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ȂdzDzdzǾǮǹȊǻǼdz DZǼǿȁDzǮǾǿȀǰdzǻǻǼdz ǯȌDzǴdzȀǻǼdz


ȁȅǾdzǴDzdzǻǶdz ǻǮȁǸǶ

1 (73) ɹɧɜɚɪɶ-ɮɟɜɪɚɥɶ 2017 ɝ.

ȀǭǼ-ǸǭǬǨDzǺǶǸ
ȟȓ.-ȒȖȘȘ. ǸǨǵ Ǩȓ.Ǩ. ǫǸǶǴȃDzǶ

ǴǭǮǬǻǵǨǸǶǬǵȃDZ ǹǶǪǭǺ

ȽɊɂɇȻȿɊȽ Ɋ.ɋ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ), ȽɊɍɒɄɈ Ⱥ.ȼ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ),


ɀɍɊɄɂɇ ȼ.ȼ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ), ɄȺɊɊȿɊ Ⱦ’ȺɇɄɈɋ ɗɅȿɇ (Ɏɪɚɧɰɢɹ),
ɇȿɄɂɉȿɅɈȼ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ), ɇɂȼȺ ɀɈɊɀ (ɒɜɟɣɰɚɪɢɹ), ɊɈȽɈȼ ɋ.Ɇ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ),
ɋɂɆɈɇɂə ɇ.Ⱥ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ), ɎȺɊȺ ȾɀȺɇ ɆȺɊɂə (ɂɬɚɥɢɹ),
ɎɊȺɇɄ ɆȺɊɄɈ (Ȼɟɥɶɝɢɹ), ɑɍȻȺɊɖəɇ Ⱥ.Ɉ. (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ)

ǫdzǨǪǵȃDZ ǸǭǬǨDzǺǶǸ
Ǫ.ǰ. ǴǰǸǶǵǭǵDzǶ

ǯǨǴ. ǫdzǨǪǵǶǫǶ ǸǭǬǨDzǺǶǸǨ Ǹ.ǵ. dzǻǵDzǰǵ


ǸǭǬǨDzǺǶǸȃ Ȇ.Ƿ. ǩǶǫǬǨǵǶǪ, Ǻ.ǵ. ǹǺǭǷǨȀǰǵǨ

ǸǭǬǨDzǾǰǶǵǵǨȇ DzǶdzdzǭǫǰȇ

ȺɊȻȺɌɈȼ Ⱥ.Ƚ., ȺɅɅɂɋɈɇ Ɋ. (Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ), ȻȿɅɈȼ ȼ.Ȼ., ȻɈɊɄɈ ɘ.Ⱥ.,


ȻȿɊȽɆȺɇɇ ȼ. (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ), ȻɍɌɈɊɂɇȺ Ɉ.ȼ., ȼɈȾɈɉɖəɇɈȼȺ ȿ.ȼ.,
ȽɅɂɇɄɂɇȺ ɋ.ɉ., ȾȺɇɂɅɈȼ Ⱦ.Ⱥ., ɁɈɅɈɌȺɊȬȼ ɉ.ɋ., ɄȺȼȿɒɇɂɄɈȼ ɇ.ɘ.,
ɄɊȺɋɂɄɈȼ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɄɍȾɊɈȼ ȼ.Ɇ., ɆȺɋɅȿɇɇɂɄɈȼ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɇɈɋɈȼ Ɇ.Ƚ.,
ɉɈɌȿɆɄɂɇȺ Ɉ.ɘ., ɊɂɑɑȿɊɂ Ɇ. (ɂɬɚɥɢɹ), ɊɍȻɂɇɋɄɂɃ ɘ.ɂ., ɎȬȾɈɊɈȼ ȼ.ɉ.,
ɎɅɈȽȺɂɌɂɋ ɋ. (Ƚɪɟɰɢɹ), ɏȿɋɂɇ ȿ.ɋ., ɒȼȿɃɐȿɊ ȼ.ə., ɒɂɒȿɅɂɇȺ Ʌ.ɇ.

ɆɈɋɄȼȺ
ǹǶǬǭǸǮǨǵǰǭ

ɋɬɪ.
Ƚɪɨɦɵɤɨ Ⱥɥ.Ⱥ. Ɉ ɧɚɫɭɳɧɨɦ ……………………………..……………..……... 5
Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜ Ⱦ.Ⱥ. Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ȿɋ: ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɜɟɤɬɨɪ ………………. 10
Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ ɇ.ɘ. ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ:
ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ……………………………………… 22
ǭǪǸǶǷǭDZǹDzǰDZ ǷǸǶǾǭǹǹ: ǹǺǸǨǵȃ ǰ ǸǭǫǰǶǵȃ
ɒɟɪɟɦɟɬɶɟɜ Ⱦ.ȿ. ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ȿɋ ……………………….….. 32
Ⱥɧɞɪɟɟɜɚ Ɍ.ɇ. “Ⱦɟɥɨ Ʌɢɬɜɢɧɟɧɤɨ” ɜ ɛɪɢɬɚɧɨ-ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ….. 40
Ƚɪɢɛɨɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɋ. ȿɜɪɨɫɤɟɩɬɢɰɢɡɦ ɜ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɢ, Ⱥɜɫɬɪɢɢ ɢ ɒɜɟɣɰɚɪɢɢ ….. 48
ɑɟɬɜɟɪɢɤɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ɋ. ɑɟɲɫɤɨɟ ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ …………………………………………….. 56
ɐɜɵɤ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɪɚɜ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɝɟɪɦɚɧɨ-ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ……. 64
ǹǼǭǸǨ ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰDzǰ
ɏɟɫɢɧ ȿ.ɋ. Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨ-ɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɟ ɞɟɥɨɜɵɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ: ɩɨɞɴɺɦ
ɢ ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ ………………………………………………………. 72
ɇɟɜɫɤɚɹ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨ-ɧɢɞɟɪɥɚɧɞɫɤɢɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɯ
ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ …………………………………………………….. 84
Ⱥɪɛɭɡɨɜ ɋ.Ƚ. Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɢɫɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɢ ɢ ɭɝɪɨɡɵ
ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ………..………… 94
ǹǺǸǨǵǰǾȃ ǰǹǺǶǸǰǰ

Ʉɨɡɥɨɜɚ ɋ.ɘ. ɂɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹ ɷɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ


ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ………..…………………………. 104

ǨǵǨdzǰǺǰǿǭǹDzǰǭ ǯǨǷǰǹDzǰ

ɉɨɥɥɵɟɜɚ Ⱦ.Ɋ. ɉɨɫɬɩɪɚɜɞɚ: ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɨɬɜɟɬɨɜ …………….. 111


22 ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ

ɍȾɄ – 327
ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ ɄȺȼȿɒɇɂɄɈȼ

ɗɇȿɊȽȿɌɂɑȿɋɄȺə ȻȿɁɈɉȺɋɇɈɋɌɖ ȼ ɋɌɊȺɌȿȽɂɂ


ɆɈȽȿɊɂɇɂ: ȼɕȼɈȾɕ ȾɅə ɊɈɋɋɂɂ

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɢ-


ɬɢɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɨɸɡɚ (ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ), ɨɛɧɚɪɨɞɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɜ ɢɸɧɟ
2016 ɝ. ȼɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɨɬɪɚɠɺɧɧɨɦ ɜ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ ɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ௅ ȿɋ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ ɞɚɧɚ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
ɌɗɄ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ȼɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɬɪɟɧɞɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ȿɋ. ȼ ɬɪɟɬɶɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ȿɋ ɢ ɤɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɨɦ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɶ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ. ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ ɡɚɮɢɤ-
ɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɭɸ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ: ɩɪɟɠ-
ɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ, ɧɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ௅ ɞɟɲɺɜɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ, ɚ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ
ɨɬɨɲɥɚ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɬɢɣ ɩɥɚɧ. ȼ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɬ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɬɪɚɤɬɭɟɬ
ɧɚɞɺɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɞɟ-
ɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɟ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬ ɨ ɤɚɤɨɦ-ɥɢɛɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ,
ɱɬɨ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɫ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɦɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ȿɋ. ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɵ, Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɶ ɧɟ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧ ɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɢ
ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɟ ɫ Ɇɨɫɤɜɨɣ. ɉɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɤɟ ȿɋ ɩɨɡ-
ɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɞɢɤɬɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ. ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ game changer, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɣ ɩɵɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ “ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɹ” ɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɦɟɠɞɭ-
ɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɞɟɥɨɤ. ɉɨɩɵɬɤɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɢɬɶ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ “ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɪɨɞɚɜ-
ɰɚ” ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɜ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɫɨɸɡ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ, Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ
ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ, ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ,
ɷɧɟɪɝɨɞɢɚɥɨɝ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ௅ ȿɋ.

Ɉɛɧɚɪɨɞɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɜ ɢɸɧɟ 2016 ɝ. Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɨ-


ɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ (ɞɚɥɟɟ – ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ) ɩɪɢɞɟɪ-
ɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɥɹ ȿɋ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼ ɱɢɫɥɟ
ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɜ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ ɭɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ [European Union, 2016: 22௅23].
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© Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ ɘɪɶɟɜɢɱ ࣓ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɤ, ɡɚɜɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɨɣ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɆȽɂɆɈ ɆɂȾ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ; ɜɟɞɭɳɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ
ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɊȺɇ. Ⱥɞɪɟɫ: ɊɎ, 119454, Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, ɩɪ-ɬ
ȼɟɪɧɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ, 76. E-mail: n.kaveshnikov@inno.mgimo.ru
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.15211/soveurope120172231
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ: ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ 23

ɑɬɨɛɵ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ௅ ȿɋ ɜ ɨɛɥɚ-


ɫɬɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ, ɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɫɹ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɤ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɚɞɢɦ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢ-
ɫɬɢɤɭ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɟɺ ɌɗɄ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ.
Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɬɪɟɧɞɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢ-
ɤɢ ȿɋ. ɂ, ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɜ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨɤɚɠɟɬ, ɤɚɤ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜ-
ɥɹɸɬ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ȿɋ ɢ ɤɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɶ
ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ.

1. Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɜɚ ɝɨɞɚ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɌɗɄ ɩɨɩɚɥ ɜ “ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɲɬɨɪɦ” – ɨɧ ɫɬɨɥɤ-
ɧɭɥɫɹ ɫ ɰɟɥɵɦ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ (ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ) ɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɵɡɨɜɨɜ (ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɢ, ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ). Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɟ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟ ɜɵɡɨɜɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ – ɷɬɨ ɫɬɚɝɧɚɰɢɹ ɫɩɪɨɫɚ ɧɚ ɝɥɨ-
ɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ, ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɪɹɞɚ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɟ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɞɜɭɤɪɚɬɧɨɟ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ
ɰɟɧ ɜ 2014-2016 ɝɝ. Ɍɨɬ ɮɚɤɬ, ɱɬɨ ɧɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɤɚ – ɷɬɨ ɜɫɟɪɶɺɡ ɢ ɧɚɞɨɥɝɨ,
ɛɵɥ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 2016 ɝɨɞɚ.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɌɗɄ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬ ɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɪɟɝɭɥɹ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ: ɷɬɨ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɟ “ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ” ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ (ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɹ, ɦɨɧɨɩɨ-
ɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.), ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ (ɫɩɟ-
ɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ, “ɪɭɱɧɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ”, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɟɪɵɧɨɱ-
ɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ). ɂɫɬɨɳɚɸɬɫɹ “ɞɟɲɺɜɵɟ” ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ-
ɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɞɨɛɵɱɢ ɜ ɨɛɨɡɪɢɦɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢ-
ɜɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɤɢ ɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɞɨɛɵɱɢ ɧɚ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɨɪɨɝɢɯ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚ-
ɬɚɰɢɢ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ.
ɋɚɧɤɰɢɢ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɨɦ ɜ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ- ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɧɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɥɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɪɟɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɟɣ (Ⱥɪɤɬɢɤɚ, ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɫɥɚɧɰɟɜɚɹ ɧɟɮɬɶ), ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɧɟ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ, ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ.
ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɷɬɢ ɢ ɪɹɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɌɗɄ ɫɨ-
ɯɪɚɧɢɥ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɝɪɚɦɨɬɧɵɦ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɦɟɪ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɞɟɜɚɥɶɜɚɰɢɸ ɪɭɛɥɹ. ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɭ ɧɟɮɬɟɝɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣ ɧɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɞɨɥɥɚɪɚɯ, ɚ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ – ɜ ɪɭɛɥɹɯ, ɞɟɜɚɥɶɜɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɚ ɫɦɹɝɱɢɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ
ɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɵ. ɋɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɟɮɬɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣ ɛɵɥɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜɵɯ ɥɶɝɨɬ.
ɇɚ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɬɜɟɬɨɦ ɧɚ ɤɪɢɡɢɫ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ ɢ
ɡɚɦɨɪɨɡɤɚ ɪɹɞɚ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ upstream ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɩɨɤɚ ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɩɨ-
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɌɗɄ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɞɨɛɵɱɢ
ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɫɬɚɝɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɟɥɢɤ
ɨɛɴɟɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɚɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɜ
ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɵɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɭɪɟɧɢɹ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ
ɧɟɮɬɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɰɟɧɟ ɨɤɨɥɨ 30$ ɡɚ ɛɚɪɪɟɥɶ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɛɭɪɟɧɢɹ [Ⱥɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ, 2016].
24 ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ

Ʉɪɢɡɢɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɬ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɭɫɤɨɪɢɥ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɜ


ɧɟɮɬɟɝɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ
ɛɟɧɟɮɢɰɢɚɪɚɦɢ ɨɬ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɵɯ ɦɟɪ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ. ɉɪɹɦɨɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦɢ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɌɗɄ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫɨ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɮɢɧɚɧ-
ɫɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ, ɚ ɜ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɨɧɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɞɺɠɧɨɝɨ
ɝɚɡɨɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɧɢɡɤɢɯ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ
ɝɚɡ1, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨ-
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ.
Ɂɚɦɟɬɧɵɣ ɞɨ 2014 ɝ. ɬɪɟɧɞ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɦɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟ-
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɫɥɨɦɚɧ2. ɂɦɩɭɥɶɫɵ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɵɜɭ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɫ ɨɛɟɢɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ:
ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɣ, ɚ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɢɫ-
ɤɚɥɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ. ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɩɥɚɧɨɜ, ɜ
ɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤ ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɟɫ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ.
Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ ɜ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. ɉɨɤɚ ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɛɵ
ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɩɨɞɨɪɜɚɬɶ ɷɬɭ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ
ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɪɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ. ɉɨɤɚ ɫɥɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɧɚ ɤɚɤɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɢɞɬɢ ɞɨɥɝɨ-
ɫɪɨɱɧɚɹ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɹ ɌɗɄ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɤ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɚɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɛɭɞɭɬ ɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɹɬɵ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɵ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ.
ɇɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɸ-
ɳɢɦɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ:
ɫɬɚɝɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɧɟɮɬɢ ɢ ɝɚɡɚ, ɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɚɹ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɹ ɫ ɛɥɢɠɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵ-
ɦɢ ɢ ɚɮɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɦɢ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɢ ɜ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɝɚɡɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ
ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ Ɍɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɚɤɟɬɚ, ɚɧɬɢɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ,
ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɤɭ ɰɟɧɵ ɝɚɡɚ ɤ ɧɟɮɬɢ, ɩɨɥɢɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɸɠɟɬɨɜ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɟ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɪɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɢɹɡɧɶ ɤ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɦ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ.
Ɂɚ ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɤ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɪɟɚɥɢɹɦ ɟɜɪɨ-
ɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ. ɉɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɢɞɨɤ, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɧ-
ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜ, ɭɱɺɬ ɫɩɨɬɨɜɵɯ ɰɟɧ ɩɪɢ ɰɟɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬɚɦ,
ɪɟɬɪɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ – ɜɫɺ ɷɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɞɨɥɸ ɧɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɝɚɡɨ-
ɜɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɨ ɧɚɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɪɟɱɢ ɧɟ ɢɞɟɬ, ɯɨɬɹ ɭ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɟ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɞɟɜɚɥɶɜɚɰɢɢ ɪɭɛɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɝɚɡɚ ɢ ɧɟɮɬɢ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɨɤ ȿɋ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɬ
ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶ. Ʉ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɭ, ɰɟɧɚ 30௅50$ ɡɚ ɛɚɪɪɟɥɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɧɟɮɬɹɧɢɤɨɜ, ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɮɬɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ
ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ. ɇɚ ɪɭɤɭ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɦ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ-
ɫɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣ, ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɞɚɜɧɨ
ɨɤɭɩɢɥɨɫɶ. ɋ ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɜɵɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ
ɰɟɧɨɜɭɸ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɸ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɥɢ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɟɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
1
ɉɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɞɟɜɚɥɶɜɚɰɢɟɣ ɜ 2016 ɝ. Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɫ 2008 ɝ. ɧɟ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɢ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ.
2
ɉɪɢɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ ɪɹɞ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ Ɋɨɫɧɟɮɬɶɸ, ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɢ Exxon, ENI,
Statoil, BP – ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, ɦɟɠɞɭ Ʌɭɤɨɣɥ ɢ Total, Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɧɟɮɬɶɸ ɢ Shell.
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ: ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ 25

ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɭɸ ɋɚɭɞɨɜɫɤɨɣ Ⱥɪɚɜɢɟɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɚɠ;


ɜɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɨɜ ɢɧɢɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɣ
ɪɚɭɧɞ ɰɟɧɨɜɨɣ ɜɨɣɧɵ.
ȼ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɚɝɧɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɨ-
ɫɬɭɩɚ ɤ ɪɵɧɤɚɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɜɚɥɸɬɧɵɯ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɨɬ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɜ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɪɚɧ-
ɡɢɬɚ. ɗɬɨɬ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ ɜ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɨɩɵɬɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨ-
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɥɟɠɢɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɨɩɵɬɨɤ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɨɛ-
ɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ. ȼ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ, ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟ-
ɱɢɜɵɯ ɢ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɚɤ-
ɬɨɪɨɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɨɛɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢɦɩɪɨɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɥɟɠɚɬ ɞɜɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ: ɫɨɯɪɚ-
ɧɟɧɢɟ 30% ɞɨɥɢ ɧɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ ɢ ɧɚɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɧɚ ȼɨɫɬɨɤ. ɉɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɜ Ⱥɡɢɸ ɞɚɠɟ ɜ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɧɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ, ɫɨ-
ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɯ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɭ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɟɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɸ ɫ ɨɫɨɛɵɦ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦ ɢ
ɨɡɚɛɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɥɟɞɢɬɶ ɡɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɵɦɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɧɚ ɟɜɪɨ-
ɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ.

2. ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɫɨɸɡ
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɨɜɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɌɗɄ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɬɟɯ-
ɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɣɬɢ ɤ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɨɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɢ.
ȼ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɨɦ 2009 ɝ. ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɜɲɟɣ ɫɬɚɝɧɚɰɢɟɣ
ɷɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ. ȼɚɥɨɜɨɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛ-
ɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɜ ȿɋ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ 1995 ɝ., ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɚɡɚ – ɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ 2000 ɝ., ɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɮɬɢ ɫɬɚɝɧɢɪɭɟɬ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɤɨɧɰɚ 1990-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ.
ɗɬɨɬ ɬɪɟɧɞ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɨ-
ɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɛɵɱɢ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɜ ȿɋ ɫɩɪɨɫ ɧɚ ɢɦɩɨɪɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɵ ɫɬɚɝɧɢɪɭɟɬ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɫ-
ɬɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɢɦɢ ɬɟɦɩɚɦɢ, ɱɟɦ ɨɠɢɞɚɥɨɫɶ. ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ ɷɬɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɥɨ ɧɚ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ ȿɋ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ, ɩɪɢɱɺɦ ɭɠɟ ɹɫɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɨɫɬɚɧɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɞɨ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ 2020-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ. ɇɚ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ
ɞɢɤɬɭɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶ.
ɉɨɥɶɡɭɹɫɶ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬ
ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟ-
ɧɢɹɯ ɫɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɦɢ (Ɍɪɟɬɢɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɚɤɟɬ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɪɵɧɤɟ, ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɩɨɬɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɝɚɡɨɦ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.). ɂɬɨɝɢ ɥɢɛɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ȿɋ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɜɵ. Ɇɧɨɝɨɟ ɫɞɟɥɚɧɨ, ɧɨ ɞɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ
ɟɳɟ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ. ɇɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɨɤɚ ɟɳɟ
ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɝɟɬɟɪɨɝɟɧɧɚ ɢ ɧɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ. Ɂɧɚ-
ɱɢɦɵɟ ɭɫɩɟɯɢ ɜ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ,
ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɢ ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ȿɜ-
ɪɨɩɵ.
ɂɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɟ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ȿɋ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ,
ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɜ ɟɞɢɧɵɣ ɨɛɳɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣ-
26 ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ

ɫɤɢɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ. ɂɡɦɟɧɢɥɚɫɶ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. Ɋɚɧɟɟ ɷɬɨ


ɞɟɥɚɥɨɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ, ɫɟɣɱɚɫ – ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɚ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɬɨɤɚɦɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɪɟɜɟɪɫ-
ɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ. ɗɬɨ ɭɫɤɨɪɢɥɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɪɹɞɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɭɯɭɞɲɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪ-
ɧɵɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɝɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɤɨɪɢɞɨɪ ɋɟɜɟɪ௅ɘɝ ɜ
ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɐȼȿ).
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɟɞɢɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ȿɋ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ/ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɥɢɝɨɩɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɚɛɨ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɢ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɧɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɫɢɥɚɦɢ, ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɪɟɝɭɥɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɡɚɩɪɨɫ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɥɢɛɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɪɵɧɤɨɜ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɟɥɢɤ. ɗɬɢ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɵ ɧɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɧɨ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨ-
ɪɟɱɚɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ Ʉɪɟɦɥɹ ɢ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɰɟɥɶ ɪɟɮɨɪɦ – ɡɚɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɵ-
ɝɨɞɧɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɢɫɤɨɜ, ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɰɟɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɇɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ “ɪɵɧɤɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹ” ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦ-
ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɦ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɚ.
ȼ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 2010-ɯ ɝɝ. ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ȿɋ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɚ ɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɬɪɟ-
ɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɫɨ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ-ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɦɢ. ɗɬɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ, ɩɪɢ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɶ ɧɟ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɫ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ. Ʉ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɭ, ɋ.
ɏɚɝɢɝɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɚ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ Ʌɢɫɫɚɛɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɨɝɨɜɨ-
ɪɚ “ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɧɚ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɰɢɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ” [Haghighi, 2008: 478]. Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɪɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɵ ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ, ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɰɢɟɣ ɩɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ, ɧɟ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɢɥɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɫ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɦɢ-ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɵ ɫ ɬɪɟɬɶɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɚ-
ɧɚɦɢ [ɋɟɥɢɜɟɪɫɬɨɜ, Ƚɭɞɤɨɜ, 2014: 29].
ɋ ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɷɬɨɝɨ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɬɪɟɯ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ.
1) ɗɤɫɩɨɪɬ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ acquis ɜ ɬɪɟɬɶɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɮɨɪɦɚɬɟ ɗɧɟɪ-
ɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ (ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɷɬɚ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɞɚɜɚɥɚ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ – ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɢ
ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ).
2) ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟ-
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ – ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ Ɍɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɚɤɟɬɚ ɤ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ, ɥɢɲɶ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ȿɋ, ɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɬɤɚɡ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɵɣ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɬɪɚɧɫɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɪɭ-
ɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ. ɑɚɫɬɶɸ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɱɚɬɨɟ ɜ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ 2012 ɝɨɞɚ ɚɧɬɢɦɨ-
ɧɨɩɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ “Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ”.
ɇɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɜ 2012 ɝ. ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɨ ɞɜɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ
ɦɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ ȿɋ ɫ ɬɪɟɬɶɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨ-
ɜɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɬ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɦɟ-
ɪɵ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ ȿɋ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɭɟɬ ɥɭɱɲɢɟ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɛɭɞɭɳɢɯ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɢɦ
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ: ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ 27

ɢɡ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ ȿɋ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɚɹ ɫɟɣ-


ɱɚɫ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ. ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɜɪɹɞ ɥɢ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɛɥɨ-
ɤɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ
ȿɋ ɫ ɬɪɟɬɶɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɭɠɟ ɹɫɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ
ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬɵ [Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ, 2015].
3) ɋɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɥɟɠɚɬ
ɝɟɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɦ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɡ-
ɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɥɶɹɧɫɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɦɨɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɪɭ-
ɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ [Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ, 2014; Buchan, 2011].
Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɭɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ ȿɋ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɞɜɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ
ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɩɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ. ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɪɚɡ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɥɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɳɢɤ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɨɬ ɥɢɰɚ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
ɜ 2014–2015 ɝɝ. ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɥɚ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɤɨɦ ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɫɩɨɪɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ ɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɨɣ, ɜɧɟɫɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɭɤɪɚ-
ɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɚ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɋ.
ȼ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɟ ɨ ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɢɦɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ȿɋ ɫɨɫɪɟ-
ɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɟ ɤ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ ɧɟɮɬɢ ɢ ɝɚɡɚ ɜ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɡɢɢ ɢ ɝɚɡɚ ɜ ɉɟɪɫɢɞ-
ɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ Ɍɪɚɧɫɚɧɚɬɨɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɚ (ɌȺɇȺɉ)
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɤɚ ɱɬɨ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɛɭɦɚɝɟ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɩɥɨɯɨɣ ɨɤɭɩɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ
ɢ ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ.
ȼ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɢɦɩɨɪɬɚ ɫɠɢɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ (ɋɉȽ) ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɞɨɫɬɢɝ
ɛóɥɶɲɢɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɜ. ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɋɉȽ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɞɨɪɨɠɟ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɝɚɡɚ, ɢ ɩɨɬɨɦɭ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ȿɋ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɥɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ
ɥɢɲɶ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɬɶ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɹ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɶ ɭɠɟ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥ ɫɜɨɸ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɭɦɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɟɦ.
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ȿɋ ɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ
(ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ) ɢɡ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɜ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɥɨɝɢɤɟ.

3. ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ
ȼ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɵ ɫɭ-
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɋɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ “ȿɜɪɨɩɚ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ” 2006 ɝ. [Europe-
an Commission, 2006] ɢ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɟ 2008 ɝ. ɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɛɟɡ-
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ [European Union, 2008]1. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɧɚ
ɬɟɡɢɫɚɯ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ [European
Commission, 2014], ɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɪɹɞ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɨɜ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɤ ɫɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟ-
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɟɞɲɢɟ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ.
Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɋ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟ-
ɧɢɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶ ɬɪɺɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ – ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɚɹ, ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɚɹ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ
ȿɋ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ ɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɷɬɢ ɬɪɢ ɰɟɥɢ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ [Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ, 2015]. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
1
ɇɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɹ ɨ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ 2003 ɝ., ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ, ɩɨɫɜɹɬɢɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɟ
ɥɢɲɶ ɬɪɢ ɫɬɪɨɱɤɢ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɬɚɰɢɟɣ ɨɛɟɫɩɨɤɨɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɢɦɩɨɪɬɧɨɣ ɡɚ-
ɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ.
28 ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ

ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ȿɋ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ. “Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ” Ȼɪɸɫ-


ɫɟɥɹ ɫɬɚɜɢɬ ɜɨ ɝɥɚɜɭ ɭɝɥɚ ɬɨ ɨɞɧɭ, ɬɨ ɞɪɭɝɭɸ, ɬɨ ɬɪɟɬɶɸ ɰɟɥɶ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɪɢɚ-
ɞɵ. ɉɪɢɧɹɬɨɟ ɜ ɦɚɪɬɟ 2015 ɝ. ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɱɟɬɤɨ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɨɪɢ-
ɬɟɬɵ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ȿɋ
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ (ɡɞɟɫɶ ɢ ɞɚɥɟɟ
ɤɭɪɫɢɜ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ - ɇɄ), ɡɚɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɭɸ ɝɨɞɨɦ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɜ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ [European Council, 2015]. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ - ɷɬɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ. ɇɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɞɟɲɟɜɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ. Ⱥ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ ɨɬɨɲɥɚ
ɧɚ ɬɪɟɬɢɣ ɩɥɚɧ. Ⱦɥɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ, ɜ 2006 ɝ. ɤɥɸɱɟɜɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ȿɋ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ
ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ: “ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ȿɋ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɢɡɤɨɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ”
[European Commission, 2006: 5]. ȼ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɦɨɦ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɟ ɜ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɥɨɜ “ɤɥɢɦɚɬ” ɢ “ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɟ ɝɚɡɵ” ɧɟɬ, ɚ ɜɫɟ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɞɟ-
ɥɚɸɬ ɚɤɰɟɧɬ ɧɚ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɭɝɪɨɡɚ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɢɡ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɜɵɡɵ-
ɜɚɜɲɚɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɨɡɚɛɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ 2014 ɝ., ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɨɳɭɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɠɟ ɧɟ ɬɚɤ ɨɫɬɪɨ. ɋɭ-
ɞɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ, ɜ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɟ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɟɳɺ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɱɟɦ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɜɚɥɸɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɨɬ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ.
ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɋɨɸɡ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭ “ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ” ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ acquis ɢ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɨɬɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ ɨɬ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɩɪɨ-
ɫɚɦɢ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧ-ɩɚɪɬɧɺɪɨɜ. ȼ 2006 ɝ. ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ȿɋ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ [European Commission, 2006: 5]. ȼ 2008 ɝ. “ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɚɜɚ” ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ-ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɯ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɪɹɞɭ
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɦɟɪ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɤ ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ, ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɨɜ [European Union, 2008: 5].
ȼ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɨɤ ɧɟɬ, ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɟ ɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɢ ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɡɦ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ, ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ȿɋ – ɷɬɨ
ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. ɉɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɦɟɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ, ɚɜ-
ɬɨɪɵ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ȿɋ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɥɢɲɶ “ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɢɧɮɪɚ-
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ”. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɚɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɧɚ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ, ɥɢɲɶ ɟɫɥɢ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɥɟ-
ɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɚ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɢɡ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟ-
ɦɵɯ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɱɟɝɨ, ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭ ȿɋ ɩɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɞɢɫɤɪɢɦɢɧɚ-
ɰɢɸ ɩɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɦ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. “ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɟ
Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɟɣ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɣ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ
ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɞɚɠɟ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ
ɪɵɧɤɚ, ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ, ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɯɭɞɲɟɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ” [Ƚɭɞɤɨɜ, 2011].
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɬ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨ-
ɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɬɪɚɤɬɭɟɬ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɢ. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ
ɜ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɜ ȿɋ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ
ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ: ɜɵɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ 29

ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɟɧ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟ-


ɫɬɜɚ.
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɞɪɭɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ
ȿɋ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ. Ɉɧɢ ɧɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ
ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɵɯ Ɍɪɟɬɶɢɦ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɚɤɟɬɨɦ ɢɡɴɹɬɢɣ ɢɡ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɪɟ-
ɠɢɦɚ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɢɡ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɤɢ “ɥɸɛɚɹ ɧɨɜɚɹ ɢɧɮɪɚ-
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɚɜɭ ȿɋ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ Ɍɪɟɬɢɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɚɤɟɬ”. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ȿɋ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɵɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɚɪɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɫ ɬɪɟɬɶɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɢ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɨ ɦɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨ-
ɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹɯ.
ɉɪɨɬɢɜɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ “ɘɠɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ” ɢ “ɋɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ – 2”,
ɨɬɤɚɡ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ “ɘɠɧɨɦɭ ɩɨɬɨɤɭ” ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ Ɍɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɨɩɚɤɟɬɚ – ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɥɟɠɚɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɝɟɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɠɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ. ɋɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ. ɋ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ȿɋ ɜɫɹɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɢɧɜɟ-
ɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɵ, ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ ɧɟ
ɝɨɬɨɜ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɫ ɫɨɦɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, Ƚɚ-
ɡɩɪɨɦ ɝɨɬɨɜ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɵ, ɩɪɢɱɺɦ
ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɹ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɝɚɡɚ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɜɫɹɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦ.
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɤɭ ɨ “ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚ-
ɰɢɢ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ, ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ”
(sources, routes and suppliers). ɗɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɧɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɩɨ
ɩɨɜɨɞɭ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɢ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɭɸ
ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɸ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚ ɜ ɷɬɢ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɵ ɝɚɡɚ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ. Ⱦɥɹ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɝɚɡɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɵɦ
ɤɚɦɧɟɦ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ. Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɶ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬ. Ɍɨ
ɟɫɬɶ. ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ
ɪɵɧɤɚ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɋɬɪɚ-
ɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɤɚɪɬɟɥɟ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɝɚɡɚ. ɗɬɭ ɢɞɟɸ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ
ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɭɸ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɸ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɟ. ɉɨ ɟɺ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ, ɦɟ-
ɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɪɨɫɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɥɢɲɶ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɢ “ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ-
ɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ȿɋ ɢ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɦ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ” [European Commission, 2014: 19]. Ɉɧ ɧɟ
ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɣ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɥɢɲɶ “ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɚ ɢ ɤɨɝɞɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ-ɱɥɟɧɵ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɨɬ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨ-
ɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚ” [European Commission, 2015: 6]. ɂɞɟɹ ɩɭɥɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ
ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɷɤɫɬɪɚɜɚɝɚɧɬɧɨɣ ɢ ɧɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɟ.
ɋ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɨɜ ɫɚɦɚɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɚɹ ɢɞɟɹ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɟ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬ ɨ ɤɚɤɨɦ-ɥɢɛɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣ-
ɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ. ɗɬɨ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɫ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɦɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɦɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ȿɋ. Ʉ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɭ, ɜ ɋɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ [European Commission,
2011] Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɛɵɥ ɨɬɜɟɞɟɧ ɨɫɨɛɵɣ ɪɚɡɞɟɥ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɬɢɪɨɜɚɥ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɰɟɥɢ: “ɪɚɫɬɭɳɟɟ ɫɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ, ɩɪɢɡɧɚ-
30 ɇɢɤɨɥɚɣ Ʉɚɜɟɲɧɢɤɨɜ

ɜɚɹ, ɱɬɨ ɊɎ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ


ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ, ɚ ȿɋ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ” [European Commission, 2011]. ȼ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ Ɇɨɝɟɪɢɧɢ, ɜ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ “ɗɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ”, ɧɟɬ ɧɢ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɨ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɨɩɢɫɵ-
ɜɚɹ ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɫ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ, ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɹɟɬ ɫɮɟɪɵ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧ ɜ ɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɫ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ: ɤɥɢɦɚɬ, Ⱥɪɤ-
ɬɢɤɚ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ… – ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɱɧɟ ɧɟɬ [European Union, 2016: 33].
Ɋɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹ, ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɵ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟ-
ɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɶ ɧɟ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧ ɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɨ-
ɝɟ ɫ Ɇɨɫɤɜɨɣ. ɋɭɞɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ, ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ȿɋ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɜɵɧɭɠ-
ɞɟɧɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɬɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɯ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɥɢɛɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. ɋɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɬ –
ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɹ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦɚ ɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ Ɍɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɚɤɟɬɚ, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɞ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɩɨ-
ɩɵɬɤɢ Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɚɧɬɢɦɨɧɨɩɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫ-
ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ, ɨɬɤɚɡ ɨɬ “ɘɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ” ɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ “ɋɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ – 2” – ɞɚɸɬ Ȼɪɸɫɫɟɥɸ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɜɵɜɨɞɚ.
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɜɲɟɝɨɫɹ ɜ ɧɨɹɛɪɟ 2016 ɝ. ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɜɢɡɢɬɚ ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɜɭ
ɜɢɰɟ-ɩɪɟɞɫɟɞɚɬɟɥɹ ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ Ɇɚɪɨɲɚ
ɒɟɜɱɨɜɢɱɚ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɥɢɲɶ ɞɜɚ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟ-
ɧɢɹ: ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɚɡɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɚ OPAL ɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɬɪɺɯ-
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ௅ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ௅ȿɋ ɩɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɭ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨɝɨ “ɡɢɦɧɟɝɨ ɩɚ-
ɤɟɬɚ”, ɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɚ ɡɢɦɨɣ
2016௅2017 ɝɨɞɨɜ.
ɉɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɤɟ ȿɋ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹɦ
ɞɢɤɬɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ. ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ game changer, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɵɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ “ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɹ” ɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɯ ɫɞɟɥɨɤ. ɉɨɩɵɬɤɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɢɬɶ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ “ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɪɨ-
ɞɚɜɰɚ” [Kaveshnikov, 2010: 586] ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɜ.

ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ (2016) ɩɪɢ ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ. ɇɟɮɬɟɞɨɛɵɱɚ: ɧɚ ɝɪɚɧɢ
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Energy Security in Mogherini’s Strategy: Conclusions for Russia

Author. Kaveshnikov N., Head of Department of Integration Studies, Moscow State Institute of Interna-
tional Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MGIMO University). Address: 76 pr. Vernadskogo,
Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation; Leading Researcher, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Scienc-
es. Address: 11-3 Mokhovaya str., Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation. E-mail:
n.kaveshnikov@inno.mgimo.ru

Abstract. The article analyses the Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy for the European Un-
ion proclaimed in June 2016 (Mogherini Strategy). Analysis is concentrated on understanding of the energy
security, reflected in the document, and on potential impact of the document on the EU-Russia energy rela-
tions. First part of the article addresses the situation in Russia energy sector and reveals particular features of
the energy policy of Russia. Second part analyses basic trends of the EU energy policy. Finally, the paper
reveals how the Strategy is placing emphases in the EU energy policy and in what way this may affect Rus-
sia’s interests. Mogherini Strategy reaffirms previously laid down priorities of the energy security, first of all,
the security of supplies and cheap energy, while sustainable energy has receded into the background. Within
the framework of recent political discussion, Mogherini Strategy regards security of supplies as a minimiza-
tion of dependence on Russia. Mogherini Strategy deliberately makes no mentioning of cooperation with
Russia in the energy field that is in sharp contrast with the previous EU documents. Despite ongoing com-
mercial cooperation, Brussels is not interested in a political and regulatory dialog with Moscow. Excess of
supply over demand in the EU market allows the consumers to impose their rules. The European Union acts
as a game changer, which is trying to extend internal rules of the “consumer market” to the system of interna-
tional deals. Russia’s attempts to protect traditional rules of the “seller market” are not yielding visible suc-
cess.

Key words: European Union, energy policy, Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy for the Eu-
ropean Union, Mogherini Strategy, EU-Russia energy dialog.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.15211/soveurope120172231


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