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ÑÀÍÊÒ-ÏÅÒÅÐÁÓÐÃÑÊÎÃÎ ÃÎÑÓÄÀÐÑÒÂÅÍÍÎÃÎ ÓÍÈÂÅÐÑÈÒÅÒÀ

ÂÛÑØÅÅ ÏÐÎÔÅÑÑÈÎÍÀËÜÍÎÅ ÎÁÐÀÇÎÂÀÍÈÅ

Н. П. ФЕДОРОВА, А. И. ВАРШАВСКАЯ

ПЕРЕВОД
С АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
ПОВЫШЕННЫЙ УРОВЕНЬ
Часть 2

ADVANCED ENGLISH
FOR TRANSLATION
Part 2

Рекомендовано
Учебно методическим объединением по образованию в области лингвистики
Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации в качестве
учебного пособия для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по специальности «Перевод и переводоведение» направления
«Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация»

3е издание, стереотипное

Ìîñêâà Ñ.-Ïåòåðáóðã

2007
ÓÄÊ 802.0(075.8)
ÁÁÊ 81.2 Àíãë-7ÿ73
Ô333

Ð å ö å í ç å í ò û:
äîêòîð ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê,
âåäóùèé íàó÷íûé ñîòðóäíèê ÈËÈ ÐÀÍ È. Â. Íåäÿëêîâ;
êàíäèäàò ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê, äîöåíò ÑÏáÃÓ Å. Ñ. Ïåòðîâà;
êàíäèäàò ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê, äîöåíò ÑÏáÃÓ À. Ã. Ìèí÷åíêîâ

Ôåäîðîâà Í. Ï.
Ô333 Ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ïîâûøåííûé óðîâåíü.
 2 ÷. ×. 2 = Advanced English for Translation. In 2 parts. Part 2 :
ó÷åá. ïîñîáèå äëÿ ñòóä. âûñø. ó÷åá. çàâåäåíèé / Í. Ï. Ôåäîðî-
âà, À. È. Âàðøàâñêàÿ. — 3-å èçä., ñòåð. — ÑÏá. : Ôèëîëîãè÷å-
ñêèé ôàêóëüòåò ÑÏáÃÓ ; Ì. : Èçäàòåëüñêèé öåíòð «Àêàäå-
ìèÿ», 2007. — 112 ñ.
ISBN 978-5-8465-0628-2 (×. 2) (Ôèëîë. ôàê. ÑÏáÃÓ)
ISBN 978-5-7695-3725-7 (×. 2) (Èçä. öåíòð «Àêàäåìèÿ»)
ISBN 978-5-8465-0626-8 (Ôèëîë. ôàê. ÑÏáÃÓ)
ISBN 978-5-7695-3722-6 (Èçä. öåíòð «Àêàäåìèÿ»)
Äàííîå ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïðàêòè÷åñêèé êóðñ ïåðå-
âîäà è ñîäåðæèò òåêñòû è óïðàæíåíèÿ êàê äëÿ ïèñüìåííîé äîìàøíåé ðà-
áîòû, òàê è äëÿ ñïîíòàííîãî ïåðåâîäà íà àóäèòîðíûõ çàíÿòèÿõ. Ïðèìåðû
ëåêñèêî-ãðàììàòè÷åñêèõ òðóäíîñòåé ïåðåâîäà âçÿòû ïî ïðåèìóùåñòâó èç
õóäîæåñòâåííûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé àíãëèéñêèõ è àìåðèêàíñêèõ àâòîðîâ, à òàê-
æå èç àíãëèéñêèõ ãðàììàòèê è ñëîâàðåé. Ïîñîáèå ñíàáæåíî êîììåíòàðè-
åì, â êîòîðîì ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ îòäåëüíûå ãðàììàòè÷åñêèå è ëåêñè÷åñêèå
ïðîáëåìû ïåðåâîäà, ïðåäñòàâëåííûå â óïðàæíåíèÿõ.
Äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ ôàêóëüòåòîâ è ôàêóëüòåòîâ èíîñòðàí-
íûõ ÿçûêîâ, èìåþùèõ çíà÷èòåëüíûé çàïàñ ñëîâ è îñâîèâøèõ ïðàêòè÷å-
ñêèé êóðñ ãðàììàòèêè. Ìîæåò áûòü èñïîëüçîâàíî íà êóðñàõ àíãëèéñêîãî
ÿçûêà â ãðóïïàõ ïðîäâèíóòîãî óðîâíÿ, à òàêæå ëèöàìè, èçó÷àþùèìè àí-
ãëèéñêèé ÿçûê ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî.

ÓÄÊ 802.0(075.8)
ÁÁÊ 81.2 Àíãë-7ÿ73

ISBN 978-5-8465-0628-2 (×. 2)


ISBN 978-5-7695-3725-7 (×. 2) © Ôåäîðîâà Í. Ï., Âàðøàâñêàÿ À. È., 2004
ISBN 978-5-8465-0626-8 © Ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèé ôàêóëüòåò ÑÏáÃÓ, 2007
ISBN 978-5-7695-3722-6 © Èçäàòåëüñêèé öåíòð «Àêàäåìèÿ», 2007
ББК 81.2Англ7
А28

Серия «Студенческая библиотека»


Ïðåäèñëîâèå
Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
канд. филол. наук, доцент Е. С. Петрова (СПбГУ), Данное учебное пособие является продолжением книги «Пере
канд. филол. наук, доцент А. Г. Минченков (СПбГУ) вод с английского языка. Повышенный уровень. Часть 1» и пред
назначено для студентов филологических факультетов и факульте
тов иностранных языков, а также студентов гуманитарных
факультетов, находящихся на продвинутом этапе изучения англий
ского языка и продолжающих специальные занятия по переводу.
Advanced English for Translation. Part II: Практический курс Пособие строится на профессионально ориентированном ма
А28 перевода с английского языка на русский. Часть II: Учебное териале и содержит как тексты общегуманитарного характера, так
пособие по переводу / Авт.сост. Н. П. Федорова, А. И. Вар и филологические, написанные, в основном, крупными специали
шавская. — СПб.: Филологический факультет СПбГУ; М.: стами в этой области или принадлежащие перу видных литерато
Издательский центр «Академия», 2003 — 100 с. ров и критиков.
ISBN 5846501443 (Филол. факт СПбГУ) Пособие состоит из трех частей. Первая часть, «Тексты и упраж
ISBN (Изд. центр «Академия») нения для письменного перевода», содержит 10 уроков. Тексты от
личаются тематическим и жанровым разнообразием и включают по
Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский представляет литические мемуары, исторические и страноведческие тексты
собой вторую часть практического курса перевода и содержит тексты и научного и популярного характера, литературные эссе, журнальные
упражнения как для письменной домашней работы, так и для спон рецензии, газетную публицистику и научные статьи по лингвисти
танного перевода на аудиторных занятиях. ке. Они характеризуются повышенной сложностью в сравнении с
Пособие предназначено для студентов старших курсов филоло предшествующим пособием и отражают широкий спектр проблем,
гического и других гуманитарных факультетов вузов. с которыми студентам придется сталкиваться в будущей профес
ББК 81.2Англ7
сиональной деятельности. Данные тексты предназначены для до
машней письменной работы со словарем с последующим обсужде
нием на аудиторном занятии. Разнообразный характер текстов
позволяет проводить предварительный анализ каждого текста с точ
ки зрения культурного контекста, типа и функции текста, опреде
ления приоритетов с целью учета в процессе принятия решений.
Сопровождающие текст упражнения связаны с его лексической
и грамматической спецификой. В них отрабатывается навык пере
вода в области сложных разделов грамматики (многозначность
средств связи, омонимия частей речи, конструкции и обороты с не
личными формами глагола, усилительные и каузативные конструк
ции и др.) и лексики (полисемия, широкозначность, терминоло
гия, ономастика и др.). Содержащиеся в упражнениях примеры
взяты из научной и публицистической литературы, популярной ли
тературы по страноведению и литературных эссе.
© Н. П. Федорова, А. И. Варшавская, составление, 2003
© Филологический факультет СПбГУ, 2003
Вторая часть, «Тексты для устного перевода», содержит матери
© Издательский центр «Академия», 2003 ал для перевода с листа под контролем преподавателя. Работа над
ISBN 5846501443 © Оформление, С. В. Лебединский, 2003 этими текстами дает возможность развивать уже существующие у

3
студентов навыки спонтанного перевода неподготовленного зара
нее текста. Тексты этой части могут также использоваться для пись
менного перевода в аудитории, без словаря или с использованием
английского толкового словаря.
Третья часть пособия, «Повторение», содержит дополнительные
упражнения на сложные для перевода явления в области лексики и
грамматики, что обеспечивает закрепление навыков, полученных в PA RT I
ходе работы с материалом пособия.
Авторысоставители приносят искреннюю благодарность ре
цензентам, преподавателям СПбГУ канд. филол. наук, доценту TEXTS AND EXERCISES
Е. С. Петровой и канд. филол. наук, доценту А. Г. Минченкову, и
будут благодарны за критические замечания и пожелания, касаю FOR WRITTEN TRANSLATION
щиеся предложенного пособия по переводу с английского языка
на русский.
Н. П. Федорова UNIT 1
А. И. Варшавская
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
by Sir Winston Churchill
At about ten o’clock Sir Kingsley Wood came to see me, having just
been with the Prime Minister. He told me that Mr Chamberlain was in
clined to feel that the great battle which had broken upon us made it neces
sary for him to remain at his post. Kingsley Wood had told him that, on the
contrary, the new crisis made it all the more necessary to have a National
Government, which alone could confront it, and he added that Mr Cham
berlain had accepted this view. At eleven o’clock I was again summoned to
Downing Street by the Prime Minister. There once more I found Lord Hal
ifax. We took our seats at the table opposite Mr Chamberlain. He told us
that he was satisfied that it was beyond his power to form a National Gov
ernment. The response he had received from the Labour leaders left him in
no doubt of this. The question therefore was whom he should advise the
King to send for after his own resignation had been accepted. His demeanour
was cool, unruffled, and seemingly quite detached from the personal aspect
of the affair. He looked at us both across the table.
I have had many important interviews in my public life, and this was
certainly the most important. Usually I talk a great deal, but on this occa
sion I was silent. Mr Chamberlain evidently had in his mind the stormy
scene in the House of Commons two nights before, when I had seemed to
be in such heated controversy with the Labour Party. Although this had
been in his support and defence, he nevertheless felt that it might be an
obstacle to my obtaining their adherence at this juncture. I do not recall
the actual words he used, but this was the implication. His biographer,
Mr Feiling, states definitely that he preferred Lord Halifax. As I remained
silent, a very long pause ensued. It certainly seemed longer than the two
minutes which one observes in the commemorations of Armistice Day.
5
Then at length Halifax spoke. He said that he felt that his position as a PRACTICE SECTION
Peer, out of the House of Commons, would make it very difficult for him
to discharge the duties of Prime Minister in a war like this. He would be 1.1. Read the following proper names and titles and comment on
held responsible for everything, but would not have the power to guide the the principles of their translation
Assembly upon whose confidence the life of every government depended.
He spoke for some minutes in this sense, and by the time he had finished it Sir Kingsley Wood, Mr Chamberlain, Lord Halifax, Mr Feiling;
was clear that the duty would fall upon me — had in fact fallen upon me. Downing Street, the Mall; Holland, Amsterdam, the Zuyder Zee;
Then, for the first time, I spoke. I said I would have no communication British, Dutch, German.
with either of the Opposition Parties until I had the King’s Commission to
form a Government. On this the momentous conversation came to an end, 1.2. Point out the political and military terms used in the text.
and we reverted to our ordinary easy and familiar manners of men who Comment on their translation
had worked for years together and whose lives in and out of office had been
spent in all the friendliness of British politics. I then went back to the Ad 1.3. Translate into Russian paying special attention
miralty, where, as may well be imagined, much awaited me. to the infinitival construction introduced by FOR
*** 1. […] Chamberlain was inclined to feel that the great battle which
The Dutch Ministers were in my room. Haggard and worn, with horror had broken upon us made it necessary for him to remain at his post.
in their eyes, they had just flown over from Amsterdam. Their country had (Churchill)
been attacked without the slightest pretext or warning. The avalanche of 2. In December 1538 the Pope carried out the Bull of excommuni
fire and steel had rolled across the frontiers, and when resistance broke out cation and preached a crusade. Henry’s egoism was sufficiently shaken
and the Dutch frontier guards fired, an overwhelming onslaught was made for him to take ostentatious countermeasures. One of these was a
from the air. The whole country was in a state of wild confusion; the long programme of castle building along the coast from Hull to Falmouth
prepared defence scheme had been put into operation; the dykes were and Milford Haven to protect the more important harbours and estuar
opened; the waters spread far and wide. But the Germans had already ies. (Saunders)
crossed the outer lines, and were now streaming across the causeway which 3. The bastion opposite the gatehouse was used as a guardroom in the
enclosed the Zuyder Zee. Could we do anything to prevent this? Luckily, eighteenth century. By then defensive considerations had lapsed sufficiently
we had a flotilla not far away, and this was immediately ordered to sweep for an entrance to be forced into the bastion to enable direct access into
the causeway with fire, and take the heaviest toll possible of the swarming the keep, thus nullifying the elaborate sixteenthcentury arrangements.
invaders. The Queen was still in Holland, but it did not seem she could (Saunders)
remain there long. 4. JUMBLED PARAGRAPHS. — It is a good idea for students to
…In the splintering crash of this vast battle the quiet conversations we work in pairs or small groups, as the exercise can stimulate argument
had had in Downing Street faded or fell back in one’s mind. However, I and discussion. Encourage students to look for logical links — for ex
remember being told that Mr Chamberlain had gone, or was going, to see ample personal pronouns (who or what do they refer to?) and the use
the King, and this was naturally to be expected. Presently a message ar of the definite article to refer back to something previously mentioned.
rived summoning me to the Palace at 6 o’clock. It only takes two minutes (Walker)
to drive there from the Admiralty along the Mall. Although I suppose the 5.It was not an easy thing for her to do — this going to have tea with
evening newspapers must have been full of the terrific news from the Con Ransome. A halfdozen times she very nearly lost her courage and would
tinent, nothing had been mentioned about the Cabinet crisis. The public have turned back save her sense of obligation amounted to an obsession.
had not had time to take in what was happening either abroad or at home, (Bromfield)
and there was no crowd about the Palace gates. 6. She had engaged herself for tea and Mr Ransome was waiting for her
I was taken immediately to the King. His Majesty received me most to arrive and in order not to fail him she would have passed through fire
graciously and bade me sit down. He looked at me searchingly and quizzi and water, battle and plague. (Bromfield)
cally for some moments, and then said: “I suppose you don’t know why I 7. “That was the big thing in my father’s life. He led a wagon train
have sent for you?” Adopting his mood, I replied: “Sir, I simply couldn’t clear across the plains to the coast, and when it was finished, his life was
imagine why.” He laughed and said: “I want to ask you to form a Govern done. It was a big thing to do, but it didn’t last long enough. Look!” she
ment.” I said I would certainly do so. continued, “it’s as though he was born to do that, and after he finished it,
6 7
there wasn’t anything more for him to do but think about it and talk vocabulary and sentence patterns which he has not really assimilated in
about it […]” (Steinbeck) the second language. This is to set a task which is beyond him at his stage
8. “There was no buffalo, no antelope, not even rabbits. The hunters of development and is more productive of error than of useful language
couldn’t even shoot a coyote. That was the time for the leader to be on the skill. It has also been pointed out that he should always be within reach of
watch. I was the leader, and I kept my eyes open. Know why? Well, just the skilled help whenever he is doing composition work which is on the limit
minute the people began to get hungry they’d start slaughtering the team of his powers. (Walker)
oxen […]” (Steinbeck) 5. Councillor Peter Hartley, chairman of Westminster Council’s Envi
9. For example, it is quite common in heavily urbanized Britain for ronment Committee, which has spent several hundred thousand pounds
rural accents, such as those of Devonshire, Northumberland or the Scot trying to rid the West End of unlicensed traders, said: “We intend taking a
tish Highlands, to be considered pleasant, charming, quaint or amusing. Bill to Parliament with much stronger powers to deal with illegal traders,
Urban accents, on the other hand, such as those of Birmingham, New including the seizure of their goods.” (Millward)
castle or London, are often thought to be ugly, careless or unpleasant. 6. Houses damaged, cars wrecked, power cuts, no trains […] — the
(Trudgill) most ferocious storm for three hundred years did not spare anybody. In the
10. Women had won the right to be paid equally with men, and the streets and on the motorways, the police worked frantically to divert traffic
Race Relations Act of 1968 and the Sex Discrimination Act of 1976 made and clear blocked roads to prevent the havoc creating an even greater death
it illegal for anyone to be barred from employment solely on account of toll. This morning the storm, its power waning, is out in the North Sea […]
their sex or race, except in certain specialized occupations. (Gilchrist) (Walker)
11. Boas and his followers discovered in effect that each language family 7. He [Samuel Johnson] grew up a gruff bear of a man, as proud as
is a law unto itself, a closed system, whose patterns the linguist must reveal Lucifer, not unduly clean, dressed in any old thing he happened to
and describe. It was necessary for the linguistic scientist to consciously throw on, afflicted with alarming shakes and tremors, but so magical a
avoid the trap of projecting the hidden rules of his own language on to the talker that people forgot his peculiarities in the power of his presence.
language being studied. (Hall) (Cavendish)
8. In 1539 it seemed logical that the cost of such a measure against the
1.4. POWER(S) Catholic powers should be met, to a large degree, from the profits accruing
from the Reformation. Not only was a proportion of the revenues from the
1. He told us that he was satisfied that it was beyond his power to form newly dissolved monasteries appropriated but some of the building mate
a National Government. (Churchill) rials from their ruins as well. (Saunders)
2. The earlier Humanists had believed in reason and the possibility of 9. There were many other venomous attacks from my home town and
the attainment of human happiness by the unfettered exercise of reason. for the first time I learned another lesson which every young writer has got
Bacon and his contemporaries, while not denying the power of reason, to learn. And that lesson is the naked, blazing power of print. At that time
had gradually shifted the weight of emphasis away from reason to experi it was for me a bewildering and almost overwhelming situation. (Wolfe)
ment. (Morton) 10. Besides controlling munitions production, the Government even
3. Humanism fought to liberate mankind from superstition and ig tually took over almost all the country’s key industries, including min
norance, but also to liberate capitalist production from the restraints of ing, shipbuilding and the railways. They had power to requisition all trans
feudal economy: the bourgeois revolution was waged for the ultimate ad port — including horses — and controlled the basic raw materials […]
vantage of mankind as a whole but also to secure for a new exploiting (Gilchrist)
class the power to rob and to become rich, and in this revolution, mean 11. A Government Commission in 1925 came to no conclusion as to
ness and nobility, cruel oppression and disinterested generosity are inex how to secure a market for the coal industry products. The Coal Mines
tricably tangled. The pursuit of truth and the pursuit of wealth seemed Act of 1930 gave the Government powers to limit the output and control
often to coincide […] prices, but this did not help. (Gilchrist)
And truth for Bacon meant power, not indeed political power, since 12. The point is made more explicitly by the philosopher Samuel Alex
he was a loyal servant of the crown and well content with the existing ander, whose 1928 lecture on Austen rejected the notion that her art was
order, but the power over nature through the understanding of natural “mere faithful description” and argued instead for her powers of design
law. (Morton) and the transforming power of her humour (“The truth which the artist
4. A pupil should never be in a position in which he is forced to work conveys is not altogether the truth which he discovers, but which he
out sentences in his own language and translate them in his mind into makes”). (Stafford)
8 9
UNIT 2 those urging them to do this are the rich nations which cut down almost all
their own wild forests centuries ago.
EARTH TAKEN FOR GRANTED There are other colossal pressures for growth. The world’s population
is growing faster than ever before. In 1800 there were one billion people on
from Educational GUARDIAN the planet; by 1940 the total was 2.5 billion. Now there are more than five
billion. Before the decade ends there will be six. Every year there are an
other 92 million people in the world. Most of these are born into the devel
No one thought about the planet as a lifesupport machine oping regions. They will need food, housing, transport, communications,
until experts realised how serious the greenhouse effect was. education, hospitals and jobs. All these things require energy. They will
need land, and this means more forest clearance. They will need fertilisers
Environmentalists and scientists have been urging world governments for their crops, and this means more nitrous oxide in the atmosphere.
to cut carbon dioxide emissions drastically. They also want to see massive The final problem is that although most climate scientists are fairly
replanting of forests and woodlands. sure about the broad problem of the greenhouse effect, almost every detail
Both of these things are possible and will even be helpful to national is a matter of debate. For the first time, questions have to be asked not
economies. For instance, much energy from fossil fuel burning is wast about what is good for a country but what is good for the planet. Scientists
ed — in fuel that is not burned properly, in the heat that goes up the chim are only now beginning to ask, for instance, whether rainforests are there
ney, in the lights needlessly left on. If buildings were properly insulated because of rainfall, or rain is there because of forests. They are beginning
and managed, if wasteful car journeys were discouraged and public trans to discover that a slight drop in average temperature in one part of the
port made more efficient, if waste heat from power plants was used to heat southern hemisphere may be causing droughts in, say, the sahel in north
greenhouses or even homes, if coal was burned so that more energy was Africa. Some of these questions have been studied piecemeal already. But,
extracted from it, most nations could not only cut carbon dioxide output until the last few years, no one has thought about the planet as a kind of
considerably, they could also save enormous sums of money. Added to that, lifesupport machine. It has been simply taken for granted.
there could be a switch to hydroelectric, solar, wind or tidal power which,
once running, produces no carbon dioxide. Nor does nuclear power, but
this has proved expensive and politically alarming.
Tree planting, too, has benefits. About a quarter of the carbon dioxide PRACTICE SECTION
created by people comes from clearing and burning forests. Growing trees
soak up carbon dioxide; if the world stopped clearing forests and started to 2.1. Point out the terms relating to the subject of the article and
plant new ones the trees would help absorb greenhouse gases. Trees are comment on the principles of their translation
also sources of food, building materials, fibres and medicines. They stabi
lise soil, protect watersheds and shelter wildlife. They, too, are a bonus to a 2.2. Translate into Russian. Look for a variety of ways
nation’s economy. to translate the causative verbs
But the world’s energy is unevenly shared. The rich nations use about
70 per cent of all the world’s energy. Developing nations make up three A
quarters of the global population and they use the other 30 per cent of the 1. Environmentalists and scientists have been urging world governments
world’s energy. A monopoly of energy is therefore the same as a monopoly to cut carbon dioxide emissions drastically. (Educational GUARDIAN)
of wealth. And the greenhouse effect is a problem created by the rich na 2. Although Japan, with unemployment below 3 per cent, continues to
tions. These now have to persuade developing nations not to start using be the fullemployment champion of the industrial world, there is evidence
energy in greater quantities, which will be politically difficult, because de that the commitment there to lifetime employment has begun to break down
veloping nations cannot make their people better off without using more and that a growing number of Japanese are experiencing the pinch of job
energy. For instance if China carries out plans to expand its coal use in the lessness. A series of economic shocks has led Japanese managers to look at
next 35 years it will put into the atmosphere about half as much carbon the United States for lessons on increasing efficiency. (Korten)
dioxide again as the whole world dumps now. 3. After James Henry Trotter had been living with his aunts for three
*** whole years there came a morning when something rather peculiar hap
There is another political difficulty. Nations in South America, Africa pened to him. And this thing, which as I say was only rather peculiar, soon
and SouthEast Asia are being urged to protect their own rainforests. But caused a second thing to happen which was very peculiar. And then the
10 11
very peculiar thing, in its own turn, caused a really fantastically peculiar transgressing in some way and was instrumental in having him court
thing to occur. (Dahl) martialed. This consoled him a little. (McCullers)
4. “Her father was killed in France.” “I see. She would not talk about 2. As early as the 5th century B. C., the Egyptians told a shoe story very
it. She was distant from everybody. The only way I could get her to com much like Cinderella. It tells of how a lovely Greek slave was bathing in the
municate was to ask her to read to me…” (Ondaatje) Nile when down swooped an eagle and carried off one of her beautifully
5. During the period from 1790 to the outbreak of the Civil War in made sandals! Tactfully the eagle dropped the sandal in the lap of the king.
1860, new States were created west of the Appalachians and the Allegha The king had the country searched for the owner, and when he found her
nies and fresh immigrants arrived in large numbers from Ireland and Ger they were married and lived happily ever after. (Gilchrist)
many. The Irish potato famine of 1845 drove one and a half million Irish 3. Many prime ministers — Churchill among them — used the Cab
men to seek a home in the New World and the European Revolution of inet Room as their office. But Mrs Thatcher preferred a much smaller
1848 caused as many Germans to settle in Pennsylvania and the Middle room which prime ministers once used as their bedroom. When she
West. (Potter) first went to Number 10, this room was, she recalls, decorated with
6. “You hadn’t any kindness or any morals or any ethics, so nobody dark green flock wallpaper. It would have taken 20 years to get it changed
could touch you but me. I knew you well enough to know where it would going through the official process, so she had it replaced at her own
hurt, and you made me use my knowledge. You forced me to do it. I’m not expense. (Jones)
sorry. I wish it had been more cruel.” (Bromfield) 4. Former prime minister Edward Heath did some restoration to the
7. “I came to you because you were the only possible person. It isn’t formal part of the house… He had the walls hung with splendid patterned
only that we really don’t know anyone out here, but you were the only one silk to recreate the former Blue and White Drawing Rooms, and with yel
I could think of who might understand. If anything happened to me, I’d low silk in the Pillared Drawing Room, where the largest receptions are
prefer to have Elizabeth go back to England.” (Bromfield) held. He also had the wood panelling of the large dining room lightened,
8. Pan had me write this story in big letters, so that he could paste it up and hung fine English and French pictures. (Jones)
on his bedroom wall, listen to the tape I was to make and read it along as he 5. Lady Wilson had the splendid collection of portraits of prime min
lay in bed. Not only did I repeat this story into the tape recorder several isters restored to the walls of the main staircase (Lady Dorothy Macmillan
dozen times — at first one word at a time, and so on — but Pan invited Bill, had had them put in a side passage) ranging from Walpole at the bottom to
Bob and Mary over for dinner one night and had them read it a few times James Callaghan (the only one in colour) at the top. (Jones)
for variety. (Salzman) 6. Judge Stevens believed that anyone caught stealing for the first time
9. All of us are poets in a measure because all of us have feeling, and should have his right hand chopped off and if caught again, should have his
power to communicate what we feel to others; but those we call poets are left hand chopped off, in ancient Islamic tradition. (Sheldon)
at once more sensitive, with a wider range of feeling, and better able to 7. Then I went to Harvard, wrote some more plays there, became ob
express what they feel and move others to share their feelings. (Greening) sessed with the idea that I had to be playwright, left Harvard, had my plays
10. In much of their work a stress appears on the idea of women writers rejected, and finally in the autumn of 1926 […] I began to write my first
forming a tradition and culture of their own, and this focus encourages a book in London. (Wolfe)
range of critics to explore, first the literary antecedents of Jane Austen, but
then the richness of the specifically female literary culture from which she 2.3. Singular or plural? Comment on your choice
emerges. (Matthews) of the appropriate form of nouns in translation
11. “God is a belief that at our deepest level we are known and loved…
But the therapist is not God, not even a priest or a sage, and must prompt 1. The years passed by and a great tangle of thorns grew up around
the sufferer to heal himself through his own deities, and this involves find the castle and together with the thorns grew the legend of the Sleeping
ing them.” (Murdoch) Beauty.
12. Rupert did not press his elderly parents to come to Dublin, and just Many brave young men came to try to rescue the beautiful Princess,
showed them pictures of his part of the house. And of the garden. (Binchy) but they were all caught in the vicious thicket of thorns and died horrible
deaths! (Sleeping Beauty. Retold by John Patience)
B 2. Although we now tend to associate premonetized societies with prim
itive cultures and harsh living conditions, some such societies had highly
1. Sitting at his desk the Captain indulged in a brief, peevish day advanced cultures and provided their members with socially and spiritual
dream — he imagined a fantastic situation in which he caught the soldier ly secure and meaningful lives. (Brown)
12 13
3. Indeed, it is likely that in today’s monetized world, from 2 to 3 bil 2.4. Translate into Russian looking for various specific
lion people live less secure and less prosperous lives than did their ances equivalents of GOOD
tors whose livelihoods were predominantly nonmonetized. (Brown)
4. Meanwhile, the prevailing means of “getting rid” of the wastes tends 1. For the first time, questions have to be asked not about what is good
to concentrate them in ways that wreak havoc with local ecosystems. As for a country but what is good for the planet. (Guardian)
urban populations expand faster than the support systems that make cities 2. Dear Patsy, — After four days’ journey, I arrived here without any
work, the unmanaged wastes also constitute a growing threat to the resi accident, and in as good health as when I left Philadelphia[…] As long as
dents themselves. (Nelson) Mrs Trist remains in Philadelphia, cultivate her affection. She has been a
5. Parents I met in Iowa, New Hampshire and other states are desper valuable friend to you, and her good sense and good heart make her valued
ately concerned about the education their youngsters are — or are not — by all who know her, and by nobody on earth more than me. (Jefferson)
getting, for they understand that without education, their children’s eco 3. In the evening I found myself very feverish, and went in to bed; but,
nomic futures are bleak. (Washington Post) having read somewhere that cold water drunk plentifully was good for a
6. She was a little, bent woman with a black crocheted cap and a pale fever, I followed the prescription, sweat plentifully most of the night, my
blue eyeshade. She wore now, as in most weathers, a faded Burberry and fever left me[…] (Franklin)
tennis shoes. She had a long, spadeshaped face, liberally dusted with dead 4. But quite apart from additions to the language which result from the
white powder. She was Miss Lorwood. (Mortimer) admittance into good usage of what was once slang, it is evident that num
7. The south bank was the busier because, with its numerous wharfs, it berless new words and expressions are required in order to deal with the
had better facilities for docking the barges which carried goods to Cam great and everincreasing complexity of modern life, encompassed as it is by
bridge. Except for St Peter’s, Castle Hill, the churches with Saxon origins the rapidly changing social and technical conditions of our time. (Foster)
are on the south bank. (M. Hall) 5. Ohio State was a landgrant university and therefore two years of
8. For the first time I was forced to consider squarely this problem: military drill was compulsory […] As a soldier I was never any good at all.
where does the material of an artist come from? What are the proper uses Most of the cadets were glumly indifferent soldiers, but I was no good at
of that material, and how far must his freedom in the use of that material all. Once General Littlefield, who was commandant of the cadet corps,
be controlled by his responsibility as a member of society? (Wolfe) popped up in front of me during regimental drill and snapped, “You are
9. As the American Republic took shape with the attachment of French the main trouble with this university!” (Thurber)
and Spanish populations, with the addition of native Indian tribes in the 6. Again the tears rose for an instant in the clear blue eyes: “That’s so
Middle West, and with the absorption of Chinese and Japanese who land good of you. You don’t know what a relief it is. You see, I feel responsible
ed on the Pacific Coast, so the cosmopolitan character of the United States for Elizabeth. I feel as if it were my fault, as if I’d brought her out
became more accentuated. (Potter) here[…]”(Bromfield)
10. For purely decorative effects, Faberge frequently employed coloured 7. She thought, “You’ve never done a good deed for anyone unless it
golds. By combining precise proportions of pure gold with other pure met brought you profit and glory. And you’ve ruined men and women who trust
als, colours in a range of intensities were created. The traditional yellow, ed you for the sake of power and money […] (Bromfield)
green, red, and white golds, used together since the eighteenth century 8. These then are some of the outstanding features of modern English.
when the combination was known as gold a quatre couleurs, were joined in Simplicity of form and inflection is combined with an almost too abun
Faberge’s repertoire by the blue, orange, and grey coloured golds which dant vocabulary and an orthography that is frequently chaotic. There is a
were more difficult to attain. (Aiken) mixture of good and bad, but the good points predominate — our linguis
11. In seeking clues about his companion the Englishman is making use tic assets more than counterbalance our liabilities. (Alexander)
of the way in which people from different social and geographical back 9. It is a broad but fair generalization to say that much of linguistics has
grounds use different kinds of language. If the second Englishman comes in the past completely ignored the relationship between language and so
from Norfolk, for example, he will probably use the kind of language spo ciety. In most cases this has been for very good reasons. Concentration on
ken by people from that part of the country. (Trudgill) the “idiolect” — the speech of one person at one time in one style — was a
12. Simpson, a distinguished Renaissance scholar, used his essay to point necessary simplification that led to several theoretical advances. (Trudgill)
out Austen’s characteristic strengths — her “manifest irony”, her “critical 10. In order to meet those needs, the state was forced to extend its con
faculty”, her perception of the individual as part of society, and her cele trol over everwidening spheres of activity. To make good the huge losses of
bration of “intelligent love” — and in doing so anticipated many of the men on the Western front [during World War I], conscription had to be
points developed by subsequent critics. (Stafford) introduced for the first time in British history. (Stevenson)

14 15
11. Another kind of difference is seen in a word like “homely”, used in cal problems by attending to the ordinary use of particular words or other
Br. E. in a good sense, in Am. E. in a bad one, a euphemistic substitute for elements in a particular language. The philosophy of language is the at
“plain”, “ugly”. To denote the root meaning of “homely” a new Ameri tempt to give philosophically illuminating descriptions of certain general
can word “homey” has been coined. Here, too, the current American features of language, such as reference, truth, meaning, and necessity; and
meaning of “homely” is common in earlier English. (Alexander) it is concerned only incidentally with particular elements in a particular
language though its method of investigation, where empirical and rational
rather than a priori and speculative approaches prevail, will naturally force
it to pay strict attention to the facts of actual natural languages.
UNIT 3 “Linguistic philosophy” is primarily the name of a method; “The phi
losophy of language” is the name of a subject. Although I shall sometimes
employ the methods of linguistic philosophy, this book is an essay in the
THE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE philosophy of language, not in linguistic philosophy.
by John R. Searle It is not an essay in linguistics. Linguistics attempts to describe the
actual structures — phonological, syntactical, and semantic — of natural
How do words relate to the world? How is it possible that when a speaker human languages. The “data” of the philosophy of language usually come
stands before a hearer and emits an acoustic blast such remarkable things from natural human languages, but many of the conclusions about e. g.
occur as: the speaker means something; the sounds he emits mean some what it is to be true or to be a statement or a promise, if valid, should hold
thing; the hearer understands what is meant; the speaker makes a state for any possible language capable of producing truths or statements or
ment, asks a question, or gives an order? How is it possible, for example, promises. In that sense this essay is not in general about languages, French,
that when I say “Jones went home”, which after all is in one way just a English, or Swahili, but is about language.
string of noises, what I mean is: Jones went home. What is the difference
between saying something and meaning it and saying it without meaning
it? And what is involved in meaning just one particular thing and not some PRACTICE SECTION
other thing? For example, how does it happen that when people say, “Jones
went home” they almost always mean Jones went home and not, say, Brown 3.1. Sentences with emphatic DO
went to the party or Green got drunk. And what is the relation between
what I mean when I say something and what it means whether anybody 1. We cannot say what was the first language in England; that lies far
says it or not? How do words stand for things? What IS the difference be back in the mists of prehistory. But we do know that, before the arrival of
tween a meaningful string of words and a meaningless one? What is it for the English people and their language, there had existed for several centu
something to be true? or false? ries a tongue belonging to quite a different family of languages, the Celtic
Such questions form the subject matter of the philosophy of language. group. (Alexander)
We must not assume that in the versions I have stated they even make 2. […] we have only to think of our silent letters […], our chameleon
sense. Still, in some form or other some such questions must make sense; like ough with its seven or eight pronunciations, […] and all the other
for we do know that people communicate, that they do say things and irregularities on which teachers and children spend so much time and ef
sometimes mean what they say; that they are, on occasion at least, un fort, to realize that orthography is one of the weakest points in the linguis
derstood, that they ask questions, issue orders, make promises, and give tic pattern of modern English. It is true that many groups of words do
apologies, that people’s utterances do relate to the world in ways we can show a correspondence between sound and symbol, but even they break
describe by characterizing the utterances as being true or false or mean down occasionally […] (Alexander)
ingless, stupid, exaggerated or whatnot. And if these things do happen it 3. Handsome was big and heavy and he could not walk fast. He always
follows that it is possible for them to happen, and if it is possible for them said his arches hurt him when he tried to walk fast. When he did have to
to happen it ought to be possible to pose and answer the questions which hurry, he trotted. (Caldwell)
examine that possibility. 4. […] for the most part the poor woman existed in a dream, pottering
about her household duties in a mechanical fashion and seldom uttering.
*** When she did speak, it was to let forth a torrent of nonsense about the
I distinguish between the philosophy of language and linguistic philos great man her husband might have been had not ill luck constantly fol
ophy. Linguistic philosophy is the attempt to solve particular philosophi lowed him. (Du Maurier)
16 17
5. Again she hesitated for a moment, “Of course it’s not at all as simple someone who might act as a kind of trustee for her to look after the money
as that. If anything did happen to me, it’s quite possible that it would throw and see that she didn’t get into some scrape or other.” (Bromfield)
Elizabeth completely off her balance, for a time anyway”. (Bromfield) 7. “I just hope I haven’t messed up her life,” agonised Susie Figgis, the
6. “I think now,” she was saying, “that perhaps we were wrong in living casting director who had discovered Jodhi at a north London acting class.
so much apart. Sometimes Elizabeth did want to call on people and ask Ms Figgis needn’t have worried. With the same quiet selfpossession she
people to tea, but in the end, somehow, we never did it and so now we had shown on the screen, Jodhi decided that what she really wanted was not
really don’t know anyone.” (Bromfield) to become the new Jodie Foster, but to finish her schooling. (Summers)
7. Many people will never employ words of this type, and most others 8. She knew by now his extreme sensitiveness, for which his acid irony
will only use them in a restricted set of situations. For those who do use was a protection, and how quickly he could close his heart if his feelings
taboo words, however, “breaking the rules” may have connotations of were hurt. She had a moment’s irritation at his stupidity. Surely what trou
strength or freedom which they find desirable. (Trudgill) bled him most was the wound to his vanity; she vaguely realised that this is
8. However, while we noted above that “society lays down different the hardest of all wounds to heal. (Maugham)
roles” for men and women, it is equally true that what society lays down 9. He regretted the building of the bridge, but what concerned him
can and does change — and will change if enough members of the society more were the crops he sowed, and his animals, and the trees on the sky
feel that it is desirable that this should happen. (Trudgill) line. That was his life. (Trevor)
9. “What’s his name again, this conductor?” asked Christopher. 10. Equity, the actors’ and singers’ union, is also worried about the prob
“Composer,” corrected Helen. lem. Singer Miriam Stockley, vicechair of the concert and session sing
“Both.” Laura smiled at Helen. ers’ committee, said: “What people forget is the amount of noise that you
“D’you mean he wrote that stuff, then conducted it?” Christopher have to sing above.” (Ferriman)
towered over Laura. “You do find yourself the most curious boyfriends.”
(Wesley) 3.3. Gerundial phrases used in objective, attributive
and adverbial functions
3.2. Translate into Russian paying attention to the emphasis
expressed by WHAT-clauses 1. […] it can often be quite embarrassing to be alone in the company of
someone you are not acquainted with and not speak to them. If no conver
1. Defoe’s work is characterized by an intensively concrete imagina sation takes place the atmosphere can become rather strained. However,
tion, and a remarkable aptitude for manipulating detail. What makes “Rob by talking to the other person about some neutral topic like the weather, it
inson Crusoe” so remarkable a book is the fine touch of precision which is possible to strike up a relationship with him without actually having to
he imparts to the story by his clear, matteroffact manner. (Primer) say very much. (Trudgill)
2. James shared characteristics with these writers. But what is distinc 2. These two aspects of language behaviour are very important from a
tive about his work is the extent to which it is concerned with reflections social point of view: first, the function of language in establishing social
on events rather than with the events themselves. (Greene) relationships; and, second, the role played by language in conveying infor
3. Ryokan means inn in Japanese, and they are all over the country, as mation about the speaker. (Trudgill)
variable in quality and price (dinner and breakfast are always included) as 3. Definitions in this dictionary are adapted to the nature of the word.
hotels anywhere. What differs is the degree of service, the setting and the Any effort to tailor all words to fit a rigid pattern of definition would result
food. (Drummond) in distortion rather than classification of meaning. Instead of following a
4. No doubt it would all have been a nightmare to anyone with any standard formula for defining, the editors have constantly kept in mind
understanding of architecture; but I didn’t look at it aesthetically […] What the need to study the meanings of words in phrases, compounds, and sen
pleased me about Eagle Road was the clean paintwork and stonework, the tences. (Funk and Wagnalls)
garage for each house, the taste of prosperity as smooth and nourishing as 4. She [Miss Elizabeth] ate better, though in truth better did not mean
eggnog. (Braine) a great deal more substantially, only that she managed a whole boiled egg
5. “You see, I’ve lost touch with all my friends and relations at home instead of a spoonful of the yolk, and did not send away the mutton with
and the same thing has happened to her. What I’m worried about is if I out toying with it instead of shuddering and averting her eyes.
should have an operation and anything should happen to me.” (Bromfield) Wilson felt a great sense of pride, feeling that it could not be denied
6. “I can’t think of Elizabeth being left out here all alone. She’s so she had a part in this happy improvement. Success made her a little bolder
nervous and flighty. You see, what I wanted to ask you about was finding and in becoming bolder she was astonished to be approved of. (Forster)
18 19
5. “What the dickens is that thing?” I went closer to inspect it: a branch 4. In 1648 there was a mutiny in the Downs fleet and Royalist risings in
of something a foot long, with a dozen twigs in it, […] there on top of the Kent and Essex […] It was a siege of skirmishes. The besiegers were ha
low cabinet in a vase of water. Fritz said he didn’t know what it was; that rassed not only from the other two castles but also from landing parties
Fred Durkin had brought it and Wolfe had put it in the vase, with some from the fleet. (Saunders)
remark about ripening seeds. “Oh,” I said, “then it must be a clue. Fred’s 5. The most memorable visit was undoubtedly that of Queen Victo
a wonder for collecting clues.” (Stout) ria and Prince Albert in the autumn of 1842. The Queen and the Prince
6. It is not surprising that this vitality is reflected in the diversity of could walk on the beach without attracting too many sightseers. Not
activities which contribute to making life in Bristol so rewarding. With its that their stay passed unnoticed. The local boatmen arranged an as
Cathedral and University, theatres and concert halls there is a wide range sembly of about fifty luggers which were launched simultaneously while
of cultural activities. (Burton) the royal party watched them from the ramparts. One of the party, Lady
7. We all know the tendency to go to sleep in lectures; how often have Lyttelton, has charmingly described the domestic scene in this “marine
I felt ashamed at doing so myself. Though the best lecturer can never en residence”. (Saunders)
tirely escape from producing this effect, there is much that can be done to 6. The following chapters include many instances of the thwarting of
minimize it. (Bragg) communication primarily because neither of the parties was aware that
8. Thomas, who had laid down his pen, picked it up again. He said, each inhabits a different perceptual world. Each was also interpreting the
“I don’t see any problem, we might just create one by interfering.” other’s spoken words in a context that included both behaviour and set
(Murdoch) ting, with a result that positive reinforcement of friendly overtures was of
9. And his father said that it would be very interesting to meet some ten random or even absent. (Hall)
one who taught in that school because he had known a lot of people in 7. The whiteness left her face and she hesitated for a moment. Then
his time who had been there and they were all united in never having a she said, “Yes, that would be very nice. And then perhaps we could give a
good word to say for it but having done extremely well as a result of being party too at home. I think that would make Elizabeth quite happy. For
there. (Binchy) years she’s wanted people to see the house and how very attractive she’s
10. “I must ask you to excuse me for keeping you waiting,” she said. “I made it.” (Bromfield)
did not expect you and I was occupied.” “Forgive me for troubling you. I 8. Claud noticed that as she weighed the carrots or potatoes she smiled
am afraid I have come at an inconvenient time.” (Maugham) into the eyes of her customer while a straying finger depressed the scale
just a little, just enough, he calculated with respect, to make a considerable
3.4. PARTY increase in her profit. He wondered whether large and burly Brian was
party to this trick. (Wesley)
1. I said I would have no communication with either of the Opposi
tion Parties until I had the King’s Commission to form a Government.
(Churchill)
2. A party began in the English patient’s room when Caravaggio re UNIT 4
vealed the gramophone he had found somewhere.
“I will use it to teach you to dance, Hana.” (Ondaatje) WINDSOR CASTLE
3. No documentary evidence has survived, but it is hard not to believe
that Mr Crusoe was one of that “concourse of curious people” who visited by Geoffrey Hindley
Mr Gulliver’s house at Rotherhithe in or about the year 1715. The two
greatest travellers of the age must surely have met somewhere, and The chief residence of the English royal house and the largest inhabited
Mr Crusoe, though well on in his eighties, was not the kind of man to miss castle in the world, Windsor Castle stands on a low hill on the south bank of
any chance of investigating a marvel. Yet the meeting can hardly have been the Thames with the shops and houses of the town of Windsor coming up to
satisfactory to either party. the gates. Away to the south stretches Windsor Great Park, reached from the
[…] It may be for this reason that the meeting passed unrecorded, that castle by the Long Walk; to the east, Home Park runs down to the river. The
both parties preferred to be silent about a total failure to establish contact calm and elegant beauty of the setting, and the markedly residential charac
on any common basis of experience. For certain it is that no two men, so ter of the Castle today, tend to obscure the natural strength of the site so that,
superficially similar, can have travelled the earth at roughly the same time in spite of the mighty curtain wall and its towers, the visitor may be tempted
and discovered two earths so entirely different. (Morton) to forget the original purpose of the place and to think only of the chivalry
20 21
and pomp of its later history. And yet, apart from the Tower of London, this Salisbury, Garter and Curfew Towers of the southwest wall are the princi
was the main stronghold of the first Norman kings of England. pal structures surviving from this period. The conical roof on Curfew Tow
The first castle on the site was built by William the Conqueror, pro er was added in the 1860s, though possibly all three were originally covered
bably about 1070, as part of his programme of consolidation of the victory in this way. Henry also built a Chapel to St Edward the Confessor, later
at Hastings some four years before. The castles of the invaders were soon demolished, and, with other work, completed the transformation of Wind
springing up in every English shire; Windsor was built to defend the ap sor into a palace — late in the 13th century a chronicler described it as the
proach to the capital down the Thames Valley. The site was protected to most magnificent in Europe.
the north by the river and by the sharp slope of its hill, and was little more
than a good day’s march from London.
King William’s castle was of the motte and bailey type, the natural
strength of the site being reinforced by the great earth mound or “motte”
PRACTICE SECTION
above which rose a wooden tower. Most of the Normans’ immediate post 4.1. Read the following proper names and comment on their
conquest castles were of this type, since it was quick and simple to erect translation
and offered adequate security against the disorganized and demoralized
local opposition which was all the conquerors anticipated. Today, de William the Conqueror, King Stephen, Matilda, King Henry II, King
spite centuries of development, the fortresspalace still centres on the Richard I, King John, Edward the Confessor;
original primitive mound, though the Round Tower which now surmounts Windsor, London, Hastings, the Thames, Salisbury, Europe;
it is characterized by Georgian Gothic of the early 19th century. Norman, Georgian; Windsor Castle, the Tower of London.
***
The Norman Kings. The original wooden tower and its motte were pro 4.2. Point out the terms relating to military history and
tected by three outer wards, or courtyards, divided from one another by architecture. Comment on their translation. Find words in the
ditch and rampart as added obstacles to an attacker. There were to be no text which could be regarded as false friends of the translator
major changes at Windsor for the next 80 years, nor was the military histo 4.3. Participial construction with the preposition WITH
ry of the place particularly memorable. The desultory, if vicious campaigns
between King Stephen and Matilda produced anarchy in England but large 1. […] Windsor Castle stands on a low hill on the south bank of the
ly passed Windsor by. Then, in 1154, Matilda’s son ascended the throne as Thames with the shops and houses of the town of Windsor coming up to
King Henry II. Henry’s most pressing problem was to restore royal au the gates. (Hindley)
thority against powerful barons in scores of unauthorized or “adulterine” 2. For the first time people began to see nature for itself, instead of
castles. Henry ordered the destruction of these strongholds and strength how it might be tailored to serve human purpose. Love of the wild fared
ened the royal seats of power. During his reign (1154–1189), the wooden especially well in the cities, with New York and San Francisco setting aside
fortifications at Windsor were replaced by a stone tower and stone walls. parks as green hearts for the urban streets and buildings soon to come.
Of these, only the lower masonry courses of the tower, providing the basis (Yellowstone National Park)
for the Round Tower, survive. The apartments built for Henry in the Up 3. The rain had stopped for a moment as he drove across the square by
per and Lower Wards have long since disappeared. the cinema, and the whole place came suddenly to life, with people rush
Perhaps the greatest of all England’s kings, Henry brought justice and ing out of shops and houses to take advantage of the respite — servants on
peace to the troubled kingdom, but his firm rule provoked growing discon errands, women bound for the bazaar, merchants bartering, washerwomen
tent among the barons, which grew into fullscale rebellion when his young hurrying to the great tank. (Bromfield)
er son John (1199–1216) continued the rigorous regime of his father with 4. The three ballets made a good programme. “Rite” is clearly a ma
out the ability to retain the loyalty of the great men. It was at this time that jor work. Massine staged it again in Philadelphia in 1930 with Martha
Windsor withstood the only two sieges of its history. The first was in 1193 Graham dancing the central role of the Chosen Maiden. What would we
when John took and garrisoned the place during the absence of his brother not give to see that? (Dromgoole)
Richard I on crusade, and the second in 1215 when John’s castellan was 5. The Lebanese, I found, cherish this heritage. Many speak of them
besieged — unsuccessfully — by the rebellious barons. selves not as Arabs or Moslems or Christians or even Lebanese, but, with
Like his father, Henry III was faced with civil war, and the next stage of emphatic pride, as Phoenicians. With their civilisation flourishing along
the fortifications at Windsor went up during his reign (1216–1272). The the coastal strip of Lebanon, the Phoenicians by the ninth century B. C.
22 23
had established colonies in the western Mediterranean; Carthage was the representative. They are a mine of information, if somewhat longwinded,
most famous. (National Geographic) concerning Edwardian London. (Habsburg)
6. With industry becoming more and more concentrated into large 6. By 1914 the British upper classes had undergone a significant trans
companies or wealthy family firms, and with an economy in which prices formation. The old nobility retained their social prestige, but they had been
were rising so quickly that by 1911 the real value of wages was falling, both joined by the new wealth of industry and commerce. An aristocracy of
the wellpaid and the poorlypaid became concerned to protect their in land was now an aristocracy of wealth. In the fashionable world of upper
terests. (Stevenson) class society, ancient names like the Cecils, Cavendishes and Churchills
7. Rearmament from the mid1930s ensured a fresh flow of orders, rubbed shoulders, if not always comfortably, with Harmsworths, Cham
particularly for the aircraft industry, with cities such as Coventry and Bris berlains and Rothschilds. (Stevenson)
tol becoming major centres of production. (Stevenson) 7. Most strikingly of all, the first wave of patriotism pushed to one side —
8. Just over two years ago Diane Hughes wanted to return to work. if only for a time — the divisive issues which had preoccupied the country
With her children growing up there was less need for her to be present 24 in the weeks before the declaration of war. (Stevenson)
hours a day. The problem was that in Menai Bridge, her home, there was 8. A subsequent assault on Luton police station was ended only by a
no nursery, and no nursery meant no return to work. Mrs Hughes was not baton charge which caused a hundred casualties. Shops were broken into
one to sit back and accept the inevitable, though. She set up her own nurs and looted, so that troops with fixed bayonets had to patrol the streets.
ery and within 18 months it was full. (Financial Times) Similar, if less serious, disturbances clustering around the Peace Day
9. Meanwhile, India’s tea output in the first seven months of the year celebrations occurred in Wolverhampton, Salisbury, Epsom, Coventry,
declined by nearly 28m kg to 326m kg. With high temperatures slowing Swindon and elsewhere. (Stevenson)
down tea plucking in Assam and West Bengal, this year’s tea crop could be 9. They were Yorkshire women and to an outsider their voices would
as low as 690m kg. (Financial Times) have sounded predominantly Yorkshire. But as wives of grammar school
10. However, after the decline of shipping during this century, commerce masters they belonged to the professional middleclass, if to the less well
and industry superseded and the docks declined until very recently when paid end of it. (Hoggart)
Bristol once more acknowledged the value of its waterways. Large areas of 10. AustenLeigh’s own comment probably had its origins in a letter he
the waterfront are now open to the public with exhibitions, boatshows, old had received from his aunt in December 1816, in which she made the flat
barges and threemasters and Brunel’s beautiful old ironhulled steam tering, if teasing, contrast between his “strong, manly sketches” and her
ship the SS “Great Britain” all attracting much interest. (Burton) own “little bit (two Inches wide) of Ivory”. (Stafford)
11. Lascelles’s elegant, if sometimes donnish, analysis is also alert to
4.4. Translate into Russian paying special attention both Austen’s debts and the ways in which she ironized or excelled her
to the semantic relation expressed by IF/IF ONLY favourite authors. (Stafford)
12. The very list of her [Jane Austen’s] admirers — Scott, Coleridge,
1. The desultory, if vicious, campaigns between King Stephen and Sheridan, Tennyson,[…] Trollope, James, Forster, Woolfe, Warton, Ches
Matilda produced anarchy in England but largely passed Windsor by. terton, Kipling, Auden, Lodge, Drabble — is quite enough to provoke a
(Hindley) perverse need to find fault, if only to say something different. (Stafford)
2. If Defoe was typically English and bourgeois, Swift was equally, if
less typically, Irish and aristocrat. (Morton) 4.5. ORIGINAL
3. With the increasing number of translator and reviser teams for doc
uments and glossaries, the formulation of some translation theory, if only 1. Lowes Dickinson was neither a great writer nor a profound and orig
as a frame of reference, becomes necessary. The need is reinforced by the inal thinker, nor yet a man who made such stir in the world, and yet it is
proliferation of terms of art, in particular of technological terms […] and just and right that he should be remembered and honoured, for he was a
by the desire to standardize the terminology, intra and interlingually. social portent of the most unmistakable kind, and his passing marked the
(Newmark) end of an age. (Morton)
4. Now that accurate translation has become generally politically im 2. The book contained almost a thousand illustrated drawings of objets
portant, the need to investigate the subject is urgent, if only to agree on d’ art et de fantasie, from eggs to jewellery, made between 1911 and 1916 in
general principles. (Newmark) his workshop at the House of Faberge […]. The artists also varied in skill […].
5. Another source of information concerning the London branch of During 1913 and 1916 the job was obviously taken over by someone with
Faberge is the chatty reminiscences of Henry Bainbridge, Faberge’s local less interest and talent. Perhaps by that time the book had lost its original
24 25
purpose and had been superseded by another system in the workshop. ume, of its disintegration. Take it for all in all, the history of the Forsytes is
(TillanderGodenhielm) a true picture of a class, of a remarkable class which in its day built up the
3. Haikonen recalls that engraving decorations was a slow process, and most ruthless imperialist system in the world, which dominated and hated,
that once, in 1917, he spent two months working on a particularly elabo and was hated by, the rest of the world.
rate design. Fortunately, he kept the design, which is still in his family, and “Damned foreigners” is Soames Forsyte’s comment on those not for
by a lucky coincidence the original cigarette case has also been discovered. tunate enough to be born in the purple of the British citizenship, and for
(TillanderGodenhielm) Soames, we might add, the only British citizenship which counted was
4. The Easter eggs aptly demonstrate Faberge’s ability to interpret, membership of a wealthy and respectable family like his own. Although he
adapt, and transform historic styles into original works of art with an add never in so many words expressed it, damned foreigners also were the mass
ed dimension. More often than not, the eggs were associated with surpris of his men who created his wealth. Only to his own parasitic body of ser
es contained within their shells. (Aiken) vants, the gardener, the chauffeur, the butler, did he grant a certain mea
5. […] as Victor Champier observed, “It is not so much in jewellery sure, a very tiny measure of common humanity.
strictly speaking, in the diadems, sparkling and lavish, in the stomachers For the rest, the chauffeur was usually “that fellow Riggs”, the garden
and symbolic pendants that Faberge shows the original talent of an inno er he supposed “did work some time or other; in the small hours perhaps —
vator. It is mainly in his jewels of a more special nature, which are less precious small hours!” and the butler was “this butler chap.”
made for personal adornment, and more for an intimate use, that he shows During the General Strike Soames made them all enlist as “Specials”.
the rarest qualities of the inventor.” (Aiken) During the strike also Soames and all his kind, even the most muddlehead
6. “The Three Castles which keep the Downs”, Deal, Walmer and San ed and sentimental of his kin, like his insufferable soninlaw, Michael Mont,
down, were built by Henry VIII in 1539–1540 to protect the anchorage declared quite openly that the mass of their fellowcountrymen were only
within the Goodwin Sands. Little of seaeroded Sandown remains today. “damned foreigners”.
It is Deal and Walmer which have retained much of their original form Before then they had hardly been conscious of them at all, save as a
and, by being garrisoned and inhabited for many years, have kept a sense hobby when they had nothing else on hand, when they went in for slum
of historical continuity. (Saunders) ming or chickenraising for the unemployed.
7. English is not the original language of England but, like the English But the General Strike, with which “Swan Song” opens, made them
people themselves, came over from the continent of Europe. (Alexander) conscious enough. Then they were “England”, defending the country, full
8. She was grudgingly grateful to Laura for suggesting the [market] stall; of glorious memories of 1914. The others, the millions of strikers and their
neither Claud nor herself would have had such a simple and original idea. families, are “they”, a vague, unknown and hostile force, the enemy to be
(Wesley) fought as the Germans were fought. Soames and his friends on the other
9. The adjectives “grand” / “wonderful” or “awful” / “terrible” are hand, are “we”. “They say we can’t organize!” young Mont observes, going
frequently used as labels which merely register approval or disapproval and to Hyde Park the day after the strike began. “Can’t we just — after the event!”
no longer carry their original significance. (Alexander)

PRACTICE SECTION
UNIT 5 5.1. Translate into Russian paying special attention
to prepositional phrases with more than one preposition
SWAN SONG and a single noun complement
by Ralph Fox 1. Take it for all in all, the history of the Forsytes is a true picture of a
class, of a remarkable class which in its day built up the most ruthless im
“Swan Song” of many things. Of the Forsyte family, of British Imperi perialist system in the world, which dominated and hated, and was hated
alism, and lastly of John Galsworthy, the writer who has spent his life in by, the rest of the world. (Fox)
observing the ruling class of his country and setting down what one might 2. In her nineties, Mrs Stevens had not spoken a word in years. She sat
fairly call “the Middle Class Scene”. All those who read novels have read alone most of the day, her head bent nearly to her lap. Everything had been
the “Forsyte Saga”, that immense history of a middleclass family, its rise, done for, not with, her. All her sense of personal worth had long since slipped
and, finally, in this second trilogy, of which “Swan Song” is the last vol down the drain. (LittelFox)
26 27
3. […] I glanced out the window while I raced down the hall. There in tribulations […]. It is therefore in this spirit that I offer my introduction to,
the sky were myriads of stars fairly blazing with energy, a beautiful sight. or reminder of, a tour of some of the most important places and stories of
I stopped a moment, to marvel, and as I did, my thoughts fell on old the land which has inspired poets, playwrights and historians throughout
Mr Crowell in Room 79. There he lay, sound asleep, lights out as always the centuries. (Nagley)
by 8 p.m. I recalled how more than once he had tried to share with us his
fascination with, and knowledge of, the stars, but our response had been 5.2. Translate into Russian paying special attention
merely, “How nice!” (LittelFox) to the infinitival phrases used attributively
4. So I sold some of my books to raise a little money, was taken on
board privately, and as we had a fair wind, in three days I found myself in 1. The others, the millions of strikers and their families, are “they”, a
New York, near 300 miles from home, a boy of but seventeen, without the vague, unknown and hostile force, the enemy to be fought as the Germans
least recommendation to, or knowledge of, any person in the place, and were fought. (Fox)
with very little money in my pocket. (Franklin) 2. To assess the true wealth of a nation, one does not call in an accoun
5. In cases of the second type — and these are in many ways more tant; rather, one should consult the archeologist and the antiquarian, the
interesting — the separate identity of ethnic groups is signalled, not by Finder and the Keeper. For the real resources of a nation are its people;
different languages, but by different varieties of the same language. Dif and the story of that people is uttered through what they have left of them
ferences of this type may originate in or at least be perpetuated by the selves to posterity, the material of their culture, to be unearthed by the
same sorts of mechanisms as are involved in the maintenance of social archeologist, and cherished by the antiquarian, and illuminated by the
class dialects […] (Trudgill) scholar. (Magnusson)
6. We can learn from a study of this material some of the dominant 3. The Industrial Museum of Scotland reflected the will of govern
trends in everyday speech. Such information should be of interest to the ment, following the Great Exhibition of 1851, to expand education and to
speechreformer […]; it is of little use attempting to impose on a commu promote information about manufacturing processes. (Anderson)
nity a new type of speech unrelated or in opposition to that which already 4. The National Museums of Scotland have the finest and most exten
exists. (Alexander) sive collections of Scottish material in existence. These collections form a
7. Most of us have to allocate our time to, and focus our attention on, marvellous treasury of Scotland’s past, to be held in trust for the future.
our studies in the face of competing and conflicting interests from many (Anderson)
different directions. The good student, in fact, may be said to be the one 5. Franz Boas was the first anthropologist to emphasize the relation
who recognizes the existence of these competing interests, and who has ship between language and culture. He did this in the most simple and
the good judgement and the strength of mind to assess their degree of pri obvious way, by analyzing the lexicon of two languages, revealing the dis
ority in his scheme of things […] (Author unknown) tinctions made by people of different cultures. (Hall)
8. In terms of geographical coverage, this book is primarily a social his 6. A most important point to remember is this: modern man is forever
tory of mainland Britain rather than of the United Kingdom of Great Brit barred from the full experience of the many sensory worlds of his ancestors.
ain and Northern Ireland. Where relevant, however, I have attempted to These worlds were inevitably integrated and deeply rooted in organized con
indicate some of the principal areas in which Ulster shared in, differed from texts which could be fully understood only by the people of the times. (Hall)
or impinged upon the experience of Great Britain as a whole. (Stevenson) 7. Before leaving these features of English, there is one point to be
9. The study of grammar has taken a quantum step in the last ten years emphasized, even at the risk of being accused of propaganda. It is often
so that, to a degree, all grammars have suffered some obsolescence. There maintained that the elaborate grammatical apparatus of French and Ger
fore, it has been necessary to revise the grammar sections of this handbook man, and still more of Latin and Greek, makes these languages supremely
in order to exploit new interest in and insight into syntax and to reaffirm logical and therefore superior to a less complex language like our own.
the close connection between the good analysis of structure and the writ This view is difficult to accept. (Alexander)
ing of good prose. (Hopper) 8. The term “dialect” is a familiar one and most people will think that
10. Secondly, it seems that workingclass speech, like certain other as they have a good idea of what it means. In fact, though, it is not a partic
pects of workingclass culture in our society, has connotations of or associ ularly easy term to define — and this also goes for the two other commonly
ations with masculinity, which may lead men to be more favourably dis used terms which we have already mentioned, “language” and “accent”.
posed to nonstandard linguistic forms than women. (Trudgill) (Trudgill)
11. To the ancient peoples who inhabited the Greek world, their gods 9. The defences built by Henry VIII were not the first to be designed
provided an explanation for, and gave order to their lives, with its trials and with artillery as the dominant weapon in mind. Henry’s castles, however,
28 29
were the first artillery fortifications in England to escape from the older con that were important to the Imperial Family. Some surprises are displayed
ventions of castle building. In this sense they were revolutionary. (Saunders) through the transparent shells of the eggs in which they are contained.
10. The three castles had been in Parliamentary hands at the start of the (Aiken)
Civil War but now Sandown declared for the King along with the fleet and 5. When I was strong enough, therefore, I sold most of my possessions,
Deal and Walmer capitulated to the Royalists soon afterwards. The Ken packed up the rest — there was precious little to show for the past twenty
tish revolt was quickly put down and the castles were the last fortified plac years — and booked my passage. (Hill)
es to hold out. Colonel Rich with 2000 foot and a few horse set out to 6. My relative had had precious few personal belongings; her clothes
relieve Dover Castle and then moved on to the Downs. Unfortunately he and linen were in the bedroom in which I had seen her body, together with
had no artillery to speak of. (Saunders) a few trinkets and books. Otherwise she had left no trace of herself; it was
11. All now was hurry and bustle. The meetings of acquaintances — almost as though she had lived as a caretaker of the place and made no
the greetings of friends — the consultations of men of business. I alone impress of herself upon it. (Hill)
was solitary and idle. I had no friends to meet, no cheering to receive. I 7. “Meanwhile John Cumnor will bombard me with letters addressed,
stepped upon the land of my forefathers — but felt that I was a stranger in in my feigned name, to the care of the padrona.”
the land. (Irving) “She’ll recognize his hand,” my companion suggested.
12. Working conditions were terrible. Hours on weekdays were from “On the envelope he can disguise it.”
9 a.m. till 6 p. m. and on Saturdays from 9 a.m. till 1 p.m. If the hours were “Well, you’re a precious pair! Doesn’t it occur to you that even if you’re
long, the money was short. Time was a luxury not to be squandered in able to say you’re not Mr Cumnor in person they may still suspect you of
young Irene’s day. (Road) being his emissary?” (James)
13. Wilderness had carried a largely negative meaning during the
centuries of America’s colonization and early development; it was un
tamed land to fear, to conquer, or in places simply wasteland to shun.
(Yellowstone) UNIT 6
14. Within a hundred years, however, Phoenicia was conquered by the
Assyrians, and the march of the invading armies started. Next came the THE STRUCTURAL APPROACH
Babylonians, followed by the Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzan
tines, Arab caliphs, Crusaders, Egyptian Mamelukes, and Ottoman Turks. by J. Lyons
The Romans, more than all the others, erected structures to match the
beauty of the land. At Beirut they established a law school to rival those in The most characteristic feature of modern linguistics — one which it
Athens and Alexandria, and the city became known as the “Nurse of Laws”. shares with a number of other sciences — is “structuralism” (to use the
(National Geographic) label which is commonly applied, often pejoratively). Briefly, this means
that each language is regarded as a system of relations (more precisely, a
5.3. PRECIOUS set of interrelated systems), the elements of which — sounds, words,
etc. — have no validity independently of the relations of equivalence and
1. […] the gardener he supposed “did work some time or other; in the contrast which hold between them. (The reader may well have observed
small hours perhaps — precious small hours!” and the butler was “this but that the key terms “system” and “relation” have already been used in the
ler chap”. (Fox) discussion of de Saussure’s distinction of the synchronic and diachronic.
2. During the early voyages succeeding the discovery of America, pre In fact, de Saussure drew this distinction as a consequence of his convic
cious metals and stones were the temptation for the explorers and their tion that every language, at a given time, constitutes an integrated sys
high commands, not animal treasures. So only slight mention is made of tem of relationships).
the wild life of newly discovered lands. (Benchley) The more particular implications of structuralism may be left for the
3. In the ballads we can see, if we will, both the special conditions following chapter. Here it is sufficient to remark that there is no conflict
which created them, and also that which is permanent and unchanging between the peculiarly abstract approach to the study of language, which
and peculiarly precious in men, their will to endure and to contend with is characteristic of modern, “structural” linguistics, and more “practical”
their environment […] . (Morton) approaches. However abstract, or “formal”, modern linguistic theory might
4. Among the surprises [in Easter eggs] are miniature models in pre be, it has been developed to account for the way people actually use lan
cious materials, pieces of jewellery, and images of people, places, and events guage. It derives from, and it is validated or refuted by, empirical evidence.
30 31
In this respect linguistics is no different from any other science; and the remember this was a relatively new standpoint, land was property, simply
point would not be worth stressing, if it were not the case that some lin and absolutely. So naturally he regards himself as king, or, more properly,
guists, out of sympathy with current developments, have seen a necessary owner of this island, whether resident or no. (Morton)
opposition between what have been called “formalism” and “realism” in 5. A similar kind of substratum effect can be found in the English of
the study of language. Scotland. Most Scots today tend to think of themselves as simply “Scot
If we were to ask a nonlinguist what are the ultimate units of lan tish”, but historically speaking they represent descendants of two distinct
guage, the buildingblocks, so to speak, out of which utterances are con ethnic groups. To simplify things somewhat, we can say that Highland Scots
structed, he might well reply that the ultimate units of language are sounds were Gaels, and spoke Gaelic (as many of them still do in the West High
and words. He might add that words are made up of sequences of sounds, lands and on the islands of the Hebrides), while Lowland Scots were En
each sound being represented, ideally, by a particular letter of the alphabet glish speakers. (Trudgill)
(in case of languages customarily represented by a system of alphabetic 6. Language, he [Whorf] said, is more than just a medium for ex
writing); and that, whereas the words of a language have a meaning, the pressing thought. It is, in fact, a major element in the formation of
sounds do not (their sole function being to form words). thought. Furthermore, to use a figure from our own day, man’s very per
ception of the world about him is programmed by the language he speaks,
just as a computer is programmed. Like the computer, man’s mind will
PRACTICE SECTION register and structure external reality only in accordance with the pro
gram. (Hall)
6.1. Point out linguistic terms as well as words and phrases 7. In normal educated speech there is often a mixture: mainly collo
typical of scientific discourse in general. quial Arabic, but with an admixture of classical elements […]. To give some
Comment on their translation idea of the nature of the linguistic differences involved, we can cite the
following examples of some of the contrasts that occurred in a short para
6.2. Translate the following, paying special attention graph of a book written in classical Arabic, together with the colloquial
to the Russian equivalents of the infinitival phrases Egyptian equivalents. (Trudgill)
used parenthetically
1. The most characteristic feature of modern linguistics […] is “struc 6.3. Translate the following sentences paying special
turalism” (to use the label which is commonly applied, often perjorative attention to the choice of Russian equivalents
ly). (Lyons) of the adverbs in bold type
2. Practically every aspect of the alternative culture is now to be found
in Totnes and surrounding areas. Notice boards in the health food shops 1. Environmentally , although there have been important gains in se
are covered with information on groups and therapists for all aspects of lected localities in reducing air pollution and cleaning up polluted rivers,
natural health, complementary medicine, yoga, dance, counselling and the deeper reality is one of growing ecological crisis. (Brown)
vegetarian cooking, to mention but a few. The town has three health food 2. The pursuit of diversion has spilled over into the news media so that
shops. (Utin) only news that fits a story pattern — with a beginning, a middle and an
3. To say it, then, as plainly as I can, this book is an inquiry into and end — is printed or aired. Most importantly , news must be entertaining in
a lamentation about the most significant American cultural fact of the order to draw and keep audience attention because entertaining news is
second half of the twentieth century: the decline of the Age of Typogra something audiences have come to demand. (Gabler)
phy and the ascendancy of the Age of Television. This changeover has 3. “If you value your life,” he said, “you will forget the Sleeping Beauty
dramatically and irreversibly shifted the content and meaning of public and return home.” The Prince, however, was valiant and decided to hack
discourse, since two media so vastly different cannot accomodate the his way through the thorns. Amazingly , no sooner had he drawn his sword
same ideas. As the influence of print wanes, the content of politics, than the thicket parted and a safe pathway opened up before him. (Sleep
religion, education, and anything else that comprises public business ing Beauty. Retold by J. Patience)
must change and be recast in terms that are most suitable to television. 4. At Walmer the lines of the old fortress have been softened by the
(Postman) formal gardens and longplanted trees which enclose it, by the windows
4. Crusoe is the essential bourgeois man, both on and off his island. To and new roof lines which have domesticated it. Internally the changes at
take one revealing example, his attitude to land. For him, and we must Walmer are even more pronounced. (Saunders)
32 33
5. Each successive generation behaves linguistically in a slightly differ substantial farmers it was more than tolerable. So that Defoe may well be
ent way from its predecessors […]. In this respect language is a little like excused a certain smugness as he travelled up and down the country not
fashions in men’s dress. The informal clothes of the one generation be ing the growth of towns and the well tilled fields, the new houses and work
come the every day wear of the next, and just as young doctors and bank shops rising everywhere, the yearly increasing fleets leaving the harbours.
clerks nowadays go about their business in sportsjackets, so they allow (Morton)
into their normal vocabulary various expressions which were once confined 3. When government crews arrived on Florida shores to build House of
to slang and familiar expressions. (Foster) Refuge № 3, they found a large grove of sour oranges that appeared to have
6. Japan’s strangeness doesn’t hit you in the eye: it’s tucked away in existed well before their arrival. (Delray)
hidden corners and takes burrowing into. At first sight it appears overwhelm 4. With the settlement of Linton well underway, William Linton re
ingly westernized, technologically light years ahead of the rest of us, fa turned to Saginaw, leaving the settlement bearing his name and a lake named
mously efficient, an industrial nation of workaholics and brilliant copyists. “Ida”, after his wife. (Delray)
(Drummond) 5. Not that a problem of modern usage can be settled altogether by
7. A national park was a new concept at the time, although some an appeal to the past; it does not follow that because a certain form of
ninety nations now have parks patterned at least partly after Yellow speech was current in earlier times it is therefore acceptable today —
stone […] More truthfully, the concept was new in the hearts of the we might as well suggest that, because in Queen Elizabeth’s time our
mainstream society, for those who walked the continent before the ar forefathers dressed in doublet and hose, we could wear the same garb
rival of European colonists had felt kinship with the whole of nature. without causing excitement and suspicion as to our mental condition.
(Yellowstone) (Alexander)
8. The third period, from the end of the Civil War in 1865 to the present 6. If I were you I’d leave well alone, Kitty. I don’t think any good
day, was marked ethnographically by the arrival of Scandinavians, Slavs will come of talking about what we should do much better to forget.
and Italians. (Potter) (Maugham)
9. Oddities in nature often diminish into mere sideshows as human 7. In addition we have a library of well over 2,000 books, tapes and
familiarity lessens awe. Yet the thermal activity of Yellowstone is ex periodicals on all these therapies as well as most aspects of human growth
ceedingly rare and highly valuable both esthetically and scientifically. and development and New Age Thought. (Tinson)
(Yellowstone) 8. And sitting here I can almost see the spire of St Luke’s church, which
10. Historically speaking, the standard language developed out of the was not so far from the school. Which is why I can say that I am back full
English dialects used in and around London as these were modified circle. For this was my area, my manor, if you like. I knew it, and loved it,
through the centuries by speakers at the court, by scholars from the well. (Bogarde)
universities and other writers, and, later on, by the public schools. 9. “I just can’t believe bumping into you like that! So weird! When was
(Trudgill) the last time? At Ruthie’s place in Doheney? Aeons ago. My, how time
11. Taboo can be characterized as being concerned with behaviour which flies. And here I am in Europe again! Can you believe? You haven’t changed.
is believed to be supernaturally forbidden, or regarded as immoral or im Really. Well, we all get old, inevitably, but you look just great. It suits you.”
proper; it deals with behaviour which is prohibited or inhibited in an ap (Bogarde)
parently irrational manner. (Trudgill) 10. “So you did not like it.”
12. Overall, the cost of living index fell by more than a third between “Not much. Well, not at all. I’m not up to this modern stuff.”
1920 and 1938 and, crucially, during the early thirties, prices fell faster “People said the same about Mozart […].” (Wesley)
than wages, with the result that real earnings rose. (Stevenson) 11. I was never any good at machines, certainly not the grasscutters
with which I had to deal: enormous red things with zigzag blades that
6.4. WELL belched and roared, had gears and exhausts, and tore away with me. I might
just as well have been driving again. It required all one’s strength to guide,
1. As time passed, the English used in the upper classes of society in control and hold them. (Bogarde)
the capital city came to diverge quite markedly from that used by other 12. Mrs Brown sighed. She sometimes wished it wasn’t quite so hard to
social groups and came to be regarded as the model for all those who wished tell what he [Paddington] was thinking.
to speak and write well. (Trudgill) “If you ask me,” said Mrs Bird, reading her thoughts, “it’s probably just
2. […] England at the beginning of the eighteenth century was in many as well. There’s no knowing what we might find out especially when it
ways a tolerable place to live in. For the merchants and manufacturers and comes to schoolbears!” (Bond)
34 35
UNIT 7 ***
Both Smyth and Sturdy take on the mythical as well as the historical
MEDIEVAL ALL-ROUNDER Alfred, and both discuss the best known myth of all — the cakes. Alfred,
by David Horspool on the run from the Vikings in Somerset, before he mastered his army for
the lastditch victory at Edington, took refuge with a swineherd, whose
wife scolded him for neglecting the burning loaves in the oven. Although
“King Alfred the Great” by Alfred P. Smyth. 744 pp. Oxford. David Sturdy airily proposes, in a book which is often a stodgy mixture of
“Alfred the Great” by David Sturdy. 268 pp. Constable. undigested source material and speculation, that the story “must be the
last echo of an incident from a great epic poem”, it is usually accepted as a
In 1899, a thousand years after Alfred the Great’s death, England was fable. Other stories, however, such as his winning a reading competition
in the grip of Alfred mania. Statues were erected, books written and Queen against his older brothers as a boy, have been more readily accepted. It is
Victoria and Prince Albert had even named their son after the heroking. their source, and the trustworthiness of it, which is the origin of a bitter
But the Victorians were not the originators of the Alfred myth. Nearly dispute surrounding Smyth’s book. These stories come from a “Life of
every passing century since 899 has seen another accretion to this leg King Alfred” reputedly written during his lifetime, in 893, by Bishop Asser
end, from the 11thcentury story of the cakes to the 18th century, when of Sherborne, which has been highly valued as a unique contemporary life
Thomas Arne’s opera, “Alfred: A Masque” (from which “Rule Britan of an AngloSaxon king. The occasionally vivid descriptions, such as that
nia” is taken), was first performed. It is only in our own time that Alfred of Alfred at the battle of Ashdown (871), “as I have heard from truthful
has become the almost exclusive property of historians and schoolchil authorities who saw it,” fighting off the enemy “like a wild boar”, are prized
dren. Following the first world war, Alfred’s Teutonic roots made him over the laconic entries of the “Chronicle”.
less palatable to the public. Smyth argues persuasively that Asser’s “Life” is an early 11thcentury
His namesake Alfred Smyth’s monumental and polemical biography forgery. His attack is based on a general distrust of the hagiographical scheme
demonstrates that not many of the facts behind the legend are uncontest of the work (which seems to bend the narrative to fit the framework of a
ed. But few dispute the core of Alfred’s story, as witnessed by the “Anglo secular saint’s life) and on Asser’s many errors and contradictions.
Saxon Chronicle” and Alfred’s own writings. Most crucially, he saw off a Smyth’s dismissal of Asser allows him to present a more convincing
Viking force which threatened to wipe out AngloSaxon rule in England. picture of an early medieval king. He rejects, for example, Asser’s descrip
By the time the Vikings turned their attentions to Wessex, Alfred’s home tion of Alfred as chronically ill, first with piles, and then with “another
land, while he was still a boy, they had killed the rulers of two of the three more severe illness” which was supposed to have plagued him all through
other major kingdoms in 9thcentury England: the King of Northumber the time when he was fighting like a wild boar against the Danes.
land was said to have had his corpse carved into the shape of an eagle, as a Smyth’s Alfred, moreover, not only fights the Danes, he negotiates
sacrifice to Odin. So it seems reasonable to assume that Alfred was fighting with them; even after the victory at Edington, Smyth argues, Alfred is like
for his physical as well as his political survival when, as King, he at last won ly to have paid off a largely intact Viking force. And as well as being a
a convincing victory at Edington in 878. spreader of the Christian message, he was willing to profit from the devas
When the fighting let up, Alfred turned from general to headmaster. tation wreaked on the Church by the Viking invasions. One monastery
His national curriculum consisted of those Latin works “which it is most remembered him not as a holy man but as a Judas who stole their lands.
necessary for men to know”, both religious and secular, translated into This Alfred is a medieval “allrounder” but he is particularly admired as a
English, four of them by Alfred himself. As the youngest of five sons, scholarmonarch. Smyth’s detailed and pugnaciously argued book shows
Alfred can never have expected to inherit the crown of Wessex, despite the a conception of scholarship as a battlefield similar to the “killing grounds”
indications in the “Chronicle” that he was his father’s favourite. But he of the Viking wars. It is no wonder that for him, even if Alfred is no longer
took advantage of the bad luck of his older brothers by ensuring that his the saint in Asser, he remains “truly a great king”.
offspring were more likely to inherit than theirs. Largely as a result of these
precautions, it was under the House of Alfred that England was united.
This legacy must have played an important part in his appeal to the Victo PRACTICE SECTION
rians, who liked to think that the centre of their Empire had an ancient
pedigree. Despite its remoteness from his own life, the image of Alfred as a 7.1. Point out words in the text with a positive or negative
survivor of a larger nation than Wessex alone became a key element in the connotation which express the writer’s attitude to the books
Alfred myth. reviewed. Comment on their translation
36 37
7.2. Translate into Russian paying special attention They have difficult lives. When they go on tour they do a vast num
to the infinitival construction (nominative with infinitive) ber of concerts, sing in smokeladen places and then go off to the next
gig in an airconditioned bus or on a plane, both of which have low
1. But he took advantage of the bad luck of his older brothers by ensur humidity, which is damaging to the vocal chords. They are expected to
ing that his offspring were more likely to inherit than theirs. (Horspool) do threemonth tours, which no opera singer would ever consider do
2. The cathedral’s greatest treasure is on display in a special case in the ing. (Ferriman)
chapter house. It is an illuminated manuscript of the gospels, dating from 11. When she happened to feel ill no one could have been kinder or
about 730 and in the same tradition as the Book of Kells and the Lindis more thoughtful. She seemed to do him a favour when she gave him the
farne Gospels. How long it has been in Lichfield no one knows, but it had opportunity of doing something tiresome for her. (Maugham)
to be hidden away for safety in the Civil War. At some time early in its
history it was in Wales and a note on it is believed to contain the oldest 7.3. Nouns with the suffix -ER/-OR
surviving written words in the Welsh language. (Cavendish)
3. Almost every university originating before 1250 received its formal 1. Soames moved along Piccadilly deep in reflections excited by his
recognition in a papal bull. One of the reasons for this was that the Pope cousin’s words. He himself had always been a worker and a saver, George
was the only recognized international authority, and the universities were, always a drone and a spender; and yet, if confiscation once began, it was
from the start, quite cosmopolitan in their student population. […] Learn he — the worker and the saver — who would be looted. That was the nega
ing, at least, was recognized to have no territorial frontiers. Accordingly, tion of all virtue, the overturning of all Forsyte principles. (Galsworthy)
only the Pope could raise a centre of learning above provincial status. (Smith) 2. There was a time when the oppressive atmosphere hovering over the
4. There were repeated cheerings and salutations interchanged between place like a heavy fog took its toll in staffpatient morale; in recurring ill
the shore and the ship, as friends happened to recognize each other. (Irving) ness (psychosomatic and otherwise); and in staff turnover, that endless hir
5. At sea, everything that breaks the monotony of the surrounding ex ingfiringquitting marathon so crippling to the average nursing home. And
panse attracts attention. It proved to be the mast of a ship that must have the resident, bewildered by this whirling kaleidoscope of strange, unhappy
been completely wrecked […]. (Irving) faces, was the biggest loser. (LittelFox)
6. The global demand for food is expected to grow at least as fast as if 3. I took up exercise partly because my husband is dead keen, which
another Calcutta or Los Angeles were to appear on the planet every two made me feel I ought to do something, and partly because my doctor said
months for the next several decades. Yet the world’s capacity to increase aerobic exercise would alleviate the asthma I have suffered all my life […].
supply is approaching its limit. (Nelson) Exercise is also a great stress reliever. (Walker)
7. In the vocabulary exercises, the selected words are those which the 4. With corn, a greater tolerance for crowding enabled growers to in
average intermediate student is unlikely to have come across but which crease significantly the plant population — and hence the number of ears
have a certain frequency and are therefore of some practical value. This harvested — per hectare. (Brown)
does not always mean that they should become part of their active vocabu 5. In her prime Frieda Haxby Palmer had been good — uncomfortably
lary, but the students should at least add them to the stock of “passive” good, but nevertheless good — at the lifting of the veil. She had been a
words. (Walker) professional asker of unpleasant questions. She had been admired and in
8. Nearly a hundred years later Blake set out from there to fight de Witt deed honoured for this. (Drabble)
and a large Dutch fleet which was approaching the Thames Estuary. The 6. Frieda had been a grim worker all her life, and she had been held in
very closeness of this stretch of coast to France laid it open to invasion. grim combat by Gladys. In Gladys’s presence, Frieda was oddly subdued
After all, Walmer beach is said to have been Julius Caesar’s landing place […]. Gladys Haxby had been a schoolmistress, and in her demanding and
in 55 B. C. (Saunders) irksome company Frieda became once more a pupil, a listener, although
9. He [Isaac Newton] was, however, at home in Lincolnshire, the col she had nothing to learn and Gladys had nothing to say. Frieda, herself no
lege having closed during the Great Plague, when he is supposed to have mean talker, fell silent in her mother’s presence, as Gladys talked and talked
been inspired by a falling apple which led to his formulation of the law of and talked, of nothing. Of herself, of nothing. (Drabble)
gravity. A tree by the college gate is said to be a descendant of the famous 7. This painting is popularly known as “The Blue Lady”. One of the
tree. (Cambridge) milestones in the history of art, it was included in the first impressionist
10. Phil Collins’s problem is more likely to be overuse of his voice exhibition in 1874. The sitter was Henrietta Henriot, an actress of the Odeon
when younger. Most pop singers suffer from three things: lack of training, Theatre. However, the title “La Parisienne” suggests that the picture rep
overuse and abuse of the voice. resents a type rather than a particular individual. (Cardiff. Guidebook)
38 39