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-s:

в большинстве случаев: a dog – dogs, a cat - cats

оканчив. на гл. + “o” или “oo” (radios, zoos)

сокращения на “о” (photos)

музыкальные инструменты (pianos)

имена собств.(Eskimos)

- es:
оканчив. на согл. + “о” (tomatoes)
оканчив на -s, -ss, - x, -ch, -sh (dresses)

- ies:

оканчив. на согл. + “y” : y i + es (lady-ladies)


-ves:
оканчив. на -f / -fe : -f / -fe v + es (wolf-wolves)
But: chiefs, roofs, cliffs, safes, beliefs, handkerchiefs

Exceptions:
Man – men, woman – women, child – children, ox – oxen,

foot – feet, tooth – teeth, goose – geese,

louse – lice, mouse – mice,

sheep – sheep, deer – deer, trout – trout, swine – swine, salmon – salmon,
means – means, species – species, fish – fish, fruit – fruit, aircraft - aircraft.