the science of the whole - the science
explaining the whole creation and man’s place in it. (Leo Tolstoy)
4. The lineage of Gauss, Prince of Mathematicians, is anything but royal. The son of
poor parents, he was bom in a miserable cottage at Brunswick (Braunschweig),
Germany in 1777. His parental grandfather was a poor peasant.
5. German nationalism, for instance, spawned a movement to expunge all but
Germanic stems from the language.
6. It is hard to imagine anyone but Hooke being willing to fulfill such an arduous
b rief- or making such a success of it.

UNIT 24 BIOPHYSICS AND BIOENGINEERING

1. Read the text and find passages confirming the following statements.

1. Many scientists were captivated by the task of discovery of DNA structure.


2. Crick and Watson were frustrated to learn that Pauling had presumably
deciphered DNA structure.
3. Pauling might have been confused about DNA structure because he had not seen
X-ray diffraction photographs.
4. Sir Lawrence Bragg was reluctant to show Pauling’s article to Francis Crick as he
did not want to distract him from his PhD thesis.
5. Peter Pauling was eager to share the news about his father’s discovery with his
colleagues at Cambridge.
6. Crick and Watson were determined to get the DNA structure right.
7. Crick and Watson were relieved to learn that Pauling’s structure was wrong.

The Discovery of DNA (First-Hand Account by James Watson)

The discovery of the structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James Watson was
one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of science. In 1952, Watson was 24
years old and a visiting research fellow at the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge.
Watson and Crick were aware that they were not alone in the pursuit of the DNA
structure. The effort at King’s College in London was impeded by the mutual
antagonism between the protagonists, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, while
the main competitionwas from California, where resided the formidable Linus
Pauling, by common consent, the world’s pre-eminent structural chemist. By happy
chance Watson was sharing an office with Pauling’s son, Peter, who was a graduate
student in the Cavendish.
“ Peter had a broad grin on his face as he sauntered into the office one afternoon
in December. In his hand was a letter from the States. It was from his father. In
addition to routine family gossip was the long-feared news that Linus now had a
structure for DNA. No details were given of what he was up to.
Francis then began pacing up and down the room thinking aloud, hoping that in a
great intellectual fervor he could reconstruct what Linus might have done. As long as
Linus had not told us the answer, we should get equal credit if we announced it at the
same time. Nothing worth while had emerged, though, by the time we walked
upstairs to tea and told Mark Perutz and John Kendrew of the letter. Bragg (the
director of the laboratory) was in for a moment, but neither of us wanted the perverse
joy of informing him that the English labs were once again about to be humiliated by
the Americans. As we munched chocolate biscuits, John tried to cheer us up with the
possibility of Linus being wrong. After all, he had never seen Maurice’s and Rosy
Rosy’s pictures (the X-ray diffraction photographs from King’s College). Our hearts
told us otherwise.41
In February, Pauling completed his paper and sent a copy of the manuscript to
Cambridge. Watson was by then in a lather of nervous anticipation. Two copies were
dispatched to Cambridge - one to Sir Lawrence (Bragg), the other to Peter. Bragg’s
response upon receiving it was to put it aside. Not knowing that Peter would also
have a copy, he hesitated to take the manuscript down to Max’s office. There Francis
would see it and set off on another wild-goose chase. That is, if his thesis was
finished on schedule, then for a year, if not more, with Crick in exile in Brooklyn (at
the Polytechnic Institute where he was to work), peace and serenity would prevail.
Peter’s face betrayed something important as he entered the door, and my stomach
sank in apprehension at learning that all was lost. Seeing that neither Francis nor I
could bear any further suspense, he quickly told us that the model was a three-chain
helix with the sugar-phosphate backbone in the centre.
This sounded suspiciously like our aborted effort of last year that immediately
Iwondered whether we might have already have had the credit and glory of a great
discovery if Bragg had not held us back. Giving Francis no chance to ask for the
manuscript, I pulled it out of Peter’s coat pocket and began reading.
By spending less than a minute with the summary and introduction, I was soon at
the figures showing the locations of essential atoms. At once I felt something was
wrong.” Pauling’s model was inconsistent with the experimental data, available to
Watson and Crick but not to Pauling, but, worse, it was chemically improbable.”
Only in a matter of weeks Watson and Crick found a model structure so compelling
that there could be no doubt it was correct.

2. In the text find equivalents to the following phrases:


- научный сотрудник, находящийся в - ещё одна погоня за миражом
командировке - будут царить покой и тишина
- по общему признанию - отвлечь от чего-то
- обычные семейные сплетни не в состоянии выносить
- новость, которой давно боялись неизвестность
- получить такое же признание - неудачная попытка

WORD FORMATION: nouns formed from verbs and adjectives.


3. Form nouns from the following words and translate them:
Words expressing emotional and mental states________________
verbs: anticipate - apprehend - comprehend -
confuse — determine — embarrass - exasperate -
humiliate— hesitate - fascinate — frustrate -
adjectives: willing - eager - reluctant - re lie f-

WRITING
4. Write an account of the DNA discovery using the nouns describing emotional
and mental states.

VOCABULARY STUDY
5. Choose the correct word.

Maverick and his Brainchild


Kary Mullis was a (1) polymath/maverick American biologist who won Nobel
Prize in 1993 for discovering polymerase chain reaction, or PCR (2) recalls/reminds
the blinding moment of revelation, an experience granted to only a few scientists in a
working lifetime. He was driving with his hands on the steering wheel and his mind
free, thinking about his (3) proposed/supposed sequencing experiment. Mullis who
worked for Cetus, an infant biotechnology company, was pondering an idea that
might improve the (4) affection/efficiency of the procedure used in determining the
sequence of nucleotides in DNA. The idea of repeating a procedure over and over
again might have seemed unacceptably dreary.
On Monday, bubbling with excitement, Mullis told about his (5) brainchild /
brainteaser, for which he coined the name, polymerase chain reaction, or PCR at
the Cetus Corporation, but they (6) remained/rested unimpressed, until the method
was shown to work. Mullis's erratic performance in the laboratory and his abrasive
and hyperbolic style had not appealed to his (7) colleagues/counterparts, and there
were some who felt it would be best if they could get rid it of his presence.
But there was an additional reason: the oddest (8) aspect/prospect
of the history of PCR is that it was not developed with a special problem in mind. It
could have been useful for modest (9) understanding/undertaking that Mullis had
in hand, but its wider (10) implications/importance were not perceived until it had
been made to work.
And then the applications began to crowd in. The technology was brought to
fruition/futility (11) by a team of Cetus researchers. It made Cetus one of the leading
American Biotech companies and (12) changed/altered the face of biology and of
biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. Eveiy biological
laboratory now contains automated devices for (13) enhancing/amplifying DNA by
PCR, which allows (14) applicable/workable quantities of DNA to be generated
from samples of no more than a few molecules — for instance, in a blood strain. To
most biologists it seems in retrospect scarcely (15) apprehensible/comprehensible
that the idea occurred only to Mullis and not to them.

6. Choose the suitable word to fill the gaps.

DNA Fingerprinting
DNA fingerprinting, the biggest ... (1) in crime detection exploits how DNA is
found in all cells. Scientists had known since the 1940s that DNA carries the coded
instructions, or genes, that ... (2) the genetic blueprint of an individual. Leicester
University noticed that certain ... (3) of DNA called minisatellites, occur in unique
patterns in each individual, the ... (4) being identical twins. Jeffreys found a way of
seeking out those parts of the genetic blueprint th a t... (5) greatly among individuals
in order to make a bar code that he called “genetic fingerprint”.
...(6) from a suspect would be typically gathered using a swab to take cells from the
inside the mouth. The sample would be compared with blood, semen, tissue or hair
taken from a crime scene. Tiny traces of degraded DNA can be ... (7) by a technique
called “the polymerase chain reaction”.
Technique has found many uses: ... (8) tests, identifying of body remains,
checking whether sashimi originated from an endangered whale ... (9); and
investigating family relationships among animals.
In probably the best-known example, the DNA fingerprinting provided the
physical ...(10) that the derailed when Bill Clinton’s denials when it proved that the
chance of a semen stain on Monica Lewinsky’s blue dress not belonging to the
President was 7,87 trillion to one.
a. advent b. advance c. advice
a. lay down b. lie down c. lay out
a. sequels b. sequences c.consequences
a. except b. exception c. exclusion
a. vary b. alter c. alternate
6. a. Samples b. Examples c. Probes
7. a. enhanced b. boosted c. enlarged
8. a. brotherhood b. motherhood c. paternity
9. a. species b. spices c. spaces
10. a. evidence b. proofs c. witness

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Relative Clause


7. Insert defining or non-defining relative clauses.
(you may not need one of the clauses)
a. which did not instantly seem to fit with experimental data
b. that soon proved to be wide off the mark.
c. o f which hair and nails and the outer layer of skin are composed
d. to which Watson refers in the previous story
e. from which proteins are constructed.
f. that became famous as the alpha-helix.
g. that led to an integral number of amino acid units
h. in which he relates the story
i. which had 18 units to five twists of the helix,
j. who asked how this brilliant idea had occurred to him
k. which looked highly convincing
l. that Bragg and his colleagues missed

“I wish I had made you angry earlier!”


The humiliation of an English lab______(1) relates to the structure of the
polypeptide chain, the string of linked amino acids______(2). It was known from X-
ray diffraction pictures that the insoluble protein, keratin, the substance______(3),
had a regular structure, almost certainly some form of helix. Several laboratories had
tried to infer what ordered structures polypeptide chain could adopt. Bragg, Perutz,
and Kendrew had gone into print with conjectures______(4).
It was Pauling who put them right. In 1948, he was a visiting professor in Oxford.
Pauling was lying in bed with a severe cold and to keep boredom at bay, he sketched
the linear structure of the polypeptide chain, cut it out and twisted it around.
Soon Pauling found a helical configuration ,_____(5). It took 18 peptides units
(amino acid residues, as they are called) for the structure to repeat itself and these
residues made up five turns of the helix. He kept quiet about his discovery,____(6),
in particular a critical spacing between structural elements discerned in X-ray
diffraction photographs. But Pauling’s paper-folding had led him to the
structure______(7).
When Pauling came out with the structure,____(8) the Cambridge group was
mortified. But there remained the X-ray anomaly. Perutz, thunderstruck by Pauling’s
revelation, had cycled home to lunch in a daze. Then the idea of the experiment
suddenly came to him.
On Monday morning Perutz confronted his director, Sir Lawrence Bragg,
(9). Perutz replied that overlooking what Pauling had seen put him in a rage. Bragg’s
rejounder was, “I wish I had made you angry earlier!” This was the title that Perutz
chose for the book____(10).

CONFUSABLES: What/that/which
8. Choose the suitable word.
1. Chemistry was closely connected with alchemists searching for that/what they
called ‘philosophers’ stone’, would turn ordinary base metal into gold.
2. They could not understand that/what exactly he getting at.
What Copernicus thought about the publication of his famous book no one quite
knows, for he died of a stroke shortly after publication of the new book in 1543.

9. It’s interesting to know


Famous Research Laboratories

•In 1871, Maxwell was invited to become the first Cavendish professor of
physics at Cambridge University. The post was named for Sir Henry Cavendish
(1731-1810) eccentric English scientist, who was famous for, among other things, his
accurate estimate of the density of the earth. Taking up the offer, Maxwell designed
and set up the Cavendish Laboratory, which opened in 1874 and became renowned
as a centre of significant research in experimental physics.

•Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) started as a part of the Cavendish


Laboratory. The first director Braggs shared the Nobel Prize with his son who was
the youngest person to be awarded the Nobel prize. For its amazing number of the
Nobel Prize winners the laboratory got a nickname the Nobel prize factory. The
Nobelists Watson and Crick, who deciphered the DNA, are undoubtedly the most
famous.
• Los Alamos National Laboratories were established in 1943 as the US
government’s nuclear research center. In the northern New Mexico. The
atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb were developed there. Now the Los
Alamos Laboratories are operated by the University of California and its work
in education and research includes a Neutron Science Center.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Company structure


10. Listen to the description of the structure of a typical organization.

1. What are the main departments of the company?


2. What do the abbreviations PR, HR, IT R&D refer to?
3. In what departments are the graduates of your faculty more likely to be employed?
UNIT 25 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

1. Read the text.


Environmental Problems

Ecology is a scientific study of the environment. Ecologists are people who


study the environment. Environmentalists are people not necessarily scientists
who are concerned about environment.
Eco-product (or green product) is a product that does not damage the environment
or does less damage than a normal one. Political parties whose main concern is
environment are green parties and their supporters are greens. Long-term
economic planning designed not to damage the environment is called sustainable
development (growth).
Pollutants are substances especially man-made chemicals that produce
negative impact on the environment. They include various types of waste,
including industrial, toxic, nuclear waste. Unintentional or unauthorized release of
chemicals, gases or oil are referred to as leaks or spills or spillage. Releases of
poisonous gases are referred to as fumes. Substances that present danger are called
hazardous. Releases into atmosphere of gases from industry and car exhaust
causes acid rains which harmful to plants, animals and buildings.
If the reaction in the heat-producing core of a nuclear power plant goes out of
control, there may be a melt-down causing a radioactive material to release into
the environment radiation in the form of radioactivity and radioactive fall-outs.
Most scientists agree that the earth’s surface is increasing in temperature as a
result of changing atmospheric conditions and referct о this as global warming. In
part it is due to emission of gases caused by burning of fossil fuels such as coal,
oil, gas in industry and vehicle. These gases are called greenhouse gases. They act
as a blanket and produce greenhouse effect by allowing less gas to escape from
the earth and causing its temperature to rise.
Depletion of the ozone layer over the earth’s poles and in other areas is
another source of concern as ozone layer protects the earth from harmful radiation
from the sun. This process is thought to be caused by CFCs
(Chlorofluorocarbons) that are used in aerosols and refrigeration fluids.
Other major environmental problems include deforestation, especially the
destruction of rainforests, desertification as a result of soil erosion and degradation
of natural habitat of many species which causes reduction of biodiversity in many
areas.

2. Convert the following phrases into compound nouns.

1. release of chemicals, gases or oil


2. releases of poisonous gases
3. gases from car exhaust pipes
4. core of a nuclear power plant
5. melt-down of core
6. emission of gases
7. burning of fossil fuels
8. depletion of the ozone layer
9. degradation o f natural habitat
10. reduction of biodiversity

3. Read the text


Cosmic Ray Hazard

In the laboratory, cosmic rays first presented themselves as a minor annoyance.


They were discovered when physicists noticed that electrically charged bodies do not
stay that way; their charge slowly leaks away through the air. Something had to be
ionizing the air, allowing it to conduct electricity. Many researchers blamed the
ambient radioactivity of the soil and rocks underfoot. Austrian physicist Victor Hess
settled the issue in 1912, when he went aloft in a balloon and showed that the higher
he rose, the faster the charge leaked off his electroscope. So the cause o f the ionized
air was something mysterious coming in from space - thus the name "cosmic rays."
By 1950 physicists had determined that the term is actually a misnomer. Cosmic rays
are not rays but ions - mostly protons, with a few heavier nuclei mixed in - striking
the top of the atmosphere at nearly the speed of light. Most come from beyond the
solar system, but what catapults them to such a speed remains a question to this
day. Experimenters, having once regarded cosmic rays as irksome, embraced them
as an observational tool. Variations in cosmic-ray intensity were one of the ways
scientists deduced the existence of the solar wind in the late 1950s.
Contrary to popular belief, it is not Earth's magnetic field that shields people on
the ground from the full brunt of these rays but rather the bulk of our atmosphere.
Above eveiy square centimeter of surface is a kilogram of air. It takes a vertical
column of about 70 grams - about 1/4 the distance through the atmosphere, achieved
at an altitude of 20 to 25 kilometers (60,000 to 80,000 feet - before the average
incoming proton hits the nucleus of an atom in the air. The rest of the atmosphere
serves to absorb the shrapnel of this initial collision. The impact knocks a proton or
neutron or two out o f the nucleus and unleashes a shower of high-energy gamma rays
and pi meson, or pion, particles. Each gamma ray propagates deeper into the
atmosphere and ends up producing an electron and its antimatter counterpart, a
positron. These two particles annihilate each other, yielding less energetic gamma
rays, and so the cycle continues until the gammas become too weak to create
particles. Meanwhile the pions quickly decay into mu mesons, or muons, which
penetrate to the ground. As they pass through our bodies, they produce ions and
break chemical bonds but not enough to do us significant harm. The annual cosmic
radiation dose of about 0.03 rem (depending on altitude) is equivalent to a couple
of chest x-rays. Outside the atmosphere, the cosmic-ray bombardment is intense.
Approximately one proton or heavier nucleus would pass through your fingernail
every second, for a total of perhaps 5,000 ions zipping through the body every
second, each one leaving a trail o f broken chemical bonds and triggering the same
cascade that occurs in the atmosphere. The relatively few heavier nuclei among the
cosmic rays do as much or more damage than the protons because their ability to
break bonds is proportional to the square of their electric charge. An iron nucleus, for
example, does 676 times more damage than a proton does. A week or a month of this
radiation should not have serious consequences, but a couple of years on a journey
to Mars is a different story. One estimate from NASA is that about one third of the
DNA in an astronaut's body would be cut by cosmic rays every year.
The only quantitative information available on the biological consequences
of energetic radiation comes from the unfortunate individuals who have been
exposed to short but intense bursts of gamma rays and fast particles during nuclear
explosions and laboratory accidents. They have suffered cell damage and
enhanced cancer rates. A Mars traveller would get similar doses, albeit spread out
over time. No one knows whether the two situations are really equivalent but the
comparison is worrisome. Natural biological repair mechanisms may or may not be
able to keep up with the damage.
The implications have been recently studied by scientists, they estimated that
Mars astronauts would receive a dose of more than 80 rems a year. By comparison,
the legal dose limit for nuclear power plant workers in the U.S. is five rems a year.
One in 10 male astronauts would eventually die from cancer, and one in six women
(because of their greater vulnerability to breast cancer). What is more, the heavy
nuclei could cause cataracts and brain damage.

4. Find equivalents to the following phrases using the text:


- досадная неприятность;
- подниматься на воздушном шаре,
- чем выше он поднимался, тем быстрее разряжался его электроскоп;
- изменения в интенсивности космических лучей;
- порождать ливень гамма-лучей высокой энергии и пи-мезоны;
- ежегодная доза космического излучения;
- способность ядер разрывать химические связи пропорциональна квадрату их
электрического заряда;
- страдать от разрушения клеток и более частых случаев рака;
- один из 10 мужчин-астронавтов в конце концов умрет от рака.

5. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-13 with the words a-m:

1) minor 2) electrically 3) quantitative 4) available 5) underfoot 6)solar 7)


cell 8) cancer 9) incoming 10) antimatter 11) energetic 12) serious 13)
chemical

a ) proton b) damage c) rocks d) information e) bonds f) rates


g) consequences h) counterpart i) charged j) system k) annoyance
1) information m) radiation
TALKING POINT
6. Discuss in pairs:
• the reason for electrical charge leaking away from charged body;
• if the name “cosmic rays” is actually a misnomer;
• explanation of the solar wind;
• the shield preventing people from the full brunt of cosmic rays;
• the consequences of cosmic rays passing through the body of a man;

WORD FORMATION
7. Form the appropriate word to complete the text.
The Sun of our solar system a typical star of intermediate size and 1...
(luminous). It's radius is about 696000 km, and it rotates with a period that increases
with latitude from 25 days at the equator to 36 days at poles. For 2 ... (practice)
reasons, the period is often taken to be 27 days. Its mass is about 2 x 1030 kg, 3...(to
consist) mainly of hydrogen (90%) and helium (10%). The Sun emits radio waves,
X-rays, and 4... (energy) particles(cosmic rays) in addition to visible light. The total
energy output, 5... (sun) constant, is about 3.8 x 1033 ergs/sec. In the core of the Sun
a continuous 6... (nucleus) fusion is converting hydrogen into helium at a
temperature of about 16 million degrees of Kelvin. Overlaying this core region are
the radiative and convective zones. The Sun has a very complex surface magnetic
field created by convective flow of the electrically 7 ...(to conduct) solar material.
The 8 ...(vision) solar surface over the convective zone, called the photosphere, is at
a temperature of about 6000 K. The cool (< 4000 K) regions in it are seen as
sunspots. Above the photosphere are two transparent layers. The chromosphere,
visible during eclipses, extends some 10000 km above the photosphere and has a
temperature of the order 10 000 K. The corona at 1-5 x 106 (or even 100 x 106) К is
9... (to observe) beyond chromo-sphere for more than 106 km (having no apparent
termination). The 10... (to escape) hot coronal plasma is called the solar wind. It
carries the solar magnetic field to space, forming the interplanetary magnetic field
(IMF) and defining the heliosphere. The magnetic field of the Sun is 11... (extreme)
complicated. However, most of the complications don't extend very far from the
surface, and the magnetic field of the outer corona can often be described by a dipole
or quadrupole. This is the reason behind the 12... (surprise) simple two-sector or
four-sector polarity structure of IMF at 1 AU so often observed.

8. Translate the text into English:


Источником радиоактивности атмосферного воздуха являются космические
лучи, проникающие из мирового пространства, и излучения, возникающие при
радиоактивном распаде (radioactive decay) естественных и искусственных
радиоактивных элементов. Находясь в основном в почве, особенно в горных
породах, естественные радиоизотопы обусловливают природный естественный
фон радиоактивности (natural background radiation), который не оказывает на
человека вредного действия. При попадании в атмосферу искусственных
радиоизотопов в виде радиоактивных отходов атомных реакторов,
промышленных предприятий и учреждений, работающих с радиоактивными
веществами, а также в результате испытаний атомного оружия, природный
радиоактивный фон может повыситься. Образующееся при взрывах
радиоактивное облако, распространяясь вокруг Земного шара, будет служить на
своем пути источником радиоактивного загрязнения воздуха, водоемов и почвы
за счет выпадения радиоактивных осадков (fallout). Эти осадки способны
накапливаться в растениях, рыбах, поступать в молоко животных и стать
потенциально опасными для человека при употреблении пищевых продуктов.

9. Read the text and write a summary.

Khlopin Radium Institute

Khlopin Radium Institute (Saint Petersburg) was founded


in 1922 on the inintiative an under the supervision of the
academician Vernadsky. Comprehensive approach to the
problem of radioactivity characteristic of its founders
determined the structure of the Institute that comprises
physical, chemical, radiological research. In the late
twenties G. Gamov developed here the theory of alpha-
decay; in 1937 I. Kurchatov designed and operated the first
European cyclotron, in 1940 Georgy Flerov discovered the
spontaneous fission of uranium nuclei.
After World War II a group of scientists led by V.Khlopin
developed the the domestic technology for separation of
V.G. Khlopin plutonium for irradiated uranium, which enabled to produce
weapon-grade uranium on commercial scale.
One of the directions of the Institute activities was development of the methods of
monitoring radioactive comtamination of the environment caused by to the nuclear
explosions and tests. The Institute has been involved in such programs since the first
Soviet nuclear tests in 1949.
The staff of the Khlopin Institute was involved in the
emergency work after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. The
specialists of the Instittute took an active part in the
investigations in the aftermath of the explosion at the 4th
reactor block in the 30km zone around Chernobyl NPP
(nuclear power plant), which provided valuable data for
analysis. The research of radioactive fall-out and
contaminated area around Chernobyl NPPenabled the
scientists to come up with measures designed to mitigate the
adverse impacts of the Chernobyl accident and to design
preventive and emergency measures in order to ensure Vladimir I. Vernadsky
safety of nuclear power plants operation.
The Institute staff that numbers over 1000 empolyees are actively involved in
international cooperation through participation in the projects run by the International
Science and Technology Center (ISTC).
Methods of gamma-spectrometry measurement of radiation developed at the Khlopin
Institute were used by Russian cosmonauts to measure radiation in space.
The Institute is involved in development of the technology for reprocessing of the
spent nuclear fuel capsules (so called nuclear waste).
The deep-sea manned submersible Mir developed by the Institute was used to take
and investigate the samples at the site of the sunken nuclear submarines Komsomoleiz
and Kursk.
The staff of the Instittue has been involved in research of
radiological environmental conditions at Semipalatinsk
nuclear test site where the Soviet nuclear weapons used to
be tested. The records of long-term monitoring of the
subsoil and air conditions provided invaluable data to
radioachemical analysis of the area affected by
underground nuclear explosions.
In the last decade the equipment for measurement of xenon
radioanuclides in the atmosphere (ARIX system) was
designed, developed and successfully used by the Institute
staff within the framework of the
George A. Gamov Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization
(CTBTO). The activities of this international organization are aimed at establishing
the global network of monitoring stations in order to control and eventually prevent
testing of nuclear weapons throughout the world.

It’s interesting to know!


• In 1913, Marie Curie established a research laboratory for radioactivity, which
became known as the Paris Radium Institute. She was closely involved in the
design of the building, ensuring that the laboratories were large and airy and properly
equipped unlike her first laboratory that was set up in a dark and dusty storeroom at
the Sorbonne School of Physics.

WRITING
10. Write a summary in English.
Российский научный центр "Курчатовский институт"
Российский научный центр "Курчатовский институт" проводит исследования и
осуществляет международное сотрудничество практически по всем
современным направлениям физики и атомной энергетики:
В области фундаментальных исследований - это исследования в области общей
и ядерной физики, физики твердого тела, включая сверхпроводимость и
материаловедение, синхронного излучения, нанотехнологий, физики
конденсированного состояния и наносистем, нейтронных исследований и др.
В области атомной энергетики и ядерного топливного цикла - это
сопровождение жизненного цикла водо-водяных и уран-графитовых
энергетических реакторов, исследования для ядерной энергетики будущего
разработка высоко-температурных газовых реакторов, реакторов мало!
мощности и космического базирования.
В области физики плазмы — это в первую очередь работы по создании
термоядерного реактора, а также исследования в области физики плазмы i
плазменных процессов.
В области нераспространения ядерного оружия - это исследования по учету
контролю, физической защите ядерных материалов, исследования пс
реабилитации загрязненных территорий, хранению и утилизациг
отработанных ядерных материалов. В области информационных технологи!
- это разработка ГРИД- технологии, создание открытой сети обработю
сверхбольших объемов данных ГЛОРИАД. Этот научный центр носит им;
выдающегося ученого Курчатова Игоря Васильевича.

Курчатов Игорь Васильевич (12.01.1903 - 07.02.1960) -


физик, академик, научный руководитель атомной програмь
СССР, основатель и первый директор института агомно!
энергии (1943 - 1960).
Ему была поручена задача создания в сжатые сроки ядерногс
щита Родины в один из наиболее драматичных периодо!
истории нашей страны.
Он положил начало развитию таких актуальных направление
современной физики, как физика твердого тела, ядерна:
физика, а также ядерная техника и ядерная энергетика.

WORD AND PHRASE FORMATION: Compound nouns


II. Form compound nouns corresponding to the following Russian phrases.
1. выделения продуктов реакторов атомных станций
emissions/ nuclear/ plant/ reactors/ power
2. система мониторинга газообразных продуктов
fission /gaseous/ monitoring/ product/ system
3. концентрации высококачественного радиактивного ксинона
concentrations/ high/ radioxenon/ quality
4. соотношения активности радиактивных изотопов ксинона
activity / radioisotope/ ratios/ xenon
5. моделирование производства радиоактивных армацевтических изотопов
isotope /simulations/ production/ radiopharmaceutical
6. методика анализа данных за счёт гамма-бета совпадений
Analysis/ beta-gamma/ coincidence/ data /techniques
7. применение данных мониторинга радионуклидов
application/ data/ monitoring/ radionuclide
8. оценка выхода благородных газов на площадке реактора
estimation/ gas/ noble/ reactor/ releases/ site
9.оценка моментального выхода взрывной энергии
energy/ explosive/ estimation/ instant/ release
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Subjunctive Mood (Reported Speech)

12. Use the verbs from the box to fill the gaps in the sentences

concluded denied______ explained urged


1) After doing calculations Rutherford ... that the atom’s nucleus is about 8000
times smaller than the entire atom
2) This appeared to be an inexplicable result, for radium had a smaller nucleus than
uranium and Lise Meitner ... Hahn to make absolutely sure he had got it right before
publishing such an unaccountable anomaly.
3) In science, Descartes, ... the possibility of vacuum and ... everything in terms of
motion in a plenum of particles whose sole property was extension.

13. Use the verbs of reporting to convert the following sentences into the indirect
speech.

admit agree apologize congratulate deny


doubt promise refuse thank wish

Example:
Thank you for taking your time to read the draft of my report.
I wish to thank you fo r taking time to read the draft o f my report.

1. Sony for keeping You waiting.


2. Congratulations on brilliant presentation at the conference.
3. Happy Birthday!
4. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!
5. Yes, you are right.
6 .0.K. I’ll do that.
7. No, I haven’t replaced the faulty part yet, but I’ll do that immediately.
8. No, it was not me who did not lock the cabinet.
9 .1 am not sure if I will be able to finish the experiment by the end of the month.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Environmental problems

14.Listcn to the talk and say which of the environmental problems were
mentioned in the talk.

deforestation, destruction of rainforests, desertification, degradation of


natural habitat of many species, oil spills, radioactive contamination,
reduction of biodiversity
UNIT 26 MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

1. Read the text:


Physics Aids Medicine
Since the discovery of X-rays fundamental physics has been a source of ideas
for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in
particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year
2000". These days, innovation is flourishing in every industry. The variety of ideas
currently being generated was illustrated last year by the news magazine Time,
when it selected three special areas - consumer technology, medical science, and
basic industry - in which to put new developments to the vote as "Inventions of the
Year". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner
that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission
tomography (PET). The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and
analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that
detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make,
essential contributions to medical science.
Soon after their discovery by Roentgen in 1895, X-rays were being used for
monitoring bones, teeth and other dense organic matter, thereby revolutionizing
medical diagnostics and introducing a new science - radiography.
Then came nuclear medicine. George de Hevesy was awarded the 1943 Nobel Prize
for Chemistry for his invention of radioactive tracers, in which small doses of
radioactive material are administered to patients to follow the metabolic functioning
of organs such as the kidneys or thyroid gland. The impact of the technique was so
great that the supply of suitable radioactive isotopes went on to become an industry
in its own.
Although they provided valuable new information, these techniques, like
conventional X-ray photographs, could only reveal a two-dimensional image of a
three-dimensional body, and interpretation could therefore be difficult. The imaging
capabilities of X-rays were dramatically boosted by the 1972 invention of the
computer-assisted tomography (CT) scanner, in which a fan-like beam of X-rays
rotates round a patient, providing a two-dimensional picture of a "slice" of their
body. A complete three-dimensional image can be built up by scanning the body
slice by slice. Tomography can be combined with nuclear medicine, for example, in
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which maps the internal
distribution of the tracer.
Many artificial isotopes emit positrons, the antiparticles of electrons. In the
early 1950s it was discovered that these isotopes offered new possibilities for
nuclear medicine. A positron, once it has been produced, is quickly snapped up by a
neighbouring matter particle - usually an electron. This annihilation of the positron
and the electron produces a characteristic fingerprint - two 511 keV photons
(gamma rays) shooting out in exactly opposite directions. By picking up these pairs,
it is possible to pinpoint where the positron annihilations occurred. The new science
of PET was bom, in which the annihilation signals track a patient's metabolism,
revealing, for example, the way in which the brain reacts to stimuli. Since its
inception, PET technology has profited from new developments in radiation
detection, first using sodium iodide crystals, then using materials such as bismuth
germanate (BGO), which offered better performance, and more recently lutetium
oxyorthosilicate, which is faster and gives more light output than BGO.
NOTE: tracer - изотопный индикатор; thyroid gland - щитовидная железа;
object-oriented programming technology - технология объектно-
ориентированного программирования; hadron - адрон; pinpoint - точно
указать

2. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- разнообразие выдвигаемых в настоящее время идей;
- изобретение, удостоенное награды в категории медицинской науки;
- использовать рентгеновские лучи;
- меченые атомы;
- влияние этого метода;
- возможности рентгеновских изображений;
- давать возможность получения двумерной картины среза;
- создавать карту внутреннего распределения меченых атомов;
- можно точно указать место, где произошла аннигиляция

VOCABULARY STUDY
3. Find the antonyms:

1. innovative; 2. electron; 3. valuable; 4. artificial; 5. conventional;


6. emission; 7. award; 8. acceleration; 9. capable; 10 internal

a) deceleration; b) worthless; c)obsolete; d) unable; e) positron; f) punish;


g) external; h) odd; i) natural; k) annihilation;

4. Write collocations by matching the words from the top line with the words
from the bottom line:

1) current 2) artificial 3) computer 4) gamma 5) new 6) three-


dimensional
7) patient's 8) bismuth 9) organic 10) medical

a) metabolism b) developments c) germinate d) diagnostics e) tomography


f) matter g) image h) ideas i) isotopes k) rays

TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs:
• the award-winning invention in the medical science category;
• the shortcomings of conventional X-ray photographs;
• scientific bases of PET;
• new possibilities provided by PET;
MAKING PRESENTATIONS
6. Prepare Power Point presentation about PET paying attention why this
technology is important for the mankind. You may use phrases from Appendix 1.
WORD FORMATION
7. Form the word to complete the sentence.
Simulation programs play a fundamental role in I ... (optimize) the design of
particle physics experiments. In the development of reconstruction programs, they
provide the necessary input in the form of simulated raw data. In the 2 ... (analyse)
process they are required to understand the systematic effects resulting from
detector resolution and acceptance, as well as the influence of background
processes. The predecessors of the Geant4 toolkit
- which were written in the now almost obsolete
Fortran language - were
...(success) used at CERN for experiments at
he laboratory's Large Electron-Positron collider
land for the design of experiments for the Large
ladron Collider (LHC).
Geant4 was launched as an R&D project in 1994
gto demonstrate the 4 ... (suit) of object-oriented
programming technology for large software
projects in particle physics. The initial 5... (collaborate) of members of particle
physics institutes around the world has since been joined by scientists from the
European Space Agency (ESA) and members of the medical community.
The Geant4 software toolkit was designed to simulate particle 6 ... (interact) with
matter for particle physics. It contains components to model in detail the geometry
and materials of complex particle detectors. The 7... (simulate) particles are
propagated through magnetic and electrical fields and through the materials of the
detectors. The core of the program contains information on numerous physics
processes that govern the 8 ... (interact) of particles across a wide energy range.
Visualization tools and a flexible user interface are available as separate
components. Rigorous software engineering makes Geant4 open to change in a
rapidly evolving software environment, while at the same time ensuring that it can
be easily and fully 9 ... (maintain) over the lifetime of large-scale experiments.

8. Translate the text into English


Компьютерная томография - это современный и точный метод
рентгенологического исследования, заключающийся в круговом
просвечивании объекта рентгеновскими лучами и позволяющий получить
послойные срезы и детальную информацию о расположении, размерах и
составе тканей человеческого организма. В настоящее время этот метод
используется все чаще и чаще. Это неинвазивный (не требующий
оперативного вмешательства) и безопасный метод и поэтому он применяется
при многих заболеваниях. Полученные результаты позволяют врачам
своевременно и правильно определить диагноз, а также тактику лечения
заболевания. С помощью компьютерной томографии можно исследовать
практически любой орган - от мозга до костей. Часто этот метод используют
для уточнения патологий, выявленных другими методами. В отличие от
обычного рентгена, на котором лучше всего видны кости и воздухоносные
(aeriferous) структуры (легкие), на компьютерном томографе отлично видны
и мягкие ткани (мозг, печень и т.д.). Это дает возможность диагностировать
болезни на ранних стадиях.

9. Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Magnetic resonance scanning is a fairly recent invention.
2. Radio wave frequencies are associated with different chemical environments.
3. MRI can provide the imaging of soft body tissues.
4. MRI can be used to detect tumors.
5. The first patients to be examined by this technique were sportsmen.

M R I, PET, CAT
Unlike X-ray, magnetic resonance scanning can reveal soft tissue details,
allowing doctors to look inside bodies and record every corporeal detail. MRI dates
back to a Nobel-prize-winning technique called “nuclear magnetic resonance”
demonstrated in 1945 by two American groups. When matter is placed in a magnetic
field, some atomic nuclei behave like compass needles that can point in only a few
directions, each characterized by different energy levels, or “spins”.
Nuclear spins can be forced to jump between energy levels when bombarded by radio
waves of certain frequencies. Around 1950 it was discovered that these frequencies
depended not only on the atomic nuclei, but also on their environment, leading to
magnetic resonance’s initial use as a tool for chemical analysis.
The next stage in the development came when the NMR pioneer Felix Bloch
stuck his finger into his apparatus and noticed a strong signal created by his finger’s
high water content. If resonating hydrogen nuclei from the water were giving off
radio waves, Block reasoned that magnetic resonance imaging could reveal people’s
insides without opening them up.
In 1971, Raymond Damadian, an American scientist, showed that MRI could be
used to detect tumors. In 1977, his team made the first image of an entire human
body by beaming high-frequency radio waves into a patient in the strong magnetic
field of a whole-body scanner.The technique is now widely used to make detailed
pictures of tissue structure. It can also reveal metabolic processes at work within the
body.
In 1993, a murderer executed in Texas became the first “virtual man “, when a
composite three-dimensional “fly-through” computer image of his body was created
with the help of MRI.
VOCABULARY STUDY
10. Choose the appropriate word to fill the gaps:

a) capable b) co-incidentally c) corrosion-free d) curiosity


e) design f) devices g) founded j) implanted i) model
k) perfecting 1) supplemented m) technology n) unlucky o) wrong

Cardiac Pacemaker
Anyone ... (1) enough to suffer from cardiac problems some fifty years ago might
have been hooked up to an early version of the cardiac pacemaker, a cumbersome
device about the same size as a large television set. Such machine ...(2) the electrical
impulses that triggered the heart, but were too large to be used anywhere than in
hospital.
By 1958, American medical engineer Wilson Greatbatch had been working for
several years on a pacemaker ... (3) in his garden shed, and was inspired one
morning to invent one of the most significant medical ... (4) of all time: the
implantable pacemaker. While trying to use the recently-invented transistor... (5) to
build an oscillator in order to record the beating of the human heart, Greatbatch
grabbed the ... (6) transistor from his toolbox. He had already put it into the circuitry
when he realized his mistake. Out o f ... (7) he switched on the circuit and found that
it produced a regular blip of current, ... (8) at the same frequency as the average
human heart. Greatbatch realized that it could be used to control a cardiac pacemaker.
In May 1958 the first working ... (9) was successfully implanted in a dog. Greatbatch
then worked a t ... ( 1 0 ) the tiny electrical generator, powered by a small battery, fitted
with electrodes to carry pulses of current to different parts of the heart.
In 1960 surgeons at Milliard Fillmore Hospital at Buffalo, in New York state,... (11)
the first production Greatbatch into a 77-year-old patient. It worked perfectly for 18
months.
Greatbatch went on to develop a battery ... (12) of long life and safe operation. His
breakthrough in the 1970s was to adapt the ... (13) long-life lithium battery for pace­
maker us. He patented the technology, ... (14) a factoiy to make the cell, and today
his company sells or licenses production of 90 per cent of the world’s pacemaker
batteries.
Note: cardiac pacemaker - кардиостимулятор

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Inversion (Emphasis) (GR-30 p.211)


11. Translate the following sentences.
1. Not only did Archimedes invent a lot of basic mechanical devices, but he built the
first water pump, which is called Archimedes screw.
2. One of those who did understand Copernicus was the English astronomer Thomas
Digges, who wrote the first explanation of the Copemican system in English in 1576.
3. Unlike Brahe Kepler did accept Copemican model, and in a brilliant feat of
inspiration, he found a way to make it fit the facts, using Brahe’s observations.
4. Some people condemned Darwin’s idea as an affront to god, for nowhere did
Darwin’s ideas leave room for the biblical creation.
5. Although Galileo did not formulate his ideas with the same grand clarity and
mathematical certainty of Newton, he did lay the foundations of our modem
understanding of how things move.

12. Fill the gaps using the following words:

pulled realized seen shared was were

1. It was Lavoisier who ... it all together and made all significant advances in his
own right.
2. It was Lavoisier who ... that every substance can exist in three states - solid,
liquid and gaseous.
3. Although Archimedes did not hesitate to build machines and conduct practical
experiments, it is his purely intellectual achievements th at... his lasting legacy.
4. It was Lord Rutherford who ... the first man to succeed in making one element
from another and who was the founder o f ‘philosopher’s stone’.
5. It was not until 17 years later that Eijkman and Gowland (Pekelharing being by
then dead)... the Nobel Prize for their work.
6. It is perhaps in the study of muscles where Leonardo’s blend of artistry and
scientific analysis is b e st....

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Business Trip. Booking a Hotel.

13. You will hear a PA (personal assistant) calling three hotels in order to bock
accommodation for people coming to attend a conference. Fill the table with
details of features and facilities of these hotels.

1. 2. 3.
Name of the hotel
Location
Noisy/quiet
Eating facilities
Sports and
recreation facilities
Entertainment
1. Read the text and say if the following statements are true or false:

a) Engineering was originally divided into military engineering, which included


construction of fortifications as well as military engines, and civil
engineering, involved in non-military projects.
b) Throughout his career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having
worked in several of the outlined areas.
c) The fields where engineer works never overlap.

The history of the concept of "engineering" stems from the earliest times when
humans began to make clever inventions, such as the pulley, lever, or wheel, etc. The
exact etymology of the word engineer, however, is a person occupationally connected
with the study, design, and implementation of engines. The word "engine", derives
from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning "innate quality, especially mental power,
hence a clever invention." Hence, an engineer, essentially, is someone who makes
useful or practical inventions.
From another perspective, a now obsolete meaning of engineer, dating from
1325, is "a constructor of military engines". Engineering was originally divided into
military engineering, which included construction of fortifications as well as military
engines, and civil engineering, involved in non-military projects, such as bridge
construction. The Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aquaducts, Via
Appia and the Colosseum, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of
Alexandria, the pyramids in Egypt, Teotihuacan and the cities and pyramids of the
Mayan, Inca and Aztec Empires, the Great Wall of China, among many others, stand
as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the ancient civil and military engineers.
With the rise of engineering as a profession in the nineteenth century the term
became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were
applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the
fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Engineering, much like science, is a broad discipline which is often broken
down into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with
differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will be trained in
a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-
disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Historically the main
Branches of Engineering are categorized as follows: Aerospace Engineering;
Chemical Engineering; Civil Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Mechanical
engineering.
With the rapid advancement of Technology many new fields are gaining
prominence and new branches are developing such as Computer Engineering,
Software Engineering, Nanotechnology, Molecular engineering, Mechatronics etc.
These new specialities sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new
branches such as Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics and Electrical and
Computer Engineering. For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap,
especially in the areas of the application of sciences to their disciplines such as
physics, chemistry and mathematics.
Engineers borrow ideas from physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions
to the problem at hand. They apply the scientific method in deriving their solutions. If
multiple options exist, engineers weigh different design choices on their merits and
choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task
of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in
order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically
successful product; it must also meet further requirements. Constraints may include
available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for
future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost,
safety, marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By understanding the
constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which a viable object
or system may be produced and operated.
Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate
experience to find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineering is considered a branch
of applied mathematics and science. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a
problem allows them to analyse it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential
solutions. Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the
different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their
requirements.

2. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- понятие “инженерное дело” берет начало с древних времен;
- производство двигателей;
- с другой стороны;
- устаревшее значение слова “инженер”;
- строительство укреплений;
- свидетельство гениальности и искусства древних строителей;
- эти дисциплины связаны с различными областями инженерного дела;
- на протяжении карьеры инженера.

VOCABULARY STUDY
3. Match two words from 1-10 with the words a-j and translate:

1. practical 2. rapid 3. considerable 4. mental 5. match


6. available 7. viable 8. mathematical 9. successful 10. multiple

a) advancement b) inventions c) model d) object e) options


f) overlap g) power h) product i) resources j) the requirements
4. Choose the word to complete the text and give it a title:
By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human ...(1). Every
product or construction used by modem society will have been influenced by
engineering design. Engineering design is a very ... 2 tool to make changes to
environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great
responsibility, as represented by many of the Engineering Institutions codes of
practice and ethics. Whereas medical ethics is a well-established field with
considerable consensus, engineering ethics is far less developed, and engineering
projects can be subject to considerable ... 3. Just a few examples of this from
different engineering disciplines are the ... 4 of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges
Dam, the design and use of Sports Utility Vehicles and the extraction of oil. There is
a growing trend amongst western engineering companies to ... 5 serious Corporate
and Social Responsibility policies, but many companies do not have these.
Engineering is a key driver of human development. Sub-Saharan Africa in particular
has a very small engineering ... 6 which results in many African nations being
unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many
of the Millennium Development Goals ... 7 the achievement of sufficient engineering
capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development. All
overseas development and relief NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization) make ... 8
use of engineers to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number
of charitable organizations aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind:
• Engineers Without Borders
• Engineers Against Poverty
• Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief
• Engineers for a Sustainable World

1. a) behavior b) characteristics c) bred


2. a) great b) powerful c) genuine
3. a) controversy b) challenge c) counterpart
4. a) failure b) success c) development
5. prohibit b) enact c) allow
6. a) capacity b)quality c) quantity
7. a) means b) borrows c) requires
8. a) considerable b) reliable c) careful

5. Match the two parts of the sentences:


1. Engineers typically attempt to predict
2. They use among other things:
3. Testing ensures that products
4. Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility
5. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs
6. However, the greater the safety factor,

a) to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm
to the public at large.
b) how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale
production.
c) the less efficient the design may be.
d) prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and
stress tests.
e) will perform as expected.
f) to reduce the risk o f unexpected failure.

TALKING POINT
6. Discuss in pairs:
a. the scope of Engineering
b. if Engineering borrows its ideas from other sciences
c. advancement of Technology and development of Engineering

MAKING PRESENTATION
7. Make a Power Point presentation:
a) about your future profession.
b) give reasons for having chosen it and prospects of your career.

8. Read the text and discuss the following issues.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
• the subject of the conference
• organization hosted the conference
• the venue of the conference
• the proceedings of the conference
• the conclusions and resolution adopted at the conference

The development of modem material science has led to a growing need to


understand the phenomena determining the properties of material on the atomistic
level. As the behaviour of atoms and electrons is governed by the laws of quantum
mechanics, accurate and efficient techniques for solving the basic quatum-mechnical
equations for very complex many-atom, many-electron systems is required. The
development of ab irmitio simulation methods, whose aim is to model processes in
materials by solving the coupled Newtonian equations of motion of atoms and the
Schoedinger equation for the electrons from first principles without any other input
than the atomic numbers of the constituents, is a part of fundamental research.
Hence, for a long time the development and application of DFT methods has been a
domain of academic research. Only in the last decade, based on the development of
increasingly sophisticated codes and better computer performance, has the impact of
DFT - based simulation methods spread from academia to industry. New
opportunities are opening for innovative material research across physics, chemistry,
surface science and nanotechnology extending even to earth sciences and molecular
biology. Researchers from industry mainly focused on challenges from applied
research, their contributions describing successful applications of DFT techniques to
industrial problems were more scarce.
In 1998 a first workshop entitled “Electronic Structure Calculations for Industry
and Basic Sciences (the short title “Science Meets Industry”) was organized at
Vienna University of Technology. The second workshop was held in June 2007 at
Erwin- Schoedinger Institute for Mathematical Physics in Vienna. Contributions
from academia concentrated on a wide range of new developments of DFT as well as
applications in front-line material research. In contrast to the first workshop nine
years ago, all industrial speakers presented results of extensive ab initio studies in
key areas of modem technology, concentrating on catalysis and chemical processing,
information technologies, automobile engineering and energy.
The proceedings of the workshop assemble full papers summarizing 23 of the
invited talks, abstracts of the remaining invited talks and abstracts of the poster
contributions. The task of providing a full tool-box for fast and efficient calculation
of many different material properties exceeds the capacity of a single group of
developers. Supporting these efforts is also a challenge to industry. The academic
research needs industry’s support in many ways. Industry has to make governmental
and funding agencies aware of the vital role of this research for future technological
advances - and a very persuasive way to do that is to invest directly into leading
academic groups.

9. GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Subjunctive (Wishes)


Complete the sentences according to the pattern:

Going to an international scientific conference (Wishes and Regrets)

Example: 1.I t ’s time a) I learned English properly.


2. It’s tim e.............. 3. It’s tim e............... 4.1t’s tim e...............

Example: 5. I’d rather e) stay downtown so that I could walk to most landmarks.
6. I’d rather............. 7. I’d rather............... 8. I’d rather...............

Example: 9. I’d better i) send my abstract today as the deadline is tomorrow.


10. I’d better............... 11. I’d better............... 12. I’d better...............

Example: 13. I wish к) I had taken some formal clothes as there were some
receptions; 1 4 .1 wish ... 15.1 w ish ............... 16.1 w ish...............

a) I booked plane tickets;


b) Peter did not share the room with me as he snores;
c) learn my report by heart as my English is not good enough;
d) the organizing committee sent us the conference program;
e) come on Saturdays before the conference in order to see the city;
f) Kate flew with us as she speaks good English;
g) register for the cultural program otherwise it might be too late;
h) check up my credit card to make sure there is enough euros.
i) I could speak French;
the organization fee were not so high;
j) I could stay in Paris longer; I had not left behind my laptop;
k) I had taken some formal clothes as there were some receptions;
l) had not forgotten to take my French-Russian phrase book;
m) I had made some animation in the Power Point;
n) I got a visa;

10. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of wish.

1. “We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of DNA. This structure has novel
features which are of considerable biological interest”. With this famous
understatement Watson and Crick announced their discovery of the structure of DNA
in Nature 25 April 1953.
2. The circumstances are controlled by the observer to isolate that part of a
phenomenon or a reaction he wishes to observe and the conditions under which they
happen.
3. Finally, in exasperation, Babbage exclaimed, T wish to god these calculations had
been executed by steam.’

WRITING: formal letter (a letter of complaint)


11. Use the following phrases to write a letter of complaint / claims.
It’s typical/ strange that... We suggest th a t.....
Our demand is..... It’s urgent...
We insist th a t....
12. Put the parts of the formal letter in the correct order.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION
13. Listen to the talk and identify true (T)/false (F) statements.
1. The plans were received only from domestic companies.
2. Next meeting will be in two weeks’ time.
3. The structure in plan 4 can carry much more traffic than its competitors.
4. Plan 5 is has much in common with plan 2.
5. The number of spans in plan 1 and plan 4 is practically the same.

14. Listen again and answer the questions.


1. What height of the structure is stated in the specifications?
a) 65-70m b) 70 m c) 60 m
2. What is the number of spans in structure 1?
a) 38 b) 48 c) 30
3. What is the total length of the construction (bridge link) in the first plan?
a) 65 m b) 850 m c) 36 km
4. What is the carrying capacity of the second link?
a) 6000 cars per hour b) 14 000 cars per hour c) 3000 cars per hour
1. Read the text and say whether the following statements are true or false:

a) The Internet originally was designed for getting the information.


b) Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States.
c) When you send e-mail messages, you only have to pay for phone calls to your
local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world.
d) Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for
sending and receiving e-mail messages.
A Global Computer Network
The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all
over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was
designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest
path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on
the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single
route between them. This technology is called packet switching. Owing to this
technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear
explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such
packet-switching network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network
which was not knocked out during the Gulf War. Most of the Internet host computers
(more than 50 %) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100
other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly
accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are
millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.
The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have
access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail
messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading
USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.
In many developing countries the Internet provide businessmen with a reliable
alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these
countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the
world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have
to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their
countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages
over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a user
pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards
its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger
provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless
stations.
But saving money was only the first step. When people saw that they could make
money from the Internet, commercial use of this network drastically increased. For
example, some western architecture companies and garment centers transmit their
basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and
refined by skilled - but inexpensive - Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.
However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you
send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many
different networks and computers. The data are constantly being directed towards
its destination by special computers called routers. Because o f this, it is possible
to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data
being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong
encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the
Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e. "in the clear". But when
it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these
encoding programs may be useful. Some banks and companies even conduct
transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and
technical problems which will take time to be resolved.
2 In the text find equivalents to the phrases:
- выжить в ядерной войне;
- охватывать миллионы пользователей по всему миру;
- пакетная передача данных;
- пока существует один маршрутизатор;
- число головных компьютеров можно посчитать достаточно точно;
- надежная альтернатива;
- зарабатывать деньги с помощью компьютера;
- доступные сильные копировочные программы;
- стоимость обслуживание

3. Form phrases by matching the words from 1-10 with the words a-k:

1) millions 2) the shortest 3) route 4) fairly


5) developing 6) reliable 7) garment 8) encoding
9) conduct 10) architecture

a) around b) accurately c) system d) program e) companies


f) transactions g) center i) countries j) path k) of users

4. Form nouns from these verbs and translate them:


1. to net; 2. to access; 3. to intercept; 4. to travel; 5. to inform;
6. to transmit; 7. to encode; 8. to transact; 9. to service; 10. to resolve

TALKING POINT
5. Discuss in pairs:
• the most popular Internet services nowadays;
• where your monthly fee goes to;
• the possibilities to make money through the Internet;
• the use of the Internet resources for studing.
VOCABULARY STUDY
6.Choose the word which best completes each sentence.
Viruses are an area of pure ... (1), and, unlike other computer programs,
carry intellectual functions on protection from being found and destroyed. They have
to fight for ... (2) in complex conditions of conflicting computer systems. That's why
they evolve as if they were alive. Yes, viruses seem to be the only ... (3) organisms in
the computer environment, and yet another their main goal is survival. That is why
they may have complex crypting/decrypting engines, which is indeed a sort of a
standard for computer viruses nowadays, in order to carry out processes of
duplicating, ... (4) and disguise.
It is necessary to ... (5) between reproducing programs and Trojan horses.
Reproducing programs will not necessarily harm your system because they are aimed
at producing as many copies of their own as possible by means of the so-called agent
programs or without their help. In the latter case they are ... (6) to as "worms".
Meanwhile Trojan horses are programs aimed at causing harm or damage to PC's.
Certainly it's a usual practice, when they are part of "tech-organism", but they have
completely different functions. That is an important point ... (7) actions are not an
integral part of the virus by default. However virus-writers allow presence of
destructive mechanisms as an active protection from finding and destroying their
creatures, as well as a response to the attitude of society to viruses and their authors.
As you see, there are different types of viruses, and they have already been ... (8)
into classes and categories. For instance: dangerous, harmless, and very dan-gerous.
No destruction means a harmless one, tricks with system halts means a dangerous
one, and finally with a devastating destruction means a very dangerous virus.
1. a) program b) programming c) programmable
2. a) survive b) survived c) surviving
3. a) live; b) living c) alive
4. a) adaptation b) adaptable c) adaptability
5. a) difference b) differentiate c) differ
6. a) refer b) referred c) reference
7. a) destructive b) destruction c) destruct
8. a) separate b) separating c) separated

WORD FORMATION
7. Read the text and fill in tbe gaps with an appropriate form of the words in
brackets. Bill Gates

Bill Gates was bom and grew up in Seattle,


Washington USA. His father, William H. Gates II was
a Seattle attorney and his mother, Mary Maxwell
Gates was a school teacher and chairperson of the
United Way charity. Gates and his two sisters had a
comfortable 1... (upbring), with Gates being able to
attend the exclusive secondary "Lakeside School".
Bill Gates started studying at Harvard University in 1973 where he met up with
Paul Allen. Gates and Allen worked on a version of the programming language
BASIC that was the basis for the MITS Altair (the first microcomputer available). He
did not go on to graduate from Harvard University as he left in his junior year to start
what was to become the largest computer software company in the world - Microsoft
Corporation. After dropping out of Harvard Bill Gates and his partner Paul Allen set
about 2 ...(revolutionize) the computer industry. Gates believed there should be a
computer on every office desk and in every home.
In 1975 the company Micro-soft was formed, which was an abbreviation of
microcomputer software. It soon became simply "Microsoft" and went on to
completely change the way people use computers. Microsoft helped to make the
computer easier to use with its developed and purchased software, and made it a
3 .. .(commerce) success. The success of Microsoft began with the MS-DOS
computer operating system that Gates licensed to IBM. Gates also set about
protecting the royalties that he could acquire from computer software by 4 ...
(aggress) fighting against all forms of software piracy, effectively creating the retail
software market that now exists today. With his great success in the computer
software industry also came many 5...(criticize). With his 6... (ambition) and
aggressive business philosophy, Gates or his Microsoft lawyers have been in and out
of courtrooms fighting legal battles almost since Microsoft began. The Microsoft
monopoly sets about completely 7... (dominate) every market it enters through either
acquisition, aggressive business tactics or a combination of them.
Being the richest man in the world has enabled Gates to create one of the world's
largest charitable foundations. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has an
8.. .(endow) of more than $28 billion, with donations totaling more than $1 billion
every year. Their aim is to "bring innovations in health and learning to the global
community". Bill Gates continues to play a very active role in the workings of the
Microsoft Company, but has handed the position of CEO over to Steve Ballmer.
Gates now holds the positions of "Chairman" and "Chief Software Architect". He has
started that he plans to take on fewer responsibilities at Microsoft and will eventually
devote all his time to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2006, the second
richest man in the world, Warren Buffett pledged to give much of his vast fortune to
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Their foundation tries to improve health in
poor countries.

8. Translate the text into English:


Компьютер — машина для проведения вычислений. При помощи
вычислений компьютер способен обрабатывать информацию по заранее
определённому алгоритму. Кроме того, большинство компьютеров способны
сохранять информацию и осуществлять поиск информации, выводить
информацию на различные виды устройств вывода информации. Своё название
компьютеры получили по своей основной функции — проведению вычислений.
Однако в настоящее время полагают, что основные функции компьютеров —
обработка информации и управление.
Архитектура компьютеров может непосредственно моделировать решаемую
проблему, максимально близко (в смысле математического описания) отражая
исследуемые физические явления. Так, электронные потоки могут
использоваться в качестве моделей потоков воды при моделировании дамб или
плотин. Подобным образом сконструированные аналоговые компьютеры были
обычны в 60-х годах XX века, однако сегодня стали достаточно редким
явлением. В большинстве современных компьютеров проблема сначала
описывается в математических терминах, при этом вся необходимая
информация представляется в двоичной форме (binary waveform), после чего
действия по её обработке сводятся к применению простой алгебры логики.
Поскольку практически вся математика может быть сведена к решению
булевых переменных (logical variables), достаточно быстрый электронный
компьютер может быть применим для решения большинства математических
задач.

GRAMMAR PRACRICE: Auxiliary Verbs (GR-6, p.200; 25, 26,27 p. 210)


9. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of the auxiliary
verbs.
1. Maxwell realized that the theory had profound philosophical implications, and he
may not have risked publishing it had there not already been good precedent.
2. The Nobel Prize ceremonies (white ties and tails, of course, tuxedoes are so
declasses) are occasions for ladies to show off their finery. And they had better. For
the television broadcast includes the fashion commentary, and woe betide the lady,
whose couture is not haute enough.
3. Mathematics had just entered its modem phase with Descartes’ publication of
Analytical Geometry in 1647, and was still for many years to be of such modest
extent that a gifted man could reasonably hope to do good work in both the pure and
applied divisions.
4. Supemovae are important to galactic ecology, for it is here that atoms of heavy
elements are forged and then blasted into space, to be incorporated into latter-day
stars and planets.
5. It is perfectly possible to imagine a universe in which mathematical equations have
nothing to do with the workings of nature. Yet the marvelous thing is that they do.
6. Henning Brand tried to distill gold from urine. (The similarity of colour seems to
have been the factor in his conclusions). He did not yield gold, but a strange and
interesting thing did happen. The substance began to glow after some time.
7. One of Gauss’s disciples used to put the book under his pillow before going to bed
in the hope - frequently fulfilled - that he would wake up in the night to find that a
re-reading made things clear.
8. Dalton asked that when he died, his eyes should be examined to discover the
reason for his color blindness, because he believed the fault could be the fluid in his
eyes that was blue.
9. Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, happened to spill some nitroglycerine liquid by
mistake while lifting the bottle of it from the box of fine powder called Kieselguhr. It
should have exploded, as it is very easy set off. But instead it formed a paste witi
the powder.
10. Unexplained is the curious fact that rules of numbers developed here on Eartl
should also enable us to generate nuclear power and calculate the mass of th<
Magellanic Clouds.

10. Choose the suitable word should or would


1. Stem’s method was to settle, after deep thought, on the next experiment. Hf
should/would then design the apparatus, which he should/would invite his assistant!
or students to construct.
2. Fermat should/would often write to other mathematicians asking if they had the
ingenuity to match his solutions. These challenges and the fact that he should/ would
never reveal his own calculations caused others a great deal of frustration.
3. Chemistry was still closely connected with alchemists searching for what the)
called ‘philosophers’ stone’, should/would turn ordinary base metal into gold.

11. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of one/ones


1. One sir Courtney Boyle was reported to have deplored in an article in Macmillar
magazine that barbarous usages had crept into the language.
2. A huge amount of industrial activity is based on chemical equations, each one
describing an interaction whose details can be inferred but almost never observec
with a naked eye.
3. It is said that Copernicus was handed the new book for the first time when he
briefly recovered consciousness, and that he died with it in his hands: one can but
hope the story is true
4. One implication is that the constants we observe may not, in fact, be the trul>
fundamental ones.
5. Charles Babbage began his lifelong quest to create a mechanical calculating engine
one evening in 1821.

12. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of that.


1. The orthodox view was that of Creationists. The creationists believed that every
species was created by God at once - and that each was perfectly designed by him tc
suit the conditions in which it lived.
2. Deciphering DNA structure seeded a revolution that changed biology forever.
3. The circumstances of a controlled experiment are controlled by the observer tc
isolate that part of a phenomenon or a reaction he wishes to observe and the
conditions under which they happen.
4. This test was, after all, not that important and other work was waiting to be done.

13. Choose the suitable word to fill the gaps. (GR-27,28 p.211)

1. Favourable variations tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ...to be destroyed


resulting in the formation of new species
2. One key idea that emerges in Ada’s notes is the notion that the Engine might have
far wider applications than purely mathematical....
3. The American physicist John Archibald Wheeler encapsulated complementarity by
quoting an eighteenth-century thinker, the Abbe of Galiana: "... cannot bow in front
of somebody without showing ...back to somebody else.”
4. Gauss’ explanation recalls that by Newton. Asked how he had made his
discoveries in astronomy surpassing ...of all his predecessors, Newton replied: “By
always thinking about them.”

14. Choose the suitable word former /latter

Identical forms - serpentine and chrysotile asbestos. While the former/latter is a


harmless mineral that consists of flat sheets of atoms, the former/latter contains
nano-scale tubes of atoms. After all, every new material has the potential to be toxic.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION: Company Rules and regulations

15.You will hear an introductory talk given by the manager of the company to the
new employees. Give a summary of the talk emphasizing things that are
compulsory, necessary, essential, desirable, advisable, permissible to do for
the employees. Example: It’s compulsory that everyone should at work in core
time, that is from 10 to 3p.m..

UNIT 29 FUTURE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Which items of technology given below one can find at work (1), at home (2)
and both (3)?

Computer, video recorder, microwave, CD player, food processor, camcorder,


camera, photocopier, washing machine, telephone, refrigerator, stereo, security
system
2. Discuss in pairs.
• if you are happy with or afraid of technology. In other words, are you a
technophile or a technophobe;
• which items mentioned above you most or least like using;
what can go wrong with technology
3. Read the diary of a man and say whether a computerised home is a dream or
a nightmare.
Nov 28: At last we have moved in. As a matter of fact, we live in the smartest
house in the neighborhood. Everything is networked. The cable TV is connected to
our phone, which is connected to my personal computer, which is connected to the
power lines, all the appliances and the security system. Everything runs off a
universal remote.
Nov 30: Hot Stuff! Programmed my video recorder from the office, turned up the
thermostat and switched on the lights with the car phone. Everything nice and cozy
on my arrival.
Dec 3: Yesterday the kitchen crashed. As I opened the refrigerator door, the light
bulb blew. Immediately, all the electrical appliances were shut down by the
computer. So the software company runs some remote telediagnostic tests via my
house processor. Turns out the problem was, that the network had never seen a
refrigerator bulb failure while the door was open. The burned out bulb was
interpreted as a power surge and the entire kitchen was shut down.
Dec 7: The police are not happy. Our house keeps calling them for help. We
discover that whenever we play the TV or stereo above 25 decibels, it creates
vibrations which are amplified when they hit the window. The police computer
concludes that someone is trying to break in.
Another glitch: the universal remote won't let me change the channels on my TV.
That means I actually have to get up off the couch and change the channels by hand.
The software and the utility people say this flaw will be fixed in the next
upgrade -SmartHouse 2.
Dec 12: This is a nightmare. There's a virus in the house. My personal computer
caught it while browsing on the public access network. I come home and the living
room is a sauna, the bedroom windows are covered with ice, the refrigerator has been
defrosted, the basement has been flooded by the washing machine, the garage door is
going up and down and the TV is stuck on the home shopping channel.
Dec 18: They think they've disinfected the house, but the place is a shambles.
Pipes have burst and we're not completely sure we've got the part of the virus that
attacks the toilets.
Dec 19: Apparently our house isn't insured for viruses. We call our lawyer. He
laughs. He's excited!
Dec 2 1 :1 get a call from a SmartHouse sales rep. As a special holiday offer, we
get the free opportunity to become a site for the company's new SmartHouse 2.1
upgrade. He says I'll be able to meet the programmers personally. 'Sure,' I tell him.

NOTE: smart house - умный дом; to network —подключить к сети; universal


remote - пульт дистанционного управления ; power surge - скачок напряжения;
glitch - “глюк”; flaw - брак, неисправность; shambles - неразбериха; utility
people -обслуживающий персонал; to upgrade - усовершенствовать

4. In the text find equivalents to the phrases:


- мы живем в самом умном доме в округе;
- все управляется универсальным дистанционным пультом управления;
- все электрические приборы были немедленно отключены компьютером;
компьютерная сеть никогда не видела, как перегорает лампочка
холодильника;
- наш дом постоянно зовет их на помощь;
- несомненно, наш дом не застрахован от вирусов.

5. Read the passage again and find out six things which went wrong in the
writer's home. Now work in pairs and check your answers.

6. Which of these statements are true?


1. On December 3, the computer damaged all the electrical appliances.
2. The software company tested the system from a distance.
3. Vibrations on the window set off the security alarm and called the police.
4. The universal remote usually changes the TV channels.
5. On December 12, the computer caught a virus from inside the home system.
6. Usually, you could raise or lower the garage doors automatically.
7. On December 21, the programmers upgraded the system.

MAKING PRESENTATIONS:
7. Make Power Point presentations about a home you would like to live in. You
may use phrases from Appendix 1.

VOCABULARY STUDY
8. Complete the sentences with the words from the box and give the text a
suitable title.
a) online b) around the world c) immediately d) all the time
e) a lot smarter f) exactly g) traceable
h) permanently i) automatically j) much less_______
Try to imagine a day, twenty years in the future. You leave work and your heater
ind a cooker at home ... (1) turn themselves on. You can't find your car keys, but
/our watch tells you that you left them on your desk. You stop at the supermarket and
ust walk out with the things you want, paying for everything ... (2). You get home
md the lights and TV come on and your dinner is ready. Science- fiction? If experts'
predictions are right, this could be the way we live with the 'grid', the computer system
hat will replace the Internet.
All the products we buy these days have barcodes on them. They help shops keep
rack of their Stock and mean that we spend ... (3) time at the checkout. If a barcode is
passed over a special laser, the machine can read the information in the barcode,
hventors are now working on an improved kind of barcode. Tiny computer chips on
abels would transmit information about themselves - what the product is, where it is,
how it's working - to receivers with no need to use a laser. If you connect all those
chips together with computers through the Internet, you have the grid.
The Internet is a global system of computers, all linked to one another. Information
can be sent from one machine to any other machine which is ... (4). If you send an e-
mail or surf the Internet, information from your machine is sent to a central computer,
which then sends it on to other computers ... (5). But what if you didn't need a
computer? What if your clothes, food, car, electrical items and, perhaps, even your body
were connected ... (6)? If this did happen, what effect would it have on our lives? First
of all, the machines around us would seem ... (7). They would report back to the
manufacturers when they broke down, sending information about the fault. If you
bought ready meals, small chips in their labels could tell the cooker ... (8) how long
to cook them and at what temperature. If you wanted to, you could even have a chip
put under your skin to constantly send information about your health to you doctor!
On the other hand, if firms link products to customers at the checkout, ordinary
objects could become ... (9) to their purchasers (imagine a stray pack of cigarettes at
the scene of a crime). To many people it may seem too invasive to their privacy. In
that case they can use a “kill command” included into chip that can ... ( 10) disable
the tag. The customer would forego after-sales benefits, such as better warranty and
returned gods services, for instance, or chickens that could tell ovens how to cook
them. But the “kill commands” just the thing for those who suspect that their fridge
has begun to spy on them.

9. Give a summary to the following text in English:


Фундаментальные космические исследования
Все окружающие нас достижения цивилизации обязаны своим
существованием проводившимся ранее фундаментальным научным
исследованиям. Например, двигатели внутреннего сгорания (internal combustion
engine) не могли бы существовать без сделанных когда-то открытий в таких
научных направлениях, как термодинамика, молекулярная физика,
электродинамика, магнетизм, органическая химия и т.д.
Теперь в силу ускорения научно-технического прогресса результаты научных
исследований находят применение в технике и быту уже в среднем через
промежуток времени 20 - 30 лет. Часть из них вносят решающий вклад в
технический прогресс.
Значительную роль в этом процессе играют и фундаментальные науки,
изучающие Вселенную. Достаточно напомнить, что гелий был открыт на
Солнце и только потом найден наЗемле, или, что для ядерной физики
некоторые объекты во Вселенной являются естественной лабораторией, где
сама Природа ставит эксперименты, которые невозможны в земных лабо­
раториях. Кроме того, фундаментальные космические исследования оказывают
мощное прямое воздействие на развитие технологий. Это происходит из-за
постоянных требований экспериментаторов к повышению чувствительности,
разрешающей способности (resolution) и улучшению других параметров
(characteristics) научных приборов. Фундаментальные космические
исследования дали мощный толчок развитию наших представлений об
устройстве Вселенной.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Text Organizers-I (GR-22 p.208)

10. Find synonyms among the following words and expressions.


Example: after all = in the end

accidentally after all all the same anyway apart from


besides by chance eventually furthermore i.e.
in contrast in addition to in common with in the end
in a nutshell in short moreover more importantly
namely on the contrary similarly to that is unlike

11. Fill the gaps with the suitable text organizers.


1. In 1928, he discovered another antibacterial agent, quite ....
2. In that age there was nothing inelegant about a mechanical picture of humanity;
..., it showed just how wonderfully wrought people were.
3. As it has been remarked elsewhere, those societies that have actively embraced the
scientific method flourished. ..., those which relied on superstition, witchcraft and
religion have failed.
4. Newton’s status ensured Huygens’s wave theory was neglected until the nineteenth
century, when the Englishman Thomas Young conducted experiments that seemed,
..., to prove the wave-like nature of light.
5 .. .., he could be said to have invented the astronomical telescope. Above all, he was
a scientist, though. For example, he did not simply take the telescope and turn it into
a major scientific instrument.
6 .. .., by bringing quantum physics into the study of black holes, Hawking had drawn
it into the whole cosmological field and so opened the way to an all-embracing
physical theory of the universe.
7. The whole laborious trial and error of the scientific process, the testing, revising
and discarding of hypothesis; the diligent construction of theories which fit the
known facts, and modification or abandonment of these as and when new facts
emerge; ..., the scientific method, produces results, results which are testable,
verifiable, falsifiable, and from which predictions can be made.
8. ... Greek philosophers, the alchemists considered that all the matter was
constructed from four different materials or elements, and that all substances known
to them consisted of combinations of these elements in different proportions.
9. In the intervening period, German philosopher Leibniz had published his own
independently discovered version and given it the name calculus, which stuck.
Newton hijacked the committee’s report to ensure it found in his favor, which it
would have done anyway.
CONFUSABLES

12. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of neither,
either, both.
1. The rediscovery of ancient learning certainly provided a launch pad. But it needed
something from outside science to propel science into orbit: something neither the
Greeks, nor the Arabs, nor the Chinese had. That something was the right
technology.
2. Science and technology are simply two different responses to the forces of nature.
Science is humanity’s attempt to exploit them. And progress in either can be the
source of progress in the other.
3. From a complementarian standpoint we cease to insist that an electron, say, must
be either particle or wave, and accept that it looks like one or the other depending
upon the perspective from which it is investigated.
4. Matter and energy can be viewed as both particles and waves, even though
particles and waves have mutually exclusive properties.
5. The Aristotelian view of matter was further undermined as experiments began to
reveal that neither air nor water were indivisible elements.
6. Bohr applied the principle of complementarity to nonscientific questions such as
the quest for peace among nations, which, he argued, could be increased if each
nation tried harder to appreciate both his own and his adversary’s true points of
view.

VOCABULARY STUDY: Words with multiple functions and meaning

13. Translate the following sentences paying attention to italicized words

a) matter b) matter of c) no matter


d) as a matter of fact__________ e) matters______

1. In less than a minute the universe became a million billion miles across and was
growing fast. In three minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever be
was produced.
2. When this moment occurred is a matter of some debate.
3. Every discipline develops tools and techniques appropriate to its subject mater.
4. Only in a matter of weeks later Watson and Crick found a model structure so
compelling in every detail that there could be little double it was correct.
5. The sense of Hobbes’ philippic against Wallis hardly matters, nor did it win
Hobbes the argument.
6. As a matter of fact, most, if not all research conducted in the Soviet Union at that
time was classified in line with a general obsession with secrecy.
7. Many scientists, especially working in both fields, find that there is no big
difference between mathematics and physics. It is a matter of degree, of emphasis,
not an absolute difference.
8. No matter how much evidence there is for a theory, such as million of
demonstrated examples, mathematicians demand a proof of a general case.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION Working from Home


14. You will listen to the talk concerning the advantages and disadvantages of
working from home using a computer and the Internet. List the advantages and the
disadvantages of such employment.

UNIT 30 CAREERS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

1. Read the text and decide if the following statements are true or false.

L The careers in physics are subject to variations due to general economic


trends.
2. Science graduates have good chance to be hired in industry because they are
prepared to accept a low salary.
3. Trained physicists often fill managerial positions because they lack talent to
do proper science.
4. Science departments should change their programs to ensure better working
life for their graduates.
5. Traditionally trained academics have certain drawbacks in their education.
6. Though science is an egalitarian activity there is some stratification in
academia which has negative impact on science students’ vision.
7. The science departments that fail to attract students tried to follow the
example of their more successful colleagues.

Full Academic and Practical Toolkit


“It’s deja vu all over again”. This expression aptly describes ups and down
cycles of physics job market during the past century. The ups resulted from such
stimuli as war needs, the invention of the sputnik, the transistor or the computer, as
well as from the spark of strong economy. The downs have almost inevitably
followed, as the supply of trained specialists has exceeded the demand or the
economy faulted. During the down periods such as the job crunches of the early
1970s and 1990s, those hardest hit were the newly minted physicists and students
caught n the pipeline. Although, historically few physicists go unemployed or
underemployed for long, they nevertheless experienced great angst. Many enter
“holding pattern”, taking one postgraduate position after another; some drop out. As
the word of the tight job market spread, physics major enrollments drop, recovering
only slowly once the conditions improve.
Industry wants very bright problem solvers, having broad technical
underpinning. Science graduates fill that part of the bill. Moreover, they are
frequently hired because employers know that science majors effectively weed out all
but most talented. For example, half of the new physics PhDs in the US have taken
potentially permanent jobs in the industrial sector, doing applied physics,
engineering, software development, and the like.
Aspects of management consulting certainly appeal to a number of physics
doctorates. Management consulting involves many of the same skills as physics,
such as problem solving and quantitative analysis, but offers rewards on a shorter
time scale and allows participation in a greater variety of projects. Plus, the six-figure
salaries are nice as well.
Right now the demand for scientists in the US is healthy, and more academic
openings are available to scientists than have existed for many years. But how long
will the boom last? Are science departments planning for the rainy day? Many
physics departments are listening to their students and to a wide range of employers,
taking an introspective look at their program, and introducing measures to increase
the robustness and attractiveness of their major.
Traditionally trained academics are hired when specialized talent is scarce but
they are at competitive disadvantage when demand wanes. Being smart is not
enough; industry expects new hires to contribute from day to day. Industrial
employers perceive academics to be at the periphery of the high-tech talent pool.
They believe that scientists often lack social skills needed to work on a team or they
are too narrowly focused on a topic or too easily diverted from practical goals by
interesting science. As a prominent industrial physicist said that academic physicists
are “utterly clueless about what it takes to survive in industrial world. They have no
idea about customers, on-time, on-target delivery of the results without excuses, or
participation in teams. These stereotypical views have a grain of truth that needs to be
recognized.
Many science faculty members don’t have the background to prepare students for
a career outside the world of academia. Moreover, there persists in academia the
remnants of an elitist perception of what a proper science is and what one’s best
graduates should do. These days, elitism is decreasing and rarely expressed, but
students are masters at reading subtle, subconscious signals from their advisors. With
declining enrollment science departments are challenged either to excel at providing a
traditional academic program or to adapt their programs to prepare their graduates
better for a broader employment markets. Some science departments seem to fail to
achieve this goal.
The losers cite a number of reasons for the drop in students’ numbers, including
increased competition from other programs, notably computer science and
engineering, poor employment prospects, declining preparation of incoming students.
The gainers had all taken some action to change their enrollments. Their efforts
included a double major with a department like electrical engineering, transfer to
engineering school after two years and increased research opportunities. Though the
gainers do not have a single bullet, all remedies include visible and improved
preparations other than research professorship.
2. Read the text and make up dialogues simulating job interviews.

Job interview
While still being undergraduates students are provided an opportunity to work
as trainees at various organizations including major research centers and industrial
enterprises. Such internship is part of Bachelor’s and Master’s projects. Many
students go on working for these organizations on a part-time basis. Some students
take temporary jobs during summer vacations. It means that by the time they graduate
from university most graduates have some working experience and know how to
present themselves at job interviews.
At present many companies have adopted western style of recruitment which
includes advertising of a vacant position in special journals, mass media or in the
Inetmet, shortlisting of suitable applicants and their further interviewing.
People searching for a suitable position find a lot of vacancies and follow a standard
procedure of sending an application accompanied by a covering letter; they also
enclose their C.V. or resume. This document contains the applicant’s personal
details of his/her educational background and working experience, as well as skills
and qualifications. It also provides the names and contact phones or addresses of
people in responsible positions who have agreed to provide references for the
applicant.
If an applicant is shortlisted he or she is notified by the personnel manager and
invited to attend an interview. There are various types of interview depending on the
company and position you apply for. An interview may include a psychological or
professional test (paper-and-pencil tests), but above all it is a talk. The interview
wants to see what kind of person you are and to form his/her impression of your
personality. Sometimes interviews are conducted in several stages.
While getting ready for the interview tty to get information about the company in
question by looking through its profile or fact sheet. Try to anticipate the possible
questions asked at the interview. Typical questions concern the description of the
desired position, working conditions, perks, opportunities for career growth, salary.
Try to look your best for the interview, dress neatly and try to follow the required
dress code, if there is any. Be punctual for your interview, be polite to both the staff
and fellow applicants. During the interview try to behave naturally, be realistic, do
not exaggerate your qualifications, abilities, skills and experience. Actually, most
companies have special training programs both for young employees and experienced
staff. The qualities the interviewer is sure to appreciate is your honesty, flexibility
and the ability to learn.

LISTENING Job Interview


3. You will hear the HR specialist speaking about a typical interview.
What are the main parts of the job interview?
WRITING: How to write a CV (Curriculum Vitae)
4. Complete the given form and use it as a model to write a CV of your friend or
member of your family.

Personal Details:
Date of Birth:
Marital Status: (single, married, separated, divorced, a widow/widower)
Address:
Phone:
Education:
2005 advanced IT course (Moscow State University)
1989 post-doc research program (Hannover University, Germany)
1978 Ph.D. (Physics) Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
1975-1978 Ph. D. studies Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
1970-1975 MSc (Physics), Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University

Professional Experience:
1995 - present head of the IT department (“Advantex”, pic.)
1983-1995 senior research associate (Vedeneyev Hydraulic Engineering Institute)
1978 - 1982 junior research associate (Direct Current Research Institute)
1975 - 1978 teaching assistant (Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University)
1973 - 1975 technician (Ioffe Physics and Technology Institute)
Participation in Conferences, Publications:
2008 CTBTO Informal workshop on noble gases OSI (St. Petersburg)
2007 International Congress on Large Dams (St. Petersburg)
2004 International Ice Congress (St. Petersburg)
2002 CTBTO workshop (Tahiti)
2000 CTBTO workshop (Stockholm, Sweden)

Skills: fluent German, proficient English, driving license


Activities: outdoor sports, traveling

5. Read the text and discuss the opportunities of taking international student’s
program or doing post-doc research at McGill University.

McGill University
McGill University is one of Canada' s best-known institutions of higher learning
and one of the leading research-intensive universities. With students coming to
McGill from about 160 countries, its student body is the most internationally diverse
of any medical-doctoral university in Canada.
The oldest university in Montreal, McGill was founded in 1821 from a generous
bequest by James McGill, a prominent Scottish merchant. Since that time, McGill has
grown from a small college to a bustling university with two campuses, 11 faculties ,
some 300 programs of study, and more than 34,000 students. McGill is recognized
around the world for the excellence of its teaching and research programs.
Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning research on the nature of radioactivity
was conducted at McGill, part of a long tradition of innovation on our campuses
which has included the invention of the artificial blood cell and Plexiglas. Today its
professors are performing pioneering work in epigenetics, developing alternative
energy sources from crop plants and using nanotechnology to repair damaged
neurons.
In addition to a stellar faculty, McGill is known for attracting the brightest
students from across Canada, the United States, and abroad. McGill students have the
highest average entering grades in Canada, and its commitment to fostering the best
has helped its students win more national and international awards on average than
their peers at any other Canadian university. The prestigious Rhodes Scholarship has
gone to a nation-leading 130 McGill students.
The ability to balance academic excellence with the extracurricular is another
hallmark of the McGill student. In addition to a rich athletic tradition that includes
many Olympians, thousands of McGill students participate in the hundreds of clubs,
associations and community groups that enrich Montreal and contribute to a vibrant
campus life.
Its 200,000 graduates form a vast global network, with many of its alumni
reaching the top of their professions as Supreme Court Justices, award-winning
authors and musicians, astronauts and Nobel Prize winners.

TALKING POINT
6. Discuss the importance of the English language in your future profession. Add
your own reasons for mastering English.

Academics and the English language

• publications in international professional journals


• working language of international conferences
• the proceedings of conferences
• the Internet, e-mails
• foreign colleagues and counterparts
• joint ventures, multinational companies
• international fairs
• international scientific organizations
• grant proposals
• tender technical proposals, terms of reference
• international scientific exchange program
• traveling and tourism, personal contacts
• miscellaneous
GRAMMAR PRACTICE: Text Organizers (Confusables)
7. Choose the suitable word.

1. In 1913, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr showed that electrons contrary to the
classical laws of physics - do not lose their energy during rotation and do indeed/in
fact occupy certain well defined positions around the nucleus.
2. In the early 1970s, Hawking realized that quantum effects might apply to the
‘event horizon’ or rim of ‘black holes’. If they did, he argued, they would make a
black hole glow faintly, - and so perhaps be detectable after all/at all, making this
hitherto theoretical idea a reality
3. Waterston, ahead oi/in front of both Thomson and Helmholz but roughly at the
same time as Mayer, had the same insight about the way heat to keep the Sun hot
might be generated by gravitational means.
4. In 1811, L. Avogadro made a discovery that would prove highly significant in the
long term /in known terms - namely, that two that two equal volumes of gases of
ant type, if kept at the same pressure and temperature, will contain identical number
of molecules.
5. To the astonishment of those present, Archimedes just at first hand/single-
handediy launched “Syracusia”, one of the most luxurious and biggest ships built in
the ancient times, by an ingenious arrangement of levers and pulleys.
6. The idea that atoms could rip themselves apart and change into different atoms - in
other words/ on the other hand, that one element could change into another -
smacked of medieval alchemy and was firmly resisted by many scientists.
7. The eighteenth century represented a catching up, as science in general/ on
average came to terms with the way Newton had codified physics and demonstrated
the lawful, orderly nature of the Universe.
8. Right up to the closing years of the eighteenth century (and in Priestley’s case a
little beyond /within it) scientists discovered substances like phlogiston.

CONFUSABLES (Words and phrases with multiple meaning)


8. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box.

a) mean b) meaning c) by all means d) by no means


e) by means of f) a means of g) meanwhile h) well-meaning

1. It was Lord Rutherford was the founder of ‘philosopher’s stone’, ... by which
artificial gold could be made if desired.
2. A Hungarian-born scientist Imre Lakatos came up with an expression quasi-
empirical, which ... that even though there are no true experiments that can be
carried out in mathematics, something similar does take place.
3. Lord Kelvin, though a physicist, was also no ... mathematician.
4. Statistical approach often deals with ... values.
5. Most contemporaries of Einstein admitted that the ... of his theories was beyond
them.
6. The idea of atoms was ... new in the 18lh century. In fact, it has been around for
well over 2000 years.
7 .... physicists have also come to appreciate that the values of many of the constants
may be the result of mere happenstance, acquired during random events and
elementary particle process early in the history of the universe.
8. Poor Leonardo was constantly interrupted by visits from the ... King, who walked
through the tunnel that connected his Amboise palace to Leonardo’ house.

9. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning of well


1. In 1875-8, Hibbs produced a series of papers which dazzlingly elucidated the
thermodynamic principles of, well, nearly everything.
2. Such systems are commercially available and have components on length scales of
many microns - the acceleration sensors in airbags being a well known example.
3. The idea of atoms was by no means new in the 18th century. In fact, it has been
around for well over 2000 years.
4. Drexler argued that if biology works as well as it does, researchers ought to be
able to do much better.
5. Proteins, for example, function so well as enzymes because the particular sequence
of amino acids has been selected by evolution from a myriad of possibilities.
6. To make sense of this seeming paradox, Bohr - who like Einstein was a
philosopher as well as a scientist - developed a view he called “complementarity”.
7. Until well into the second half of the nineteenth century, the formula H2J2 might
mean water to one scientists and hydrogen peroxide to another.
8. After several tests and improvements of the new well detector the spectroscopy
scientist thought that eventually he would be able to say: ’’all is well that ends well”.
GRAMMAR REFERENCE (GR)

Grammar terms used in Grammar Reference

Noun - существительное; Verb - глагол; Transitive Verbs -


переходный глагол; Intransitive Verb - непереходный глагол; Auxiliary Verb
- вспомогательный глагол; Adjective - прилагательное; Adverb - наречие;
Conjunction - союз; Preposition - предлог; Particle - частица; Participle -
причастие;
Subject - подлежащее; Predicate - сказуемое; Direct Object - прямое
дополнение; Indirect Object - косвенное дополнение; Attribute -
определение; Noun Attribute/Compound Noun - атрибутивная цепочка
существительных (левое определение); Adverbial Modifier of Place -
обстоятельство места; Adverbial Modifier of Time - обстоятельство времени;
Passive Voice - страдательный залог; Causation - каузативные конструкции;
Subjunctive Mood - сослагательное наклонение; Conditional sentences -
условные предложения; Noun Substitute - слово-заместитель
существительного

1. The structure of a sentence


I wrote him a letter yesterday at the post office.
Subject Predicate Indirect Object Direct Object Adverbial M odifier o f Tim e Adverbial M odifier o f Place

Active and Passive Forms


I wrote him a letter about the conference yesterday. (Active Form)
He was written a letter to. A letter was written to him. (Passive form)

Questions to the Subject/Object


Subject Question: Who wrote the letter?
Subject Question: a) Who was the letter written to?
b) What was the letter written about?

2. Passive Voice and Causation

We have repaired the device. Мы отремонтировали устройство.


We have the device repaired. Нам отремонтировали устройство.
The device has been repaired. Устройство было отремонтировано.
The technician has repaired the device. Техник отремонтировал устройство.

3. Passive Voice
Present Past Future
Simple It is repaired. It was repaired It will be repaired
Progressive It is being repaired. It was being
repaired.
Perfect It has been repaired. It had been repaired. It will have been
4. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

intransitive verbs transitive verbs


lie-lay- lain лежать lay-laid-laid класть
lie-lied-lied лгать
rise- rose- risen расти, подниматься raise-raised-raised
поднимать; собрать деньги
arise-arose-risen возникать
arouse-aroused-aroused возбуждать
sit-sat-sat сидеть set-set-set ставить, устанавливать
fall-fell-fallen падать fell-felled-felled валить
fill-filled-filled заполнять
fulfil-filled-filled выполнять

5. Causation
The teacher made us repeat the experiment.
We were made to repeat the experiment.
The teacher got us to repeat the experiment.
The teacher had us repeat the experiment.
The teacher had (got) the experiment repeated.

Present Past Future


Simple We have it repaired. We had it repaired.
We will have it
repaired.
Progressive We are having it We were having it We will be having
repaired. repaired. it repaired.
Perfect We have had it repaired. We had had it We will have it
repaired. repaired.

6. Functions of have

function example
Modality (necessity) They had to repeat the test because the results were poor.
Perfect tenses They had repeated the test.
Causative sentences They had the test repeated.
Subjunctive They had better repeat the test.
Conditional sentences If they had repeated the test they would get better result.

7. Forms of Infinitive _________________________


TActive I Passive
Simple to write to be written
Progressive to be writing
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Progressive to have been writing

8. Functions of Infinitive

function example
Predicate 1. modal verbs They are to make a report.
They must have made
2.complex object I’d like them to make a report.
3.complex They are expected to make a report.
subject They claimed to have made the report.
nominal They were the first to make a report.
predicate They are bound to make a report.
Subject To make reports is difficult.
Attribute It’s an interesting report to make.
The report to be made was in English.
Adverbial Purpose He came to make a report.
Modifier
Text organizers Introductory To tell the truth, it’s very dull to make
phrase such reports.

9. Complex Object

to write articles,
to be writing a new article now .
I know him to have written it already,
suppose to have been writing it for a month,
think to be written about in newspapers.
watch -to have been written to already.

10. Complex Subject-I


to write articles.
He is known to be writing a new article now.
to have written it already,
to have been writing it for a month,
to be written about in newspapers,
to have been written to already.
Verb Verb+ Infinitive
1. He seems tired. Не seemed to have had little sleep.
Он кажется усталым. Кажется, он мало спал.
2. This information has already appeared It appears to have caused a lot of
in mass media. Эта информация уже response. Кажется, она вызвала
появилась св средствах массовой большую реакцию.
информации.
3. I don’t know what happened to the They may happen to get damaged.
samples. Я не знаю, что случилось с Возможно, случилось так, что они
образцами. были повреждены.

4. A special department deals with They claimed to have checked the


customers’ claims. Специальный отдел equipment before selling it. Они заявили,
занимается претензиями и жалобами что проверти оборудование переего
клиентов. продажей.
5. The student proved a theorem. Не proved/turned out to have copied it
Студент доказал теорему. from his friend. Оказалось, что он
списал это у своего друга.

6. Не tends to read more than he used to.


Он теперь читает больше, чем
раньше.
7. Не pretends to be reading . Он
делает вид, что читает.
8. Не regularly comes to read journals. Не comes to regularly read journals.
Он регулярно приходит, чтобы Он стал регулярно читать журналы.
почитать журналы.

12. For-to-Infinitive Construction


English Russian
1. Everyone waited for him to check the Все ждали, чтобы он проверил
results. результаты.

2. For him to check the results was a Его обычной обязанностью было
routine task. проверять результаты.

3. The results were brought for him to Ему принесли результаты для
check. проверки.
Present Past Future
1. He is sure/certain Не is sure/certain /bound Не is sure/certain /bound
/bound to do that. to have done that. to do that.
= Surely, he is doing it = Certainly, he has done = Undoubtedly, he will do
now. it. that.
= He must be doing it = He must have done that Несомненно, он это
now. Конечно, он already. сделает.
делает это сейчас. Несомненно, он это уже
сделал.
2. Не is sure not to be Не is certain not to have Не is certain not to do that
doing that now. done that. Конечно, он это не
= Surely, he is not doing = Certainly, he has not будет делать.
it now. done it.
= He can’t be doing that = He can’t have done that.
now. Конечно, он не Несомненно, он это не
делает это сейчас. делал.
3. Не is likely to be Не is likely to have done Не is likely to do that.
doing that now. that already. = He may/might do that.
= He may/might be = He may/might have Вероятно, он это
doing it now. Вероятно, done that. Вероятно, он сделает.
он делает это сейчас. это сделал.
4. He is unlikely to be Не unlikely to have done Не is unlikely to do that.
doing that now. that. Вероятно, он это
= He may/might be Маловероятно, он это сделает.
doing it now. Вряд ли , сделал.
он делает это сейчас.

14. Forms of Gerund /Participle I

Active Passive
Simple writing being written
Perfect having written having been written
FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE
15. Participle as Adverbial Modifier

Active Passive
Simple While interviewing Ann the While being interviewed Ann
manager asked a lot of questions. was asked a lot of questions.
Проводя интервью с Анной, Когда с Анной проводили
мэнэджер задавал ей много интервью, ей задавали много
вопросов. вопросов.
Perfect On having interviewed Ann the On having been interviewed Ann
manager wrote a report. Проведя filled the form.
интервью с Анной, мэнэдже После того, как с ней провели
написал отчёт. интервью, Анна заполнила
бланк.

16.ParticipIe as an Attribute

Active Passive
Simple The lab assistant checking the The data being checked by the lab
data fills the table. assistant will be entered into the
Лаборант, проверяющий table.
данные, вносит их в таблицу. Данные, проверяемые
лаборантом, будут вносится в
таблицу.
Perfect *** The data checked by the lab
assistant are entered into the table.
Данные, проверенные
лаборантом, вносятся в
таблицу.

*** The lab assistant who had checked the data entered them into the table.
Лаборант, проверивший данные, внёс их в таблицу.
**** The data checked, the lab assistant entered them into the table.
После как данные были проверены, лаборант внёс их в таблицу.
***** The data to be checked by the lab assistant are entered into the table.
Данные, которые будут проверятся лаборантом, вносятся в таблицу.

17.Participle or gerund (nouns)

Participle Noun
aging aging старение
being being существо
belonging *belongings имущество
earning *earnings заработок
finding ♦findings результаты исследования
footing основа
hearing ♦hearings слушание, заседание
*makings устройство, строение
proceeding ♦proceedings труды конференции
reasoning reasoning рассуждение
saving ♦savings сбережения
♦shortcomings недостатки
surrounding ♦ surrounding окружение
teachings ♦ teachings учение

18.MODAL VERBS

Present Past Future


l.He must do that. He had to do that. He will have to do that.
Он должен это сделать. Он должен был это Он должен будет это
сделать. сделать.
2 .He has to do that.£«y Ему пришлось это Ему приходётся это
приходится это делать. сделать. делать.
З.Не mustn’t do that. Не should not have done
Ему нельзя это делать. that Ему нельзя было это
делать.
4. Не does not have/need Не did not have/need to do Не won’t nee/have to do
to do that. that. Ему не пришлось that. Ему не придётся
He needn’t do that. (не было необходимости) это делать.
Ему не нужно (нет это делать.
необходимости) это Не need not have done
делать. that. Ему не нужно было
бы это делать.
5. Не must be doing it Не must have done that Не is sure/certain /bound
now. Конечно, он делает already. Несомненно, он to do that. Несомненно, он
это сейчас. это уже сделал. это сделает.
6. Не can’t be doing that Не can’t have done that. Не is certain not to do that
now. Конечно, он не Несомненно, он это не Конечно, он это не
делает это сейчас. делал. будет делать.
7. Не may/might be doing Не may/might have done Не may /might do that.
it now. Вероятно, он that. Вероятно, он это He is likely to do that.
делает это сейчас. сделал. Вероятно, он это
сделает.
8. Не should be doing it. Не should have done that Не should do that. Ему
now. Ему следовало бы already. Ему следовало следует сделать это.
делать это сейчас. бы сделать это уже.
9. Не ought to be doing Не ought to have done Не ought to do that. Ему
that now. Ему следовало that. Ему следовало бы следует сделать это.
бы делать это сейчас. сделать это уже.
10. Не can do that. = Не is
Не could do that. Он мог Не will be able to do that.
able to do that. (умел) это делать. Он сможет (сумеет)
Он может (умеет) это Не was able to do that. это сделать.
делать. Он смог (сумел) это
делать.
Не could have done
that .Он смог (сумел) бы
это сделать.
11. Не ought to be doing Не ought to have done Не ought to do that. Ему,,
that now. Ему следовало that. Ему следовало бы вероятно, сделать это.
бы делать это сейчас. сделать это уже.

19. Verbs of Reporting (Gerund or Infinitive)


Verbs + Gerund
accuse of apologise for approve of admit to
boast about complain to congratulate on decide against
deny disapprove of discourage from dream of
feel like forgive for insist on prevent from
stop from suggest suspect of warn against

Verbs + Infinitive
agree demand help offer promise refuse threaten claim volunteer

Verbs + somebody + Infinitive


advise allow ask beg command encourage forbid instruct
invite order permit prohibit remind urge want

20.Gerund or Infinitive (different meaning)

verb Infinitive Gerund


forget He forgot to buy the book. He forgot buying the book.
Он забыл купить книгу. Он забыл, что купил книгу
remember He remembered to buy the book. Не remembered buying the book.
Он не забыл купить книгу. Он помнил, что покупал книгу.
stop Не stopped to buy the book. Не stopped buying books.
Он остановился, чтобы Он перестал покупать книги.
купить книгу.
go on Не went on to buy the book. Не went on buying books.
Потом он купил книгу. Он продолжил покупать книги.
mean He meant to buy the book. Collecting a library means buying
Он собирался купить книгу. books. Создание библиотеки
связано с покупкой книг.
try They tried to repair the device. They tried repairing the device. Они
Они попытались решили отремонтировать
отремонтировать устройство.
устройство.
like Не likes to check up everything. Не likes checking up everything.
Он любит всё проверять. Ему нравится заниматься
проверкой.
hate I hate to unterrrupt you. Мне I hate unterrrupting people. Я не
очень неприятно вас люблю перебивать людей.
прерывать.
prefer I would prefer to buy the books. I prefer buying books to borrowing
Я бы предпочёл купить эти them.
книги. Я предпочитаю покупать книги, а
не брать их на время.
want They want to check up the data. The data want checking. Данные
Они хотят проверить данные. нуждаются в проверке.
need They need to update the The software needs updating.
software.Ял* нужно обновить Программу нужно обновить.
программу.
to be keen I am keen to go to that I am keen on going to conferences.
conference. Я очень хочу Я люблю ездить на конференции.
поехать на эту конференцию.
to be I am afraid to take this exam. I am afraid of failing this exam. Я
afraid Я боюсь сдавать этот боюсь, что не сдам этот экзамен
экзамен

21. Linking words

function complex Simple example


sentence sentence
(conjunction) (preposition)
contrast however, yet,despite, He was tired, however he did it.
still, while in spite of, Despite being tired he did it.
nevertheless regardless of
rather than,
instead of
concession although, even Although he was tired he did it.
though
cause as, since, for, because of He did not finish the work, as he
because due to, owing was tired.
to, in view of He did not finish the work because
of being tired.
purpose so that, lest in order, so as They packed the instruments so
that they would not get damaged.
They packed the instruments in
order not to damage them.
effect thus, so, They had packed the instruments
/result therefore, therefore they did not get damaged.
as a consequence
positive both... and, besides, He was both a great physicist and
addition not only... but, in addition to, a great mathematician.
moreover, apart from Apart from being a great physicist
furthermore aside from he was a great mathematician.
negative neither... nor neither, nor, Neither he nor his advisor can
addition either predict the result.
He can’t predict the result.
Nor can his advisor do that.
manner As if, as though somehow, in He behaved as if he knew the
a way outcome.
They managed that somehow.
condition If, provided, in case of, in Switch off the system in case
providing, the event of power supply fails.
suppose, in case In case of power supply failure
supposing, switch off the equipment
given, unless

22. Text Organizers

function expression
beginning initially, at: first, to start with
continuing secondly, next
concluding finally, eventually, in the end, last but not the least
summarizing in conclusion, to sum up, on the whole, all in all,
to put it briefly, in a nutshell
reference with respect/reference /regard to
as for concerning, considering,
comparison as... as, the... the, twice ... as, more/less than
similarity similarly, likewise, in the same way, like
contrast on the other hand, unlike, contrary to, in contrast to
emphasis what’s more, as a matter of fact, in fact, indeed, actually, let
alone
exemplification for instance, for example, particularly, especially, in
particular, such as, like
exception but (for), except (for), apart from, save
alternative or, otherwise, on the other hand, alternatively
addition besides, not to mention the fact, what’s more
clarification that is to say, specifically, in other words, to put it anoter
way, namely

23. Types of Conditional Sentences

Conditional Clause Main Clause


0. If /when I have time I visit that place.
1.I f I have time tomorrow I will visit that place.
Should I have time tomorrow
2. If I had time I would visit that place.
3. If I had had time yesterday I would have visited that place.
Had I had time yesterday

24. CONVERSION
* marks words that change stress: a noun has stress on the first syllable, a verb
- on the second one.

word noun/adjective ( meaning) verb ( meaning)


адрес обращаться
advance прогресс двигаться, продвигать
amount количество достигать
approach подход приближаться
attack атака, приступ активно заниматься
book книга заказывать
charge заряд, плата заряжать, взимать плату
engineer инженер создавать
feature черта содержать, изображать
form форма образовать
force сила заставлять
fuel топливо приводить в движение
gear механизм приводить в движение
glue клей соединять
harbor гавань содержать
honor честь прославлять
number число насчитывать
*object предмет, дополнение возражать
paste клей соединять
*permit разрешение разрешать
*perfect совершенный совершенствовать
power сила поддерживать, вызывать
probe зонд зондировать, исследовать
process процесс обрабатывать
""progress процесс, движение двигаться (вперёд)

*project проект проецировать


question вопрос подвергать сомнению
range диапазон находиться в пределах
reason причина, разум убеждать, уговаривать
""record запись, рекорд записывать
""subject тема, подлежащее подвергать
term термин, условие называть
view взгляд рассматривать

25. Functions of would

Functions Example
Subjunctive I would like you to check up these data.
Conditional I would appreciate it if you check up these data.
Future in the Past He said that he would check up these data.
(Sequence of tenses)
Repeated Action Every morning he would check up these data.
Willingness /unwillingness The motor would not start.
Conditional If he had time he would check up these data.

26. Functions of should

Functions Example
Modality He should repair the device.
Subjunctive He should have repaired the device.
Unlikely Condition Should he repair the device we will be able to start work.
Subjunctive It is imperative that he should repair the device.
(Desired Action)
27. Functions of be

Functions Example
Progressive tenses They are repairing the device.
Passive The device is repaired.
Modality The device is to be repaired by Monday.
Predicted Action in the Past However, it was to break on Tuesday.

28. Functions of one

Functions Example
numeral We will analyze one example
pronoun One may analyze this example.
noun substitute These examples are well-known ones.

29. Functions of that/those

Functions Example
conjunction He was told that he failed the exam.
demonstrative pronoun He was to resit that exam.
noun substitute He did not use his computer, he used that of his brother.

30. Inversion

Functions Example
questions Had he finished the experiment on time?
conditional clause Had he finished the experiment on time he would have published
the article.
emphasis Hardly had he finished the experiment when the power supply
was out.
Short negative - I have not finished the experiment.
answers - Neither/Nor have I.
MODEL TESTS

TEST 1
(Passive Voice)

I .Word Formation
Form nouns from the given verbs andfill in the gaps:
dispose preserve argue destroy govern
1. World Wildlife Fund tries to draw attention to the ... of Europe’s ancient woods.
2. ... encourage the regeneration o f forests their management in nature-friendly way.
3. The ... of ancient forests causes the extinction of many species.
4. There is an ... that recycling may have some unforeseen negative effects.
5. One o f the most vital environmental problems is the problem of waste . ...

II. Vocabulary
Correct the mistakes
6. There are both theoretical and practical subjects on our schedule.
7 .1 have lost my credit book and I have a problem with decanate.
8. In four years we will have practice and then we will write our diplomas.
9. Academic Alferov is to give a lecture at our department next week.
10. In five years we will obtain our magister’s degrees.
11.1 will finish university in five years and will go to the aspiranture.
12.1 am interesting in science so I would like to be an aspirant.
13. After the university I would like to enter a scientific research institute.
Choose the correct word
14. Students who have poor attendance/attention may be summoned to the deputy
dean.
15. At the end of the term we usually take/pass five exams.
16. The theme/subject of today’s lecture is very important.
17. My goal/ambition is to work at the Polytechnic University.
18. The foundations o f chemistry were laid/lain by Dalton and Lavoisier.
19. The standards o f university education have been risen/raised recently.
20. Care must be taken in handling radioactive materials as painful bums may result
from/in prolonged exposure to the rays.

III. Grammar
Passive Voice
Use the appropriate verb forms
2 1. The results of the experiments can (rely) upon.
22. These data (refer) to in many articles recently.
23. Conventional ideas and superstitions (do) with yet.
24. Admixtures of other metals (influence) the properties of basic metals .
25. Any deduction usually (succeed) a number of experiments and observations.
26. Newton’s laws of motion (subject) to criticism by Einstein.
27. Neutron capture by a nitrogen nucleus (follow) by the emission of a proton.
28. This discovery (follow) by another ones in the early twentieth century.
29. That sequence of events (bring about) the discovery of radioactivity.
30. The conference to be held next month (attend) by eighty physicists.

TEST 2
(Infinitive)
1.Заполните пропуски подходящими no смыслу словами из предложенного
списка.

SERENDIPITY

a) carefully b) chemist с) development d) fortunate е) important f) impression


g) property h) scientific i) technologists j) unusual

When you read magazine articles about (1) ___ discoveries or technological
advances, you can get a false (2 )___ of the way scientists and (3 )___ work . Of
course their research solves problems or leads to the (4 )___ o f new theories. But it
is not all as ( 5 ) ___ planned as we might imagine. A lot o f the (6) ___
discoveries were made by chance.
A (7) ___ might mix some substances and produce a new substance with
unexpected (8___ ). Such faculty of making (9 )___ and unexpected discoveries,
referred to as serendipity, is not (10)___ in the history of science.

2. Образуйте соответствующее однокоренное слово.

DMITRY MENDELEYEV

It is hard to overestimate the important (11) o f Mendeleev’s achievement in the


advance (12) o f chemistry as a science. Before him there was little consistent (13)
in the symbols and abbreviations used in chemistry, and the organization or
arrange (14) the elements. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table established an order and
clear (15) that transformed the study of chemistry. Furthermore, by looking at the
gaps in his table, Mendeleev was able to predict the discovery of new elements with
extraordinary accurate (16).
Furthermore, Mendeleev had the confident (17) to revise the atomic weights where
his scheme seemed to demand it. As the table developed, new relate (18) between
the elements were revealed. The new system did not win immediate accept (19), but
as the time passed the gaps left by Mendeleev for predicted elements were gradually
filled which proved the great (20) of the Mendeleev System.

3. Раскройте скобки, используя соответствующую форму инфинитива:


21. Initially the Eiffel Tower appeared (be) unsafe to some people.
22. Life on earth may (begin) about 4 billion years ago.
23. Life is known (exist) only in limited range of temperatures.
24. Periodic comets are thought (come) from the Kupier belt, a zone located just
beyond Neptune.
25. Sharks must (keep) swimming in order (ensure) enough oxygen in their
bloodstream.
26. An immobile shark is bound (drown).
27. Avogadro who is considered (be) one of the founders of physical chemistry.
28. Becquerel is known (discover) penetrating radiation coming from uranium.
29. Carnot is supposed (found ) the science of thermodynamics
30. A new model of the atomic structure is known (develop) by Bohr.

TEST 3
(Infinitive)

1.Заполните пропуски подходящими no смыслу словами из предложенного


списка.

VIRTUAL REALITY

a) applications b) average c) behind d) designed e) equipped f) explore


g) manipulate h) movements i) potential j) transmitting

Virtual reality (VR) is an interface that takes you inside a world created or (1 )___by
a computer. You put on a headpiece (2 )___with stereo-vision color monitors and a
sensor that keeps track of your head (3 )___. Turn around and you see what is (4)
you; put on a VR glove - as you have seen in si-fi films - and you can (5 )___
objects.
VR has (6 )___ranging from exercise (there’s already a flying bicycle, modeled after
the one in the film ET) to marketing (teenagers are invited to shop in VR malls). It
also has the (7 )___to democratize the space program. Once VR is up and running
on the (8 )___ home computer, a space probe imaging, say, the canyons of Mars
will be (9)___back, not just pictures, but entire environments that millions can (10)

2. Образуйте соответствующее однокоренное слово.

E-MAIL
There can’t be many people who are aware (11) of e-mail, even if they have never
actually send one. Although there are similar (12) between e-mail and letters, there
are many different (13). The first is that e-mail is delivered instant (14) so it can be
a very efficient means of communication This means that e-mail is more practical
for communicating over large distant (15). Another difference is that e-mail tends to
be relative (16) informal. People are much more likely to use colloquial language
that they consider suit (17) for a formal letter. Spelling in an e-mail message may
also be not so accuracy (18) and some grammatical rules may be neglected. One
explain (19) is that e-mail seems less permanent than something written on paper.
Surely the fiiture develop (20) of e-mail will have all kinds of unexpected expect
effects on the way we communicate.

3. Раскройте скобки, используя соответствующую форму инфинитива:

21. “Challenger” is known (explode) in the midair in1986 killing all seven members
o f the crew.
22. Edison is known (make) only one important scientific discovery- the Edison
effect.
23. The moon is known (be) mainly responsible for the tides on the Earth.
24. The atom is frequently said (be) a sort of miniature solar system.
25. People seem (think) the Eiffel Tower was the only work of this engineering
innovator.
26. The latitude of Greenwich meridian is known (determine) by John Flamsteed
27. The use of nuclear power is likely (cause) opposition.
28. The first accurate thermometer is known (invent) by Fahrenheit.
29. Newton showed Kepler’s laws (be) a consequence of the theory of universal
gravitation.
30. Several theories are known (attempt) to explain how the universe came into
being.

TEST 4
(Participle)

1.Раскройте скобки, используя соответствующую неличную форму глагола:

Thermos or Dewar vessel

It is a common theme (run 1) through the history of invention: serious


scientists spent a lifetime on (dedicate 2) work, (end up 3) in the history books for
(invent 4) with a peripheral but more practical device; something essential for
modem (live 5). Sir James Dewar, a (know well 6) Scottish physicist and chemist,
was one such case. He is known (make 7) important innovations in the field of low-
temperature gases. On (conceive 8) a practical process of (liquefy 9) oxygen and
hydrogen, he needed a means to store the (liquefylO) gases at very low temperatures.
(Follow 11) his discovery, Dewar came up with a device that made his name: the
vacuum flask, the name Dewar vessel still (used 12) by professional chemists.
In 1904 two German glassmakers added a metal exterior and (absorb shock 13)
element between the inner and outer flasks, their product (launch 14) on the
market as “Thermos” after ltherme the Greek word (mean 15) hot.

2. Выберите подходящее слово.


Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton, the English scientist and mathematician, was one of the most
important figures of the 17th century scientific 16_(a) revolution/ (b) evolution. One
of his greatest 17_ (a) achievements/ (b) fulfillments was the discovery of the three
laws of 18 (a) movements / (b) motion, which are still used today. Isaac’s first
19_(a) publishing/(b) published work was the theory of light and color. When
another scientist wrote a paper
20_(a) criticising/(b) criticized this theory, Isaac flew into an uncontrollable rage.
The scientist 21_ (a) responsive/(b) responsible for the criticism was Robert Hooke,
one o f the most 22_respected (a)/ (b) respectable scientists in the country. 23_(a)
Despite/ (b) In spite Hooke’s being the head of the Royal Society, Newton 24_(a)
denied/ (b)refused to speak to him for over a year.
The fact was that Newton found 25_ (a) improbable/(b) impossible to have a
calm discussion with anyone. As soon as someone said something that he 26_ (a)
disagreed/(b) disliked with, he would lose his temper. For this 27_(a) purpose/ (b)
reason he lived a large part of his life 28_(a) insulated/(b)isolated from other
scientists.
Newton’s real annus mirabilisis (miraculous year) is considered 29_ (a) to be/
(b) to have been 1665 -1666, when, 30_(a)confining/ (b)confined to his county
home, he started to 31_(a) lay/ (b) lie the basis for the calculus, his law o f gravitation
and his theory of colors. This was the most fruitful individual scientific
accomplishment 32_ (a) to be repeated/ (b) repeating only by Einstein in 1905.

3. К высказыванию из колонки А подберите ответ из колонки В.


А В
33. I’m afraid to take this exam, A) Amazingly, I don’t feel
sleepy.
34. Professor Brown’s lectures are difficult to follow, B) But it is embarrassing to
call at 1a.m..
35. It must be difficult to combine work and study, C) So do I. I’m afraid of
failing.
36. Ann is likely to have notes on physics, D) Yes, his explanations are
confusing.
37. You must be exhausted after staying up all night, E) I am surprised that I
manage to cope.

4. Укажите букву, обозначающую слово или выражение, являющееся лишним


в данном ряду.
38. a) addiction b) subtraction с) division d) multiplication
39. a) propose b) suppose c) offer d) suggest
40. a) in addition to b) besides c) except d) apart from
5. Выберите подходящую глагольную форму.

41. Holography, creating what appears (a) to be/ (b) to have been a three-
dimensional image in a two-dimensional medium, was invented in 1947 by a
Hungarian-born physicist, Denis Gabor.
42. Education has produced population able to read, but unable to distinguish what is
worth (a) reading/ (b) to read.
43. Advances in technology and telecommunications have also contributed to (a)
establish/ (b) establishing English as a global language.
44. The discussion (a) following/ (b) followed the presentation lasted for two hours.
45. The experiments (a) preceding/ (b) preceded the discovery involved the whole
laboratory staff.
46. Pauli and Heisenberg claimed (a) to have solved/ (b) solved all the unsolved
problems in elementary particle theory, reducing everything to a single equation.
47. Andre Marie Ampere, was said in early childhood (a) to memorize / (b) to have
memorized all 20 volumes of the Encyclopedia edited by Didrot and d’Alembert.
48. A key feature o f the scientific method is that the theorist can make a definite
prediction of the value of measurable quantity, the experimenter (a) going/ (b)gone
ahead and check up it to some level of accuracy.
49.Some materials become radioactive, with their nuclei suddenly (a) breaking/ (b)
broken up to give off a variety of rays.
50. A model of a phenomenon, system or process is its theoretical description (a)
designing/
(b) designed to aid understanding o f how it works.

TEST 5
(Participle)

1. Раскройте скобки, используя соответствующую неличную форму глагола:

Dynamite and Nobel Prize


About 1863 Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, set up a factory in order
(manufacture 1) liquid nitroglycerin, but when in 1864 it blew up, (kill 2) his
younger brother, Alfred decided to find safe methods for (handle 3) the substance.
Once he happened (spill 4) some nitroglycerine liquid by mistake while (lift
5) the bottle of it from the box of fine powder (call 6) Kieselguhr. It should
(explode 7), as it is very easy set off. But instead o f (explode 8) it formed a paste
with the powder. Nobel discovered that the mixture was still explosive, but now
much safer (handle 9). He called it dynamite, from the Greek word dynamis,
(mean 10)power. He went on (make 11) a fortune by (producel2) dynamite. A
lifelong pacifist, he wanted his explosives (use 13) solely for peaceful purposes.
He left most of his fortune (establish 14) the Nobel Foundation and this fund has
been used (award 15) annual Nobel Prizes since 1901.

1. Выберите подходящее слово.

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein is a 16_(a) deflning/(b) defined, emblematic figure for the
20-th century physics. His work 17_(a) altered/(b) alternated forever the way we
view the natural world. The relativity theory wholly 18_ (a) obligated/(b)
obliterated the absolutes of time and space that Newton had 19_(a)
embarrassed/(b) embraced more than two centuries earlier.
With little more to show than a 20_(a) rejected/(b) refused Ph. D. thesis, this
26-year -old clerk, who practiced physics in his spare time, declared that the 21_(a)
physicians/(b) physicists of his day were out of date went on to 22_(a) prove/ (b)
proving it.
Besides special and general relativity, his work helped to 23_(a) launch/(b)
lunch quantum mechanics and statistic mechanics. Chemistry and biotechnology
owe a debt to Einstein’s studies 24_ (a) supplied /(b) supplying evidence of the
existence of molecules and the ways they behave. What is even more 25_(a)
amazing/(b) amusing is that he published many of these insights through a series of
papers 26_(a) appeared/(b) appearing during a single miraculous year, 1905. No
other 27_ (a) compatibly/(b) comparably fruitful period for individual scientific
accomplishment can be 28_(a) founded/(b) found except during 1665 and 1666, the
original annus mirabilis, when Isaac Newton, 29_(a)confirmed/ (b) confined (14) to
his country home, started 30_ (a) laying /(b) lying the basis for the calculus, his law
of gravitation and his theory of colors. The international physics 31_ (a)
community/(b) society proclaimed 2005 the World Year of Physics as a 32 (a)
contribute/(b) tribute to Einstein’s discoveries.

3. К высказыванию из колонки А подберите ответ из колонки В.


А В
3 3 .1 am puzzled by this problem, A) Failing means resitting the
exam.
3 4 .1 couldn’t help laughing at his jokes, B) Sorry, I’m busy reading for the
exam.
35.1 am thrilled about the test results, C) Try asking Peter. He is likely
to help you.
36. An exiting film is on at the Aurora tonight. D) Shocking, you mean.
37. The test results are rather disappointing, E) Yes, his jokes are always
amusing.

4. Укажите букву, обозначающую слово или выражение, являющееся лишним


в данном ряду.
38. a) clearly b) obviously c) decisively d) evidently
39. a) estimate b) appreciate c) evaluate d) assess
40. a) despite b) in spite of c) on account of d) regardless of

5. Выберите подходящую глагольную форму.


41. In the early 1920s the name “television” might (a) be / (b) have been new, but
the idea was not.
42. Some things in history are so familiar that we never stop (a) to ask/ (b) asking
ourselves why they happened.
43. The story of the (a) falling/ (b) fallen apple may have had some foundation in
truth, coming from Newton’s niece.
44. The debates (a) following/(b) followed the presentation involved everyone
present.
45. The publication (a) preceding/(b) preceded by the press conference caused a lot
o f argument.
46. Education is an admirable thing, but from time to time it is well to remember that
nothing is worth (a) knowing /(b) to know can be taught. O. Wilde.
47. Chadwick claimed (a) to have discovered / (b) discovered the neutron, a particle
having a mass nearly the same as that of a proton but carrying no charge.
48. Pythagoras’s theorem is known to have been independently discovered many
times by different scientists, Pythagoras probably not (a) being / (b) been among
them.
49. Disk drives will become increasingly capacious over the next decade or two,
allowing (a) to put/ (b) putting the equivalent o f a_good-sized library into the
average desktop.
50. The preference o f science is to find a question that nobody knew needed (a)
answering/ (b) answer and then move on, leaving technologists to turn the answer
into a product.

TEST 6
(Infinitive Constructions)

ЕЗаполните пробелы данными словами: to (A), have (В) Despite (С), may
(D), can (E), by (F), namely (G), cannot (H), Furthermore (I), matter (J),
certainly (K), demand (L)

Sufficient Reason

...(1) living 250 years before the invention of the computer program, Leibniz came
very close ... (2) the modem idea of algorithmic information. He had all the key
elements: he knew that everything can be represented ... (3) binary information, he
built one of the first calculating machines, and he discussed complexity and
randomness. If Leibniz had put it all together, he might ...(4) questioned one of the
key pillars o f his philosophy, ...(5), the principle of sufficient reason__ that
everything happens for a reason. ...(6), if something is true, it must be true for a
reason. That ...(7) be hard to believe sometimes in the chaos and confusion of
everyday life and flow o f human history. But even if we,., (8) always see the reason
(perhaps because the chain o f reasoning is long and subtle), Leibniz asserted, God
...(9) see the reason. In that he agrees with ancient Greeks, who had originated the
idea. Mathematicians .,.(10) believe in reason and in Leibniz’s principle of sufficient
reason, because they always try to prove everything. No ...(11) how much evidence
there is for a theory, mathematicians ... ( 12) a proof of a general case.

II. Выберите соответствующую частицу: o u t o f f (2) up (2)


13. The Greek came ... with the idea that in mathematics you have to prove things
rather than discover them.
14. The fundamental problem is to decide when to give ... the program that does not
halt.
15-16. The experiment was put... due to the power cut-....
17. It turned ... no mathematical theory can tell us which programs will halt and
which will not.

III. Поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.


18. Aristotle’s physics is known not (stand) the test o f time due to lack the empirical
dimension.
19. An ink pen running at regular intervals happened (help) J. Bell discover pulsars.
20. Everyone knows F. Crick and J. Watson (discover) the structure of the DNA.
21. The electric motor is known (invent) by Faraday.
22. Before Mendeleev the weights of cobalt and nickel seemed (measure) wrongly.

IV. Выберите подходящее сокращение.


23. Alan Turing is remembered today as the father of ET/AI.
24. The faculty of physics and mechanics trains specialists in R&D/PR.

V. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения


2 5 .1 wish you would not use my computer. A) I’d better do, the deadline is
Thursday.
26. In case I forget it, I’ll call you. B) I’d rather you did not unless
it’s urgent.
27. I wish I could go to that concert. С) I won’t should I have my
own.
28. It’s time you started working. D) You can’t unless you booked
in advance.

VI. Определите, к какому типу делового документа относятся


представленные ниже отрывки: A) CV В) letter o f complaint С) covering
letter D) memo.
29. We insist that the faulty plotters be replaced within a 2-week period.
30. I have read the advertisement for a vacancy in Your IT department in the Sunday
Mirror.

TEST 7
(Subjunctive Mood)

I. Найдите дефиниции, соответствующие данным словам:

1. correspond a) ahead of contemporary thought or practice


2. correct b) to be in agreement, harmony, or conformity
3. responsible c) having or expressing the meaning
4. advanced d) being a source or cause o f something
5. significant e) conforming to the standard, proper

Выберите нужное слово: a) carried b) behalf c) come d) dates e)Although

6. ____ he is best known for his masterful paintings, Leonardo da Vinci is revealed as a
remarkable scientist by his notebooks, perhaps the first great scientist o f the modem
age.
7. To solve this problem scientists h av e___up with an idea of mysterious “dark
matter”.
8. The experiments that are __ out in natural surroundings are called field
experiments.
9. The start o f modem science___ back to Francis Bacon who is credited with
spelling out the experimental principles.
10. A famous scientist accepted the award o n ___of his entire research team.

Выберите нужное слово:

Science in the Twenty-first Century

Science promises to change our lives in any ways in the twenty-first century. Most
people probably (11) future scientific (12) with traveling to distant planets. Or with
the host o f (13) available in twenty-first century homes. However, it is probably in
the (14) of medicine that science will have the greatest (15) on peoples lives. (16) is
going on to find the ways to immunize people (17) AIDS which is known to have
claimed the lives of so many young people, and to discover (18) for terrible diseases
like cancer. O f course, before any o f these are made (19) to the public they will have
been (20) tested.

11. A join В connect Clink


12. A improvements В progresses C advance
13. A mechanism В devices C instruments
14. A field В region C subject
15. A affect В impact C alteration
16. A Exploration В Analysis C Research
17. A for В against C to
18 A cures В injections C vaccination
19 A valuable В worth C available
20 A through В though C thoroughly

II Укажите слово, отличающееся по произношению.

21. a) physics b) physicist с) psychology d) phone


22. a) technical b) chance c) challenge d) check
23. a) count b) doubt c) amount d)without
24. a) exceed b) succeed c) access d) assess

III Поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.

25. In 1991, LEP experiments demonstrated the existence of three generations of


elementary particles, each (have) two quarks and two leptons.
26-27. It is essential that the temperature (be) not elevated to the point where the
substance (form) may become unstable.
28-29. Although it can (derive) from oil and tar, kerosene is normally produced by
(refine) it from petroleum.
30-31. Irene Jolio-Curie wished her mother M. Skladovska (wear) protective clothing
while (work) with radioactive materials.
32. Nicola Tesla was a Croatian-born American physicist and electrical engineer who
invented the Tesla induction motor (name) after him
33. The Geiger counter (know) to have been invented in 1908.
34. Unless X-rays had been discovered by Roentgen they (discover) by someone
else.
35-36. National and individual prosperity seems not always (be) a good thing, with
people (become) increasingly technologically dependent.
37. Brownian movement was observed (result) from molecular vibrations.
38-39. The problem with (measure) earth tremors is that the largest can be 500
million times more powerful than the smallest that can (detect).
40. Nuclear fusion cannot be achieved unless the gases (heat) to temperatures
approaching those of the sun.

TV Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения

41. Do you know the answer to question 10? A) So I need not have wasted so
42. It was not necessary to do such exact, much tim e.
calculations B) I wish I knew.
43. Ann is so good at math, C) It’s time you started working
earnestly.
44. I failed my chemistry exam D) I wish she were here.

V Выберите правильный вариант ответа:

45. Ireland is separated from Great Britain b y __


A) the Irish Sea B) the North Sea C) the English Channel

46. The modernistic Opera House situated in the Harbor is the landmark o f__
A) New York B) Sydney -C) Montreal

47.Canada is th e ___largest country in the world.


A) second B) third C) fourth

VI Определите, к какому типу делового документа относятся


представленные ниже отрывки: A) CV В) Letter o f enquiry/request С)
Contract D) Memo.

48. 1999-2002 - post-graduate (St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University)

49. Thank You for Your letter dated 4 July.

50: From: Human Resources


To: Departmental Heads
Subject: Health Insurance

TEST 8
(Conditionals)
I Найдите дефиниции, соответствующие данным словам:

1. scale a) to change as to match or fit


2. constituent b) continually recurring, persistent
3. consequence c) to be the elements or parts, to compose
4. constant d) a system of ordered marks at fixed intervals used for
measurement
5. adjust e) that which logically or naturally follows from an action
or condition

Выберите нужное слово: a) terms b) Despite c) turned d) pick e) case

6. All laboratories have instructions what to do in ___ of a fire.


7. It was a successful project both in___of the results we achieved and the team spirit
we had.
8. I t ___out that that the galaxies weigh more than the sum of their visible parts.
9. This the start of NASA 10-year program to up the first radio signals from alien
civilizations.
10. _the efforts of the friends of the Earth humans continue to destroy the habitats
of various species.
Выберите нужное слово:
Tectonic Plates

This term appeared in a journal article in 1968, and the term quickly (11)
“continental drift”, which is no t a scientific (12), just a crude description of a visible
phenomenon. Continents are (13) by their ocean boundaries, and there is little (14)
between the outlines of the continents and the edges of the plates that (15) them.
There are more plates than there are oceans: about a dozen large ones and 20 small
ones. The annual (16) of individual plates is measured in centimeters, but, over
millions years centimeters add up. Parts of the Earth’s (17) that once sweltered under
a tropical sun now are buried under polar ice. And when immense masses of rock
(18) _even at a snail’s pace _ the pressure, and the friction, can have dramatic (19).
The earthquakes and the volcanoes that are a feature of the regions where plates are
(20) consequences signs of the forces at work.

11 . A altered В alternated C replaced


12 . A concept В idea C notation
13. A identifies В determined C defined
14. A relation В correlation C coincidence
15. A carry В transport C support
16. A move В removal C motion
17. A crust В core C exterior
18. A collect В coincide C collide
19. A consequences В sequences C coincidence
20 . A evident В subsequent C consequent

II Укажите слово, отличающееся по произношению.


20. а) thorough b) rough с) through d) thought
21. a) pneumatic b) plenty c) pressure d)plot
23. a) road b) role c) robust d) routine
24. a) bomb b) pump c) jump d) prompt

III Поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.

25-26. The refrigerators (develop) by Einstein and Szilard must (be) no good because
none was commercialized.
27. Most advanced products (say) to represent the state-of the art.
28. Software is notorious for bugs or errors (cause) it to malfunction or even crash.
29-30. Eliminating errors from programs in order (prevent) crashes and other
problems is (debug).
31. Environmentalists in New York claimed (devise) energy-saving strategies for
Africa.
32-33. Viruses cause strange messages (appear) on the screen, or data (lose) or
corrupted.
34. Computer models can succeed in (predict) global climatic changes well in
advance of their occurrence.
35. During further investigations still better results proved (be) obtained.
36. Aristotle’s physics (stand) the test o f time provided it had not lacked empirical
dimension.
37. The fact that can be proved false should be accepted as true as long as it (not
prove) as such.
38-39. Mendeleyev suggested that cobalt (swap) with nickel which he believed
wrongly (place).
40. The logic bomb is a program that lurks inside the system, (wait) for a specific
event to set it off and do its job.

IV Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения


41. Could I borrow your dictionary ? A) You’d better study in the library.
42. Can you lend me some money ? В) I promise I won’t.
43. I’d rather You did not use my things. C) Sorry. I wish 1 had not spent it all
yesterday.
4 4 .1 wish You would not make noise. D) It’s time you had your own one.

V Выберите правильный вариант ответа:


45. The Houses of Parliament consist of —
a) the House of Commons and the House of Nobility
b) the House of Commons and the House o f Lords
c) the House of Common and the House o f Sirs.
46. MIT, the renown centre of research and innovation is situated in___
a) the UK b) the USA c) Australia
47. _ is the home to many unique and endangered species,
a) the UK b) the USA c) Australia

VI Определите, к какому типу делового документа относятся


представленные ниже отрывки: A) CV В) Letter o f enquiry/request С)
Contract D) Memo.

48. We would appreciate if you send us Your current price list.


49. In case o f delayed shipment of goods the Supplier is liable to being fined.
50. From: Personnel Department
To: Canteen
Subject: Change of lunch break hours
APPENDIX 1 COMMUCATION IN SCIENCE (useful phrases)
TAKING PART IN A CONFERENCE

Introductions, objectives, agendas


1. My plan is to begin with discussing the ...
After that, our plan is to discuss ...
I am afraid we should restrict our attention to ...
2. In this paper I want to discuss some questions concerning the ...
My main objective here is to show th at...
We would like to describe recent developments ...
We will start by describing various methods for ...
For the most part I shall be summarizing other people's work.
3. Very roughly speaking, we are going to discuss/explain the following questions:
My purpose here is to explain ...
The theorem stated above represents the work of several people...
5. In this report I am going to outline the theory of... and its applications i n ...
The basic principle is th at...
6. In this paper (report) I am going to describe my point of view ...
7. Our main concern in this survey is the following question. More specifically, what
is their role in ...
8. Here is an outline o f the paper. In § 1 we consider whether ...
In § 2 we analyze the ... In § 3 we formulate a general conjecture... ;
9. The goal of this talk is the following:
- Firstly, I am going to survey some key results relating ... and the ...
10. In particular I am going to follow ...
- Secondly I am going to discuss a recent development ...
11. Let me begin with the statement that...
Now I come to the description of ...
Now I turn to another result o f ...
12. We will be concerned with ...
I would like to explain how ...
13. We should emphasize the idea o f ...

Conclusions and Summaries


1. We have seen two aspects of ...
Our conclusions are summarized as follows:
2.1 conclude with an example ...
Still the problem of solving... remains an intriguing open question
3. In this paper I had described my point of view that... to shed some
light o n ...
4. A brief review is presented of recent theoretical and experimental
efforts that have led to an improvement in our knowledge o f ...
5. This paper sums up results of our work ...
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Dr. X for reading the manuscript critically
for language corrections/for valuable general comments on ...
for making some useful suggestions for organizational change/for all these
contributions
The author is grateful to ... for...
It is a pleasure to thank X for reading the manuscript and making many useful
remarks.
I am grateful to ... and other colleagues for pointing out errors and suggesting
improvements in the original manuscript.
The work described in this paper was done in collaboration with ...
Discussion. Asking and Answering Questions
Asking questions:
Let me ask you a question concerning...
I have a question about...
My next question relates to ....
One more question...
The last question is...
Answering Questions:
1. Thank you, as to your question...
2. Thank you, I ’m afraid I don’t have enough information to answer that...
3. Thank you, that’s a difficult question to answer...
4. It is not within the scope /beyond the scope o f my research.

Expressing an opinion:
To my mind.. in my opinion... As I see it.... As far as I'm concerned...
Personally, I... My point o f view is...

Expressing an opinion weakly :


I'm inclined, to think that... I tend to think that..

Expressing an opinion strongly:


I'm sure that... I'm certain that... I'm convinced that...
I really do think that... I definitely think that...
I absolutely convinced that... There's no doubt that...

Hesitating:
Well, let me see...Oh, let me think for a moment...
Well now... What do I think of the problem? Well...
I've no idea, I'm afraid. I'm sorry, but I'm not the right person to answer that
question.
I can't answer that. I'll need some time to think about that if you don't mind
Agreements:
I completely agree. I agree entirely with your point of view.
I'm exactly of the same opinion. I agree in principle, but...

Strong Disagreement:
I totally disagree with you. I don't agree at all. I disagree entirely.
I respect your opinion, of course, however... I don’t completely agree with you that...

Asking for Confirmation:


If I understood you correctly, you are saying that...Are you saying that...?

Asking for Repetition:


I'm sorry, but I didn't quite follow what you were saying about.
I'm afraid I don't understand what you mean.
Correcting Misunderstandings:
I think you've misunderstood me.
That isn't quite what I mean.

For Disbelief:

It's hardly likely that... It's not likely that...


I’m afraid it contradicts the facts...

A Model for a report


Thank you, Mr X. I am happy to have this opportunity to present my paper at this
workshop session. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism o f... ..
It is well known that some interesting research has been done in this field in recent
years. Yet, it is not clear why ....
So the aim of this work was to find an explanation for the....
We suggest an explanation in terms of ...., which is confirmed by a model
calculation.
Now let me discuss in some detail the data we have obtained and the conclusions we
have made.
I would like to start by....
I'm afraid we'll have to skip some details, because we're short of time.
Have a look at this diagram, please. It demonstrates the difference between (You can
see a good agreement) the experimental data and the model calculations,
This enables us to make the following conclusion...
Experimental results agree with this theory and show th a t...
In contrast with a previous interpretation, we attribute the phenomenon to ...
With this I would like to finish.
Tf there are questions I'll be glad to answer them. Thank you.
Appendix 2
Word formation: prefixes
■ ............ г— " : I j
piviix ►, sU:tn И -* siiflixt:.
I ._ 1 l........ ......i

Prefixes
Negative Size Location Time and Number
and order
positive
un- semi- inter- pre- mono-
non- mini- super- anter- hex-

in- micro- trans- fore- oct-

re- ex- post- multi-

extra-
peri-

1 Negative and positive prefixes:


prefix Meaning Examples

un-, in- unmagnetized, incomplete


im-, il- not impossible, illegal
ir- irregular, irrelevant
Negative non- not connected non-programmable
with
mis- bad, wrong misdirect
mal- bad, wrong malfunction
opposite feeling disagree
dis- opposite action disconnect
anti- against- antiglare-
de- reduce, reverse- demagnetize, decode
under- too little underestimate
positive re- do again reorganize
over- too much overload
2. Prefixes of location

Prefix Meaning Examples

inter- between interface,


3. Prefixes: time and order:
interactive
Meaning Examples
super- over supersonic
trans- across transmit, transfer ante- antecedent
before
ex- out exclude, pre- prefix
extrinsic prime- first primary,
extra-beyond extraordinary primitive
sub- under subschema post- after postdated
infra-below infra-red retro- backward retroactive
PeP-— around peripheral

4. Prefixes of size:
Prefix Meaning Examples

semi- half, semiconductor


partly
equi- equal equidistant
mini- small minicomputer
micro- very small microcomputer
macro- large macroeconomics
mega- great megabyte

5. Prefixes of numbers:__________ 6. Other prefixes


Prefix Meaning Examples Prefix Meaning Examples
semi- half semicircle before program
pro-
mono- one monochromatic in advance progress
/ard
bi- two binary auto- self automatic
tri- three triangle co- together Co-ordinate
con- with connect
quad- four quadruple
penta- five pentagon
hex- six hexadecimal
Sept(era)- seven September
oct- eight octal
dec- ten decimal
multi- many multiplexor
Appendix 3
Word formation: suffixes
Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs
-ance -ize -able -ly
-ence -ate -ible
-or -fy -less
-er -en -ic -ical
-ist -ify -ish
-ness -ive

1. Noun-forming suffixes:
Suffix Meaning Examples
-ance state performance
-ence quality of independence
-er, -or a person who programmer, operator
a thing which compiler, accumulator
-ist. -yst a person who analyst, typist
-ian pertaining to electrician
-tion, the act of protection, creation
-ation
-ness action/state weightlessness
-ion activity calculation, conversion
-ing state, action falling
-ment state, quality measurement
-ity condition/state superconductivity, permeability
-ism domain/condition magnetism
-dom condition/state freedom,
-ship condition/state relationship, partnership

3. Verb-forming suffixes:

Suffix Meaning Examples


-ize/-ise computerize
-ate automate,
activate,
calculate
to make
-ify simplify
-en harden, widen
3. Adjective-forming suffixes:

Suffix Meaning Examples


-al computational, logical
-ar having the quality circular
-ic of magnetic, automatic
-ical electrical
-able
capable of being comparable divisible
-ible |
-ous like, full of dangerous
-fid characterized by helpful
-less without careless

-ish like yellowish

having the multiplied


ed
-ive quality of interactive

5. Adverb-forming suffix:
Suffix Meaning Examples
-ly in the electronically,
manner of logically

Appendix 4
Mathematical supplementary:
solve решать solution решение
to equal равняться to be equal to равняться
equation уравнение equality равенство
to add прибавить addition прибавление
to subtract вычесть subtraction вычитание
to multiply умножить to divide разделить
to cancel сократить to substitute подставить
fraction дробь decimal fraction десятичная дробь
nominator числитель denominator знаменатель
factor множитель, коэфф. ratio отношение, пропорция
inverse ratio обратное отношение
How to read mathematical formulae:
a= b a is equal to b
a equals b

c= a+b c is equal to a plus b


c equals a plus b
c is a plus b

c=a-b c is equal to a minus b


c equals a minus b
c is a minus b
c=axb c is equal to a multiplied by b
c equals a multiplied by b
c is equal to a times b
c is equal to the product o f a and b

c = a/b c is equal to a divided by b


a2 a sub two
aJ a j-th
a sub j
a>b a is greater than b
a<b a is less than b
a+ b>c a + b is greater than c
a+ b<c a + b is less than c
a/b = c/b the ratio o f a to b is equal to the ratio o f c to d
a*b2/ d3 a times b squared divided by c equals d to the third power

a2 a to the second power


a squared
a raised to the second power

a'10 a to the minus tenth power


Vь the square root o f b

R = V (a2 + b 2) R is equal to the square root of a squared plus b squared

dx the first derivative of x with respect to time


dt
d2x the second derivative of x with respect to time
d2t
n
f the integral between m and n
m
n
Here is an example of how to read a formula
F= G*(m i* т г У г 2
F is directly proportional to the product of m sub one and m sub two and is
inversely proportional to the square of r , G being the coefficient of proportionality
(or G being the factor).

Appendix 5 Abbreviations

ACT (American College Test) В-list (the less preferable option)


AD (anno domini) BA (Bachelor of Arts)
AI (Artificial Intelligence) В Sc (Bachelor of Science)
A-list (the best choice) BC (before BS (British Standard)
Christ)
BBC (British Broadcast Corporation) MBA (Master of Business
CAD (computer-aided design) Administration)
CAE (computer-aided engineering) M IT (Massachusssets Institute of
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) Tecnology)
CEO (Chief Executive Officer) MP (member of Parliament)
CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
CV (curriculum vitae) Organization)
EEU (European Economic Union) PA (personal assistant)
ET (extra terrestrial) PhD (Doctor of Philisophy)
GM T (Greenwich Mean Time) PM (Prime Minister)
GAM (general annual meeting) PoW (prisoner of war)
GNP (general national product) PR (Public Relations)
GCSE (General Certificate of R&D (Research and Development)
Secondary Education) SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test)
GP (general practitioner) Si-fi (science fiction)
GPA (grade point average) TOEFL (Test o f English as a Foreign
Hi-fi (high fidelity) Language)
HD (high definition) UCAS (Universities and Colleges
H R (Human Resources) Admission Service)
HM (Her/His Majesty) VAT (value added tax)
HMS (Her Majesty Service) VR (virtual reality)
IT (Information Technology) NASA (National Aeronautic and Space
IELTS (International English Agency)
Language Testing Standard) WW П (World War Two)
MA (Master of Arts) WWF (World Wildlife Fund)
M Sc. (Master o f Science)
UNESCO (United Nations’ Economic Scientific and Cultural Organization)
WWF (World Wildlife Fund)
UNESCO (United Nations’ Economic Scientific and Cultural Organization)

a.s.l. (above the sea level) mph (miles per hour)


cc (copies) n/a (not available)
c/o care of oz. (ounce)
cw (clockwise) pp (pages)
ccw (counterclockwise) pt (pint)
fl.oz (fluid ounce) rtd (retired)
ft (foot) rvd (reverend)
hp (horse power) 3-D (three-dimension)
in (inch) yd(yard)
lb. (pound)

Appendix 6 Foreign Expressions

ad hoc (for this) ibid. in the same place


alma mater (feeding mother), the i.e. (id est) that is
name given to the university/college by in situ (in place)
its past students in vitro (in glass)
alumnus/a; pi. alumni/alumnae in vivo (live)
(member or a former member of any mea culpa (my fault)
lemed establishment) NB nota bene
alter ego (another me) Quo vadis? (Where are you going to?)
am (ante meridian) p c (per cent; per capita)
annus mirabilis ( miraculous year) pm (post meridian)
angst (worry) R.I.P. requiescat in pace (rest in
bona fide ( in good trust, sincerely) peace)
c (circa) about per se (in itself)
C (century) Professor emeritus (honourable
cf (compare) professor)
clara voce (distinctly) sic (so/exactly)
cogito, ergo sum (I think, therefore I sine cure (without care)
am) status quo (current state)
cum laude (with praise/honours) suum cuique ( to each his own)
e.g. (exempli gracia) for example tabula rasa (clean plate)
eigen frequency (its own frequency) urbi et orbi (to the city and the
en mass (all together; in a mass) world/to everyone’s information)
en rout (on the way) v. (versus) against
et al. and others veni, vidi, vici ( I came, I saw, I won)
etc. and so on verbatim (literally)
experimentum crucis (crucial/decisive v.v. vice versa (the other way round)
experiment) viz. videlicet (namely)
H.C. honoris causa (for the merits)
Appendix 7
Imperial and Metric Conversion Tables

Imperial unit Definition Imperial equivalent Metric (Sl)equivalent


acre land measure 4,480 sq. yd 4,047 sq. m =0,404ha
barrel unit o f liquid capacity
barrel of oil 34,97 imperial gal 1591
barrel of bear 36 imperial gal (UK) 163,661
barrel of bear 31 imperial gal (USA)
fathom unit of depth 6ft 1,83 m
fluid ounce measure of capacity 1/16 of a pint ((USA)
(fl.oz)
foot (ft) unit of length 0,3048m
furlong unit of length 220 yd 201 ,17 m
gallon liquid or dry measure 4 quarts/8 pints 3,7851
inch (in) unit of length 1/12 ft 2,54cm
knot unit of ship’s speed nautical mile per hour 1,15 miles per hour
league imp. length unit 3 nautical miles 5,56 km
(obsolete)
nautical mile unit o f distance used 1,852 km
in navigation
ounce (oz) unit o f mass 1/16 pound 28,35 g
pint (pt) 16 fl.oz (US) 0,4731 (US)
20 fl.oz (UK) 0,5681 (UK)
pound (lb) unit of mass 16 ounce 0,45 kg
rood unit of area Z a acre 1,012 sq. m
stone (st) unit o f mass 141b 6,35 kg
yard (yd) unit of length 3ft 0,914 m

Imperial and Metric Conversion Factors

from Imperial to Multiply by from Metric to Multiply by


Metric Imperial
inches 25,4 millimeters 0,39
feet 0,3048 meters 3,28
yards 0,9144 meters 1,094
miles 1,609 kilometers 0,621
square inches 6,451 square centimeters 0,1550
square feet 0,0929 square meters 10764
square yards 0,836 square meters 1,196
square miles 2,589 square kilometers 0,386
acres 4046 square meters 0,0002
acres 0,405 hectares 2,469
Appendix 8
Timeline of Physics

c.430 BC Democritus speculates that all matter is composed of indivisible atoms.


250 Archimedes discovers the laws governing behavior of levers and floating bodies.
1000 The Arab physicist Ibn al Haytham distinguishes transmitted and reflected light,
explains the workings of lenses and formulates the laws of reflection.
1590 Galileo’s On Motion and Mechanical Sciences
1621 Galileo’s Dialogue concerning the Two World Systems is banned by Church.
1638 Galileo enunciates the principlethat distance fallen increases with the square of
the time elapsed.
1676 Roemer uses moons of Jupiter to measure the speed o f light.
1687 Newton’s Principia make public his theory of universal gravitation.
1690 Huygens’ Treatise on Light describes his theory of light.
1704 Newton’s Optics presents his ideas on the nature and behavior of light.
1762 Black discovers latent heat and specific heat.
1798 Cavendish establishes the value of the gravitational constant.
1800 Volta generates the first electric current.
1803 Dalton proposes that matter consists of atoms
1811 Avogadro enunciates his law concerning the number o f particles in a given
volume of any gas.
1820 Oested discovers electromagnetism.
1831 Faraday and Henry independently establish that a moving magnet generates an
electric current.
1847 Joule and Mayer independently formulate the law o f conservation of energy.
1850 Clausius enunciates the second law of thermodynamics
1851 Kelvin introduces the concept o f absolute zero.
1873 Maxwell’s Electricity and Magnetism creates the science o f electromagnetism.
1887 Michelson and Morley demonstrate that the speed of light is independent of the
Earth’s motion.
1888 Hertz detests radio waves and measures their wavelength.
1895 Roentgen discovers X-rays.
1897 Thomson (Joseph J.) discovers the electron.
1898 The Curies discover and name radioactivity.
1900 Planck introduces the concept o f quanta: the beginning of quantum theory.
1905 Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity.
1911 Rutherford presents his planetary model o f the atom.
1912 Bohr publishes his theory o f the orbital behaviour of electrons.
1916 Einstein completes his general theory of relativity.
1924 De Broglie proposes a dual particle-wave character for atomic particles.
1927 Heisenberg promulgates his uncertainty principle.
1932 Chadwick discovers the neutron.
1939 Meitner publishes her paper on the splitting the uranium atom.
1942 Fermi and his team achieve controlled atomic fission.
1947 Feynman, Swinger and Tomonaga independently develop quantum
electrodynamics (QED) linking the behavior o f light and matter.
1964 Gell-Mann proposes that the heavier subatomic particles are composed of
quarks.
1986 Muller and Bednorz discover high-temperature superconductivity.

Appendix 9

Timeline of Scientific Technology

846 The earliest surviving Chinese printed book


c.1310 Mechanical clocks made their first appearance in Europe.
1455 Gutenberg’s Bible the first book using movable type
1569 Tycho Brahe builds his first 6-meter /120 -foot quadrant for stellar
observation.
1600 Janssen constructs the first compound microscope
1609 Galileo makes his first telescope.
1657 Huygens invents the pendulum clock.
1817 von Fraunhofer develops the prism spectrometer.
1856 Palmieri invents the seismograph.
1860 Kirchhoff establishes the foundations o f stellar spectroscopy.
1906 Tsvett develops paper chromatography.
1907 Boltwood develops uranium-lead radioactive dating.
1912 von Laue invents X-ray crystallography.
1932 The first electron microscope
1932 Lawrence constructs a cyclotron to accelerate subatomic particles.
1936 Turing lays the foundations of computing theory.
1937 Reber constructs the radio telescope.
1956 FORTRAN: the world’s first programming language
1958 The first computers using transistors instead of valves
1960 Maimen develops the first laser.
1969 The Arpanet, the forerunner of the Internet
1971 The first microprocessor is introduced in the United States.
1988 Development of the polymerase chain reaction technique
1990 Completion o f the Hubble Space Telescope
Tim Bemers-Lee conceives the World Wide Web.
1991 Invention of the scanning tunneling microscope
1992 Launch of the СОВЕ satellite
References

1. R. Huchings Physics. University of Bath. UK. 2000


2. Dictionary o f Physics. Penguin. UK. 2007
3. Bill Bryson A short History of Nearly Everything. Black Swan. 2004
4. John Grant Discarded Science. Facts, Figures and Fun. 2007
5. It must be Beautiful. Great Equations o f modem Science. Granta Books.
London - New York. 2003
6. Peter Atkins Galileo’s Finger. The ten Great Ideas of Science. Oxford
University Press. 2003
7. Cyril Aydon Scientific Curiosity. Constable and Robinson Ltd. 2005
8. Scientific American 2005- 2009

Woopidoo.com
National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov
http://galspace.spb.ru/index36-3.html
http//space. 1001 chudo.ru/stars_903 .html
eng.ru/index.php5?module=articles&class=showArticles&configId=l&tpl=single&ar
ticleld= 1&MenuId=abaabaaba
http://www.google.ru/search?hl=ru&q=massachusetts+institute+ofTtechnology&lr=
&aq=0&oq=Massachusett
http://www.peoples.ru/science/physics/kapitza/indexl.html
http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Scientific_American#History
http://www.mcgill.ca/about/
http://www.kiae.ru/index32b.html
http://pra.aps.org/about
http://www.kva.se
http://lhc.web.cem.ch/lhc/
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=5b9 1214852681
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigori_Perelman
Беляева Ольга Ивановна
Жеребятьева Лариса Фёдоровна

В МИРЕ ФИЗИКИ И ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ

THE REALM OF PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY

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