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Лауреат второго Всероссийского конкурса НМС по математике

Министерства образования и науки РФ «Лучшее учебное издание по математике


в номинации «Математика в технических вузах»

Н. А. БЕРКОВ, В. Г. ЗУБКОВ,
В. Б. МИНОСЦЕВ, Е. А. ПУШКАРЬ

КУРС МАТЕМАТИКИ
ДЛЯ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ
ВЫСШИХ УЧЕБНЫХ
ЗАВЕДЕНИЙ
Часть 3
Дифференциальные уравнения.
Уравнения математической физики.
Теория оптимизации
Под редакцией
В. Б. Миносцева, Е. А. Пушкаря
Издание второе, исправленное

ДОПУЩЕНО
НМС по математике Министерства образования и науки РФ
в качестве учебного пособия для студентов вузов, обучающихся
по инженерно&техническим специальностям

•САНКТ/ПЕТЕРБУРГ•МОСКВА•КРАСНОДАР•
•2013•
ББК 22.1я73
К 93
Берков Н. А., Зубков В. Г., Миносцев В. Б.,
Пушкарь Е. А.
К 93 Курс математики для технических высших учебных
заведений. Часть 3. Дифференциальные уравнения.
Уравнения математической физики. Теория оптимизации:
Учебное пособие / Под ред. В. Б. Миносцева,
Е. А. Пушкаря. — 2+е изд., испр. — СПб.: Издательство
«Лань», 2013. — 528 с.: ил. — (Учебники для вузов.
Специальная литература).
ISBN 9785811415601
Учебное пособие соответствует Государственному образовательному
стандарту. Пособие включает в себя лекции и практические занятия.
Третья часть пособия содержит 25 лекций и 25 практических занятий по
следующим разделам: «Обыкновенные дифференциальные уравнения»,
«Дифференциальные уравнения в частных производных», «Элементы
вариационного исчисления и теории оптимизации».
Пособие предназначено для студентов технических, физико+
математических и экономических направлений.

ББК 22.1я73

Рецензенты:
À. Â. ÑÅÒÓÕÀ — äîêòîð ôèçèêî-ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõ íàóê, ïðîôåññîð,
÷ëåí ÍÌÑ ïî ìàòåìàòèêå Ìèíèñòåðñòâà îáðàçîâàíèÿ è íàóêè ÐÔ;
À. À. ÏÓÍÒÓÑ — ïðîôåññîð ôàêóëüòåòà ïðèêëàäíîé ìàòåìàòèêè
è ôèçèêè ÌÀÈ, ÷ëåí ÍÌÑ ïî ìàòåìàòèêå Ìèíèñòåðñòâà îáðàçîâàíèÿ
è íàóêè ÐÔ; À. Â. ÍÀÓÌΠ— äîêòîð ôèçèêî-ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõ íàóê,
äîöåíò êàôåäðû òåîðèè âåðîÿòíîñòåé ÌÀÈ; À. Á. ÁÓÄÀÊ — äîöåíò,
çàì. ïðåäñåäàòåëÿ îòäåëåíèÿ ó÷åáíèêîâ è ó÷åáíûõ ïîñîáèé ÍÌÑ
ïî ìàòåìàòèêå Ìèíèñòåðñòâà îáðàçîâàíèÿ è íàóêè ÐÔ;
Ó. Ã. ÏÈÐÓÌΠ— ïðîôåññîð, çàâ. êàôåäðîé âû÷èñëèòåëüíîé
ìàòåìàòèêè è ïðîãðàììèðîâàíèÿ ÌÀÈ (Òåõíè÷åñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò),
÷ëåí-êîððåñïîíäåíò ÐÀÍ, çàñëóæåííûé äåÿòåëü íàóêè ÐÔ.

Обложка
Е. А. ВЛАСОВА

Охраняется законом РФ об авторском праве.


Воспроизведение всей книги или любой ее части запрещается без письменного
разрешения издателя.
Любые попытки нарушения закона
будут преследоваться в судебном порядке.

© Издательство «Лань», 2013


© Коллектив авторов, 2013
© Издательство «Лань»,
художественное оформление, 2013

 

       


    
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     y = y1  

 +   $x0, y0 )  
!"  Q : {(x, y), x ∈ (a, b), y ∈ (c, d)}   +

  !
 
! "    .   y = y1 

+
  
!  $%&'2)      f2 (y)


     




 y = y1  

 +    
y = y1   +

  !  
! "      
+   y ∈ (c, y1 )  y ∈ (y1 , d)

     
   
! "    
"   

  
y = y1 
-


 


+
  
!  $%&'2)   y → y1 ± 0 

-


!
 

 
             
 yi 

 f2 (yi ) = 0 
 

  y = yi = const
   

 
2yy  = 1 − 6x2 .
            
   
 !
" 
#
2ydy = (1 − 6x2 )dx.
$ %

 &   "%
  '#
 
2ydy = (1 − 6x2 )dx,
 "#
y 2 = x − 2x3 + C.
(    "  &)#  %
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√ 
!
 $ % # * " + &)
 y = ± x − 2x3 + C  !
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'  *' " "   
 ,   

  y = −
y
x
 


        " 
#
dy dx
=− ,
y x
 %

#  "#
 
dy dx
=− ⇒ ln |y| = − ln |x| + ln C1 ,
y x
%
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C1 # * & + "& %   -  "+ +  '  # " %
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# " 
/ /
 "# &)
  
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y= , % C = ±C1 .
x
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C 2
2 =   C = 2   #    

 y = 
1 x
0
 "  y # # %" 
 +
 y = 0  "
C
 
*   .
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 C = 0
x
  
        

  


  
 


       y  = f (x, y)
         ax + by + c   a, b, c
          
 
 
 ax + by + c = t   t !  
   x
 

 

  
  


 "#  
y  = cos(y − x).
             y−x = t !" y = t+x,
dt
yx= + 1 #
  $
   %
     #&
dx
 
dt dt
+ 1 = cos t ⇔ = dx.
dx cos t − 1
#  "   ' 
 "  

 
dt
dx = ,
cos t − 1
  
t
x = ctg + C.
2
(%   %    %
   '  
  t = y − x
y−x
x = ctg + C.
2
) 
     %
 '       %
  
  
   
   
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%  ++   ,    %- &
        
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y
      
 
  


  x 
dy y 
=f . 
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 y

   f (u) 
  u ∈ (a, b)   
f 
  
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x
y
a < < b !"
   "  # $  $ 
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x
"% G
 
   f (u)    

a < u < b f (u) ∈ C(a, b)  f (u) = u    u ∈ (a, b)


 (x0, y0) ∈ G   
 
  


   &
' $ y = ux  u = u(x)   (
  
 ) xu  + u = f (u) $ 
$  

* $  $ $ )

du f (u) − u
= . +
dx x
,   + 
$
 
dx du
= ·
x f (u) − u
,    $
y 
ln |x| = Φ + C, +
x

du
 Φ(u) = ·
f (u) − u
,   +
     
%     (
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C1 y     *
y 
ln |x| = Φ
x

*" *   * $.  +
 
    

 f (u) = u   


 u1, . . . , un     
 (x0, y0) ∈ G    
        

           
u

, 
f (ξ) − ξ
c

 u     !    " u1, . . . , un    u1


y

y = bx y = u1 x
A3
B3
A2 y = ax
B2
A1 C3
B1 C2
C1
x
  
 
    y  = f (y/x)
   
#  $           
%
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 A1B1B2C2  A1B1B3C3 . . .
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)   **  +
 !      !%
         *! +
 ,-    f (x, y) 
 
   k  ! "  ! #$% λ" % λ = 0" %
% & 
f (λx, λy) = λk f (x, y).
#  *! + f (x, y) = 3xy − 2y2 
   *! +
"     
f (λx, λy) = 3λx · λy − 2λ2 y 2 = λ2 (3xy − 2y 2 ) = λ2 f (x, y).
 
             
  
       
 y  = f (x, y)           


P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0,  
 P (x, y)  Q(x, y)         

       
y = tx ! t = t(x) "   #$ 

  %    !  "
(y 2 − 2xy)dx + x2 dy = 0.
&      ' () *      +
  *##$   ## $  P (x, y) = y 2 − 2xy 
Q(x, y) = x2 "   #$ x  y    , +
 y = tx  dy = tdx + xdt -+  . 
y  dy   ## $    /!
(x2 t2 − 2x2 t)dx + x2 (tdx + xdt) = 0.
&  0    0  )+    1
23+  ++   !  '
x2 (t2 − t)dx = −x3 dt;
dx dt
− = 2 ;
x t −t
t
ln C|x| = ln ·
t−1
,  0 2   )+ 03 !   
Cx(y − x) = y.
- ) 03 !     +2 #$2
y = y(x)   + 
-         23+  +1
+ +     x    .       
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 )  03  * #$    - 4 
4 ## $      )+ . 0 ≡ 0
   #$ x = 0 " 34  )  !
  
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         !    
"     
  
  
   
#      $     % $&    
 C = 0  C = +∞ '   %    " C 

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 " " C = 1/C   " " 

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       x = 0     $&    
  
   
  
    
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dy
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dy
dx
+ a(x)y = 0.  !"
#    
   $"  b(x) ≡ 0 
 

       %  &
   !" ' 
'      %()
 
dy dy
= −a(x)dx ⇒ = − a(x)dx ⇒
y y

ln |y| = − a(x)dx + ln |C|.

* ' +    


    +
   ' 
 




y = Ce− a(x)dx .  "

   ,  %, -
,    
  

  
 , - +  (' 
' 
  (b(x) ≡ 0) 

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    C  
      ..   
.  z(x)   C 
,  ' ' /01203245 6
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y = z(x)e− a(x)dx .  8"
9  (:   
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% :   8"

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  − −
y = z(x) e a(x)dx
+ z(x)e a(x)dx
− a(x)dx =
 
= z(x)e− a(x)dx
 ;"
− z(x)a(x)e− a(x)dx
.
<

% :   y  8" y  ;"

  

 $",   +       


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z(x))
  
z  (x)e− a(x)dx
− z(x)a(x)e− a(x)dx
+ a(x)z(x)e− a(x)dx
= b(x),
 
    


 
z  (x)e− a(x)dx
= b(x)  z  (x) = b(x)e a(x)dx
.

     
 
 
 
 
z(x) = b(x)e a(x)dx dx + C0 . 

 


 
  z(x)   !  "
#  $% &
 




 

 '
 
 
y= b(x)e a(x)dx dx + C0 · e− a(x)dx . (

) 
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&
 

 


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y − y = 2x.
1 + x2
0 &
 1 2
# &    +% 

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2x
y − y = 0.
1 + x2
3  

  , +%  


dy 2xdx
= .
y 1 + x2
  
  
   
- 
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y = C(1 + x2 ). (/
 
             
 
   
   
 

 
  C = z(x)
y = z(x)(1 + x2 ).  !"#
$%

 y = z (x)(1 + x ) + z(x) · 2x

  2

y
y  
%  

2x · z(x)(1 + x2 )
z  (x)(1 + x2 ) + 2x z(x) − = 2x.
1 + x2
& 
  
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') 
 z  (x)
2x
z  (x) = ·
1 + x2
&
 
    


2xdx
z(x) =
1 + x2
= ln(1 + x2 ) + C0 .  !!#
* ( 
     
  
  !!# 
 !"#

y = ln(1 + x2 ) + C0 (1 + x2 ).

 


 
  +  

  
 
 
dy
dx
+ a(x)y = b(x)y n ,  !,#
 n = 0  n = 1
- 
. 

 / 
   / z = yk 
 k = 1 − n    /

%  

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1
1−n
z  + a(x)z = b(x).  !0#
* 
   z = y1−n . 1
dz dy dy dz/dx
dx
= (1 − n)y −n ,
dx
/ dx
=
(1 − n)y −n
·
 


 



 
   


 

  
  
 

   
 

dz/dx
y  + a(x)y = b(x)y n =⇒ + a(x)y = b(x)y n =⇒
(1 − n)y −n
dz
=⇒ + a(x)(1 − n)y 1−n = (1 − n)b(x).
dx

 
 
dz
+ (1 − n)a(x)z = (1 − n)b(x).
dx
 


   

 




    
      !
  

 


 
      
   


 
 "# $ 
 
C
y(x) = Cx +

1 + C2
   C∈R    
y
y − xy  =
· %"# $&
1 + y 2
' !
  (  
) 
 y(x)  
y  (x) y(x)  

 %"# $& 
y  (x) = C;
C C
Cx +
− xC =
·
1 + C2 1 + C2
 
* 

 
     *  
 
 

 
    !
 


 "# +  
    y = sin 2x + 3x
     y + 4y = 12x
' !
  ,  )  ) 





y  = 2 cos 2x + 12  y  = −4 sin 2x    
 


 


 



 
   

   


       
y  = y − x2 .
     
             
               ! "  
y  = f (x, y) #    "!$ "  $
f (x, y) = k,
! k = %&'()
* !  "   y  = y − x2 "  "   
 

y − x2 = k ⇔ y = x2 + k,
 +   ! $ ,   !  #   
,    ! $-   +$ OY .  /

Y Y
5 5
y=x2+1 y=x2+1
k=1 k=1
y=x 2 y=x2
k=0 k=0
4 4

3 3
y=x2-1 y=x2-1
k=-1 k=-1

2 2

1 1

-2 -1 0 1 2 X -2 -1 2 X

-1 -1

-2 -2

-3 -3

    




   
  

y  = y − x2

0    k "        


   #          k = tg α ! α  "  
 
          


  

      k = 0     
    y = x2    k = 1      

 X   α = π4    y = x2 + 1    k = −1   
 α = − π4    y = x2 − 1      
      !    
  
   " #       $     " 
 y = x2 %     
     

 
 &'   
 
  


xydx + (x + 1)dy = 0.
(  )    % *    "     
              
   y(x + 1)%
xydx = −(x + 1)dy;
xdx dy
=− .
x+1 y
+      "    
 
xdx dy
=− ;
x+1 y
− ln |y| = x − ln |x + 1| − ln |C|;
|y| = eln C|x+1|−x;
x+1
y = C x ⇔ y = C(x + 1)e−x.
e
+           
y(x + 1)     "          )
" ! ! $  #   () y = 0     
  )  " "  $       # C = 0
  x = −1          #  
x = −1  #  ) +  "   ) 
     "
     ,
y = 0, x = −1
 y = C(x + 1)e−x
 


 



 
   

     

(x2 − 1)y  + 2xy 2 = 0,   y(0) = 1.
dy
      
        
dx
               
dx
  2
(x − 1)y 2
dy 2xdx
=− 2 ·
y2 x −1
    !     
    
 
dy 2xdx
= − ;
y2 x2 − 1
1
= ln |x2 − 1| + C.
y
" !#   $
1
y= ·
ln |x2 − 1| + C
%       $ $$ $  
 $ $ y = 0 &       ' (
   !!#)   ( 
  dx  dy         (x2 − 1)dy + 2xy 2 dx = 0
 $   !   $ x = ±1 * 
+ $  $      y(0) = 1   
&
,$ $    &    $ C  
 !#    $ y(0) = 1 ,$ +    +
      !# 
1
1= ;
ln | − 1| + C
ln 1 + C = 1 ⇒ C = 1.
-  !        &  
1
y= ·
ln |x − 1| + 1
2
 
          


  
   
 
(x + 2y)dx − xdy = 0.
     
            
                  
   dx !!! "   "   #  x y 
$         dx dy !!%!  &
   ! x y ' !   (   
y
      (    
= t )'
x
y = tx dy = tdx + xdt *    y dy      
  !  +         !%#  ! &
       

(x + 2tx)dx − x(tdx + xdt) = 0;


x(1 + t)dx − x2 dt = 0;
(1 + t)dx = xdt;
dx dt
= ;
x 1+t
ln |x| + ln C = ln |1 + t|;
ln C|x| = ln |1 + t|;
Cx = 1 + t;
y
(   + %  t =    %  %

x
y
Cx = 1 + ⇒ y = Cx2 − x.
x
*     !   !%#  ! &
      x       !!!
  ! x = 0 #,       '   ! -'  &
   +#     !   . *    ,
,             0 ≡ 0
    ! x = 0 /     '   !
   " '  +#'  !
 0   
 
  xyy  = x2 − y 2 
     
1        
dy x2 − y 2 dy 1 − (y/x)2
= ,  = ·
dx xy dx y/x
 


 



 
   

  


    
 
     
y/x     y = xt 
t = t(x)     y y       
1 − t2 1 − 2t2
, x
dt dt
t+x = = ·
dx t dx t
       
t dt dx
= ·
1 − 2t2 x
     
 !       
ln |C| − ln |1 − 2t2 | = 4 ln |x|,   x4 (1 − 2t2 ) = C.
"
  #$ y     %   t = y/x
  "   

 
y2
x 1 − 2 2 = C, x4 − 2x2 y 2 = C.
4
x

 &'(  



 
xy  − 2y = 2x4 .
)        


%


     $   %  
%
)      *" %   
xy  − 2y = 0.
+    
   ,
dy dx
=2 ,
y x
  
      "    %


y = Cx2 .
-       $   %  
%  .
       C / #$
 x 0C = C(x)1
 ##$   "    
  .

   C = C(x)     ,  .
      y = Cx2   
  %
y  = Cx x2 + 2xC       
C = C(x)
x(Cx x2 + 2xC) − 2Cx2 = 2x4 .
 
          


  
  
          
     C      
dC
x3 = 2x4 .
dx
! "  
  
C = x 2 + C1 .
#   C = C(x) 
      " 
   
   $  "  % "     "
  
y = x2 (x2 + C1 ),  y = x4 + C1 x2 .
&
    
    % "     "
     %
"    "  %
"    "    'y = C1 x2(  )   "  " 
 $  "     "  % "    '   )
y = x4 *     $  "     + ")  
     )  ,        (
 -./.  
 
y  = y 4 cos x + y tg x.
      0         % 
& )  %    "   "  *   1
   2   "  +  )  %    
0  "   "  y4
y  tg x
− 3 = cos x
y4 y

     % z = y13  3    z  = −3 yy4 

  yy4 = − 31 z      $  
$  $  
) %    %         
     
1
− z  − z tg x = cos x.
3
 


 



 
   

  


    
 
1 
z + z tg x = 0,
3
dz
= −3 tg xdx ⇒ ln |z| = 3 ln | cos x| + ln |C| ⇒ z = C cos3 x.
z
 
     
  

  

C 
C = C(x), zx = Cx cos3 x − 3C cos2 x sin x
        
 
1
− (Cx cos3 x − 3C cos2 x sin x) − C cos2 x sin x = cos x,
3
3dx
−dC = ·
cos2 x

 
          
C = C(x)    
 !  
C = −3 tg x + C1 ,
z = C1 cos3 x − 3 sin x cos2 x.
" #

! 
 #  
1
y= √ ·
3
C1 cos3 x − 3 sin x cos2 x


  
 $%&'' 


 
  
    
() y + 2xy = 0 y = 3e−x 2

#) y 2 = 4y y = (x + 1)2
) y (2y + 3x) + 3y = 5 cos 5x y2 + 3xy = sin 5x
) y − 2y + y = 0 y = xex
) y + y2 = 0 y = ln x
) y = x2 + y2 y = x1 
 $%&'* 
       
 
y = x2 + y2     
 
 !   
 y(0) = 0, y(0) = 2  
 
          


  

1 2 3 x

   


    
 y = x2 + y 2

    


 
  
 

 y  = y tg 3x
 √xdy 2 + √ydx1−x2
= 0
1−y

 y = y x + 1
 2


 3xe3y y  = ln4 x
     
 
 

 y(0) = 1
(1 + ex ) · y · y  = ex
    
 
 
 y  = − x+y 
x
 3y  = x + 3y
3y
+ 4
x
 2y
 2y = x + ctg x 
 2y


 xy + y 2 = (2x2 + xy)y  
     
 
 
(x2 − 3y 2 )dx + 2xydy = 0 
 y(2) = 1
    
 
  y + 2yx = x3
 
        
  
 
   
 
      

 
P (x, y) =
∂U
∂x
; Q(x, y) =
∂U
∂y
· !
"     y = y(x) # $   
   
dU (x, y(x)) ≡ 0, %
     
U (x, y) = C. &
'     ( )  * y(x)  ) 
&  U (x, y(x)) ≡ C     dU = 0 +, 
$ & *   -  .  (  ( 
 /      ,   
  
    
  /  $ y(x)    
(/ ( y(x = x0) = y0    
$ &
   (  *( y = y(x)  ,  - 


   
 )  *  

∂U
= Q(x0 , y0 ) = 0
∂y (x0 ,y0 )

  / 
 * C    * 
 
 $
U (x0 , y0 ) = C  0 ,    $ y = y(x)  *  y(x0 ) = y0 
  . 
U (x, y) = U (x0 , y0 ).
" - Q(x0, y0) = 0  P (x0, y0) = 0  -  ) $
  .  x = x(y)   ,    
  ( 
x0 = x(y0 ) 1$  .  )    P (x0 , y0 ) = 0 
Q(x0 , y0 ) = 0
2   (/    3
 
 

P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0 
 

 
   
 
  

 
 G(x, y) : a < x < b c < y < d 

  
       

P (x, y) Q(x, y)   


   
  

Py Qx   
 G     
∂P ∂Q
=
∂y ∂x
Q(x, y) = 0     (x0 , y0 ) ∈ G   
     

  
  




∂U ∂U
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = dU ≡ dx + dy,
∂x ∂y

  
    
 
∂U ∂U
P = ; Q= ·
∂x ∂y


 


   
   y    
2 
∂ 2U
x ! 
" #  #   
 #
     ∂y∂x 
∂ U
∂x∂y
$$  

Py  Qx 

   



 


   #        %$ 

 %
∂ 2U ∂ 2U
=
∂x∂y ∂y∂x

 

 ∂P
∂y
=
∂Q
∂x
·


 &$
   

%  % '$
R   $
x y
U (x, y) = P (ξ, y0 )dξ + Q(x, η)dη,
x0 y0

$  % #
% 
 

'  % 

'
 (
% P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy   " 
%)
" #$
(x0 , y0 )  (x, y)   %)
"  '  '  
$'  *

$ 

   
'

 
 

 " 

  " $ 
 P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy
&
" 
 %   

 % 
' 
 
        

  
  
   

 U (x, y)
y y
∂U ∂Q ∂P
= P (x, y0 ) + dy = P (x, y0 ) + dy =
∂x ∂x ∂y
y0 y0

= P (x, y0 ) + P (x, y) − P (x, y0 ) = P (x, y).


∂U
    
= Q(x, y).
∂y
        !    "#$%&'
  dU = 0   
!    
   

x y
U (x, y) ≡ P (ξ, y0 )dξ + Q(x, η)dη = C.
x0 y0

( 
   )   
 *
 ! %
+
)  
 
!  *   %

 #$%$    


 

     


(3x2 + 6xy 2 )dx + (6x2 y + 4y 3 )dy = 0.
,      - 
! 
  Py = Qx   %
.

!   ! P (x, y) = 3x2 + 6xy 2  Q(x, y) = 6x2 y + 4y 3 

Py = 12xy ≡ Qx = 12xy %


/  
∂U
= 3x2 + 6xy 2
∂x
 
   x  
U = x3 + 3x2 y 2 + ϕ(y).
.   0
 ) y      0
∂U

  dy      = 6x2 y + 4y 3 ,   
∂y
  ϕ(y)
ϕ  (y) = 4y 3 .
/
   0
   ϕ(y) = y 4 + C0   
!
   
        

x3 + 3x2 y 2 + y 4 = C.
 
       

 

   
  
   
  

 
     !

 "  "
μ(x, y)  #  
 "  
 


   
 !   U (x, y) $
  
  

  

$ %   μ & 
'  "(! #
 

∂U ∂U
μ(P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy) = dU ; μP = ; μQ = · 
∂x ∂y
)
   '    '    
(
 

'  "(! #
 * +
  
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∂(μP ) ∂(μQ)
=
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∂μ ∂μ ∂P ∂Q
Q −P = − μ /
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x
 #  % 
 
 /  μ
∂ ln μ ∂ ln μ ∂P ∂Q
Q −P = − · 0
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 = 0   
    
 
 
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d ln μ ∂y
− ∂x ∂P ∂Q
= · 
dx Q
  

  μ = μ(x)  !     "
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$ 
∂P
∂y
− ∂Q
∂x
= f (x)
Q


   %& % x ' μ    %
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μ = e f (x) dx 
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∂P
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− ∂Q
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P

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μ = e− g(y) dy 
 )
  
 
 

y3
2
2xy + x y + dx + (x2 + y 2 )dy = 0.
3
*  +    , 
∂P
∂y
− ∂Q
∂x 2x + x2 + y 2 − 2x
= = 1.
Q x2 + y 2
-
 
d ln μ
= 1, μ = ex .
dx
. 
 
 
y3
2
ex
2xy + x y + dx + ex (x2 + y 2 )dy = 0.
3
   
 
 "     /  '  ! 0  
#
    
3
y
U (x, y) = ex 2xy + x2 y +
dx + ϕ(y) =
3
  
x 2 y3 x x 2 y2
=y e (2x + x )dx + e + ϕ(y) = ye x + + ϕ(y).
3 3
 
       

 
  ϕ(y)  
 ∂U
∂y
   
 μQ
ex (x2 + y 2 ) + ϕ  (y) = ex (x2 + y 2 ),
  ϕ (y) = 0   
 
  
 

 
y2
yex x2 + = C.
3

  
     
     
  

 
 

  

   

 ! 
"
#   
  "  !  


y = f (y  ). $%&'&()
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y = y0, fy (y0) = 0!   

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y = f (p),
x = ϕ(p),
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!   

  

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dx dy
= p'

/   ! 


  "  . dxdy
 y(x)! " 
 
 
 
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dy fp (p)dp
≡  ,
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# 
 p
fp (p)
ϕp (p)
= p. $%&'&0)
 
        

  ϕ (p) 
f  (p)
ϕ (p) = ,
p
 
f  (p)
ϕ(p) = dp,
p
  


⎨ y = f (p),
 
⎪ f (p)
⎩ x = dp + C
p
  y = f (y)      


!   
   y = y + ln(y)
     " #     "
y = p + ln(p).
dy
$ % &  = p  '
() 
dx
  '   * x(p)"
 
dy 1 1 dp dp
dx = = 1+ dp = + 2,
p p p p p
1
 x = ln(p) − + C
p
+ ,  &   

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x = ln(p) − + C,
p
⎩ y = p + ln(p).

 
   

 
 
 
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!   
 
 
        
   

(y  )3 = y 2 .
     
         
  

y  = y 2/3 .
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 ! y "     fy (x, y) = 2/(3 3 y)  # 
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y
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3y 1/3 = x + C,  y = ·
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 (y )3 = y2
 
       

     
 
   

      
        
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1  $*! $  
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     3 9     #    
    

y − (y  )2 − x = 0,
⇒ y = x,
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  y = x 
   
   


    
   
 
   

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 +
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= = 0      *#-  
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= dx; −3y −1/3 = x + C; y=− ,
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y   y    
    


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ma = Fg + Fd ,
 
        
 
    a = y   v = y     
 Fg  Fd 

   
       
2
my  = mg − λy  ,
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t = t0 
 
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 "
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$      )  C10  C20 ! & C1  C2
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 f (x, y, y)  
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 (x0, y0, y0 )             
! y = ϕ(x)    "  
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⎩ 
y (x0 ) = y0 .
) 
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x = b  *%           
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⎨ y  = f (x, y, y ),
y(a) = ya , . 2/

y(b) = yb .
 
        
 
             

  
   


      
                   
     

       
  y + y = 0  
! "#
y = C1 sin x + C2 cos x.
  "      
"
$
  


     %
&' y(0) = y(π) = 0;   
  y(0) = 0

C2 = 0  
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y

x
0 π

   


      

*' y(0) = 0, y(b) = 1; 0 < b < π;   


  
      y = sin x
sin b
( &&'
y

1 x
0 b π

        


 
       

 y(0) = 0, y(π) = 1;   


          
 

 
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(π, 1).
  
 
  

     
  

  
!     ""  # $
   
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      % &   '  


    
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y  = f (x). +(%(,

-'  
   
    
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 y  = p (x)% .         

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      *
p (x) = f (x),
      

p(x) = f (x) dx = F (x) + C1 .

&    p(x) = y    y  = F (x) + C1 % -   


 /  
  '   
   +(%(,*

y = F (x)dx + C1 x + C2 .

 +(%0  



  y  = cos x
!    * .   y  = p(x) 
 y  = p (x)    
 $  '  $
     
p (x) = cos x.

!   
   p(x) = cos x dx = sin x + C1 % 1  
p(x)  y    
 /     '   
  *

y = (sin x + C1 ) dx = − cos x + C1 x + C2 .

2% )        '   "


# y *
f (x, y , y  ) = 0. +(%(0
 
        
 
        y = p(x)
   y = p(x)
    

  
    p(x)
f (x, p, p) = 0.

        !  p = ϕ(x, C1), 
dy


    p = dx
         
   "#$%$&' 
y= ϕ(x, C1)dx + C2 .

 #$%$(  







(1 + x2 )y  = 2xy    y(1) = 0, y  (1) = 1.
) !   *+  y = p(x), y = p (x)% *    


 
2xp
p (x) = ·
1 + x2
)    ,   
 
     
 
dp 2xdx
= ⇒ ln |p| = ln (1 + x2 ) + ln |C1 |.
p 1 + x2
*   - 
p = C1 (1 + x2 ).
.  p = y   y = C1(1+x2)% /  
     
 

    !  -        


 
x3
y = C1 x + + C2 .
3
/
 
     
    
 -        ! 
 
y(1) = 0, C1 (1 + 13 ) + C2 = 0, 4
C
3 1
+ C2 = 0,
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
y  (1) = 1, C1 (1 + 1) = 1, C1 = 12 ,

C2 = − 23 ,

C1 = 12 ·
0     !     
x3 x 2
y= + − ·
6 2 3
 
       

   
     
 
 x
f (y, y  , y  ) = 0. 
        !       "!#  p(y)$

%   & y $  ' y  = p(y)  ""# 

  
  x    ""#   
 &
"!#
()   ' $ ( y  
 "!# &  x
d(y  ) dp(y) dp(y) dy
y  ≡ ≡ ≡ · ·
dx dx dy dx
dy
*! !! ≡ y  ≡ p(y)$  ! ( +
dx
dp(y)
y  ≡ · p(y).
dy
,
      y  y  
-     $
 (    '   ! 
 + "!# p(y)
dp
f (y, p, · p) = 0.
dy
.'  /  $   & 

p = ϕ(y, C1 ).

,
  & & ' p = ϕ(y, C1 ) 
 0 
y  = p(y)$  (  ""#  +     '   ! 
"!# y  x
dy
= ϕ(y, C1 ).
dx
1    
  
  % 
 
  .'  ' $  (  % & '
-  '  


dy
= x + C2 .
ϕ(y, C1 )

   



  yy  = y  2 
 
        
dp
       
  
 y = p(y)    y = p 
dy
        
dp
yp = p2 .
dy
    p = 0  
   p  

dp dy

 =    

p y
ln |p| = ln |y| + ln |C1 | ⇒ p = C1 y.
   y 
= p(y)
 


y  = C1 y.
    

dy
= C1 dx ⇒ ln |y| = C1 x + ln |C2 | ⇒ y = C2 eC1 x .
y
  p = 0 y = const!  "    

#
  C1 = 0$
%$ & ''(   F (x, y, y, y ) = 0  )
    
 ' ( y     * $ $
F (x, ky, ky  , ky  ) = k n F (x, y, y , y  )       "
    y = yz   z(x) +    ' ($
,   
"  y $ ,''( 
y  = yz  x  
 y   yz   


y  = y  z + yz  = y(z 2 + z  ),
   "    *  " y 
 ")
$      "        
  )

 y, y , y  ky, ky , ky   


  
 
k = 1/y 
"   y         )
   ( $
 -.$./ 
 

x2 yy  − (y − xy  )2 = 0.
      0   +    ' (
  
* y, y , y   
    n = 2
F (x, λty, λt y  , λt y  ) = λ2t [x2 yy  − (y − xy  )2 ] = λ2t F (x, y, y , y  ).
 
       

  y = yu
 y = yu+yu = y(u2 +u)  u(x) 
    
         
  
x2 y 2 (u2 + u ) − (y − xyu)2 = 0,
y 2 [x2 (u2 + u ) − (1 − xu)2 ] = 0.
  y ≡ 0      

 y = 0 
x2 u2 + x2 u − 1 + 2xu − x2 u2 = 0,
     u           
  
2 1
u + u = 2 ,
x x
               !    "
 

#!     $%    "


 u + x2 u = 0   u = xC2
&     

%   u = C(x)x2
  ! u = Cx2 − 2C      "
x3 
  '(  u  u      C = 1  


  C = x + C1
 )  )%   

C1 1
u= + ·
x2 x
  *     
y  = yu ⇒ y  /y = u ⇒ (ln |y|) = u ⇒ ln |y| = u dx ⇒ y = C2 e u dx
,
 C1 1 C1
y = C2 e ( x2 + x )dx = C2 xe− x .
& y ≡ 0     C2 = 0   !    
)% 

 
       
 

 
 
 
       


 



 

   

 
(2 − 9xy 2 )xdx + (4y 2 − 6x3 )ydy = 0.
      
         
            
            !
 "    #         
$$ %   &'   ! $%( U (x, y)  ( #
dU = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy   )! '    ) 
 U (x, y) = *+,-.
/    
P (x, y) = (2 − 9xy 2 )x, Q(x, y) = (4y 2 − 6x3 )y.
0$$ %   
∂P ∂Q
= −18x2 y, = −18x2 y,
∂y ∂x
∂P ∂Q
   )   ≡      )
∂y ∂x
   #   ' #      
  $$ %   
" '   $%( P (x, y) = Ux   ! x #
$%( U

U = (2 − 9xy 2 )xdx = x2 − 3y 2 x3 + C,

' C   $%!  y


U = x2 − 3y 2 x3 + ϕ(y),
1 ! ϕ(y)  $$ %  U   ! y  # 
# Uy = Q
Uy = −6x3 y + ϕ(y);
−6x3 y + ϕ(y) = 4y 3 − 6x3 y;
ϕ (y) = 4y 3 ⇒ ϕ(y) = y 4 ;
U (x, y) = x2 − 3y 2 x3 + y 4 .

           

 
U (x, y) = C       
  

x2 − 3y 2 x3 + y 4 = C.

   


 
e−y dx − (2y + xe−y )dy = 0.
        !" # $    
 % ∂P∂y

∂Q
∂x

∂P
= (e−y )y = −e−y ,
∂y
∂Q
= (−2y − xe−y )x = −e−y .
∂x
&" 
' U $   P (x, y)

U (x, y) = e−y dx = xe−y + ϕ(y),

Uy = −xe−y + ϕy = Q = −2y − xe−y ⇒ ϕ (y) = −2y,


ϕ(y) = −y 2 .
 U (x, y) = xe−y − y2,      ( 

xe−y − y 2 = C.

 )  


 
(x2 + y 2 + x)dx + ydy = 0 .
      *   $        +
     

∂P ∂Q ∂P ∂Q
= (x2 + y 2 + x)y = 2y; = yx = 0. ⇒ = ·
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x
,  $ ,#  "  '! " % ,$ +
" #   ,   " " - .  $ 
   #   %
Py − Qx Py − Qx
P
Q
·
 
       
 

 
 
Py − Qx
 
P
= 2
2y
x + y2 + x
 

 
 
Py − Qx
  =
2y
= 2     


 
x Q

y

   Py −Q Qx  




 

 ! " 
x#
$   %&$ 
 
μ(x)  '$

 
 (
 '   ) 
*& μ(x) 

  + 

    
 ' 

∂P
∂y
=
∂Q
∂x
 (

μ(x)(x2 + y 2 + x) dx + μ(x)y dy = 0;
∂P
= (μ(x)(x2 + y 2 + x))y = 2μ(x)y;
∂y
∂Q
= (μ(x)y)x = yμx ;
∂x
2μy = yμx .
, 

%
))*
%
 '   '&$
'   μ-
μ = C1 e2x .
(

  

 " C1 

' 

''

 C1 = 1 .

 

    

 %&$ 
 -
e2x (x2 + y 2 + x)dx + ye2x dy = 0.
/%

  


    ' ' '  
 
 ))*   " %

 "



 
 ' ) *'
2x + ln(x2 + y 2 ) = C.

0
  &$  $+
  
 

'
$%
"'
 


 
      

   


 
y
ydx − xdy = 2x3 tgdx.
x
     
         
     !        
 y  x dy − y dx
      !  " d ≡ .
x x2
#"  $    $  !  % 
"     x2  &     
ydx − xdy y y  y
2
= 2x tg dx ⇔ − d = 2x tg dx.
x x x x
&  %  t = xy     
−dt = 2x tg tdx,
  %  
& $    %      
! 
    

ctg t dt = −2xdx ⇒ ln | sin t| = −x2 + ln |C|,


2
sin t = Ce−x .
' "( %    ") $  

y 2
sin = Ce−x .
x

 *     


  1
y  =
x
.

     
'      y  = f (x) 
+ ,    % $ y  = p(x)   y  = p (x)
       
1
p = ·
x
-  !         %() 
       

 
1 dp 1 dx dx
p = ⇒ = ⇒ dp = ⇒ dp = ;
x dx x x x
p = ln |x| + ln C0 ⇒ p = ln(C1 x).
 
       
 

 
 
 
  y (y = p(x))   
y  = ln(C1 x)
dy
y  = ln(C1 x) ⇒ = ln(C1 x) ⇒ dy = ln(C1 x)dx
  dx 
dy = ln(C1 x)dx ⇒ y = ln(C1 x)dx.

  
    


u = ln (C1 x), du = 1 dx,
y= ln (C1 x)dx = x
dv = dx, v = x.

1
= x · ln (C1 x) − x dx = x · ln (C1 x) − x + C2 =
x
= x(ln C1 + ln |x|) − x + C2 = x · ln |x| + C · x + C2 ,
 C = ln C1 − 1

       

!
y = x ln |x| + Cx + C2 .

 "#" 


 

2
y  + 2y  = ex y  .
$       %     &
'  

 ! &

  ' &
y  = p(x), y  = p   p    (
p + 2p = ex p2 . )"##*
+   )"##*    
 p = 0 
  ,
  y = 0 
      
y = C
$  -   - 
   )"##*  p2 = 0  ,
& p−1 = z  z       
z  − 2z = −e−x    
 

z = e2x (C1 + e−x ).
.  
-   p = z−1  

1 dx
p= , y= + C2 .
ex + C1 e2x ex + C1 e2x
 


 
      

 
  
      

ex = t, d ex = ex dx = dt.
      


 

dx dt
= ·
ex + C1 e2x t2 (1 + C1 t)


      
 
  
   
  !    
  "

#  $$
%
1 A B C
= + 2+ ·
t2 (1 + C1 t) t t 1 + C1 t
&      #     '  

   
 

 t!
 ! t = 0, t = 1  t = 1/C1!
   $$

 A, B, C : A = −C1! B = 1  C = C12(
)  
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dt 1 C1 C12
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t2 (1 + C1 t) t2 t 1 + C1 t
1
= − − C1 ln |t| + C1 ln |1 + C1 t| + C2 .
t
*  
   
 t = ex!   
 # 

 


y = −e−x − C1 x + C1 ln |1 + C1 ex | + C2 ,
 C1, C2 +   
   

 ( 
  

  
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 12(3  

 
2
1 + y  = 2yy  .

 %  

 

 
x   

!
     

!         $$ 
 

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 y(x) !    
! y  y  
   

 x% y ≡ yx  y ≡ yxx

( &   
 

   


 
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 p(y)!   yx = p(y)4   
p( &    
  y   y   

$$ 
 dp
yxx =




 !   
dy

dp
1 + p2 = 2yp ·
dy
 
       
 

 
 
  
       
    


   

2pdp dy
= ·
1 + p2 y
 
 


 ln(1+p2) = ln |y|+ln |C0|  1+p2 = C1y

p = ± C1 y − 1
dy dy

  p = dx   dx = ± C1 y − 1
   
dy
dx = √ ·
± C1 y − 1
 
     !
"
 
2
4
x + C2 = ± C1 y − 1,

(x + C2 )2 = 2 (C1 y − 1),
C 1 C 1
 
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C12 (x + C2 )2 + 4
y= ·
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! 
 
 
 





)) 
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(ln(y  + 1)) = (ln y)) ,
  
  
  



  
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))  *

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ln(y  + 1) = ln y + ln |C1 |,

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dy dy dy
= C1 y − 1 ⇒ = dx ⇒ = C1 dx ⇒
dx C1 y − 1 y − C11

1
⇒ ln y − = C1 x + ln |C2 |.
C1

   
      
1
y= + C2 eC1 x .
C1
 
         ! 
 

     

     
  

  " y = 0, (y + 1) = 0

 y = 0         

    y  + 1 = 0   y = −x + C1


    



  
     

 
(x + y + 2)dx + (x + 3y + 4)dy = 0

 
2

     

 
+ 4y ln x dy = 0
2y 3y 3
− 2 dx +
x x x
     

 
(x + sin y)dx + (x cos y + sin y)dy = 0
     

 
(3x2 + 2xy 3 )dx + (2x2 y 2 − 2y 3 )dy = 0
   

    
 

  

    (x + y2 )dx − 2xydy = 0
    
 
    
 

  

    2yx − 3x2 dx + dy = 0
  !   

  y = sin x
  

 

 

    

   



  y = √x2+ 9 
    

  y  = xe−x  

y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0
 
   

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 y(0) = −1, y  (0) = 1
   

  xy + y = 0
   

  y  + 6y  tg 3x = 0
   

 
(ex + 2)y − e y = 0
 x 

 
   

  xy  −y  = x2 ex 

 y(0) = −1, y  (0) = 0
    

  yy −y2 = y2 ln y
2
 
  

  y = y y+ 1 
    

  (y2 +4)y = 2yy2 
     

  y = y2 − y

 y(1) = − 4 ,1
y (1) = 12 


  

 




   
        
!" #       
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a0 (x)y  + a1 (x)y  + a2 (x)y = f (x). ' (
 
          

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≡ C1 [a0 (x)y1 (x) + a1 (x)y1 (x) + a2 (x)y1 (x)]+
+C2 [a0 (x)y2(x) + a1 (x)y2 (x) + a2 (x)y2 (x)] ≡
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    ! " " #! 


  
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x ∈ [−1, 1] ,


  

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   {sin2 x, cos2 x, 1}.



   


        
   
 
 
     
  
 
     y1(x)  y2(x)      
x

   


y (x) y2 (x)
W (x) ≡ W [y1 (x), y2(x)] ≡ 1 ≡ y1 (x)y  (x) − y  (x)y2 (x)

y1 (x) y2 (x) 2 1

! "#
 
   
         
  
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y2 (x) = λy1 (x)

y (x) y2 (x) y1 (x) λy1 (x)
W [y1 (x), y2 (x)] = 1 = =
y1 (x) y2 (x) y1 (x) λy1 (x)

y (x) y1 (x)
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 +        !)+ # 
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W (x) = =
2x | x | + x 234 x
 
          

= x2 |x| + x3  x − 2x
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Y  (x) = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x),
 
          

 
y0 = C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ),
y0 = C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ).
 

 
  
    
 
 


 


  C1  C2    



   


y (x ) y2 (x0 )
W (x0 ) = 1 0

y1 (x0 ) y2 (x0 )
 
   



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x = x0 " #      

   

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/  


 
 
   


  
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y, y  , y 
      
      
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y1 (x) y2 (x)
= 0.
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· "#$ ./&
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2   "#$ ./&  
 

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W
p(x) = − ,
W
      
  
  
dW
p(x)dx = − ; ⇒ − p(x)dx + ln |C| = ln |W |,
W
  
          

  
 
   


     C = W (x0 )



x
− p(x)dx
W (x) = W (x0 )e x0
. 
    
         
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&

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y1 (x) y2 (x) 
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! %
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y1 (x)y2 (x) − y1 (x)y2 (x) = C1 e− p(x)dx
;

 +
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2
≡ ,
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= 2 C1 e− p(x)dx,
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y2 (x) C1 e− p(x)dx
= dx + C2 .
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!  $  /
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&

#  "  C1 = 1# C2 = 0
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$  %

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e
y2 (x) = y1 (x) dx. 
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0  + #
 
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&

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k 2 − k − 6 = 0.
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y1 = e3x , y2 = e−2x ,
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y = C1 e3x + C2 e−2x . . /0

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y2 = (1 + k1 x) · ek1 x , y2 = k1 (2 + k1 x) · ek1 x .
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k1 (2 + k1 x)ek1x + p(1 + k1 x)ek1 x + qxek1 x = 0,

[(k12 + pk1 + q)x + (2k1 + p)]ek1x = 0.


  
          

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+ q = 0        k1 = k2 = − p2 
2k1 = −p  2k1 + p = 0     

  
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3  #   - 4      k2 + 6k + 9 = 0 
  k1 = k2 = −3 5    !    
 
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# 
y = (C1 + C2 x) · e−3x .

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k1 = α + βi, k2 = α − βi.
5      #    $%&'() +1  
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ȳ1 = ek1 x = e(α+βi)x = eαx · eiβx ; ȳ2 = ek2 x = e(α−βi)x = eαx · e−iβx .
  

 

 

    
  
  (eit = cos t + i sin t e−it = cos t − i sin t)
    ȳ1  ȳ2      
ȳ1 = eαx · (cos βx + i sin βx), ȳ2 = eαx · (cos βx − i sin βx).
          
 
         
!
1 1
y1 = (ȳ1 + ȳ2 ) = eαx [(cos βx + i sin βx) + (cos βx − i sin βx)] =
2 2
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1 1
y2 = (ȳ1 − ȳ2 ) = eαx [(cos βx + i sin βx) − (cos βx − i sin βx)] =
2i 2i
= eαx sin βx.
"
! y1  y2      #!  
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*       0 

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       k1 = 3 + 9 − 10 = 3 + i  k2 = 3 − 9 − 10 =
= 3 − i / 
#.  !  -
  
 +  
y = e3x · (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
1  /  +   # !
 
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-
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.

  .    
 
          



  
   

  y − 5y + 6y = 0
     
             
             
    !   "    #   
        $     % 
  $    
k 2 − 5k + 6 = 0.
&    k1 = 3 k2 = 2 %  " y1 = e3x y2 = e2x
' $             ($ 
   (    " #   " $ !   
)*  +   "   "   
 )    *     C1 C2   ),
         

y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 e3x + C2 e2x .

 -   



  y  − 3y  = 0

 y(0) = 2 y (0) = 3
     
%    $    
k 2 − 3k = 0
    k1 = 0, k2 = 3 .     * $"
  " #    $    y1 = e0x = 1
y2 = e3x " )*+,   +   /),  
             )  
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 + C2 e3x .
0 +  * + y  = 3C2 e3x  $   
 * $     y(0) = 2 y  (0) = 3   # 
   C1 C2

y(0) = 1 ⇒ y = C1 + C2 e3·0 = C1 + C2 = 2,
y  (0) = 0 ⇒ y  = 3C2 e3·0 = 3C2 = 3.
1* !     
C2 = 1"  C1 = 1 2 )* "
$      * $       

y = e3x + 1.
 


 


     

    



  y + 8y + 16y = 0
     
      k 2 + 8k + 16 = 0
     k1 = k2 = k = −4    
              
 ! "   " #    $ % & 
    '   y1 = e−4x ( y2 = xe−4x %)  
    !    * + "    
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 e−4x + C2 xe−4x = e−4x (C1 + C2 x).
    

  y + 2y + 10y = 0
     
      k 2 +2k +10 = 0 
  k1 = −1+3i( k2 = −1−3i ,  " " *-( "
#  ' $ % &     y1 = e−x cos 3x
y2 = e−x sin 3x .   %)       
  %   
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = e−x (C1 cos 3x + C2 sin 3x).


  
 /      y1 = 2x3 + 1 y2 = 2x2 − 3
   
 0     y1 = cos x, y2 = 3 cos x 
  
 1  

  y + 9y = 0.
 23    

  y +3y +2y = 0

 y(0) = 1 y (0) = −1.


 22  



  y + 4y + 4y = 0
 2  

  y − 16y = 0
 24  

  y −2y +17y = 0
 25   

  y + 4y = 0

 y(0) = 0 y (0) = 2
 2  

  y + 10y + 25y = 0
  

 

 

    

  

 




   
 
 

 
 
   


  
    
  
     


 

 
 

   

  

  
      

 
     

!""   # 
  
    


   
    $%&'()
a0 (x)y  + a1 (x)y  + a2 (x)y = f (x),

   # 



  * $f (x) ≡ 0(+  a0 (x)+ a1 (x)
 a2 (x) ,

 
  x
 
 

   
 


 

*
 

"
 %-'  ȳ(x)  
 
    
        Y (x)    



      
 y(x) 
 
       ȳ(x)    



     
y(x) = ȳ(x) + Y (x) $%-'(

       !! " #   
 
.
 # 
"+ #   $%-'(
 




 $%&'( .

 +  ȳ(x)
 



# 




    
 $%&'(+ 
a0 (x)ȳ  (x) + a1 (x)ȳ  (x) + a2 (x)ȳ(x) ≡ f (x).

/  # +   Y (x)


 



*
  
   
 $%&&(+ 
a0 (x)Y  (x) + a1 (x)Y  (x) + a2 (x)Y (x) ≡ 0.
 
          

 y(x) = ȳ(x) + Y (x) 


     
  
 
     ȳ(x)  Y (x)   
!  

a0 (x)(ȳ(x) + Y (x)) + a1 (x)(ȳ(x) + Y (x)) + a2 (x)(ȳ(x) + Y (x)) ≡
≡ [a0 (x)ȳ  (x) + a1 (x)ȳ  (x) + a2 (x)ȳ(x)]+
+[a0 (x)Y (x) + a1 (x)Y  (x) + a2 (x)Y (x)] ≡ f (x) + 0 ≡ f (x),


  " #$ y(x) = ȳ(x) + Y (x)  %


   &   
           #!
'   #   " #$ ( 
    &  
  #   ! )  &    *!   
 

*   &  y = ϕ(x) 
  

 
 +
y(x0 ) = y0 , y  (x0 ) = y0 . (
,!    -   #  *   & 
 % 
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    # 
  

 y1 (x)  y2 (x)     &      
    *!  "  
 
  

 .#    
  *  & 
   
  
 %% # *$ %+ Y (x) =
= C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) . # 
 "
(    
   +
y(x) = ȳ(x) + C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x). ((
""  $   ((+
y  (x) = ȳ  (x) + C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x). (/

 
 
 (  ((  (/ 

  % 
 C1  C2+

y0 = ȳ0 (x0 ) + C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ),
y0 = ȳ0 (x0 ) + C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ),


C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ) = y0 − ȳ0 (x0 ),
(-
C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ) = y0 − ȳ0 (x0 ).
0 

   (-    

.# 
# x = x0+ W (x0) = 0 # ## y1(x)  y2(x) *!  " 
 
   & % 

    %
  

 

 

    
 

     C10  C20   
   

   
 
       
   
 y(x) = ȳ(x) + C10 y1 (x) + C20 y2 (x)  
    y = ϕ(x)

     
!
  
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#      % &  '  &(
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#!

 
   
 
) 
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 +  * 
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+ 
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  /00,
  (
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! .   .  

    


     
    
         
    
     


  

   


      
a0 (x)y  + a1 (x)y  + a2 (x)y = f (x).

 y1 (x), yn(x)   

  
 

 !"# #     $# # %"  


 
Y (x) = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x), & 
# C1  C2 ' (  ) (
)
* 
 +
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) C1 = C1(x)  C2 = C2(x) 
 # x   (  ) (
) $
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ȳ(x) = C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2(x). & -
 (  ).  
).  C1(x)  C2(x) /
      0  . / (+
  
 ,
+ )/ & - /      
!  , (
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   & -  1 (
 ).     / (+
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  2
 
          

 
                 
   
         !  "
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$   
  !  x   
ȳ  (x) = C1 (x)y1 (x) + C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x). %!
&   '(      )    
  C1 (x)  C2 (x)        
(
C1 (x)  C2 (x)    (   )
C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) = 0. *!
+  *!  (   ( 
 %!   
  )
ȳ  (x) = C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x). ,-!
.    ,-! (/     
ȳ  (x) = C1 (x)y1 (x) + C1 (x)y1(x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x). ,,!
$   
  ȳ(x)  ! ȳ  (x) ,-!  ȳ  (x)
,,!   0,! $  
a0 (x)[C1 (x)y1 (x) + C1 (x)y1(x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x)]+
+a1 (x)[C1(x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x)] + a2 (x)[C1(x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x)] = f (x),
 1   1  
( C1 (x) C2 (x)   
C1 (x)  C2 (x) 
[a0 (x)y1 (x) + a1 (x)y1 (x) + a2 (x)y1 (x)]C1(x)+
+[a0 (x)y2 (x) + a1 (x)y2 (x) + a2 (x)y2 (x)]C2(x)+ ,0!
+a0 (x)[C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x)] = f (x).
2  y1 (x) 3 4    1 
a0 (x)y1 (x) + a1 (x)y1 (x) + a2 (x)y1 (x) ≡ 0,
 
   #    #  
    "
' 5 1  
    #     '  
y2 (x) 
   4    1  2 "
   ,0!  
f (x)
C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) = . ,!
a0 (x)
  

 

 

    
 

     
 
⎧ 
⎨ C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) = 0,
⎩ C1 (x)y1 (x) + C2 (x)y2 (x) = f (x)
,

a0 (x)


    
!

 "
#   $  C1 (x)  C2 (x)
%
    &  C1 (x)  C2 (x)
# '  #

y (x) y2 (x)
Δ(x) ≡ 1 ≡ W [y1 (x), y2 (x)] = 0
y1 (x) y2 (x)
#  # ( !  ) * y1(x)  y2 (x) 
$ +,
) 

# +  &
-&  +   
    ,#+ )  
.

 
 
y2 (x)f (x) y1 (x)f (x)
C1 (x) = − , C2 (x) = ·
a0 (x)Δ(x) a0 (x)Δ(x)
/!   0 
1   $  ) * C1 (x) 
C2 (x) 
 
 ) *
 
C1 (x) = −
y2 (x)f (x) dx 
a0 (x)Δ(x)
+ C1 , C2 (x) =
y1 (x)f (x) dx 
a0 (x)Δ(x)
+ C2 , 2
! C1  C2 3  !  

4 # 
# # 
# 
 
1 
C1 (x)  C2 (x) 

  2 & 5
4
 
$ !
    , &  "
!
 1 $

#  
y(x) = ȳ(x) + Y (x) = −y1 (x)
y2 (x)f (x)
a (x)Δ(x)
dx+ 
0

y1 (x)f (x)
+y2 (x) dx + C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x),
a0 (x)Δ(x)
! Δ(x) #  # ( ! W [y1 (x) y2 (x)]
6
$
#    $

+,
!  


*
 $ #   $ +, 
 , & "
!  !
  

  $

  
          

   



  xy − y = x2
     
   x = 0       
y
    y  − = x         
x
xy  − y  = 0 !  

y  1 1
= ⇒ (ln |y  |) = ⇒ ln |y  | = ln |x| + ln |A| ⇒
y x x
A
y  = Ax, y = x2 + B.
2
"!  #  $     %   
$!& % {1; x2 }     &   '( 
'(             
y(x) = C1 (x) + C2 (x)x2.
)     C1 C2      % !*$$ & 
' ! %    *     + ! 
$ %  '  % {1; x2 }


⎪ dC1 dC2
⎨ 1· + x2 = 0,
dx dx

⎩ 0 · dC1 + 2x dC2 = x,
dx dx
!    
dC2 1 x  dC1 x2 x3 1 .
= ⇒ C2 (x) = + C 2 ⇒ =− ⇒ C1 (x) = − + C
dx 2 2 dx 2 6

  ' ' ,   C1 (x) C1 (x)  ' ,


   y(x) (  #   
x3 1 + C
2 x2 .
y= +C
3
 
          



  
 
      
      



 
   

  y + 4y = cos12x 
     
         
  y  + 4y = 0         !"" 
#    $    %        

k 2 + 4 = 0.

& %            k1 =


= 2i, k2 = −2i ' ()   "  (  
  * +( y1 (x) = sin 2x) y2 (x) = cos 2x   
         

Y (x) = C1 sin 2x + C2 cos 2x.

     #  +(% %) 


  %   ""# (    
  (   

ȳ(x) = C1 (x) sin 2x + C2 (x) cos 2x. , -

. (    "  (    
{sin 2x) cos 2x}  

sin 2x cos 2x

W [sin 2x, cos 2x] = .
2 cos 2x −2 sin 2x

/      , 0-   %*  C1 (x) C2 (x))
!"" #     !     )
         1  
 %   )      +    1 
 +

 
C1 (x) sin 2x + C2 (x) cos 2x = 0,
1
2C1 (x) cos 2x − 2C2 (x) sin 2x = .
cos 2x
 


 


     

 
    
 
 C1 (x)
C2 (x)



   
 


sin 2x cos 2x
Δ(x) = = −2 = 0,

2 cos 2x −2 sin 2x
  cos 2x · 1
y2 (x)f (x) dx cos 2x dx = x + C
1 ,
C1 (x) = − =−
a0 (x)Δ(x) −2 2
  sin 2x 1
y1 (x)f (x) dx cos 2x dx = 1 ln | cos 2x| + C
2 .
C2 (x) = =
a0 (x)Δ(x) −2 4
 
    
  

 
 C1

C2   



      
    
 !"# 
x 1
ȳ(x) = sin 2x + ln | cos 2x| cos 2x.
2 4
$   

% & '
  

    '(     
    

  
 !"   )  *( 
 
     


&   ! #  *( 



 
&& +

   

1 1
y = ȳ(x) + Y (x) = x sin 2x + cos 2x ln | cos 2x| + C1 sin 2x + C2 cos 2x.
2 4
, 
   
*    

 

 

   
  C1(x)
C2 (x)   

*

      !"#  

*     *( 
!
  !-   
   
 
 

ex
y  − 2y  + y = ·
x
   
 .
  )

 )   
  
  '(     

λ2 − 2λ + 1 = 0

  ) 

(λ − 1)2 = 0 ⇒ λ1,2 = 1.
 
          



  
  

        

Y (x) = C1 ex + C2 xex .

  
 
   
 ȳ
     
 
 C1
C2  

 x C1 = C1(x)

C2 = C2(x) 
ȳ = C1 (x)ex + C2 (x)xex.

  
  
   !
 C1 (x)
C2 (x)

 "

  #
  "  

  $ %
         
 
ex, xex   
    &  
     #
 

     
 
"

  
y  &  

'
$     " 
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  #
 (

⎨ C1 (x)ex + C2 (x)xex = 0,
x
⎩ C1 (x)ex + C2 (x)(x + 1)ex = e .
)*+',-
x
.  
 " 
   (  
 (
  

     C1 (x)
C2 (x)' /
%
(


  (
'
0
 '  (    
   
  ex
 
 C2 (x) = − C1x(x)
   
   




       
  
   C1 (x)
C1 (x) = −1
      !
   C2 (x)  

1
C1 (x) = −1, C2 (x) = .
x
 
 "
!
  
C1 = −x + C, C2 = ln |x| + C.
1  
  
   
 


ȳ = −xex + (ln |x|)xex .
/ 

     

 

y = C1 ex + C2 xex − xex + x ln |x|ex .
 
          


  
   

    

 
    y + 3y + 2y = ex 1+ 1 .
   

    

 
    x2y − xy = 3x3
   

    

 
    y + y = sin1 x 
    

    

 
    x3(y − y) = x2 − 2
   

    

 
    y + 4y = ctg 2x

            


   



  

 

  

 !
"#  $  !% &"$ 


 
 !   "
$  %'  !%


" 

 
    
 
  
( 
)   

 




&" 
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+ *
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+ 
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)   

+


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! 
y  + py  + qy = f (x),  /#
 
               
 
      
f (x) = eαx (Pm (x) cos βx + Qn (x) sin βx), 
 Pm (x)  Qn (x)      x   m
 n   !      "
# 
!
  $  %  & 
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ȳ = xr eαx (Sl (x) cos βx + Tl (x) sin βx). '
( α  β   &  !     %!  Sl (x) 
Tl (x)     x   l   )
*""#
 Ak  Bk , k = l, l − 1, . . . , 1, 0! ) l    $  
m  n+
Sl (x) = Al xl + Al−1 xl−1 + · · · + A0 ,
Tl (x) = Bl xl + Bl−1 xl−1 + · · · + B0 ,
 r 
 
 α + βi  ,

 
k 2 + pk + q = 0  ,

  

 
!    & r = 0
- ,  
 !    Sl (x)  Tl (x)  &
 !   &    x  l  !  
  )
*""# 
&     ! 
  * ! &   &   "
# f (x) , 
 
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# cos βx  sin βx!   "  '  &
       ,!  &, cos βx 
sin βx
.   ,     

,
, "
#  !   
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 %  
     ȳ1(x)  

  
 
y  + py  + qy = f1 (x), 

ȳ2 (x)  
   
    
   

y  + py  + qy = f2 (x), /
 
ȳ1 (x) + ȳ2 (x)   
    
 
y  + py  + qy = f1 (x) + f2 (x). 
 
     


  
    
    

ȳ1 (x) + ȳ2 (x)

     
   
   
  
y  + py  + qy ≡ (ȳ1 (x) + ȳ2 (x)) + p(ȳ1 (x) + ȳ2 (x)) + q(ȳ1 (x) + ȳ2 (x)) ≡
≡ (ȳ1 (x) + pȳ1 (x) + q ȳ1 (x)) + (ȳ2 (x) + pȳ2 (x) + q ȳ2 (x)) ≡ f1 (x) + f2 (x).
! "  "   
   ȳ(x) = ȳ1(x) + ȳ2 (x)

 #    
  
  $  %" 
& #
'

 
  
#(
$
)  
        m
f (x) = Pm (x).
* +
 
 # ȳ(x)
 
 
ȳ(x) = Sm (x)xr ,
& Sm(x) , &  -
   & Pm(x) 

 
" +%%$  r . 
  (
/

&    "( 


0  
          
 
 
 
f (x) = Pm (x)eαx ,
& Pm(x) , &
 m  +%%$ α  +
/
" , 
   

* +
 
 # ȳ(x)
 
 
ȳ(x) = Sm (x)xr eαx ,
& Sm(x) , &  -
   & Pm(x) 

1" +%%$  r , 
  (
/

&    "( α
  )  α = 0   
! "   
 
f (x) = e0x Pm (x) ≡ Pm (x)
2  
    
       #

 !
f (x) = M cos βx + N sin βx,
& M, N  β , " 

* +
 
 # ȳ(x)
 
 
ȳ(x) = (A cos βx + B sin βx)xr ,
 
               
 A  B  
  
  r      


    βi
    
!  "#$%&   

f (x) = eαx (Pm (x) cos βx + Qn (x) sin βx),
 Pm (x)  Qn (x)  '    
α  β  


!     '


  (
)
  
     f (x)    
 
 "#$%&  ' * '
! '
   
 (
 

+   ,   
 -

!  . ' 
 
'  α + βi (
"#$/& f (x) = Pn (x) k1 = 0  k2 = 0 ȳ = Qn (x)
r=0
"#$0& α = 0, β = 0 k1 = 0  ȳ = Qn (x) · x
k2 = 0 r = 1
"#$1& k1 = k2 = 0  ȳ = Qn (x) · x2
r=2
"#$%2& f (x) = Pn (x)eαx k1 = α  k2 = α ȳ = Qn (x)eαx
r=0
"#$%%& β = 0, α = 0 k1 = α  ȳ = Qn (x)eαx · x
k2 = α  r = 1
"#$%3& k1 = k 2 = α  ȳ = Qn (x)eαx · x2
r=2
"#$%4& f (x) = k = ±βi r = 0ȳ = Ul (x) cos βx+
= Pn (x) cos βx+ +Vl (x) sin βx
+Qm (x) sin βx l = max(n, m)
"#$%$& α = 0, β = 0 k = ±βi r = 1 ȳ = x(Ul (x) cos βx+
+Vl (x) sin βx)
l = max(n, m)
"#$%5& f (x) = k = α ± βi r = 0 ȳ = eαx (Ul (x) cos βx+
αx
= e (Pn (x) cos βx+ +Vl (x) sin βx)
+Qm (x) sin βx) l = max(n, m)
"#$%#& α = 0, β = 0 k = α±βi r = 1 ȳ =
= xeαx (Ul (x) cos βx+
+Vl (x) sin βx)
l = max(n, m)
 
            

    



  y + 4y = 2x − 3
     
         
      y  + 4y  = 0    k 2 + 4k = 0  
k1 = 0; k2 = −4         
  ! " #     

Y = C1 e0x + C2 e−4x = C1 + C2 e−4x .


$    #     %    f (x) = 2x − 3 
     # &   f (x) = Pn (x)'  k = α + βi ≡ 0'
  "  &  ( )r = 1*'       
      #   ) +*   

ȳ = Qn (x) · x = (Ax + B) · x = Ax2 + Bx.


,  -  . A B     "' . ȳ .
  %    / -  & ȳ  = 2Ax + B
y¯ = 2A #   %      

y  + 4y  = 2x − 3 ⇒ 2A + 4(2Ax + B) ≡ 2x − 3 ⇒
⇒ 8Ax + (2A + 4B) ≡ 2x − 3.
,   !' #- -  
. #   .% #% x   %  %  !. .
. 0  - #  ( (     &

8A = 2,
2A + 4B = −3,
"  &  %  A = 14 'B = − 78  1 '     
      
1 7
ȳ = Ax2 + Bx = x2 − x,
4 8
 

1 7
y = ȳ + Y = x2 − x + C1 + C2 e−4x .
4 8

 2  



  2y −y −y = 4xe2x.
     
      2k 2 − k − 1 = 0 
        2y  − y  − y = 0   
 
               
k1 = 1, k2 = − 12    
    

 
   
x
Y = C1 ex + C2 e− 2 .
          

f (x) = 4xe2x   


  f (x) = Pn (x)eαx !  n = 1
 α = 2!      "      

 α = 2!   ! r = 0!    

      


  #$% &'(  

ȳ = Qn (x) · eαx = (Ax + B) · e2x .


)   ȳ      ȳ, ȳ   y¯   *

    !  




2y  − y  − y = 4xe2x ⇒ 2e2x (4Ax + 4B + 4A)−


− e2x (2Ax + 2B + A) − e2x (Ax + B) ≡ 4xe2x .
+    e2x         ,  *

-   -  x  "   "  *

! 

 
  "

5A = 4,
7A + 5B = 0,
4
  " 
A= 5
! B = − 28
25
.!      
 
4 28
ȳ = (Ax + B)e2x = e2x x− ,
5 25
      
 
4 28 x
y = ȳ + Y = e2x x− + C1 ex + C2 e− 2 .
5 25

 $% /   
 
y  + 4y  + 4y = xe−2x .
0       -
    

k 2 + 4k + 4 = 0 ⇒ k1,2 = −2.
1      
 

y = Y (x) + ȳ(x),
  
           

 Y (x) = C1 e−2x + C2 xe−2x  





   
  
 C1 , C2     
 

 
 
 
 
 k1,2 = −2 


   !    
  

 "
 
 
   
#   





 
ȳ(x) = x2 (Ax + B)e−2x # 
A B 


$ 
"%% &

 y = ȳ(x)
 
 ! !    


1

# 
 
"%% &
 A = , B = 0 '!  

6





  
(
1
y = C1 e−2x + C2 xe−2x + x3 e−2x .
6

 )**  


  y − 9y = e3x cos x.
+


( ,
 
 



( k 2 − 9 = 0,


# 
  ( k1,2 = ±3.
-
 

 





 !
 
  
  

Y (x) = C1 e3x + C2 e−3x ,

C1 , C2     
 

.        %%

&   

f (x) = e3x cos x 
 
 
  f (x) = eαx (Pm (x) cos βx +
+Qn (x) sin βx)#   α±βi = 3±1·i
 
 
 
 

 
#    r = 0#  




  
 %%

&   
 

  
(
ȳ = e3x (A cos x + B sin x).

 
   
 ! !    
" 
/

ȳ  = 3e2x (A cos x + B sin x) + e3x (−A sin x + B cos x) =
= e3x ((3A + B) cos x + (3B − A) sin x),
ȳ  = 3e3x ((3A + B) cos x + (3B − A) sin x)+
+e3x (−(3A + B) sin x + (3B − A) cos x) =
3x
= e ((9A + 3B + 3B − A) cos x + (9B − 3A − 3A − B) sin x) =
= e3x ((8A + 6B) cos x + (8B − 6A) sin x)
 
               


ȳ ȳ                 
y  − 9y = e3x cos x ⇒
e3x ((8A + 6B) cos x + (8B − 6A) sin x) − 9e3x (A cos x + B sin x) ≡
≡ e3x cos x.
      
 e3x  
         
(−A + 6B) cos x + (−6A − B) sin x ≡ cos x.
  
   !  cos x sin x    

                
! A B 
−A + 6B = 1,
−6A − B = 0,
1 6
    A = − , B = "
37 37
#   $ 
   
 
6 1
y = C1 e3x + C2 e−3x + e3x sin x − cos x .
37 37

 %&"'  



 
y  − 5y  + 6y = ex + x2 
( $  )      k 2 − 5k + 6 = 0  
 k1 = 2, k2 = 3" *   $   + 

 $ 
   
Y = C1 e2x + C2 e3x .
,
 
 +  $
  + 

   +  ! 

y  − 5y  + 6y = ex , -%&"./0
  2
y − 5y + 6y = x , -%&".10
  
+   !  $
ȳ1 ȳ2 " 2   
$ 
-%&"./0       -%&".30   
ȳ1 = A1 ex ,
           + 
 
     α = 1    !     (r = 0)"
 
     

 ȳ1
  
  ȳ1 , ȳ1  ȳ1  
 
y  − 5y  + 6y = ex ⇒ A1 ex − 5A1 ex + 6A1 ex ≡ ex .
      ex ! 2A1 = 1  A1 = 12 

 " ȳ1 = 12 ex
#  $   % 
  "  
 
&
ȳ2 = A2 x2 + B2 x + C2 ,
    ! ' (  !)     
*(
 α = 0   * (r = 0)
 ȳ2

  
  ȳ2, ȳ2  ȳ2  
% 
y  − 5y  + 6y = x2 ⇒ 2A2 − 5(2A2x + B2 ) + 6(A2 x2 + B2 x + C2 ) ≡ x2 .
 ! 
( +  ' !
6A2 x2 + (6B2 − 10A2 )x + (2A2 − 5B2 + 6C2 ) = x2 .
  ,  
  (  ( x  '
  ' !  (    !   ' "
 ( A2 B2  C2&

⎨ 6A2 = 1,
6B2 − 10A2 = 0,

2A2 − 5B2 + 6C2 = 0,

 ' A2 = 61 , B2 = 185 , C2 = 108


19

-
 "
1 5 19
ȳ2 = x2 + x + ·
6 18 108
.        $' !  $ /
(
)
 ")     
(  '
(
! ( $' 
1 1 5 19
ȳ = ȳ1 + ȳ2 = ex + x2 + x + .
2 6 18 108
+ $&
1 1 5 19
y = ȳ + Y = ex + x2 + x + + C1 e2x + C2 e3x .
2 6 18 108
 
    


     



  
 
    


 
      



 
   

  y − 2y + 2y = x2.
     
        
            y  − 2y  +
+ 2y = 0       k 2 − 2k + 2 = 0 
 !  k1 = 1 + i k1 = 1 − i" # $  
     %  &$ &  '  ()
Y = ex · (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)
       f (x) = x2   *
(  " #          *
     ȳ = Ax2 + Bx + C  +(  ȳ  = 2Ax + B y¯ = 2A
     ȳ    ,,'    

y  − 2y  + 2y = x2 ⇒ 2A − 2(2Ax + B) + 2(Ax2 + Bx + C) ≡ x2 .
-     !  (      x

2Ax2 + (2B − 4A)x + (2A − 2B + 2C) ≡ x2 .


   #,, ' !   !  x

⎧ 1
⎨ 2A = 1, A= ,
2
2B − 4A = 0, ⇒ B = 1,

2A − 2B + 2C = 0, 1
C= ·
2
.  /"          
 

1 1 1 1
ȳ = Ax2 + Bx + C = x2 + x + = · (x2 + 2x + 1) = (x + 1)2 .
2 2 2 2
-   " $      

1
y = ȳ + Y = (x + 1)2 + ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
2
 


 
  

     

   



 
y  − 2y  − 3y = (2x − 3)e−x .
     
     
        y  − 2y  − 3y = 0 
     k 2 − 2k − 3 = 0   !
!     k1 = −1, k2 = 3 "# $
    % &$&  ' (
 )
Y = C1 e−x + C2 e3x  *      
     # ! & α = −1
 +       k1 = α = −1# 
r = 1#        
 

ȳ = Qn (x)eax · xr = (Ax + B) · e−x · x = (Ax2 + Bx) · e−x .


, 
ȳ = (2Ax + B)e−x − (Ax2 + Bx)e−x = (−Ax2 + (2A − B)x + B)e−x ,


ȳ  = (−2Ax + (2A − B))e−x − (−Ax2 + (2A − B)x + B)e−x .


- ȳ, ȳ  ȳ     ..'   # (
 

y  − 2y  − 3y = (2x − 3)e−x ⇒
(−2Ax + (2A − B))e−x − (−Ax2 + (2A − B)x + B)e−x −
−2(−Ax2 + (2A − B)x + B)e−x − 3(Ax2 + Bx)e−x ≡ (2x − 3)e−x .
- $  /  e−x = 0   !
        x   /

0 · x2 − 8Ax + (2A − 4B) ≡ 2x − 3.


-   +.. ' !  !    x#  

A=− ,
1
−8A = 2, 4

2A − 4B = −3, 5
B= .
8
*  #       
  

 
1 2 5 1
ȳ = (Ax + Bx)e = − x + x e−x =
2 −x
−2x2 + 5x e−x ·
4 8 8
 
    


     



  
  
 
          
 
1
y = ȳ + Y = −2x2 + 5x e−x + C1 e−x + C2 e3x .
8
   

 
y  + 4y  + 5y = 2 cos x − sin x.
             k2 + 4k + 5 = 0


 

 ! "   
  #$
  k1 = −2 + i  k2 = −2 − i %       &
'
 
    (   "  

Y = e−2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
)       * #  *+     βi = i 
   $    +  r = 0   &
   
 

 ! "   

 "  

ȳ = A cos x + B sin x.
, ! +  $
 ȳ = −A sin x + B cos x+
ȳ = −A cos x − B sin x


%
  ȳ, ȳ  ȳ  $
 
 ! "   +  &
 
y  + 4y  + 5y = 2 cos x − sin x ⇒ −A cos x − B sin x+
+4(−A sin x + B cos x) + 5(A cos x + B sin x) ≡ 2 cos x − sin x.
%
 
# #+ 
(4A + 4B) cos x + (4B − 4A) sin x ≡ 2 cos x − sin x.
% 
     (
 + 
 " +   &
!#  cos x  sin x   *    *  $  
(#
#"  #
4A + 4B = 2, 3 1
⇒A= , B= .
4B − 4A = −1, 8 8
-    +     
 
   

ȳ = A cos x + B sin x = 38 cos x + 18 sin x+  
3 1
y = ȳ + Y = cos x + sin x + e−2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
8 8
 


 
  

     

   



  y +y = xex +2e−x
      
     k 2 + 1 = 0  
          k1 = i, k2 = −i
  !      Y = C1 cos x+C2 sin x
" #   $      %  
    & $  '
f (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x) = x · ex + 2e−x .
(  '   f1 (x) = x · ex     
       ȳ1 = (Ax + B) · ex    '
  f2 (x) = 2 · e−x ⇒ ȳ2 = Ce−x 
")    % '    
$           f (x)   
  &$ ' #!$ &   &
 '  
*       
ȳ = ȳ1 + ȳ2 = (Ax + B)ex + Ce−x .
+ '
ȳ  = Aex + (Ax + B)ex − Ce−x = (Ax + B + A)ex − Cex ,
ȳ  = A · ex + (Ax + B + A)ex + Ce−x = (Ax + B + 2A)ex + Ce−x
   ȳ, ȳ   ȳ   $     
y  + y = xex + 2e−x ⇒
(Ax + B + 2A)ex + Ce−x + (Ax + B)ex + Ce−x ≡ xex + 2e−x .
"  &$   ) '  
2A · xex + (2A + 2B)ex + 2Ce−x ≡ xex + 2e−x .
,#      &    &$ & %
$  '   '  $ %     '

⎨ 2A = 1, 1 1
2A + 2B = 0, ⇒ A = , B = − , C = 1.
⎩ 2C = 2, 2 2

- .  '&$      


   )   
 
−x 1 1 x 1
x
ȳ = (Ax + B)e + Ce = x− e + e−x = (x − 1)ex + e−x .
2 2 2
 
    


     



  

   
 
 


1
y = ȳ + Y = (x − 1)ex + e−x + C1 cos x + C2 sin x.
2

   


  y +6y +10y = 3xe−3x −2e3x cos x.
   
    !  

  "


 

 y + 6y + 10y = 0 k2 + 6k + 10 = 0. #
 
 k1 = −3 + 2i, k2 = −3 − 2i, 
   



 

  
Y (x) = e−3x (C1 cos 2x + C2 e−3x sin 2x).
$   !
 
 




 


ȳ   !
 
% ȳ = y1 (x) + y2(x) 





%
y  + 6y  + 10y = 3xe−3x , &'(
y + 6y  + 10y = −2e3x cos x,

&)(
   



 

   %
   
 *  

 

 
!
 
%


 


y = Y (x) + y1 (x) + y2 (x).
$   !
 
 

 &'(  
y1 = (Ax + B)e−3x , &+(
 !
 
 

 &)(  
y2 = e3x (C cos x + D sin x). &(
#% ,
 -
. &+(
y1 = Ae−3x − 3(Ax + B)e−3x, y1 = −3Ae−3x − 3Ae−3x + 9(Ax + B)e−3x.
/ -
.* &+(  0 ,
  

 &'(
−6Ae−3x + 9(Ax + B)e−3x + 6(Ae−3x − 3(Ax + B)e−3x )+
+10(Ax + B)e−3x ≡ 3xe−3x ,
!  

%  1--.
 A, B

9A − 18A + 10A = 3,
−6A + 9B + 6A − 18B + 10B = 0,
 


 
  

     

  
A = 3, B = 0  
y1 (x) = 3xe−3x .
    
  y2 (x)  
 
!" #
y2 = 3e3x (C cos x + D sin x) + e3x (−C sin x + D cos x),
y2 = 9e3x (C cos x + D sin x) + 3e3x (−C sin x + D cos x)+
+3e3x (−C sin x + D cos x) − e3x (C cos x + D sin x)
  "
" "  $%
9e3x (C cos x + D sin x) + 6e3x (−C sin x + D cos x)−
−e3x (C cos x + D sin x) + +18e3x (C cos x + D sin x)+
+6e3x (−C sin x + D cos x) + 10e3x (C cos x + D sin x) = −2e3x cos x.
& 

 "     '   " C, D %

36C + 12D = −2
−12C + 36D = 0,
1 1
 (   )  
C = − 20 , D = − 60  
 
1 1
y2 = −e3x cos x + sin x .
20 60
*
+!


+,  ( 
 
1 1
y = e−3x (C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x) + 3xe−3x − e3x cos x + sin x ,
20 60
 C1 , C2  
   


  
   

  y + y = 5x + 3
   

 
y  − 2y − 3y = (x + 2)e
 3x

   

 
y  + y  − 2y = 8 sin 2x
   

 
y  + 2y  + y = ex + e−x 
 
            
   

  y + y = 4xex
   

  y  + y = 4 sin x
   

 
y  + 3y  − 4y = e−4x + xe−x 
 
  

 
y  − 4y  + 8y = e2x + sin 2x

 
        
  


            


  y (n) = f (x) 

      
 !   " #  

     
    " #  

     
n$%    & ' (

 &' 

  
 
  

   

 
  ) 
 
    

  
  
F (x, y, y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0, * )+
   F 

    ! 
! !  "  
 y(n) 
, -& ' - 

     n$%   '$


! &  !&   '   x, y, y  , y  , . . . , y (n−1)   ./&  
 ! & y (n) 
(n)
,. / -  / - # x0 , y0 , y0 , . . . , y0   * )+
!   & &  '0

(n) ∂F
F (x0 , y0 , y0 , . . . , y0 ) = 0, = 0,
∂y (n) (n) (n)
x=x0 ,y=y0 ,...,y =y0

&%  &  '   #


    * )+ '!  / $
 & &  &   y (n) 0
y (n) = f (x, y, y , . . . , y (n−1) ). * )+


     * )+ / &   ' /$


1 ' &  &   &  #   / #
  
       

 

          


            (n = 2),   
               
              
 
    
     
  
  n   
 
     

   
y (n) = f (x, y, y , . . . , y (n−1) ),



 f (x, y, y  , . . . , y (n−1) )  
      

 
 y, y   . . . , y (n−1)        !
   
(n−1)
"
 
 x = x0 , y = y0 , y  = y0 , . . .  y (n−1) = y0  

         y = y(x)    #


      x = x0
(n−1)
y|x=x0 = y0 , y  |x=x0 = y0 , y  |x=x0 = y0 , . . . , y (n−1) |x=x0 = y0 . !"#
 
   $ $!    %% &
  
 
n   
' ( 

n 
    %% & 

% & y = ϕ(x, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn )   
 "  n    )
  )     
  #  #! ) 
 )   
) C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn        #!  
   
   #

     *+,  x = x0 

 
   "
    Φ(x, y, C1, C2 , . . . , Cn ) = 0

 
 !  
  
  *+-  #!  
 
  
   " !     (     

%
   & ' (&       
) '  ) C1 , C2, . . . , Cn, '      * 

    '          


     
+   

     ! # ,      


  (      ,  x y
  '     -  .        
          ,   
  '  
  
 
            
   ψ(x, y, y, . . . , y(n−1), C1) = 0

  
     C1      
            
!! "#
   x $%  $ y = y(x)   &$  '
C1   (
  ψ = 0    
'  $
 (

!! "   

   )   $   2yy 2
= y + 1 
 '   
y 2
= Cy − 1

   
  
  
 
   

  x   !


  y  
" C = 2y    
2
 
 
 y  = Cy −1 #
$   


 %

& 
 
   
 n' '
  ( 

&  
 )! 
 %
  
  ( &

*&  
  
 
( $  $ 
$
+ 
   
  
  '
 ,! ( "  " 
" 
 
 
    ( ( -

y (n) = f (x, y, y , y  , . . . , y (n−1) ),


(n−1) % &
y|x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , y  |x=x0 = y0 , . . . , y (n−1) |x=x0 = y0

.

+ 
   
  
  '
  (  )

(" 
 x ∈ [a; b] ,! ( '
" ( 
"  


# 
( $  
$
"
)
 (  (  .
""  ( '
$/
 
  
) y(x) /     ( '
 "
 "

y  (x) = −f (x), a  x  b, y(a) = y(b) = 0,

 f (x) 0   
(
),! (   

 
  
#        
)   '
  (n > 2)  
$ 
) ( )(  .

1" ("/  


   
(#   
$
 $ (  [a; b] 2

 (,  
"
"


"

 
    

 
        
        
    
   

! "         n 


  #           !
  
 
  

  


  
"  #    
       
      !
 $   
y (n) = f (x), %&'!'(
            y (n−1)
= u(x)#
 y(n) = u   %&'!'(       
     u = f (x)#          

u(x) = f (x) dx = F (x) + C1 ,

   F (x) )       f (x)# C1 )  


   ! *    u(x) = y(n−1) #  
 
y (n−1) = F (x) + C1 ,
       #    %&'!'(!
*   #     n     
     %&'!'( 

  
y= . . . f (x) dx dx . . . dx + C1 xn−1 + C2 xn−2 + . . . + Cn−1 x + Cn .
  
n 

 &'!+  



 
y  = x ln x %&'!&(
      
   
  

y(1) = 1, y  (1) = 0, y  (1) = −1.
"     , -       

x2 x2
y  = x ln x dx = ln x − + C1 ,
2 4
 
            

   x ln x dx
    
dx 1
x dx = dv ⇒ du =
u = ln x, , v = x2 ,
  x 2
2
1 2 1 dx x x2
x ln x dx = x ln x − x2 = ln x − + C1 ,
2 2 x 2 4
   
x3 5x3
y = ln x − + C1 x + C2 , 
6 36
x4 13 4 x2
y= ln x − x + C1 + C2 x + C3 .
24 288 2
 
         !"
  y  y   y   #  $  y(1) = 1, y  (1) = 0, y  (1) = −1
 $  $ $     % C1 , C2 , C3

⎪ 13 1

⎪ − + C1 + C2 + C3 = 1,

⎪ 288 2

5
− + C1 + C2 = 0,

⎪ 36


⎪ 1
⎩ − + C1 = −1,
4
3 8 17
 $&  $ C1 = − , C2 = , C3 = 
4 9 32
' 
(       
x4 13 4 3 2 8 17
y= ln x − x − x + x+ ·
24 288 8 9 32

¾º )   $  %    *$+ y  ("


!   # , ( % (      # $
 
F (x, y (k) , y (k+1) , . . . , y (n) ) = 0,
   $ ! (# (  ($& ( ( %
% %  $ ( $& ( $& *$+& z(x)   #
  ($  % y (k) = z(x) - ($ #  $ $"
 (n − k)"   

F (x, z, z  , . . . , z (n−k) ) = 0.
)  . $  $  $%  
z = ϕ(x, C1 , . . . , Cn−k )   Φ(x, z, C1 , . . . , Cn−k ) = 0,
 
    

 
 y  
 

y (k) = ϕ(x, C1 , . . . , Cn−k )  Φ(x, y (k) , C1 , . . . , Cn−k ) = 0.
     

   
 !  

 
y  + 2xy  = 0.
"      #$ y  = u(x), y  = u   u  
      u +2xu = 0 %   &
2
 u = C1 e−x   '
   '
(
   )   
  
   
 −x2 −x2
y = C1 e dx + C2 , ⇒ y = C1 e dx dx + C2 x + C3 .

#   
 '
  
1 −x2 −x2
y = C1 e + x e dx + C2 x + C3 ,
2
 C1 , C2 , C3 *   
 
¿º +
    '  
  x 

  
F (y, y  , y  , . . . , y (n) ) = 0,
    $      ) 
)
) y    ) 
) , -)
y  = p(y). .
/  ,  
$ , - 
d(y  ) dp(y) dp dy dp
y  = = = · =p ; 0
dx dx dy dx dy
     2
d(y  ) d dp d dp dy dp d2 p
y  = = p = p =p + p2 2 ·
dx dx dy dy dy dx dy dy
12
3 $     % 
 '   
#
 
  $ . 0  12  y   y  
y      ,,-    
     -      
'  
 
            
  

 
      


         

  
  x   
 
 !
 "#!$ 
 
 yy = y 2
 
% &
' %   
 yy    yy = yy  
 (ln y) = (ln y)! ( 

 
   ' ln y = ln y+
+ ln C   
  
   y  = yC.  




!
 
     
   
 
  "#!# 
  
 n 



      n  
   y      dx dy
, . . ., n
d y
dx
a0 (x)y (n) + a1 (x)y (n−1) + . . . + a(n−1) (x)y  + an (x)y = F (x). )"#!**+
, -    a0 (x) = 0   x ∈ (a, b) 

a0 (x), . . . , an (x), F (x)
 

 (a, b)   
 
  
 
 
 


y (n) + p1 (x)y (n−1) + . . . + pn−1 (x)y  + pn (x)y = f (x), )"#!*.+


  

 )"#!**+ 

  

 a0 (x) 

 /
  "#!. )0/   



  &
+ 
! 
 "#$ %&' pi(x), i = 1, . . . , n  

 (

f (x)   
 [a, b]  ) 
 "#$ %&'  
*      (
 
[a, b]   
1    f (x) 

   
 
 


)"#!*.+

  


   


  





 

!
1     

 f (x) ≡ 0  


 
 

 

 

'
a0 (x)y (n) + a1 (x)y (n−1) + . . . + a(n−1) (x)y  + an (x)y = 0. )"#!*2+
 
    

 
   


 
         
  
  x = ϕ(ξ)  ϕ(ξ)  n !  
 "
"#  "!#  ϕ(ξ) = 0$ % 

  
  
&$
' 
        

 !  "!# y = β(x)η + γ(x).
(
     
 
    

   $
 )*$)  α1ϕ1(x) + . . . + αnϕn(x)
  α1 , α2 , . . . , αn 
   
  

    ϕ1 (x), . . . , ϕn(x)
 )*$+ 


 {αi} ≡ 0     
  x ∈ (a, b)  
!
α1 ϕ1 (x) + . . . + αn ϕn (x) ≡ 0,

  {ϕi (x)}   


 

  

 " {αi } = 0    


     
 {αi } = 0 #  {ϕi (x)} 
 
 

  )*$*
$     1, x, x2, . . . , xn 
 
       (−∞, +∞)
,  -     .! / 0    
$ 1 2
α0 + α1 x + α2 x2 + . . . + αn xn ≡ 0.

3  4   


4  
   
2
α0 + α1 x + α2 x2 + . . . + αn xn  2 4 n     
  n !$
)*$5$$ %    
  1 2    n "!# 

 &  x
y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x),
 & 
 
  (n − 1)  !
!4
2$
 
            
  
      
    

y1 (x) y2 (x) ... yn (x)

y1 (x) y2 (x) ... yn (x)

W [ y1 (x), . . . , yn (x) ] ≡



 

     .  

(n−1)
y1 (n−1)
(x) y2
(n−1)
(x) . . . yn (x)


    

       {yi(x)}       

        W (x) ≡ 0

     y1(x), . . . , yn(x)      
   !    (a, b)" #      !$%&'"  

   W [ y1(x), . . . , yn(x) ]  ()   
     *     
           !   " #$%& 
$&$" ## $% '$"  $$&  (
  

     $%'  $%+) *
' + $(  $,
$&   n #$%&
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$ $ $ $
   x ∈ (a, b) $   pi (x) ∈ C 
 / ,        #  
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$% '$(  $$ n,(
  - $&$ $ 
 $  (a, b) -    #$ $ '$  ,
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' + $(
- $ $ $ $ 1 $ 

   !  () #       
   "     y1(x), . . . , yn(x) (     
     #            n  
 !$%&&"   () #    .
y = C1 y1 (x) + . . . + Cn yn (x),  
 C1, C2, . . . , Cn /        
 
    

  
         
 n  
       
      


       
    
     n  
   !" 
  
   # $ "  
        %   "
  "  & #"!' !'
  
   
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n 
          

 
an y (n) + an−1 y (n−1) + an−2 y (n−2) + . . . + a0 y = f (x), *(+
    an , an−1, an−2 , . . . , a0      

 an = 0
,   
  
   

 n  
  !
-$$&.
an y (n) + an−1 y (n−1) + . . . + a0 y = 0, *(/+
 ai = 01234, an = 0
,   '  !'    
 n !'   #  ' $ "    ,!


 -! $ 
&   !  " 
*(/+   
5 - &"  !

  
L(λ) ≡ an λn + an−1 λn−1 + . . . + a1 λ + a0 , *(6+

! #   *(/+  !  


  *(/+   y = eλx   *(6+ #!
"  
7 # !  & 
 '

 
 
+ #    !

   L(λ)  
$ 
 
 λk = λm , λk ∈ R
, -   $ 
& {eλ x}nk=1  #  $ "  
k

  {yk (x)}nk=1      *(/+ 


 
            


n 
n
y= Ck · yk (x) = Ck · eλk x ,
k=1 k=1
 λk  
     


an λn + an−1 λn−1 + . . . + a1 λ + a0 = 0. 
 
    
 L(λ)   
        
  
  
   

r
λ1 , . . . , λ1 , λ2 , . . . , λ2 , . . . , λr , . . . , λr : ki = n,
        
k1 k2 kr i=1

 ki 
  
 λi 
! "
#
{eλ1 x , xeλ1 x , x2 eλ1 x , . . . , xk1 −1 eλ1 x , eλ2 x , . . . xk2 −1 eλ2 x , . . . , xkr −1 eλr x }
$
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+

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 e(α±βi)x / +
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 eαx cos βx 
eαx sin βx
-  +  . 0%
+

. '
 $ 

0    2 

   '



eα1 x cos β1 x, xeα1 x cos β1 x, . . . , xk1 −1 eα1 x cos β1 x, . . .
eα1 x sin β1 x, xeα1 x sin β1 x, . . . , xk1 −1 eα1 x sin β1 x, . . . .
3  2k1 '
    & 0%
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 λ1 = α1 ± β1 i 
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an λn + an−1 λn−1 + . . . + a1 λ + a0 = 0.
  
     

  n
  λ1 , λ2 , . . . , λn  
  
   
 
   
  
     n  
           

!       "  
  λ   
      y = eλx #

! 
     "  
  λ1 $   

 " k1 %
  λ1 = λ2 = . . . = λk1 = λ1 $  
k1          y1 = eλ1 x ,
y2 = xeλ1 x , y3 = x2 eλ1 x , . . . , yk1 = xk1 −1 eλ1 x #

! 
 
   !& 
 
λ1 = α1 ± β1 i
        '
  y1 = eα1 x cos β1 x  y2 = eα1 x sin β1 x#

! 
 
   !& 
  λ1 = α1 ± β1 i

  k1    2k1    
y1 = eα1 x cos β1 x, y2 = xeα1 x cos β1 x, . . . , yk1 = xk1 −1 eα1 x cos β1 x,
yk1 +1 = eα1 x sin β1 x, yk1 +2 = xeα1 x sin β1 x, . . . , y2k1 = xk1 −1 eα1 x sin β1 x.
()
            
 '
 
   $    
      ** +"'
    , -         ) 
*  "     
.    n          y1 $ y2 $
. . . , yn $ )        %/012   
y(x) = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) + . . . + Cn yn (x), %/0 1
 C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn 3  "    
 
/0/  

 
y V − 2y IV − 16y  + 32y = 0.
4  
•   
  
   
λ5 − 2λ4 − 16λ + 32 = 0;
•    "  
  
     '
! $ 
 
(λ − 2)(λ4 − 16) = 0, (λ − 2)2 (λ + 2)(λ2 + 4) = 0,
λ1 = λ2 = 2, λ3 = −2, λ4 = 2i, λ5 = −2i.
 
              

 A, B, C, D  
       
ȳ = −2x3 − x − 1.
         
     
 

        
 
y = ȳ + Y (x) = −2x3 − x − 1 + C1 ex + C2 e−x + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.

 
         
  
 

  !  

  y = x23 ·
"    #       
   $
 %      

 2  dx 1
y = 3 ⇒y =2 3
= − 2 + C1 ,
 
x  x x
1 1
y = − 2 + C1 dx = + C1 x + C2 ,
  x  x
1 x2
y= + C1 x + C2 dx = ln x + C1 + C2 x + C3 .
x 2
&  C1 '  %         (  $
% 
y = ln x + C1 x2 + C2 x + C3 .

  )   



 
y  = e−x 
 y(0) = 0, y  (0) = 0, y  (0) = 0.
"    *             $
  

y  = e−x ⇒ y  = e−x dx = −e−x + C1 ,

y = (−e−x + C1 ) dx = e−x + C1 x + C2 ,



x2
y= (e−x + C1 x + C2 )dx = −e−x + C1 + C2 x + C 3 .
2
 
            
 
 
 λ1 = 1, λ2 = −1, λ3 = i, λ4 = −i 
  
    

        
Y (x) = C1 ex + C2 e−x + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.
     
  

     

f (x) = Pm (x) cos βx + Qn (x) sin βx 


βi ≡ i   
 λ3 = i
(r = 1) 
        
   

ȳ = (A cos x + B sin x) · x.
   ȳ    !  
   "  !#

 

        
  
4A sin x − 4B cos x = 5 cos x,
5
 
4A = 0, −4B = 5,  
  A = 0, B = −  $   
4
   
         
5
ȳ = − x sin x,
4
    
5
y = ȳ + Y (x) = − x sin x + C1 ex + C2 e−x + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.
4

 %&'  


 
y  − 6y  + 9y  = xe3x + e3x cos 2x. (%&)*
+      

         #
      λ3 − 6λ2 + 9λ = 0        
 
,  λ(λ − 3)2 = 0     -   λ1,2 = 3   

  -   λ3 = 0 .      




    

Y (x) = (C1 + C2 x)e3x + C3 .


        (%&)*   !
    /

   !  xe3x  !  .   γ1 ≡ α1 + β1 i = 3

 e3x cos 2x γ2 ≡ α2 + β2 i = 3 + 2i 0 .    ! 
 
   
      -
y  − 6y  + 9y  = xe3x ,
y  − 6y  + 9y  = e3x cos 2x.
 
              

   
    
   
         
    
 
   

     λ1,2 = 3     γ1     
 r = 2               
y1 = x2 (Ax + B)e3x    !! "      
     y = y1 , y = y1 , y = y1 y = y1    
     
  !!"  A, B

1 1
A= , B=− .
18 18
#    γ2 = α2 + β2 i = 3 + 2i        
                
   y2 = e3x (C cos 2x+D sin 2x)   !! " 
         y = y2 , y = y2 , y = y2 , y = y2
         
  !!"  C, D

3 1
C=− , D=− ·
52 26
$%           
y = Y (x) + y1 + y2 ,
  
2 1 1
y1 = x x− e3x ;
18 18
 
3 1
y2 = e3x − cos 2x − sin 2x .
52 26
$&    %        
 
3x 21 1
y = (C1 + C2 x)e + C3 + x x− e3x +
18 18
 
3 1
+e3x − cos 2x − sin 2x .
52 26
 
            
 
 

  
    





1 1
y IV = cos2 x  y(0) = , y  (0) = 0, y  (0) = , y  (0) = 0.
32 8
 
  
   
y  = 24x + 6.
 
  
   
y  − 8y = 0.
 
  
   
y IV − y = 0.
 
  
   
y V − 10y  + 9y  = 0.
 
  
   
y  − 3y  + 3y  − y = 0.
 
  
   
y V − y IV − y  + y  = 0.
 
  
   
y IV + 5y  + 4y = 0.
    
   
y  + y  = cos 2x.
 

 
   
y IV − 2y  + y  = x3 .
 
  
   
y  + y  = x2 + 1 + 3xex .
 

    

 
  
 


 
      
     
 
   
  
 
      


    
   

! " #


  $  
    
$        %  & 
  $ "
"   "  
 $ 
 '     !    (

  
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$  

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$ & & + & ,- "     # 
$  % # %% #       
 !    , "" $ $ "
" " t 
$   "  V (t) - ." $    % & / 
# $
 "   " Δt    $    $"
  ΔV = V (t + Δt) − V (t) 0 #     $ " Δt  


1 0, 1Δt   $  $   "   
  V (t) + α(t)   $         
V (t)+α(t)
20
  $    $ ' " 0, 1 V (t)+α(t)
20
Δt  
$  % α(t) → 0
 Δt → 0& /" $ " $ " Δt
  $    $"   ΔV = 0, 1Δt − 0, 1 V (t)+α(t)
20
Δt
 
 
  
  
 
  
 Δt → 0 
 
    
    
V
dV = 0, 1dt − dt.
200
 
  
  
 
t
V = Ce− 200 + 20.
!  !

        t = 0   

"  ! V = 20 · 0, 8 = 16         
C 
16 = C + 20,
C = −4.
  #   

      #$%  
  
   
t
V (t) = 20 − 4e− 200 .
!  !
 
   &   !  
      
 & ''(     ''(     
V = 20 · 0, 99 = 19, 8 )       &    V (t)
   t
t t t
19, 8 = 20 − 4e− 200 , 4e− 200 = 0, 2, e− 200 = 0, 05.
 
 "  
t = −200 · ln 0, 05 = −2, 99 · (−200) = 598 .

   !         
   
 ''()
 **)+ 
 
    
  
         
 
        
     
! y = f (x) ,   
     
M(x, y) ,      &    ) -   % 
 &      &     . ) /+0)

    |BM| = |MA|     ! "  
 ! Ox &  |OP | = |P A| = x) 1  ) /+   
y y
tg(180◦ − α) = =⇒ tg α = − ·
x x
  
      

M
y=f(x)
y
α
0 P A x
x
   



 
 
  


 
 
 
tg α  

 
     
 


  
 M(x, y)   y 
     
 
 

 

y
y = − ,
x



             ! 
" 


y dy y dy dx
y = − =⇒ = − =⇒ =− =⇒
x dx x y x
C
=⇒ ln |y| = − ln |x| + ln |C| =⇒ y = ·
x
#
$       %
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'  
 (  
 
  
    
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%  "  
 )) *   
 

   
   
 
     

            
 
! "    +%
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   M  m -

 
  . 
  F ( 
     
m %  
M ·m
F =k ,
r2
 
  
  
 
 r  
        
   

3
 k    
 

k = 6, 66 · 10−8 ·2 
               
      !" #   ma = F   
    
   ! m   $
d2 r M ·m d2 r M
m = −k 2  = −k 2 · %&&'(
dt2 r dt2 r
         ) *    
  
 *   ))         
  )) 
   
   
  "     

 + ,     " # * #  
#$
dr
r=R = V0  t = 0,
dt
 R      %R = 63 · 107  ( V0        
 

-   *
       
     
   
$
dr d2 r dV dV dr dV
= V (r),   = = =V ,
dt dt2 dt dr dt dr
 V      
  

,  
 %&&'(
 *   $
dV M
V = −k 2 , %&&.(
dr r
   


 ))        
 

" 
   +  $
 
dr dr V2 kM
V dV = −kM =⇒ V dV = −kM =⇒ = + C1 .
r2 r 2 2 r
/ * #   ! R(0) = R V (0) = V0 #  C1 $
V02 kM kM V2
= + C1 =⇒ C1 = − + 0·
2 R R 2
0      
        


r   # * #  
#    $
 
V2 kM kM V2 V2 kM V02 kM
= − + 0  = + − .
2 r R 2 2 r 2 R
 
  
  
 

0
m

  


 
   

   
   
  

   F1    
   

 

   F1 

   Oy ! "#
 $   # "     


  F1y = −ky %  k, k > 0


     
&" ' (

 "#  F1y "
   )

 

   

  
 
*#  
+  
  F2
" ,   
  
 

" "  
  
 )  F2 "" "
  # "
 v   -$ "#  F2    Oy . 


F2y = −λv = −λ  λ > 0  F2y = −λ 
dy
dt

    / " ""  

.  
   ) )
/   " 0)
 y = 0      ! $ 
 "
/
1  
 **# 
 
  

   
 "  

ma = F. 0223
 

    



 a  

   F        
   
 
        
       
! F1  F2  "  ! 

 Oy #
$  
! 


%      &&' 
 Oy   
"
$
d2 y

 
  a 
 Oy   2  "
  

 ((
dt
 $
   
d2 y dy
m = −ky − λ
dt2 dt

d2 y dy
m + λ + ky = 0. &&)
dt2 dt
*    &&)      


"
  "


 ! 
+(($   !   

  


,    "

 "
 ! !      
-
 .  "   

 Oy   



F (t)     ( $    t
   &&) "  

d2 y dy
m 2 + λ + ky = F (t) &&&
dt dt
 !        
 
/
%      &&&  m  
%
  
λ k F (t)
= 2b, = ω2, = f (t),
m m m
"
     ! 0 ! 
%    



 (
1
d2 y dy
+ 2b + ω 2 y = f (t). &&2
dt2 dt
*    &&2   


 !   ! ((  $
 !    


"
  "

 ! 
+(($ 

/
 

!  !   +

  
3 #  
    
"
   ! (b = 0)     

   (f (t) ≡ 0)  +
      &&2 "  

d2 y
2
+ ω 2 y = 0. &&4
dt
 
  
  
 
 
     
   
  
 k2 + ω2 = 0   k1,2 = ±ωi    ! 

!  
Y (t) = C1 cos ωt + C2 sin ωt. 
"
# $   C1  C2   
$   N > 0  ϕ   %  &  
  C1  C2 ! 
C1 = N sin ϕ, C2 = N cos ϕ.
'   N  % ϕ ()  C1 
C2  %*
C1
N = C12 + C22 , tg ϕ = ·
C2
+ (  C1  C2   
" & 
Y (t) = N sin ϕ cos ωt + N cos ϕ sin ωt = N sin(ωt + ϕ).
,&   !  
( $  
Y (t) = N sin(ωt + ϕ).
- % &   !  
( &  ) 
  
+
 T = 2πω
& N .  & ϕ . $ %
&  ω 

  
  

/
+$ $     (b = 0)&  
( f (t) ≡ 0& 

!   )
# 0 
 
1  
d2 y
dt2
dy
+ 2b + ω 2 y = 0.
dt

23
 
√  k 2 + 2bk + ω 2 = 0  
k1,2 = −b ± b − ω

2 2

4      


 &  b < ω
# 0√    ) 
* k1,2 = −b + ω i&  ω = ω2 − b2
5  ! 

23  
Y (t) = e−bt (C1 cos ω  t) = N e−bt sin(
 t + C2 sin ω ωt + ϕ),
 

    

 C1 = N sin ϕ, C2 = N cos ϕ 


    
  

       N e−bt → 0  t → +∞   

0
t

   


 
 
     b > ω        
! "
   " #    
  $$% 

√ √
b−ω 2 )t b−ω 2 )t
Y (t) = C1 e(−b+ + C2 e(−b− .
& '      
       (    )
 (  

  Y (t) → 0  t → +∞ #   ( 
( 
   
     b = ω   
Y (t) = C1 e−bt + C2 te−bt .
* +    !       
  " )

 (b = 0)  

       
f (t) = a sin μt ,
  
(  $$-  

d2 y
+ ω 2 y = a sin μt. $$
dt2
.   ' 
    
  !    )
  ȳ(t)     
  $$ .  
Y (t)  

.    
  $$/
y  + ω 2 y = 0.
 
  
  
 
  
   
 
  

Y (t) = N sin(ωt + ϕ).

  
  
 
  


!  

μ  "  #

   
 "
 ω $
" "
" %  
 μi
   " &

""' 
 k2 + ω2 = 0! 

  ȳ   "
 
ȳ(t) = A sin μt + B cos μt.
(() ȳ 
*! 
 ȳ (t) = −μ2(A sin μt + B cos μt)
  
 " 
*  ȳ(t)  ȳ(t) 
 
  
  "%(() A  B +
−μ2 (A sin μt + B cos μt) + ω 2 A sin μt + ω 2 B cos μt = a sin μt,
" 

 A = ω2 −a μ2 , B = 0 $
" 
,! 
 

   
a
ȳ(t) = sin μt,
ω 2 − μ2

  %' 



y(t) = ȳ(t) + Y (t) =
a
ω 2 − μ2
sin μt + N sin(ωt + ϕ). -
.,  - !   

μ  , #

/  ,"
"   
 "
  *a ω!
 
, ω2 − μ2 ,"
"  / 
 
"
 ω2 − μ2
," ,

 0 ω = μ ,
 (  - , 
$
" "
"  % μi = ωi   " &

""'

 k2 + ω2 = 0!  
  
   
"
 
ȳ(t) = (A sin μt + B cos μt)t.
0
 ȳ(t) 
ȳ  (t) = 2(μA cos μt − μB sin μt) + μt(−A sin μt − B cos μt)

   
!  μ = ω!   
 
"%(() A  B +
2μA cos μt − 2μB sin +μ2 t(−A sin μt − B cos μt)+
+μ2 t(A sin μt + B cos μt) = a sin μt,
 
      

a
  
A = 0, B = −     
 ȳ(t)

 

at
ȳ = − cos ωt,

  
 
   
 
 
at
y(t) = Y (t) + ȳ(t) = N sin(ωt + ϕ) − cos ωt.



 
 t     !   "   
#
  
 
$  %
      &'

at
'(

− cos ωt
    
 ) &  "     

   *"   


 + 


" 
   !,  
$      $
$ ! $ 
!

0 t

   


 

- 
$! 
''(
+! 
   %  

    
" ! 
 
 
!    #

 $ (

 
  
  
 
 

     
 
   
  R  L  C   

         
      
   U = U (t) ! ! "#$!
L
b c

R C

a U(t) d

  


 

%         
    
I = I(t)!& U '
  
      
!
( 
  )*+       
 ,   
      -
Uab + Ubc + Ucd = U (t).
. +   
Uab = RI(t)  /$
 t
dI 1
Ubc = L , Ucd = I(t)dt.
dt C 0
& 
dI(t) 1 t
RI(t) + L + I(t)dt = U (t).
dt C 0
0++  
 t   
   

dI d2 I 1
R + L 2 + I = U  (t)
dt dt C


d2 I R dI I
+ + = U  (t).
dt2 L dt LC
 
               

  
     I     
        
 
     !   U    " #  

  $%
 U  = 0   &    
  $
R  I
I  + I + = 0.
L LC

 
    
 
     
 ''(    
      
      2R = 1, 8   
  H = 2, 45 
        2r = 6     

    
       k 2gh
 g = 10  2   
!  h  
   

     k   


 
 "   "#$
#  
  
%&'
)      * +    $ $ t , 
   
   $ $ h(t) ,   

   
      
"  (-%  ΔV = Sh = Sv Δt , . 
$!  
  Δt
 S ,  !  
   

 S = r2 πv(t)
 v = v(t) ,    √  

 !    


    "v = 0, 6 2gh%
R

h(t)
r

  


        
 
    
        
  


       
 Δt    
  

 
 
 

  ΔV = πR2 Δh !  "  ΔV #  # 

     
 
  $Δh < 0% #  
    

  
#
&  &  
 Δh Δt

πR2 Δh = −πr2 · 0, 6 2ghΔt.



 π &    

 " 
Δt → 0 #   ""
' 
 

(

R2 dh = −0, 6r2 2gh dt.


) 


  #  
*
  
 

  "
'  h = h(t)(
√ r2

2 h = −0, 6 2 2gt + C.
R
+ 

 C
    #  h = H  t = 0 +  
t h    "
'  #  C (

C = 2 H,
 "
'  

     h  t  
    (

√ √ g r2
h− H = −0, 6
2 R2
$,,-%
t

 

& 
 # 
    
h = h(t)(
   2
√ g r2
h= H − 0, 6 t .
2 R2
.
&
 
 
tk  #
   

&  *  
*
 $,,-% 
 
 
t  
#

 "   h = 0 +# 


 
R2 2 √ √ 
tk =
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dx 1 1
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................................................................................................
n2 .  yn (x)&   (/  ( λ = λn &    n
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 α1 = 2, α2 = −3 "
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*  +  
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   &
 
-

y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) = C1 ex + 2C2 e2x ,
z = C1 z1 (x) + C2 z2 (x) = −C1 ex − 3C2 e2x .

' !  ( # # 
&
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(
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 .  %,, .
 
  
  
 




 # )    
   
(  
(  "

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⎪ dx
⎨ = y,
dt



dy
= −x.

dt
 
             

      
         
d2 x dy
=
dt2 dt
dy
 
       
dt
d2 x
+ x = 0.
dt2

          


     
    λ2 + 1 = 0      λ1,2 = ±i

  !    x = C1 sin t + C2 cos t" 
 
   ! #       $%&"'(

 y = C1 cos t − C2 sin t" )*   $%&"'( 


x = C1 sin t + C2 cos t,
y = C1 cos t − C2 sin t.
 %&"+  
 

⎪ dx

⎪ = y,


⎨ dt
dy
= x,

⎪ dt


⎪ dz
⎩ = x + y + z.
dt
      ,      
   

d2 x dy
=
dt2 dt
  -      
d2 x
− x = 0.
dt2
)
           
    
    λ2 − 1 = 0    *  
 λ1,2 = ±1 
  !   
x = C1 et + C2 e−t .
 
            
 


   
 
  
  
dx
y= = C1 et − C2 e−t .
dt

     x(t) y(t)
  
 
   
  z
dz
− z = 2C1 tet .
dt
    
 
   
 

    
z = C3 et + 2C1 tet .
!"#     


⎨ x = C1 et + C2 e−t ,

y = C1 et − C2 e−t , $%&'()
z = C3 et + 2C1 tet .

 %&'*  


        

      


⎪ dx x
⎨ = ,
dt 2x + 3y

⎪ dy y
⎩ = ·
dt 2x + 3y
     +
  
 
   
  
,
 , " ,    
   +
dx x dx dy
= ⇒ = ⇒ ln |x| = ln |y| + ln |C1 | ⇒ x = C1 y.
dy y x y
- 
 
    
  


   ' 
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   +
dx dy 2x 3y dx dy
2 +3 = + ⇔2 +3 =1⇔
dt dt 2x + 3y 2x + 3y dt dt
⇔ d(2x + 3y) = dt ⇒ 2x + 3y = t + C2 .
 
             

  
  


x = C1 y,
2x + 3y = t + C2 ,
  
      
   
 
  ⎧

⎪ C1 (t + C2 )
⎨ x= ,
2C1 + 3

⎪ y = t + C2 ·

2C1 + 3

   


 

⎪ dx

⎪ = y − z,


⎨ dt
dy
= x + y + t,

⎪ dt


⎪ dz
⎩ = x + z + t.
dt
    ! "#$ #   
 
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%
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d
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&
  

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ln |y − z| = t + ln |C1 |,
&   
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' #( )   $% &

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x = C1 et + C2 .
*    
+  x = x(t)  
 
  
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   $ y!
dy
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dt
 
            
 
   
     


  

y = (C1 t + C3 )et − t − 1 − C2 .

   
 
      

   x
y 

dx
z=y− = (C1 t + C3 − C1 )et − 1 − C2 .
dt
!"# 
 

 



⎪ x = C1 et + C,

y = (C1 t + C3 )et − t − 1 − C2 ,



z = (C1 t + C3 − C1 )et − 1 − C2 .

 $%&'  


       

         

⎪ dy
⎨ = 5y − z,
dx

⎩ dz = y + 3z.
dx
  
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a11 = 5, a12 = −1, a21 = 1, a22 = 3, 
  

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y1 = y, y2 = z & .

  
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(5 − λ) −1
= 0 ⇒ λ2 − 8λ + 16 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 4)2 = 0
1 (1 − λ)

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0&

   
 " 
/    


 &     
   
 
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y1 ≡ y(x) = e4x (A1 x + A2 ), y2 ≡ z(x) = e4x (B1 x + B2 ).
1
 
  
   y(x)
z(x)
dy dz
= A1 e4x + 4(A1 x + A2 )e4x , = B1 e4x + 4(B1 t + B2 )e4x ,
dx dx
 
             

dy dz
 , , y z  
      
dx dx
   e4x = 0  

A1 + 4(A1 x + A2 ) ≡ 5(A1 x + A2 ) − (B1 x + B2 ),
B1 + 4(B1 x + B2 ) ≡ A1 x + A2 + 3(B1 x + B2 ).
         
 
x  




          
A 1 , A 2 , B1 , B2 

4A1 = 5A1 − B1 , A1 + 4A2 = 5A2 − B2 ,
4B1 = A1 + 3B1 , B1 + 4B2 = A2 + 3B2 .
        A1 = B1     
A2 − B2 = A1  ! A1 = C1   A2 = C2   B1 = C1 , B2 =
= A2 − A1 = C2 − C1  "#  $ %     
  ⎧
⎨ y = e4x (C1 x + C2 ),
⎩ z = e4x (C1 x + C2 − C1 ).

 &'&  


       

         


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= 2y − z,

dx


dz
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dx
(  %   )         $
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a11 = 2, a12 = −1, a21 = 1, a22 = 2,      $  


y1 = y, y2 = z  -      *&'+&,

(2 − λ) −1
= 0 ⇒ λ2 − 4λ + 5 = 0
1 (2 − λ)
  λ1 = 2 + i, λ2 = 2 − i
.    %   
y = α1 e(2+i)x , z = α2 e(2+i)x ,
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(2 − λ)α1 − α2 = 0,
α1 + (2 − λ)α2 = 0,
"
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# "$$!  
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= 2 + i  %
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y(x) = e(2+i)x ≡ e2x (cos x + i sin x),
z(x) = −ie(2+i)x ≡ e2x (sin x − i cos x).
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y1 (x) = e2x cos x, y2 (x) = e2x sin x,
z1 (x) = e2x sin x,
 z2 (x) = −e2x cos x.
* )    " $ 
'  
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+  + %
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y = e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x),
z = e2x (C1 sin x − C2 cos x).


  
   
        

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⎪ dx
⎨ = x + y,
dt


dy
= 3y − 2x.

dt
 
             

   


        

  


⎪ dx
⎨ = y + 1,
dt


dy
= 2et − x.

dt

   


        

  

⎪ dx

⎪ = y + z,


⎨ dt
dy
= x + z,

⎪ dt


⎪ dz
⎩ = x + y.
dt
   
       

      

⎪ dx
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x+y
,
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x+y
.
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= x − y,

dt


dy
⎩ = x + 3y.
dt
   
       

         

⎪ dx
⎨ = x − 2y,
dt
⎪ dy
⎩ = x − y.
dt
   
       

         

⎪ dx
⎨ = x − 3y,
dt

⎩ dy = 3x + y.
dt
    
       

         

⎪ dx
⎨ = 2x + y,
dt

⎩ dy = 4y − x.
dt
 
        
   
    
 

 
     
    




      


y  − y  = e2x cos x

 
  
    

      
   
      
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y  = y − x, 0  x  100,
y(0) = 1.


  
  
   
y = 1 + x + Cex .

      y(0) = 1    C = 0    !


 y(100) = 101"     
   
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y(100) = 2,7 · 1037 ""
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(n+1)

! $ % & !    "


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'& y = y(x)   ((%  
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x − x0  (x − x0 )2 (x − x0 )n
y(x) = y(x0 )+y  (x0 ) +y (x0 ) +. . .+y (n) (x0 ) +. . .
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+
  
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n
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1!
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n!
+ ...,
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⎨ y  = 2xy  + 4y,
y(0) = 0,
⎩ 

/
y (0) = 1.
'  &    # 0  ((%
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3
/  y = 2xy + 4y ⇒ y0 = 2 · 0 · 1 + 4 · 0 = 0
4((%
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y = 2y  + 2xy  + 4y  = 6y  + 2xy  ⇒ y0 = 6 · 1 + 2 · 0 · 0 = 6.
56


4((%
56 
y = 6y  + 2y  + 2xy  = 8y  + 2xy  ⇒ y0IV = 8 · 0 + 2 · 0 · 6 = 0.
55
IV
  
      


 
y = 8y  + 2y  + 2xy IV = 10y  + 2xy IV ⇒ y0V = 10 · 6 + 2 · 0 · 0 = 60.
V



   y0V I = 0, y0V II = 840   
 !  " "  x0 = 0  #$
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1 6 60 840 7
y= x + x3 + x5 + x + ...
1! 3! 5! 7!
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x3 x5 x7
y =x+ + + +...
1! 2! 3!

(  )*  *   ! % " " 


   +) , C0, C1, C2, . . . , Cn, . . .'

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n=0

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y = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + c3 x3 + . . . + cn xn + . . .
 ,     /0 ")$
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y  = c1 + 2c2 x + 3c3 x2 + . . . + ncn xn−1 + . . .
y  = 2c2 + 2 · 3c3 x + 3 · 4c4 x2 + . . . + (n − 1)ncn xn−2 + . . .
 
        

         
(2c2 + 2 · 3c3 x + 3 · 4c4 x2 + . . . + (n − 1)ncn xn−2 + . . .)+
1
+ (c1 + 2c2 x + 3c3 x2 + . . . + ncn xn−1 + . . .)+
x
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x
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. , 
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2 · 3c3 + 3c3 + c1 = 0,
4 · 5c5 + 5c5 + c3 = 0,
6 · 7c7 + 5c7 + c5 = 0.
/  c1 = 0!    
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c3 = 0, c5 = 0, ..., c2k+1 = 0.
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3 · 4c4 + 4c4 + c2 = 0,
5 · 6c6 + 4c6 + c4 = 0.
%,  +  
(n + 2)(n + 1)cn+2 + (n + 2)cn+2 + cn = 0

(n + 2)2 cn+2 + cn = 0.
. -  
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c0 c2 c0 c4 c0
c2 = − ; c2 = − = 2 2 ; c6 = − 2 = − 2 2 2 ;
22 4 2 24 6 246
c0 c0
c2n n
= (−1) = 2 2 n
= (−1) n ·
2 4 . . . (2n)2 2 (n!)2
  
      

  
           
  
x2 x4 x6
y(x) = c0 1 − 2 + 4
2 2 (2!) 2
− 6
2 (3!)2
+... 
 
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x2n x2n
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" # $% y1(x) = J0(x)

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y  (x) y  (x) 2 y  (x) 3
y(x + Δx) = y(x) + Δx + Δx + Δx + · · · +
1! 2! 3!
y (k) (ξ1 ) k
+
k!
Δx , 7
 
        
y  (x) y  (x) 2 y  (x) 3
y(x − Δx) = y(x) − Δx + Δx − Δx + · · · +
1! 2! 3!
y (k) (ξ2 ) k
+ (−1)k Δx , 
k!
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ξ2  
 
 
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(x − Δx, x)   


 
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y(x + Δx) − y(x)


= y  (x) + O(Δx), "
Δx

 
 

y(x) − y(x − Δx)


= y  (x) + O(Δx), 
Δx
 O(Δx)  # $  
%

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%

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y(x + Δx) − y(x)


y  (x) = + O(Δx), *
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y  (x) = + O(Δx), +,
Δx
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.

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y(x + Δx) − y(x − Δx)


= y  (x) + O((Δx)2) +
2Δx

y(x + Δx) − y(x − Δx)


y  (x) = + O((Δx)2 ), ++
2Δx
 

(
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y(x + Δx) − 2y(x) + y(x − Δx)
(Δx)2
= y  (x) + O((Δx)2 ), #$!

y(x + Δx) − 2y(x) + y(x − Δx)
y  (x) =
(Δx)2
+ O((Δx)2 ). #%!
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y = f (x, y), x0  x  xn ,
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(    y = ϕ(x) */   (x0, y0)
3 1 (   
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y

y
1
y0

(x n ;yn )
0 x
x0 x1 x2 x3 xn

  


  

  

    

f (x0 , y0 )  



 
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y − y0 = f (x0 , y0 )(x − x0 )  y = y0 + f (x0 , y0 )(x − x0 ).




  
 (x0 , x1 )  
 
  

y = ϕ(x)      


    !
   " #$



 
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y1 = y0 + f (x0 , y0 ) · (x1 − x0 ),
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y1 = y0 + f (x0 , y0 )Δx.
% 

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)

 

y  (x1 ) = f (x1 , y1 ).
*  
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  " #$


 
  

y = ϕ(x)     


! +,       (x1 , y1 )

 ,    -- .
 k = y  (x1 ) = f (x1, y1 )
y − y1 = f (x1, y1 ) · (x − x1 )  y = y1 + f (x1 , y1 ) · (x − x1 ).
 
   

   

   x = x2  





 
 y = ϕ(x)   x2 
y2 = y1 + f (x1 , y1 )(x2 − x1 )

y2 = y1 + f (x1, y1 )Δx.
       
    



  
 
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   xi+1
#

yi+1   xi+1  


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   xi  #  

xi+1 = xi + Δx, %&'"(&)

yi+1 = yi + f (xi, yi )Δx (i = 0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , n − 1).


*
     
 

  

 


  ! x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , xn


  

  

$ 
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x
  
    
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m
 
   
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∂u(t, x) u(t + τ, x) − u(t, x) ∂u(t, x) u(t, x + h) − u(t, x)


= lim ; = lim .
∂t τ →0 τ ∂x h→0 h

$  %&'


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 n  n  n
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 n  n  n
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 n  n  n
1 ∂u 1 ∂ 2u 1 ∂ 3u
unm−1 = unm − h+ h2 − h3 + O(h4 ).
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⎪ a um − um + b um − um−1 = C,
n+1 n n n
⎨ m = 0, ±1, ±2, . . . ,
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τ 2h . 

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∂x
+ 2xy
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y = z2,
 
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 #$ x ∂x
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u(t, 0), 0  t < +∞,

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(n,m-2) (n,m-1) (n,m) (n,m+1) (n,m+2) (n,m)


 

   

  
      
   
       
   
         
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m − δum
δun+1 n
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a + b m+1 = 0, -26!66.
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m − δum
δun+1 n δun − δunm−1
a +b m = 0, 
τ h
 
         x 
m − δum
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δun − δunm−1
a + b m+1 = 0, !
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m − δum
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a + b m+1 m
= 0, $
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|λn |  (1 + cτ )T /τ  lim (1 + cτ )T /τ = ecT  N
τ →0

  

t = nτ = T 


 
 
  
    
  

  
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λ−1 eiωh − 1
a +b = 0.
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4   τ = rh
b
λ(ω) = 1 + (r − reiωh ). *+05,.
a
  
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ω  

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3
λ−1 1 − e−iωh
a +b = 0,
τ h
 
            
λ λ

0 0
b 1 1-r 1
1+ a r
0 1 b
1+ a r

  

  


    

       
  
   
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b
λ = 1 − (r + re−iωh ). 
a
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 ∂∂ξu2  ∂∂ηu2   $!   
 2  2
∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ
A + 2B +C = 0,
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
 2  2
∂η ∂η ∂η ∂η
A + 2B +C =0
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
  $!
 
 
∂ 2u ∂u ∂u
2 A1 + F1 ξ, η, u, , = 0,
∂ξ∂η ∂ξ ∂η
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
% A1 &' #
 2 ∂ξ∂η  (   ∂ξ∂η "

 '  
∂ 2u ∂u ∂u
= ) ξ, η, u, , . *!
∂ξ∂η ∂ξ ∂η
+  *!    
   %,

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 -   u = u(ξ, η)  
 *!"  u = u(ϕ(x, y), ψ(x, y)) .   /!
 
       
∂ 2u 2
2∂ u
=a         
∂t2 ∂x2
2 2
0        
    a2 ∂∂xu2 − ∂∂tu2 = 0
1 A = a2 " B = 0" C = −1"  
  /! " '
#  %
 &'%
 2 
    '
dt dt
 2! a2 dx − 1 = 0 0  %  dx "
dt dt

 '   ! a dx − 1 = 0" −a


dx
− 1 = 0" 
 "
 '  3 4   
dt dt
+a −1=0⇒a = 1 ⇒ at + C1 = x ⇒ x − at = C1 .
dx dx
dt dt
−a − 1 = 0 ⇒ −a = 1 ⇒ −at + C2 = x ⇒ x + at = C2 .
dx dx
 
             
 
   ξ = x − at  η = x + at   
 
 
 x  t  
 
 ξ  η
∂ξ ∂ξ
ξ = x − at ⇒ = 1; = −a;
∂x ∂t
∂η ∂η
η = x + at ⇒ = 1; = a;
∂x ∂t
∂u ∂u ∂ξ ∂u ∂η ∂u ∂u
= + = −a +a ;
∂t ∂ξ ∂t ∂η ∂t ∂ξ ∂η
∂u ∂u ∂ξ ∂u ∂η ∂u ∂u
= + = + ;
∂x ∂ξ ∂x  ∂η∂x ∂ξ ∂η   2 
2
∂ u ∂ ∂u ∂ ∂u ∂ u ∂ξ ∂ 2 u ∂η
= −a + a = −a + +
∂t2 ∂t ∂ξ ∂t ∂η  ∂ξ 2 ∂η ∂ξ∂η ∂t
∂ 2 u ∂t ∂ 2 u ∂η ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
+a + 2 = −a − 2 a + a +
 ∂ξ∂η2 ∂η ∂η2 ∂t   2 ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η 2 
∂ u ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u
+a − a + 2 a = a2 2
−2 + 2 ;
∂ξ∂η  ∂η  ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η
∂ 2u ∂ ∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u ∂ξ ∂ 2 u ∂η ∂ 2 u ∂ξ
2
= + = 2 + + +
∂x ∂x ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂x ∂ξ∂η ∂x ∂ξ∂η ∂x
∂ 2 u ∂η ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
+ 2 = 2 +2 + 2.
∂η ∂x ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η
          

 
   
∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
a2 + 2 + − a2 − 2 + = 0,
∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η 2 ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η 2
 
∂ 2u
∂ξ∂η
= 0.  !
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   ξ  η
 
u(ξ, η) = F (ξ) + )(η)    *
 ξ = x − at,
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ξ = ϕ(x, y)  


     
  
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  0
         
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    ϕ(x, y)      !"#$ % &

∂ 2u

   !"'$  


∂ξ 2
 2  2
∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ
A + 2B +C = 0.
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
2
(
√B − AC = 0        &
   

$   B = AC  


 2  2  2
∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ √ √ ∂ξ ∂ξ
0=A + 2B +C =A +2 A C +
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 2  2
∂ξ √ ∂ξ √ ∂ξ
+C = A + C 
∂y ∂x ∂y
√ ∂ξ √ ∂ξ
A + C = 0. !"))$
∂x ∂y
∂u2
* %
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 2  2
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η=y⇒ = 0, =1⇒A + 2B +C = C.
∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

∂ 2u
* %
   !"'$     
 ∂ξ∂η 
∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ  ∂ξ
A +B + +C =A ·0+B · 1+
∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x
∂ξ  ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ √ √ ∂ξ √ √ ∂ξ
+ ·0 +C ·1=B +C = A C + C C =
∂y  ∂y ∂x
 ∂y ∂x ∂y
√ √ ∂ξ √ ∂ξ
= C A + C = 0
∂x ∂y
+   ,     !"))$

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C + F1 ξ, η, u, , = 0
∂η 2 ∂ξ ∂η
 
             

  
 
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= 1 ξ, η, u, , 
∂u ∂u
.
∂η 2 ∂ξ ∂η
    
   
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u = u(ϕ(x, y), y) ! "  
          
ξ = x  η = ϕ(x, y)       
 
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= 2 ξ, η, u, , ,
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2
2∂ u ∂ 2u 2
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dx x
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0   #  - (     # .( 1
∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u
 (  ∂x # ∂y # ∂x2 # ∂x∂y 2 ∂y2 
∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= y; = x+ ; 2
= 2 y2;
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∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 2 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= 2 xy + y+ ; = x + 2 x + .
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 2 
∂ 2u 2 ∂ u ∂ 2u ∂u
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 2 
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+y x+2 x + 2 + 2x y = 0.
∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂ξ
              

∂ 2u
= 0.
∂η 2
        
  
F (ξ)dη + (ξ) = ηF (ξ) + (ξ).
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2
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/  
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= a2 + .
∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2
 

  

   
    
 

  
  
     
    
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 ,-- ∂x 2
−4
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∂y
∂u
∂y
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∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
 ,-1 ∂x 2
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1 ∂ 2u 1 ∂ 2u
   +
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∂u
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∂u
− xy .
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∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
 
 x2
∂x 2
+ 2xy
∂x∂y
+ y 2 2 = 0.
∂y
2 2
   x ∂x
∂ u
2
∂ u
− y 2 − y3
∂y
∂u
∂x
∂u
−x .
∂y
1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
   x ∂x 2
∂u
+ y 2 = xy .
∂y ∂y
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
   ∂x 2
+ x 2 = x + y.
∂y
∂ 2u ∂ 2u 2
  x2  ∂x 2
+ 2xy
∂x∂y
− 3y 2∂ u
∂y 2
= 2x
∂u
∂x
+ y.

 
      
    

           
           
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S S

  
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k · div(grad u) = cρ,  = · div(grad u).
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 grad u = ī + j̄ + k̄
 div(grad u) =
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= + + 
        
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

   
 
∂u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u k
= a2 2
+ 2
+ 2
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0

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%  -. A(λ)  B(λ)   &   #
$3  " $ )  0   $3 3
 t = 0& /
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u|t=0 = ϕ(x) ⇒ (A(λ) cos λx + B(λ) sin λx)dλ = ϕ(x).
0

5 (  . ϕ(x)   -(&  !


   $3 6   4. A(λ)  B(λ)
 
      



1 +∞
A(λ) = ϕ(τ ) cos λτ dτ ;
π −∞

1 +∞


B(λ) = ϕ(τ ) sin λτ dτ.
π −∞
  
   

  
      !  "
!# $ 
%
+∞ +∞
u(x, t) =
1
π

2 2
ϕ(τ ) cos λ(τ − x)e−λ a t dτ. 
&
0 −∞

'     ( # 


    )# (#! *+* %
+∞ 
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cos λ(τ − x)e−λ a t dλ =
1 π −(τ −x)2/(4a2 t)
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e . 

0

  
& (   !# 

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⎛ +∞ ⎞
+∞ 
1
ϕ(τ ) ⎝ cos λ(τ − x)e−λ a t dλ⎠ dτ =
2 2
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π
−∞ 0

+∞
1 2 2
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2a πt
−∞

$   # 


 
,( )#     - .  
)(   # !   & 
!    %
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u(x, t) =
1

2 2
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/
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−∞
 
          
   
       

    
   

 

⎨ 0, x < x1 ,
u(x, t)|t=0 = u0 , x1  x  x2 ,

0, x > x2 .
 
          t > 0
     
        
 

x2
u0 2 2
u(x, t) = √ e−(τ −x) /(4a t) dτ.
2a πt
x1

    !"  # #! $ % &


' $ (  )(z)

x
1 2 /2
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0

* % ' (  $  + ' # , % &
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 % '  (  !   )(−z) = −)(z)- &
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a 2t

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a 2t
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a 2t 0
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√ √

a 2t 
a 2t
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⎝ √2π e−S dS − √ e−S ⎠⇒



0 0

    
x2 − x x1 − x
u(x, t) = u0 √
a 2t
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. 


 
  
 xa2√−2tx xa1√−2tx  x < x1  x > x2

      x1 < x < x2    
 
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0

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, u = 0, u = (L − x), x ∈ [0, L].
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= = 0, u =
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⎧ x ∈ (−∞, +∞)   


⎨ 100(1 − x/10), x ∈ [0, 10],

u = 100(1 + x/10), x ∈ [−10, 0),

t=0
0, |x| > 10.
 
    
       
x ∈ (0, +∞)            


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u
x=0
= 0,

u
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h h
τ τ

h h
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⎨ 0
um = ϕ0 (xm), m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M,


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1 − u n+1
0

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+ α1 = γ1 (tn+1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1,
⎪ 0 0
⎪ h n+1

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n+1

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h
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 r = τ a2 /h2   ( )    
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+ r(u n
+ u n
), (b)


m m m−1
m = 1, . . . , M − 1,
m+1
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m    

 
        
  

    

⎨ am ym−1 + bm ym + cm ym+1 = fm , m = 1, 2, . . . , M − 1;
y0 = L0 y1 + K0 ; 
⎩  M yM−1 + KM ,
yM = L

−α1 /h γ1 (tn+1 )
L0 = ; K0 = ; 
α0 − α1 /h α0 − α1 /h
M β1 /h M γ2 (tn+1 )
L = ; K = . 
β0 + β1 /h β0 + β1 /h

      ! "" #""
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1'" '!
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1 − LM LM−1
 
     

 
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β1 KM−1 + hγ2 (tn+1 )
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. 
       
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m = 0, 1, . . . , M
  
  
 m = 0 #$ 
  

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m − δum
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δun − 2δunm + δunm−1
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m − δum
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m + δum−1
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= 0. 
τ h
   

 δunm = λn eiwh       λn eiwh
        
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λ−1 eiwh − 2 + e−iwh
− a2 = 0. 
τ h2
$ "
!  eiwh + e−iwh = 2 cos wh  1 − cos wh =
= 2 sin2 wh/2!    eiwh − 2 + e−iwh = 2(cos wh − 1) =
= −4 sin2 wh/2 ! 
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τ a2 wh
λ=1−4 sin2 . &
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 < f (x) !"=
<   78
ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 T max := 1
K := 100 N := 5 M := 10 A := 1
k := 0..K n := 0..N m := 0..M f (x) := L − x
2 L  (2 · k + 1) · π · x 
ak := · f (x) · cos dx
L 0 2·L

K (2·k+1)·π 2  
u(x, t) = a · e−( 2·L ·A) ·t · cos (2·k+1)·π·x
k 2·L
k=0
L T max
h := τ := xm := h · m tn := τ · n
M N
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+ 
  u0 = 100( a = 1( x1 = 1(
x2 = 3( x ∈ [A, B]( A = −3( B = 7
T OL := 0.0001 ORIGIN := 0 N := 5 M := 100
B−A
A := −3 B := 7 n := 0..N m := 0..M h :=
M
t0 := 0 t1 := 0.1 t2 := 0.4 t3 := 1 t4 := 5 t5 := 20
xm := A + h · m a := 1

Ψ(x) := 0 if x < 1 ∨ x > 3


100 otherwise


u(x, t) := Ψ(x) if t < 0.0001

(τ − x)2
3
1 −
√ Ψ(τ ) · e 4 · a2 · t dτ otherwise
2 · a · π · t 1

Um,n := u(xm , tn )
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x

 
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F2 = g(x, t)|MM1 | = g(x, t)|M  M1 | = g(x, t)dx.



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