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Н. В. Майзенгер, И. Н. Рассолова, Н. В.

Сергиенко

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Часть 2
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования
«АЛТАЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Н.В. Майзенгер, И.Н. Рассолова, Н.В. Сергиенко

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
ЧАСТЬ 2

Учебное пособие

Барнаул – 2015

146
УДК 811.111.(075)
ББК 81.432.1я73
М143

Майзенгер, Н. В.
Практический курс английского языка : в 2 ч. / Н. В. Майзенгер, И. Н. Рассолова,
Н. В. Сергиенко. – Барнаул : АлтГПУ, 2015. – Ч. 2. – 223 с.
ISBN 978-5-88210-797-9
ISBN 978-5-88210-799-3(ч. 2)

Авторы:
Майзенгер, Н.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент;
Рассолова И.Н., кандидат филологических наук, доцент;
Сергиенко Н.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент

Рецензенты:
Трунова О.В., доктор филологических наук, профессор (МГПУ);
Козлова О.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент (АлтГУ)

Издание представляет собой учебное пособие по практике устной и письменной речи,


предназначенное для студентов 2-го курса английского отделения специализированных
факультетов и институтов.
Учебное пособие разработано с целью развития у студентов коммуникативных умений
и навыков различных видов иноязычной речевой деятельности. Пособие разделено на
6 тематических модулей, каждый из которых включает аутентичные тексты
художественного и научно-публицистического характера с заданиями на активизацию
прочитанного или прослушанного в записи материала, лексические упражнения на отработку
активного словаря, тематические диалоги и ролевые игры, направленные на развитие
навыков разговорной речи, задания на совершенствование умений письменной речи,
проектные и иные виды заданий, направленные на формирование языковых компетенций и
навыков свободного общения на английском языке. Часть 2 пособия включает тематические
модули Health and Medicine (Здоровье и Медицина), Sport (Спорт), Travelling (Путешествия).
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов английского отделения факультетов и
институтов иностранных языков всех форм обучения и студентов гуманитарных факультетов
университетов, где английский язык изучается по углубленной программе.
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом АлтГПУ 12.11.2015 г.

ISBN 978-5-88210-797-9
ISBN 978-5-88210-799-3(ч. 2)

© Алтайский государственный
педагогический университет, 2015

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса факультетов


и отделений английского языка высших учебных заведений. Предлагаемый в нем материал и
задания рассчитаны на дальнейшее развитие навыков устной и письменной речи в результате
овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими новые лексические единицы и
грамматические структуры, реалии стран изучаемого языка. Содержание пособия отвечает
требованиям компетентностного подхода, принятого в мировой образовательной практике.
Пособие построено с учетом современных требований и содержит большое количество
упражнений, способствующих формированию коммуникативной компетенции для
обеспечения способности к межкультурному общению, что является важным аспектом
обучения иностранным языкам. Умение решать коммуникативные задачи проверяется во
всех видах деятельности, реализуемых как в устной, так и письменной формах. Для
успешной реализации коммуникативной компетенции материал пособия направлен на
формирование и совершенствование следующих компетенций:
- языковой, предполагающей владение фонетикой, лексикой, грамматикой,
орфографией английского языка;
- речевой, обозначающей умение использовать языковые средства для решения
практических задач общения;
- социолингвистической, заключающейся в умении варьировать речь в
зависимости от ситуации и стиля общения, а также социального статуса
собеседников;
- социокультурной, подразумевающей умение применять приобретенную
информацию о страноведческих и социокультурных особенностях стран
изучаемого языка в различных ситуациях общения.
Учебное пособие содержит шесть модулей:
 Education (Образование);
 Work (Работа);
 Theatre (Театр);
 Health and Medicine (Здоровье и медицина);
 Sport (Спорт);
 Travelling (Путешествие).
Часть 2 пособия содержит модули Health and Medicine (автор: канд. филол. наук,
доцент И.Н. Рассолова), Sport (автор: канд. филол. наук, доцент Н.В. Сергиенко), Travelling
(автор: канд. филол. наук, доцент Н.В. Майзенгер).
Отличительной особенностью каждого модуля является широкий спектр и
многоаспектность языкового материала.
Каждый модуль разбит на разделы (units), количество которых варьируется в
зависимости от специфики изучаемой темы.
Структура раздела включает упражнения на понимание устных и письменных
текстов, задания на развитие навыков диалогической и монологической речи,
совершенствование произносительных навыков, активизацию новых лексических и
грамматических единиц. Особое внимание уделяется таким сложным языковым явлениям,
как идиомы, пословицы и фразовые глаголы. Набор лексических единиц и грамматических
явлений характерен для достаточно высокого уровня владения языком (B2, B2+, с переходом
на уровень С1). Грамматические явления, содержащиеся в учебном пособии, включают
времена глагола, согласование времен и косвенную речь, залог, артикли, предлоги,
косвенные наклонения, модальные глаголы. Целью тренировочного материала по
грамматике является выработка прочных навыков грамматически правильной речи.
Содержащийся в учебном пособии материал включает научно-популярные и
художественные тексты, видеоэпизоды, художественные фильмы. Упражнения и задания
направлены на развитие навыков работы с неадаптированным текстом, обогащение

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словарного запаса студентов, а также на стимулирование мыслительной деятельности и
формирование умения высказывать свое мнение по обсуждаемой проблематике. Особое
место в учебном пособии отводится ролевым играм, в которых студентам необходимо
активизировать языковой и культурологический материал модуля.
Значительное внимание уделяется заданиям на развитие навыков письменной речи,
включающим написание изложений (в рамках каждого модуля), официального и
неофициального письма, резюме, докладов, основанных на графиках, схемах, таблицах,
рецензии на пьесу, тревел-блога.
В рамках каждой темы (модуля) студентам предлагается выполнить проектную
работу, предполагающую совместную деятельность в небольших группах и
способствующую раскрытию творческого потенциала каждого участника проекта.
Завершающим этапом изучения темы является повторение изученного материала
(Review), целью которого является подготовка студентов к выполнению заключительного
теста по пройденной теме. Среди форм проверки знаний учащихся используются задания на
соотнесение, множественный выбор, альтернативный выбор (верно/неверно), задания на
словообразование и восполнение недостающей информации, ответы на вопросы,
разгадывание кроссвордов и другие.
Лексические единицы объединены в тематическом словаре (Glossary) в конце
каждого модуля, что значительно облегчает самостоятельную работу студентов по
классификации и систематизации изученных в рамках темы явлений.
Задания данного пособия рассчитаны как на самостоятельную работу студентов, так и
на выполнение их в аудитории под руководством преподавателя. Учебное пособие
рассчитано на 240–280 аудиторных часов.
Авторы пособия выражают искреннюю признательность рецензентам – доктору
филологических наук, профессору Ольге Владимировне Труновой и кандидату
филологических наук, доценту Олесе Александровне Козловой, а также приносят
благодарность всему коллективу кафедры английского языка лингвистического института
Алтайского государственного педагогического университета за ценные замечания и
рекомендации.
Авторы

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CONTENTS
Предисловие ………………………………………………………………………………. 3

HEALTH AND MEDICINE ………………………………………………………………. 7

Unit 1. The Health of the Human Body ……………………………………………………... 8


Unit 2. Diseases and Injuries ………………………………………………………………... 20
Unit 3. Medical Care ………………………………………………………………………… 44
Unit 4. Dentistry ……………………………………………………………………………... 61
Unit 5. Pharmacy ……………………………………………………………………………. 69
Reading fiction: Heart Attack! (by Michael Crichton) ……………………………………… 74
Watching a film: Patch Adams ……………………………………………………………… 80
Writing: A Narrative Essay ………………………………………………………………….. 82
Writing: Listening Based Writing …………………………………………………………… 85
Project Work: The Most Important Medical Achievements Of Humankind ……………….. 85
Review ………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
Glossary ……………………………………………………………………………………... 91

SPORT ……………………………………………………………………………………… 95

Unit 1. Sports and Games …………………………………………………………………… 96


Unit 2. Sporting Events. Tournaments ……………………………………………………… 109
Unit 3. Sports Equipment. Sportswear ……………………………………………………… 121
Unit 4. Sport Related Problems …………………………………………………………….. 127
Reading fiction: Countdown to Kickoff (by Larry LaForge) ……………………………….. 131
Watching a film: The Replacements ………………………………………………………… 135
Writing: Listening Based Writing …………………………………………………………… 136
Writing: Reports based on charts, graphs and tables ………………………………………... 137
Project Work: A New Sport …………………………………………………………………. 140
Review ………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
Glossary ……………………………………………………………………………………... 143

TRAVELLING ……………………………………………………………………………. 145

Unit1. Holidays …………………………………………………………………………….. 146


Unit 2. Camping and Hiking ……………………………………………………………….. 155

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Unit 3. Travelling by Train …………………………………………………………………. 159
Unit 4. Travelling by Plane …………………………………………………………………. 172
Unit 5. Travelling by Car ……………………………………………………………………. 180
Unit 6. Travelling by Ship …………………………………………………………………... 187
Unit 7. At the Travel Agency. Accommodation ……………………………………………. 195
Reading fiction: German Harry (by W.S. Maugham) ……………………………………… 201
Watching a film: The Secret Life of Walter Mitty …………………………………………. 206
Writing: Email enquiries about holiday accommodation …………………………………… 207
Creative Writing: Travel Blog ………………………………………………………………. 209
Project Work: The Most Famous Travellers ………………………………………………… 210
Review ………………………………………………………………………………………. 211
Glossary ……………………………………………………………………………………... 219

Библиографический список……………………………………………………………… 223

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HEALTH AND
MEDICINE

Health is a blessing
that money cannot buy.

Izaak Walton

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Unit 1. The Health of the Human Body

What is health‘s magic bullet for you?

1. Read the definition of a ‘magic bullet’ and discuss your ideas with the group.
Magic bullet – 1) a drug or treatment that can cure an illness quickly and easily;
2) something that solves a difficult problem in an easy way.

2. Speak about
 one thing you do which is good for your health;
 one thing you do which is bad for your health.

Listening
3. A. Listen to the conversation ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ and choose the best answer a, b or c to
questions 1-6 according to what you hear.
1. Which sentence is not true?
a) The man likes to eat when watching TV.
b) The man is organizing a company basketball team.
c) The man was one of the best basketball players 25 years ago.
2. What is the woman worried about?
a) Her husband is not very healthy.
b) Her husband will spend a lot of time away from home.
c) Her husband will become a fitness freak.
3. What does the woman say?
a) Her husband has once had a heart attack.
b) Her husband needs a check-up.
c) Her husband should give up the idea of playing basketball.
4. What kind of diet does the woman recommend?
a) He should consume fewer fatty foods.
b) He should eat more carbohydrates.
c) He should cut down on eating lots of fruits and vegetables.
5. What doesn’t the woman suggest doing?
a) cycling
b) weight training
c) jogging
6. Why should the man start training?
a) to make the muscles and the heart stronger.
b) to lose weight.
c) to take part in an annual body building contest.

B. Find the English equivalents for the corresponding Russian word combinations.
1) испытать сердечный приступ, бегая туда и сюда по корту
2) отказаться от идеи
3) пройти медосмотр
4) следить за диетой
5) сократить потребление чего-либо
6) укрепить мускулатуру
7) улучшить работу сердечно-сосудистой системы

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Conversation Practice
4. Ask your partner the following questions and add your own ones to find out if their lifestyle
is healthy.

Student A Student B
● Do you take vitamins or mineral ● How much attention do you pay to your diet?
supplements? ● How many hours of sleep do you get a night?
● Have you ever taken a sleeping pill to get to ● Do you catch a cold more than once a year?
sleep? ● How often do you go for regular medical
● How often do you take vigorous exercise? check-ups?
Are you a member of a health spa or gym? ● Do you ever get headaches?
● What kinds of junk food do you eat? ● Your questions: …?
● Have you ever donated blood?
● Your questions: …?

Reading
5. How important are check-ups (physical examinations or physicals) in our life? When do we
need them? Read the dialogue and answer the questions.
Dr. Smith: Good morning, how are you doing today?
John Brown: I have been feeling pretty good, Dr. Smith.
Dr. Smith: So, I can see by your chart that you are here for your annual physical.
John Brown: Yes, I am playing on the tennis team this year, and they are requiring me to get a
physical exam.
Dr. Smith: We are basically going to check your heart, lungs, blood sugar levels, and eyes, ears, and
nose.
John Brown: I've kind of been having problems being out of breath. Can you look at that?
Dr. Smith: Yes, I will check you for asthma, and maybe we can check you for allergies later.
John Brown: Thank you. What will the blood test tell you?
Dr. Smith: We will be checking for blood sugar, cholesterol, and white blood cell count.
John Brown: I have been working hard to stay healthy. I hope the tests turn out well.

● Why has John Brown come to the doctor?


● What is the doctor going to check?

Role-play
6. Role-play the following situation with the doctor.
You‘re going to join a volleyball team. You need to get a physical. Role-play a conversation with
your doctor.

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Pronunciation

In some words ch is pronounced as [k] whereas in others as [ʧ].

7. Classify the words into two groups according to the way they are pronounced.

stomach, trachea, chew, cheek, bronchioles, chest, chin, bronchi, chemical, psychiatrist, ache,
chief, chemist, cholesterol

[k] [ʧ]

8. Silent letters. Some words contain silent letters. Can you say which letters are silent in these
words? Underline the silent letter(s) and pronounce the words correctly.

diaphragm, muscles, thigh, limb, wrist, thumb, calf, knee, palm, wheeze, column, psychological

Idioms

9. Complete the sentences with the following words: colour, road, nerves, feet, run, flies, horse,
stomach, blue, the weather.

1. If you‘re feeling a bit … down, take some vitamins.


2. George is under … . He‘s got a bad cold.
3. Don‘t worry, it‘s a simple operation and you‘ll be back on your … in no time.
4. You look a little off … today. Did you have a sleepless night?
5. Lots of people are off sick with the flu in our office, they‘re dropping like … .
6. My arm was black and … after falling down the stairs.
7. The woman is a bundle of … after looking after her three children.
8. The swimmer got a charley … while he was swimming.
9. Good news! I am on the … to recovery and should be back at work by next Monday.
10. My son felt sick to his … this morning and did not go to school.

10. Proverbs. Match the beginnings and endings of the proverbs together. Then find their
Russian equivalents. Which proverb do you agree with most? Why? Explain your choice.

1. After dinner sit awhile, a) till sickness comes.


2. Early to bed and early to rise b) better than cure.
3. Prevention is c) keeps the doctor away.
4. Good health is d) after supper walk a mile.
5. Health is not valued e) and he who has hope, has everything.
6. An apple a day f) makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
7. He who has health, has hope; g) the longer you live.
8. The less you eat, h) two thirds of health.
9. Hygiene is i) the best medicine.
10. Laughter is j) above wealth.
How much do you know about the human body?

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Vocabulary

11. Look at the picture and name the main human organs (1-10).

1) 2)

3)
4)
5)

7) 6)

8) 9)

10)

Reading
12. A. Now read the text and check your answers to the previous exercise.
The Human Body
There are three chief parts of the human body: the head, the trunk and the limbs or extremities.
The head is connected to the trunk by the neck. The windpipe (trachea) and the gullet
(oesophagus/esophagus) pass through the neck. The trunk consists of the chest, the belly (abdomen)
and the back. The trunk is divided into two large cavities by the diaphragm. The chest is the upper
of these cavities (the thorax), the belly or abdomen – the lower.
The upper cavity, which is above the diaphragm, contains the heart and lungs. In the lower cavity
there is the stomach, the liver, the gall-bladder, the kidneys, the urinary bladder and the intestines or
bowels. The lungs belong to the respiratory system. The kidneys and the bladder are parts of the urinary
system. They excrete waste products. The heart, the arteries, the veins and the capillaries constitute the
cardiovascular system. The mouth, the gullet, the stomach and the intestines form the alimentary canal.
The juices of many glands further the process of the digestion of our food.
Every part of the body is composed of various types of cell. Groups of cells combine and work in
tandem to form tissue, which combines to form organs, which work together to form organ systems.
The skeleton of the body is composed of 223 bones of various sizes and shapes, which give
firm but flexible support to the soft tissues, muscles and organs. The bony framework of the head,
enclosing the brain and supporting the face, is the skull. The skeleton of the trunk mainly consists of
the spinal column made of a series of bony segments.
We have four limbs (extremities): two arms and two legs. The arms with the shoulder girdle are
the upper extremities. The pelvic girdle and the two legs form the lower extremities. The upper
extremity is divided into the shoulder, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand. Between the upper
arm and the forearm there is the elbow. The joint between the forearm and the hand is called the
wrist. Each hand has four fingers and one thumb. At the tips of the fingers there are the fingernails.
The parts of the lower extremity are the thigh (hip), the lower leg and the foot. The back of the
lower leg is called the calf. Between the thigh and the lower leg there is the knee-joint, which is

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protected by the patella or kneecap. The joints between the lower legs and the feet are the ankles.
The foot consists of the heel, the sole, the ball of the foot, the instep and the toes.

B. Which human organ


1) stores and concentrates bile?
2) plays a major role in breathing, as its contraction increases the volume of the thorax and so
inflates the lungs?
3) breaks up food particles and assists in producing speech?
4) stores and digests food?
5) processes blood and helps to clean unwanted substances out of it?
6) carries air into your lungs when you breathe?
7) pumps the blood around the body?
8) transports food?

C. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian words and word combinations.

1) туловище
2) череп
3) верхняя (нижняя) полость
4) грудная клетка
5) брюшная полость, живот
6) желчный пузырь
7) мочевой пузырь
8) кишечник
9) кости различной формы и размера
10) позвоночник, позвоночный столб
11) мышцы
12) мягкие ткани
13) бедро
14) дыхательная система
15) мочевая система
16) плечевой пояс
17) тазовый пояс
18) локоть
19) запястье
20) коленная чашечка
21) коленный сустав
22) икра (ноги)
23) лодыжка
24) пятка

D. Answer the questions.


1. What are the main parts of the human body?
2. What does the skeleton consist of?
3. What is the function of the skeleton?
4. What divides the trunk into two large cavities?
5. What constitutes the upper cavity?
6. What organs does the lower cavity contain?
7. What is the upper limb divided into?
8. What parts of the lower limb can you name?

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Vocabulary

13. Match the parts of the body to the functions they are involved in.

1) protection a) kidneys, ureters, bladder


2) breathing b) muscles, tendons, joints
3) digestion c) skin, hair, nails
4) movement d) heart, veins, arteries
5) blood circulation e) brain, spinal cord, neurons
6) sending waste matter out of the body f) bronchi, lungs, nose
7) controlling all other functions g) stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Grammar

The Definite Article in its generic function is used with singular nouns
● to denote a thing or person as a representative of a whole class, so we say the doctor, the
surgeon, the nurse, the patient etc.
● when doctors or some other people speak about parts of the body in general, e.g. the brain,
the heart, the head, the liver, the bladder, the trunk, etc.
● with substantivized adjectives to denote the whole class of people, e.g. the deaf, the
disabled, the wounded, the blind, the healthy, the lame, the hungry, etc.

14. Complete the sentences using the definite article and the words from the theory above.
1. There are three main parts of the human body: …, … and the extremities.
2. The organ which pumps blood around our bodies is called … .
3. … is the main centre which regulates and coordinates all body activities.
4. The main function of … is to metabolize chemicals.
5. … and the kidneys are included in the urinary system.
6. … must make sure that the patient understands what is wrong.
7. … and … wear gowns, caps, masks, rubber gloves in the operating theatre.
8. … are people who are not sick.
9. … are people who have difficulty walking.
10. … are people who cannot see.
11. … are people who cannot hear.
12. … are people who don‘t have enough food to eat.

13
Video
15. A. Watch the video episode Let’s Learn How the Human Body Works and write down the
names of human organs making up different systems and translate them into Russian. The
first letter of each word is given.

Cardiovascular system Digestive system Respiratory system


1) h … 1) m … 1) t …
2) a … 2) e … 2) l …
3) v … 3) l … 3) d …
Nervous system 4) s … 4) b …
1) b … 5) g … b … 5) a …
2) s … c … 6) p … Urinary system
3) n … 7) l … i … 1) k …
Parts of the brain 8) s … i … 2) u …
1) c … 9) r … 3) b …
2) c … Endocrine system 4) u …
3) t … glands: Skeleton system
4) b … s… 1) p … g … 1) s …
Immune system 2) p … 2) c … v …
1) a ... 3) h … 3) c … s …
2) a … 4) t … 4) h …
3) b … v … 5) p … 5) s …
4) b … m … 6) a … 6) r …
5) l … n … Muscular system 7) r …
6) l … v … types of muscles: 8) u …
7) p … p … 1) s … m … 9) p …
8) s … 2) c … m … 10) f …
9) t … 3) s … m … 11) p …
10) t … 12) t …
13) f …
14) p …

B. Fill in the gaps with numbers from the video episode.


1. The heart has … chambers.
2. The heart depends on … valves.
3. The large intestine is about … feet long.
4. The small intestine is about … feet long.
5. There are about … bronchioles in each lung.
6. There are about … alveoli in the lungs.
7. The brain weighs … kilos or just … pounds.
8. The cerebrum makes up … per cent of the brain‘s weight.
9. The ureters are about … or … inches long.
10. About … litres (… gallons) of fluid pass through a human‘s kidneys every day.
11. A baby‘s body has about … bones at birth.
12. Adults have … bones.
13. A human being has … muscles in the body.

14
Speaking
16. A. Speak about
- the structure and functions of the body systems;
- what we can do to keep our bodies healthy.

B. Say where the following body parts are located.

waist chin wrist ankle


pupil incisor breastbone ear lobe
kneecap spine cornea ribcage
jaw Adam‘s apple eardrum shin
skull nostril tongue cheekbone
palm collarbone thigh eyelid
e.g. The waist is the part of the human body below the ribs and above the hips, often narrower than
the areas above and below.

C. Say which of these verbs describe normal processes of the human body and which describe
processes associated with disease or health problems.

wink breathe sneeze swell


yawn wheeze bruise limp
cough throb digest itch
snort faint swallow sweat

e.g. Swallowing and digesting food describe normal processes of the human body whereas fainting
might be a sign of some health problem.

Listening
17. A. Listen to the text about yawning and say if the statements are true or false.
1. According to the woman, until recently yawning was thought to help us breathe more
deeply.
2. Research suggests that contagious yawning is a way of expressing understanding in the
group.
3. Animals never yawn.
4. Yawning encourages us to sleep.

B. Listen to the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the recording, the first letter of
each word is given to help you.
When people yawn, their h … r … and b … p … increase. But it was earlier believed that its
only purpose was to enlarge the i … of o … . Research has proved that it is not true. Psychologists
have put forward a theory that yawning helps make us more a … . People yawn when they are tired
or bored because their body gives them a w …, or ‗wake-up‘ call.
There is an opinion that when one person starts yawning, soon all people around will do it
too. Psychologists have a theory that an empathic mechanism in our brain is t … when one member
of the group yawns. It is a way of keeping everyone in the group awake and on the alert.

C. What does this new theory say about yawning? Do you agree with it?

15
Vocabulary
18. Translate the sentences form Russian into English.
1. Мозг регулирует и координирует всю деятельность организма.
2. Сердце человека обычно совершает 70 ударов в минуту и заставляет кровь течь по
артериям, венам и капиллярам.
3. Мышцы производят все движения тела от улыбки и моргания до бега и поднятия
тяжестей.
4. Кости защищают и поддерживают органы организма человека.
5. Легкие являются основным органом дыхания.
6. Почки являются частью мочевой системы.
7. У человека несколько органов чувств, основными являются органы зрения (глаза), слуха
(уши) и обоняния (нос).
8. Печень находится в брюшной полости. Она выполняет много функций, среди которых
функция обезвреживания и удаления из организма токсичных веществ.
9. Мягкие ткани, мышцы и органы поддерживаются скелетом.
10. Туловище человека разделено диафрагмой на две полости.
11. Сердце и легкие находятся в грудной клетке.
12. Печень, желудок, почки, желчный пузырь, мочевой пузырь и кишечник расположены в
брюшной полости.
13. Бедро, голень и стопа составляют нижнюю конечность, а плечо, предплечье и кисть –
верхнюю.
14. Клетки живого организма образуют ткани, которые служат для формирования органов.

Listening
19. Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F) or there is no
information about it in the text (NI).
1. The man is not convinced about the extent of the problem.
2. The two specific regions in the brain are active when people are depressed.
3. Optimistic people have more cells in these two regions of the brain.
4. Research reveals that one third of the world‘s population suffer from depression at least
once in their life.
5. Researchers know that inactivity of the two regions of the brain is a cause of depression.
6. Autopsies show that depressed people had various health problems.

Reading
20. A. Read the text about different ways of preventing disease and do the tasks given below.
Preventing Disease
th
Until the 19 century there was little understanding of how diseases spread, but as our
understanding increases, the more able we are to prevent it from happening. There are various
methods of preventing disease. These range from very simple precautions taken by individuals in
the home – washing the hands for example – to expensive international campaigns.
The importance of diet in maintaining health is increasingly recognized. Throughout history,
for example, sailors on long voyages suffered from scurvy, a disease which causes bleeding gums
and stiff limbs. In the mid-eighteenth century it was found that eating citrus fruits (oranges, limes,
lemons, etc.) could cure these symptoms and ships began to carry supplies of limes. In the twentieth

16
century it was discovered that citrus fruits are particularly rich in ascorbic acid, commonly known
as vitamin C, and that it is the lack of this substance that causes scurvy.
The role of international organisations is also crucial in controlling disease. One example of
this is smallpox. In 1980 the World Health Organisation declared that smallpox, an often fatal
disease, was officially extinct. This was the result of a successful, worldwide vaccination
programme. It was hoped that the same success would be achieved with malaria, a disease
transmitted by the mosquito, but unexpected difficulties have prevented the success of this
particular programme.
An older method of preventing disease from spreading between countries is quarantine, which
comes from the Italian word quarantine, meaning forty days. The system dates from fifteenth century
Venice and refers to a period during which animals (and formerly humans) are kept in isolation, before
being allowed to enter another country. This allows time for the symptoms of any disease to develop
before it can be unknowingly transmitted. The UK has been successful in preventing rabies from
entering its territory in this way. This serious illness is spread by animals, often wild animals such as
foxes and rodents, but potentially also by domestic animals. Strict quarantine arrangements for all
animals entering the UK have prevented the disease from becoming established there.
At a national level, risks to public health can be reduced by providing certain basic facilities.
For example, adequate housing plays an important part, as overcrowded living conditions lead to
the rapid spread of disease. Archaeologists examining primitive settlements have found millions of
disease-carrying parasites and worms, which were passed easily from one person to another. Fresh
water supplies and sewage systems are also necessary to prevent disease. Two thousand years ago
the Romans realized the importance of these and the ancient ruins of Pompeii in Italy include
fountains and toilet areas as well as drains. However, once installed it is essential that water and
sewage systems are properly maintained. In London, for example, an outbreak of cholera in 1854
was traced to a faulty sewer pipe which was leaking into the supply of public drinking water. More
recently, industrialization has brought new problems of pollution and waste disposal, especially in
the chemical and nuclear industries, and strict safety regulations are required to safeguard health.
Much protection from disease is given to children through vaccinating them. Vaccines, which
usually consist of bacteria or viruses that have been killed or weakened, are administered in the first
year of a child‘s life. They can no longer cause disease, but they cause a defensive reaction in the
body. Later, if the child is exposed to the same organisms, its body will be able to defend itself
against them. One very successful vaccination programme was that which was developed against
poliomyelitis: just two drops of vaccine on the tongue can provide protection against that disease
for up to ten years. In addition to childhood programmes, vaccination is available to international
travelers, to prevent or reduce the risk of a wide range of illnesses.
Another measure which can help reduce the spread of disease is health education. Although a
lot of this is done by doctors, nurses and health visitors, many other sources contain health
information. Magazines, television and the Internet carry increasing amounts of information and
national campaigns to increase public awareness have been particularly successful. In Australia, for
example, there is a high incidence of malignant melanoma, a skin cancer common in those exposed
to strong sunlight. A media campaign has helped to save lives by providing information on early
detection and on precautions that prevent melanoma from developing in the first place. In the USA
the fictional cinema hero, Superman, has been used in a television campaign to encourage people to
check their blood cholesterol level. A high level of cholesterol in the body may increase the risk of
heart disease and eating less of certain types of fat can reduce it.
Finally, regular health checks can be given to detect various diseases, resulting in early
treatment. For example, blood pressure can be measured to make sure that it is not dangerously high
and blood tests can reveal the presence of many conditions, from anaemia to the presence of
viruses. Although regular health checks cost a lot, they can save money in the long term by
preventing diseases from developing, and thereby save the expense of treatments.
B. Give 15 different methods of preventing disease using the information from the text and
add your own ideas.

17
C. Read the definitions and name the diseases and health problems which are mentioned in the text.
1) a serious disease which causes people and animals to go mad, have convulsions and die;
2) a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, characterized by swollen bleeding gums
and the opening of previously healed wounds, which particularly affected poorly
nourished sailors until the end of the 18th century;
3) a serious infectious disease that causes spots which leave deep marks on the skin;
4) an area of cancer cells in the skin which is caused by very strong sunlight;
5) an infectious disease characterised by recurring attacks of chills and fever, caused by the
bite of a mosquito;
6) an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted
from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea;
7) an acute infectious viral disease which affects the brain and spinal cord and causes
weakness and often paralysis;
8) a condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or of haemoglobin in the blood,
resulting in pallor and weariness.

D. Answer the questions.


1. What remedies can cure scurvy?
2. What does the word quarantine mean in Italian?
3. When and where was the system of quarantine introduced?
4. What is known about the spread of rabies?
5. What can overcrowded living conditions lead to?
6. What facts have been found by archaeologists who examined primitive settlements?
7. What caused the outbreak of cholera in London in 1854?
8. What problems has industrialization brought? What measures will help safeguard public
health?
9. What is vaccination? Why is it important?
10. What is the role of mass media in public health awareness?
11. Which group of people are at risk of having a malignant melanoma?
12. What does Superman encourage people to do?
13. How can health checks help people prevent diseases?

Listening
21. A. Listen to the text about garlic and say if the statements given below are true or false.
1. The woman understands that her husband has been eating garlic by the smell in the room.
2. Garlic can keep some insects away.
3. The woman says that garlic is good for the skin.
4. The woman‘s friend Helen cured acne successfully with the help of garlic.
5. The man is certain that it is better to eat garlic because it makes people‘s organisms clean.
6. Some people can be allergic to garlic.
7. At the end of the conversation the man refuses to reduce the amount of garlic he eats every day.

B. Find the words and word combinations that mean the following. Translate them into
Russian.
1) smell strongly and unpleasantly; stink
2) proved, well-tried medicine for a cold
3) reduce the amount of cholesterol
4) remove red pimples from the skin
5) keep insects at a certain distance
6) to dislike the smell

18
7) to take poisonous substances out of the human organism
8) to make the inside of the body free from harmful substances
9) to result in the red eruption of the skin
10) highly effective remedy
11) to reduce the consumption of

C. Now use the text and the words and word combinations you have found to translate the
sentences given below.
1. Ты опять ел чеснок? Здесь очень неприятный запах.
2. Чеснок – испытанное средство от простуды.
3. Чеснок помогает понизить уровень холестерина в крови, вылечить угри (угревую
сыпь) и даже отпугивает комаров, так как им этот запах тоже неприятен.
4. Чеснок способствует выведению токсинов из организма, очищая его изнутри.
5. Чеснок может вызвать у вас сыпь.
6. Чеснок – сильнодействующее средство.
7. Хорошенького понемножку.
8. Мне бы лучше сократить потребление чеснока.

D. Discuss the following questions.


1. What benefits of garlic does the text mention?
2. Have you ever solved health problems with the help of garlic?
3. What should people be aware of when using garlic as a cure?
4. What natural remedies do you use?

Speaking
22. In small groups of three-four students, generate ideas on how to stay healthy.
In your opinion, how useful are the following things?
● dietary supplements
● remedial gymnastics
● conditioning to the cold
● push-ups, sit-ups, working out in the gym, aerobics

Share your ideas with the others.

19
Unit 2. Diseases and Injuries

Pronunciation

Suffix -itis denotes diseases characterized by inflammation, which is often caused by an infection. It
is pronounced as ['aɪtɪs].

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words.

otitis [ə(ʊ)ˈtʌɪtɪs] meningitis [ˌmenɪn'ʤaɪtɪs]


bronchitis [brɒŋ'kaɪtɪs] appendicitis [əˌpendɪ'saɪtɪs]
gastritis [gæs'traɪtɪs] poliomyelitis [ˌpɜʊlɪəmaɪə'laɪtɪs]
hepatitis [ˌhepə'taɪtɪs] tonsillitis [ˌtɒn(t)s(ə)'laɪtɪs]
conjunctivitis [kənˌʤʌŋktɪ'vaɪtɪs] arthritis [ɑː'θraɪtɪs]

Vocabulary

2. Read the symptoms and guess the disease or health problem from the box.
a) insomnia e) ulcer i) otitis m) diabetes
b) polio(myelitis) f) influenza (flu) j) mumps n) tetanus
c) conjunctivitis g) cerebral palsy k) tonsillitis o) hepatitis
d) gout h) appendicitis l) nausea p) scarlet fever
1) a disease in which there is too much sugar in the blood;
2) a disease which makes the toes, fingers and knees swell and give pain;
3) an infectious illness in which the glands swell, particularly those around the neck and mouth;
4) a disease of the liver that causes physical weakness and yellowness of the skin;
5) habitual inability to sleep;
6) a feeling of sickness and desire to vomit;
7) a serious and easily-spread disease, esp. of children, marked by a painful throat and red spots
on the skin;
8) a sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside the body which may bleed or produce
poisonous matter;
9) a serious infectious disease of the nerves in the spine, often resulting in a lasting paralysis;
10) a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain
damage present at birth;
11) a painful soreness of the tonsils (two small roundish organs of flesh at the sides of the throat
near the back of the tongue);
12) inflammation of the ear;
13) a painful infectious disease of the eye, with redness and swelling;
14) the diseased state of the appendix, usually causing it to be removed by means of a medical
operation;
15) a serious painful disease caused by bacteria getting into wounds which makes your muscles,
especially your jaw muscles, go stiff;
16) an infection of the respiratory tract caused by a virus transmitted from one person to another in
droplets coughed or sneezed in to the air.

20
3. Add the names of the diseases and health problems written below to the correct group.
rheumatism, diphtheria, multiple sclerosis, a stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, appendicitis, tonsillitis,
arthritis, high blood pressure, Parkinson‘s disease, stomach ulcer, hepatitis, hernia, constipation,
tuberculosis, epilepsy, bronchitis, heart attack

the joints the liver


1) 1) … 1) …
2) 2) … 2) …
3)
the heart and blood vessels the nervous system
1) … 1) …
2) … 2) …
3) … 3) …

the stomach and intestines the lungs and respiratory system


1. 1) … 1) …
2) … 2) …
2. 3) … 1) 3) …
3. 4) … 1) 4) …

4. Find the odd disease out.


Infectious fevers: chicken pox, stroke, German measles, smallpox, scarlet fever
Food poisoning: dysentery, diarrhoea and vomiting, mumps, salmonella
Mental disorders: schizophrenia, paranoia, jaundice, manic depression
Blood diseases: anaemia, leukaemia, pneumonia, blood clot, haemorrhage

Speaking

5. Answer the question given below providing good reasoning for your choice.
What disease frightens you most of all? Why?

Grammar
6. A. Look at the table, translate the words which you do not know into Russian using an
English-Russian Dictionary and say what determines the choice of articles with names of
diseases.
Articles with nouns denoting diseases
The Zero Article The Definite Article The Indefinite Article
● is used to name ● is used in a clear case of ● is used with certain nouns which are not
the kind of disease: back reference or if there special medical terms and are often used as
is a limiting attribute: countable nouns:
a headache
After the measles Jessica (a) toothache
felt weak. (a) stomachache
(a) backache
(an) earache

21
Rebecca fell ill with The twins were playing in I‘ve got a pain in the back
mumps. the nursery, recovering a pain in the knee
from the chickenpox. a high blood pressure
a cough
‘What’s happened to your a cold
friend?’ he asked. And I a heart attack
told him about the a sore throat
hepatitis. a boil
a bruise
a temperature
a rash on my chest
a black eye
a lump on my arm
an ulcer
a virus
a bug
a brain haemorrhage

B. Complete the sentences with articles.


1. James woke up with … sore throat.
2. My little son came home with … small bruise on his knee.
3. When I was five, I had … measles.
4. At the beginning of the year Jack went down with … mumps.
5. I‘m sure it isn‘t … scarlet fever: there‘s no redness of the skin.
6. After … flu Sandra felt depressed.
7. The doctor said it was … appendicitis and she had to be operated on.
8. My best friend died of …pneumonia a few years ago.
9. I had caught … cold on the plane and was sniffing and running … high temperature when
we landed.
10. Nearly one third of the world‘s population is infected with … tuberculosis, which kills
almost three million people per year.
11. If you have … toothache, make an appointment with the dentist.
12. People can contract … malaria from a particular kind of mosquito.
13. I‘ve got … boil on my arm and I really don‘t know what to do about it.
14. Vaccines can prevent you from getting diseases like … smallpox.
15. Have you ever had … conjunctivitis?
16. When I have … cold, my nose goes bright red.
17. I‘ve been suffering from … splitting headache since morning, so I think I‘d better take a
painkiller.
18. She developed … stomach cancer a month after the marriage broke up.
19. Sonia has … very bad cold and … high temperature. She may develop … pneumonia.
20. The children were still at home, recovering from … flu.

Vocabulary
7. Choose the correct word.
1. Otitis causes intense stomachache/earache/toothache.
2. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the liver/kidneys/lungs.
3. If you hit your head/elbow/knee, you may suffer from concussion.

22
4. Mumps is a childhood disease which causes your neck and face/ hands and fingers/ arms
and legs swell and hurt.
5. Conjunctivitis is an ear/eye/throat infection.
6. Chicken pox is a childhood disease which causes obesity/swelling/ a rash.
7. Children suffering from asthma have problems with digestion/ blood circulation/breathing.
8. People who suffer from diabetes/allergy/constipation may fall ill when they touch, eat or
breathe something that doesn‘t normally have any influence on other people.
9. Lung cancer is often caused by drinking/malnutrition/smoking.
10. Tuberculosis is a serious heart/lung/stomach disease which reached near-epidemic
proportions in the rapidly industrializing and urbanizing Western world in the 18th and 19th
centuries.
11. If you suffer from bronchitis/diabetes/anemia, you cough a lot.
12. Bird flu or Avian flu is a viral respiratory/parasitic/digestive disease, mainly of birds
including poultry and waterbirds but also transmissible to humans who usually have a fever,
sore throat, cough, headache, and muscle aches.

8. Match the words with the pictures and make up sentences about the health problems these
people have.
fever runny nose backache earache headache
sore throat stomachache toothache cough cold

Nancy Peter

William Bruce
David

Elizabeth Jack Mary

Richard John

E.g. I think Nancy has got a bad earache.

23
Integrated reading and listening

9. Read the text, then listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic. You will notice
that some ideas coincide and some differ in them. Answer questions 1-15 by choosing A if the
idea is expressed in both materials, B if it can be found only in the reading text, C if it can be
found only in the audio-recording, and D if neither of the materials expresses the idea.
A. Now you have 2 minutes to read the text.
Every year, millions of people come down with a common cold. The common cold is caused
by a virus that enters the body through the nose. The virus, however, that causes the common cold
does not affect everybody in the same way. While some people are able to fight off the virus, others
become very ill.
Biologists have discovered that in order for the virus to develop into a cold, the person‘s
immune system must already be weakened. The immune system is the body‘s way of defending itself
from illness. When the immune system is weak, it cannot fight against diseases as well. When the cold
virus finds its way into the body of a person with a weak immune system, he or she does not have the
defence necessary to fight off the infection. That is why they become ill when exposed to the virus.
People with weak immune systems are more vulnerable to getting colds. Also, it takes them
much longer to recover from a cold. Studies show that people who already have weak immune
systems usually suffer from the cold for a longer period of time. Additionally, the symptoms of the
cold are often more severe in people with weak immune systems.

B. Now listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic and then do the task
(questions 1-15), comparing the text above and the lecture. You will hear the lecture twice.

1. You catch a cold because you go out in the cold or get wet.
2. A cold is caused by a virus.
3. A common cold virus enters the body through the nose.
4. A great number of people catch a cold every year.
5. There are many types of common cold viruses which are always present in the throat.
6. A common cold virus affects people in different ways.
7. The immune system defends the body from illnesses.
8. Some people have immunity to the common cold virus.
9. A weak immune system cannot fight against diseases.
10. People with healthy immune systems also become ill when exposed to the common cold
virus.
11. It takes people with weak immune systems longer to recover from a common cold.
12. Cold symptoms occur when the body attacks the virus.
13. The symptoms of the cold are more severe if the immune system is weak.
14. A person with a healthy immune system will have more symptoms.
15. Doctors have been unable to produce an effective vaccine against colds.

Listening
10. Listen to the recording and find out the answers to questions 1-11. You will hear the
recording only once.
1. Can getting cold give you a cold?
2. Why are there more colds in winter?
3. How is the common cold virus transmitted?
4. How often do adults and children catch a cold?
24
5. Do people develop immunity once they get infected?
6. What ways of feeling better does Dr Mishori recommend?
7. What should parents be aware of when giving honey to their children?
8. Can chicken soup cure a cold?
9. What is mucus?
10. How does Dr Mishori comment on the old saying ‗feed a cold, starve a fever‘?
11. Is it bad to drink milk when you have a cold? How can dairy products affect the secretion?

Vocabulary

11. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Вчера у этого пациента были боли в животе, но сегодня он чувствует себя намного
лучше.
2. Боюсь, что у Гарри сердечный приступ. Немедленно вызовите врача.
3. В прошлом году у этого человека были проблемы с печенью и желчным пузырем.
4. Терапевт попросил пациента открыть рот и показать язык.
5. Вы жалуетесь на боли в позвоночнике?
6. У этого пациента что-то не в порядке с позвоночником, он не может ходить.
7. Этот человек потерял много крови, так как в аварии ему разрезало вену.
8. Такие кишечные инфекции устойчивы ко многим антибиотикам.
9. Мозг человека – это очень важный и сложный орган, который содержит так
называемое «серое вещество» (grey matter).
10. Оспа – заразная болезнь, симптомами которой являются высокая температура и
красная сыпь на теле, следы от которой могут остаться на всю жизнь.

12. Complete the sentences with the words below.

malaria tetanus TB flu pneumonia polio


measles concussion indigestion fracture

1. Jennifer cut her hand three days ago and now she can‘t move her jaw. I think she has picked up ... .
2. Mathew has a pain in his lungs and finds it difficult to breathe. He could have … or … .
3. Monica has a temperature and small red spots on her skin. She might have caught … .
4. Barbara has a very bad cold and a high temperature. She may develop … .
5. Philip is in the tropics and has got a very high temperature. He could be suffering from … .
6. The girl got ... from falling on her head.
7. Thomas contracted … when he was a child; it affected the nerves in his spine and now he can‘t
move the muscles in one of his legs.
8. I fell down and broke a bone yesterday. But I think I do not have a serious ... , I won't require
surgery, and it will heal with little problems.
9. When you suffer from chronic heartburn, … can affect your entire life. It may be necessary to
stop eating some of your favorite foods.

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13. A. Combine words from A with those from B to form collocations denoting health
problems.

A B
1) to sprain a) stomach
2) high b) a muscle
3) hay c) scalp
4) upset d) headache
5) nasty e) fever
6) to dislocate f) ulcer
7) splitting g) an ankle
8) itchy h) constipated
9) mouth i) a shoulder
10) to be j) on one‘s heel
11) to pull k) blood pressure
12) a blister l) rash all over the body

B. Which of these problems are serious and will require a visit to the doctor?

C. Complete the sentences with a single word.


1. Jessica took tablets for diarrhea, then she had the opposite problem. She was … .
2. Fiona had an … scalp until she started using a special shampoo.
3. Many people suffer from hay … in summer.
4. I must have eaten something that didn‘t agree with me and had an … stomach.
5. I‘ve got a … on my heel from wearing those new shoes.
6. I‘d better take a pill as I‘ve got a … headache.
7. If I eat oranges or honey, I get a nasty … on my face.
8. My mother and aunt have got a lot of health problems because of high blood … .
9. When I was skiing in the mountains last month, I … an ankle.
10. James … his shoulder and was taken to hospital.
11. I don‘t really know why you get mouth … .
12. James is not going to take part in the competition tomorrow as he … a muscle in training
yesterday.

14. What medical problem might you have if …


1) you eat bad food?
2) you dive headfirst into an empty swimming pool?
3) you ride a mountain bike?
4) you wear shoes that rub?
5) you smoke a lot?
6) you lie in the sun for a very long time?
7) you eat food you‘re allergic to?
8) a mosquito bites you?
9) you get wet through on a cold windy day?
10) you work out in the gym too hard?
11) you fall down from the ladder?

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15. Match the words in columns A and B to make collocations, then use them to describe the
symptoms which made you or the members of your family suffer a lot.

A B
1) hacking / dry / tickly a) ache
2) sharp / dull / throbbing b) infection
3) stomach / ear / tooth c) disease
4) runny / streaming / blocked d) recovery
5) splitting / thumping / bad / terrible e) injury
6) throat / chest / ear / eye f) pain
7) contagious / mysterious / curable g) bleeding
8) full / miraculous / slow h) headache
9) sports / nasty / bad / serious / severe i) cough
10) internal / massive / heavy j) nose

Conversation Practice

How to ask people about their problem and express sympathy and consolation

When the British ask people about their problems, they always do it in a sympathetic and apologetic
way. Here are some techniques for you.
Asking people about their problem Expressing sympathy and consolation
How are you? I‘m sorry.
How are you feeling today? I‘m sorry to hear that.
What‘s up? Oh, how awful!
What‘s happened? Oh, that‘s dreadful!
What‘s the matter? What bad luck!
Anything serious? Good heavens!
I hope nothing serious. Oh, goodness!
You look worried. Is something the matter, if you Poor you!
don‘t mind me/my asking? Never mind!
You seem a bit upset. Is anything wrong? Cheer up!
Excuse me asking, are you quite sure there‘s nothing Don‘t worry about it too much.
the matter/there‘s nothing worrying you? You mustn‘t worry about that.
Er … look, I know it‘s really none of my business, Don‘t let it upset/worry you.
but it sometimes helps to talk about things, you Don‘t let it get you down.
know… Take it easy.
I know it has nothing to do with me really, but I Things will come right in the end.
might be able to help. It‘s not the end of the world.
Something‘s worrying you, isn‘t it? I know how you feel.
There‘s something bothering you, isn‘t there? It could be worse.
Let‘s hope for the best.
16. A. Read the following telephone conversation between Julia and Sandra and say what
Sandra is worried about.
Julia: Hello, Sandra!
Sandra: Hi, Julie.
Julia: How are you today?
Sandra: Not very well, I‘m afraid.
Julia: Oh, really? What‘s the matter?

27
Sandra: Oh, I‘m just feeling a bit under the weather.
Julia: I‘m sorry to hear that! I hope nothing serious?
Sandra: I don‘t know, really, but I‘m not feeling quite the thing.
Julia: You haven‘t got any pain, have you?
Sandra: Oh, no, I just feel out of sorts. I may have eaten something that has disagreed with me.
Julia: Have you got a temperature?
Sandra: I don‘t think so.
Julia: Wouldn‘t you like to see a doctor?
Sandra: Oh, no, no, I don‘t think it‘s as bad as that, thank you. Please, don‘t be
uneasy about me. I‘ll be perfectly well again before long.
Julia: Well, perhaps you‘d better stay in bed this morning.
Sandra: Well, maybe.
Julia: Try and get some sleep. I‘ll call you again after lunch.
B. Find 4 corresponding English equivalents for the following Russian phrase «Я не очень
хорошо/плохо себя чувствую».

C. You overhear a conversation between two friends, Susan and Kate. You can only hear
what Susan says. Can you think of what Kate might have answered? Complete the
conversation using the phrases from the box given above.

Kate: …
Susan: Hello, Kate, fine, thanks. And how are you? You are not looking very well
today.
Kate: …
Susan: I‘m sorry to hear that. What‘s the matter?
Kate: …
Susan: Oh, dear! How did it happen?
Kate: …
Susan: Oh, no, that‘s terribly bad luck! I hope there‘s nothing serious, is there?
Kate: …
Susan: All, right, I‘m glad that it‘s not as bad as that. Cheer up! I‘m sure things will
come right in the end.
Kate: …

Role-play
17. With you partner, role-play the following situations.
1. You meet the friend you haven‘t seen for a month. She/he is looking a bit upset. Find out
what‘s up with her/him and offer consolation. The friend tells you that her/his mother has been
taken to hospital and explains what her health problem is. Be sympathetic and encourage her/him.
2. One of your colleagues is unwell. Ask her/him about the problem. She/he must have caught
a cold and now may be running a fever. Give her sympathy and encouragement.

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Vocabulary
18. Look at the tables and complete the sentences with the words in the correct form.
A. Illness
verb +illness adjective+illness noun+preposition+illness
have an illness a chronic illness the cause of an illness
cause an illness a long illness the extent of an illness
diagnose an illness a minor illness a symptom of an illness
suffer from an illness a mental illness a recurrence of an illness
recover from an illness a serious illness (make) a full recovery from an illness
treat an illness a sudden illness
1. Tuberculosis is a very … illness.
2. Yellow skin is a … of jaundice.
3. Jessica‘s having some tests done to find out what‘s … her illness.
4. My sister is in hospital. She is being … for a heart condition.
5. My colleague hasn‘t fully … from her illness. She‘s still off work.
6. There‘s no cure for diabetes, but the illness can be … with insulin.
7. I‘ve … some childhood illnesses: mumps, measles, and chickenpox.
8. Doctors are having difficulty … my illness. I‘m having more tests next week.
9. Robert has a really … illness, at the moment it‘s impossible to say if he‘ll make a full … or not.
10. A persistent cough is one of the … of this illness.
11. Cathleen is fine now and back at work but she is afraid of a … of the illness.
12. Older people with a … illness, like arthritis, can easily become depressed.
13. In winter many people … from flu and are off work.
14. The nurse and the counsellor reported that their superiors had tried to cover up the … of the
illnesses.
B. Disease
verb +disease adjective+disease noun+preposition+disease
combat/fight a disease a common disease an outbreak of a disease
contract/get a disease a communicable/contagious/ the spread of a disease
cure a disease infectious disease a cure for a disease
eradicate disease a hereditary disease resistance to a disease
prevent disease a fatal/incurable disease the risk of a disease
suffer from/have a disease a rare disease
transmit a disease curable, incurable disease
1. Advances in medicine have almost … such terrible diseases as typhoid fever, cholera and
smallpox.
2. The disease is … by mosquitoes.
3. It is believed that regular exercise helps … heart disease.
4. The government must take action to … this deadly disease.
5. Most people who … this disease make a quick recovery.
6. It's better to … a disease by ensuring a clean water supply.
7. My neighbour‘s daughter … from hemophilia and needs constant care.
8. She got a … liver disease when she was only twenty. Few doctors knew how to treat it.
9. The disease is so … that the doctors isolated him from the other patients.
10. Liz has an … disease. She‘ll have to learn to cope with it.
11. Has a … for cancer been found yet?

29
12. If a relative has a gene that gives … to a disease, it would benefit other relatives because they
would be less likely to catch the disease.
13. These investigations help epidemiologists find out how to control a current … of a disease and
to prevent further ones.
14. The issue of traveling and the … of this disease globally has become a relevant issue.
15. A … disease is a disease which can be passed down through generations of the same family.
C. Pain
verb+pain adjective+pain
alleviate/ease/relieve/soothe pain acute pain
deaden the pain agonizing/excruciating pain
be contorted with pain burning pain
be in pain constant pain
bear/endure/put up with /stand the pain dull pain
cause pain nagging pain
complain of a pain severe pain
cry out in pain/ scream with pain sharp pain
groan with pain shooting pain
inflict pain slight pain
pain passes sudden pain
pain gets worse throbbing pain
unbearable pain
1. Jeffrey was breathing hard, his face … with pain.
2. Many people would rather … pain on themselves than spend 15 minutes in a room with nothing
to do but think, according to a US study.
3. An old sports injury is … Thomas a lot of pain. He is worrying that there may be
complications.
4. Have you ever woken up in the morning suffering from a … pain in the head, instead of
praising God for a beautiful morning that has broken?
5. … pain is ever-present and never goes away.
6. Gladys couldn‘t … the pain any longer, so she took some painkillers.
7. The patient … of pains in his chest.
8. Frank was … with pain after he broke his arm.
9. I need some medicine to … the pain when it gets agonizing.
10. Monica burnt her hand and … out in pain.
19. A. Match the phrasal verbs with their meanings.
1) to bring on a) to faint
2) to wear off b) to appear suddenly in large numbers (of a disease)
3) to come to/round c) to recover from
4) to cheer up d) to become happier
5) to come down with e) to regain consciousness
6) to break out f) to fall ill with
7) to pass out g) cause an illness
8) to get over h) to vomit
9) to throw up i) stop being effective (for a drug)
B. Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs in the correct form.
1. I think the medicine is beginning to …, tell your doctor about it and ask him to prescribe you
another one.
2. It was so stuffy in the room that Ann … and … only when we took her outside in the fresh air.
3. Mary was depressed after the operation, so her friends brought her some flowers to … .
4. This infectious disease first … in Africa but soon spread to Europe and Asia.

30
5. Sarah … pneumonia and will have to stay in hospital for another two weeks.
6. James felt so sick that he … right after the dinner. He had been suffering from nausea for
two days and had no idea what might have caused it.
7. It took my friend a long time to … otitis.
8. Ann‘s fever … by going out in the rain.
C. Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to the
first sentence. You can use between two and five words in each gap.
1. Kate couldn‘t work because she caught the flu. down
Kate …, which meant she couldn‘t work.
2. Is it true that getting wet can cause a cold? on
Is it true that getting wet can … a cold.
3. The flu epidemic started suddenly in February and lots of people got ill. out
Lots of people got ill when the flu epidemic … in February.
4. I finally recovered from the cold that I had had all week. over
I finally … the cold that I had had all week.
5. Isabel slowly became conscious after the operation. to
Isabel slowly … after the operation.
20. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. У тебя, кажется, заложен нос. Ты болен?
2. В детстве я перенес свинку, корь и воспаление легких. Если бы не все это, я бы сейчас
так часто не обращался к врачу.
3. У ребѐнка воспаленное горло, ему придется дня два пролежать в постели.
4. Скарлатина – серьезное заболевание, которое может иметь осложнения.
5. Жаль, что существуют болезни, которые нельзя вылечить.
6. Ты выглядишь так, будто страдаешь от бессонницы. Тебе следует уделять больше
внимания своему здоровью.
7. Доктор, у меня постоянно очень сильно болит голова. Вы можете дать мне какое-
нибудь эффективное средство, чтобы облегчить боль?
8. Доктор обещал полное выздоровление в течение года.
9. Сейчас холера является заболеванием, которое можно вылечить.
10. У меня, похоже, начинается грипп – ломит все тело и поднимается температура.
11. Рак – это заболевание, которое трудно определить на ранней стадии и которое в
большинстве случаев является неизлечимым.
12. У Вас высокое давление. Вы принимаете какие-нибудь лекарства?
13. Он закричал от боли и упал на пол.
14. У меня все чешется. Что бы это могло быть?
15. У тебя синяк под глазом. Что случилось?

Speaking
21. Discuss the following questions in the group.
1. Do you know anyone who suffers from a medical condition? What kind? What causes it and
how does it affect their life?
2. Do you know anyone who has an allergy? What to? What reaction do they have? Have you
ever been allergic?
3. Do you know people with a chronic condition like asthma? What do they do to alleviate it?
4. Do you remember when you last had a bug? What were the symptoms?
5. Have you or your relatives ever broken a bone? When and how did it happen?

31
Conversation Practice
22. A. Read the note and the dialogue and say if you do the same things in Russia.
Note: When you are feeling unwell, you need to see a doctor. Unfortunately, doctors are
busy people so you have to make an appointment. This involves calling (or visiting) the doctor's
clinic and making an appointment with the receptionist. When you make an appointment, you
arrange a date and a time when you can see the doctor.
e.g. 'Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment to see the doctor today.'
'The doctor is busy this morning, but he is free this afternoon. Is 2 o'clock OK?'
To explain your problem you might say:
‘I have been coughing a lot recently’.
‘I have been sneezing these days.’
‘My head has been hurting recently.’
‘I have been having headaches since yesterday.’
‘I have been feeling tired for the last two days.’
‘I haven't been sleeping well for the last few days.’

Making an Appointment with the Doctor


A: I need to make an appointment to see the doctor.
B: What seems to be the problem?
A: I have a rash that I need a doctor to look at.
B: Do you have a fever with that rash?
A: No, it just itches a lot.
B: I have openings on Tuesday or Wednesday. Which would be best for you?
A: I need an appointment on Tuesday.
B: Fine, I am putting you down for 9:00 on that day. Would you like to see Dr. Smith or Dr. Jones?
A: I would like to see Dr. Jones.
B: I can schedule you with him with no problem. We look forward to seeing you.

B. Answer the question.


● What are the man‘s complaints?

Listening
23. Listen to the conversation between Ronald Schuller and the receptionist and complete the
missing lines.

Receptionist: Dr. Carter's Office.


Ronald: Yes, 1) … to see Dr. Carter, please.
Receptionist: Is this your first visit?
Ronald: Yes it is.
Receptionist: Okay. Could I have your name please?
Ronald: Yes. My name is Ronald Schuller.
Receptionist: 2) …
Ronald: Uh, I drove past your office yesterday.
Receptionist: Okay. How about the day after tomorrow on Wednesday at 4:00 o'clock?
Ronald: Uh. 3) …
I usually pick up my kids from school around that time.
Receptionist: Okay. Um ... how about Tuesday at 8:00 A.M. or Thursday at 8:15 A.M.?
Ronald: Uh, 4) …
32
Receptionist: No. I'm sorry.
Ronald: Well, in that case, Thursday would be fine.
Receptionist: Okay. Could I have your phone number please?
Ronald: It's 643-0547.
Receptionist: Alright. 5) …
Ronald: Uh . . .
Receptionist: Yes sir.
Ronald: Well, to tell the truth, I fell from a ladder two days ago while painting my
house, 6) … when my foot landed
in a paint can. I suffered a few scratches on my hands and knees, but I'm
most concerned that 7) … .
Receptionist: Well, did you put ice on it immediately after this happened?
Ronald: Well yeah. I just filled the paint can with ice and . . .
Receptionist: And so after you removed the paint can . . . Sir, sir, Mr. Schuller, are
you still there?
Ronald: Well that's part of the problem. Uh, 8) … .
Receptionist: Look, Mr. Schuller. Please come in today. I don't think your case can wait.

Role-play

24. Role-play the following situation with your partner.


You‘re worried about your tickly cough. You haven‘t got a fever, but you can‘t sleep very well.
Phone the doctor‘s surgery and make an appointment for Monday, 9 a.m.

Grammar

25. Read the information in the box and fill in the gaps with the correct active or passive form
of the verbs in brackets.
Remember that the Passive voice is formed with the help of the auxiliary verb ‗to be‘ in the
required tense form and the Past Participle of the notional verb.
We use the passive
● when we don‘t know who does/did/etc the action;
● when we aren‘t interested in who does/did/etc the action
● when it‘s obvious who does/did/etc the action;
● for emphasis, formality and impersonal style.
e.g Yesterday Jack was operated on for appendicitis. (In this example it‘s obvious who did the
action – the surgeon).
1. One day a cure for cancer (find).
2. The wound must (clean) before you put a plaster on it.
3. It‘s a very small cut; don‘t touch it and it (heal) by itself.
4. We worried about him, but he (recover) from the injuries faster than expected.
5. Mary (examine) by the doctor right now.
6. John will leave hospital soon as he (entirely cure) of the disease.
7. Luckily, the driver of the car (injure) in the accident.

33
8. You (cough) a lot recently, I‘m afraid you‘ve got bronchitis. You need to make an
appointment with the doctor as soon as possible.
9. I (treat) my cold with various natural remedies, but I don‘t seem to be getting any better.
10. The operation (perform) when the patient is ready for it.
11. I (tell) to take the medicine three times a day, before meals.
12. The doctor told me I (have) a chest infection and (give) me some antibiotics.
13. They said the surgeon (do) everything he could to keep him alive.
14. Charley (operate) on for appendicitis right now.
15. The patient (just have) her chest X-rayed and now she‘s going to the doctor‘s surgery.
16. Yesterday my little daughter (vaccinate) against whooping cough.

Vocabulary
26. Match the complaints with the health problem.

1. I haven‘t slept for three nights. a) blurred vision


2. I can‘t bend my knees or my elbows. b) chest pain
3. My nose runs like mad and I can‘t stop sneezing and my eyes c) hoarseness
water. d) eczema
4. I‘ve got these red blotches all over my skin. e) conjunctivitis
5. I get really short of breath sometimes and I have to carry an f) insomnia
inhaler with me all the time. g) rash
6. Everything is hazy. h) inflamed joints
7. I feel sick and want to vomit all the time. i) hay fever
8. My voice is disappearing. j) nausea
9. It hurts when I breathe. k) asthma
10. I have a blister that itches and bleeds.
11. My eyes are red and swollen and there is pus there in the
morning when I wake up.

Word formation

27. A. Write the related adjectives.


Noun Adjective
disability
infection
allergy
obesity
depression
diabetes
surgery
poison
lethargy
addiction

34
B. Complete the sentences. The first letter is given for you.
1. Nowadays many people eat fast food, so we have a big problem with o … in our country.
2. This medicine is p … if taken in large quantities.
3. I can eat most things, but I‘m a … to chocolate.
4. My grandfather had an i … disease a month ago, but he‘s better now.
5. The drugs can be quite a …, so you have to be careful how long you take them for.
6. My friend lost a job last week and became very d … .
7. My cousin is d …, so she has to test her blood sugar levels regularly.
8. If you don‘t have any energy, you are l … .
9. We need to do much more in this town to help d … people travel around.
10. Your condition is serious and requires s … .
11. The virus is quite i …, so I don‘t want to visit my colleague lest I catch it.

Vocabulary
28. Complete the sentences with the words: procedures, kidney, caught, aching, rash, attack,
allergic, breathing, sore, blowing, hoarse, wheeze, sneezing, dizzy, vomiting, running.
1. Eva‘s twin sister will have to undergo a … transplant within the next 72 hours.
2. My uncle had a heart … yesterday and was taken to hospital.
3. My hay fever‘s really bad today. I can‘t stop … .
4. Poor Roger was … all night. He must have a stomach bug.
5. I‘ve got a strange … on my arms and legs. It must be an … reaction to something.
6. Plastic surgery can involve undergoing complex … which can be dangerous.
7. My nose is … because I‘ve been … it so much.
8. Benjamin has asthma, so running makes him … .
9. After running the marathon I had difficulty … .
10. I feel … . I think I‘m going to faint.
11. I think I‘ve … a cold. My nose won‘t stop … and I‘ve got … muscles.
12. Are you ill, your voice sounds … .

29. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. После обследования пациента врач диагностировал заболевание как туберкулез.
2. Майклу понадобилось два месяца, чтобы вылечиться от пневмонии.
3. Дженни потеряла сознание, так как в комнате было душно.
4. Мойте руки перед едой, чтобы избавиться от бактерий.
5. У ребенка ветрянка. Если у него не будет осложнений, то он скоро поправится.
6. Анну тошнило, и у нее кружилась голова.
7. Два века назад такие заболевания, как холера, брюшной тиф, туберкулез очень быстро
распространялись по всей стране и уносили много жизней.
8. Многие люди заболели гриппом за последние две недели.
9. А что мне принимать от головной боли?
10. У моего друга аллергия на мед, шоколад и орехи.
11. Что-то случилось с моими ногами: у меня болят все суставы, и мне больно сгибать
ногу в колене.
12. Зрение у старика становится все хуже и хуже, воспаленные и опухшие глаза
вызывают сильный зуд.

35
Grammar
30. Complete the conditional sentences using a suitable form of the verb in brackets. Give
your answers to questions 7–9.

1. If you (not go out) in the rain without an umbrella and a coat, you wouldn‘t have caught a
cold.
2. If Fleming (not leave) bacteria in a dish, he wouldn‘t have discovered penicillin.
3. If you (drink) a lot of coffee, it may affect your mood and behavior.
4. If you have a headache, why you (not take) an aspirin?
5. If you laid out flat the grey matter of a human brain, it (cover) an office desk!
6. If you (not follow) the doctor‘s advice, you won‘t get well.
7. If you had to go to hospital to have an operation, you (be scared)?
8. You (go) on holiday to a country if it had had an outbreak of Avian Flu?
9. Would you eat meat if there (be) mad cow disease in the place where you live?
10. If people (be) seriously ill, they take sick leave.
11. If you had had total bed rest, you (recover) by now.
12. If you (not take) the medication regularly, you would feel much worse.

Speaking
31. What would you say if the doctor asked you the following questions?
1. Do you have health insurance?
2. Are you taking any medication?
3. Have you had any operations?
4. Are you allergic to anything?
5. What childhood diseases did you have?
6. How often do you have a cold?
7. Do you bruise easily?

Conversation Practice

32. Read the note and the dialogue between the GP and Paul and say what the GP asked Paul
about, using reported speech.
Note: When you see the doctor he (or she) might ask you ‘What's wrong?’ or ‘What's the
problem?’ A more specialised question is ‘What are your symptoms?’ or ‗Do you have any other
symptoms?’ Symptoms are any feelings of illness or discomfort which are caused by a health
problem. E.g. If you had the flu (influenza), your symptoms would be a fever, a runny nose, etc.
The doctor might also ask ‘When did the symptoms start?‘

At the Doctor’s
GP: Good morning. Please have a seat here. What‘s the problem?
Paul: I have a terrible stomachache.
GP: Do you have diarrhea?
Paul: Yes, I do.
GP: Do you have any other symptoms?

36
Paul: Yes, I feel sick.
GP: You mean you feel nauseous?
Paul: That´s right. I feel like vomiting. And right now I feel dizzy, too.
GP: When did the symptoms start?
Paul: This morning. Yesterday evening I ate something raw.
GP: All right. Please take off your clothes to the waist and lie down there. ... Just tell me if it hurts
when I do this.
Paul: It doesn´t hurt. ... Ouch. It hurts there.
GP: Okay. Let´s hope it´s just indigestion, but we´ll need to run some diagnostic tests to be sure.
We´ll run a blood test and we´ll also need a urine sample.
Paul: Can you give me something for the time being?
GP: Yes, I´ll give you a prescription for indigestion tablets.

Role-play

33. Role-play short conversations with your partner. Take turns being a doctor and a patient.
Student A. You are a GP. Ask the patient about their complaints, give advice, write out a
prescription.
Student B. You are a patient. Tell the GP about your problems, symptoms, ask for some medicine
to relieve the symptoms.

Reading
34. A. Read the story Face to Face and say how important early diagnosis is.

Face to Face
As part of our ‘Many Faces of Lung Cancer’ campaign, we spoke to survivors and their
families about the challenging journeys they have faced.
Nobody wants to hear the word cancer. But every year in England, 33,000 people are
diagnosed with lung cancer. However, there is encouraging news – the earlier it’s diagnosed,
the better the chances of treating it successfully. The trouble is, most of us don’t know what
the symptoms are.
We spoke to the survivor Pauline Gould from Stoke-on-Trent, who believes early
diagnosis is what saved her life. Here Pauline, 72, tells her story …
Pulling myself up from the sofa, I grimaced. I didn‘t feel well. I couldn‘t work out what was
wrong, but I didn‘t feel right, I‘d had a bad cough for weeks, and my ear hurt.
‗You‘d better go and see the doctor, love,‘ my husband Ray said.
He was right. I went to see my GP.
‗My ear really hurts,‘ I told him.
He examined me. ‗And is anything else bothering you?‘ he asked.
‗Well, sort of,‘ I said. I explained how I felt ill, and I couldn‘t stop coughing.
‗Let‘s book you in for an X-ray,‘ he said.
A couple of days later I had an X-ray – and two days later I got the results.
‗I‘m afraid you have lung cancer,‘ said the doctor.
I stared at him. I felt as though I‘d been hit by lightning, this was so out of the blue.
I hardly heard the rest of his words. I just kept thinking, ‗I can fix this. I can get better.‘
I broke the news to Ray and told my three children, including my daughter Adele who lives
in Canada.
‗I‘m coming home, Mum,‘ she said.
37
Everything happened so fast. Days later at the beginning of May 2009, I started four months
of intensive chemotherapy. Some days I felt so ill I could hardly drag myself out of bed.
Ray had to work as a long-distance lorry driver, so my daughter Tanya came to look after me.
Then in October, I had a whole month of radiotherapy.
Finally, I went for my results.
‗It‘s gone,‘ the oncologist said.
I didn‘t know what to say. I‘d always said I would beat it.
The treatment I got was amazing from start to finish, but it was the early diagnosis that
helped save my life. I‘m so glad I went when I did and the cancer was caught early.
I now have three monthly check-ups, and I‘m still free from cancer.
I do what I can to help raise awareness of the symptoms by talking to people at
supermarkets, hospitals and doctors‘ surgeries.
And when I hear people coughing in the street, I want to ask them how long they‘ve had the
cough and tell them to go and get it checked out.
After all, it saved my life. If I can save just one more person, it‘s all worthwhile.

Catch it early – know the signs


The main symptom is:
● a persistent cough for three weeks or more
Other symptoms to look out for are:
● a cough that has got worse or changed
● repeated chest infections
● feeling more tired than usual for some time
● coughing up blood
● breathlessness
● losing weight for no obvious reason
● a persistent ache or pain in your chest or shoulder

B. Discuss with your group the following problems.


1. How do you think early diagnosis helped Pauline Gould to survive?
2. Do you know anyone who has or once had cancer?
3. What symptoms of lung cancer can people have?
4. What factors apart from early diagnosis help people combat this disease?

C. Retell the story on behalf of Pauline’s daughter Tanya (48) using the following word
combinations from the text.
- to be diagnosed with lung cancer
- to treat something successfully
- to have a bad cough
- to see the GP
- to examine somebody
- to book somebody in for an X-ray
- to have lung cancer
- out of the blue
- to break the news to somebody
- intensive chemotherapy
- a month of radiotherapy
- the cancer was caught early
- to have monthly check-ups
- to raise awareness of the symptoms

38
Listening
35. A. Listen to the text about a man who was diagnosed with cancer. And find the best
answer a, b or c for the following questions.
1. What did the man experience after he learnt his diagnosis?
a) self-pity
b) anger
c) shock
2. At first the man
a) decided to look for a cure or some remedy to make his life longer.
b) gave up all attempts of preserving his life.
c) thought there was no available treatment for him.
3. A few months after the diagnosis was made he
a) gave in to discouragement.
b) focused only on himself.
c) found consolation in God and people.
4. The man was given care and support by
a) his mother and father.
b) his family, friends and the hospice.
c) his colleagues.
5. The story-teller understood that
a) luxury can‘t help cure cancer.
b) the terminally ill can‘t be helped.
c) we should be kind to our family and all people around us.

B. Discuss the following questions.


1. What does the story teach us?
2. What do people find consolation in when they are terminally ill?
3. What forms of cancer are common in your country?
4. What treatment for cancer is offered in your country?
5. Can cancer be cured? Do you know any famous people who were cured?

Vocabulary

36. Choose the best ending for these sentences.

1. After the operation she was confined a) incurable.


2. John‘s life was saved thanks to an organ b) chemotherapy.
3. Cancer treatment is often in the form of c) to sleep.
4. Sadly, this disease is thought to be d) side effects.
5. It‘s her fourth skiing injury, she‘s really accident- e) transplant.
6. I need to know the current survival f) to bed.
7. If you feel drowsy, you want g) rate.
8. Drugs can have h) prone.
37. Say if the sentences are true or false.
1. Arthritis means your fingers, feet and arms are painful.
2. If people are going deaf, they can‘t see very well.
3. Lethargy means a lack of sleep.

39
4. If you lose your sight completely, you go blind.
5. If you suffer from memory loss, you can remember things well.
6. People with cancer often have a benign tumor in their body.
7. Vaccines have almost eradicated certain infectious diseases.
8. If you‘re prone to injury, you are more likely to be injured than most people.
9. If you have a disease that is diagnosed, it means that you‘re getting better.
10. Today transplants can allow patients to resume a normal life.
11. The survival rate for many cancers has improved considerably due to the development of
chemotherapy.

38. Complete the text with the words from the box.

cervical collar sling scar stitches


crutches bandage plaster cast

Poor Harry got in a car accident three weeks ago. He broke his leg and
now he‘s got a 1) … on it and he walks on 2) … . He‘s got a 3) … on
his cheek and five 4) … in his forehead, covered with a 5) … . And his
right arm is in a 6) …, so he cannot use it much. More than that, he‘s
got a 7) … because in the accident he got a traumatic neck injury.

39. In what situation might you …

- - singe your eyebrows? - - wake up with a hangover?


- - graze you knees? - - scald your face?
- - have hiccups? - - split your lip open?
- - scratch your cheek? - - come out in a rash?
- - bang your head? - - have earache?
- - chip one of your teeth? - - knock one of your teeth out?

40
Speaking
40. A. How much do you know about first aid? Do you know what to do if you burnt or cut
yourself? Read the recommendations and say if you always follow them.
1. If you have burnt yourself (and it‘s a minor burn), hold the
affected area under running water for 15 minutes. Cover it with a dry,
clean dressing to prevent infection.
2. If you‘ve cut your hand, first wash it thoroughly and clean the
wound under running water. Dry the area, and put a dressing over it
temporarily while you clean the skin around the wound. Cover the cut
completely with a dressing, or bandage it. It should heal up in a few
days.
3. Make sure you‘ve got the First Aid Kit with you when you go
away on holiday.

B. Go through the list and say what you should do and shouldn’t do if an accident occurs.

apply sterile dressing or clean cloth, stop the bleeding, remove the impaled object, smoke next to a
car accident, disinfect wounds, remove blood-soaked first dressing, move a person with a broken
neck, keep victims warm, move people away from the area of a possible explosion, give artificial
respiration, give the victims alcoholic drinks, ignore the victims

C. Now using the information given above, speak about what first aid will be necessary and
what actions will be harmful in case of a road accident.

e.g. When an accident happens, first aid is terribly important and you can save lives if the right
action is taken. If someone is not breathing, you should give them artificial respiration. If the
person is bleeding, the bleeding must be stopped.

Vocabulary
Disabled is a more acceptable word to use than handicapped when talking about people with
permanent physical injuries and illnesses. People who have severe permanent problems affecting
the brain may be described as mentally disabled. However, people who suffer from problems such
as dyslexia and autism are more commonly described as having learning difficulties.

41. Match the sentence beginnings and endings.


1. People with autism a) can‘t hear well.
2. Retarded/mentally handicapped/ b) can‘t see, or can‘t see very well.
intellectually disabled people c) have significantly below-average ability.
3. Hearing-impaired people d) may lose the ability to speak or walk.
4. Visually-impaired people e) are characterized by impaired social interaction
5. People with cerebral palsy and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
6. Amputees f) need prosthetic legs or wheel-chairs.
7. People who suffer from brain damage g) may have movement disorders.

41
Reading
42. A. Read the story and say how important it is for all these people to gather together in
such cases.

JUST LOOK AT US NOW, DR PARK!


Laughter can be heard throughout the hotel as children run riot along the corridors. You
might expect someone to say, ‗Settle down!‘ but these children have something very special to
celebrate and one of the organisers, Sharon Branch, couldn‘t be more thrilled to see them dashing
about. She says, ‗They wouldn‘t have been able to do that a year or two ago.‘
All of these children have cerebral palsy and most of them have been to America for the
revolutionary selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) operation. The others are awaiting the procedure
that could transform their lives.
Sharon, 40, took her son Callum to Dr Park at St Louis Children‘s Hospital in Missouri for
the operation two years ago.
Since then, Callum has been able to walk with crutches rather than being confined to a
wheelchair. He can even take a few steps unaided and use a normal bicycle with stabilisers in place
of his clumsy tricycle.
Sharon says, ‗He can get up the stairs by himself, and at school he can sit on the classroom
floor with the other children instead of being stuck in his wheelchair.‘
Through Facebook Sharon got in touch with other mums and they started planning the party.
Sharon said, ‗We booked the venue and paid up front out of our own pockets. We weren‘t
even sure we‘d be able to sell the tickets,‘
Last year, 180 people attended the SDR Party. This year, the number has nearly doubled to 340.
Not only that, there is a very special guest.
Dr Park has travelled from America to see how successful the operations he has carried out
have been.
He takes to the dance floor with the children and holds their hands as they sway to the
music. It‘s a simple act they wouldn‘t have been able to perform without his treatment.
Sharon says, ‗Callum thinks Dr Park is Mr Wonderful – and he is! He‘s this big, successful
neurosurgeon but at the same time, he‘s a lovely, down-to-earth man.‘
Dr Park‘s surgery has allowed the children to do things they‘d never imagined possible, such
as dancing, running and swimming.
It‘s an inspiration for young guests who are yet to have surgery.
Sharon says, ‗Dr Park was really impressed by the way we all stick together and give one
another support. We‘re one big family.‘

B. Find the English equivalents for the corresponding Russian word combinations.
1) ходить на костылях
2) быть прикованным к инвалидной коляске
3) сделать несколько шагов без посторонней помощи
4) делать операции
5) нейрохирург

C. Discuss the following questions.


1. Do you know anyone with cerebral palsy? Tell the class about the problems, treatment, way
of life these people have.
2. Why do you think Sharon and others organized that party? Why do you think Sharon and
others organized that party for children with cerebral palsy?
3. What impressed Dr Park most of all? What do you think Dr Park felt at that party?
4. What did the surgery enable the children with cerebral palsy to do?

42
D. Retell the text on behalf of
a) Callum;
b) Dr Park;
c) Sharon.

Speaking
43. A. Discuss the following questions with your group.
1. Do you know any famous people who are dyslexic or disabled in some way?
2. Have you ever heard of children suffering from autism? How do you think people with
autism see the world?
3. What kinds of accommodations should society make for handicapped people?
4. Do people who consider themselves ‗normal‘ have unjustified prejudices about handicapped
people?

B. Look at the two pictures of disabled people using accessibility facilities. Compare and
contrast them covering the following points:
● the type of disability;
● the problems faced by people;
● the facilities available;
● help from other people;
● your own ideas.

You must use at least 6 words from the list.

visually impaired assistive technology


assistive technology wheelchair people
large print wheelchair ramp
guide dog wheelchair transfer boards
walking stick wheelchair accessible doors
text recognition software wheelchair accessible vans
screen reader accessible bathroom fixtures

A B

43
Unit 3. Medical Care

Speaking
1. Discuss the following questions with your partner.
1. What do you do if you feel unwell and don‘t know the cause of your illness?
2. Have you ever been into hospital for a few days or longer? When was it? What was the
problem?
3. Have you ever visited a patient in hospital? Who was it and when did you go?
4. How do people get into hospital?

Vocabulary
2. Rephrase the phrases in italics by their synonyms from the box.

convalesce discharged second to none admitted

If you need medical care, you are taken to hospital. You have the best treatment. After the treatment
you are given permission to leave. Then you may go home to recuperate.

3. A. Complete the stages of going into hospital with the words from the box.

specialist urgent X-rays recover appointment theatre


patient surgeon ward care operation treat

● If you feel under the weather, you make an … with your GP. Your doctor is concerned about you.
● He sends you to see the … .
● You may have tests, …, or scans.
● The specialist decides how to … you.
● You may have an … immediately if it is … .
● The … explains the risks to you, the … .
● You are taken to the operating … where the operation is carried out.
● After the operation you return to the …, where the nurses … for you.
● The operation is successful. When you are well enough, you can go home to … .

B. And what about your country? Discuss the following questions with your group.
1. Who takes care of the patients when they are on a ward?
2. Do you have to go and see your doctor first before you go and see the specialist?

Reading
4. A. Read the text about hospitals and do the tasks given below.
Hospitals
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialised staff and
equipment.
Today, hospitals have professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses.

44
Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and then leave
('outpatients') without staying overnight; while others are 'admitted' and stay overnight or for
several days or weeks or months ('inpatients'). Hospitals are distinguished from other types of
medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others often are
described as clinics.
The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which is set up to deal with many
kinds of disease and injury, and normally has an emergency department to deal with immediate and
urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities.
Many hospitals have their own ambulance service.
Types of specialised hospitals include trauma centres, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric)
hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see
psychiatric hospital), certain disease categories such as cardiac, oncology, or orthopedic problems.
Specialised treatment includes medical rehabilitation, radiotherapy, ear, nose and throat treatment,
physiotherapy, occupational therapy, remedial gymnastics. Specialised clinics provide treatment for chest
diseases, venereal diseases and rheumatism; give antenatal and postnatal advice and child guidance.
Hospitals vary widely in the services they offer and therefore, in the departments they have.
Each hospital is headed by a Chief Physician. Hospitals usually have a casualty department (an
emergency department or specialist trauma centre), burn unit, and surgery. There are also more
specialist units such as Cardiology, Intensive care unit, Paediatric intensive care unit, Neonatal intensive
care unit, Cardiovascular intensive care unit, Neurology, Oncology, Obstetrics and gynaecology. Some
hospitals will have outpatient departments and some will have chronic treatment units such as dentistry,
dermatology, psychiatric ward, rehabilitation services, and physical therapy.
Common support units include a dispensary or pharmacy, pathology, and radiology, and on
the non-medical side, there often are medical records departments, release of information
departments, Information Management, Clinical Engineering, Facilities Management, Dining
Services, and Security departments.
Hospitals are either funded by the government of the country in which they are situated, or
survive financially by competing in the private sector.
There are different types of doctors and what they do is to help make life better. Hospitals
and clinics have allergists, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, dentists, dermatologists,
epidemiologists, gastroenterologists, gynecologists, hematologists, immunologists, infectious
disease specialists, nephrologists, neurologists, obstetricians, oncologists, ophthalmologists,
pediatricians, physiatrists, surgeons and others.
People from all walks of life respect the profession of a doctor because doctors save lives
and give hope to those who are ill.

B. Give the English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations.
1) амбулаторный больной
2) стационарный больной
3) неспециализированная больница, больница общего типа
4) отделение скорой помощи в больнице (травматологический центр или пункт,
травмпункт)
5) больница для пожилых людей
6) психиатрическая больница
7) трудотерапия
8) лечебная физкультура
9) отделение интенсивной терапии/реанимация
10) отделение неотложной помощи
11) ожоговое отделение
12) отделение реанимации новорождѐнных
13) отделение акушерства и гинекологии
14) рентгенология

45
C. Answer the questions.
1. Why do people go to hospitals?
2. What is the difference between outpatients and inpatients?
3. What is the best-known type of hospital?
4. What types of specialized hospitals do you know?
5. What departments are there in hospitals?
6. What common support units do you know?
7. Who finances hospitals?

Vocabulary
5. Read the description and guess the health specialist.

a) psychiatrist e) hematologist i) general practitioner (GP) m) anesthesiologist


b) chiropodist f) obstetrician j) dermatologist n) ENT specialist
c) orthopedist g) oncologist k) orthodontist o) physiotherapist
d) neurologist h) pediatrician l) traumatologist p) oral surgeon

1) a doctor who causes teeth that are not growing correctly to grow straight;
2) a doctor who looks after the human foot and treats diseases of the foot;
3) a specialist who studies and administers anesthesia and anesthetic medicines that help in
facilitating treatment, diagnosis of medical conditions and complete minor and major surgeries
without the patient having to feel more than the prick of the anesthetic needle;
4) a doctor trained in the study and treatment of diseases of the mind, esp. mental, emotional, or
behavioral problems;
5) a dentist who can perform operations in the mouth;
6) a specialist in the sphere of blood;
7) a doctor who deals with making bones grow straight;
8) a specialist in the branch of medicine concerned with the birth of children;
9) a specialist who treats the ear, the nose and the throat, as well as to some extent some ailments
of the head and the neck;
10) a specialist in the study of the brain who treats conditions like seizures, strokes, Parkinson‘s,
Alzheimer‘s, etc.;
11) a doctor who is trained in general medicine and who deals with all ordinary types of illness,
rather than one specific type;
12) a doctor who treats diseases and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails;
13) a medical practitioner specializing in children and their diseases;
14) health care specialists who are primarily concerned with the remediation of impairments and
disabilities and the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life and movement
potential through examination, evaluation, diagnosis and physical intervention;
15) a doctor who treats cancer patients;
16) a doctor who deals with the treatment of serious wounds, injuries, and disabilities.

6. Choose the right word from the box. Which doctor will you go to if you …

a) perinatologist e)speech therapist i) immunologist m) endocrinologist


b) gastroenterologist f) dentist j) hepatologist n) allergist
c) ophthalmologist g) radiologist k) plastic surgeon o) cardiologist
d) emergency doctor h) surgeon l) midwife p) nephrologist

46
1) have a hay fever: have a runny nose and sneeze a lot?
2) have a heart or cardiovascular disease?
3) have a disease of the digestive system?
4) have liver trouble?
5) have a kidney disease?
6) have an eye infection?
7) have a high risk pregnancy?
8) want to change the shape of your nose?
9) need an X-ray?
10) have a weak immune system?
11) need to be operated on for appendicitis?
12) have eaten something poisonous or broken a limb or burnt yourself?
13) are going to have a baby and want to prepare for childbirth?
14) have a hormonal imbalance or problems with the thyroid gland?
15) your little daughter can‘t pronounce ‗s‘ very well?
16) need to have your tooth filled or extracted or you have bleeding gums?

Speaking
7. Guessing game. Talk for a minute about one medical profession without naming it. Let
your group-mates guess the health specialist you are describing.
Remember to mention the following things:
- why you consider it to be important for people;
- what qualities are necessary for those who work in this profession.
- what the advantages and disadvantages of working in this profession are;
- what medical equipment these health specialists use.

Vocabulary
8. What do doctors or nurses use the following things for? Make up sentences using the words
from the box and the word combinations given below.

syringe tonometer scalpel thermometer scales phonendoscope


sterile gauze adhesive tape dental forceps enema
pipette (dropper) blood glucose meter (glucometer)

e.g. Nurses give patients enemas to fit them in for an operation or if they are constipated.
- to fit somebody in for an operation
- to give injections
- to instill eye drops or nasal drops
- to cover wounds
- to take somebody‘s temperature
- to weigh somebody
- to listen to somebody‘s heart and chest
- to take somebody‘s blood pressure
- to extract a tooth
- to calculate the blood glucose level
- to perform an operation

47
9. Translate the sentences into English. The phrases from the box and the vocabulary from
the previous exercise will help you.
to feel smb‘s pulse; to walk barefooted; to strip to the waist;
to have one‘s chest X-rayed; to breathe in deeply; to hold one‘s breath;
to breathe out, to be on sick leave; to get/take sick leave;
to have one‘s leg put in a cast; to have total bed rest; to have a nervous break-down, to take
medication and vitamins; to have one‘s blood tested
1. Врач пощупал мой пульс, прослушал легкие и измерил температуру.
2. После укола мне стало гораздо легче.
3. Если бы ты не ходила босиком вчера весь день, ты бы не простудилась, и тебе бы не
ставили теперь уколы.
4. Врач попросил пациента раздеться до пояса и послушал его сердце и легкие.
5. Вам необходимо делать флюорографию один раз в год.
6. Мне нужно посмотреть ваше горло, откройте рот немного шире. Кажется, все в
порядке.
7. На что ты жалуешься? Я осмотрел тебя и ничего серьезного не обнаружил.
8. Офтальмолог прописал закапывать эти глазные капли три раза в день.
9. Педиатр взвесил ребенка, прослушал сердце и легкие и измерил температуру.
10. Хирург велел медсестре подготовить пациента к операции.
11. Рентгенолог велел мне глубоко вдохнуть, задержать дыхание и потом выдохнуть.
12. Как долго Вы уже на больничном? Вам становится лучше?
13. Рентгеновский снимок показывает, что у Вас перелом ноги, Вам придется наложить
гипс.
14. После операции Вам нужно соблюдать постельный режим.
15. Я думаю, Вам нужно пойти на больничный, так как у Вас может быть нервный срыв
от тяжелой работы и стрессов. Сейчас у Вас ослабленная иммунная система, Вам
нужно принимать лекарства и витамины.
16. Вам срочно нужно сделать анализ крови, без него врачи не могут поставить
правильный диагноз.

Reading
10. A. Read the text about medical care in Russia and say what you agree and disagree with.
Provide good reasoning.
Medical Care in Russia
The Constitution of the Russian Federation provides all citizens with a right to
free healthcare under Mandatory Medical Insurance in 1996. However, since the collapse of the
Soviet Union, the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of
social, economic, and lifestyle changes.
In 2013, the average life expectancy in Russia was 65 years for males and 76 years for
females. The biggest factor contributing to this relatively low life expectancy for males is a high
mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (e.g., alcohol
poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crimes).
As a result of the large difference in life expectancy between men and women, the gender
imbalance remains to this day and there are more females than males.
The most common causes of death include cardiovascular disease and cancer. External causes of
death are suicide, road accidents, murders, accidental alcohol poisoning, and accidental drowning. Other
major causes of death were diseases of the digestive system, respiratory disease, infectious and parasitic
diseases, and tuberculosis. The infant mortality rate in 2008 was 8.5 deaths per 1,000.

48
Russia is the world leader in smoking. According to a survey reported in 2010 by Russia‘s
Health and Social Development Ministry, 43.9 million adults in Russia are smokers. Among
Russians aged 19 to 44 years, 7 in 10 men smoke and 4 in 10 women smoke. It is estimated that
330,000-400,000 people die in Russia each year due to smoking-related diseases.
Alcohol consumption and alcoholism are major problems in Russia. It is estimated that
Russians drink 15 litres (26 pints) of pure alcohol each year.
HIV/AIDS, virtually non-existent in the Soviet era, rapidly spread following the collapse,
mainly through the explosive growth of intravenous drug use. The actual number of people living
with HIV in Russia is estimated to be about 940,000.
In 2007, 83% of HIV infections in Russia were registered among injecting drug users, 6%
among sex workers, and 5% among prisoners. However, there is clear evidence of a significant rise
in heterosexual transmission.
Russia has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, although it has recently been steadily
decreasing.
The structure of healthcare in Russia has undergone considerable changes in the last 25 years.
Pre-1990s Soviet Russia had a totally socialist model of health care. It was centralised,
integrated and hierarchically organised with the government providing free health care to all
citizens. All health personnel were state employees. Control of communicable diseases had priority
over non-communicable ones.
The integrated model achieved considerable success in dealing with infectious diseases such as
tuberculosis, typhoid fever and typhus. The effectiveness of the model declined with
underinvestment. Lack of money led to a decline in the system of healthcare. Some small hospitals
had no radiology services, and a few had inadequate heating or water. A 1989 survey found that
every seventh hospital and polyclinic needed basic reconstruction.
In 1991–1993 there was a reform of healthcare in Russia.
The new Russia has changed to a mixed model of healthcare with state and private financing and
provision. Article 41 of the 1993 constitution confirmed a citizen's right to healthcare and medical
assistance free of charge. This is achieved through compulsory medical insurance (OMS) rather than
just tax funding. This and the introduction of new free market providers was intended to promote both
efficiency and patient choice. Although there is an opinion that none of this has worked out as planned
and the reforms have in many respects made the system worse. The population‘s health has deteriorated
significantly. Though this is by no means all due to the changes in health care structures, the reforms
have proven to be inadequate at meeting the needs of the nation.
In 2006 a national project 'Health' was launched to improve the country's healthcare system
through improved funding and healthcare infrastructure. This plan helped equip hospitals and
clinics with advanced, high-end equipment and ambulance systems, build new medical centers, as
well as launch nation-wide vaccination programs and free health checks. The project has also been
working on developing medical technology market through initiatives to blend healthcare and
information technology. One of the focuses was made on salary increase of medical staff working in
the primary care as well as their wider training programmes.
The project was initiated by the Russian President Vladimir Putin and coordinated by the
Presidential administration. It was mostly financed by the federal budget. However regional and
municipal levels have also contributed a lot to the financing of the program.
The government has implemented a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate. It
has doubled monthly child support payments and offered a one-time payment, which in 2014 was
429408 roubles.

B. Give the English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations.
1) обязательное медицинское страхование
2) развал СССР
3) средняя продолжительность жизни
4) делать вклад во что-либо

49
5) высокий уровень смертности
6) алкогольное отравление
7) смерть от утопления
8) детская смертность
9) потребление алкоголя
10) брюшной тиф
11) сыпной тиф
12) увеличить рождаемость

C. Answer the questions.


1. What does the Constitution of the Russian Federation provide all citizens with?
2. What was the average life expectancy in 2013?
3. Why is there such a high mortality rate among working-age males?
4. What diseases causing death are wide-spread in Russia?
5. What external causes of death can you name?
6. What problems are considered to be major in Russia?
7. Why did HIV/AIDS spread so rapidly after the collapse of the Soviet Union?
8. How would you characterize the healthcare system in Soviet Russia?
9. How did the reform of 1991-1993 change the system of healthcare?
10. What results did the national project ‗Health‘ have? Who initiated the project? Who
financed it?
11. What programmes have been offered to increase the birth rate?

Speaking
11. A. Discuss the following questions.
● Many people think that medical care should be free and available to all, whereas others believe
that we should have to pay for the medical services we use.
● Health problems often vary from country to country. Why do you think that might be?
Begin your answer with the following:
- I think that‘s probably because …
- The reason for that is probably …
- I expect it‘s because …
- I can think of several reasons. Firstly, …

B. Which of these kinds of treatment can be classified as alternative medicine? Discuss with
the group.

● homeopathy ● aromatherapy
● psychotherapy ● medicinal leeches (hirudotherapy)
● keyhole surgery ● inhalations
● chiropractic ● physiotherapy
● acupuncture ● phytotherapy
● injections ● remedial gymnastics

Which do you prefer: traditional or alternative (complimentary) medicine? Why?

50
C. Have you ever heard of the healing effects of cold water? Read and translate the following
passage into Russian.
Although medicine has made great strides in finding causes and cures for many ailments, the
most sophisticated physician will generally admit that in spite of his vast technical knowledge, he
knows comparatively little about the complexities of the human body in coping with attacks of bad
health. Therefore, you will realize that we cannot afford to ignore any medical method which has
been demonstrated in actual cases to be effective in reducing pain and suffering. Drugs have their
place in an emergency and are a blessing at the right time and place, but I believe there is no drug
known to science which does not exact a penalty for its prolonged use. ‗Side effects‘ of ‗miracle
drugs‘ upon the body and mind may be serious, and possibly you may know of them by your own
experience or by those of other persons.
I have applied cold water for numerous ailments and will tell you what I have learnt. You and
your family may be helped in similar cases to get relief from painful experiences and gain healing
in due course.

D. Discuss the questions.


1. Have you ever used cold water as a remedy?
2. Do you know anyone who applies cold water to improve their health?
3. Would you try to use cold water to cure illnesses?

Listening
12. A. Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F) or there is no
information about it in the text (NI).
1. Fiona says that people should not be massaged if they feel uncomfortable about it.
2. A body massage might cause disruption or annoyance because people are too worried about
their bodies.
3. Reflex therapy is an old folk method of treatment.
4. The foot reflex therapy is more relaxing than a massage.
5. Each organ of the body has a reflex position in the foot.
6. The benefits you receive from the foot reflex treatment are two-fold.
7. The essential oils and the reflex massage do not help people with respiratory and digestive
problems.
8. Fiona thinks that a good reflexologist can recognize the state of the patient‘s organs through
reflexology points.

B. Now listen to the text once again and find the corresponding English equivalents for the
following Russian words and phrases.
1) жир на теле, жировые складки
2) страдать от комплексов из-за фигуры
3) терапия организма методом точечного воздействия на стопы
4) эфирные масла
5) Это мне больше подходит.
6) Когда я могу записаться на приѐм?

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Reading
13. A. Read the text about the National Health Service and say how the system of medical care
in Britain differs from others.
National Health Service in Great Britain
(abridged from Understanding Britain Today by Karen Hewitt)
Of all the major institutions in our country, the National Health Service (NHS) is the most
popular. It was founded in 1948 and provides medical care for everyone, and treatment is entirely
free at the point of use. (Of course, we pay for the NHS through taxes, as we pay for the army,
roads, schools, etc. Payment comes from central government funds so no individual‘s treatment is
affected by his or her ability to pay).
Essential health provision includes (1) a personal doctor; (2) specialist services which do not
require a period in hospital; (3) hospital treatment. In a typical health centre, which is like a small
polyclinic, there will be, for example, five or six personal ―doctors called 'General Practitioners' or
GPs; two nurses; a health visitor; a specialist midwife who looks after pregnant women and mothers
who have just given birth; two trainee doctors working part-time in this centre; a part-time
paediatrician, a dentist, a chiropodist and assorted receptionists and secretaries. Each GP has his or
her own room or 'surgery' where they attend to the sick people who are on their list and are their
responsibility. GPs are also encouraged to undertake minor surgery at the health Centre rather than
sending people to hospital for non-serious, non-urgent treatment. We can choose our GP, and once
we are on his or her list (there are about equal numbers of male and female doctors in Britain), the
GP is expected to get to know us personally. Obviously they will know us better if we suffer from
bad health. Some fortunate people almost never visit their GP.
The role of the GP puzzles and sometimes angers foreigners, since in our system it is
impossible to reach specialists except through the GP. ‗Something is wrong with my heart. Why
can‘t I go to the heart specialist immediately?‘ they demand. The reason is simple: the GP is there
to ask questions and decide what is wrong, to give us simple basic advice and if necessary to
prescribe medicine, and if necessary to send us to a specialist. Most adults know very well that with
many illnesses people simply get better - eventually. If you catch a cold you will feel ill for three or
four days and then you will feel better. Pain-killers take away some of the unpleasant symptoms,
but they cannot hurry up the process. The same is true of flu, sore throats and manу other
conditions. So the GP does not encourage his patients to go to specialists unless it is necessary, and
thus the specialist doctors have more time to spend on seriously ill patients.
Let us suppose that I have some worrying chronic pain in my leg. I first visit my GP. Since it is
a non-urgent matter I will phone and make an appointment for the following day or the day after
that. At the appointment, the GP examines me, and advises me. I may get a prescription for
medicine and be told to go home and rest. The pain in the leg is muscle strain and will get better, he
assures me. But – especially if the pain has existed for some time – the GP may arrange for me to
see a specialist at the Outpatients Department of the hospital, first arranging for me to have an X-
ray. The specialist will then decide whether I need hospital treatment. (If that means that I stay
overnight or remain for several days, I become an Inpatient, occupying a hospital bed.) I will have
some choice of hospital where the treatment will take place. After hospital treatment such as an
operation or a course of complicated drugs, I might be offered a range of services: a nurse at the
doctor‘s practice who treats wounds, infections and simple nursing problems; community nurses,
physiotherapy and other outpatient clinics. All these services, from the first appointment with my
GP to the last visit to physiotherapy are free.
Home visits used to be common; now that more people have cars and also have access to other
kinds of information, such as that given by the NHS on their website, GPs still make home visits but
sometimes advise people by telephone. The NHS also has a helpline phone for anyone who is worried
about an illness and cannot easily reach a doctor. Most GPs still make occasional home visits,

52
sometimes on a very regular basis when the patient is disabled. In my experience, most doctors are
helpful and conscientious; one part of being conscientious is to tell a patient that he or she will get better
without any medical intervention. ‗Go to bed, drink fluids, keep warm, sleep and wait to get better.‘ We
would prefer a magical cure, but instead we follow the good advice our doctors give us.
In Britain children rarely go to hospital, and if they do so, they do not spend days in hospital for
no particular reason. Most adults do not wish to go to hospital unless they are seriously ill; they
would prefer to rest at home.
Women have their babies either in specialist maternity hospitals or in the maternity wards of
general hospitals (with fathers normally in attendance). Mothers are now sent home from hospital
one or two days, after the birth, or even a few hours if there are no problems. All the lessons of how
to look after a baby take place in special classes before the birth or at home when midwives make
daily visits for a week or so.
Dying patients are sometimes cared for in hospitals, sometimes at home, sometimes in special
hospices which provide inpatient beds and a home visiting service (though there are too few of
these and they only receive part of their funding from the National Health Service; for the rest of the
fee, patients or their relatives or a charity pays). Most people would prefer to die in their own
homes, and government policy is directed towards providing enough home nurses and support for
this to happen whenever possible.
The NHS has responsibilities for the health of the whole population. It provides immunization
and vaccination for babies, and, at various points in the lives of children, 'booster' doses. GPs and
their nurses give detailed advice about contraceptive methods; if necessary patients with special
queries are referred to gynaecologists. The GPs organise nationwide large-scale preventive schemes
such as 'breast-scanning' to identify early signs of breast cancer. The NHS is also responsible for
public health campaigns, such as those against smoking and excessive drinking. It is currently
working with the government to deal with problems of over-eating and obesity. We have doctors
and nurses devoted specifically to public health issues since the aim of the NHS is to try, as far as
possible, to prevent illness before it arrives.
Another part of the NHS is the Blood Donors scheme linked to the Blood Transfusion Service.
All donations of blood are voluntary, and many people volunteer to give blood on a regular basis.
(Paying for blood encourages people who have had dangerous diseases to give blood for money.
Voluntary blood is ‗clean‘ and encourages a sense of us all belonging to each other.)
Some anomalies: A few years after the National Health Service was founded the government
was short of money and decided that patients must pay for prescription medicines and for spectacles
for poor eyesight. There was a huge political row; but eventually prescription charges were
introduced. So when we are in hospital we get all the necessary medicines (drugs) free but once we
are at home we have to pay. However that does not mean that people have to pay huge sums. There
is one standard rate for all prescription drugs, however expensive they may be in reality. And for
children, pregnant women, those over sixty and the chronically ill, all medicines are free, so only
about a third or less prescriptions are paid for.
We also have to pay significant sums for dental treatment since dentistry has not been
satisfactorily incorporated within the NHS. Private dentists are now more common than NHS
dentists, demonstrating to all of us the expense of health treatment when the NHS fails to provide it.
A private fee-paying health system is a small part of the country‘s health care although private
health insurance is often offered to certain employees in prosperous businesses. But there are no
suggestions that you get better health care if you pay. The doctors are the same doctors because
some NHS doctors choose to do some private practice in place of some NHS work. The advantages
are that you jump queues and get a private room. But for many kinds of long-term illness, for
mental illness and for most children's health problems there is no private health treatment. So those
people who have enough money to pay for immediate treatment and a private room with a hotel-like
atmosphere sometimes choose to pay for private health care. But if anything goes wrong, the private
clinic may have to transfer them to the NHS - although if they were originally private patients they
will continue to pay for their care.

53
B. Discuss the following questions with the group.
1. Why do you think the National Health Service is so popular in Great Britain?
2. What does essential health provision in Britain include? In what ways does it differ from the
Russian system of medical care? What attracts you most in the British health service?
3. What is typical of hospital treatment in Britain?
4. What preventive schemes are there within the National Health Service? Are there any of
these schemes in Russia?
5. What is the difference between the Blood Donors schemes in Britain and in Russia? Have
you ever donated blood? Do you get paid for giving blood in your country?
6. What aspects of the National Health Service show that it‘s not a medical paradise?
7. What is the system of private medical care like in Great Britain?

C. Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences to know more about healthcare
services.

1. When you move to a new area, a) there will be an answerphone message,


2. With most surgeries, if you need out of hours and you will be referred to another doctor.
care and your doctor is not available, b) ask for a second opinion.
3. If you have a serious problem which involves c) you need to register with a doctor.
seeing a specialist, d) if it is for medical reasons, and some
4. If you aren‘t happy with the specialist‘s surgeries also make use of complementary
diagnosis, medicine.
5. You can gain access to your medical records at e) you should speak to the medical staff
your GP‘s surgery. All healthcare is free of first before taking any further action.
charge, even plastic surgery f) you can get a referral by asking your GP
6. If you are unhappy with your treatment and to write to the hospital.
suspect medical negligence,

D. Compare the systems of medical care in Great Britain and in Russia using the outline given
below.
1. Medical care for everyone?
2. The structure of the health service.
3. The role of the GP.
4. Home visits.
5. Hospital treatment.
6. Health check-ups and other nationwide preventive schemes.
7. Drawbacks of health systems.
8. Private healthcare.

Listening
14. A. Listen to the text about medical insurance and answer the questions.
1. Why is it necessary to obtain good health insurance?
2. What types of medical insurance can you buy? What are the benefits and drawbacks of each
type?
3. Have you ever bought health insurance when travelling to another country? Have you ever
gone to the doctor in a foreign country?

54
B. Now listen to the text again and do some vocabulary exercises. Complete the sentences with
the words which are used in the recording. The synonyms or definitions of these words are
given in brackets to help you.
1. It‘s necessary to (get) health insurance if you plan to study overseas.
2. An international travel insurance (agreement) is usually purchased in your home country
before you go abroad.
3. If you buy international travel insurance, you pay all your medical expenses and then (hand
over) your receipts to the insurance company.
4. You might not be (paid back) for your medical expenses immediately.
5. If you get student health insurance, you might need to make a (pay a certain percentage of
the medical cost) each time a medical service is accessed.

Reading
15. A. Now read the text about healthcare in the USA and do the tasks after the text.
Medical Care in the USA
In the United States, there is not any socialized medicine or national health insurance. In order
to obtain medical care, they must either have health insurance or pay for the medical care directly
themselves.
In the American system, general practitioners, internists and family practitioners fill the basic
needs for medical examination and treatment. If things become more complicated, the doctor will
send you to a specialist. Medical specialists will have both simple English descriptions as well as
confusing titles derived from Latin and Greek. And eye doctor is an ―ophthalmologist,‖ a heart
specialist – a ―cardiologist,‖ an ear-nose-and-throat specialist – an ―otolaryngologist,‖ a skin doctor
– a ―dermatologist,‖ a children's doctor – a ―pediatrician,‖ and so on.
Most hospitals have an Emergency room which will quickly admit very ill people for emergency
medical care. In almost all communities, dialing 911 will bring an ambulance, which can transport you
to the Emergency room (there is a fee for this transport which is usually billed to your insurance).
Emergency medical care is usually quite expensive, and should be reserved for true emergencies.
Paramedics, EMTs (emergency medical technicians), and sometimes nurses who are all highly
trained in emergency medical care will come with the ambulance, and begin to administer emergency
care en route to the closest medical center which can provide adequate care. For instance, a burn victim
may be routed to the closest hospital that has a burn unit, while a young child may be taken to the
closest Children's hospital. In rural communities, a person with severe trauma or illness may be taken to
the Emergency room and stabilized, then taken by Life Flight (a helicopter than contains emergency
medical equipment and staff) to a larger medical center. Life flight may also transport victims of
automobile accidents in areas where ambulance care would take too long to reach.
Emergi-care or acute care clinics are clinics that will quickly see people who are ill, but not
quite ill enough for an emergency room. If a person does not have a family physician, they can also
receive acute care at these facilities. You must usually pay the complete cost of the care at the clinic
at the time that services are received, unless your insurance has coverage.
Many employers will provide health insurance as a benefit of the job to their employees, but
not all do. Some smaller employers do not provide insurance because it is expensive, and they can‘t
afford it. But federal law requires any employer with 25 or more employees to offer the chance to
enroll in an insurance plan such as a HMO (health maintenance organization).
If your work provides insurance, it is a type known as group insurance. Normally the employer
pays part of the cost, and you pay the rest of the monthly premium, which is deducted from your
paycheck if you choose to have insurance. Normally insurance works this way: you pay a monthly
premium on it, as insurance against becoming ill. If you become ill, then your insurance provider will
pay part of the cost of your medical care and/or hospitalization. You will probably have to pay a certain
amount yourself (known as a "deductible" which will vary with different plans), and you may be

55
expected to pay a certain percentage of the cost yourself. For example, many plans pay 80 % of the
costs of medical care, while the person covered is expected to pay 20 %.
Whether you are covered by group insurance at your work, or buy private insurance, it is
important to understand how your particular insurance coverage works. Be aware of what costs it
pays for (and what isn't covered). This is extremely important, since some insurance policies are
very limited in what they will cover, while others have broader coverage. And a basic plan will
have much different coverage than a comprehensive or major medical plan.
Be aware of what the copay or deductible is for items such as medications, office or clinic
visits, routine procedures, and how much your insurance will cover for inpatient hospital stays and
laboratory tests. Be aware that some insurance plans do not cover medications, for example (or for
only a small percentage of their cost), and others may be very limited in their coverage for
conditions such as outpatient mental health treatment. You may want to contact an insurance agent
and have his or her help with looking at the benefits and costs of different types of coverage.
Government Sponsored Health Care Programs are only available to the elderly or the disabled.
If a person is disabled and unable to work, or is over age 65, or has certain diseases such as kidney
failure, they will qualify for Medicare. Medicare is run by the Social Security Administration. It
covers only a portion of medical expenses. Many eligible people supplement it with other types of
health insurance. Medicaid is a program that provides financial assistance for low income people.
Medicaid funds come from both state and federal governments and are administered by the states.

B. Read the statements and say if they are true or false. Provide good reasoning using the
information from the text.
1. Many Americans dread falling ill as they may not be able to pay all the costs for medical
treatment.
2. Ambulance service is free of charge and available to everybody.
3. You‘ll have to pay for the emergency healthcare in the USA if you don‘t have insurance.
4. All American employers provide their workers with health insurance.
5. Despite having health insurance you may need to pay a certain percentage of the cost
yourself for medical treatment.
6. There are no government sponsored health programmes in the USA.

C. Say what is typical of American healthcare system in comparison with the British and the
Russian ones.

Speaking
16. Telling stories. Look at the pictures of different people and tell their stories using the word
combinations given below.

- to break one‘s leg in three places


- to have an operation to insert metal pins
- to get an infection
- to have part of the leg amputated
- to get a prosthetic limb

Jeremy, 28

56
- to sever four fingers
- to lose a lot of blood
- to have the fingers sewn back on
- to undergo extensive physiotherapy
- to regain feeling in the fingers

Thomas, 34
- to be diagnosed with kidney disease
- to be put on a waiting list
- to find a donor
- to have a transplant
- to take part in a rehabilitation programme

John, 42
- to find a lump
- to have it diagnosed as malignant
- to have an operation to have it removed
- to undergo chemotherapy
- to have a relapse

Louise, 63
- to suffer third degree burns
- to be taken to hospital
- to be put on a drip
- to have a skin graft
- to wait for the scarring to heal

Stephen, 42

17. Read some information about mercy killing (euthanasia) and discuss the questions given
below.

Mercy killing, also known as voluntary euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, is essentially an act
by one person that is designed to end the life of another who is suffering from extreme pain or
incurable illness. It is considered a criminal homicide in most but not all places, though proponents
argue that it should be treated differently than malicious murder because, in general, it is done out
of love or compassion for the person killed. People who are suffering from prolonged illness often
wish to die rather than simply waiting for nature to take its course, though they may not be able to
effectively end their lives themselves.

57
Friends and family members of people who are on life support machines or who are only living
with the support of ventilation or other medical interventions sometimes also choose to shut these
devices off, essentially causing the person attached to die. The practice is highly controversial and
polarizing, even in places where it is permitted by law.
Holland is widely regarded as one of the world's most civilized countries. Active euthanasia
is legal there, but for the past decade the government has not prosecuted doctors who report having
assisted their patients to commit suicide.
A recent Dutch government investigation of euthanasia has come up with some disturbing
findings. In 1990, 1,030 Dutch patients were killed WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT. And of 22,500
deaths due to withdrawal of life support, 63% (14,175 patients) were denied medical treatment
WITHOUT THEIR CONSENT. Twelve per-cent (1,701 patients) were mentally competent but were
NOT CONSULTED.
We have all heard and some of us have experienced, moving stories of elderly people in great
pain, unable to perform even the most basic human functions, who have asked to die, or have
perhaps brought about their own deaths.
What these stories overlook is that today, in almost all cases, it is possible to kill pain without
killing the patient. When someone’s pain is relieved that person usually wants
to go on living.

● Many people support the right of a terminally ill patient to die – but what if the right becomes an
obligation? What if the patient‘s heirs make use of it?
● Should doctors treat their patients against their will? Do people with terminal conditions
have a right to refuse treatment? Can voluntary euthanasia very quickly become involuntary
euthanasia, in your opinion? Should doctors be protected from prosecution if they shorten a
patient's life expectancy with pain-killing drugs?
● Can you find an alternative to euthanasia?

Grammar

18. A. Read the story The Window by an unknown author and say how things could have been
different using the words given in bold and the forms of the Conditional Mood and the
Subjunctive II. Make up as many sentences as you can.

The Window
There were once two men, both seriously ill, in the same small room of a great hospital.
Quite a small room, it had one window looking out on the world.
One of the men, as part of his treatment, was allowed to sit up in bed for an hour in the afternoon
(something to do with draining the fluid from his lungs). His bed was next to the window. But the other
man had to spend all his time flat on his back. Every afternoon when the man next to the window was
propped up for his hour, he would pass the time by describing what he could see outside.
The window apparently overlooked a park where there was a lake. There were ducks and
swans in the lake, and children came to throw them bread and sail model boats. Young lovers
walked hand in hand beneath the trees, and there were flowers and stretches of grass, games of
softball. And at the back, behind the fringe of trees, was a fine view of the city skyline. The man on
his back would listen to the other man describe all of this, enjoying every minute. He heard how a
child nearly fell into the lake, and how beautiful the girls were in their summer dresses.

58
His friend‘s descriptions eventually made him feel he could almost see what was happening
outside. Then one fine afternoon, the thought struck him: Why should the man next to the window have
all the pleasure of seeing what was going on? Why shouldn‘t he get the chance? He felt ashamed, but
the more he tried not to think like that, the worse he wanted a change. He‘d do anything!
One night as he stared at the ceiling, the other man suddenly woke up, coughing and choking,
and his hands groping for the button that would bring the nurse running. But the man watched
without moving – even when the sound of breathing stopped. In the morning, the nurse found the
other man dead, and quietly took his body away.
As soon as it seemed decent, the man asked if he could be switched to the bed next to the
window. So they moved him, tucked him in, and made him quite comfortable. The minute they left,
he propped himself up on one elbow, painfully and laboriously, and looked out the window.
It faced a blank wall.

wished …
as if …
if …
otherwise …
But for …
He’d rather …
Oh, if …

e.g The other patient was envious, otherwise he would have called the nurse when the other man
began to choke.

B. Discuss the following questions with your group.


1. Why do you think one of the men described beautiful scenes behind the window?
2. How dangerous are the feelings of envy and jealousy in our life? How much harm can they
bring?
3. What things are important when people are seriously ill?
4. What would you do if you found yourself in a similar situation?
5. What do you think the moral of the story is?

Vocabulary
19. Read some information about a number of radical changes in conventional medicine and
fill in the gaps using the words from the box in the correct form.

eradicate transplant scanner mortality confine


restrict survival cure chemotherapy

● Fifty years ago 1) … did not exist. Diagnostic tools were 2) … to stethoscopes and basic X-ray
machines.
● Until recent years, children were prone to certain infectious diseases, for which there was no
effective 3) … . Vaccines have almost 4) … some of these conditions.
● In the past, if you needed a major operation, you would be 5) … to bed for weeks. Today many
operations use less invasive procedures, requiring day surgery only.
● In the past, the 6) … rate for patients with organ failure, such as heart, lung, or kidney failure,
was 100%. Today 7) … can allow patients to resume a normal life.
● The 8) … rate for many cancers has improved considerably over recent decades due to the
development of 9) … to treat the condition.

59
Conversation Practice
20. Work in pairs and decide which of these things will happen within the next 25 years.
1. Smoking will be banned.
2. Genetic therapy will cure cancer.
3. New drugs will help people live for 150 years.
4. Women over fifty will be allowed to take fertility drugs to help them have a baby.
5. Computer chips will be inserted in the brain to increase brain power.
6. Manipulating genes will cause new illnesses.

21. A. With your partner or in small groups of 3-4 students decide if the statements are true
or false. Ask your teacher for the correct answers.

Note: Although you may still hear the term AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) it is no
longer used widely by doctors. They prefer to talk of ‘late-stage’ or ‘advanced HlV infection’. Before
effective treatments, someone with HIV almost certainly developed AlDS. This is no longer the case.

1. AIDS and HIV are the same thing.


2. AIDS is caused by a virus which breaks down the body‘s natural defences against infection.
3. An HIV test will show immediately if someone is infected with HIV.
4. Current treatment can eliminate the HIV infection in some people.
5. Sub-Saharan Africa is most infected with HIV.
6. Some people with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
7. Roughly equal numbers of men and women are infected with HIV throughout the world.
8. HIV mostly affects young people and people in early middle age.
9. HIV infection can be passed on by kissing.
10. Some people see AIDS as a punishment for drug taking or homosexual behavior.

B. Discuss the following questions.


1. Why can‘t all people receive new treatments for HIV?
2. How does the spread of HIV affects a country‘s economy?
3. What would help to slow down the HIV infection?
4. What is done in your country to prevent the spread of HIV? Do you think more things can be
done? If so, what?
5. What is the attitude of most people towards HIV sufferers?
6. If a friend of yours or a member of your family was infected with HIV, would you treat them
differently from the way you do now?
7. Do you agree with the statement that AIDS started because of homosexuality?
8. What kind of research is more important in your opinion: research into HIV or cancer
research? Why?
9. Are AIDS patients discriminated against in your country? If so, in what ways?
10. For many people, AIDS is a moral issue. Do you think that moral judgements can be made
about the disease and the people who have it?
11. What is the role of education in trying to prevent the spread of HIV? Do you agree that HIV
education should be a part of school programme or is it a taboo?

60
UNIT 4. DENTISTRY

Vocabulary
1. Read the text and complete it with the words from the box.

check-up take causing toothache dreading


examined surgery fillings chew

I‘d had a 1) … for three days. When I tried to bite or 2) … on one of my back teeth, it was very
painful. I needed to have a 3) … anyway, so I rang the dental 4) … and made an appointment for
Thursday. The dentist 5) … my teeth and told me I needed two 6) …, and said he would have to
7) … out the tooth which was 8) … the pain. I‘ve got to go back for treatment on Monday and I‘m
9) … it.

2. A. Match the words with their definitions.

1) braces a) damage to the outer part of a tooth caused by bacteria


2) root canal b) a hole in the tooth caused by decay
3) enamel c) a common procedure to replace infected areas of the tooth
4) extraction d) material placed in the cavity of a tooth to protect it
5) dental hygienist e) the large tooth in the back of your mouth used for chewing
6) incisor f) a device placed on the teeth to make them straight
7) molar tooth g) a slippery white string that one slides between teeth to clean them
8) cavity h) an anaesthetic to numb the mouth before a dental procedure
9) filling i) taking the tooth out of the mouth
10) tooth decay j) a person in the dentist‘s office who cleans patients‘ teeth before the
11) dental floss dentist sees them
12) novocaine k) hard white outside layer of teeth
l) a flat front tooth used for cutting

B. Complete the text with some of the words from exercise 2.A.
Next week I have to go to the dentist's office. I am always nervous to go because I usually
have a 1) … . The dentist has to put a 2) … in it to fix the tooth. I don't like it one bit.
Actually, I don't even like seeing the 3) … who cleans my teeth. It hurts when she scrubs
away at my teeth. Last year, when I was at the dentist, I asked for some 4) … before they cleaned
my teeth. I was informed that this drug was only given for really painful procedures like 5) … . I
wasn't happy about that at all. The dentist told me that I should use 6) … to clean my teeth if I didn't
want to get so many cavities. One tooth was so bad that I needed a 7) … . This is not a fun
experience. Besides having a lot of 8) …, I also have some crooked teeth. I should probably get 9)
…, but I don't think I will. They cost a lot of money. I figure that as long as I have my 10) … I can
still chew my food. That is all I am worried about for now.
One day I will start taking better care of my teeth. I‘m sick of painful trips to the dentist‘s!

61
Reading
3. A. Read the text about dental health service system and do the tasks after the text.
Dental health service system
If people have a toothache, they go to the dentist. Dentists are responsible for the diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of diseases of the teeth and mouth.
Dental work includes the treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, extractions and the performance
of laboratory tests, correcting the bite, the treatment of gum diseases, the design and fit of bridgework
and dentures. Before the treatment of a disease it is necessary to make a diagnosis, determine its
aetiology and pathogenesis. To make a diagnosis dentists use such methods as history taking, visual
examination, palpation, laboratory studies, instrumental studies, X-ray examination and others.
The major dental diseases are dental caries, periodontal disease, and malocclusion. Caries is the
decay of a tooth.
Periodontal disease includes diseases of the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth such as
gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva (gum). Periodontitis is
inflammation of both the gums and other supporting structures of the teeth.
Malocclusion is the malpositioning of the upper jaw bone and the lower jaw bone teeth.
Dental treatment is a very painful procedure. If a cavity is discovered at an early stage, the tooth can
be set right without any pain. Only when it is neglected, the patient has some unpleasant sensations.
Oral surgery includes such procedures as tooth extraction, major surgery on the mouth and jaws,
prosthodontics or prosthetic dentistry. The development of anesthesia had its origin in the offices of
dentists who searched for a method to ease pain during tooth extraction. Horace Wells, a well-known
dentist, contributed to the discovery of anesthesia. He noticed the effects of nitrous oxide or ―laughing
gas‖ and tried it himself and a colleague extracted one of his teeth. The operation was entirely painless.
Consequently, Doctor Wells started to use nitrous oxide in his dental practice.
Modern dental anaesthesia includes not only local anesthetics but sedation and general
anesthesia. The most commonly used local anesthetic is lidocaine but there are others as well.
Modern anaesthesia has made tooth treatment almost painless, but everyone should remember that
prevention is better than cure and have a check-up twice a year.

B. In the text find the English equivalents of the corresponding Russian word combinations.
1) исправление прикуса
2) лечение заболеваний десен
3) изготовление и установка протезов
4) разрушение зуба
5) воспаление
6) обнаружить полость на ранней стадии

C. Answer the questions.


1. What does the job of a dentist involve?
2. What is necessary to do before the treatment of a disease?
3. What are the major dental diseases?
4. What is caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion?
5. What are the two most prevalent periodontal diseases?
6. When can the tooth be set right without much pain?
7. What does oral surgery include?
8. What helped make oral surgery less painful?
9. What substance did Horace Wells use in his dental practice?
10. What types of anaesthesia do you know?

62
Listening
4. A. Listen to the conversation between the dentist and the patient and choose the best
answer a, b or c to do tasks 1-7.

1. The patient has come to the dentist


a) because he felt bad excruciating pain.
b) for a check-up.
c) for an extraction.
2. What problem is not mentioned when the dentist first examines the patient‘s teeth?
a) a chipped front tooth
b) plaque buildup
c) a decayed back tooth
3. When did the tooth cause pain to the man?
a) when he chewed on hard food.
b) when he drank something hot.
c) when he had cold drinks.
4. At first the dentist
a) doesn‘t know what treatment might be necessary.
b) decides to put a filling in.
c) intends to extract the tooth.
5. The dentist
a) seldom uses anesthesia.
b) uses only nitrous oxide.
c) uses different anesthetics.
6. The patient
a) prefers to bear pain.
b) would like a local anesthetic.
c) asks for general anesthesia.
7. The dentist recommends
a) a ceramic filling.
b) a silver alloy filling.
c) a composite filling.
B. Match the words from the text with their definitions.
1. plaque a) fill in a tooth
2. a cavity b) remove the tooth
3. wisdom tooth c) a substance that builds up around teeth that can damage them
4. put a filling in d) numb or make insensitive
5. a crown e) a drug used to dull the body`s senses from pain in a specific area
6. last resort f) laughing gas/a gas inhaled as an anesthetic
7. extract the tooth g) a mixture of two or more metals inserted into a tooth
8. dull the pain h) the last of your back teeth to come in
9. local anesthetic i) a rotary instrument used to remove tooth substance, particularly
10. nitrous oxide in the treatment of caries
11. grin and bear it j) semitransparent ceramic inserted into a tooth
12. an alloy filling k) covering over the enamel-covered part of a tooth
13. a porcelain filling l) tooth decay
14. drill m) the last possible course of action open to one
n) suffer pain or misfortune in a stoical manner

63
Grammar
5. A. Look at the table and do the tasks given below.
The Causative
Look at this sentence. Who performed the action?
Jessica has just had her wisdom tooth extracted.
The causative have/get + object + past participle is used to show that someone pays or asks
someone else to do something.
I‘m going to have my front tooth filled in. = I‘m going to pay the dentist to put in a filling.
Have is more formal than get.
B. For each sentence, find a person who probably does the work.
1. Sandra is having her ears pierced.
2. We had all the cats vaccinated last week.
3. I‘m going to have my eyes tested tomorrow.
4. Lisa has had her tattoo removed.
5. The patient had his temperature taken a few minutes ago.
6. I had my teeth polished yesterday.
7. I‘m going to have my blood pressure taken.
8. I‘ve had a prescription for cough mixture made up.
9. I‘m going to have my chest X-rayed.
10. I had my appendix taken out last week.

C. Make up sentences using the following word combinations and time indicators in the
causative form.
1. Alfred – to fill in a tooth – yesterday.
2. Angela – just – to pull out a tooth.
3. James – to put a crown on the tooth – now.
4. Andrew – to take out an appendix – two days ago.
5. Charley – already – to test one‘s blood.
6. Keith – to remove one‘s tonsils – now.
7. Lucas – to bandage one‘s hand – every day.
8. Gilbert – to take a chest X-ray – last week.

D. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the causative form.
1. Анне только что запломбировали зуб.
2. Завтра я собираюсь удалить передний зуб. Он приносил мне так много страданий в
последнее время.
3. Сначала я должна сделать рентгеновский снимок третьего коренного зуба, а потом
показать его зубному врачу.
4. У меня часто болело горло, поэтому я решила удалить миндалины.
5. Мне только что измерили температуру и давление.
6. Я собираюсь заказать в аптеке приготовление прописанного врачом лекарства.
7. Вчера мне наложили гипс на руку, теперь мне придется пробыть на больничном около
месяца.
8. Завтра я иду в оптику проверить зрение и при необходимости заказать очки и
контактные линзы.
9. Моя бабушка собирается заказать зубные протезы.
10. Вчера я поставила сыну прививку от коклюша.

64
Speaking
6. Give answers to the following questions.
1. How often do you go to the dentist? Do you think it is enough to keep your teeth healthy?
2. When did you last have a check-up at the dentist?
3. When did the dentist last give you a filling?
4. When did you last have one of your teeth taken out?

Video
7. A. Watch the video episode called Dental Treatment: Entitlements and Costs and say if the
statements 1-7 are true or false.
1. UK dentists are considered to be very good.
2. You‘ll have to pay for dental treatment unless you have an NHS dentist.
3. Only dentists can make our teeth, gums and mouth healthy.
4. The treatment plan doesn‘t include the cost of treatment.
5. Private options are first discussed with patients.
6. You‘ll have to pay for cosmetic alternatives.
7. If you have to make a number of visits within one treatment, you‘ll have to pay for each of
them.
8. If something goes wrong within 12 months after the treatment, the dentist will repair or redo
most of the treatment free of charge.
9. There are some people who are entitled to free dental care.
10. If you need to have a tooth filled in or extracted, you‘ll probably pay £17.50.

B. Watch the episode again and find the English equivalents for the following Russian words
and word combinations.
1) иметь право на;
2) правильная чистка зубов;
3) чистка межзубных промежутков зубной нитью;
4) обработка корневого канала зуба;
5) платить один раз;
6) обратиться к зубному врачу за неотложной помощью.

Reading
8. Read the following dialogues and find synonymous phrases to rephrase the sentences given
after the second dialogue.
Dialogue 1.
A: So what brings you to my office today?
B: My tooth is killing me!
A: How long has your tooth been bothering you?
B: It just started hurting me last night.
A: Have you injured your tooth in any way?
B: I think one of my fillings might be coming loose.
A: Do you have a special kind of toothbrush that you like to use?
B: I have an electric toothbrush.

65
A: Does it bother you when you eat something really sweet?
B: Oh yeah, when I do that, it hurts a lot more!
Dialogue 2.
A: May I come in, doctor?
B: Yes, please. What ails you?
A: I have a violent toothache. The pain was so severe last night that it kept me awake. I felt pain all
over the jaw, the ear and the head too.
B: Open your mouth. Your oral hygiene is poor. There are many defective teeth. You ought to have
your teeth examined regularly, even when you have nothing to complain of.
A: Will I have any teeth extracted?
B: Well, the carious teeth with large cavities must be extracted. No cure will help them. You must
know that dental caries may run acute course and quickly involve other teeth.
A: But I'll be toothless then.
B: Don't worry: I'll insert artificial ones.
A: Could I have plastic teeth, doctor, please? I have a strong dislike for metallic teeth.
B: Certainly. I'll do my best … You see, there are two more that need filling.
A: Is the treatment for long?
B: No, it won't take much time. First, I'll cleanse the hollow teeth and treat the pulpitis.
A: I can't bear pain, doctor.
B: Don't be afraid: neither extraction nor treatment will hurt you. You won't feel any pain.

1. What seems to be the problem? … …


2. I have a bad toothache. … …
3. Does it hurt when you eat something sweet? …
4. The pain was so agonizing that I couldn‘t sleep. …
5. You should come to the dentist for regular check-ups. …
6. Will some of my teeth be pulled out? …
7. I‘ll have no teeth then. …
8. I‘ll put in false teeth. …
9. I don‘t like metallic teeth at all. …
10. I can‘t stand pain. …

Role-play
9. Role-play a conversation between a dentist and a patient. Remember to mention the
following things.

Patient Dentist
- One of your teeth is killing you. - You say that the oral hygiene is poor.
- The filling in one tooth is coming - You find many defective teeth.
loose. - You are afraid that the carious tooth has
- You need to have one tooth extracted and a large cavity and will have to be
an artificial one put in. extracted.
- You can‘t bear pain. Ask for - You are going to cleanse the cavity and
anaesthesia. treat pulpitis first.

66
Vocabulary
10. Solve anagrams to complete the sentences.
1. Most dentists are … practitioners, which means they own their own business and work alone or
with a small staff. OLSO
2. When dentists extract all of your teeth, they replace the missing teeth with … . RUSEDENT
3. Orthodontists use … to apply pressure to teeth in order to straighten them. CARBES
4. Dentists use an assortment of instruments like mouth mirrors, probes, …, brushes, and scalpels in
their work. PORFECS
5. When decay or injuries … the blood or nerve supply of your tooth, you need a root canal.
TINCEF
6. … teeth are always the last to develop. They commonly appear around the ages 17 to 25.
MIDOSW
7. The X-ray examination confirmed the … in the root canal. MIFNINAMATOL
8. I had to get a … on one of my back teeth when I went to the dentist. GIFLINL
9. Dentists sometimes perform corrective … on gums and supporting bones to treat gum diseases.
GUSERRY
10. Dentists wear masks, gloves and safety glasses to … themselves and their patients from
infectious diseases. CETTORP

11. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.


1. Я записался к зубному врачу на медицинский осмотр и при необходимости лечение
зубов.
2. Я откусил яблоко и повредил зуб.
3. Один из передних зубов причинял мне сильную боль, поэтому врачу пришлось удалить
его.
4. Я очень боялся входить в зубной кабинет.
5. Зубной врач говорит, что в одном из зубов образовалась кариозная полость, и мне
понадобится лечение, после которого он поставит мне пломбу. Но сначала он попросил
меня сделать снимок.
6. Хорошо известно, что кариес – одно из самых распространѐнных заболеваний
цивилизации.
7. Кислота продуцируется действием определѐнного вида бактерий.
8. Доказано, что только углеводы вызывают кариес.
9. Выяснили, что эта кислота растворяет эмаль и дентин, вызывая образования полости.
10. Установлено, что больные зубы вызывают различные болезни желудка.

12. Solve the crossword puzzle.

Across
2. Tooth … is a wide spread disease affecting all ages.
3. I‘m going to give you an … . In 10 minutes you won‘t feel any pain.
4. It would be best to take out all four of your … teeth.
5. My front tooth is … because my sister threw a rock at me.
6. Your gums are … . You might have an infection.
11. Would you like to … your mouth out?
13. A … canal involves removing the nerve from a specific tooth.
15. I‘m going to the dentist tomorrow. I hope I don‘t have a … .
16. We won‘t be able to finish the … today.

67
Down
1. John is going to need … on his bottom teeth. They are crooked.
7. Could you bite down on this paper and … your teeth?
8. I suggest we put a porcelain … on that tooth.
9. People chew with their … .
10. This isn‘t the tooth that is causing the … . It‘s the one next to it.
12. As … technology improves, dentists will be able to offer more effective treatment to their
patients.
14. The glossy, visible part of a tooth is called its … .
17. I suffered from …, an inflammation of the gums.
18. I like talking to the dental … .

7 12

5 10

2 8

11 14

4 9 17 18

15

13

16

68
Unit 5. Pharmacy

Reading
1. A. Read the text about pharmacy and answer the questions given below.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines.
It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe
and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.
Pharmacy practice includes compounding and dispensing medications. The compounding of
medicines usually requires the scientific combination of two or more ingredients as prescribed by a
physician, but dispensing may only require the transfer of manufactured products to a prescription
container. Both services demand special knowledge, experience, and high professional standards.
To become a pharmacist one should achieve knowledge of different subjects, such as physics,
chemistry, botany, etc.
Pharmacy also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services,
reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists,
therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use
of medication for the benefit of the patients.
An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy,
chemist's or drugstore. In the United States and Canada, drug stores commonly sell not only
medicines, but also miscellaneous items such as candy, cosmetics, office supplies, and magazines,
as well as light refreshments or groceries.
Pharmacists may also be small-business proprietors, owning the pharmacy in which they
practice.
Pharmacy technicians support the work of pharmacists and other health professionals by
performing a variety of pharmacy related functions, including dispensing prescription drugs and
other medical devices to patients and instructing on their use.
There are usually two departments in the pharmacy. In one of them, you can have medicine
right away; other drugs have to be ordered at the prescription department. In the pharmacy, all drugs
are kept in drug cabinets. Every small bottle or box has a label with the name of the medicine and
an instruction for its use inside the box. Pharmacists, nurses, doctors as well as patients themselves
must not confuse different remedies because some of them are poisonous and may cause death.
In the drug cabinets there are small parcels with different powders, ampules with glucose and
camphor used for intravenous and intramuscular injections, tubes of healing ointments which are
used to relieve pain or skin irritation, pills for internal use, sedatives and tonics, bromide, vitamins,
cod liver oil and sleeping draughts, bottles of iodine and so on.
At the pharmacy you can also get different drugs as well as hot-water bottles or electric pads,
droppers, enemas, syringes, tonometers, glucometers, thermometers and many other things.
The pharmacist usually says how to use and keep different kinds of medicine. For example,
cough mixture must be kept in a cool place and shaken before use; a tablespoon of this mixture
must be taken three times a day and so on.

B. Answer the questions.


1. What is pharmacy? What does the scope of pharmacy include?
2. What does the compounding of medicines usually require?
3. What does dispensing medicines involve?
4. What other services does modern pharmacy provide?
5. Apart from drugs, what can we buy at a pharmacy?
6. Who works at a pharmacy?
7. Why should we be careful when we buy drugs?

69
Vocabulary
2. Look at the words in the box denoting different things you can buy at a pharmacy and say
in what situations you might need them.

throat lozenges lip balm travel sickness tablets contact lens solution herbal
remedies sunscreen wet wipe emergency first aid kit plaster enzymes paracetomol
antidepressants cotton buds brilliant green pain killer indigestion
tablets ointment cough mixture tranquilizers

e.g. I buy throat lozenges when I have a sore throat.


I might take in tranquilizers if I need to calm down.

3. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

pharmaceutical over-the-counter interactions instructions antibiotic


alternative pills dizziness side effect reaction

1. Your prescription usually includes your doctor‘s … on how and when to take a medication.
2. … medicine is medicine that you can buy without a prescription.
3. A company that produces drugs is called a … company.
4. If you once had a bad … to these tablets, don‘t take them again.
5. I just want to make sure there are no … with other medication you might be taking.
6. I‘m sorry, we‘re currently out of this … .
7. Don‘t take these … on an empty stomach. Take them with a meal.
8. Nausea is a common … of these tablets.
9. When you start taking these capsules, you might experience some … .
10. Let‘s see if we can find you a low-cost … of this medicine.

Listening
4. A. Listen to the conversations taking place at the chemist’s and complete them with one or
two words for each gap.
1. ‗The doctor‘s given me this prescription.‘
‗It‘ll only take five minutes. So, perhaps, you‘ll wait.
‗Have you also got something suitable for a) …?‘
‗Rubbing this b) … every four hours.‘
2. ‗Could you make up this prescription for me, please?‘
‗I‘ll do it for you straight away.‘
‗By the way, what do you suggest for c) …?‘
‗This d) … should clear up the trouble.‘
3. ‗I‘ve just been given this prescription by Dr Warrel.‘
‗You can call back for it in about an hour.‘
‗Can you also give me something for this e) …?‘
‗Try this tube of jelly.‘
4. ‗Can I leave this prescription with you?‘
‗I‘ll have it ready for you by 5.30.‘
‗I‘d like something for a f) … too.‘
‗Put this g) … on 3 times a day.‘

70
B. Now listen to a bigger conversation and fill in the missing lines.
A: ‗Hello. I would like something for allergies. I‘ve got a headache and I can‘t breathe.‘
B: ‗1) …?‘
A: ‗I don‘t know. I‘m a bit allergic to cats, that‘s all. 2) …?
B: ‗I‘ll show you a good medicine that is available without a prescription. … Here you are.‘
A: ‗Is it an antihistamine?‘
B: ‗That‘s right.‘
A: ‗I‘ll take it. 3) …?‘
B: ‗Five pounds. If you don‘t get better, you should go to the hospital and get yourself examined by
a doctor. Good-bye, sir. Get well soon.‘

Role-play
5. With your partner, role-play similar conversations; take turns being a customer and a
pharmacist.

Student A: a customer Student B: a pharmacist


You have a health problem. Go to the Ask the customer about the problem,
pharmacy, explain your problem and ask for recommend some over-the-counter medicines,
some medicine. Ask the pharmacist how to give instructions on how to use them.
use the medicine.

Vocabulary
6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. Make use of the word combinations
given in the box.

to write out a prescription for pills to follow the doctor‘s instructions


to have a prescription made up to bring down the fever to cause skin irritation
to rub in the ointment to take a tablespoonful of the medicine three times a day
1. Это лекарство используется для лечения сердечных заболеваний. Вы должны строго
придерживаться указаний врача.
2. Жаль, что у меня нет болеутоляющего. Оно помогло бы тебе от желудочной боли.
3. Если у тебя температура, выпей таблетку аспирина, чтобы сбить жар.
4. Если Вы будете принимать это лекарство три раза в день по столовой ложке, вы скоро
поправитесь.
5. Доктор выписал рецепт, не осмотрев меня.
6. Если вдруг Вы почувствуете себя хуже, зайдите в аптеку и закажите это лекарство.
7. Вот рецепт с лекарством от Вашей аллергии, оно поможет снять зуд.
8. Сначала протрите место спиртом, а потом втирайте эту мазь.
9. Это лекарство могло бы Вам помочь, когда у вас было лишь недомогание или на уровне
профилактики заболевания. Сейчас же вам нужно принимать антибиотики.
10. Ядовитое лекарственное средство может стать причиной смерти человека.
11. Будьте осторожны, эта мазь может вызвать раздражение кожи.
12. В аптеке я купила новую пипетку и глазные капли, которые выписал офтальмолог.
13. Моя сестра пользуется грелкой каждый вечер, так как у нас очень холодно.
14. Дерматолог порекомендовала втирать эту мазь три раза в день, чтобы облегчить боль.

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7. Read the following story and complete it translating the words and word combinations
given in brackets from Russian into English.
I was feeling under the weather yesterday, so I went to the doctor, and she (1) (выписала
мне лекарства) for my illness. I took the prescription she wrote out, and I went to a local pharmacy
near my house. I gave the prescription to the pharmacist, and he said it would take a few minutes to
fill it. In the meantime, I walked around the pharmacy to find some (2) (лекарства, отпускаемые
без рецепта) for my flu symptoms. After a while, the pharmacist called my name, explained how to
take the medication, and reviewed with me some of the (3) (возможные побочные эффекты). As it
turns out, I have (4) (принимать две капсулы два раза в день), for one week for one of the
medications, and I have (5) (принимать одну таблетку после еды), once a day, for the other
medication. The pharmacist said that the medication could make me (6) (сонным), so I shouldn't
drive after taking it. He said that my problem should clear up within two weeks. However, when I
told my grandmother about my visit to the doctor, she claimed that if I took her (7) (домашнее
средство) for the problem – eating her secret onion and garlic chicken soup – I wouldn't need to
take all the other medicine.

8. Translate the following text into English to learn more about penicillin.
В 1928 году Александр Флеминг проводил рядовой эксперимент в ходе многолетнего
исследования, посвященного изучению борьбы человеческого организма с бактериальными
инфекциями. Вырастив колонии культуры Staphylococcus, он обнаружил, что некоторые из
чашек для культивирования заражены обыкновенной плесенью Penicillium – веществом, из-
за которого хлеб при долгом лежании становится зеленым. Вокруг каждого пятна плесени
А. Флеминг заметил область, в которой бактерий не было. Из этого он сделал вывод, что
плесень вырабатывает вещество, убивающее бактерии. В последствии он выделил молекулу,
ныне известную как «пенициллин». Это и был первый современный антибиотик.
Принцип работы антибиотика состоит в торможении или подавлении химической
реакции, необходимой для существования бактерии. Пенициллин блокирует молекулы,
участвующие в строительстве новых клеточных оболочек бактерий – похоже на то, как
наклеенная на ключ жевательная резинка не дает открыть замок.
В течение 1930-х годов предпринимались безуспешные попытки улучшить качество
пенициллина и других антибиотиков, научившись получать их в достаточно чистом виде.
Первые антибиотики напоминали большинство современных противораковых препаратов –
было неясно, убьет ли лекарство возбудителя болезни до того, как оно убьет пациента. И
только в 1938 году двум ученым Оксфордского университета, Говарду Флори (Howard
Florey, 1898–1968) и Эрнсту Чейну (Ernst Chain, 1906–79), удалось выделить чистую форму
пенициллина. В связи с большими потребностями в медикаментах во время Второй мировой
войны массовое производство этого лекарства началось уже в 1943 году. В 1945 году
Флемингу, Флори и Чейну за их работу была присуждена Нобелевская премия.
Благодаря пенициллину и другим антибиотикам было спасено бесчисленное количество
жизней. Кроме того, пенициллин стал первым лекарством, на примере которого было
замечено возникновение устойчивости микробов к антибиотикам.

Integrated reading and listening

8. A. Read the text The Magic Pill, then listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic. You
will notice that some ideas coincide and some differ in them. Answer questions 1–15 by
choosing A if the idea is expressed in both materials, B if it can be found only in the reading
text, C if it can be found only in the audio-recording, and D if neither of the materials
expresses the idea.
Now you have 5 minutes to read the text.

72
The Magic Pill
Aspirin is the Mozart of medicine – it never disappoints. It is found in willow bark and costs
only a penny a pill. Effective with few side-effects, it has been ingested by grateful millions for a
century. Aspirin is something that does what it says on the bottle, at the right price. But as one
interviewer asked the author of The Aspirin Wars: why not just gnaw on willow? ―Well, that might
relieve a little bit of your headache,‖ he said, ―but it would probably give you just a horrible
stomach ache.‖
That aspirin does not make us ache is a blessing of our time, worth celebrating today and, even
more, tomorrow morning. A court ruling on October 30, 1905, made aspirin a trademark in the UK,
but its history goes back to Hippocrates, the father of medicine who first noticed that willow bark
juice eased the pain of women in labour. In the Middle Ages, the same bark was boiled to cure
fever. But stripping willows was made a punishable offence to protect the profitable wicker
industry.
Aspirin was ―rediscovered‖ in 1763 in Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. The Rev Edward Stone
chewed on the bark of a white willow, noticed it tasted like the painkilling ―Jesuits‘ bark‖ from
Peruvian trees, and gave an infusion to 50 sufferers. He believed that nature provided a plant
remedy near where a given disease arose. True or not, his test results came back positive. By the
end of the 19th century, Felix Hoffman, 29, a Bayer employee inspired by his rheumatic father, had
produced aspirin as we know and love it today. Despite threats from such novelties as paracetamol
and ibuprofen in the 1960s, aspirin remains the bottle in everyone‘s bathroom. It is a testament to
the relentless curiosity of our era that we have never been satisfied with just one use for the cheap
and cheerful drug; we seek more. To date, aspirin has been found to relieve headaches, fever, joint
and body pain and to offer protection against heart disease and stroke.
Bayer owned the aspirin trademark until the end of the First World War, then was forced to
give it up in Britain, France, Russia and the USA – where the drug is now generic (elsewhere it
retains a capital A). The race is now on to produce ―super-aspirins‖, even more powerful as
medicine. However, the 100-year-old original remains wonder enough.

B. Now listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic and then do the task (questions 1-15),
comparing the text above and the lecture. You will hear the lecture twice.
1. Aspirin is cheap.
2. Willow bark contains the substance which is used for making aspirin.
3. Doctors in ancient Egypt used the willow tree extract to treat many diseases.
4. Aspirin is a good painkiller.
5. In ancient times, aspirin was used to relieve labour pains.
6. Hippocrates left historical records of pain relief treatment.
7. Every space shuttle carries a small supply of aspirin.
8. Edward Stone found the medicinal properties of the willow tree extract by chance.
9. The active substance of the willow tree extract can lead to stomach aches.
10. Aspirin can slow down swelling and blood coagulations.
11. Aspirin helps prevent the blindness and kidney damage suffered by many patients with
diabetes.
12. Aspirin can prevent heart disease.
13. British scientist John Vane discovered that aspirin blocked an enzyme needed for the
production of natural hormones.
14. Paracetamol and ibuprofen didn‘t make aspirin less popular.
15. Some vegetables contain the active component of aspirin.

73
Speaking
9. Discuss the following problem with your group.
Many people think that government should do more to help drug addicts. They should be able to
register with a chemist to get their drugs. In this way they wouldn‘t have to depend on drug dealers.
But other people suppose that drug addiction is just like a habit, like smoking or biting your nails.
Drug users can give up if they want to.

Reading fiction
Heart Attack!
by Michael Crichton from Travels
John Michael Crichton [ˈdʒɒn ˈmaɪkəl ˈkraɪtən] (1942 – 2008) was an American best-selling author,
physician, producer, director, and screenwriter, best known for his work in the science fiction,
medical fiction, and thriller genres.

A major disaster befell the medical wards of the Beth Israel Hospital. All the interns and
residents went around shaking their heads. The disaster was that, by some quirk of fate or statistics,
two-thirds of the patients on the ward had the same illness. Heart attack.
The residents acted as if all the theaters in town were playing the same movie, and they'd
seen it. Furthermore, most of these patients would be here for two weeks, so the movie wasn't going
to change soon. The home staff was gloomy and bored, because, from a medical standpoint, heart
attacks aren‘t terribly interesting. They are dangerous and life-threatening, and you worry about
your patients, because they may die suddenly. But the diagnostic procedures were well worked out,
and there were clear methods for following the progress of recovery.
By now I was in my final year of medical school, and I had decided I would quit at the end of
the year. So my three months at the Beth Israel were going to be all the internal medicine I would
ever learn; I had to make the best of this time.
I decided to learn something about the feelings the patients had about their disease. Because,
although doctors were bored by myocardial infarcts, the patients certainly weren‘t. The patients
were mostly men in their forties and fifties, and the meaning of this illness was clear to them —
they were getting older; this was a reminder of their impending mortality; and they would have to
change their lives: work habits, diets, perhaps even their pattern of sexual relations.
So there was plenty of interest for me in these patients. But how to approach them?
Some time earlier, I had read about the experiences of a Swiss physician who, in the 1930s,
had taken a medical post in the Alps because it allowed him to ski, which was his great passion.
Naturally, this doctor ended up treating many skiing accidents. The cause of the accidents interested
him, since he was himself a skier. He asked his patients why they had had their accidents, expecting
to hear that they had taken a turn too quickly, or hit a patch of rock, or some other skiing
explanation. To his surprise, everyone gave a psychological reason for the accident. They were
upset about something, they were distracted, and so on. This doctor learned that the bald question
―Why did you break your leg?‖ yielded interesting answers.
So I decided to try that. I went around and asked patients, ―Why did you have a heart attack?‖
From a medical standpoint, the question was not so nonsensical as it sounded. During the
Korean War, post-mortems on young men had shown that the American diet produced advanced
arteriosclerosis by the age of seventeen. You had to assume that all these patients had been walking
around with severely clogged arteries since they were teenagers. A heart attack could happen any
time. Why had they waited twenty or thirty years to develop a heart attack? Why had their heart
attack happened this year and not next, this week and not last week?

74
But my question ―Why did you have a heart attack?‖ also implied that the patients had some
choice in the matter, and therefore some control over their disease. I feared they might respond with
anger. So I started with the most easygoing patient on the ward, a man in his forties who had had a
mild attack.
―Why did you have a heart attack?‖
―You really want to know?‖
―Yes, I do.‖
―I got a promotion. The company wants me to move to Cincinnati. But my wife doesn't want
to go. She has all her family here in Boston, and she doesn't want to go with me. That's why.‖
He reported this in a completely straightforward manner, without a trace of anger.
Encouraged, I asked other patients.
―My wife is talking about leaving me.‖
―My daughter wants to marry a Negro man.‖
―My son won't go to law school.‖
―I didn't get the raise.‖
―I want to get a divorce and feel guilty.‖
―My wife wants another baby and I don't think we can afford it.‖
No one was ever angry that I had asked the question. On the contrary, most nodded and said,
―You know, I've been thinking about that. . . .‖
And no one ever mentioned the standard medical causes of arteriosclerosis, such as smoking
or diet or getting too little exercise.
Now, I hesitated to jump to conclusions. I knew all patients tended to review their lives when
they got really sick, and to draw some conclusion about why the illness had happened. Sometimes
the explanations seemed pretty irrelevant. I'd seen a cancer patient who blamed her disease on a
lifelong fondness for Boston cream pie, and an arthritis patient who blamed his mother-in-law.
On the other hand, it was accepted in a vague way that there was a relationship between
mental processes and disease. One clue came from timing of certain illnesses. For example, the
traditional season for duodenal ulcers was mid-January, just after the Christmas holidays. No one
knew why this should be, but a psychological factor in the timing of the disease seemed likely.
Another clue came from the association of some physical illnesses with a characteristic
personality. For example, a significant percentage of patients with ulcerative bowel disease had
extremely irritating personalities. Since the disease itself was hard to live with, some doctors
wondered if the disease caused the personality. But many suspected that it was the other way
around: the personality caused the disease. Or at least whatever caused the bowel disease also
caused the personality.
Third, there was a small group of physical diseases that could be successfully treated with
psychotherapy. Warts, goiter, and parathyroid disease responded to both surgery and
psychotherapy, suggesting that these illnesses might have direct mental causes.
And, finally, it was everybody's ordinary experience that the minor illnesses in our own lives
– colds, sore throats – occurred at times of stress, times when we felt generally weak. This
suggested that the ability of the body to resist infection varied with mental attitude.
All this information interested me enormously, but it was pretty fringe stuff in the 1960's in
Boston. Curious, yes. Worthy of note, yes. But nothing to pursue in a serious way. The great march
of medicine was headed in another direction entirely.
Now, I was getting these data from the heart attack patients. And what I was seeing was that
their explanations made sense from the standpoint of file whole organism, as a kind of physical
acting-out. These patients were telling me stories of events that had affected their hearts in a
metaphorical sense. They were telling me love stories. Sad love stories, which had pained their
hearts. Their wives and families and bosses didn‘t care for them. Their hearts were attacked.
And pretty soon their hearts were literally attacked. And they experienced physical pain. And
that pain, that attack, was going to force a change in their lives, and the lives of those around them.

75
These were men in late middle life, all undergoing a transformation that was signaled by this illness
event.
It made almost too much sense.
Finally I brought it up with Herman Gardner. Dr. Gardner was then chief of medicine at the
hospital, and a remarkable, extremely thoughtful man. As it happened, he was the attending
physician who made rounds with us each day. I said to him that I had been talking with the patients,
and I told him their stories.
He listened carefully.
―Yes,‖ he said. ―You know, once I was admitted to the hospital for a slipped disc, and sitting
in bed I began to wonder why this had happened to me. And I realized that I had a paper from a
colleague that I had to reject, and I didn't want to face up to it. To postpone it, I got a slipped disc.
At the time, I thought it was as good an explanation as any for what had happened to me.‖
Here was the chief of medicine himself reporting the same kind of experience. And it opened
up all sorts of possibilities. Were psychological factors more important than we were
acknowledging? Was it even possible that psychological factors were the most important causes of
disease? If so, how far could you push that idea? Could you consider myocardial infarctions to be a
brain disease? How would medicine be different if we considered all these people, in all these beds,
to be manifesting mental processes through their physical bodies?
Because at the moment we were treating their physical bodies. We acted as if the heart was
sick and the brain had nothing to do with it. We treated the heart. Were all these people being
treated for the wrong organs?
Such errors were known. For example, some patients with severe abdominal pain actually had
glaucoma, a disease of the eye. If you operated on their abdomens, you didn't cure the disease. But
if you treated their eyes, the abdominal pains disappeared.
But to extend that idea more broadly to the brain suggested something quite alarming. It
suggested a new conception of medicine, a whole new view of patients and disease.
To take the simplest example, we all believed implicitly the germ theory of disease. Pasteur
proposed it one hundred years before, and it had stood the test of time. There were germs – micro-
organisms, viruses, parasites – that got into the body and caused infectious disease. That was how it
worked.
We all knew that you were more likely to get infected at some times than others, but the basic
cause and effect – germs caused disease – was not questioned. To suggest that germs were always
out there, a constant factor in the environment, and that the disease process therefore reflected our
mental state, was to say something else.
It was to say mental states caused disease.
And if you accepted that concept for infectious disease, where did you draw the line? Did
mental states also cause cancer? Did mental states cause Heart attacks? Did mental states cause
arthritis? What about diseases of old age? Did mental states cause Alzheimer‘s? What about
children? Did mental states cause leukemia in young children? What about birth defects? Did
mental states cause mongolism at birth? If so, whose mental state – the mother‘s or the child‘s? Or
both?
It became clear that at the farther reaches of this idea, you came uncomfortably close to
medieval notions that a pregnant woman who suffered a fright would later produce a deformed
child. And any consideration of mental states automatically raised the idea of blame. If you caused
your illness, weren‘t you also to blame? Much medical attention had been devoted to removing
ideas of blame from disease. Only a few illnesses, such as alcoholism and other addictions, still had
notions of blame attached.
So this idea that mental processes caused disease seemed to have retrogressive aspects. No
wonder doctors hesitated to pursue it. I myself backed away from it for many years.
It was Dr. Gardner‘s view that both the physical and the mental aspects were important. Even
if you imagined the heart attack had a psychological origin, once the cardiac muscle was damaged it
needed to be treated as a physical injury. Thus the medical care we were giving was appropriate.

76
I wasn‘t so sure about this. Because, if you imagined that the mental process had injured the
heart, then couldn‘t the mental process also heal the heart? Shouldn‘t we be encouraging people to
invoke their inner resources to deal with the injury? We certainly weren‘t doing that. We were
doing the opposite: we were constantly telling people to lie down, to take it easy, to give over their
treatment to us. We were reinforcing the idea that they were helpless and weak, that there was
nothing they could do, and they‘d better be careful even going to the bathroom because the least
strain and – poof! – you were dead. That was how weak you were.
This didn‘t seem like a good instruction from an authority figure to a patient‘s unconscious
mental process. It seemed as if we might actually be delaying the cure by our behavior. But, on the
other hand, some patients who refused to listen to their doctors, who jumped out of bed, would die
suddenly while having a bowel movement. And who wanted to take responsibility for that?
Many years passed, and I had long since left medicine, before I arrived at a view of disease
that seemed to make sense to me. The view is this:
We cause our diseases. We are directly responsible for any illness that happens to us.
In some cases, we understand this perfectly well. We knew we should have not gotten run-
down and caught a cold. In the case of more catastrophic illnesses, the mechanism is not so clear to
us. But whether we can see a mechanism or not – whether there is a mechanism or not – it is
healthier to assume responsibility for our lives, and for everything that happens to us.
Of course it isn‘t helpful to blame ourselves for an illness. That much is clear. (It‘s rarely
helpful to blame anybody for anything.) But that doesn‘t mean we should abdicate all responsibility
as well. To give up responsibility for our lives is not healthy.
In other words, given the choice of saying to ourselves, ―I am sick but it has nothing to do
with me,‖ or saying, ―I am sick because I caused the sickness,‖ we are better off thinking and
behaving as if we did it to ourselves. I believe we are more likely to recover if we take that
responsibility.
For one thing, when we take responsibility for a situation, we also take control of it. We are
less frightened and more practical. We are better able to focus on what we can do now to ameliorate
the illness, and to assist healing.
We also keep the true role of the doctor in better perspective. The doctor is not a miracle
worker who can magically save us but, rather, an expert adviser who can assist us in our own
recovery. We are better off when we keep that distinction clear.
When I get sick, I go to my doctor like everyone else. A doctor has powerful tools that may
help me. Or those tools may hurt me, make me worse. I have to decide. It‘s my life. It‘s my
responsibility.

Vocabulary notes
myocardial infarct/infarction – инфаркт миокарда, a heart attack, death of a segment of heart
muscle, which follows interruption of its blood supply. Myocardial infarction is usually confined to
the left ventricle. The patient experiences sudden severe chest pain, which may spread to the arms
and throat.
arteriosclerosis – артериосклероз, a medical condition in which the walls of your arteries become
hard and thick, so your blood cannot flow through them properly.
duodenal ulcer – язва двенадцатиперстной кишки, an ulcer in the duodenum, caused by the
action of acid and pepsin on the duodenal lining of a susceptible individual. It is usually associated
with an increased output of stomach acid.
ulcerative bowel disease – язвенная болезнь кишечника;
warts – бородавка, a small, hard, benign growth on the skin, caused by a virus;
goiter – зоб, разрастание щитовидной железы, a swelling of the neck resulting from enlargement
of the thyroid gland;
parathyroid disease – заболевание паращитовидной железы, disease of a gland next to the thyroid that
secretes a hormone that regulates calcium levels in a person's body;

77
slipped disc – грыжа межпозвоночного диска. If you have a slipped disc, you have a bad back
because one of the discs in your spine has moved out of its proper position.
glaucoma – глаукома, a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball, causing gradual loss of
sight;
Alzheimer’s disease – болезнь альцгеймера, the most common form of dementia among older
people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person‘s ability to carry out daily
activities.
leukemia – лейкемия, белокровие, a malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and
other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These
suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.
mongolism – монголизм, болезнь Дауна, another term for Down's syndrome.

A. In the text find the English equivalents to the corresponding Russian words and word
combinations.
1) в больничном отделении/палате;
2) с медицинской точки зрения;
3) лечащий врач, врач-ординатор;
4) совершать обход (пациентов врачами);
5) выдержать проверку временем;
6) иметь смысл, быть понятным кому-либо;
7) способствовать исцелению.

Word formation
B. Fill in the table with the corresponding adjectives or nouns from the text.
noun adjective
diagnosis
mortal
psychology
abdominal
infection
conscience
addictive
catastrophe
heal

C. In the text find the words and word combinations similar in meaning with the following:
1) a student or trainee who works, sometimes without pay, at a trade or occupation in order to
gain work experience;
2) an examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death;
3) germ;
4) in a state of poor health;
5) obstructed so as to prevent or hinder flow of blood in the arteries.

78
D. Complete the sentences with the words from the text.
1. Heart attacks aren‘t terribly interesting, they are … .
2. The patients who had had heart attacks thought they … .
3. To the physician‘s surprise, many skiers gave … for their accidents.
4. During the Korean War, postmortems on young men showed that … .
5. Warts, goiter and parathyroid disease could be treated with … and … showing that these
illnesses have … .
6. The ability of the body to … varied with mental attitude.
7. Some patients with severe abdominal pain actually had … .
8. According to the medieval notions, a pregnant woman who suffered a fright would … .
9. A few diseases such as alcoholism still have a notion of … .
10. When we take responsibility for a situation, we … .

E. Answer the questions.


1. What astonished the interns of the Beth Israel Hospital?
2. Why was the hospital staff gloomy and bored?
3. What were the feelings of the patients who had had a heart attack? How old were they?
4. Why does the narrator mention a Swiss physician?
5. What did the narrator learn from his patients?
6. Is there a relationship between a) mental state and disease; b) physical illnesses and
personality, in the narrator‘s opinion/in your opinion ?
7. What proves that illnesses have mental causes?
8. When do most colds, sore throats and other minor illnesses occur?
9. How did Dr Gardner explain the cause of getting into hospital with a slipped disc?
10. What does the germ theory of disease state? Why do you think it stood the test of time?
11. Why was the idea of blame raised, in your opinion?
12. Can mental processes heal the heart? Can people‘s inner resources cure diseases and
injuries?
13. What idea is reinforced when people are told to lie down, to take it easy, to give over their
treatment to the doctor?
14. What view of a disease did the narrator finally arrive at? Do you agree with it?
15. When are people more likely to recover?
16. What is the doctor‘s role in our life?

F. Retell the text following the outline given below. Remember that you should retell it in
reported speech and the third person singular.
1. The disaster of the Beth Israel hospital.
2. The experience of a Swiss physician.
3. Questioning the patients.
4. Psychological factors and diseases.
5. Dr Gardner‘s explanation.
6. The germ theory of disease.
7. The narrator‘s view of disease.
8. The doctor‘s role.

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Watching a film

Patch Adams (1998)


Director: Tom Shadyac
Genre: Biography, Comedy, Drama
Runtime: 116 minutes
Characters:
Hunter Patch Adams (Robin Williams)
Truman Schiff (Daniel London)
Corinne Fisher (Monica Potter)
Mitch (Philip Seymour Hoffman)
Rudy (Michael Jeter)
Arthur Mendelson (Harold Gould)
Dean Walcott (Bob Gunton)

The film is based on a true story. It is about a heroic middle-aged man who one day decides to
commit himself to an insane asylum for trying to commit suicide. It's there where he is given the
nickname ―Patch‖ and discovers his desire to help people through laughter, understanding, and
personal connection.

Vocabulary
1. In the film there are a lot of synonyms to the words denoting death and dying. Find them all
out classifying them into three groups, continuing the list of the words given below:

death to die dead


curtain to expire deceased
the last breath to pass on defunct
the big sleep to perish demised
God‘s way of saying ‗Slow down.‘ to kick the bucket Dead as a doornail.

Why do you think Hunter Patch Adams and Bill Davis use so many words and word
combinations about death and dying? What effect does their conversation produce?

Speaking
2. Read the following quotes and while watching the film identify the characters who said
them and prepare to describe the situations in which they are used.
1. All of life is a coming home. Salesmen, secretaries, coal miners, beekeepers, sword swallowers,
all of us. All the restless hearts of the world, all trying to find a way home. It's hard to describe what
I felt like then. Picture yourself walking for days in the driving snow; you don't even know you're
walking in circles. The heaviness of your legs in the drifts, your shouts disappearing into the wind.
How small you can feel, and how far away home can be. Home. The dictionary defines it as both a
place of origin and a goal or destination. And the storm? The storm was all in my mind. Or as the

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poet Dante put it: In the middle of the journey of my life, I found myself in a dark wood, for I had
lost the right path. Eventually I would find the right path, but in the most unlikely place.
2. You're focusing on the problem. If you focus on the problem, you can't see the solution. Never
focus on the problem!
3. You treat a disease, you win, you lose. You treat a person, I guarantee you, you'll win, no matter
what the outcome.
4. ... you are not cut out to be a physician …
5. What's wrong with death sir? What are we so mortally afraid of? Why can't we treat death with a
certain amount of humanity and dignity, and decency, and God forbid, maybe even humor. Death is
not the enemy gentlemen. If we're going to fight a disease, let's fight one of the most terrible
diseases of all, indifference.
6. See what no one else sees. See what everyone chooses not to see ... out of fear, conformity or
laziness. See the whole world anew each day!
7. When I was a girl I would look out my bedroom window at the caterpillars; I envied them so
much. No matter what they were before, no matter what happened to them, they could just hide
away and turn into these beautiful creatures that could fly away completely untouched.
8. Our job is to rigorously and ruthlessly train the humanity out of you and make you into
something better. We're gonna make doctors out of you.
9. Remember laughing? Laughter enhances the blood flow to the body‘s extremities and improves
cardiovascular function. Laughter releases endorphins and other natural mood elevating and pain-
killing chemicals, improves the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to internal organs. Laughter boosts
the immune system and helps the body fight off disease, cancer cells as well as viral, bacterial and
other infections. Being happy is the best cure of all diseases!
10. Human beings are not worthy of trust.
11. We start out so open and spontaneous. We‘re real individuals. Then somewhere along the way
we‘re drawn to conform. It‘s as if we‘re conditioned by programmed responses.
12. Passion doesn‘t make doctors. I make doctors.
13. Medical students, as a rule, have no contact with patients until the third year. Is that clear? Our
way of doing things is a product of centuries of experience.

3. Answer the questions.


1. What did Hunter Adams understand while being a patient in a mental ward?
2. How did Hunter Adams help his fellow patient Rudy who was terrified of imaginary squirrels?
3. How did Hunter Adams get the nickname ‗Patch‘?
4. What do you know about the main character‘s childhood?
5. How well did Hunter Adams study?
6. What was Hunter ‗Patch‘ Adams criticized for in his official medical school record?
7. Why is Patch Adams remarkable?
8. How would you describe the way Patch Adams is dressed?
9. What methods did Patch Adams use to treat his patients? Should all doctors use such methods
of treating their patients? Are there any dangers involved?
10. What is the difference between the traditional and untraditional approaches?
11. Do you agree that laughter is the best medicine?
12. In the film you hear the following words, ‗Our job is improving the quality of life, not just
delaying death.‘ Do you agree with this idea? Is the career of a doctor easy in your opinion?
13. How would you comment on the following words, ‗You treat a disease, you win, you lose. You
treat a person I‘ll guarantee you‘ll win.‘, and ‗We need to start treating the patient as well as the
disease‘?
14. What kind of clinic did Patch Adams open? Where did they get drugs from? How successful
was it?
15. What are your impressions of the film? Which episode did you like most of all?

81
Writing

A Narrative Essay
A narrative essay tells a story. Telling stories has always been an important part of human
history. Another word for story is narrative. The narrative essay has the same basic form as most
academic essays, but allows the writer to be more creative.
Every story has several important elements: the setting, the theme, the mood, the characters
and the plot.
The setting is the location where the event takes place.
The theme is the basic idea of the story. There are often such themes as love, courage, envy, etc.
The mood is the feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the story. It can be happy,
hopeful, suspenseful, or scary. The setting and the descriptive vocabulary create the mood in a
narrative.
The characters are the people in the story who react to the events in which they are involved.
The plot is the sequence of events, it tells us what happens in the story. The plot often
includes a climax or turning point at which the characters or events change
As any other essay, a narrative has three parts:
1) the introduction,
2) the body,
3) the conclusion.
In the introduction, you describe the setting, introduce the characters and prepare the readers
for the action to come. The introduction should have a hook, connecting information and a thesis.
The hook – usually the first few sentences – grabs the readers‘ attention and makes them
start guessing about what will happen next.
There are different ways to write a hook. Here are some of them.
1. Ask a question. If readers want to know the answer to the question, they are ‗hooked‘ and
will read the narrative.
e.g. How many people take medicine – even simple aspirin – every day?
2. Use an interesting observation.
e.g. Some people suffering from insomnia attempt to treat themselves by using cough syrup or alcohol.
3. Use a unique scenario to catch readers’ attention.
e.g. When morbidly obese Barrie Mcrorie struggled to fit in his bath, he decided on drastic action
to tackle his expanding waistline. An unhealthy diet of takeaways, crisps and chocolate saw his
weight rocket to almost 24 stone, leaving him unable to reach down and tie his own shoelaces.
4. Begin with a famous quote.
e.g. There's a lot of people in this world who spend so much time watching their health that they
haven't the time to enjoy it.
5. Use a surprising or shocking statistic.
e.g. Health care for women is more expensive than it is for men. In fact, during their reproductive
years, women spend 68% more on health care than men do.
After the hook, the writer usually gives connecting information. These are often three to five
sentences that help connect the reader to the topic. They can contain background information about
the topic or they can be examples. From these sentences the reader has a good idea what the topic
might be.
The thesis states the main idea and introduces the action. In the thesis statement which is
usually one or two sentences long, the writer tells the reader what to expect in the narrative. The
thesis can be stated or implied.
The body contains most of the plot. There you find the supporting information. In a narrative
with a chronological organization, each paragraph ends with a transitional sentence which has two
purposes: (1) to signal the end of the action in one paragraph and (2) to provide a link to the action

82
of the next paragraph. These sentences are vital because they give a narrative unity and allow the
reader to follow the action easily.
In the conclusion, you finish describing the action of the essay. The final sentence can deliver
the moral of the story by telling the reader what the character learned from the experience or it can
make a prediction or a revelation.
Most narrative essays are written in the past tenses (mostly the Past Simple) because they
usually tell events that have already happened.

1. A. Read a short story as an example and point out its strong and weak sides. When
analysing this narrative, think of the answers to the following questions:
1. Has the story got a title?
2. Is there a good setting?
3. What do you learn from the thesis?
4. Does it include descriptions of feelings and emotions?
5. Does it contain direct and indirect speech?
6. Does the writer use a variety of past tenses (the Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect,
Past Perfect Continuous)?
7. What prediction is implied in the conclusion?

Into Africa title


I was a single mum and when my daughter left for university, I was introduction
lonely. the hook
Then I read about a charity that provided healthcare education to people connecting
in Africa. information
As a nurse I decided to sign up, and several months later, I flew to thesis
Mombasa, Kenya.
Malaria, dehydration and gastric problems were rife, but the local people body
didn‘t have the money for proper healthcare. Without our free clinic, many transitional
would have died. sentence
We took our clinics into schools and taught the children about basic
healthcare. They passed what they‘d learnt to their parents and gradually, the
health of the community improved.
Now I‘m raising money for another trip. conclusion
I thought my adventures in life were over. It turns out, they are only just prediction
beginning.
B. Have you ever had cramps? Do you know how to treat and how to prevent them? What
should you do if you have cramps? Read the information given below to find more about this
health problem.
Leg Cramps
What are they?
Cramp is a sudden muscle contraction called a spasm, which causes pain. Leg cramps tend to occur
at night during sleep.
Who gets them?
Those over 60 and pregnant women seem to be more prone to leg cramps, but they can affect
people of all ages, including children. Cramps occur for no apparent reason but may be a symptom
of an underlying health condition or a side effect of certain medication.
What’s the treatment?
Stretching and massaging the affected muscle. If you get leg cramps frequently, stretching exercises
may help to prevent them. Leg cramps that occur during pregnancy should pass once the baby is
born.

83
C. Now read the story from Rebecca Huls, 28, of Brighton who found a remedy for cramps
and answer the questions.
1. What kind of hook does the author write? Do you think the hook of the story is effective?
Did it grab your attention? Why, or why not?
2. What is the setting of this story?
3. What does the author write about to connect the reader to the topic?
4. What is the theme or the basic idea of this narrative?
5. What do you think the mood of the story is? What feeling or atmosphere does the author
create? What descriptive adjectives does the writer use to render the mood of the story?
6. What characters are there in the story?
7. Is the plot organized in a chronological order? In a few words describe what happens first,
second, third, and so on.
8. Can you underline and read out transitional sentences?
9. What function does the final sentence perform? Is it a moral, a prediction or a revelation?
Could Bananas Cure Me?
The audience burst into applause. I stood on stage listening to the clapping and felt a real buzz
of excitement. I vowed, ‗Dancing will be my life.‘
While I was in America, I met some teachers from a high school. They said, ‗We‘re looking
for a dance instructor – would you be interested?‘
‗You bet,‘ I replied.
One night, after demonstrating techniques in class – how to point your toes, how to get into
different ballet positions – I returned home tired.
I snuggled down in bed and fell into a deep sleep. But two hours later, I was woken by
excruciating pain in my feet and calves.
It felt as if I had tennis balls in my legs. I rubbed hard and eventually the pain went away.
But next day my calves still felt sore.
It happened again, night after night. I had no idea what was causing the spasms, but they
seemed to be triggered if I stretched my feet or pointed my toes while sleeping.
I went to a doctor, who said, ‗It‘s cramp. Make sure you warm up properly before your
classes and keep your potassium levels up. Try eating bananas.‘
From then on, I had a banana before I went to sleep. I also tried elevating my legs by propping
them up on pillows. One night, I even wore shoes to bed to stop myself from pointing my toes.
It didn‘t work – and it was so uncomfortable, I didn‘t try it again!
Tiredness made me grumpy and I wasn‘t coping with my workload.
Finally I heard about a different remedy for night cramps – Crampex tablets – and decided
they were worth a try.
They contain calcium gluconate, which helps correct any calcium deficiency, cholecalciferol to
aid calcium absorption and nicotinic acid to improve poor circulation, and they are available in the UK.
I took them every night before bed and soon the crams stopped.
Now I‘m back in Britain and although I work as an assistant psychologist, I still teach
dancing.
I rarely get cramps now, but if I do, I just go back on the tablets for a while.
I‘m so relieved to have found a remedy. Dancing is one of the loves of my life.

D. Now it’s your turn. Write a story about a health disorder which either you or your family
members once had and say what treatment was used and how the problem was solved. Write
300-350 words.
Remember to
- think of a good title;
- include description of feelings and emotions;
- use direct and indirect speech;
- include a variety of past tenses;
- write a good conclusion (moral, revelation, or prediction).

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Listening Based Writing (LBW)
2. Listen to the dialogue with Barbara Currie, who is talking about her work as a dentist.
Reproduce Barbara’s story in your own words.
Remember the following things.
1. Each reproduction has three parts: the introduction, the main body, the conclusion. In the
introduction you explain what you are going to write about. In the main body you retell the
story in a written form. In the conclusion you can sum up the main points, make an
observation or express your own opinion.
2. Write your reproduction in the third person singular (e.g. Barbara Currie said …; she
explained that …; the narrator pointed out that …; the story-teller added…; the dentist
wondered why …).
3. Do not use direct speech when reproducing the story.
4. Use a variety of tenses and your active vocabulary.

Project Work
The Most Important Medical Achievements of Humankind
Imagine that you are travelling to another galaxy and expect to meet other
life forms. You will have to speak about the most important medical
achievements of humankind.

Work in small groups of 3-4 students. Choose 3 of the greatest


medical advances and prepare to speak about them for 3
minutes. Remember to mention:
● what kind of achievement it is;
● who contributed to its development;
● how it helps people;
● how it will change our life in the future;
● your own ideas.

Some ideas are suggested to help you. But you can use as many of your own ones as you wish.
Each group will make one report. The others will listen and vote on one achievement which they
find the most important. Everybody will have to write the name of the achievement and three
reasons why it has been chosen on a piece of paper and hand it in.

chemotherapy aspirin artificial heart


artificial insemination body scans
medical ultrasound smallpox vaccine penicillin

laser beams

X-rays antibiotics organ transplant

robot surgeons gene-based cancer therapy

85
Review
1. A. Listen to the text about genes and ancient viruses and choose the best answer a, b or c.
1. What is a gene?
a) a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues
b) a unit of heredity
c) a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses
2. Researchers studied our ancestors who lived
a) 10,000,000 years ago
b) 1000,000 years ago
c) 100,000,000 years ago
3. A new study has examined the genes of
a) mammals
b) all kinds of animals and birds
c) insects
4. The new study has found that many our ancestors‘ diseases
a) haven‘t changed at all
b) exist today but are slightly different
c) didn‘t survive
5. According to the recent research
a) our DNA has genetic information about ancient viruses
b) viruses don‘t stay within their host cell any more
c) the viruses of the past do not evolve any more
6. The genes of the human body
a) prevent viruses from spreading
b) help viruses to develop
c) make it impossible for viruses to thrive
7. Ancient micro-organisms
a) aren‘t useful at present
b) will not be studied in the future
c) can help discover cancer and infections at an early stage
8. How many genes do human beings have?
a) between 10,000 and 25,000
b) between 100,000 and 250,000
c) between 1 million and 2.5 million

Integrated reading and listening


2. A. Read the text, then listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic. You will notice that
some ideas coincide and some differ in them. Answer questions 1–15 by choosing A if the idea
is expressed in both materials, B if it can be found only in the reading text, C if it can be found
only in the audio-recording, and D if neither of the materials expresses the idea.
Now you have 2 minutes to read the text.

Muscles are a type of human tissue with many different functions. They assist people with
standing up straight and movement. Unfortunately, while doing these things, muscles can become
injured. When forced to perform beyond their means, they can become sore, pulled, or torn. An
injured muscle requires special care to make sure it heals properly. Over time, doctors have found
that the best treatment for an injured muscle is to apply heat to it.
The effectiveness of heat has been proven time and time again. When a muscle is injured,
placing a heating pad on it visibly reduces the swelling of the muscle. The reason this works is

86
because heat helps draw blood into the sore tissues. The improved circulation brings in additional
nutrients and oxygen, which helps the muscle heal faster.
Another advantage of using heat on an injured muscle is that it helps relax and soothe the
muscle. An untreated injured muscle is likely to contract more often than usual. Heat can help
reduce the contractions of the muscle. Once the muscle tissue is relaxed, it makes it easier for a
person to move the injured muscle without causing further damage.

B. Now listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic and then do the task (questions 1-15),
comparing the text above and the lecture. You will hear the lecture twice.
1. Muscles have many different functions.
2. Muscles help people to stand and move.
3. Heat can help an injured muscle to heal.
4. Heat draws blood to the inflamed tissues.
5. Good blood circulation brings oxygen and nutrients to the sore tissue.
6. You should put a heating pad on an injured muscle only after some time has passed.
7. Using heat on injured muscles can have negative side effects.
8. You should never lie down on a heating pad because you might fall asleep and burn your skin.
9. Putting a heating pad on a sore muscle immediately after the injury might make it swell more.
10. Heat reduces the amount of contractions in the muscle.
11. Heat may relax the muscle so much that you will hurt it more when you move it.
12. If you have pulled a muscle, first put an ice pack on it.
13. You should never apply an ice pack for more than 20 minutes.
14. You must always follow the doctor‘s instructions.
15. You must wrap a piece of ice in a small cotton towel before applying.

3. Look at the picture and name the parts of the human body (1–24).

87
4. There are ten words denoting different diseases and health problems in the grid given
below. Find them and give them in the alphabetical order. Read the grid up and down, down
and up, from right to left, from left to right.
F G J U A I D S E U
M U M P S I Q W V L
A S E L S A E M K F
E I N S O M N I A T
S Z H S U N A T E T
U S I T I R H T R A
A D I A B E T E S Z
N O I S S U C N O C
5. In each sentence there is a word, which shouldn’t be there. Change the sentences so that
they become lexically and grammatically correct.
1. Both my aunt and uncle continue from arthritis.
2. I lifted my shirt so the doctor could ignore my chest.
3. It can be difficult to suffer at the top of a very high mountain.
4. You shouldn‘t cough the problem. See the doctor.
5. It will take you a few weeks to completely exercise from your illness.
6. If you examine to eat chocolate, you‘ll have rash all over your body.
7. I know I should recover more often, but it‘s not easy to find the time.
8. If you have to breathe, please, put your hand in front of your mouth.

6. Solve anagrams.
1. Jack couldn‘t play football for two months because of an … RUNJYI.
2. What‘s the best … for a bee sting? TENTRATEM
3. Have doctors finally found a … for malaria? UREC
4. I got some dirt in the cut and I‘ve got an … . CONFETIIN
5. I fell over and my knee is still a bit … . UNFILAP
6. Many rock stars seem to end up in drug … . RETYHAP
7. When Sam broke a rib, he had to wear a … around his chest. GANEDAB
8. My grandma uses an old-fashioned … for her arthritis. DERYME
9. My arm is really …, I can‘t move it. SEOR
10. The number of people dying of … has decreased over the last 100 years. ALIMARA
11. The cardiologist walked along the … talking to the patients. RAWD
12. Dr Morison told the patient that he needed … on the right leg. REGYRUS
13. Half an hour after taking the pill, I began to feel the … . FETSECF

7. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.


unwell hysterical unconscious shock dizzy
discomfor pain bruise sore numb
1. The accident victim seemed to be in … so we covered him with a blanket.
2. Jeremy was in excruciating … just after he broke his leg.
3. The woman became … when she saw her son knocked down by a car.
4. The driver hit his head on the windscreen and ended up with a nasty … .
5. Katy felt some … from the sprain but she wasn‘t in agonizing pain.
6. At first we thought the man was dead, but when we saw him breathing, we realized he was just… .
7. The boating accident victims felt … by the time they got out of the icy water.

88
8. Linda found it difficult to talk as she had a … throat.
9. The teacher felt … because she had stood up too quickly.
10. You must see the doctor if you‘ve been feeling … for so long.

8. Solve the crossword puzzle.


1 2 3 10

7 18

4 13

11 20

14 16

22

15 19

12 21

17 23

Across
1. Make sure you wrap the … properly around the wound.
5. Unfortunately, this disease is … . Nothing can be done about it.
9. Some drugs can give you side … you don‘t expect.
11. You … your shoulder when you fell down.
12. They called an … because their grandfather was feeling very sick.
15. I have a mouth … – it‘s really sore.
16. Martin … his ankle when he was walking in the mountains.
17. You have a … in this tooth.
18. If your skin feels …, avoid scratching it if it is possible.
19. Your oral … is extremely poor.
21. I had an … stomach and couldn‘t eat anything yesterday.
23. I‘m afraid that you have a case of … bronchitis.

Down
2. ‗Are you … to any drugs?‘ – ‗Yes, Penicillin.‘
3. Most people hate the sound of a dentist‘s …. .
4. If I give you local …, you won‘t feel any pain.
6. Take care not to exceed the … stated on the packet.
7. My … was purple, but then it became yellowish in colour.
8. If an illness or condition is …, it means it runs in your family.
10. … refers to an inflammation of the gums.

89
13. Don‘t make so much noise. I have a … headache.
14. … is a field of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
16. Nurse, give me a …, I need to give this man an injection.
20. Nancy received a wrong … from her old doctor and wasn‘t given proper treatment.
22. I will remove the … after the scar has healed.

9. What parts of the body do the diseases given in the box affect?
arthritis tuberculosis hepatitis diarrhea mumps diphtheria Alzheimer‘s disease
10. Complete the sentences with suitable words. The first letter is given for you.
1. My uncle received t ... for a broken ankle in the C … Department of the local hospital.
2. Luckily, the passengers suffered only minor i … in the accident.
3. There is no c … for AIDS.
4. You need a doctor‘s p … to obtain these painkillers.
5. Take one of these p … after every meal for three days.
6. The injection is quite p … . You won‘t even feel the needle going in.
7. After picking the flowers I noticed I had a r … all over my hands.
8. The medicine bottle said the recommended d … was two teaspoons twice a day.
9. The minimal number of patients necessary to t … the new drug is 50. Any less than that and
the scientists won‘t know if it works properly or not.
10. Did you know that you can have your eyes o … on with lasers these days?
11. It is said that people who eat poorly are likely to have h … problems later in life.
12. The nurse will f … in for the operation.
13. G … is a field of medicine that focuses on the health of older people.
14. This is not a malignant tumour, it‘s b … .
15. Patients with a broken leg usually need to use c … for a couple of months.

11. Translate the sentences.


1. Роберта увезли в больницу и удалили аппендицит.
2. При зубной боли люди обращаются к стоматологу, который проводит лечение и
ставит пломбы. При необходимости зубы удаляют.
3. Детский врач велел Нику принимать чайную ложку этого лекарства 3 раза в день,
чтобы сбить жар.
4. Чтобы поставить правильный диагноз, врачи заставляют пациентов делать анализ
крови и флюорографию.
5. Двое моих коллег сейчас на больничном. Они слегли с гриппом. Надеюсь, что они
скоро поправятся и вернутся к работе, а пока мне приходится работать сверхурочно.
6. У меня мозоль на пятке из-за новых тесных туфель.
7. Мне кажется, что я сейчас упаду в обморок. У меня сильно кружится голова.
8. Надеюсь, что однажды появятся лекарства от СПИДа, рака и других опасных
болезней.
9. Терапевт тщательно обследовал пациента: пощупал пульс, измерил кровяное давление
и температуру, послушал легкие и сердце.
10. Врача, который делает операции, называют хирургом. В наши дни операции могут
проводиться на любой части тела.
11. Врач предписал пациенту инъекции, постельный режим и строгую диету.
12. После нескольких инъекций этого лекарства я чувствую себя излечившимся от всех
болезней.

90
Glossary
Unit 1 stomach black and blue
human body tendon bundle of nerves
Adam‘s apple thigh/hip charley horse
ankle thorax be on the road to recovery
arteries thumb feel sick to one‘s stomach
belly/abdomen tissue miscellaneous
brain toe precaution
bronchi tongue blood cholesterol level
calf trunk ascorbic acid
capillaries upper arm check-up
cavity urinary bladder vaccination
cell ureter malignant melanoma
chest veins quarantine
chin waist Unit 2
collarbone windpipe diseases and health
diaphragm wrist problems
ear systems anaemia
elbow cardiovascular system angina
eye digestive system appendicitis
finger endocrine system arthritis
fingernail immune system autism
forearm muscular system blood clot
gall-bladder nervous system bronchitis
gland reproductive system cerebral palsy
gum respiratory system chicken pox
head skeleton system cirrhosis of the liver
heart urinary system concussion
heel verbs: body processes conjunctivitis
instep breathe constipation
intestines/bowels bruise diabetes
jaw cough diarrhea
joint digest diphtheria
kidney faint dysentery
kneecap/patella itch epilepsy
knee-joint limp German measles
limbs/extremities throb gout
liver sneeze hay fever
lungs snort haemorrhage
muscles swallow hepatitis
neurons sweat hernia
nostril swell high blood pressure
oesophagus/gullet wheeze stomach ulcer
palm wink indigestion
pelvic girdle yawn influenza (flu)
shin idioms insomnia
shoulder girdle feel run-down jaundice
skeleton be under the weather leukaemia
skull be back on one‘s feet manic depression
sole look off colour measles
spinal column drop like flies meningitis

91
multiple sclerosis diagnose an illness acute pain
mumps suffer from an illness agonizing/excruciating pain
nausea recover from an illness burning pain
otitis treat an illness constant pain
paranoia a chronic illness dull pain
Parkinson‘s disease a long illness nagging pain
pneumonia a minor illness severe pain, sharp pain
polio(myelitis) a mental illness shooting pain
rheumatism a serious illness slight pain
salmonella a sudden illness sudden pain
scarlet fever the cause of an illness throbbing pain
schizophrenia the extent of an illness unbearable pain
scurvy a symptom of an illness phrasal verbs
smallpox a recurrence of an illness bring on
stroke (make) a full recovery from an wear off
tetanus illness come to/round
tonsillitis disease cheer up
tuberculosis/TB combat/fight a disease come down with
ulcer contract/get a disease break out
vomiting cure a disease pass out
eczema eradicate disease get over
headache prevent disease throw up
blister suffer from/have a disease word formation
stomachache transmit a disease disability
backache a common disease disabled
earache communicable/contagious/ infection
pain in the back infectious/catchy disease allergy
high blood pressure a hereditary disease allergic
hacking cough a fatal/incurable disease obesity
tickly cough a rare disease obese
cold curable, incurable disease surgery
fracture an outbreak of a disease surgical
heart attack the spread of a disease poison
sore throat a cure for a disease poisonous
boil resistance to a disease lethargy
bruise the risk of a disease lethargic
temperature pain addiction
rash alleviate/ease/relieve/soothe pain addictive
black eye deaden the pain depression
lump be contorted with pain depressive
ulcer be in pain diabetes
virus bear/endure/put up with /stand the diabetic
bug pain miscellaneous
runny nose cause pain complications
blocked nose complain of a pain scar
health problems cry out in pain/ scream with pain side effect
sprain an ankle groan with pain survival rate
dislocate a shoulder inflict pain drowsy
pull a muscle pain passes
illness pain gets worse
have an illness
cause an illness

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disabilities radiologist have one‘s teeth X-rayed
wheelchair speech therapist filling
prosthetic leg surgeon braces
retarded/mentally traumatologist root canal
handicapped/intellectually things in the surgery enamel
disabled syringe extraction
hearing-impaired/deaf tonometer dental hygienist
visually-impaired/blind scalpel denture
amputee thermometer forces
be confined to bed enema incisor
treating patients scales molar tooth
be diagnosed with phonendoscope wisdom tooth
examine smb sterile gauze cavity
give artificial respiration adhesive tape tooth decay
apply sterile dressing dental forceps dental floss
cervical collar pipette (dropper) local anesthetic
sling blood glucose meter/ novocaine
stitches glucometer caries
crutches word combinations gingivitis
bandage treat smb periodontitis
plaster cast cure smb malocclusion
transplant fit somebody in for an operation plaque
Unit 3 be operated on for appendicitis crown
doctors undergo an operation drill
allergist be on sick leave inflammation
anesthesiologist have one‘s leg put in a cast chew
cardiologist get/take sick leave grind
chiropodist have a nervous break-down chip
dentist have one‘s blood tested swell-swelled-swollen
dermatologist give injections rinse
emergency doctor instill eye drops or nasal drops Unit 5
endocrinologist cover wounds at the pharmacy
ENT specialist take somebody‘s temperature throat lozenges
gastroenterologist weigh somebody lip balm
general practitioner (GP) listen to somebody‘s heart and chest travel sickness tablets
hematologist take somebody‘s blood pressure contact lens solution
hepatologist calculate the blood glucose level herbal remedies
immunologist perform /to carry out an operation sunscreen
midwife take/feel smb‘s pulse wet wipe
nephrologist strip to the waist emergency first aid kit
neurologist have one‘s chest X-rayed enzymes
obstetrician breathe in deeply paracetomol
oncologist hold one‘s breath antidepressants
ophthalmologist breathe out cotton buds
oral surgeon Unit 4 plaster
orthodontist dentistry pain killer
orthopedist fill in a tooth indigestion tablets
pediatrician pull out/take out/ extract a tooth ointment
perinatologist put a crown on the tooth cough mixture
physiotherapist extract a tooth tranquilizers
plastic surgeon pharmaceutical company
psychiatrist

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write out a prescription for pills
follow the doctor‘s
instructions/directions
have a prescription made up
bring down the fever
rub in the ointment
take a teaspoonful of the
medicine three times a day
cause skin irritation
home remedy
prescribe some medication
over-the-counter medication
potential side effects
take two capsules
take one pill after eating

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SPORT

The will to win is important,


but the will to prepare is vital.

Joe Paterno

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Unit 1. Sports and Games

Lead-in

1. Have you done any of the sports


in the pictures? What do you need
to do these sports?

Vocabulary
2. Make verb/noun collocations using the nouns in the box and the verbs in the table below.
athletics cycling volleyball gymnastics football swimming skiing
tennis basketball skating jogging chess
karate sailing baseball golf climbing yoga

do play go

Think of two more kinds of sport to go with each verb.

3. Translate into English.


1. Очень важно следить за здоровьем и заниматься спортом.
2. Занятия танцами не вызывают неприятных ощущений и боли.
3. Для игры в гольф недостаточно иметь только большой зелѐный газон.
4. Сегодня никого не удивят девушки, которые играют в хоккей или футбол.
5. Для того чтобы начать заниматься гимнастикой не нужно специальных
приспособлений.
6. Вы занимаетесь лѐгкой атлетикой?
7. Занятия водными видами спорта подойдут тем, у кого проблемы с позвоночником.
8. Играть в баскетбол, волейбол, теннис, бадминтон – не только весело, но это также
способствует сохранению формы.

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Conversation Practice

Are you any good at…?


4. When you are asked ‘Are you any good at basketball?’ you can say ‘Yeah, quite good’ or
‘No, not really’ or some other way. Read the given statements that can serve as an answer to
this question. Match the sport and the statement.
1. I’m OK. We had a couple of tables at school, so I played nearly every day. a. roller skating
2. No, not really. But I know a few Japanese words to shout. b. Alpine skiing
3. Yeah, quite good, I usually spend about two or more hours at the rink. c. table tennis
4. No, I’m useless. I can‘t keep balance while sliding down a mountain. d. swimming
5. Yes, I’m good at it. I go to the pool at least three times a week. e. volleyball
6. No, I’m hopeless. I always hit the ball out of bounds. f. judo

Ask each other about your abilities in sports using ‘Are you any good at…?’ Give full answers.

Listening
5. Listen to the dialogue and fill in the gaps with the words or word combinations you hear in
the recording. Read the dialogue with your partner and act it out.
K: What are you 1)… ….?
H: Oh, just looking at what‘s on offer at the 2)… … .
K: How come?
H: Well, I promised myself that I was going to get fit. I want to do a sport. I just don‘t know which
one.
K: Well, have you thought about if you like team sports or individual ones?
H: I don‘t mind really.
K: Do you like swimming or diving?
H: Neither, I can‘t swim.
K: What about 3)… …, boxing or weightlifting?
H: Can you see me doing any of them?
K: No, not really. Well, what sports do you like watching then?
H: I really enjoyed the tennis when I went to Wimbledon last summer.
K: So maybe a 4)… … then?
H: Perfect! But which one?

Reading
6. Read the text and do the tasks given below.
Sports that Originated in England
Great Britain is responsible for many things for which we should all be very grateful: it is the
country of Shakespeare, Harry Potter, the Beatles and mushy peas. We also have England to thank
for most of the sports played in modern society. Many popular sports originated in England
including football, cricket, rugby and tennis. These sports are now played all over the world at
various levels of professionalism. We all know the reasons for this: for a very long time, Britain
considered itself the leader of the world and, while conquering various other countries, they realized
that teaching the natives to play a good game of cricket was probably just as civilizing as anything
else. As such, most countries which were ruled by mother England at some point now play cricket,

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as well as many other sports she has given the world. Just look at people in Canada, America,
Europe and Australia. The popularity of football spreads even further, with kids in nearly every
country in the world learning to kick a ball almost as soon as they can stand.
In England today a huge importance is placed on sports. It is the favourite pastime of most
citizens, and you‘d be hard pressed to find anyone who does not follow at least one kind of sport.
They get started young: children in Britain, especially boys, are usually forced by a combination of
parents and school to get up at an ungodly hour on Saturday mornings and run around in the mud
for the sake of training the nation‘s future athletes. As people grow older, they can play sports in
many local amateur or semi-professional clubs.
Cricket is, and has always been, one of the most popular British sports. It‘s England‘s official
national sport. Unfortunately, nearly every other country that plays the sport is better at it than they are:
but the English do it with more class. Cricket basically consists of standing around in either the hot sun
or the rain and waiting for something interesting to happen. What they are supposedly watching while
they‘re trying to keep their eyes open is one man bowling a ball down a twenty-metre pitch to another
man, armed with a bat, who is standing in front of wickets. If the man hits the ball with his bat, he
proceeds to run up and down the pitch. If he misses and it hits the wickets, he is out.
Another great sport is tennis. Played now by most countries in the world, tennis is an elegant
sport of graceful leaps, skillful backhands, and occasional grunting. For those watching it, you‘re
not allowed to make any sounds until each point has been scored. If you‘re at Wimbledon,
England‘s biggest and most famous tennis tournament, you‘re expected to eat strawberries and
cream, which is a tradition. The sport, properly known as lawn tennis to distinguish it from a very
different indoor game, originated in the 19th century and has been popular ever since. In addition,
England is responsible for table tennis, which began when two university students decided to hit a
champagne cork back and forth across a table using cigar boxes.
England is also the mother of football, which is one of the sports closest to the Englishman‘s
heart. Although the situation of men following their natural urge to kick something reaches far
further back in history than England, it was British public schools in the 19th century who are
credited with turning the game into an organized team sport. Nearly every place in the country has
some sort of team to support, if not one of the 92 professional clubs, then at least one in some sort
of a local league. Football is possibly the most played and recognized sport in the world, and is
endlessly skillful, exciting and its supporters are certainly passionate.
For those people who find it difficult to obey the no-contact rule in football, England is also the
home of Rugby, a much more violent form of football. To the uneducated observer, it would look
like a group of stocky, tank-like men doing their best to kill each other by shoving their shoulders
into each others throats. Once you get to know rugby, you‘ll realize that this assessment is actually
fairly accurate: the sport does basically consist of doing anything you can to destroy the other team
and get hold of that ball. The game is made difficult by the shape of the ball, which is something
like a giant symmetrical egg. Like football, modern rugby is credited to English public schools,
where it was transformed into an organized team sport.
We can thank England for many other sports too: horse racing, netball, darts, badminton… the
list goes on. Although there are obviously more influences than just Great Britain on modern sport,
we can see in this country an impressive passion for running round in mud and an admirable desire
to make proper rules for activities that were just games, not sports.

A. Find in the text the words or word combinations which mean the following:
1) an activity that you enjoy doing during your free time
2) an area of ground specially prepared and marked for playing a sports game (football, cricket,
rugby)
3) a long or high jump
4) a sports competition involving a number of teams or players who take part in different games
and must leave the competition if they lose
5) a strong desire to do something

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6) a group of sports teams who all play each other to earn points and find which team is best g.
pushing somebody/something in a rough way
7) a sport played chiefly in Britain that is similar to basketball and has two teams of seven
players each, especially women or girls

B. Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).


1. All modern sports originated in England.
2. Cricket is extremely popular in Great Britain.
3. Cricket is an official national sport in England.
4. Spectators often shout when players hit the ball in tennis.
5. Table tennis originated as a fun activity.
6. The English codified the game of football.
7. Football developed in the 19th century.
8. Rugby is less violent than football.

Vocabulary Sports and athletes


Note!
We usually add –er or player to a noun or verb for the person who does a sport: golfer, swimmer,
runner, tennis player, rugby player, chess player.
But: gymnast, athlete, glider-pilot etc.

7. A. Fill in the missing words in the table


Sport Athlete
1) boxing …
2) Alpine skiing …
3) … gymnast
4) … athlete
5) motor racing racing …
6) cycling …
7) … jockey
8) the pentathlon …
9) … yachtsman
10) rowing …
11) … sky diver
12) weightlifting …
13) hockey …
14) … fencer
15) … luger (slider)
B. Match the following commentary extracts with one of the sports from exercise 7 A.
1. Suddenly Ali looks very tired indeed, in fact Ali, at times now, looks as though he can barely lift
his arms up... Oh he‘s got him with a right hand! And I don‘t think Foreman‘s going to get up. He‘s
trying to beat the count. And he‘s out! OH MY GOD he‘s won the title back at 32! Muhammad Ali!
2. Schumacher is off the track. He was trying to pass Hill, then he lost control of the car and that‘s
the race over for him.
3. The Giants scored a go-ahead run in the fourth inning and Madison Bumgarner pitched five
scoreless frames in relief to make sure it was all that was needed.
4. The men‘s downhill starts at nine o‘clock and the women‘s giant slalom follows at one o‘clock.

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5. Jaden Schwartz started the game on a line with Patrik Berglund and Dmtrij Jaskin. They didn‘t
score against the Ducks, but they sustained pressure with some excellent puck possession as the
Blues controlled long stretches of the game.
6. After his performance on the rings, he will be hoping for something better on the horse.
7. Last year‘s Gold Cup winner will run in the Prix du Cadran at Longchamp. The five-year-old,
trained by Sir Michael Stoute, will then be retired from racing for a breeding career.
8. In the women‘s team pursuit final, Katie Archibald, Elinor Barker, Joanna Rowsell and Laura
Trott defeated the Russian team by nearly seven seconds.
9. In a gripping men‘s high jump contest, Mutaz Essa Barshim of Qatar and Ukraine‘s Bohdan
Bondarenko both attempted a new world-record height of 2.46m as the battle between the two for
the Diamond went right down to the wire.
10. In April, men‘s head coach Jurgen Grobler decided to break up his world title-winning men‘s
eight and make the men‘s four - a boat in which GB have won gold at the last four Olympics – his
priority once more.

Grammar
Confused words
Play and game, play and act are the words that people often use in the wrong way, one instead
of another. Here are some notes about their usage.
Nouns: play and game
Verbs: play and act
A play is a piece of writing performed by actors in a theatre or on television or radio.
‘Julius Caesar’ is one of Shakespeare’s early plays.
A game is an activity or a sport with rules in which people or teams compete against each other.
Let's have a game of table tennis. (NOT … a play of tennis.)
The uncountable noun play can be used to mean ‗playing‘ in general.
You should be aware of the importance of learning through play.
To act means to perform a part in a play or film/movie, to perform a particular role or function.
Who's acting the part of Hamlet? Can you act as interpreter?
To play means to be involved in a game; to compete against somebody in a game.
Have you ever played squash?
Play can also mean ‗to act in a play, film/movie, etc; to act the role of somebody‘.
The part of Elizabeth was played by Cate Blanchett.

8. Insert the words in the gaps in the correct form.


1. Let‘s … a different … .
2. I could hear the happy sounds of children at … .
3. Most of the cast … well.
4. I would like to see a … by Shakespeare.
5. Hockey is truly a team … in a sports world that sells individuals.
6. He had always wanted to … Othello.

How to use articles with the verb to play.


No article is found in the combinations of the verb play + the name of the game.
To play golf, to play chess, to play cards.
The definite article or the indefinite article is used in the combinations of the verb play + the name
of the musical instrument.
To play the cello, to play a violin.

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9. Complete the sentences with articles if necessary.
1. While Nat was calling my mom, I heard someone start playing … drums really loud.
2. As well as playing … flute Rosie plays … piano, violin, guitar and sings.
3. Franz learnt to play … piano and … violin from his father and brothers, and later … viola.
4. They were playing … board game.
5. I don‘t know how to play … cricket.
6. Somewhere within, … harp was playing.
7. You won‘t believe it but she does play … soccer.
8. In the distance I saw a man playing … guitar.

Listening
10. You are going to hear the programme about hockey in Canada. Before you listen, make
sure you understand the following words and phrases:
rugged lush rabid Canucks ‗beat the bejeezus out of smb‘

Listen to the recording and match the beginnings of statements 1-6 to their endings A-G.
There is one extra ending which you do not need to use.
1. In Canada the national pastimes are hockey …
2. Canadians invented ice hockey after they understood it was too cold there …
3. Canadians took the old European form of field hockey …
4. Hockey is a fast, often violent sport …
5. A spectator sport is good for playing …
6. Die-hard fans fill up streets on the day of a big victory …

A. and added a lot of different gear to make a new game.


B. and made their own skates, sticks and other pieces of equipment.
C. and even more when the game is lost.
D. and great for watching.
E. and going native in the countryside.
F. and it is easy to follow.
G. and very difficult to find a good grassy field.

● Is ice hockey popular in Russia? Are there any professional leagues?

Vocabulary
11. A. Complete the definitions with the words in the box. Consult dictionaries.
referee (ref) competitor linesman rival cheerleaders manager
coach captain spectators supporters commentator
1) … a person who describes a game on TV or the radio
2) … people who regularly watch a team play (syn. fans)
3) … people who watch a game (also the crowd)
4) … a person who is the leader of the team
5) … a person who takes part in a competition
6) … a person or team that competes with another in sport
7) … a person who gives practical teaching to make smb better in sport

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8) … a group of young people (usually women) wearing special uniforms, who encourage the
crowd to support their team at a sports event
9) … the official who controls the game in some sports (in tennis and baseball this is an umpire)
10) … the person in control of a football team
11) … an official who helps the referee in some games that are played on a field or court, especially
in deciding whether or where a ball crosses one of the lines (syn. referee’s assistant)

B. Choose the correct answer.


1. They have a special manager/coach to improve their fitness.
2. The captain/rival wears an armband during the game.
3. The referee/linesman gave him a red card.
4. There were 30,000 in the stands, of which about 10,000 were MU supporters/spectators.
5. He said there was plenty of interest from competitors/fans keen to participate in the games.
6. John Motson has been a front line commentator/cheerleader with BBC Television for over
25 years.
7. In the men‘s singles final at Wimbledon, they had a Portuguese referee/umpire.
8. He also wants supporters/cheerleaders and drill team members to be counted as athletes.

C. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words.


There was trouble at last week‘s game. Our 1) ... got a red card in the second half for arguing with
the 2) …, and then the 3) … team scored a goal in the last minute, although the 4) … had his flag up
for offside. Even the 5) … on the radio thought it was offside, but the ref gave the goal. At the end
of the match, some 6) … who were in the crowd then ran onto the pitch, and the referee had to have
a police escort. In the press conference after the game, our 7) … was still very angry.

Reading
12. Read the text about ten most popular sports in the world in 2014.
A. Match the heading from the list A-J for each part of the text 1-10.
A. Volleyball E. Tennis I. American football
B. Football F. Baseball J. Field hockey
C. Basketball G. Golf
D. Cricket H. Table tennis
The concept of sports can be dated back to around 2000 BC, where gymnastics was probably one
of the first - and most popular - sports of that era. In those days sports were simple games of endurance
and skill, and acted as training grounds as well as competitions for the entertainment of the masses.
There are a few ways of going about mapping the most popular sports in the world. On the one
hand, we could define the term ‗popular‘ as ‗most watched‘ - in which case we would try to
measure the fan base for each type of sport. Another option could be to measure the ‗most played‘
sports in the world - in which case we would have a much more difficult time, as we‘d have to
somehow determine how many people are playing each sport, on average, per country.
Today‘s list will attempt to come to a conclusion regarding the most viewed sports around the
globe, as a function of the number of fans - as estimated through participation and media coverage.
1. With 3.3-3.5 billion fans around the world 2. There are 2-3 billion fans mostly across the
this sport is played by 250 million players in ex-British colonies, particularly India and
over 200 countries. The simplicity of the sport neighboring countries, Australia and West
combined with the ease of play makes this the Indies, Southern Africa, and the British Isles.
most popular sport in the world to play, as well Thanks to the British Empire, this sport has
as to watch. Versions of a game involving the spread across the globe. While references

102
kicking of a ball towards a target have been indicate that it may have been played as far back
around for centuries, but it wasn‘t until the mid- as the 16th century, it wasn‘t until the early
19th century that a proper code of rules was 1700s that the sport fully developed and was
developed in England. The game is played by codified. It is a bat-and-ball game played
two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players on a field
on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. at the center of which there is a rectangular 22-
The object of the game is to score by using any yard long pitch. Each team takes it in turn to bat,
part of the body besides the arms and hands to attempting to score runs, while the other team
get the ball into the opposing goal. The fields. Each turn is known as an inning.
goalkeepers are the only players allowed to
touch the ball with their hands or arms.
3. It is the 3d most popular sport on earth with 2-2.2 4. The top-ranking sport that features solo
billion fans in Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia. The competition has around 1 billion fans around the
game developed independently in Europe as well as world and dates back before the 14th century.
Asia in the 3rd century B.C., modern rules were King Louis X of France had an indoor court
developed in the 19th century England, and spread built for himself in the early 1400‘s, but it
to the English colonies. Two teams play against wasn‘t until the middle of the 19th century that
each other by trying to maneuver a ball into the the modern rules came in to place. People
opponent‘s goal using a stick. usually play this sport individually against a
India and Pakistan dominated the sport in the single opponent (singles) or between two teams
mid-20th century, while the later part of the of two players each (doubles). Each player uses
decade saw Australia and the Netherlands take a racket to strike a rubber ball over the net and
over as the major force. While it is seen as a into the opponent‘s court. The object of the
female-dominated sport in North America, game is to play the ball in such a way that the
across the globe it is male-dominated. opponent is not able to play a good return.
5. A simple sport where all that is needed is a 6. Hugely popular in China, and gaining
ball and a net has around 900 million fans. The acceptance in Europe, this sport has been around
surface is negotiable, ranging from grass, to for less than a century, but was adopted quickly in
sand, to cement. The simplicity of play and mainland Asia. It has around 900 million fans in
flexibility of what kind of playing surface is the world.Part of the attraction of the sport, much
needed has made this game widely popular. It is like soccer, is the ease of play and inexpensive
a team sport in which two teams of six players equipment: a hard table and a net. Two or four
are separated by a net. Each team tries to score players hit a lightweight ball back and forth using
points by grounding a ball on the other team‘s bats. Except for the initial serve, players must
court under organized rules. It has been a part of allow a ball played toward them only one bounce
the official program of the Summer Olympic on their side of the table and must return it so that
Games since 1964. it bounces on the opposite side.
7. A sport with around 500 million fans. The 8. The sport has 450 million fans in US, Canada,
game has one of the longest-standing codes of Europe. Dating back to the 13th century in
play - the major rules have not changed since theory, this game wasn‘t solidified as a sport
1901. The first formal league, the National until the early 1400‘s in Scotland, where it was
League, was founded before then, in 1876, and promptly banned by King James II. It is a
consisted of American teams. It is a bat-and-ball precision club and ball sport in which competing
game played between two teams of nine players players use many types of clubs to hit balls into
who take turns batting and fielding. The offense a series of holes on a course using the fewest
attempts to score more runs than its opponents number of strokes. The indirect nature of
by hitting a ball thrown by the pitcher with a bat competition in the game tends to be an issue for
and moving counter-clockwise around a series potential fans - unlike all of the other sports on
of four bases: first, second, third and home plate. the list, sportsmen here are never face to face in
A run is scored when the runner advances contest with each other, creating a lack of
around the bases and returns to the home plate. conflict or perceived competitiveness.
9. 400 million fans. Developed in America in the 10. The national obsession of millions of
late 19th century, the first century of the sport Americans has propelled this sport onto the list -

103
was dominated by Americans. As it has slowly outside of North America, its impact is
spread throughout the world, other countries negligible. Many estimates indicate that, of the
have developed great talent. The growth is 400 million fans, nearly half come from the
partially spurred by the urbanization of the United States and Canada. Evolving from rugby
globe, as this game is one of few sports that can in the late 19th century, the sport was seen
be played in minimal amounts of space in urban mainly as a club or collegiate sport until the
environments. It is played by two teams of five establishment of the NFL in 1920. It is a sport
players on a rectangular court. The objective is played by two teams of eleven players on a
to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) rectangular field 120 yards long by 53.3 yards
in diameter and 10 feet (3.0 m) high mounted to wide with goalposts at each end. The offense
a backboard at each end. The team with the most attempts to advance an oval ball down the field
points at the end of the game wins. by running with it or passing it. They must
advance it at least ten yards in four downs to
receive a new set of four downs and continue the
drive; if not, they turn over the ball to the
opposing team.
B. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the object of football as a game?
2. Where is field hockey most popular?
3. Where do people play volleyball?
4. What is a bat-and-ball game? How do people play it?
5. What team sport needs minimal amounts of space? Why?
6. What is Americans‘ favourite sport? What is its essence?
7. Why does golf lack perceived competitiveness?
8. What sport features solo competition?
9. What sport originated in Europe but is widely popular in Asia?

Role-play
13. Role-play the following dialogue with your partner.
Student A: You are the one who loves football. There is a big game on TV and you would like to
watch it. However your partner doesn‘t like football and wants to see something else.
Student B: You are the one who is a fan of tennis. They show Wimbledon tournament on TV and
you cannot miss it. Talk to your partner and decide what both of you are going to watch.

Listening
14. Listen to the program about Muhammad Ali. Decide whether the following statements are
true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS).
1. Muhammad Ali became the heavyweight boxing world champion three times.
2. He was the first rapper in the world.
3. Muhammad Ali won the world heavyweight championship when he was 22.
4. He was first directed toward boxing by a Louisville police officer and boxing coach J. Martin.
5. Muhammad Ali‘s amateur record was 100 wins.
6. He didn‘t serve in the army as he didn‘t want to stop his career.
7. Muhammad Ali spent five years in a Louisville‘s prison.
8. Muhammad Ali was against female boxing.
● What is your attitude to boxing?

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Speaking

15. In 1978 Muhammad Ali said: ‗Women are not made to be hit in the breast, and face like that...
the body‘s not made to be punched right here [patting his chest]. Get hit in the breast... hard... and
all that.‘ What do you think of female boxing? Should female boxing be banned?
Make two lists of arguments, one for and the other against a ban on female boxing.

Vocabulary
16. Fill in the prepositions.
The world heavyweight champion, Lennox Lewis, successfully defended his title against
American Evander Hollyfield last night. Right 1) … the very start Lewis had Hollyfield in trouble
and 2) … the end of the first round, Hollyfield was clearly very relieved to get back 3) … his
corner. The bell went 4) … the second round and Lewis immediately knocked his opponent down
5) … a huge right hand and it seemed only a matter of time before Lewis would win 6) … a knock-
out. But Hollyfield recovered and as the fight went on he got increasingly stronger, causing the
champion serious problems. 7) … the end it went the full twelve rounds and Lewis was quite
relieved to win 8) … points.

Grammar
Expressing ability or lack of ability
To express ability we use the verb can (present or future), could is the Past Simple Tense form
of can. We use to be able to in all the tense forms.
I can swim. I could swim when I was six.
If you go to the pool regularly, you’ll be able to learn how to swim.
I haven’t got any money now, but I can pay you back tomorrow.
Could is used in statements to express general ability in the past for repeated actions. Was able
to (= managed to) is used to express ability in the past for either a single or repeated actions.
However, with the verbs: feel, hear, smell, taste, see, understand, guess, remember we normally
use could for single actions.
When I was young, I could run fast.
Marcus was able to reach the station before midnight.
We could hear the clear belling from inside the patch of forest in the valley.

Could/ Was able to are both used in negations and questions for either single or repeated
actions.
They couldn’t/weren’t able to finish the race.
Could you/Were you able to ride a bicycle when you were seven?

17. Insert the verbs can, be able to in the correct form.


1. When we lived at the seaside, we … swim in the sea practically every day.
2. I‘m not usually good at table tennis, but yesterday I … to beat my friend.
3. Not only can he not read music, he … (not) read at all.
4. She … drive, believe me.
5. Bill … (not) play chess when he was younger.

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6. From the ridge Terry … see for miles in all directions as the horizon stretched away into the
misty mountains.
7. … you play draughts?
8. I‘m busy tonight, sorry, I … come to the party.
9. Paula will buy a new car as soon as she … .
10. … you remember how to do it?

Reading
18. Read the text. Answer the questions.
Sports in the USA
Sports play an important role in American society. They enjoy tremendous popularity but more
important they are vehicles for transmitting such values as justice, fair play, and teamwork. Sports
have contributed to racial and social integration and over history have been a ‗social glue‘ bonding
the country together.
Early Americans like Benjamin Franklin and President Thomas Jefferson stressed the need for
exercise and fitness promoting, for example, running and swimming. In the 20th century, American
presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy continued to
encourage physical activity. President Dwight D. Eisenhower founded the President‘s Council on
Youth Fitness in 1956 to encourage America‘s youth to make fitness a priority. The Council later
became the President‘s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, including people of all ages and
abilities and promoting fitness through sports and games.
Today, the Council continues to play an important role in promoting fitness and healthy living
in America. The United States offers limitless opportunities to engage in sports - either as a
participant or as a spectator.
Team sports were a part of life in colonial North America. Native American peoples played a
variety of ball games including some that may be viewed as earlier forms of lacrosse.
The typical American sports of baseball, basketball and football (American football), however,
arose from games that were brought to America by the first settlers that arrived from Europe in the
17th century. These games were re-fashioned and elaborated in the course of the 19th century and
are now the most popular sports in the United States. Various social rituals have grown up around
athletic contests. The local high school football or basketball game represents the biggest event of
the week for residents in many communities across the United States. Fans of major university and
professional football teams often gather in parking lots outside stadiums to eat a ‗tailgate‘ picnic
lunch before kickoff, and for parties in front of television sets in each other‘s homes during the
professional championship game, the Super Bowl.
We may consider baseball as the American traditional sport for it started in the 18th century,
held a semi-professional National Baseball Club in the 1860‘s and from that point on, baseball
became the ‗national pastime‘ of Americans. Nowadays, the most played sport in the United States
is football.
Let us not forget that basketball also started in the U.S. in 1891. Young Men‘s Christian
Association (YMCA) had a major role in spreading this sport globally.
The United States also have hosted quite a number of Olympic Games from 1904 (St. Louis,
Missouri) to 2002 (Salt Lake City, Utah).
Individual competitions accompanied the growth of team sports. Shooting and fishing contests
were part of the colonial experience, as were running, boxing, and horse racing. Golf and tennis
emerged in the 1800s. Recent decades have given birth to a wide variety of challenging acitivities
and contests, such as sail boarding, mountain biking, and sport climbing, collectively referred to as
‗extreme sports‘.

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1. Why is sport extremely important in American society?
2. Why did president Dwight D. Eisenhower found the President‘s Council on Youth Fitness?
3. What are typical and most popular American sports?
4. What social rituals do Americans have in regard to athletic contests?
5. What sports originated in the USA?
6. What new sports were born in the USA?

Speaking
19. Speak about sport in Russia. Answer the following questions.
 How popular is sport in Russia?
 What are the most played sports in Russia?
 What are the most watched sports in Russia?
 What sports originated in Russia?
 What Russian sportsmen are famous in the world?

Phrasal Verbs
20. A. Read the sentences with phrasal verbs. Translate them into Russian.
1. If you are serious about starting to work out, don‘t forget about your diet.
2. The trainer was told that he‘d have to shape up the boxer before the fight.
3. You should always warm up for a few minutes before you begin to run.
4. Before I came here I thought I‘d get knocked out in the first round.
5. Urged on by the home crowd, Saito forged ahead after just 5 kilometres and built up a 2-minute lead.
6. John tripped when he was kicking off.
7. Tom is lifting weights to build himself up for basketball.
8. They‘ve taken up golf.
9. Beckham was sent off for a foul in the second half.

B. Match the phrasal verbs in ex. A to the definitions below.


a) to prepare for physical exercise or a performance by doing gentle exercises or practice
b) to make somebody/yourself healthier or stronger
c) to make your body stronger and healthier by exercising
d) to start play in a game (such as American football or soccer) by hitting the ball
e) to order somebody to leave the field because they have broken the rules of the game
f) to defeat somebody so that they cannot continue competing
g) to start or begin something, such as a job, a hobby, a sport
h) to encourage somebody to do something or support them so that they do it better
i) to move forward quickly; to make a lot of progress quickly
j) to train the body by physical exercise

C. Use the phrasal verbs in the correct form to complete each sentence.
1. Beckingsale attacked on lap 5 and only Stander could match him and together they … of the
chasing trio.
2. He has been … at the gym.
3. He was … for striking another player.
4. You need more protein to … you … .
5. The game still looked in the balance and Rhodes continued to … Kendal … with his constant
ranting from the back.

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6. Bulgaria‘s new football championship season … last weekend, implementing some
interesting changes from past years.
7. He was doing Pilates and … with oversized exercise balls long before either became trendy.
8. Be sure to … and stretch before exercising.
9. Andre Agassi was … of the French Open in the second round.
10. Mary … tennis at the age of 11.

21. Here are some of the current world records in athletic events. Match the record with the
event. Try to find out who the record holder is and when the record was broken.

Record Event Record holder/Year


1. pole vault a. 23,12m …
2. 3000m steeplechase b. 5,06m …
3. long jump c. 9,58secs …
4. 100m d. 74,08m …
5. high jump e. 52,34secs …
6. decathlon f. 7,52m …
7. marathon g. 9039 points …
8. 400m hurdles h. 8mins 58.81secs …
9. discus throw i. 2,09m …
10. shot put j. 2hrs 03mins 23secs …

Video
22. Watch the video Extreme Sports and answer the questions.
1. What is paragliding?
2. What other sports related to flying did Ueli Gegenschatz do?
3. How does he characterize each sport?
4. When can a person do extreme sports on such a level?
5. What two projects is he training for?
6. How do paragliders land?
7. What is the exhaust coming out of the back of the wingsuit? Why do they use it?
8. What do they do to cover their face?

Role-play
23. Role-play the following dialogue with your partner.
Student A You are a fan of extreme sports, you have done parachuting, skydiving and snow
boarding. Your friend wants to try some extreme sport and asks you for a piece of
advice.
Student B You would like to do either parachuting or snow boarding and you talk to your friend
about the sport: danger, feelings, preparation, equipment etc.

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Unit 2. Sporting Events. Tournaments

Pronunciation
1. English learners are generally bad at pronouncing foreign names, players, sports, cities,
stadia, etc. because they have specific spelling and are not often pronounced according to the
rules of their recipient language. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following sports
that came from different languages:

judo ['dʒu:dəʊ] yoga ['jəʊɡə]


karate [kə'rɑːti ] pilates [pɪˈlɑːti:z]
tae kwon do [ˌtaɪˌkwɒn 'dəʊ] yogalates [jeʊɡə'lɑːti:z]
tai chi [ˌtaɪ 'tʃi:] flamenco [flə'meŋkəʊ]
Practice the pronunciation of these words.

Listening At the gym


2. Part 1. Listen to Maya who is telling about the Grange Park Sports Centre. Fill in the gaps.
Before you listen make sure you know the following words and word combinations:
tai chi Pilates Zumba flamenco
1. The main rooms in the centre are nice, light and airy, and they have an …system.
2. The club opened … years ago.
3. They have a sauna and massage rooms, a gym with different … .
4. People are asked to bring their own towels, but they don‘t need to bring a … for the yoga and
Pilates classes.
5. If a person wants to visit the centre more than twice a week or use the sauna, they will have
to pay … .
6. Both the centre and the gym are quite … .

Part 2. Listen to Bill who is telling about the gym. Answer the questions.
1. What do trainers do in the gym?
2. How big is the gym? What is it there?
3. When can one use the swimming pool?
4. What do they offer in their own shop?
5. Why is the gym more expensive than other gyms in the area?
6. What extra classes does Bill mention?

Conversation Practice
Showing personal interest
It is very important to show that you are interested in what your partner is saying or doing.
Use these expressions to show you are interested. Remember! When we are very interested or
surprised our voice is higher and louder.

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Showing interest Asking about thoughts and feelings
What are you working on? Are you OK?
How‘s it coming along? What‘s on your mind?/ Is something on your
I think you did a nice/great job with/on … mind?
What‘s going on with you? What are you thinking about?
What have you been up to? You seem a little preoccupied with something.
How are you getting on? Is there anything you want to talk about?
Oh, really? Is something bothering you?

Invitations

Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do
you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can
use when making or responding to invitations
Inviting Accepting invitations Declining invitations
Do you want to go to the Sure. What time? I can‘t. I have to work.
movies tonight? I‘d love to, thanks. This evening is no good. I
Would you like to go to the That‘s very kind of you, have an appointment.
theater tomorrow? thanks. I‘m busy tomorrow. Can I take
Would you be interested in That sounds lovely, thank you. a rain check* on that?
going to the stadium next What a great idea, thank you. That‘s very kind of you, but
Sunday? Sure. When should I be there? actually I'm doing something
How do you fancy going to the That‘s a good idea. else this afternoon.
restaurant for dinner? Alright. Well, I‘d love to, but ….
How about going to the Great. I‘m really sorry, but I‘ve got
movies? Ok. something else on.
Care to come over for lunch? I really don‘t think I can – I‘m
I was just wondering if you supposed to be doing
would like to come over for a something else.
drink.
We'd be delighted to have you (*rain check: used to tell
over for my birthday party. someone that you cannot accept
invitations now, but would like
to do so at a later time)
3. A. Read the following dialogue with your partner. Answer the questions following the
dialogue.
A: Steve. Is that you?
B: Yeah. What‘s going on?
A: Not much. What a surprise to see you here.
B: Yeah. It‘s been a couple of months since I saw you.
A: What have you been up to?
B: I just started working out.
A: Really? Where do you work out at?
B: I joined the Samsung Health Club last month.
A: What do you mostly do during your workout?
B: I concentrate mostly on my legs, chest, arms and stomach.
A: I should start exercising more.
B: It‘s hard work while exercising, but it is a great feeling when I get done.
A: I have a running machine at home. I used to use it, but I already got sick of it.
B: Exercising at home is hard. The environment is not suited for exercising.
A: If I want to exercise, I will need to join a gym.

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B: I have a couple of guest passes. Do you want to check out my health club?
A: That‘s a good idea. Let‘s go over the weekend.
B: Great. I‘ll call you Saturday morning.
A: Alright. I‘ll talk to you later.
B: Ok. Bye.
 What does Steve do to work out?
 Why does he say that exercising at home is hard?
 What does he suggest to his friend?
B. Find the phrases that are used to show someone’s personal interest and the ways of making
and accepting invitations.

C. You overhear a conversation of two friends. Complete the conversation using the phrases
from the boxes above.
John: (show interest) …
James: I‘m fine, I try to go to the gym at least three times a week to keep fit.
John: (show interest) … . I always want to but don‘t know where to start.
James: Well, our gym is great. (make an invitation) … . I can help you in your first steps.
John: (accept the invitation) … .

Vocabulary

4. A. Match the definitions with the words in the box.


tip rep squat workout set sit-up pull-up press-up
1) … - an exercise in which you lie on your stomach and raise your body off the ground by pressing
down on your hands until your arms are straight.
2) … - an exercise for making your stomach muscles strong, in which you lie on your back on the
floor and raise the top part of your body to a sitting position.
3) ...- an exercise in which you hold onto a high bar above your head and pull yourself up towards it
4) … - one complete motion of an exercise.
5) … - a group of consecutive repetitions.
6) … - a small piece of advice about something practical.
7) … - a period of physical exercise that you do to keep fit.
8) … - an exercise involving crouching or sitting with one‘s knees bent and one‘s heels close to or
touching one‘s buttocks or the back of one‘s thighs.

B. Complete the sentences with the most appropriate word from the box in the correct form.
1. If you want to build muscle, you should do lower … with heavy weight.
2. Doing … is a quick way to get stronger abdominal muscles.
3. … force you to lift your own body-weight, they are the best strength training exercises you can
do for upper-body strength and muscle mass.
4. When you do …, the head and neck should be kept in a straight line.
5. Rock climbing may be a great …, but if you live in a city, it's not something you'll be doing every day.
6. Experts and successful exercisers reveal the top … and tricks they use to get the most from their
fitness routines.
7. How many … and … should I do per exercise?
8. When doing a … keep your arms extended in front of you.

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C. Translate into English using active vocabulary.
После окончания зимы люди хотят прийти в форму, чтобы летом можно было похвастаться
своим стройным телом на пляже. Для того чтобы привести себя в форму, можно начать с
пробежек на свежем воздухе или пойти в зал и позаниматься на беговой дорожке. Мужчины
в зале часто заняты такими упражнениями, как:
- поднятие веса;
- отжимания;
- подтягивания;
- приседания;
- упражнения на пресс.
Девушки видят в занятиях в спортзале возможность избавиться от лишнего веса, держать
тело в тонусе и возможность добавить гибкости своему телу.

Speaking
5. Answer the following questions:
 Do you go to the gym? / Have you ever been to a gym?
 How often do / did you go?
 Do / did you enjoy it?
 What do / did you do?
 Why did you start the gym? / Why did you give it up?

Role-play
6. Look at the sports center information leaflet. Make up your mind what class you would like to
join. Talk to the administrative assistant to find more information about the Group Exercise.
Recreational Sports UNT
GROUP EXERCISE
FALL 2014 August 24-December 19

Stay Active with Group Exercise!!

Barre MONDAY

Cardio Body Sculpt

TUESDAY

H.I.I.T.

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(High Intensity Interval Training)

WEDNESDAY
.

Hip Hop

Kickboxing

THURSDAY

Pilates

FRIDAY
Step and Sculpt

Sweatshop SATURDAY

SUNDAY

Yoga

Group Exercise Passes


Fall unlimited $55
20 classes $35
Yogilates 10 classes $25
Single class $3

Student A You are a university student. You want to sign up for a class. You think of the most
suitable time for you and come up to the administrative assistant to talk about details.
Student B You are an administrative assistant, you help the student choose a class, programme,
pass, types of membership etc.

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Reading Championships and Tournaments
7. Read the facts about the biggest event in the world of football – the World
Cup. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Provide
good reasoning using the information from the text.
1. The World Cup is the most popular sporting event in the world.
2. Brazil participated in all the tournaments and won 5 titles.
3. In total, only 5 European nations took part in the World Cup in 1930.
4. The world-famous Brazilian player Pele is a record holder for playing in the most World
Cups.
5. Miroslav Klose and Ronaldo share the record of the all-time top scorer at the finals.
6. Germany is the leader in the number of matches played and the goals scored in the World
Cups.
7. The Olympic Games are watched more than the World Cup.
8. The qualification process can start as early as almost three years before the final tournament.

 In total, 209 nations have competed for the World Cup but only eight countries have ever
won. They are: Argentina (2 times), Brazil (5), England (1), France (1), Germany (4), Italy (4),
Spain (1) and Uruguay (2).

 At the very first World Cup in 1930 in Uruguay there were a total of 13 teams. There was
no qualifying round as there is today, and teams were simply invited to play. Very few European
teams chose to participate because of the long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean. In fact, two
months before the tournament started, no team from Europe had officially entered. FIFA president,
Julies Rimet, intervened, along with the Uruguayan government, which promised to pay the travel
expenses for any European team. Eventually four teams made the three-week sea trip: Belgium,
France, Romania and Yugoslavia. The very first World Cup match kicked off on 13th July 1930,
with France beating Mexico 4-1.

 The world-famous Brazilian player Pele appeared in four World Cups: 1958, 1962, 1966
and 1970. And another famous footballer, the Argentinian player Diego Maradona took part in the
1982, 1986, 1990 and 1994 tournaments.

 Two players share the record for playing in the most World Cups; Mexico‘s Antonio
Carbajal (1950–1966) and Germany‘s Lothar Matthäus (1982–1998) both played in five
tournaments.

 Miroslav Klose of Germany (2002–2014) is the all-time top scorer at the finals, with 16
goals. He broke Ronaldo of Brazil‘s record of 15 goals (1998–2006) during 2014 semi-final match
against Brazil.

 Brazil‘s Mario Zagallo and West Germany‘s Franz Beckenbauer are the only people to
date to win the World Cup as both player and head coach. Zagallo won in 1958 and 1962 as a
player and in 1970 as head coach. Beckenbauer won in 1974 as captain and in 1990 as head coach.

 Among the national teams, Germany has played the most World Cup matches (106) and
appeared in the most finals (8), semi-finals (13), quarter-finals (16) as well as scoring the most
World Cup goals (224), while Brazil has appeared in the most World Cups (20). The two teams
have played each other twice in the World Cup, in the 2002 final and in the 2014 semi-final.

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 The World Cup was first televised in 1954 and is now the most widely viewed and
followed sporting event in the world, exceeding even the Olympic Games. The cumulative audience
of all matches of the 2006 World Cup is estimated to be 26.29 billion. 715.1 million individuals
watched the final match of this tournament (a ninth of the entire population of the planet!).

 The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which currently takes
place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase,
which is often called the World Cup Finals. 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host
nation(s), compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation(s) over a
period of about a month. There are different rounds in the World Cup Finals:
1. The First/ Group Stage – this is when 32 teams who qualified for the World Cup play
against each another.
2. The Second Round/ The Round of 16 – this is the second stage when just half the teams
qualify.
3. The Quarterfinals/ The Round of 8 – there are just 8 teams at this stage.
4. The Semifinals – now there are just 4 teams.
5. The Final – two teams compete to see who the winner is. The team that loses is known as
the ‗runner-up‘.

Listening
8. Listen to Matthew Kenyon reporting about the World Cup final 2014 and choose the best
answer a, b or c to questions 1-5 according to what you hear.
1. How many World Cups did West Germany win?
a) four b) two c) three
2. Who scored the winning goal in the World Cup 2014?
a) Mario Gotze b) Gonzalo Higuain c) Lionel Messi
3. What player was called the best player of the World Cup 2014?
a) Diego Maradona b) Lionel Messi c) Mario Gotze
4. Which statement is not true?
a) Germany was the most attacking team of Brazil 2014.
b) Football fans think that the World Cup 2014 is the end of a period of continuous success for
Germany.
c) Germany is the first European team to win the World Cup in South America.
5. Why did the Brazilian fans support Germany in the final?
a) To show they had forgotten their humiliation in the semi-final.
b) Because there were few people to support Germany.
c) Because Argentina is the rival number one for Brazil.

Vocabulary
9. A. Complete the sentences below with the following words or word combinations. Some of
the words are used more than once.
pitch away team foul substitute referee red card
pass match at home goal offside
1. There‘s a big football … on TV tonight – Barcelona and Chelsea.
2. Some of the fans ran onto the … and the … had to stop the game.
3. I was disappointed France won. I thought Brazil were the better … .

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4. Beckham scored the … but it was Fowler‘s brilliant … that created the opportunity.
5. That was a deliberate … . He just blocked Zola as he tried to run past. The … should have
sent him off. That was definitely a … offence.
6. It shouldn‘t have been a … . Vieri was … when the ball was played to him.
7. In the 65th minute Owen came on as a … and scored almost immediately.
8. Arsenal should win when they play Benfica … . But the second leg could be a different
story. … games are always much more difficult.
B. There are two ways to describe a football player’s position. Match the positions 1-5 with
the phrases A-E. Think of Russian variations.
1. goalkeeper A. He plays in attack.
2. defender B. He plays in midfield.
3. midfielder C. He pays in goal.
4. striker / attacker D. He plays wide on the left/right.
5. wide player E. He plays in defence.
Note: The goalkeeper is often called the keeper. Attacking wide players are sometimes called
wingers, or we say ‘He plays on the left wing.’

C. Complete the match report below with the following words or word combinations. There
are two extra words (word combinations) which you do not need to use.
half-time free-kick stoppage time tackle first half
kick-off extra time penalties second half scores
‗This is an absolutely fantastic match. We‘ve played ninety minutes and there are three
minutes of 1) ... to play. The score is France 3 – Spain 3. If it stays like this, there‘ll be 2) … and if
that doesn‘t produce a winner, it‘ll go to 3) … .
Right from the 4) … both teams attacked and with so many chances created it was incredible
that there was only one goal in the 5) … . That was scored by France – a brilliant shot by Thierry
Henry. The Spanish coach must‘ve said something to his players at 6) … because in the 7) … they
were on fire. They scored three times in twenty minutes, two for Raul and one for Sergi. But France
came back. Zidane made it 2-3 and then a fantastic goal by Pirès levelled the 8) … again‘.
D. There are six stages of a tennis tournament. Put the stages into a logical order.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
a. Novak Djokovic beat Andy Murray in the quarter-finals.
b. Tomas Berdych was beaten by Milos Raonic in the semi-final.
c. John Isner was knocked out in the second round.
d. Novak Djokovic eased to his sixth title of 2014 in the final of the Paris Masters.
e. Julien Benneteau won his first round match.
f. Kevin Anderson won a difficult third round match.
Note: the same phrases are used in football competitions.

Listening
10. Listen to a British man and a British woman talking about Wimbledon, the internationally
famous tennis tournament. Point out the things the British woman likes about the tournament
and the things the British man doesn’t like.
Likes Dislikes
… …

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Video
11. Watch the video episode History of the Olympic Games and fill in the gaps.
1. The Olympic Games date back to the … century BC, being held in Olympia.
2. In the late … century Baron Pierre de Coubertin had the idea to re-stage a global sporting
event.
3. The International Olympic Committee, or IOC, was born in … .
4. It was decided at that time that all participating athletes should be … athletes.
5. … countries participated in the first modern Olympic Games.
6. Paris, France was chosen as the host city for … .
7. In 1924, the first Winter Olympics were held in …, France.
8. The games have … significantly since the days of Ancient Greece.

Reading
12. A. Read the text and do the tasks given below.
The Olympic Games
According to historical records, the first ancient Olympic
Games can be traced back to 776 BC. They were dedicated to the
Olympian gods and were staged on the ancient plains of
Olympia. The Olympic Games were closely linked to the
religious festivals of the cult of Zeus, though they had a secular
character and aimed to show the physical qualities and evolution
of the performances accomplished by young people, as well as encouraging good relations between
the cities of Greece.
All free male Greek citizens were entitled to participate in the ancient Olympic Games,
regardless of their social status. Married women were not allowed to participate in, or to watch, the
ancient Olympic Games. However, unmarried women could attend the competition.
The ancient Olympic Games were initially a one-day event until 684 BC, when they were extended
to three days. In the 5th century B.C., the Games were extended again to cover five days. The ancient
Games included running, long jump, shot put, javelin, boxing, pankration and equestrian events.
The Olympic Games continued for nearly 12 centuries, until Emperor Theodosius decreed in
393 A.D. that all such ‗pagan cults‘ be banned.
The revival of the Olympic Games began with Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France. The first
modern Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece — a fitting place to rekindle the spirit
of the early Greek Games. Although the modern Olympic Games are patterned after the ancient
Greek Games, there are important differences. Unlike ancient Greece, modern nations have not
stopped wars for peaceful athletic competition. Because of World War I, Games were not held in
1916. Nor were they held in 1940 and 1944, during World War II.
Footraces, jumping, discus and javelin throwing, boxing, wrestling, and some other events were
carried over from the original Olympic Games. But such present Olympic contests as cycling,
canoeing and sailing, football (soccer), basketball, judo, rifle shooting, and water polo were
unknown in early times. The modern pentathlon tests an athlete‘s all-around ability in swimming
(300-meter freestyle), cross-country running (4,000 meters), fencing with the épée, horse show
jumping, and shooting with a target pistol at 10 meters.
In 1924, the Winter Games became a new feature of the modern Olympics. Such cold-weather
sports as pair and figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding, and the biathlon could never have
developed in the warm climate of Greece. Until 1992, the Winter Games were held in the same year

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as the Summer Games. Beginning in 1994, the Winter and Summer Games were held two years
apart, on separate four-year cycles.
Over time, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has established official symbols,
statements, and philosophies that represent the ideals of the Games. These include the Olympic
creed, motto, and symbol; the Olympic flame; the athletes‘ oath; and the Olympic Movement.
The creed of the modern Olympic Games is a quote by Baron de Coubertin: ‗The most important
thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not
the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.‘
The Olympic motto consists of the Latin words Citius, Altius, Fortius, which means ‗Swifter,
Higher, Stronger.‘ The motto, introduced in 1924, is meant to spur the athletes to embrace the
Olympic spirit and perform to the best of their abilities.
The official symbol of the modern Olympic Games is five colored rings linked together. These rings
represent the continents of North and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe. They also
symbolize the uniting of athletes from all over the world to compete at the Olympic Games. The Olympic
flag, first used at the Antwerp Games in 1920, has the Olympic symbol in the center of a white field.
The Olympic flame symbolizes the continuity between the ancient and modern Games. Modern
Games are opened officially by runners carrying a burning torch brought from the Temple of Zeus at
Olympia. Except where travel by ship or plane is necessary, the torch is carried overland from Greece
by a relay of athletes. At the site of the Games, the torch is used to light the flame in a giant torch, or
cauldron, which burns for the duration of the Games. The flame was first used at the 1928 Games.
At the opening ceremonies, an athlete from the host country takes the following oath on behalf
of all the athletes: ‗In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these
Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a
sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport
and the honour of our teams.‘ Like the Olympic symbol, the oath was first used at the 1920 Games.
The Olympic Movement is a philosophy created and promoted by the International Olympic
Committee. This philosophy advocates using sport not just as a physical activity but also as a means of
educating people. The most prominent way the IOC promotes the Olympic Movement is through the
Olympic Games. But the Movement‘s ideals are practiced in other ways, including the promotion of
environmental issues, fighting drug use among athletes, and providing financial and educational aid.
Like the ancient Greek athlete who won an olive wreath, modern Olympic winners also receive
awards. The winner receives a diploma with a gold medal as first-place prize. A diploma and a
silver medal are awarded for second place, and a diploma and bronze medal for third place. Athletes
placing fourth, fifth, and sixth receive diplomas. Each participant receives a commemorative medal.
The IOC does not recognize any nation as winner of any Olympic Games. Only winning
individuals and teams are credited with victory. But newspapers publish tables indicating the numbers
of medals won by each country. These figures have been used to stress the leading roles played by
countries like the United States and Russia and to emphasize the competition between them.

A. Choose the best answer a, b or c to the questions 1-10.


1. What was the essence of the first ancient Olympic Games?
A. They were a part of a religious festival in honor of Zeus.
B. They encouraged unification of Greece.
C. They were a secular event to praise the emperor.
2. What people were allowed to attend the ancient Olympic Games?
A. women and married men.
B. married man and married women.
C. men and unmarried women.
3. Which of the sports was not in the programme of the first ancient Olympic Games?
A. boxing.
B. javelin throw.
C. high jump.

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4. Which statement is not true?
A. The modern Olympic Games were revived by a Frenchman.
B. Unlike ancient Greeks, modern nations have always stopped wars to hold the Games.
C. Over the years, more events were added to the Olympic programme.
5. What is the alternation of the Winter Olympic Games and the Summer Games nowadays?
A. four years.
B. six months.
C. two years.
6. What is the creed of the Games?
A. To fight and win.
B. To participate and do your best.
C. To struggle and enjoy the triumph.
7. What do the five interlocking rings on the Olympic flag represent?
A. All the continents of the world.
B. The purity and true spirit of the Games.
C. The brotherhood of the sportsmen from the host nation.
8. What is a torch relay?
A. It is a ceremonial relaying of the Olympic flame to Greece.
B. It is a ceremony of bringing the Olympic flame to the host country.
C. It is a ceremony of burning the flame in the temple of Zeus in Olympia.
9. What are the ideals of the Olympic Movement?
A. The philosophy which is based on educational issues.
B. The promotion of different kinds of aids.
C. The combination of sport, culture and education.
10. Which statement is true?
A. The International Olympic Committee organises the Olympic Games in the host country.
B. Modern Olympic winners receive commemorative medals.
C. It is personal, not national performance, which is emphasized in the Olympic Games.

B. Find the English equivalents for the corresponding Russian words and word combinations.

1) шпага 5) клятва
2) стимулировать спортсменов 6) от имени всех спортсменов
3) эстафета олимпийского огня 7) олимпийский девиз
4) соблюдать правила 8) памятная медаль

Vocabulary
13. Translate into English using active vocabulary.

1. Люди во всѐм мире следят за Олимпийскими играми.


2. Чемпионат мира по футболу проводится один раз в четыре года и участвовать в нѐм могут
мужские национальные сборные всех стран-членов ФИФА.
3. Женская сборная России стала победительницей чемпионата Европы по боксу,
проходившего в Бухаресте.
4. Итоговый турнир Ассоциации теннисистов-профессионалов проводится ежегодно в
Лондоне.
5. Существуют летние Олимпийские игры, возобновившиеся в Греции в 1896 году и зимние
Олимпийские игры, впервые состоявшиеся в 1924 году. Они обычно проводились зимой
накануне летних Олимпийских игр, а с 1994 проводятся за два года до летних Олимпийских
игр. Программа летних Олимпийских игр включает водные виды спорта, такие как плавание,
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прыжки в воду, синхронное плавание, водное поло; а также стрельбу из лука, лѐгкую
атлетику, бадминтон, баскетбол, бокс, греблю на байдарках и каноэ, велоспорт, конный
спорт, фехтование, хоккей на траве, футбол, спортивную гимнастику, гандбол, дзюдо,
современное пятиборье, волейбол, парусный спорт, настольный теннис, тхэквондо, теннис,
тяжѐлую атлетику, борьбу, академическую греблю, гольф, регби, художественную
гимнастику. А к зимним Олимпийским видам спорта относят биатлон, бобслей,
горнолыжный спорт, кѐрлинг, конькобежный спорт, лыжное двоеборье, лыжный спорт,
прыжки с трамплина, санный спорт, скелетон, сноуборд, фигурное катание, фристайл, шорт-
трек, хоккей.

Listening
14. Listen to the programme about the Winter Olympics at Sochi and decide whether the
following statements are true (T) or false (F). If the statement is false, correct it.

1. The Olympic Games at Sochi are reported to have cost around 32 billion dollars.
2. Biathlon involves downhill skiing and rifle shooting.
3. Nowadays computer modeling helps to design wind-resistant bobsleighs.
4. A newly-designed speed-skating suit was introduced in 2012.
5. Modern skies are more durable and stable.
6. To take part in a slalom race a skier needs short skies with curved edges.
7. A lot of artificial snow is being made at Sochi Olympics.
8. To make man-made snow you need compressed air.
9. Every hour they empty a swimming pool to make snow in Sochi.
10. In biathlon male athletes produce about 4 pints of perspiration in the 20km race.

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Unit 3. Sports Equipment. Sportswear

Vocabulary
1. A. Match the sports with the pictures.
tennis table tennis badminton squash

1. 2. 3. 4.

B. Fill in the gaps.


1. … is played with a shuttlecock. 2. Tennis, table tennis, squash are played with a … .
3. Badminton, …, squash are racquet sports. 4. Tennis, badminton, … are played on a court.
5. … is played with a bat.

C. Match the sport on the left with the items on the right.
1. boxing a. net, bat, table, forehand, …
2. swimming b. track, bicycle, helmet, lap, …
3. gymnastics c. barbell, weight plate, snatch, lifter, …
4. cycling d. club, hole, fairway, course, …
5. table tennis e. gloves, ring, corner, bell, …
6. football f. goal, corner, ball, pitch, …
7. golf g. horse, bars, beam, rings, …
8. ice hockey h. racket, court, service, set, …
9. tennis i. stick, puck, rink, goal, …
10. weightlifting j. breaststroke, pool, butterfly, goggles, …
● Think of one more word to add to each group.

Reading
2. Read the dialogue and answer the questions. Act it out.
A. So, Martin, what sport do you play?
B. I play football, volleyball, tennis and table tennis, but volleyball is my favourite game as it‘s a
team game and you can play it with your friends, and enjoy it as a team.
A. Is it quite a fast game as well?
B. Yeah. It‘s fast and that‘s another reason I enjoy it.
A. Where do you play?
B. I play at local sports centres during the winter and sort of play in tournaments around England. In
summer, I also play beach volleyball.
A. Is beach volleyball different from the volleyball you play in the centres?
B. Yes, it‘s a different game. Instead of six players on a team, there are only two players.
A. You mentioned you played in tournaments – do you do well in them?

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B. Yes, I‘ve played for Southwest England and we‘ve got to the semifinals of different tournaments.
A. Oh, well done! What sort of equipment do you need?
B. Well, first of all you need a ball and a net, and obviously a court. But you may also need knee
pads and your volleyball kit.
A. So, how often do you play volleyball, Martin?
B. Well, during the season, which is from September to June, I play twice a week. One time is
practice, and the other is a match. During the summer, I play beach volleyball, but that‘s only once
a week.

 Why does Martin like volleyball?


 Where does he play volleyball?
 What equipment is needed to play the game?
 How often does Martin play volleyball?

Vocabulary
3. A. Match the name of the equipment a- f with the pictures 1-6. Think of the Russian
equivalent.
a. punching bag b. rowing machine c. barbell d. fitness-station
e. treadmill (running machine) f. dumbbell

1 2 3

4 5 6

B. Match the word to its description.


1. The … is a piece of equipment used in weight training. It can be used individually or in pairs
(one in each hand).
2. The … is a piece of equipment used in weight lifting and is found in ranges between 1.2m and
2.4m. Weight plates are placed on the outer parts of it to make the weight you want.
3. The … is a machine that allows you to walk or run without leaving your position.
4. The … is used in sports such as boxing or martial arts, or just for someone who needs to release
tension, stress after a heavy day!
5. An exercise machine with oars and a sliding seat, for exercising the muscles used in rowing is
called a … .
6. The … is generally used in gyms having large area and contains machines for almost all body parts.

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Reading
4. Read the text and do the tasks after the text.
The Activities of the British Sportsmen
Generally speaking, the activities of the British sportsmen may be classified into four sections.
First, the variety of balls with different varieties of implements. Secondly, the pursuit of some
selected animal with the expressed intention of killing it. Thirdly, the performance of some feat of
physical strength, agility or endurance. And fourthly, the ―following‖, as their expression is, of any
one or all of these preceding three.
Let us now consider each of these four classes in turn.
It would be impossible to describe all the varieties of ball games. The most important is the one
they call cricket. Twenty-two players are required for this game, but only thirteen play at a time.
The other nine sit in the pavilion and do nothing, sometimes for hours on end.
The next ball game I propose to consider is golf. The implements of this game are a small white
ball and a number of rods with noses attached to them. The object is to strike the ball as far as
possible in a given direction and ultimately to pop it into a small hole in the ground. Then the game
begins again until the ball of each player has been popped eighteen times into eighteen holes in the
ground. The number of strokes required for the eighteen ―pops‖ are then reckoned up and the
players return to the club house and tell lies about their own score.
Then there are two types of football, one played with a large round leather ball, and the other
with a large oval leather ball. One is called soccer, the other rugger. The main features of rugger are
the ‗hand-off‘ – which is usually a fast uppercut to the chin – and the ―tackle‖, which consists of
seizing your adversary and throwing him violently to the ground.
Lawn tennis has a different technique. The essence of this game is to pat a soft white ball
backwards and forwards across a net until one or other of the players either pats incorrectly or is too
tired to pat any more.
These are the major sports of the British in which some sort of ball is struck with some sort of
an implement.
Let us now examine the second category, in which a day is considered wasted if no bird or
animal has been killed. This category may be divided into two sub-sections.
The first, or hunting, sub-section is often called the Backbone of England; the second, or
shooting, sub-section is often called the Curse of Scotland. The Backbone consists of a vast number
of expensive-looking ladies and gentlemen, often with pink coats on for some reason, and their
objectives are the fox, the otter, the stag, and the hare.
But when we come to the second, or shooting, sub-section, the Curse of Scotland, we find that
a man or woman can be a sportsman without risking anything more that the life of a neighbour.
I pass on to the third branch of sports and pastimes. This category, in which no balls are struck
nor animals killed, includes jumping as high as possible into the air, running as fast as possible
round a cinder track – sometimes round and round for hours – throwing great weights, whirling flat
discs, hopping, skipping and jumping, vaulting with the aid of a long stick, and riding horse races.
In this category also come boxing, wrestling, fencing, mountaineering, and rowing.
Boxing is a strange business. Two young gentlemen, as a rule of rather unpleasing features, are
placed in an enclosed area, called a ring on account of its square shape, and they then attempt to
batter each other into unconsciousness with their hands. It appears that they do this of their own free
will and are not in any way compelled to do so by the Government.
And lastly, there is that gigantic band of British sportsmen – the Followers. These will bet
about horses they know nothing about, will argue about the merits of two boxers they have never
seen, and will discourse on the tactics of a game they have never played. It is this fourth category of
British sportsmen, the vast army of Followers, which enables the other three to flourish as they do
in this amazing little out-of-the-way backwater of the world.
by A. G. Macdonell

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A. Make sure you understand the following words from the text. Match them with their
definitions:
1.implement a. a track for runners made with finely crushed small pieces of ash or partly burnt coal
2. agility b. a slender straight bar of wood or metal
3. endurance c. a building next to a sports ground, used by players and people watching the game
4. pavilion d. a game played by two teams of 13 or 15 players, using an oval ball which may be
5. rod kicked or carried
6. rugger e. activeness, quick moving
7. tackle f. a person who is very interested in a particular activity and follows all the news
8. adversary about it
9. cinder g. a person that somebody is opposed to and competing with in an argument or a battle
track h. an act of trying to take the ball from an opponent in football
10. follower i. the ability to continue doing something painful or difficult for a long period of
time without complaining
j. equipment, a tool, an instrument
B. Ask questions using the information given in the text to get these answers.
1. There may be four of them.
2. Twenty-two players are required.
3. They need a small white ball and a number of rods.
4. This game is played with a large round leather ball.
5. It is to pat a soft white ball backwards and forwards across a net.
6. This sport comes in the third category.
7. They will enable the British sportsmen to flourish.

Vocabulary
5. Match the definitions to the equipment.

discus club bat weights javelin hurdle


shuttlecock net helmet skipping rope
1. People sometimes jump over these when they are running.
2. This is used to hit a ball in baseball.
3. This separates a tennis court and is also found at both ends of a football pitch.
4. This is hit from team to team in badminton.
5. This is used to protect your head in sports such as American football and extreme cycling.
6. These can be lifted to strengthen your upper body.
7. You swing this round and round and jump over it.
8. This is used to hit the ball in golf.
9. This is a sharp pointy stick that people try to throw as far as possible.
10. This is a heavy flat round object thrown in a sporting event.

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6. Fill in the table.
Place where you do the Things people wear and
Sport Actions
sport use
A racquet, a ball, tennis
tennis court hit shoes, a T-shirt, a skirt/
shorts
rugby
baseball
golf
football
swimming
snowboarding
ice hockey
cricket
boxing

Speaking
7. Describe some sport/game. Let your partner guess what sport/game you are describing. Try
to speak according to the following plan.
1. Number of sportsmen/players (per team if it‘s a team sport).
2. Equipment necessary.
3. Place where it is played.
4. Rules of the sport/game.
5. Length of sport/game.

Idioms
8. A. Read the sentences with idioms. Translate them into Russian.
1. Telling me off in front of my friends was a hit below the belt!
2. Your idea hit the bullseye! It‘s exactly what I‘ve been talking about!
3. You really scored an own goal when you signed up a new contract without reading it.
4. When politicians have an argument, there are no holds barred.
5. I can‘t talk to her I am out of her league.
6. May the odds be ever in your favour!
7. That was ‘sink or swim’ kind of situation. I need to react quickly!
8. Luckily, the girl managed to run away from that angry dog because it was distracted by some
noise. The girl was saved by the bell.
9. Our small country always punches above its weight at the international level.
10. I would never throw in the towel, no matter how difficult the situation could be!

B. Match the idioms in ex. A to the definitions below.


a. to be or try to be more successful than others in doing something that normally requires more
skill, experience, money, etc. than you have
b. to be in a situation where you will either succeed by your own efforts or fail completely
c. to have no restrictions on the kinds of grips that are used.
d. to score accidentally against one‘s own team
e. to hit the centre of the target that you shoot or throw at in shooting

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f. to give one‘s opponent an illegal low blow
g. to be of a higher level of quality, ability, etc
h. to have the balance of advantage, superiority in strength, power, or resources
i. to be saved from being counted out by the ringing of the bell (at the end of a round)
j. to admit that you have been defeated and stop trying

C. Translate the sentences into English using the learnt idioms.


1. Спортсмен дважды получил нокдаун в девятом раунде, но удар гонга спас его.
2. Тогда Льюис ударил его ниже пояса, и борьба была временно остановлена, чтобы дать
немного времени чемпиону прийти в себя.
3. Мы проиграли игру после того как один из наших игроков забил гол в свои ворота.
4. Кажется, что этот игрок постоянно борется не в своей весовой категории.
5. Это будет жѐсткая схватка, где нет запрещѐнных приѐмов.
6. Мы не собираемся сдаваться только потому, что проиграли одну игру.
7. Мне нравится играть в шахматы, но когда я попытался сыграть с Джорджем, я сразу
понял, что играю намного хуже его.
8. Я осознал, что удача была на стороне противника.
9. Новые игроки оказались в ситуации «либо пан, либо пропал».
10. Ринат Аюпов – чемпион России и бронзовый призер Европы по стрельбе из
пневматического оружия, всегда попадает яблочко.

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Unit 4. Sport Related Problems

Listening
1. Listen to the sports news and fill in the gaps.
There have been many ups and downs on 1) … and 2) … across the country. The Tina Bennett
scandal continues. She failed a 3) … test two months ago and the doctors think that her coach must
have known about it. Nirmali denies the suggestion saying it is 4) … . She states she has never
helped her athletes to win by 5) … means. This problem is growing in sport and is the one that
carries many 6) … . Peter Davis agrees that such substances do improve one‘ s 7) … but they are
harmful for health.

Vocabulary
2. A. Here are some other problems a sportsman can have during or after sports activities.
banged sprained stiff damage broke pulled hurt
dislocated fracture injured
1. When I … my leg playing ice hockey, I was in plaster for five weeks.
2. Mr Smith said this had resulted in physical … to the brain.
3. We did an eight-hour walk in the mountains yesterday, so my legs are really … this morning.
4. I didn‘t really warm up before we started playing and so I … a muscle.
5. She‘s … her wrist, so her arm‘s in a sling at the moment.
6. Nick … his back skating. He tried to stand up, he slipped and fell backwards.
7. I fell off my bike and … my head. Luckily, I was wearing a helmet.
8. Andy … his shoulder in training.
9. The man, who was not wearing a cycle helmet, was seriously …, but his injuries are not thought
to be life-threatening.
10. A … of the leg can occur in football (soccer) and other contact sports.

B. Have you ever had any of the problems mentioned in exercise A? What happened?

Reading
3. Read the text and do the tasks after the text.
Doping
Some sportspeople try to gain an advantage by using performance-enhancing drugs (PED).
This is known as doping. ‗Doping‘ is the general term for the use of banned substances or practices
to improve athletic performance. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) says the term probably
came from the Dutch word ‗dop.‘ That was the name for an alcoholic drink used by Zulu fighters in
Africa to improve their performance in battle.
The agency says the word ‗doping‘ began to be used for athletes in the beginning of the
twentieth century. At first, it meant the illegal drugging of racehorses. The agency notes that
athletes have used substances for centuries to improve their performance. Ancient Greeks used
special foods and drinks. Nineteenth century cyclists and others used alcohol, caffeine, cocaine -
even strychnine, a strong poison. By the nineteen twenties, sports organizations were attempting to
stop the use of doping substances. But at the time they lacked scientific ways to test for them.

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One method of doping is called blood doping. This is the use of substances like hormones or
blood itself to increase the production of red blood cells. That way the blood moves more oxygen to
the muscles, increasing their strength and performance.
One such hormone is erythropoietin - EPO. It is said to be most useful to athletes in endurance
sports such as cycling and distance running. Doctors say hormones used for blood doping thicken
the blood and increase the chances of heart disease and stroke. Also, the use of blood from another
person can spread viruses. But doctors say even the use of a person‘s own blood to increase the
level of red blood cells in the body can raise the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Another substance that can be used to increase performance is human growth hormone. This
hormone is produced naturally by the pituitary gland in the brain. Athletes may take injections of
human growth hormone, although that can be found with blood tests. Experts say such use of the
hormone can cause diabetes, muscle and bone pain, high blood pressure and other disorders.
Sports dopers continually look for new substances and technologies. The World Anti-Doping
Agency has already banned gene doping, although it says it does not believe anyone is doing it yet.
Officials say they want to be ready with a test to find genetic changes. For example, imagine an
athlete whose body contains genetic material from an animal. In theory, such a person could
become a great athlete overnight.
So, what is wrong with doping? That is a question some people ask, even some health experts. These
people support the idea of medically supervised doping. They say it would reduce the dangers. They say
competitions would be fairer if all the competitors were openly permitted to take part in doping.
The World Anti-Doping Agency published a statement from its medical director. Alain Garnier
said doctors should have nothing to do with doping. Doctor Garnier said helping athletes perform
better is not necessarily good for their health. And he called it wrong and irresponsible to say that
permitting doping would create an equal playing field. To accept doping, he said, would permit
economic resources and scientific expertise to decide competition. And, he said, only those with the
resources and the expertise would win.
A. Find the English equivalents for the corresponding Russian words and word combinations.
1) стимулирующие препараты
2) запрещѐнные вещества
3) стрихнин
4) виды спорта, требующие выносливости
5) гипофиз
6) использование стимулирующих препаратов под медицинским наблюдением
7) создать равные условия для борьбы
B. Answer the following questions.
1. What is doping? Where does the word come from?
2. Why do some athletes take steroids?
3. What is blood doping? What substances can be used to increase athletic performance?
4. What are other forms of doping?
5. What is the idea of medically supervised doping?

Speaking
4. There has been a continuous debate over performance enhancing drugs in sports. Think of
the arguments for or against the use of banned substances.
PRO Performance Enhancing Drugs CON Performance Enhancing Drugs
… …
● Discuss the Pros and Cons with your partners.

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Grammar
Expressing certainty, probability and possibility
To express certainty we use must (positive logical assumptions) and can’t (negative logical
assumptions). We can use must/can’t + Perfect Infinitive to express certainty about the past.
Ann must be at home by now. (positive; I’m sure she is.)
Jack can’t be sleeping. (negative; I’m sure he isn’t)
Your visit must have been nice.
John can’t have thrown the matches away.
Should can be used as a weaker form of must. Compare:
Ann must be at home by now. (=I think she is certainly at home.)
Ann should be at home by now. (=I think she is very probably at home.)
To express probability we use should and ought to. Should/ought to +Simple Infinitive show
that something is probable now or in the future. . Should/ought to +Perfect Infinitive show that
we expected something to happen but we don’t know if it happened or not.
I’ve bought two packs – that should/ought to be enough. (=It is probably enough.)
That should/ought to be Nick parking his car there. (=Nick is probably parking there.)
To express possibility in general we normally use can and could.
Such flowers can grow anywhere.
In those days, it could be hot even in September.
To express chance possibility we use may, might and could, but not can.
It may/might/could be true what she’s said.
Marry may/might/could have been injured.
5. Choose the correct verb.
1. John can’t/must be at work because he never works on a Saturday.
2. Her face is red. She may/must be really angry
3. It might/should rain this evening, but I think it probably won‘t.
4. We can/may go to the Alps next summer.
5. Henry is away, but he can/should be back tomorrow.
6. I‘m sure Amy can’t/may not have arrived yet.
7. We must/could go for a picnic on Sunday afternoon, we‘re still thinking.
8. You must/might be Maggie‘s sister – you look just like her.
9. Harry left home at five – he might/ ought to get here soon.
10. Peter might/should come. If he does, ask him to stay and wait for me.

Speaking
6. Read the following situations. Would you agree to take the drug if you were the sportsman.
Why? In your speech use the modal verbs expressing certainty, probability and possibility.
1. You are a high school football player. You work really hard and practice more than you
friends, but you rarely play in games. The coach says that you run and catch the ball really
well but you are too small. A friend says you should take steroids. They will help you get
bigger and no one tests for drugs at your school.
2. You are an excellent athlete. You have a chance to represent your country in the Olympics.
Your coach says that your competitors are using banned drugs. He thinks that you should
use them, too. He says that there is one drug that they can‘t find in drug tests.

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3. You are a professional athlete. A clothing company wants you to advertise their sports
clothes. They offer you a big contract if you win the championship. You might win and you
might not. If you take a stimulant, you will win for sure.

Vocabulary
7. Read the text and make sure you understand all the words and phrases. Do the following tasks.
In the top European cup competition in rugby, 24 teams are divided into six groups. Each team
plays the others in their group at home and away, and the six group winners qualify for the
knockout stage of the competition, along with the two best runners-up from the six groups. The rest
are eliminated.
In the draw for the quarter-final round, the top four teams play at home and can‘t be drawn
against each other.
The two teams that get through their semi-final then play the final at a neutral venue, and
victory for the winners gives automatic qualification the following year.
A. Mark the statement as true or false.
1. If you qualify for a competition, you will win it.
2. A venue is the last game in a competition.
3. The runner-up comes second in a competition.
4. In the knockout stage of a competition, every team plays more than one game.
5. If you are eliminated, that is the end of your competition.
6. If you are victorious, you have success in a game.
7. If you play away, you‘re at a neutral place.
8. The draw is a way of deciding which teams play against each other.
B. Complete the words in the text. The first letter of the word is given.
We did well in the cup this year. We played (1) a… in the first round but managed to (2) w…, then
we were drawn at home in the next two rounds and had fairly easy (3) v…. In the draw for the
quarter-final, we had to play the (4) r… from last year, but we played really well and (5) g… to the
semi-final. Unfortunately, we then (6) l… because one or two our best players were (7) i… in
training, and that seemed to affect the rest of the team. However, at least we were (8) k … by the
team that went on to win the competition.

Listening
8. Listen to the dialogue and fill in the gaps with the words or word combinations you hear in
the recording. Read the dialogue with your partner and act it out.
T: England are out! We lost on 1)… again!
A: I‘m gutted I 2)… Rooney.
T: He didn‘t do nuffink!
A: How can you say that? We all saw what he did. The ref had to 3)… .
T: I still say he 4)… . The ref was far too free and easy with that card.
A: You‘re just looking for a scapegoat.
T: No, I‘m not.
A: What about the manager, the skipper, the 5)… ? Don‘t you blame them?
T: Don‘t be so rational Alice. We‘re going back 6)… and I can‘t stand it!
A: Oh, 7)…, Tim. We‘ll be home soon and you and Michal can commiserate with each other -
England and Poland out of the World Cup again 8)... until next time!

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Role-play
9. Role-play the following dialogue with your partner.
Student А You took part in a very important volleyball competition. Your team came in fifth (out
of 10 teams). You feel disappointed and very upset. You talk to your friend about the
problems of the team and about a few games.
Student В You are a fan of volleyball. You always support the team where your friend plays. You
feel they did their best and try to encourage and reassure your friend.

Speaking
10. Here are comments about some of the problems with sports. What can you say about
them? What other sport related problems can you mention?

 Sport distracts away from scholastic responsibilities.


 It perpetrates gambling and other criminal enterprises.
 Hostile violence of sportsmen and fans results in injuries and death.
 Sport can turn all participants into losers eventually.
 Sportsmen are likely to have fungal infections of the groin area and feet.
 Sportsmen have gross mutations from steroid abuse.

Reading Fiction
COUNTDOWN TO KICKOFF
By Larry LaForge
Larry LaForge spent thirty-five years in higher education as a teacher, researcher, and active
member of the academic community. He taught business management courses at every level from
undergraduate students to doctoral students, received major research grants, published in top
journals, directed dissertations, and served on editorial boards. As an independent writer, Larry
LaForge draws on his experiences in higher education and intercollegiate athletics to create stories
that illustrate interesting issues and dilemmas in our times.

One Month
The Spencer family is getting pumped. The Lone Star State University (LSSU) Hornets open
their season in less than four weeks, and anticipation is at an all-time high. Radio, television, and
online blogs are producing multiple reports each day about the happenings at football practice.
Almost every move of the touted freshmen players is chronicled, even though they have yet to
play a down or attend a class.
―We bleed green,‖ Will Spencer states simply and matter-of-factly. Will and his wife Audrey
graduated from LSSU nearly thirty-five years ago, joining his father and grandfather, two brothers,
a sister, and several cousins as proud holders of an LSSU degree. Will met Audrey during their
undergraduate days. Their two older children are also LSSU grads, while the baby of the family, 20-
year old Wilson Spencer, is currently enrolled at LSSU as a business management major. With
three grandchildren in the mix, this is a very busy family that plans many of its activities around the
schedule of LSSU Hornet sports.
Football game day is a celebration for Will and Audrey Spencer and their family and friends.
It‘s time to start thinking about preparations for those famous tailgate parties they seem to live for.

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*****
Robert Henderson is feeling the pressure. With only a month to go there is considerable work
to be done on the most important project Henderson Engineering and Construction has ever
undertaken.
Alumni Memorial Stadium on the LSSU campus is sacred ground, and thousands of Hornet
fans are following the renovation progress through a campus webcam that updates every sixty
seconds. Most people on campus give directions to visitors by using the football stadium as a point
of reference (Go to the main scoreboard and take a left.), so everyone will notice any change to the
appearance of this towering structure.
LSSU has been no straggler in the arms race for college football facilities. Major renovations
over the years have added multiple decks providing additional seats (from 26,254 to 33,431 to
56,805 to 67,941) as well as luxury boxes, HD video boards, seat backs, and other amenities.
Robert Henderson – known as Rob to his friends and associates – is on top of every detail for
the current project, which many consider to be the most important in the history of the stadium. It‘s
more than just business for Rob; he is also an LSSU grad and an avid Hornet fan.
―We lost considerable time on the front end when Walt allowed fans to weigh-in on some of
the design elements,‖ Rob laments to his staff. Walt is LSSU‘s highly regarded athletic director
Walter Wiggins, who may be the only person more nervous than Rob Henderson.

Two Weeks
Audrey Spencer is trying to light a fire under her husband Will. She understands that tailgate
extravaganzas don‘t just happen. Grills, lawn chairs, canopies, and other stuff that hasn‘t been used
since last season have to be found in the clutter of the garage, cleaned up, and prepared. The
Spencers like to have a different theme for each game, so it‘s time to do some general menu
planning for the entire season.
―Come on, guy,‖ Audrey scolds Will as he is glued to the latest TV sports report on the team‘s
practice that day. ―I can‘t do everything.‖ Will points out that he does all the grilling before and
after each game, but admits that he needs to help more with all the preparation. It‘s just that kickoff
seems such a long time off (fourteen days, three hours, and six minutes, to be exact).
The pride that Will and Audrey Spencer take in their game-day activities is a reflection of the
pride they have in their school. The Spencers are not just sports fans; they take great pride in the
academic, public service, and economic development efforts of their beloved alma mater.

One Week
Will Spencer has finally gotten with the program. He has a working grill (which he cleaned
while day dreaming about the opening kickoff) and plenty of charcoal for the pre-game and post-
game grilling for at least the first three games. His main canopy was the victim of mildew, so he
replaced it with a larger and better one from the local club store. Finding one with a Hornet logo
was no problem.
Young Wilson Spencer helped his dad with the grill and the canopy. Wilson has been assigned
responsibilities in both setup and cleanup on every game day. He cheerfully performs these tasks
knowing that one day he will be promoted to the grilling duties now performed by his dad.
Audrey Spencer has finalized the menu for the opening game, which translates into several
grocery store trips during the week. It‘s a labor of love for Audrey, who always plans things so that
her food preparation and Will‘s grilling do not require either of them to miss any of the game.
During game week, as the Spencers pass each other in the hallways of their expansive home, a
familiar refrain is repeated: Go Hornets!

132
*****
The webcam at the stadium does not capture the full frenzy of activity at the site. Just outside
the view of the camera, crews are staging large panels to begin the installation process.
Rob Henderson is not one to assume that everything will go smoothly. He frets over the color
of the panels, quality of the materials, strength of the fasteners, installation challenges in adjusting
to the proper tension and, of course, the weather during the coming week. He remembers the
concerns about getting the color right – it must be Hornet green not just any shade of green – and
whether the manufacturer can fulfill its promise to produce panels that will withstand the elements.

Game Day
The Spencers arise early in the morning. Who could sleep late on this day! Will and son Wilson
have lots to do in setting up the canopy and getting the grills going. The Spencers are glad to have
Wilson living at home, especially on a day like this. Wilson is taking his LSSU business program
online. Ironically, he hasn‘t set foot on campus since enrolling as a student two years ago.
With a 1:00 PM kickoff, guests will be arriving soon. The Spencers decided a few years ago
that they could maximize their experience following Hornet sports from the comfort of their home.
The savings in ever-rising ticket prices and newfangled seat license fees to Hornet sports more than
paid for their 80-inch, 3D highdensity television set and accompanying sound system. Equally
important to the Spencers are the hassles avoided by not making the 47-mile drive to campus,
fighting the traffic, dealing with parking, worrying about the weather, and navigating through
crowds of sometimes ill-behaved throngs of people.
―It‘s a no brainer,‖ says Will in his matter-of-fact style. Giving up the block of season tickets
he held for over thirty years has not fazed him a bit. ―Nowadays every game is on TV, home and
away,‖ Will notes. ―We have a better view of the games than ever, and we don‘t have to explain to
our grandchildren why so many adults are using such bad language in talking about our coaches and
players.‖
For the Spencers, Hornet football is a family affair, and leaving the grandchildren behind is not
an option. Will knows that the children and grandchildren of current LSSU fans are the future
Hornet Nation.
The setup Will and Audrey Spencer have in their home for Hornet sports is perfect. The 80-
inch TV is in a large family room that can be viewed from several adjoining rooms in the open floor
plan of their home. A smaller HD screen is mounted on game days on a large patio, covered on this
day by the new canopy. On good weather days like this one, many guests prefer the outdoor option.
The usual crowd of about twenty loyal LSSU supporters is expected, mostly extended family
members but also some close friends and neighbors who share Will‘s philosophy about the game-
day experience. It might look like a party, but this is no drop-in. This is serious football watching by
serious LSSU fans looking for a better way to follow their beloved Hornets.
The rules are simple. Guests arrive before the game. Everyone is in his or her preferred
watching position by kickoff. The game is on continuously from start to finish (no channel surfing
to check on the hated state rival Wildcats). No one gives up on watching the game no matter what
the score. Negativity and foul language are not allowed. There is plenty of alcohol available, but
responsible drinking is the rule.
―I guess we‘re just die hard fans,‖ Audrey says without a hint of apology for the house rules.
Will adds ―We get loud and proud, and that‘s what it‘s all about. We have plenty of fun, but don‘t
have to worry about anyone getting vomited on like the last game we attended on campus a few
years back.‖
*****
The doorbell rings as the first guest arrives at the Spencer home around 10:00 AM, about three
hours before kickoff. Rob Henderson walks in and gives Audrey a big hug. They have known each
other since high school, and Rob is a regular who is usually the first to arrive on game day. He
appears very relaxed but eager to see how the stadium looks on TV.

133
―Have they shown any shots of the stadium yet?‖ Rob asks while staring at the pre-game studio
show. ―They did a cut-in to the game announcers a few minutes ago,‖ Will Spencer replied. ―What I
could see looked awesome.‖ Will Spencer was right. When the pre-game show moved to the
campus for a panoramic view of the stadium as it was filling up, the sight was truly awesome.
There will be no empty seats at this game, despite the large and growing number of loyal fans
who are doing the same thing as the Spencers.
*****
Back on campus as kickoff is about to happen, athletic director Walt Wiggins is pleased but in
a very reflective mood. A staff member congratulates Walt on the outcome of the project, saying
that it not only looks good but the tarps can come down when ticket demand goes back up. Walt
doesn‘t say anything but thinks to himself something that he has verbalized on several occasions
about the changing landscape in college athletics:
That train has left the station.

A. In the text find the English equivalents to the corresponding Russian words and word
combinations.
1) начало игры
2) отстающий, последний, слабый
3) удобства
4) заядлые фанаты
5) знакомый припев, слоган
6) новомодный
7) посещение кого-либо без предупреждения
8) шершень

B. Fill in the table with the corresponding verbs or nouns from the text.
verb noun
renovate …
reflect …
… replacement
… final
… capture
install …
… fret
hassle …

C. Answer the questions.


1. What are the Spencers looking forward to?
2. How large is Will Spencer‘s family?
3. Who are the Lone Star State University Hornets?
4. What do the Spencers do during football season?
5. Why did the Spencers decide to follow Hornet sports from home?
6. How many people are expected to come to their tailgate party?
7. What is being done on the stadium of Hornets?
8. What does Walt mean saying ‘The train has left the station.’?
9. How does the structure of the text reflect the main characters‘ state?

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Watching a Film
The Replacements (2000)

Running time: 118 min


Genre: comedy
Date of release: 11 August 2000 (USA)
Director: Howard Deutch
Stars: Keanu Reeves, Gene Hackman, Brooke Langton, Orlando Jones

The Replacements is a comedy based on the 1987 professional football players‘ strike.
When the NFL football team, the Washington Sentinels, goes on strike, the team‘s owner, Edward
O‘Neill, calls former NFL coach Jimmy McGinty out of retirement to coach a rag-tag team of
replacement players to finish the season‘s last four games in which McGinty turns to former Ohio
State player Shane Falco to be the team‘s captain for the duration of the season and Falco is forced
to shape up the misfit players whom include convenience store guard Clifford Franklin, gangster
rapper brothers Andre and Jamal Jackson, former sumo wrestler Jumbo Fumkio, a Welsh ‗football‘
player called ‗The Leg‘, a deaf player, a convict on a work-release program, a tough SWAT leader,
and many more while, at the same time, Falco strikes up a possible romance with the team‘s
cheerleading captain Annabelle Farrell.

Vocabulary
Make sure you know the following words and phrases before you watch the film.
1) end zone 6) quarterback 11) arachnophobia
2) fumble 7) tackle 12) shambles
3) goal line 8) quicksand 13) quid
4) place kick 9) sentinel 14) a pro
5) punt 10) endorsement 15) play-off bid
1. Read the following quotes and try to identify the characters and the situations in which they
are used as you watch the film.
1. I wish I could say something classy and inspirational, but that just wouldn‘t be our style. Pain
heals, chicks dig scars, glory lasts forever.
2. Going out in front of 80,000 people ain‘t bad, huh?
3. All right, Sentinels. Listen up. There are some who will say that your accomplishments today
will soon be forgotten, that you‘re not real players, that this isn‘t a real team. And I say that‘s
bullshit. Because as of today, you‘re all professional football players. You‘re being paid to play,
and I want you to remember that, because the men whose places you‘ve taken forgot that a long
time ago. Let‘s bring it in. Let‘s play some football.
4. Nothing personal, Shane, but I don‘t date football players. … Especially quarterbacks. You guys
are the biggest babies of all.
5. You‘re playing and you think everything is going fine. Then one thing goes wrong. And then
another. And another. You try to fight back, but the harder you fight, the deeper you sink. Until you
can‘t move… you can‘t breathe… because you‘re in over your head. Like quicksand.
6. Listen up! This time tomorrow, the strike will be officially over. Now Dallas has made one grave
mistake tonight. They haven‘t been afraid of you, and they should be, because you‘ve got one
powerful weapon working for you tonight: There‘s no tomorrow for you… and that makes you all
VERY DANGEROUS PEOPLE!

135
7. This doesn‘t change anything, Falco. I‘m a all-pro quarterback and I‘ve got two Super Bowl
rings! You‘ll never be more than a replacement player.
8. Now you know this don‘t look natural, Coach. Now you know it don‘t. I look like I just jacked
off an elephant. The football‘s like a one-man cold to Clifford Franklin. Clifford Franklin‘s the only
man catchin‘ it, Clifford Franklin‘s the only man comin‘ down wid it.
9. A real man admits his fears. That‘s what I‘m asking you to do here tonight.
10. When the replacement players for the Washington Sentinels left the stadium that day, there was
no ticker tape parade, no endorsement deals for sneakers or soda pop, or breakfast cereal. Just a
locker to be cleaned out, and a ride home to catch. But what they didn‘t know was that their lives
had been changed forever because they had been part of something great. And greatness, nor matter
how brief, stays with a man. Every athlete dreams of a second chance, these men lived it.

2. Read the questions before you watch the film and answer them after you have watched it.
1. Do professional players play for money or for pleasure?
2. Was it easy for Shane Falco and the others not to lose a second chance?
3. Does popularity change people?
4. Is the strike the only way out for professional football players?
5. Is it really difficult to be a leader? Why?
6. Cheerleaders are not the least part of the game, are they?
7. Can gambling cause injuries?
8. Can the great will do more for a victory than professionalism?
9. Should the players work as a team even after a match?
10. What is better: to have good players or a good team?

Listening based writing (LBW)


Listen to the story At a Game and reproduce it in your own words. Mind the structure and
the language of your reproduction. Use as many different verbs while reproducing as possible
(say, tell, shout, ask, mention, think, answer, reply, add, follow, be interested, go on, wonder
etc.).
These are the words that may help you in reproducing the story:

Harvard
Radcliffe
Jenny
Dartmouth
Davey Johnson
Barrett
Oliver

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A report based on charts, graphs and tables

When you talk or write about a chart, graph or a


table:
- say what its aim is and what it shows;
- do not try and explain the reasons for data;
- focus on the main information and trends – do
not mention every detail;
- make it clear what the figures in your
description refer to;
- avoid repetition.

Here are some phrases to describe charts, graphs and tables


1. Charts, graphs, tables 3. Analyzing trends
Pie chart: segment - a peak, a sharp increase, a gradual rise
Chart/ table: row, column - a steep drop, a massive reduction, a slight
Graph (bar graph, line graph): solid line, dotted decline, a slow-down
line, broken line - a steady recovery
2. Describing patterns 4. Comparisons
This (chart) shows that/ represents…. in comparison with/ as opposed to …
As can be seen from (the graph) …. in contrast to ….
According to (Table 1) ….. (2/3/4..) times as many…
Looking at the (figures) in …. more/ less/ fewer …. than ….
It is estimated that ….. by far the largest ….
As far as (smth) are concerned
This (table) gives a clear picture of …..
Expressing the Movement of a Line
Verbs nouns Adjectives Adverbs
rise (to) a rise dramatic dramatically
increase (to) an increase sharp sharply
grow (to) growth rapid rapidly
climb (to) a climb huge hugely
boom a boom steep steeply
peak (at) a peak sudden suddenly
substantial substantially
fall (to) fall (of) considerable considerably
decline (to) a decline (of) noticeable noticeably
dip (to) a decrease (of) steady steadily
drop (to) a dip (of) significant significantly
reduce (to) a drop (of) gradual gradually
slump a reduction (of) marked markedly
moderate moderately
level out a leveling out slow slowly
remain stable (at) no change slight slightly
stay (constant) (at) small
maintain the same level minimal minimally

137
Before you begin
Underline key words. Write related words – turn nouns into verbs, verbs into nouns, adjectives into
adverbs, etc. Write opposite words, similar words, synonyms, etc.
Circle the biggest, the smallest, stable or unchanging parts, sudden increases, etc.

Identify trends. A trend is the overall idea of the graph, chart, etc.
 what is happening/ what happened
 the main change over time
 the most noticeable thing about the graph, chart, etc.
 the pattern over time
 the pattern for different places or groups or people.
Use the following structure:
Introduction
 The describes the graph. You can start ‗The graph shows …‘
 The second sentence gives the trend or trends. You can put two trends in this sentence or
only one – you could keep the other one for the conclusion.
Paragraph 2: Trend 1
 Start a sentence with no number, for example ‗City size increased sharply over the period.‘
 Follow this sentence with an example (a sentence with number) and perhaps another
example (another sentence with number). Keep alternating.
Paragraph 3: Trend 2
 Start with a sentence with no number, for example, ‗Oil production has increased slightly in
all the countries in the graph.‘
 Give an example (a sentence with number) and perhaps another example.
Conclusion
 Finish by repeating the main trends. Use different vocabulary.
 Don‘t have any numbers in the conclusion (you could use words like ‗most‘, ‗the majority‘,
‗a minority‘, ‗a small number‘).
 Don‘t give an opinion.

While you write: Some Don’ts


 Don‘t write about everything on the graph, chart, etc. Pick the biggest, the smallest, the main
points, the main trends. Group similar things together.
 Don‘t write about the line, segment, bar: ‗The line went up.‘ Instead, write about the idea:
‗The number of people going to work by train increased gradually.‘
 Don‘t use ‗I feel,‘ ‗as I have written,‘ ‗as you can see,‘ etc. Keep it academic.
 Don‘t start sentences with But, So, Also, And, For, Because, Although.
2.1. Look at the pictures. Which of these is
- a pie chart 
- a line graph 
- a table 
- a bar chart 

138
1 2

3. The percentage of women in tertiary


education in selected countries from 1998 to
2005 :

2.2. Match the visuals 1–4 with these report extracts.

A. This chart shows the relative size of populations of countries of the European Union in
2007.
We can see that the country with the largest population was Germany with 16.6% of the
European Union's population. We can also see that the second largest population was that of France
with 12.8% of the population.
We do not know from this chart which country has the smallest population because the 21
smallest countries are included in one group.
You can have a clear picture that the four largest countries (Germany, France, the United
Kingdom and Italy) together make up more than half of the European Union‘s population.
The twenty-one smallest countries of the European Union make up nearly 30% of the
population.

B. This chart shows the populations of some European countries in 2007.


The country with the largest population is Germany, with over 80 million people whereas
Estonia has the smallest population, at little more than a million. Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia and Ireland all have populations of ten million or less, while Greece
has a population of about eleven million.
Apart from Germany, the largest countries are Spain, France and Italy with populations ranging
from about forty-four to sixty-three million.
Together, the four largest countries account for over eighty per cent of the population of the
countries shown.

139
C. This graph shows population change in Austria and Bulgaria from 1996 to 2007. Austria's
population grew steadily from 7.95 million in 1996 to 8.3 million in 2007, an increase of 350,000
people.
By contrast, Bulgaria's population fell over the same period. The population declined steadily
from 1996 to 2001, but from 2001 to 2002 the rate of decline was steeper. From 2002 to 2007 the
population fell at a similar rate to the 1996–2001 period.
While Austria's population grew by 350,000, Bulgaria's fell by twice that number, 700,000, a
decline of nearly 10%.

D. The most striking thing to notice is that in all countries except Japan women made up
significantly more than half of the student population in tertiary education.
In general, the trend was for an increasing percentage of women in tertiary education. The only
exception to this was Bulgaria where the trend is in reverse: in 1998, 60.9% of the tertiary student
population was made up of women, whereas by 2005 this figure had fallen to 52.1%.
The country with the highest percentage of women in tertiary education was Iceland and this
was also the country with the largest increase, rising from from 60% to 64.9%.
The largest percentage change was that of Bulgaria, from 60.9% to 52.1%, a 14.4% drop.
The lowest rise was in Finland, where, although the percentage fluctuated over the period in
question, the percentage rose from 53.5 to 53.6.

2.3. Write a short description of this table. Write 150 words.

Winter Olympic Games


Athletes
Games Nations Sports Events
Men Women
1994 67 1215 522 6 61
1998 72 1389 787 7 68
2002 78 1513 886 7 78
2006 80 1548 960 7 84
2010 82 1522 1044 7 86
2014 88 1680 1120 7 98

A New Sport
Project Work

In groups of 2–3 students you are going to invent a new sport. Use the following plan to help
you.
1. Name of the sport.
2. How long the match (half, round etc.) will last.
3. Who will judge the match.
4. Where the sport will be played.
5. How many players will be involved.
6. Who will play.
7. What qualities the players should have.
8. What equipment will be needed.
9. How the winner will be decided.
10. What the rules are.
11. What is forbidden.

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Review

1. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate names of sports.


1. … is played with two teams and a large ball. There are eleven players in a team who must kick
the ball into a large net called a goal. There are two goals, one at each end of the pitch.
2. … is played with two teams and a large oval ball. There are fifteen players in each team, and they
play on a pitch with a goal at each end. The players kick the ball or run, carrying it.
3. … is played with two or four players who have racquets and a small ball. The players hit the ball
with racquets over a net in the middle of the court.
4. … is played on a court with a large ball. There is a net at each end of the court. There are five or
six players in each team who must throw the ball through the net.
5. … is played on a court with a high net in the middle. It is played with six players in each team.
They must hit a large ball over the net with their hands.

2. Translate into English using active vocabulary.


1. В финальной стадии чемпионата мира принимают участие 32 национальных сборных.
2. Я предпочитаю заниматься лѐгкой атлетикой.
3. Мартин ходит в спортзал 3-4 раза в неделю. Там он выполняет упражнения на пресс,
отжимается, подтягивается, делает приседания.
4. За какую футбольную команду ты болеешь?
5. Эстафеты – это единственная командная дисциплина в легкоатлетической программе
крупнейших международных соревнований.
6. Олимпийские игры Древней Греции представляли собой религиозный и спортивный
праздник, проводившийся в Олимпии.
7. Как жаль, что такая игра закончилась вничью.
8. Бенди более всего популярен в России, Швеции, Финляндии и Норвегии.
9. Вы собираетесь участвовать в соревнованиях по фигурному катанию?
10. Я помню, что последний чемпионат мира выиграла команда из Германии. А кто был
вторым?
11. В середине 19 века в школах и колледжах Англии и США началось возрождение легкой
атлетики, которое продолжается и сегодня.
12. Гимнастика, тяжелая атлетика, дзюдо – это виды спорта для зала.
13. В Британии проводится множество парусных состязаний.
14. Если бы команда Питера не тренировалась так упорно, они бы не выиграли турнир.
15. Такие виды спорта, как лакросс, хоккей на траве, боулинг, скачки на лошадях были
придуманы американскими индейцами.

3. You will hear five different people talking about a kind of sport. Choose from the list A-F
which of the opinions each speaker expresses. Use the letters only once. There is one extra
letter which you do not need to use.
A. He/she thinks that this sport is strange.
B. He/she tries to do this sport as often as possible.
C. He/she points out that this is the least harmful activity.
D. He/she says it can be dangerous if you aren‘t careful with the equipment.
E. He/she likes it because you have a lot of time to think while doing it.
F. He/she has been doing it for a long time.
4. Complete the sentences with the prepositions.
1. A football match starts with a kick- … .
2. A basketball game begins with a throw- … .
3. Many people go to the gym to work … .
4. In football, if the ball goes out of play you can have a goal kick, a corner or a throw-… .
5. A boxer can win a fight with a knock-… .

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6. In the football World Cup, some matches are decided by a penalty shoot-… .
7. If the referee shows you a red card, you are sent … .
8. In basketball and American football, you can stop the match for a time-… .
9. Before exercising you should always warm … with some stretching exercises.
10. It‘s a good idea to take … a sport if you want to get fit.

4. Read the text. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits
in the space in the same line.
Former swimming (1) … Tanya Streeter, 26, has achieved what INSTRUCT
many thought was impossible and dived to 370 feet below the sea on
a single lungful of air. (2) … in free-diving take a deep breath before COMPETE
disappearing into the depths of the ocean. Rigorous (3) … has TRAIN
helped Tanya to go deeper than male (4) … and break one of the DIVE
most difficult diving records.
Free-diving is a (5) … sport. Deaths are frequent and it is not DANGER
uncommon to pass out or have a nose bleed on the descent. Tanya,
who can hold her breath for five minutes underwater, says that many
men tried to discourage her from attempting to break the record.
‗They all said it was unlikely that a woman could reach such depths
without breathing (6) … . They misjudged my abilities and I proved EQUIP
them wrong.‘ In 1988 the French film (7) … Luc Besson made a DIRECT
film about free-diving, Le Grand Bleu, which became the biggest
box-office hit in France of all time.

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Glossary
Unit 1. Sports and Games Phrasal verbs
forge ahead
Do: aerobics, archery, athletics, biathlon, shape up
boxing, gymnastics, judo, karate, martial arts, send off
mountaineering, pentathlon, pole vault, sumo, build up
taekwondo, weightlifting, wrestling, yoga, urge on
luge, skeleton, synchronized swimming, kick off
rhythmic gymnastics. work out
warm up
Go: climbing, cycling, diving, fencing, gliding, knock out
jogging, running, sailing, skating, (Alpine, take up
Nordic) skiing, snowboarding, swimming,
vaulting, (wind)surfing, yachting, figure
skating.
Unit 2. Sporting Events. Tournaments

Play: badminton, bandy, baseball, basketball, Athletics / cycling track


chess, cricket, draughts, football, golf, Basketball // tennis // volleyball court
handball, (ice) hockey, lacrosse, rugby, squash,circuit
tennis, volleyball, (water) polo cricket // football // rugby pitch
gym
golf course
Sportsmen: athlete, biathlete, cyclist, glider- rink
pilot, gymnast, racing driver, pentathlete, ring
rower, sailor, yachtsman ski slope
stadium
indoor games swimming pool
outdoor games
team sports to take part / participate / compete (in)
individual sports to hold smth
amateur sport championship
professional sport competition / contest
sportsmanship bout
endurance event
game
official (referee (ref) // linesman // umpire// lap
judge) match
competitor / participant / contestant race
winner/ victor round
runner-up set
loser tournament
rival / opponent
cheerleader to abide by the rules
manager to break / violate the rules
coach / trainer Ready! Steady! Go! / On your marks! Get set!
captain Go!
spectators / supporters / fans
commentator to score a goal / a point
to support / shout for / be a fan of / root for to keep the score

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to win helmet
to lose hammer
to disqualify javelin
to tie / draw / end in a draw net
to beat smb at smth / to defeat pad
break a record puck
pointer / tip racquet
press-up / push-up shuttlecock
pull-up sledge
rep stick
set stopwatch
sit-up / ab
squat
workout Unit 4. Sport Related Problems
to bang
to pump iron to break
to damage
to dislocate
oath to hurt
motto to injure
IOC (The International Olympic Committee) to pull
the Olympic flame to sprain
the Olympic Movement stiff
torch relay

performance-enhancing drugs
Unit 3. Sports Equipment. Sportswear banned substances
medically supervised doping
barbell
dumbbell
exercise mat Idioms
fitness-station to hit below the belt
punching bag to hit the bullseye
rowing machine to score an own goal
skipping rope no holds barred
trampoline be out of smb‘s league
treadmill (running machine) the odds are in smb‘s favour
to sink or swim
sports equipment/ gear/ kit to save by the bell
sports facilities to punch above one‘s weight
bat to throw in the towel
bars
board
club
discus
gloves
goggles
gumshield

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TRAVELLING

To any breakfast in bed I would prefer coffee


from a vending machine at the airport.

Anonymous

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Unit1. Holidays

1 5
1. What types of holidays do the photos
show?
 sightseeing tour
 safari
 adventure holiday
 sailing holiday
2  beach holiday
 cruise
 camping holiday
 package holiday
2. Which holidays are: relaxing? tiring?
dangerous? romantic? expensive?
Give reasons.
3. Which of these holidays would you most
3 like to go on? Why?
Which holiday does not attract you at all,
if any?

4
Note: a package holiday
is a holiday in which your flight, accommodation,
etc. are all organized for you and included in the
price 6

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Listening Bitten by the travel bug
4. A. Listen to Liz talking about her journeys and answer the
questions.
1. What gave Liz the idea to travel?
2. Why did she go to Spain?
3. What did she do during her journey?
4. How did she feel when she left Spain for Guatemala?
5. What problems did she have during her trip to Guatemala?
6. How did she feel at the end of her journey?

B. Listen again and complete the sentences with the words or word
combinations you hear in the recording.
1. I began to have … and wanted to leave work.
2. I was a bit worried about going into … territory.
3. I went as an …, on my own.
4. I spent a month … the town.
5. I was bitten by … and wanted to explore lots of other places.
6. The first two months were difficult and I experienced real ….
7. So I had a bit of a … to start with.

Explain the meaning of these expressions. Make up your own examples with them.

Speaking
5. Discuss the following questions with your group.
 Do you ever get itchy feet and want to go on a journey?
 Would you like to travel in a group or as an independent traveller?
 Have you ever experienced culture shock when you travelled?

Vocabulary

6. A. Make up word combinations by combining the words from the box with TRAVEL,
GET, TAKE and GO ON.

on a guided tour a trip abroad a hike back from somewhere


a plane on/off a train on a journey a walk on one‘s own
a ferry ride hiking in/out of a car first/economy class
backpacking by air/rail/sea to the road light on a sea voyage
travel go take get

B. Complete the sentences with the correct form of travel, get, take or go.
1. I like … on long journeys.
2. Last summer I … abroad.

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3. I … never … on a sea voyage.
4. I usually … light.
5. I feel very tired every time I … off a train.
6. I … on a guided tour of a famous city last year.
7. I … on my own since I was a child.
8. Every year my family and I … backpacking to the mountains.
9. We always … first class – expense is no object.
10. I‘d never prefer to … a hike to … to a beach in hot weather.

C. Choose the sentences in 6B that are true for you. Work in new pairs. Take turns to read
these sentences out to each other. Ask follow up questions.

Video
Dream holidays

What are these places associated with for you?


The Maldives Egypt New Zealand

What holiday activities do you think are common in these places?


7. Watch the film extracts and complete the table.
Dream Holidays: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thOAR7llwRQ

Nature and sights Popular holiday activities


The Maldives

New Zealand

Egypt

Which of these places would you like to go to? Why?

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Vocabulary
8. A. Consult Appendix I on page 214 for the definitions of the given synonymous words and
answer the questions. Use other dictionaries to get more information.

journey trip cruise travel voyage tour crossing

Which word is mainly used …


for the general activity of going from one place to another?
for an act of travelling from one place to another, and usually back again?
for a one-way act of travelling?
when the travelling takes a long time?
for a journey which is short in time, even if it is long in distance?
in British English for a short act of travelling?
as a verb?
as an uncountable noun or noun in the plural?
for an act of travelling during which several towns or countries are visited?
for an act of walking around a building, town, etc in order to visit it?
for a journey by sea?
for a journey across a sea or a wide river?
for a sea journey for pleasure?

B. Complete the sentences with the words of task 8 A.


1. It won‘t take us long to get there. It‘s a five-minute … by taxi.
2. The job of an interpreter involves a considerable amount of foreign ….
3. I‘m going on a package … arranged by a … agency.
4. (Br) What is your … to work like?
5. Christopher Columbus is believed to make the first Atlantic … in 1492.
6. They took a … down the river.
7. The … from England to India used to take six months.
8. The novel is based on his … in China.
9. I‘d love to go on a round-the-world … on a luxury ship.
10. The group will shortly go on a ten-city European ….

9. Use the given words to complete the sentences.


car bus train plane boat motorbike horse
1. The fastest … can travel at about 3,500 kilometres per hour.
2. In the world, there is about one … for every eleven people.
3. The most expensive … was sold for 16 million dollars in 1996.
4. The smallest … in the world is only 6.5 centimetres tall.
5. The longest … was Australian and it was more than 7 kilometres long.
6. Volvo in Brazil made the world‘s longest … in 2004.
7. In 2002, people found a 7,000-year-old … in the desert in Kuwait.

Which of the facts seems most surprising for you, if any?

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Proverbs
10. A. Complete the proverbs and popular sayings (1-6) with the words (a-f).
1. Every … has its customs. a) home
2. So many countries, so many …. b) country
3. East or West, … is best. c) place
4. … is home, though it be never so homely. d) mind
5. There is no … like home. e) customs
6. Travel broadens the …. f) home

B. Explain their meaning. Give the corresponding Russian equivalents.

Listening New York travel

11. Listen to the text and choose the correct answer.


1. What time does the plane depart? A. 6:00 AM B. 7:30 AM C. 9:00 AM
2. How will the group get to the hotel from the airport?
A. They will take taxis. B. They will ride the subway. C. They will be going by bus.
3. What time does the hotel restaurant open? A. 6:00 AM B. 7:00 AM C. 8:00 AM
4. What is the group planning to do around Times Square for about an hour?
A. They're going to have lunch. C. They will be having a tour of the area.
B. They will have time to do some shopping.
5. What are they going to do after dinner?
A. The group is going to watch a musical. C. They will be attending a Broadway play.
B. They will catch an exciting movie.

12. Translate into English.


Вам не сидится на месте? Вам не терпится отправиться в путешествие?
Вы готовы совершить поездку по странам Европы? Если да, то наше туристическое
агентство может предложить вам совершить незабываемый двухнедельный тур по шести
европейским столицам.
Вы отправитесь в путь из Москвы поездом, доберетесь до города Брест, где пересядете
на комфортабельный междугородний автобус и продолжите на нѐм свой путь по шести
изумительным, многообразным странам Европы – Польше, Чехии, Германии, Франции,
Швейцарии и Австрии. Во время путешествия вы сможете восхититься ошеломляющими
пейзажами Альп, побродить по оживленным мощеным мостовым Праги, осмотреть
достопримечательности Мюнхена и погрузиться в романтическую атмосферу Парижа.
Советуем вам путешествовать налегке и тщательно продумать все возможные расходы
на дорогу. Счастливого пути!

13. On a separate card, make up a text (10–15 sentences) in Russian including the active
vocabulary of Unit 1. Bring it to class. In class, swap the cards and translate the text you get
into English.

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Vocabulary
14. Read the conversation where two people discuss the vocabulary which may be used when
talking about HOLIDAY and TRAVELLING. Fill in the gaps with suitable words or word
combinations from the box.
A: How do you explain it when people go abroad in a group, with all the arrangements taken care of
by a travel agency?
B: You go abroad (1) ….
A: And the person who acts as a guide on the way or at the hotel?
B: He or she‘s the (2)….
A: Nice job I should imagine.
B: Yes.
A: What about someone who doesn‘t like planning, but just likes doing what he feels like at any
particular moment or going where he feels like?
B: People like that (3) ….
A: Oh, that‘s what I plan doing, at least for some of my holiday, anyway. And what about when I‘m
on the beach and lying in the sun?
B: Use (4) … or (5) … or (6) ….
A: And if I soak up the sun for two weeks?
B: Then you become (7) … or you (8) …. The simile, by the way, is (9) ….
A: And if I just go horribly red?
B: You‘ll be (10) ….
A: Well, I just want to get a lovely tan and be lazy.
B: A good verb for just being lazy is (11) ….
A: Oh, I can say that I‘m going to spend two weeks lazing around on the beach.
B: Perfect. There are other ways of saying ‗relax‘. You can (12) …, (13) …, (14) …. The last two
are used mainly in informal conversations. And if you take a break or holiday to get your
energy back, you (15) ….
A: And it‘s nice to have holidays when the weather is fine. Talking of the weather, how do you
explain it when you take a chance on having good weather?
B: That‘s the actual expression, (16) ….
A: And assuming the weather‘s good and I have a good time, how will I feel when I get back?
B: Well, you can say (17) ‗…‘ or ‗I feel (18) ….‘
A: I see. Now what about expressions connected with places which have been discovered and those
which haven‘t? If, for instance, I want to find somewhere well away from the usual tourist
places?
B: Use (19) …. For instance, there are hundreds of lovely places in Britain off the beaten track.
A: And if a hotel, for example, is miles from anywhere?
B: Just say, ‗I stayed at a hotel (20) ….‘
A: What about when a place is full of tourists?
B: Well, if it‘s one of those places that‘s really crowded, use (21) ….
A: And the hotels are full?
B: Just say (22) ‗ …‘ or (23) ‗…‘.
A: And if a person doesn‘t stay in a hotel, but sleeps in parks or railway stations, and so on?
B: Use (24) …. I remember I used to do it sometimes when I was a student.
A: How about a few expressions connected with camping?
B: Well, I suppose most people like (25) …. Don‘t forget, by the way, that place where you camp is
the (26) … and not ‗the camping‘. What else? You either (27) … or (28) …. You take some
(29) … with you.
A: What about people who take everything with them? There‘s an expression, isn‘t there?

151
B: Yes, they (30) ….
A: I like that one. Getting back to towns, what‘s the expression for having a look at famous places?
B: Well, use (31) ‗…‘ or (32) ‗…‘ or (33) ‗…‘.
A: Well, thanks for all that. I must buy you a drink some time.
B: Well, there‘s no time like the present.
A: Okay, which pub?
B: Look, let‘s visit a few pubs in the Strand and Fleet Street and do some sightseeing at the same
time. The streets and alleyways off the Strand are full of interest.
A: Good idea.
a) as brown as a berry r) off the beaten track
b) as red as a lobster s) on a package tour
c) as fit as a fiddle t) pitch a tent
d) to be swarming with tourists u) play it off the cuff
e) campsite v) put up a tent
f) camping equipment w) recharge your batteries (idiom)
g) chill out x) to see the sights
h) courier y) to sleep rough
i) to do some sightseeing z) to soak up the sun
j) to do some sunbathing aa) to sunbathe
k) get a tan bb) to take a chance with the weather
l) to get back to nature cc) take everything but the kitchen sink
m) to go sightseeing dd) take it easy
n) in the middle of nowhere ee) tanned
o) The hotels were fully solid. ff) There wasn‘t a bed to be had anywhere.
p) to laze around gg) unwind
q) My holiday did me the world of good.

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15. A. Choose from the list the word combinations to describe each photo and write them down.
Add 2–3 word combinations of your own for each photo.

adventurous traveller, stunning city, thriving city, remote place, golden sandy beaches, unspoilt
nature, to unwind, to laze around, cobbled streets, amazingly untouched, impressive architecture, to
get away from it all, remarkably diverse, spectacular scenery, vibrant, off the beaten track, to
wander around, swarming with tourists, to soak up the atmosphere, to go on a package tour, to get a
wonderful tan, uncharted territory, romantic atmosphere, to retain wonderful charm

B. Choose a place of task 15A that you would like to go to and describe it using
your notes. Think of possible disadvantages of the place (crowds, dangers,
climate, etc) and speak about it.

Listening
16. You are going to hear two conversations about places that people have stayed in.
A. Listen and complete the table with the information you hear.
Conversation 1 Conversation 2
place
positive impressions
problems

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B. Listen again and complete the sentences with a word or a phrase you hear.
1. It was a bit of a … actually.
2. The whole place was flooded and we got completely ….
3. They … for a couple of nights.
4. We had a … of a time in spite of the weather.
5. It was … but then I love the heat.
6. It looks as if it‘s in the ….
7. It was a bit …. It was a few kilometres along this winding track to the nearest village.
8. Wasn‘t that a …, having to rely on the bus?
9. It was also actually really nice just …, drinking tea and chatting to the other people in the
hotel.
10. I think I‘d get a … after a couple of days. I don‘t really like being stuck in one place.

Conversation Practice
17. With a new partner, have a conversation about places you have stayed in recently. If you
haven’t been anywhere, use your imagination. Use the vocabulary you have studied in this
unit.
Some more useful vocabulary
We had some stunning views from our window.
The place was a bit of a dump, to be honest.
It overlooked the building site.
It was in the middle of nowhere.
The beaches were deserted.
The whole place was spotless.
The site was really muddy and everything got filthy.
The people were incredibly welcoming.

Begin the conversation by asking: Did you go anywhere in the holidays?

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Unit 2. Camping and Hiking

Have you ever been hiking or camping? If so, where did you go? If
not, would you like to?
Do you go camping with your family or friends?
Name three things camping and hiking are associated with for you?

1. A. Skim read the text and match the headings A-H to paragraphs 1–8.

A. Clothing E. Fun Camping Activities


B. Emergency Supplies F. Basics
C. Preparing for hiking G. Taking a hike
D. Cooking gear H. Accommodation and sleeping gear

Going camping is one of people‘s favorite pastimes. It is a great way to get back to nature,
experience new adventures, create memories and see the sights that the world has to offer in a fun
and affordable way. It‘s a time to relax and unwind in the great outdoors and around the campfire,
to go swimming, try fishing, go hiking, work on your fitness, cook over a campfire and tell ghost
stories when it gets dark.
__1_____ When you go camping it is a great time to try out various outdoor sports that you
don‘t get time or the opportunity to do when in the city. You can hike; go kayaking, rock climbing,
water skiing and do many other sports. It is also a time to get relax and chill out with your friends
and family, play outdoor sports, stargaze, play charades and more. It really can be a quality time for
all involved with so much you can do if you want to, or you can just enjoy the fresh air and the
wonderful scenery sitting in solitude on the bank of a river.
__2_____ It is one of most popular activities you can do while camping. Whether you‘re
looking to keep fit or simply clear your head and get out into nature, hiking delivers almost
immediate rewards. You get plenty of fresh air; get to see some wonderful views and exercise and it
is undoubtedly more pleasant than being stuck on a treadmill in a gym. It‘s also a sport that doesn‘t
tolerate procrastination or excuses for very long. It is especially recommended for those leading a
sedentary life. By using hiking as a way to stay physically active, you can potentially lose weight,
reduce heart disease, decrease hypertension, and slow the aging process. It also offers mental health
benefits by reducing stress and anxiety.
__3_____ Planning your trip before you go, finding a camp site and being prepared will help
to ensure you have a trip full of highlights that you can talk about for years to come, whether you go
camping in the summer or winter, in the rain, to the forest or desert, by yourself, camping with
kids or with a group of friends. There are different hiking trails for different levels of experience
and fitness. You can go on easy hikes for a few hours or a day or go hiking on difficult trails for a
few days or more. You will have to carry a backpack and for longer hikes, equipment for overnight
camping.

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***
It can be so frustrating when you get to your campsite, in the
middle of nowhere, and you realize you‘ve left that important
piece of equipment back home. So, what are those items that
you simply can‘t do without on your trip?
__4_____ Take enough tents for the amount of people
and a sleeping bag per one person. You may also need an
additional blanket, a groundsheet and a general purpose tarpaulin
for all sorts of possibilities.
__5_____ Check the weather forecast before you go, and
keep in mind how quickly weather conditions can change in your
area. Be prepared to wear your clothes more than once and to
layer to accommodate changing temperatures. Sturdy boots or
shoes that fit you well are essential. Watch out for hot spots that may cause blisters, and always
break your footwear in with several short hikes before taking a long hike.
__6_____ Keep it really basic. One small camp stove (and fuel), one to two pots, one pair of
tongs and some bowls, eating utensils, plates, a knife, a cutting board, and a few cups for drinks as
well. Foil is excellent for lots of possibilities and while one tablecloth can be handy, you can also
use newspaper from occasional reads. Have a small amount of detergent and a dish cloth too. If you
have tins, bring along a tin opener and a bottle opener is useful. You can forgo the camping stove
and just cook with a fire (remember the matches) provided you're a competent fire maker. Also
have a basic ax for wood chopping.
__7_____ Take toilet paper and personal hygiene items, a flashlight, rope, trash bags, a
small sewing kit, essential medications, sunscreen, insect repellent and perhaps a mosquito net if
warranted where you're headed.
__8_____ Do not forget a first aid kit. Having some basic first aid knowledge can
sometimes mean the difference between life and death. It also pays to learn a few basic survival
skills like how to make fire, find drinking water, how to use rope and staying healthy if you are
planning to go off the beaten track. An emergency whistle is small, light, and effective any time
you're within earshot of others. Hopefully you'll never need it, but if the unexpected does happen,
you'll be glad you brought the whistle along. A trustworthy local guidebook is a good place to start.
If there's even a minimal chance of getting lost, you should bring a map and compass.
There are other camping gadgets you can take along that may not be essential; they will help
greatly in having a more enjoyable time like binoculars, digital camera, cards and so on. The longer
and more remote your hikes get, the more you'll need to carry to be properly prepared.

B. Answer the questions.


1. Why do people go camping?
2. What are the most popular camping activities?
3. Does hiking require a high level of physical fitness?
4. What positive effects does hiking have?
5. What equipment should you take with you for overnight camping?
6. What kind of boots should you wear for a hike?
7. What survival equipment should you have in case of emergency?

156
Speaking
2. Discuss with the class.
What is camping for you?
Do you think that all the camping things mentioned in the text are equally
important? If not, what are the most essential ones?
What camping gear would you take if you went camping to the mountains to make
it a pleasurable experience?
What problems could occur and what precautions would you take to prevent them?

Listening

3. Listen to the conversation between Paul and Sara who are away on a camping holiday.
Choose the correct answer.
1. What are they planning to do in the morning?
A. go fishing B. go mountain biking C. go hiking
2. According to the weather report, when would it start raining?
A. in the afternoon B. at night C. in the morning
3. What did Paul forget to bring?
A. rain coats B. a picnic table C. playing cards
4. What do they finally decide to do?
A. stay at a hotel B. return home C. sleep at the campground

4. Have you ever been in a similar situation? Has your camping holiday ever
been spoilt by bad weather? Tell the class your story.

Conversation Practice
5. You are going on a five-day trip to the Altai Mountains with your friends.
Discuss the itinerary of your trip, the activities (like horseback riding, rafting,
hiking, etc) and things you will take with you.

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Vocabulary, Grammar & Spelling

6. There are 20 language mistakes in the text below. Find them and write down the
corrections.

Last summer we decided to go on camping because all other kinds of holiday acommodations
are too expensive for us. We took everything with us but the kitchen table, got on our car and took it
to the road. We wanted to get out of it all and went to a remote place off the beaten route.
When we got to our camping, we pitched a tent and prepared the food on an open fire. We took
a chance of the weather and spent five days lazying around. Every morning we had a sunbath and
went on sightseeing in the afternoon. One day, we made a travel around the island by a boat. We set
away early in the morning and came back almost at night absolutly exhausting but happy.
The holiday did me a lot of good and now I feel as fit as a bull.

7. Translate into English.

1. Неужели вы не любите ходить в походы? Ведь это так романтично и полезно для
здоровья!
2. Каждый настоящий турист, отправляющийся в поход, должен взять с собой
непромокаемую палатку, надежный и удобный рюкзак, теплый спальный мешок, острый
перочинный нож, фонарик, аптечку, средство от комаров и клещей, спички, чтобы
развести костер, котелок, чтобы кипятить воду и готовить пищу, чашку, кружку, ложку и
запас питьевой воды и нескоропортящихся продуктов на период похода.
3. Дети с 12 до 18 лет без сопровождения взрослых на сложные активные маршруты не
допускаются.
4. В Горном Алтае встречаются змеи и клещи, поэтому необходимо заранее поставить
прививку и оформить страховку.
5. Как ты думаешь, нам нужно брать с собой топорик, чтобы рубить дрова? – Я думаю, в
этом нет необходимости. В палаточном лагере должны быть заготовленные дрова.
6. Пешеходные экскурсии не требуют больших материальных затрат и дают возможность
отдохнуть, почувствовать близость к природе и ощутить азарт приключений.

8. Describe a trip that you have gone on within the last year or so. Where did
you go? What did you do and see? What is your image of the perfect holiday?
Think about cost, destination, places to see, activities and your travel
companions. Would you rather travel within your country or abroad? Present
your ideas and give reasons.

158
Unit 3. Travelling by Train

Have you ever travelled by train?


What is travelling by train associated with for you?

Listening: Going to California


You are going to hear a recorded playlet. Listen and do the tasks.
Richard and Louise Miller live in Chicago. They‘re planning to take a trip to California so they can
spend the Christmas and New Year‘s holidays with Mrs. Miller‘s sister Mary and her husband Paul.
If they went by plane, they could fly from Chicago to Los Angeles (a distance of about 2900 kms)
in about four hours. But they‘ve decided this time to take the train rather than fly.
I Making plans
1. Listen to the conversation between Richard and Louise Miller.
Draw on the map the two routes of the train journey they are discussing.
Which route do they choose and why?

Underline the correct word.


8. The train the Millers choose leaves at 3:15/5:00 p.m.
9. The Millers decide to leave on Friday/Saturday.
10. They are going to be in Kansas on Saturday morning/evening.
11. The train leaves New Mexico/Arizona on Saturday night.
12. The Millers‘ destination is Los Angeles/Pasadena.
13. The Millers are going to get off the train at 7:13/7:55 Saturday/Sunday
morning/evening.

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II On the train
Listen to this part of the playlet and complete the sentences with the information from the
recording.
It‘s now Friday afternoon, December 1) …. The Millers arrive at the 2) …. Their compartment
number is 3) …. The compartment seems 4) … to Louise. The train has pulled out of the station and
is travelling 5) …. The Millers have decided to go to the 6)… to have dinner. It‘s two 7) … up. The
Millers meet Mrs. Bowman and her 8) …. Timmy there. Mrs. Bowman cannot imagine
Christmastime without 9) …. Richard Miller has ordered 10)...., vegetable soup, 11) … pie and
coffee. Mrs. Bowman and Timmy are going to have 12) … for dinner. Timmy is looking forward to
going to 13) ... and 14) … during his Christmas vacation. Timmy‘s vacation is going to last for 15)
… weeks.

III A stop in Albuquerque


Listen to this part of the playlet and answer the questions.
1. When was Albuquerque founded?
2. Who was this place named for?
3. What is Albuquerque famous for?
4. What can the passengers do during the stop in Albuquerque?
5. What is happening to the train during the stop?
6. What do Louise and Richard want to buy from the local artisans?

IV Arrival in Pasadena
Listen to this part of the recorded playlet and correct the wrong information.
It is now Saturday morning and the train is leaving the Pasadena station. The stop will last for about
15 minutes. The passengers getting off at this stop should go to the front door of car 10 or 20. The
train is a little late. The Millers have got a lot of heavy luggage with them. They put the luggage
into the rear seat of the car.

Vocabulary
2. Put the words from the list into the correct group. Add more words to each group.

1) kinds of 2) tickets 3) places & 4) people 5) word


train, facilities combinations
parts of a train

according to schedule, attendant, be delayed, be due, booking office, car, carriage, catch a train,
change trains, club car (Am), coach, commuter train, compartment, conductor/ guard (Br), direct
train, dining car/ restaurant car/ buffet car, engine, first class, freight/goods train, engine driver,
express train, get off, get on, get a train, information office, local train, left-luggage office,
locomotive, lost-property office, luggage rack, luggage van, lower berth, miss a train, monthly, one-
way, passenger train, platform, porter, pull out of the station, return, round-trip, run/be late, run on
time, season ticket, single, sleeper, slow, station, steam train, stopping, take a train, ticket collector,
ticket machine, timetable, upper berth, waiting room, weekly

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3. Match the British words and word combinations to the American ones.
British American
1. carriage a. baggage
2. single ticket b. schedule
3. return ticket c. subway
4. railway d. one-way ticket
5. luggage e. car
6. booking office f. ticket office
7. luggage van g. round-trip ticket
8. platform h. engineer
9. timetable i. track
10. underground j. baggage car
11. engine driver k. railroad
4. Complete the sentences below with the correct word.
1. The conductor made an announcement / a reservation / a note that the train would be
delayed for about 15 minutes due to an accident.
2. Two suitcases / pieces / things of luggage have gone missing.
3. Never leave your luggage careless / alone / unattended.
4. How much is the single fare / fee / fair to Glasgow?
5. These seats are reserved for senior citizens and the physically impaired, so you might have
to take / give up / remove your seat if needed.
6. The next train is on time / arrive / due in five minutes.
7. Trains to the airport travel / run / arrive every half hour.
8. At rush hour, there are so many people on the train that all of the seats are taken, so it's
standing room / seats / place only if you want to ride.
9. Mike is leaving on Monday. I‘m going to take / see / watch him off.
10. We are going to have an early night because we get off / pull out / set off at 6 o‘clock
tomorrow morning.
5. Complete the story on the left choosing a word on the right.
The daily routine of a commuter change
I always take the train to work. At the (1) …, I walk up to a (2) …, crowded
select my (3)… by pressing a button on the machine, insert the correct destination
(4)... , and press another button to purchase a (5) …. When the ticket get on
comes out, I take it and (6) … the gate to the (7) …. At some stations, go through
there is a ticket window where I can buy a ticket and then pass through a grab
(8) .... kiosk
While I'm waiting for the train, I sometimes buy a newspaper at a newsstand
(9) … (10) (…), and I might (11)… something to drink. (12) … is smoking
prohibited on the platform to protect everyone's health. stand
When the train approaches, people start lining up behind the (13) …. station
If the train is very (14) …, I sometimes wait for the next train. When the ticket
train arrives, I (15) … and find a seat. Often, the train is packed with ticket machine train
passengers, so I just have to (16) …. platform
wicket machine
yellow line

Listen to the recording and check your answers.


6. Fill in the gaps with the words from the glossary (Unit 2).
On Friday afternoon, Margaret went to the (1) … of the railway station to pick up her suitcase
which she had left there earlier in the day. Then she went to the (2) … and asked for a ticket to
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Brighton. She decided to buy a (3) … ticket so that not to queue for tickets again on her way back.
She still had some time to spare, so she went to the (4) … to read a book while she waited. Half an
hour later, she checked the (5) … to see where her train was about to leave from. It was (6) … 3.
When she got there, the (7) … were almost full. The (8) … helped her to find her seat. She put her
suitcase on the (9) … and prepared for the journey. It was almost evening and she was hungry but
there was no (10) … on that train.

Speaking
7. Say whether these sentences are true or false. Prove your ideas.
1. Trains are more punctual than buses.
2. Train fares are more expensive than bus fares.
3. Train journeys are more comfortable than bus journeys.
4. Railway stations are nicer places than airports.
5. The safest way to travel is by train.

Reading
8. Read the text and do the tasks.
Travelling by train in Great Britain and the USA
Travel by train is one of the easiest and most efficient ways to get around in Great Britain. As a
rule, it‘s less expensive than renting a car and because Britain is so compact, you can usually get
from one end to the other in a day.
The first trains appeared in England in the 18th century when the Middleton Railway was built
in 1758. The trains carried coal cheaply from the Middleton pits to Leeds. The first tracks were
made of wood and the carriages were drawn by horses. In 1812 the Middleton Railway became the
first commercial railway to successfully use steam locomotives.
Nowadays, Britain is served by an extensive railway network with trains operating frequently.
While train services are operated by over 20 different private train companies, the vast majority of
tickets and timetables are coordinated by National Rail. It makes it possible to find train times and
fares for all train operators all on one website, and buy a train ticket between any two stations, with
tickets normally valid on any operator's trains.
Most British trains are modern and comfortable, and with more than 2,500 rail stations, there‘s
train service to virtually every place you would want to visit. The busiest routes have several
departures a day. For the most part, rail stations are centrally located, so you usually arrive in the
heart of town. The stations are also transportation hubs, so if you need to catch a bus or a taxi, there
will likely be one right out front. Since reservations are not required on British trains, you can board
any train as long as you have a valid train ticket or rail pass. There are also many BritRail Pass
options to choose from if you're planning to travel throughout England. England‘s main cities
(London, Manchester, Birmingham) are well connected to each other, and to sister cities in Scotland
(Edinburgh, Glasgow) and Wales (Cardiff, Chester).
There are also unusually fast passenger trains on special tracks called "bullet trains". A few
even faster ones are maglev trains using magnets to hover slightly off the tracks to have less
friction.
Nowadays, day trips to Paris are possible with the 186 mph Eurostar through Kent that whisks
you to the Channel and then Paris in just over two hours. Easy-to-navigate Brussels and Lille (a
confectionary joie de vivre with France‘s oldest patisserie) are even closer and great day trip
destinations as well. Since Eurostar moved to Saint Pancras International station in 2007, Paris has
become much more accessible from English cities north of London, since there‘s no need to change

162
stations in London. This combined with the new hi-speed line between London and the Channel
Tunnel has dramatically reduced travel times between cities like Birmingham or Manchester and
Paris or Brussels.
In the USA, the 3,000 mile journey across the country by train is one of the world's greatest
travel experiences. It's easy, comfortable, safe, and an affordable alternative to flying. Long-
distance trains in the USA are operated by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, better
known as Amtrak. It began operations in 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the
United States. Although it's only a skeleton network by European standards, it'll take you to almost
all the towns and cities a visitor wants to see. It'll take you from coast to coast in comfort, by a
variety of routes, at very affordable prices. The 3,000 mile coast-to-coast train ride without
stopovers takes 3 nights.
Most of the trains run daily all year round, although the New Orleans-LA train only operates
three times a week. Although trains usually arrive on time or perhaps up to half an hour late, they
can sometimes arrive an hour or two late, so passengers are not recommended to book any tight
connections.
Passenger trains both in Great Britain and the
USA are usually very comfortable way of travelling.
On most trains, two classes of service are available –
standard and first class. Seating in standard class is
like you‘d find on an airline, with a table in between
the reclining seats. There‘s space for your luggage
above and between the seats and at the ends of the
individual cars. And since porters are a thing of the
past, you‘ll probably have to handle it yourself. So
don‘t carry more than you can manage. First class is a
little roomier and more comfortable, and refreshments
are often included in the fare. But since most trips are
relatively short, there‘s little reason to pay for First Class. Many trains have electrical outlets and
Wi-Fi hotspots for computers. You can buy food on board — at the restaurant car on intercity
trains, in the buffet car, or from the food trolley on shorter journeys.
There are also sleeping cars for long overnight voyages. The sleeper
compartments are compact but cosy, with an upper and lower berth in
standard class or just one lower berth in first class, and a washbasin with
hot and cold running water. The beds come with a fluffy duvet, fresh
clean sheets and plump pillows. A complimentary toiletries pack
contains soap, flannel, toothbrush, toothpaste and razor, and a small
bottle of mineral water is provided for each passenger. Morning tea or
coffee is included in the fare and (in first class or for extra pay in
standard class) a light breakfast, served by your steward in your
compartment at the time you specify. There are toilets at the end of the
corridor in each sleeping-car (which can be used even when the train is
at a station), and there's a lounge car with sofas, tables and chairs and
steward service of wine, beer, spirits, soft drinks and light meals. Dining
cars and lounge cars are open to both seat and sleeper passengers.
Although there are such overnight trains in Britain, since the distances
covered are not great, it makes more sense to travel during daylight
hours.
Rail fares vary quite a bit and can be affordable or expensive depending on when you book and
when you travel. Most online ticket brokers charge the same fare, so where you buy your ticket isn‘t
as important as when. Like airlines, trains now offer nonrefundable fares that are less expensive.
And mid-day travel usually costs less than trains during peak travel times.

163
A. Answer the questions.
1. Why do many people prefer travelling by train in Great Britain?
2. When did the first trains appear? What were they like?
3. What national railway company are most British trains operated by?
4. Are trains a convenient means of transport in Great Britain?
5. What modern trains are there in Great Britain?
6. How can people get from England to the continent?
7. How long does it take to travel from one part of the USA to the other by train?
8. Do trains always run according to schedule in the USA?
9. What types of carriages are there on British and American trains?
10. What are the differences between the standard and first classes of service?

B. Say whether the given sentences are true or false. Give reasons.
1. The first steam trains appeared in England in the 18th century.
2. Railway stations are usually situated on the outskirts of British cities.
3. Train fares are usually fixed and do not vary throughout Great Britain.
4. Eurostar can run at the speed of about 300 kmph.
5. American train network is not as developed as in Europe.
6. The cheapest train seats are reclining seat in standard class carriages.
7. If you have got any luggage, you should put it into the luggage van.
8. Porters can help you with your luggage at any time at British railway stations.
9. The fare in a sleeper includes meals.
10. Seat passengers do not go to a dining car for a meal.

C. Find in the text words and word combinations that mean the following.
1) the money paid for the train journey
2) a fixed way along which a train travels
3) leaving a place
4) a central important point of transport
5) a ticket or pass that is officially acceptable
6) a place to which a passenger is going
7) a train that travels between cities
8) a seat the back of which pushes back
9) a passenger carriage with beds
10) a train that travels at night
11) a car where passengers can sit and relax
12) a car where passengers can have a meal
13) fares that cannot be returned
14) the time when the traffic is extremely busy

164
Listening for IELTS Check your Listening Skills
9. Listen and complete the tasks.
1. If you book 12 weeks in advance, you can get a return ticket to Manchester for £ ….
2. Which website are you advised to use when paying for your ticket?
A) the East Coast website
B) thetrainline.com
C) the Ticket Alert website
3. Which TWO statements are true of the East Coast website?
A) You pay a £1.50 booking fee.
B) It can only be used for booking trains from London to Edinburgh.
C) You can use it to buy train tickets for anywhere in the UK.
D) You will not be charged for using a credit card.
E) You can buy a ―Super Advance‖ ticket the night before your trip.

10. Imagine that you and your friend want to travel across Great Britain or
the United States by train. Discuss what train you could take and how much it
would cost. Use the Internet to plan your cross-country trip. What are some of
the major cities where the train stops? Are you going to sightsee before
continuing your journey?

Conversation Practice
11. Complete the conversations with your own ideas.
Conversation 1
- Come along, we are only just in time for the train.
- No, we‘re alright, it doesn‘t leave for another twenty minutes yet.
- I thought it went at 12.30.
- No, not till 12.50.
- Oh, that‘s fine then! Have you got the tickets? …

Conversation 2
- Well, here we are, ready for the journey.
- Put this small bag on the rack above your head, will you? I‘ll just go along the corridor and
see where the dining car is. …

Conversation 3
- I‘m glad you are coming on my train; we can travel together. Have you reserved a seat?
- No, the train isn‘t crowded and we‘ll get a seat quite easily. Ah! Here we are. How would you
like to sit, backwards or facing forward?
- I don‘t mind either way, but if it‘s all the same to you I‘d prefer …

12. Translate into English.


1. Мне пришлось взять билеты в общий вагон. – Неужели не было билетов в купейный
вагон?
2. Утренний поезд, вероятно, был отменѐн. Зал ожидания вокзала переполнен.
3. Поезд идѐт по расписанию и должен прибыть в Бостон ровно в 5 часов.
4. Я бы хотел путешествовать в вагоне первого класса.
5. С какой платформы отправляется 98-й поезд? – С пятой.

165
6. Нам пришлось сделать пересадку в Новосибирске, так как до Саратова не было поезда
прямого сообщения.
7. Я могу заказать билет на скорый поезд до Москвы и обратно? – Нет. Все билеты
проданы.
8. Он не мог позволить себе ехать на поезде. Плата за проезд была слишком высока.
9. Сколько стоит билет в один конец до Шеффилда? – До Шеффилда нет прямого поезда.
Вам нужно будет сделать пересадку в Бирмингеме.
10. Не надо было нести багаж, он был тяжелый, и ты могла бы взять носильщика.

Buying train tickets

13. A. Match the word combinations with their meanings.


1) day return a) a ticket to come back on another day
2) period return b) a ticket to go and come back on the same
3) peak time day
c) outside periods of intensive use
4) off-peak
d) that stop at a lot of stations between the
5) slow trains main stations
6) direct trains e) when most people are going to work or
coming home
f) means you don‘t have to change trains
B. Read the dialogue and complete the gaps with the word combinations from the table. Some
word combinations are used more than once.
W: I‘d like a ticket to London, please.
M: Are you coming back today?
W: Why do you need to know?
M: If you‘re coming back today, you can buy a (1) … ticket, which is cheaper. Otherwise, you need
a (2) ….
W: Ok, a (3) … please.
M: And what time are you coming back?
W: Why are you asking me all these questions? I just want my ticket.
M: I‘m sorry, madam, but if you want to come back at (4) …, you‘ll need a more expensive ticket.
W: I want to come back around 5.30.
M: Well, that‘s peak time I‘m afraid. You‘ll either need to buy a (5) … ticket, or you‘ll only be
able to take (6) ….
W: This is ridiculous. It‘s so complicated! I just want a ticket… So how much is a peak ticket?
M: £60. (7) … tickets are £22.
W: That‘s crazy!
M: I‘m sorry, madam, I understand it‘s annoying, but I don‘t make the rules.
W: So if I take an (8) … ticket, how do I know what trains I can take?
M: Here‘s a list. You have to change either at Didcot or at Reading.
W: These take twice as long. Aren‘t there any (9) …?
M: Yes, I know. If you wait until 6.00, you can…
W: Just give me the ticket, please.

166
C. Listen to the dialogue and check your answers.
D. Answer the questions.
How can you describe the woman‘s state?
What makes her feel like that?
What would you do if you were her?

Conversation Practice
14. Choose the correct question for the answer that is given. What did the person ask to
get this answer?

1) Why did you charge me €5 more? Did you give me back my change? How much is a single
ticket?
ANSWER: It's the standard charge for the seat reservation.
2) Are the seats reclining on the train? Does this train have sleeper seats? Do I have to change
trains?
ANSWER: No, only regular seats.
3) Is there another train to London today? Is there a discount for seniors? Can I get a student
discount?
ANSWER: Yes, it's 10% cheaper if you have your International Student Card.
4) Is it a fast train? Does the train run on time? Do I have to change trains?
ANSWER: No, it's a direct train.
5) Can I have a student discount? Can I get a refund for an unused ticket? Can I get a discount if I
buy my ticket in advance?
ANSWER: Yes, if it's not expired you'll get 70% of the ticket price back.
6) Do trains to Brussels run every three hours? What platform do trains to Brussels leave from? Do
trains to Brussels leave from this station?
ANSWER: No, they leave from Victoria Station.

15. Complete the sentences with the missing word. The first letter is given.

1) I don't have my student i… card.


2) I don't have any c…. Can I pay by credit card?
3) I l… my ticket.
4) I m… my train.
5) We can't find the p… that our train leaves from.
6) Are the lavatories o…?
7) I asked for a s… because it was an overnight train.
8) My w… won't close. Can you fix it?
9) Why is there such a long d…?
10) I'm hungry. Is there a r… car on this train?

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Grammar: Indirect Questions
In formal situations we often use indirect questions because they sound more polite. They have the
following structure.
Indirect question phrase + if/whether/question word + Subject + Predicate + …?
Note:
Both if and whether are used to introduce indirect general questions (yes/no questions);
Whether is used to express a doubt or choice between two possibilities, that is why it is preferred
after certain verbs (discuss, consider, decide, etc) and in a formal style to introduce alternative
questions (questions with or). Question words are used to introduce special questions.
For example:
Is there a dining car on this train? Could you tell me if there is a dining car on this train?
Is it a fast or a stopping train?  Do you know whether it is a fast or a stopping train?
Where is the booking office?  Could you tell me where the booking office is?
Indirect question phrases:
Could you tell me …?
I wonder if you could tell me … .
Do you know …?
Have you any idea …?
16. Translate the questions into English. Transform them into indirect ones. Make up three
questions of your own.
1. Во сколько отходит поезд в Эдинбург?
2. На какой путь прибывает поезд из Бристоля?
3. Поезд идет по расписанию?
4. В здании вокзала есть камера хранения?
5. Сколько стоит проезд?
6. На сколько минут задерживается поезд?
7. В котором часу прибывает поезд из Бата?
8. Есть прямой поезд до Лос-Анжелеса?
9. В зале ожидания есть бесплатный беспроводной доступ в интернет (вай-фай)?
10. Можно положить этот чемодан на багажную полку?
17. Act out the dialogue with your partner making it more polite by changing direct questions
into indirect ones.
YOU: Hello. I would like two tickets to Manchester, please, for the 5:00 PM train.
CLERK: First or second-class?
YOU: What's the difference in price between the two?
CLERK: First class tickets are £47 each and second-class tickets are £35 each.
YOU: I'll take two second-class tickets. Can I buy the return tickets now as well?
CLERK: If you like...
YOU: Well, is there a train that leaves Manchester in the afternoon on Monday?
CLERK: Yes... there's a train from Manchester to London leaving daily at 4:00 PM... Would you
like me to book two tickets for you?
YOU: Yes, please do. Can I pay by credit card?
CLERK: No, I'm sorry, we only accept cash.
YOU: OK, where is the nearest ATM?
CLERK: There's one in the bank across the street from here.
YOU: Thank you.

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Role-play
18. You are going to role-play a conversation between a ticket clerk and a traveller.

Student A. Ticket clerk


A. You have only your partner’s words on the card below. Complete your part of the
conversation. Act it out with your partner. When your partner reads his/her lines, compare
them with what you have on your card and help with the correct answers if necessary.
Traveller: Can I have a ticket to Liverpool, please?
You: ____________________________
Traveller: A return, please. What time is the next train?
You: _______________________________
Traveller: That‘s fine. How much is that, please?
You: _______________________________
Traveller: No, I haven‘t.
You: _______________________________
Traveller: Here you are. How long does it take?
You: _______________________________
Traveller: OK, which platform is it?
You: ______________________________
Traveller: OK. Thanks. Bye.
You: _______________________________
B. You work at Brighton train station. Read the information about train prices and times. It is
7.30 am and the station is very busy. Try to help your customers.

Singles Returns Next train at Journey time


London Victoria £8.40 £10.40 07:41 52 mins
Gatwick Airport £5.80 £7.20 07:41 38 mins
Heathrow Airport £9.80 £12.00 08:11* 1hr 18 mins
Canterbury £9.40 £11.80 08:11* 1hr 35 mins
Dover £9.00 £11.20 08:25 50 mins
Eastbourne £4.20 £5.20 08:05 31 mins
Worthing £3.80 £4.60 08:09 26 mins
* change at Gatwick Note: all child and student fares are half price.
Useful language
Can I help you?
Where would you like to go?
Would you like a single or a return?
Do you have a student ID?
That‘s £9.00, please.
The next train leaves at …
It takes … minutes to get to…

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Student B. Traveller
A. You have only your partner’s words on the card below. Complete your part of the
conversation. Act it out with your partner. When your partner reads his/her lines, compare
them with what you have on your card and help with the correct answers if necessary.
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: Is that a single or return?
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: It‘s at eleven o‘clock.
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: Have you got a rail card?
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: OK, so that‘s fifteen pounds fifty.
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: You‘ll arrive at twelve thirty so it‘s an hour and a half.
You: ___________________________________
Ticket clerk: Platform 3, but check the screen.
You: ___________________________________
Ticket Clerk: Bye.

B. You are at Brighton train station. It is 7.30 am. Choose one of the situations below and
go to the ticket office. Each student should do three situations and then change over. Make
notes on the train times and prices.
1. Your friend flies into Heathrow Airport this morning at 9:30 a.m. You are going to meet her and
bring her to Brighton. You have a student ID.
2. You need to go to London for the day. You are a student but you don‘t have ID.
3. You would like to go to Canterbury or Dover for one day. You haven‘t got much money. You
are an adult travelling with two children.
4. You would like to visit Dover, and return to Brighton today with your three children.
5. You are a businessman. Today you need to go to Dover, and tomorrow you need to return to
Brighton and then go to London (single). Buy both tickets now.
6. You would like to visit either Eastbourne or Worthing today. You only have £5.
Useful language
I need to travel to…
How much is a single/return to …?
Can I get a student discount?
How much is it for a child?
When does the next train leave?
When does the train arrive in …?
Do I need to change trains?
Could you spell that for me, please?

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19. Read the railway station announcement and fill in the missing words.
(1) … three for all passengers traveling to Rugby, Stafford and Crewe. Those with (2)… for
Manchester and the North should (3) … at Crewe (4) …. First class (5)... are situated in the first two
(6)… . A (7) … is available for those wishing to buy refreshments during the (8) … .

Listen to the recording to check your answers.


20. Translate into English.
1. Вряд ли поезд прибудет вовремя.
2. Вы можете положить чемодан на багажную полку. Складывать багаж в коридоре
нельзя.
3. Лондонцы часто ездят в однодневную поездку в Брайтон. Они, должно быть, с
нетерпением ждут солнца и моря.
4. Она положила ручную кладь на багажную полку, села у окна и посмотрела в окно.
5. Когда прибывает наш поезд? – Через 4 часа, если не будет опаздывать.
6. Ах, если бы поезд шел всю дорогу по расписанию. Нам бы тогда не пришлось
аннулировать обратный билет.
7. Напрасно мы торопились, до отправления поезда ещѐ 20 минут. Я даже успею купить
газету и что-нибудь перекусить.
8. В понедельник Том пошел в камеру хранения, чтобы забрать чемодан, который он
оставил там накануне.
9. Мы должны были совершить длительное путешествие поездом, но в последний
момент решили лететь самолетом.
10. У вас, вероятно, уходит очень много времени на дорогу на работу.

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Unit 4. Travelling by Plane
Have you ever travelled by plane?
Is flying an enjoyable experience for you?
Is there anything unpleasant about travelling by air?
When do people prefer travelling by plane to other means of
transportation (train, bus, car)?

Reading
1. Read the text and do the tasks.
Travelling by air: Checking in. Passing through Customs.
Airplane travel is one of the most common forms of transportation to get to overseas
destinations. Knowing the entire procedure from purchasing plane tickets to coping with in-flight
emergencies can ensure that you have a pleasurable trip.
When people buy a plane ticket, they consider a number of factors. Choosing an airline carrier
might depend on the company‘s service record, price of the ticket, length of time to destination, and
even in-flight service. Most airlines have two classes of travel – business class and economy class,
which is cheaper. After you have purchased your ticket, you still need to make the long journey
through the airport.
Departure
Passengers are requested to arrive at the airport two hours before the departure time on
international flights and an hour early on domestic flights to have enough time to complete all the
necessary check-in formalities.
Once people arrive at the airport, they check in your luggage at the check-in desk (check-in
counter). Nowadays, passengers don‘t have to wait until they get to the airport and check-in online
or on their mobile from wherever they are in 24 hours before you fly. Each passenger of more than
two years of age has free luggage allowance. Generally, this limit is about 20 kilos for economy
class and about 30 kilos for business class passengers. Excess luggage must be paid for. There is
also hand luggage (carry-on baggage), with the limit of up to 7 kilos, which can be carried on board
a plane free of charge. Each passenger is given a boarding pass (boarding card) to be shown at the
departure gate and to the flight attendant when boarding the plane.
After the check-in, passengers have to pass through passport control, where their passports (and
visas on international flights) are checked, and the security checkpoint, where they have to walk
through an X-ray machine, and their hand luggage is checked for any prohibited items, including
firearms, explosives, and knives. This is done for everyone‘s safety and to prevent smuggling.
Passengers might also be asked to open their bags to be manually checked. Passengers who carry
excessive money or jewelry will be asked to fill in the Customs declaration.
Once passengers pass through this checkpoint, they go to the designated boarding area and gate
to wait for their plane at the departure lounge. They wait there until their flight is announced. On
international flights, while waiting for the plane, passengers might go to duty-free shops to buy
some goods, such as perfume, tobacco, alcohol, etc., at duty-free prices.
On board the plane
When you board the plane, you find your seat, put your hand luggage under your seat or in the
overhead locker and prepare for the take-off.
When aboard the plane, passengers should watch the flashing electric signs. When the ―Fasten seat
Belts‖ sign goes on, everyone should do it promptly and passengers should also obey the ―No
Smoking‖ signal. No one ever wants to experience any emergencies, but every plane is equipped
with emergency exits in case passengers have to leave the plane. There are also life jackets under

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the seats, and oxygen masks in case the plane's cabin unexpectedly loses pressure. Be sure to read
the safety instruction card located in the pocket of the seat in front of you.
Arrival
Landing formalities are more or less the
same in all countries. On international flights,
while still on board the plane, passengers are
given landing cards to complete.
After the plane has landed, the passengers
get off the plane and go through passport
control. At the immigration counter passengers
show their passport and other necessary
documents. Passengers should be prepared to
answer questions asked by the immigration
officers respectfully, confidently and to the
point.
When these formalities have been
completed, passengers go through customs. If
passengers have nothing to declare, they go
through the green section of the customs.
Finally, passengers walk through the terminal
building to the baggage reclaim (or baggage
claim area) to collect their luggage from the
conveyor belt and after that the passengers leave
the airport.

A. Find in text the English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
1) место назначения
2) время отправления
3) международный рейс
4) внутренний рейс
5) регистрировать багаж
6) регистрация
7) стойка регистрации
8) перевес багажа
9) ручная кладь
10) посадочный талон
11) проходить паспортный контроль
12) проходить таможенный контроль
13) пункт досмотра
14) зал ожидания
15) магазин беспошлинной продажи товаров
16) выход на посадку
17) подниматься на борт, садиться в самолет
18) взлетать
19) взлет
20) совершать посадку
21) посадка, приземление
22) запасный выход

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23) иммиграционная карта
24) зал получения багажа
25) ленточный транспортер
B. Put the things in the order they happen. Describe each stage.
 You go through security check.
 You wait for your luggage at the baggage reclaim.
 You put your luggage in the overhead locker.
 You queue at the check-in.
 You show the boarding pass to the flight attendant.
 You wait in the departure lounge.
 You go through the green section of the customs.
 You fill in a landing card.
 You pass through passport control.
 You go to your gate.
 You get on board the plane.
 You weigh and check in your luggage.
 You switch off your phone and fasten your seat belt.
 You get a boarding pass.
 The plane takes off.
 You get to the airport.
 You get off the plane.
 You go shopping to the duty-free zone.

2. A. Imagine that you are going on a plane journey abroad. Read the sentences and decide
whether you do everything correctly. Put RIGHT for the things you can or should do, put
WRONG if the things you do are not correct or not advisable. Explain why you find them
wrong. For more information about hand luggage allowance read the text on page 174.
1) You arrive at the airport by taxi an hour before the departure time.
2) You have two suitcases about 20 kilos each with you.
3) You have purchased your ticket online and haven‘t printed it out. You have only your
passport with you.
4) You ask at the check-in to give you an aisle seat.
5) You want to buy some gifts and souvenirs at the duty free shop: chocolate for your sister, 2
bottles of perfume for yourself and your mum, a bottle of whiskey for your dad, fridge
magnets for your friends.

B. In your hand luggage you have the following things. Cross out the items that are not
allowed on a plane in your hand luggage.
a bottle of perfume, passport, lipstick, 1000$ , jewellery, a camera, a pocket knife, a bottle of water
(250ml), a bottle of wine (500ml), a laptop, shampoo (30 ml), toothpaste, wipes, medications (pills),
hair gel, a packet of cigarettes, a lighter, a nail file, manicure scissors, a ham sandwich, an
umbrella, a warm jacket, a hockey stick, a pillow, deodorant (150ml).

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Hand luggage rules and regulations
Note the number of bags you can check in. In most cases it is one piece per person.
The weight limit for checked luggage in economy varies from airline to airline but is usually about
20-25kg. We recommend that you label each piece of baggage with a personalized tag, indicating
your surname, flight number, date, and phone number in Latin characters.
Passengers are allowed one piece of hand luggage as well as a handbag or laptop case.
The main piece of hand baggage can be up to the dimensions of 56 by 45 by 25 cm. These
measurements include the wheels, pockets and handle. The bag must fit into the bag gauge
available at check-in.
You cannot bring certain items in your carry-on hand luggage. Sharp objects are prohibited.
Martial arts and self-defence items, sporting equipment that can be used as weapons, guns or gun
accessories, flammable or explosive items, chemicals are not allowed in hand luggage.
You may carry liquids, gels and sprays in your hand-baggage in containers of up to 100ml in
volume. These must be packed in a transparent and re-sealable plastic-bag with zip, up to one litre
in volume. One such bag is permitted per passenger. These rules are valid for water and other
drinks, creams, tonic and lotions, oils, perfumes, sprays and gels (including hair gels and shower
gels), shaving foam, deodorants, pastes and make-up.
The liquid restriction does not apply air-side, so buy anything you will need in larger quantities
once you have gone through security. Alcoholic beverages that are purchased after a person goes
through the security checkpoint are permitted. Items bought in duty free shops must be in a
sealed plastic-bag and must not be opened until you have reached your final destination.
Try not to check in late: even if you make it on to the flight, your luggage might not.

Listening
3. Listen to the conversation between a passenger and an airport security officer and say
what prohibited items from task 2B the passenger had in his carry-on luggage.

4. Role-play a conversation between an airport security officer and a


passenger who is going through the security check with the luggage which
contains the things of task 2B.

Airport announcements
When traveling by plane, pay close attention to the announcements. They contain important
information about the flights, changes in the timetable, delays and cancellations, etc.

Listening
5. Listen to the announcement and choose the correct answer.
Announcement 1
1. Who is probably making the announcement?
A. a pilot B. a flight attendant C. a ticket agent D. a ground crew member
2. What is the ultimate destination of the flight?
A. Atlanta B. Miami C. Caracas D. Lima

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3. What change has been announced?
A. the flight number C. the arrival time
B. the gate number D. the boarding time
4. What are the current weather conditions outside?
A. It's raining. B. It's cloudy. C. It's hailing. D. It's windy.
5. What time will the plane depart?
A. 9:50 AM B. 12:15 PM C. 4:05 PM D. 8:45 PM

Now imagine that you are on board the plane.


What types of information would you expect to hear from the pilot or flight attendant on an
airplane?

6. Listen to the announcement and complete the gaps with the information you hear.
Announcement 2
Hello everyone, this is the (1) … speaking, and I want to welcome you to Flight (2) … bound for
Seattle.
Our flight time today is (3) …, and we will be flying at an average altitude of (4) … feet. The local
time in Seattle is (5) …, and the current weather is sunny, but there is (6) … later in the day. We
will be arriving at Gate (7) …, and we will be announcing connecting flights* on our approach to
the Seattle airport.
On behalf of Sky Airlines and the crew, I want to wish you an enjoyable stay in the Seattle area or
at your (8) …. Sit back and enjoy the flight.
*connecting flight (or connection) is a plane that a passenger can take soon after getting off another
in order to continue their journey.

7. For homework, write your own in-flight announcement and prepare four multiple
choice or true-false questions about it. Then in class, read the announcement in a small group
and have other students answer the questions. Consider including information about the flight
time, weather conditions, flying altitude, the names of the pilots, and any of special
instructions.

8. While still on board the plane, passengers are given landing cards to complete.
Fill in the landing card on page 172 with the information about yourself.

Imagine that you are going to Oxford to study at Oxford Brooks University.
Accommodation Address: Harcourt Hill Campus, Westminster Way, Harcourt Hill, Botley,
Oxford, OX2 9AT
Accommodation Type: college twin standard
FLIGHT DETAILS:
Arrival Airport: Heathrow, Terminal 4
Arrival Flight Number: 241 AEROFLOT
Flight Arrival Time: 12:10
Arrival Date: 29 June 2015
Departure Airport: Heathrow, Terminal 4
Departure Flight Number: 242 AEROFLOT
Flight Departure Time: 13:30
Departure Date: 18 July 2015

Once you arrive in a foreign country, you will have to pass through immigration and customs,
where you could hear the following conversation.

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Listening Immigration and Customs
9. Listen and answer the questions.
1. What is the purpose of the woman's visit?
2. Where will the woman stay during her trip?
3. How long will the woman be in the country?
4. What things are in the woman's luggage?
5. What other information do we learn about the woman?

Role-play
10. You are at London Heathrow Airport. Role-play a conversation between an immigration officer
and a passenger who is going through the customs. Use the information about the passenger of Task 8.

11. Sum up everything you know about travelling by plane (buying airline
tickets, airport formalities and regulations, emergency features
installed on airplanes for passengers’ protection, airport landing
formalities) and give advice to a friend who is going abroad by plane.
Get ready to speak for 3-3.5 minutes.

Vocabulary
12. Complete the sentences below with the best answer.
1. The passengers / flight attendant / pilot will be serving food and beverages after the plane
reaches its flying / cruising / high altitude.
2. We arrived in good time for the connection / change / destination to Paris.
3. After the plane arrives / takes off / lands, you can pick up your luggage at the left luggage
office / departure lounge / baggage claim area.
4. I sometimes feel airsick, especially when the plane hits an air gap / pit / pocket.
5. We experienced severe turbulence / airsick / air crash during the flight.
6. After a long plane journey, I always suffer from landing / jet lag / turbulence, especially
when there‘s big difference in time.
7. When the airport is busy, there is so much hand luggage / excess luggage / baggage being
transported between the terminals and so little time to do it that some transferred / travelling
/ moving luggage gets left behind.
8. There was such a long cancellation / break / delay because of fog that we had to sleep at the
airport.
9. The plane was hijacked / stolen / burgled by two armed men on a flight from London to
Rome. The thieves / burglars / hijackers were arrested and sent to prison.
10. If you need to get a visa, you have to go to the passport control / embassy / customs of the
country you are going to.

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13. Read the announcement and fill in the missing words or phrases.
On behalf of the (1) … welcome aboard TWA flight 801 from New York to Los Angeles. As we
prepare for (2) … we would like to remind you to place any (3) … in the overhead (4) …. Make
sure your (5) … is in the upright position and please (6) …. Before our (7) …, members of the crew
will demonstrate the (8) … safety equipment and procedures. When our cruising (9) … has been
reached, the crew will serve refreshments and a light snack. We wish you a pleasant (10) ….

Listen to the recording to check your answers.

14. Translate into English.


а)
1. Когда я приехал в аэропорт, то понял, что опоздал. Все пассажиры были уже на борту
самолѐта, и он выруливал на взлѐтную полосу.
2. Я прошу Вас как можно быстрее осмотреть мой багаж. Мой самолѐт взлетает через 20
минут.
3. Я не мог позволить себе лететь бизнес классом, мне пришлось путешествовать
эконом-классом.
4. Не может быть, чтобы рейс Аэрофлота отменили.
5. Я заполнил таможенную декларацию и подошѐл к таможенному инспектору для
осмотра багажа.
6. Когда вы путешествуете за границу, вы должны пройти таможенный досмотр.
7. Моя сестра завтра улетает на Дальний Восток, но я не смогу проводить еѐ.
8. Когда самолет стал набирать скорость, пассажиры пристегнули ремни.
9. Во всех странах контрабандный провоз запрещѐнных товаров через границу является
преступлением.
10. Моего чемодана нет на транспортере. Его, наверное, потеряли. Неужели его украли?
b)
1. Раньше меня часто укачивало в самолете, особенно в зоне турбулентности или когда
самолет попадал в воздушную яму.
2. Неужели нам стюардесса или капитан не сообщат, на какой высоте и с какой
скоростью мы летим?
3. Если бы не задержка из-за нелетной погоды, мы бы успели на стыковой рейс.
4. Если бы я поехал на поезде Евростар по тоннелю под Ла-Маншем, а не полетел бы
самолетом из Парижа в Лондон, мне бы не пришлось так долго ждать – все рейсы
были задержаны.
5. Невозможно сесть в самолет без посадочного талона.
6. Чтобы не закладывало уши во время взлета и посадки самолета рекомендуется
рассасывать леденцы.
7. Прохождение через таможню и паспортный контроль обычно занимает много
времени.
8. Должно быть, угонщики надеялись сесть в самолет в Хитроу.
9. Я полагаю, тебе следует попросить место в проходе. На борту самолета они удобнее,
чем у окна. – Как же я смогу смотреть в иллюминатор?
10. Вот ваш билет и посадочный талон. Посадка на ваш рейс уже идет у выхода № 10.

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Grammar Narrative tenses

15. Read a newspaper story about an incident during a flight. Open the brackets using the
verbs in the correct tense and aspect forms.

Hysterical flight attendant causes panic on transatlantic flight


Everything (go) smoothly on Virgin Atlantic flight VS043 from London Gatwick to Las Vegas.
The 451 passengers (relax) after lunch when the plane (hit) some turbulence over Greenland. There
was no advance warning, so many passengers (be) out of their seats or (not wear) seat belts when
the plane (start) (drop) violently.
Suddenly one of the flight attendants (scream), ‗We (crash)!‘ Panic immediately (break out). In
the 30 minutes of chaos, passengers desperately (cling) to their seats, as drinks and magazines (fly)
around the cabin. Amid the terror, the flight attendant (scream) every time the plane (drop).
Businesswoman Angela Marshall (travel) with her partner. ‗Until then the flight (be) fine,‘ she
said afterwards. ‗I (read) my book and my partner (have) a nap. But when the flight attendant (start)
(scream), I totally (convince) that we (be) about to die.‘
Another passenger said, ‗It (be) unreal, like something from a film. People (start) (cry) and
(be) sick. Than woman shouldn‘t be a flight attendant. After we (land) she (joke) and (laugh) as if
nothing (happen), but we all (stagger off) the plane in a state of shock.‘

Listening based writing

16. Listen to the story a girl named Tina tells us about the journey she will never forget.
Reproduce the story in your own words. Remember the following things.

1. Your reproduction should include the following parts: introduction, where you say what
you are going to write about; the main part, or the narration of the story; the conclusion, in
which you make an observation and express your own opinion.
2. Reproduce the story in the third person singular.
3. Use linking words and word combinations: It all began, Meanwhile, Shortly afterwards, A
little later, Sometime later, Eventually, In the end; Suddenly, All of a sudden, without warning, Just
at that moment, out of the blue; It had all been…, When it was all over, Looking back now, etc.
4. Demonstrate a wide range of vocabulary including descriptive adjectives and adverbs and
variety of grammar structures. Use narrative tenses.

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Unit 5. Travelling by Car
Has the traffic changed over the last ten years in your city? How?
Can you drive a car? Have you got a car? Do you like it?
1. Label the pictures with the words from the box.
A. Kinds of vehicles
saloon (Br)/sedan (Am) estate car (Br)/station wagon (Am) hatchback camper van
people carrier/minivan 4x4/SUV/four-wheel drive pickup (truck) convertible

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8
Discuss in pairs
 What‘s good / bad about each kind of vehicle?
 What kind of person would you expect to own each kind?
 If money was no object, what kind of car would you most like to own?
*SUV (sports utility vehicle)
B. Parts of a car
door handle windscreen wiper bonnet (Br)/hood (Am) engine
headlights number plate boot (Br)/trunk(Am) wheel
wing/side-view mirror tyre (Br)/tire (Am) windscreen (Br)/windshield (Am)

Also show in the picture: rear window, side


window, bumper, indicator (Br)/turn signal
(Am), tail light, hubcap, exhaust pipe, petrol
tank.

180
steering wheel rear-view mirror horn ignition
speedometer accelerator (Br)/ gas pedal (Am) clutch brake
gear lever/stick (Br)/gear shift (Am)

Also show in the picture:


dashboard, milometer (Br)/odometer
(Am), rev counter, fuel gauge, glove
compartment, visor, air vent,
handbrake, heater.
2. Answer the questions using the vocabulary of task 1B.
What will you do if you want to …
1) start the car? – I’ll turn on the ignition.
2) change gear?
3) go faster?
4) stop?
5) warn a pedestrian?
6) overtake another car?
7) see at night?
8) turn a corner?
9) store luggage?
10) look at the engine?
You may use the phrases: put your foot on …, look in …, press …, turn on …, open ….
3. Complete the sentences with words of task 1B.
1. The guy in the car coming towards us didn‘t dip his … so I was dazzled for a minute and nearly
drove off the road.
2. I was driving home when a stone rocketed into my … and it cracked.
3. Someone knocked my … off yesterday. They must‘ve just clipped it when they went past. I‘d
better get it sorted out. I don‘t want to get stopped by the police.
4. The red light on the … came on and I realized that I was running out of petrol, but there wasn‘t
a single petrol station around!
5. I was reversing into a parking space and somehow managed to step on the … instead of the …!
I went crashing into the car behind.
6. I must‘ve forgotten to put the … on when I parked, because the car rolled down this slope and
into the lake!
7. It was pouring and the … wouldn‘t work, so I couldn‘t see a thing. I had to pull over and wait
for the rain to stop.
8. We were travelling in the countryside when we got a flat …. And there wasn‘t a spare one in
the boot.
Have you ever had any of these problems?
4. Rearrange the letters in bold to make words associated with roads.
1. The fitracf sitlgh aren‘t working. You‘d better be careful at that tinoujnc.
2. Take a ftle ntru at the nbouurotda to get to the museum.
3. Make sure you use the andepesrit sincrsgo to stay safe. It‘s such a busy road.
4. The gedfotbori was built over the watoymor after the villagers complained that they
needed a safe way to get to the town on the other side.
5. The oltrep tisonta in the High Street has very high fuel prices.

181
6. The daro kwors on the Henley Road are causing heavy ctrffai samj.
7. The esdep timil is only 20 mph in the village, so make sure you slow down.

5. A. Cross out the odd one out in these combinations.


1) a fast/a quick/a new car
2) light/few/heavy traffic
3) front/back/no through road
4) R/T/motorway junction
5) petrol/oil/gas station
6) road/traffic/brake lights
7) U-/round/right turn
8) speed camera/limit/car
9) road street/works/sign
10) fast lane/street/road
11) traffic heavies/jam/lights
12) petrol shop/station/prices

B. Complete these sentences with some of the phrases from task 5A.
1. One of your … … isn‘t working.
2. There‘s a … … on the Topham Road. You‘ll see it on the left near the Town Hall.
3. There are always … … on the High Street so take the … … near the park to save time.
4. We‘ve gone too far. You‘d better do a … … here and go back the way we came.
5. It‘s very … … for a Friday evening. We‘ll get there much faster than I anticipated.

6. Complete the sentences with a word or a word combination.


1. Many of the people badly injured in car … weren‘t wearing seat belts.
2. I‘ve lost my car … and I can‘t find them anywhere.
3. My neighbour‘s car … went off at 2 am and woke the whole street up!
4. We didn‘t stop to visit the castle because the … was full.
5. The car … when I braked suddenly. At least we didn‘t crash!
6. My car … on the way to work, so I was late.
7. The car wouldn‘t …, so we had to take a bus.
8. It‘s a … car with lots of room. It seats five adults comfortably.
9. The sales of … cars like Porsche and Rolls Royce increased sharply last year.
10. The car I have now is very …. It does about 20 kilometres to the litre!

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Listening Renting a car
7. A. Listen to the conversation between a customer (C) and a car
rental firm assistant (A). Fill in the gaps with the words and word
combinations from the audio.

A: Hi. How can I help you today?


C: Hi. I reserved a car online. Here‘s my voucher and my (1) ….
A: Yep. OK. Let‘s have a look. Right. We have your car ready, but we‘re running a special offer
this week. You can upgrade to the next range for just two euros a day, so you could have an (2) …
if you like.
C: It‘s OK. We don‘t have much luggage.
A: Are you sure? It‘s a bit more powerful as well.
C: No, I think something smaller, more (3) …, is OK.
A: Fine. You ordered GPS, yes?
C: That‘s right.
A: OK. Would you like our additional insurance cover for damage to (4) … and (5) …?
C: Isn‘t that already included in what I paid for online?
A: No. I think it‘s in the small print – and this is only three euros extra a day.
C: What are the chances of anything going wrong?
A: Well, it‘s up to you, but better safe than sorry, isn‘t it?
C: I suppose so. OK, then. It is quite cheap.
A: Fine. Can I just have your credit card? That‘s for the insurance, the cost of the fuel and also your
(6) … on the car – which is returnable when you bring the car back.
C: Right, so should I return the (7) … full?
A: No, there‘s no need, but it is full now. It‘s diesel, by the way.
C: OK.
A: So could you just sign where I‘ve marked with a cross? You may want to check the car as well
before you leave. There are some (8) … here and here and a small dent in the (9) ….
C: OK. Great.
A: Have a good trip.
B. Answer the questions.
1. What‘s the special offer for the week?
2. Does the customer take it? Why (not)?
3. What extras does the customer take?
4. What does the customer have to pay for?
5. Is the car brand new?

Role-play: In a Car Rental Office


8. Role-play a conversation with your partner.
Student A
You are travelling in Europe and you want to rent a car for five days. You can decide yourself
whether you are travelling with your family or friends, or on your own. Think what car you would
like to rent, how much money you can pay for it. Talk with a car rental firm assistant. Choose a car,
discuss what is included into the rental fee. Think of three other questions you will need to ask.

183
Student B
You work for Car Rentals. A traveller is going to come to your office to rent a car. Your firm offers
a wide range of cars. Show the traveller your catalogue (page 179), think of the rental fee for each
of the cars. Decide if you have any special offers this week. Try to sell some extras (GPS; additional
insurance to cover for damage to tyres and windscreen; comprehensive insurance to cover damage
to the vehicle, injury or loss of life, theft of property; cover for any additional drivers). Your
purpose is to sell at least one extra. You get 15 % commission if you do!

Can you read road signs?


9. Say what these road signs mean.

NO HARD SHOULDER
FOR 5 MILES
Traffic rules
Are you a law-abiding driver? Do you violate traffic rules?
Have you ever got a fine for breaking traffic rules?
Have you ever got flashed by a speed camera?
What are common traffic violations?

Listening
10. A. Listen to the conversation between a police officer
and a driver who has violated the traffic rules. Tick out the
sentences which are true about the driver.
1. His car registration is missing.
2. He didn't yield to children crossing the road.
3. He exceeded the speed limit.
4. He parked illegally in the school zone.
5. His odometer isn‘t working properly.
6. He didn't use his turn signals at the intersection.
7. He didn't stop at the intersection.
8. His brake lights are out.
9. He doesn‘t have a seat belt on.
10. His licence is no longer valid.
11. He is using someone else's licence.
12. He is trying to make the police officer let him go without punishment.
13. He manages to escape the punishment.
B. In your own words, give a summary of the traffic violations the driver in this conversation
committed.
What steps can police officers take to protect the public and roads in such cases?
Is it better to try to talk your way out of traffic ticket or just accept the consequences if you have
broken a traffic law?

184
11. In what order would you do the following things to start a car? Put the actions in the
correct order. The first one is already given.
 Check that your seat and headrest are in the right position.
 Press the accelerator.
 Take the hand brake off and gradually release the clutch.
 Switch on the ignition and start the engine.
 Press the clutch and put the car in gear.
 Make sure the gear is in neutral.
 Drive safely!
 Adjust the mirrors and fasten your seatbelt.

12. Read the text and fill in the missing words or phrases.
My worst journey ever? That would have been in the summer of 2000. I was returning home from
Scotland. First I had a (1) …. I changed the wheel, drove on, couldn‘t find a (2) … for a hundred miles,
nearly (3) … out of petrol. Well, I was in a bit of hurry after that, and I guess I drove a little above the
(4) …. The police stopped me and (5) … me for (6) …. And when I was nearly back, two streets away
from home, a guy in front of me (7) … so suddenly I drove into the back of his car!

Listen to the recording to check your answers.

Phrasal verbs
13. Fill in prepositions to complete the phrasal verbs in the story.
Last Friday I was supposed to see (1)___ my friend Henry, who was flying to China. The flight was
at 9.00 in the morning, so I set (2)___ at 7.00. As I was pulling (3)___ of the drive of my house, I
scraped my neighbour‘s car. I left him a note with my apologies and saying that I would settle
everything in the evening, got (4)___ the car and headed (5)___ the airport. As soon as I turned into
the main street, I was held (6)___ in a massive traffic jam. After that, I was in a bit of a hurry. I
hadn‘t gone very far when a police car overtook me and signaled for me to pull (7)____. They fined
me for speeding. After that I was really running (8)___ of time, but I didn‘t dare drive faster. I
pulled (9)___ in front of the terminal at 8.20. Henry had already checked (10)____, but I was able
to see him by the security gate and I waved to him goodbye. I watched his plane take (11)___ and
then on the way home my car broke (12)____. I ended (13)____ returning home on a bus.
14. Translate into English.
1. Над Лондоном простирался густой туман, и хотя машины и автобусы включили фары,
они могли только ползти вдоль оживленных улиц.
2. Мне не надо было ждать автобус, я чуть не опоздала на поезд.
3. Неужели у нас заканчивается бензин? Нужно заправиться на ближайшей
автозаправке.
4. Нельзя парковаться слишком близко к подъезду дома, вы можете помешать жильцам.
5. Из-за интенсивного движения в нашем городе даже на окраинах в последнее время
много пробок, особенно в час пик.
6. У нас сломалась машина, и нам пришлось добираться на такси.
7. Нельзя обгонять другое транспортное средство на мосту, может произойти авария, в
частности лобовое столкновение.
8. Многие водители предпочитают небольшие по размеру малолитражные автомобили
внедорожникам или легковым автомобилям с кузовом «универсал», так как первые
более экономичные (топливосберегающие).

185
9. На скользкой дороге следует ехать особенно осторожно, чтобы избежать заноса
автомобиля.
10. Так как плата за проезд на автобусе не слишком велика, в последние время люди
практически не путешествуют автостопом на европейских дорогах.

Travelling by bus
 What means of transport do you prefer to get
around your town?
 Have you ever travelled long distances by
coach? Where to? Did you enjoy it?

Note
bus [C] a large road vehicle that carries passengers, Coach is a polysemantic word which has a few
especially one that travels along a fixed route and stops meanings. Here are the meaning of this word
regularly to let people get on and off. Shall we walk or related to travelling.
go by bus? ◇ It's a short bus ride from here. ◇ When Coach [kɜʊ ʧ] (noun)
we go on a double-decker bus the children always want 1) [C] (BrE) a comfortable bus for carrying
to sit upstairs. passengers over long distances: They went to
Especially in American English a bus is also a large
Italy on a coach tour. ◇ Travel is by coach
road vehicle that carries passengers over long
distances; in British English, this is usually called a overnight to Berlin. ◇ a coach station ◇ a
coach. coach party (=a group of people travelling
together on a coach)
2) [C] (BrE) = carriage: a railway coach
3) [C] a large closed vehicle with four wheels,
pulled by horses, used in the past for carrying
Listening passengers
1. A. Listen to the audio. What methods of 4) [U] (AmE) the cheapest seats in a plane: to
transport does the speaker mention? fly coach◇ coach fares/passengers/seats
B. Listen again and answer the questions. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)
1. How does James like to travel?
2. How does James get to work?
3. Why does James like the bus?
4. How does James get around the centre of the city?
5. When does he get taxis?
6. Why doesn‘t he get taxis?

Speaking
2. Talk about the traffic in your town by answering the questions and summarising your
answers.
How can you travel around your town/area?
What‘s your favourite way to travel and why?
What‘s the most convenient way to travel? What‘s the most expensive?
How would you improve transport in your area?

186
Unit 6. Travelling by Ship
A. Read the text about the famous ship Titanic. The paragraphs of the text are in the wrong
order. Decide on the correct order for the paragraphs. The first paragraph is correct. Give
titles to the paragraphs.
The Titanic’s Maiden Voyage

The world was shocked


when the Titanic sank. The
"unsinkable"
ship Titanic sank on its
maiden voyage, losing at
least 1,517 lives (some
accounts say even more),
making it one of the
deadliest maritime disasters
in history.
The Titanic was designed to be the largest in a series of three ships made by the White
Star line. It took nearly three years to build the Titanic. When completed, the Titanic was
the largest movable object ever made. It was 268 metres long, 28 metres wide,
A and weighed 45 000 tons. It produced enough power to travel at a speed of 24 knots
(about 40km per hour). The bulk of the ship was divided into compartments (bulkheads).
They were separated by steel doors that did not let any water through. The ship could
still move and float if 3 or 4 of the 16 bulkheads were filled with water.
Captain Smith realized that the ship was taking on a lot of water. Six bulkheads were
filling fast with water. The bow of the ship dipped under the water‘s surface and the
B back part of the ship began to rise. Upon the realization that the Titanic was sinking,
Captain Smith ordered the lifeboats to be uncovered and for the wireless operators on
board to begin sending distress calls.
Although several ships received the Titanic's distress calls and changed their course, it
was the Carpathia that was the first to arrive. The first survivor stepped aboard
C the Carpathia at 4:10 a.m. and for the next four hours and twenty minutes, the rest of the
survivors boarded the Carpathia. Once all the survivors were on board,
the Carpathia headed for New York, arriving in the evening of April 18, 1912. In all, a
total of 705 people were rescued while 1,517 perished.
The first two days across the Atlantic went smoothly. The crew worked hard and the
passengers enjoyed their luxurious surroundings. Sunday, April 14, 1912 also started out
D relatively uneventful, but later became deadly. Throughout the day on April 14,
the Titanic received a number of cautionary wireless messages from other ships warning
about icebergs along their path. However, for various reasons, not all of these warnings
made it to the bridge.
The evening was cold and clear, but the moon was not bright. That, coupled with the fact
that the lookouts did not have access to binoculars, meant that the lookouts spotted the
E iceberg only when it was directly in front of the Titanic. At 11:40 p.m., the lookouts rang
the bell to issue a warning and used a phone to call the bridge. Thirty-seven seconds
after the lookouts warned the bridge, the Titanic's starboard (right) side scraped along
the iceberg below the water line. The iceberg ripped a big hole in the hull of the ship.

187
Captain Edward J. Smith wasn‘t worried about the ice since the entire Titanic team
thought of it as an indestructible force, practically a Goliath made of steel. The only
F thing the captain cared about was setting up a new world speed record. The Titanic was
to be the fastest ship that ever sailed from Southampton to New York. He retired to his
room for the night at 9:20 p.m. At that time, the lookouts had been told to be a bit more
diligent in their observations, but the Titanic was still steaming full speed ahead.
Once the last lifeboat was lowered at 2:05 a.m. on April 15, 1912, those remaining on
board the Titanic reacted in different ways. Some grabbed any object that might float
(like deck chairs), threw the object overboard, and then jumped in after it. Others stayed
G on board because they were stuck within the ship or had determined to die with dignity.
The water was freezing, so anyone stuck in the water for more than a couple of minutes,
froze to death. At 2:18 a.m. on April 15, 1915, the Titanic snapped in half and then fully
sank two minutes later.
The Titanic set sail on April 10th, 1912 from Southampton, England after arriving from
its construction in Belfast. It had a grand departure as the public came in large numbers
H to witness this giant. It called at Cherbourg, France and Queenstown, Ireland. At these
stops, a handful of people got off and a few hundred boarded the Titanic. By the time
the Titanic left Queenstown at 1:30 p.m. on April 11, 1912 heading for New York, she
was carrying over 2,200 people, both passengers and crew.
At first, many of the passengers did not comprehend the severity of the situation. It was a cold
night and the Titanic still seemed like a safe place, so many people were not ready to get into
I the lifeboats when the first one launched at 12:45 a.m. As it became increasingly obvious that
the Titanic was sinking, the rush to get on a lifeboat became desperate. To the horror of
everyone on board, there were not enough lifeboats to save everyone.
The collision with the iceberg was so slight that the passengers hardly heard it. Many
J passengers were asleep in their cabins and thus were unaware that there had been a
serious accident. Even passengers that were still awake felt little and continued dancing
and having fun as the Titanic hit the iceberg.
The Titanic reflected all the qualities that the proprietors had wished it to be; big, posh,
fast and safe ship. It was more of a floating luxury hotel more than a boat. It cost $7.5
million and it was unlike any other ship that had ever been built. Palm trees and other
K expensive plants decorated the luxurious hallways and corridors. The Titanic‘s designers
put in every effort to make the Titanic a pleasant experience to the eyes. In fact, even the
presence of lifeboats which could be an eye sore was reduced to just 16 along with 4
collapsible boats, which proved fatal in the end.

188
B. Complete these sentences with dates, time, places and numbers from the text.
April ____, 1912 The Titanic leaves the dock of ____________for its maiden voyage.
April ____, 1912 ( _______ p.m.) The Titanic hits an iceberg.
April ____, 1912 ( _______ a.m.) The first lifeboat is lowered into the freezing water.
April ____, 1912 ( _______ a.m.) The Titanic sinks.
April ____, 1912 ( _______ a.m.) The Carpathia picks up the first of the survivors.
April ____, 1912 ( ______ a.m.) The Carpathia picks up survivors from the last lifeboat.
April ____, 1912 The Carpathia arrives in New York with _____ survivors.

Speaking
More than a century has passed since the largest ever
built luxury steamship in its time, the RMS Titanic,
came to a catastrophic end and reached its final
resting place in a deep sea grave.
More than 1,517 people lost their lives out of nearly
3000 people on board.
C. Do you think that it was something that could
have been prevented? Discuss with the group.

Tell a story about any other famous ship you know.

Vocabulary
1. In the text about the Titanic (task 1), find the words and word combinations which mean
the following. Translate them into Russian.
1) the front part of a ship
2) the main body of a ship
3) the right side of a ship
4) the part of a ship where captain stands
5) a long low folding chair
6) a room on a ship in which people live or sleep
7) a small boat used for rescuing people at sea

189
8) a signal from a ship asking for immediate assistance
9) all people working on a ship
10) to enter the ship
11) to leave the ship
12) to start a sea voyage
13) to stop at a place (port) for a short time
14) the first journey made by a ship
Make up sentences using these words.
2. Choose the correct word from the box to complete the sentences. Use the plural form
where necessary.
cabin deck anchor galley porthole paddle
port oar bow stern gangplank starboard
1. Several boats lay at … in the harbor.
2. We took one … each and rowed quickly to the shore in our old wooden rowing boat.
3. I was the only person on … at that time of night.
4. After the tinkling signal, the … was lowered, and the passengers began to disembark from the
steamer.
5. The … on a ship seem to produce much better food than those of an aircraft.
6. The blade of a canoe … has undergone many evolutions in the past two decades, evolving from
a flatter blade to one with a more pronounced curve to better catch the water.
7. Many cruise passengers prone to seasickness appreciate staying in … on a lower deck, because
lower decks sway less, especially in rough seas.
8. Most of the outside cabins have … and bunk beds.
9. It‘s one of the most iconic scenes in movie history: Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet
sailing into the sunset at the … of the Titanic.
10. Both rudders of the sloop were broken and the … was being beaten on rocks, with the bow
pointing out to sea.
11. The … side, a basic boating term, means the left side a vessel when one stands facing the bow,
or the front. Port is used with its sister term, …, which means the right side.

3. These terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but there are differences between them.
What is described in each of the given situations? Match the descriptions (1-6) to the
words (a-f). The pictures might help you.

a) harbour b) port c) quay d) pier e) wharf f) dock

1) It is a place on the coast which has facilities for


boats or ships to call into, and usually a village or
town attached. Normally these places developed
because of the natural features at that particular part of
the coastline (a break in the high cliffs, an area of deep
water where the coast is rocky etc.). They can look
very different from one another and may contain all of
the things listed above (wharfs, quays, piers etc.).

190
It is a man-made structure on a river or by
the sea where boats can be tied up and
goods unloaded. Some are very intricate,
with multiple types of berth over a large
area, and navigable channels, and others are
more straightforward.

2) It is a platform, technically, a part of


the river bank or coastline which has
been modified so ships can dock at it
parallel to the shore.

3) It is a long low structure, normally wooden,


which protrudes from the shore at a level above
the water level, allowing ships to disembark
passengers in the deeper water further out. The
length of it may also provide berths for smaller
boats.

4) It is a body of water where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or
else are stored for future use. They can be natural or artificial.

5) It is an enclosed area of water used for loading,


unloading, building or repairing ships. There are
two types of them: wet and dry (like the one you
see in the picture).

Note: the words dock, quay, wharf and pier are often used as synonyms, especially in American
English (any human-made structure in the water intended for people to be on).

191
Types of vessels
4. Choose the correct description (1-7) and picture (A-G) for each type of vessel.

(cabin) 1) pieces of wood tied together and


cruiser used a s a boat
A

2) a boat with a motor and room for


liner
people to sleep, used for pleasure trips

3) a boat which rises above the


surface of the water when it is travelling
raft fast

hovercraft 4) a fast sailing boat with two hulls

5) a ship used to carry passengers,


ferry and vehicles or cargo, across a river or a
narrow part of the sea
E

6) a vehicle that travels over water,


land, mud or ice and other surfaces, held
hydrofoil
up by air being forced downwoards (also
known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV)
F

catamaran 7) a large ship that carries passengers

G
Notes: 1) a ship is any large boat that is used for carrying passengers or goods by sea.
More formally, it is called a vessel;
2) a raft is also a small rubber or plastic boat filled with air;
3) most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A passenger ferry with many
stops is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.

192
Vocabulary & Grammar
5. A. Read the text about ferries. Some lines have extra words. If a line is correct, put a
tick. If a line has a word which should not be there, put it down.
Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and 1 _____
islands, allowing of direct transit between points at a cost much more lower 2 _____
than bridges or tunnels. However, ship connections of much larger distances (such as 3 _____
over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called 4 _____
ferry services, especially if they carry with vehicles. 5 _____
The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects between Great 6 _____
Britain and the mainland Europe, sailing mainly to French ports, such as Callais, 7 _____
Boulogne, Dunkirk, Dover and others. Ferries which from Great Britain also sail you 8 _____
to Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Ireland. 9 _____
Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most them also carry freight, and 10_____
some are exclusively for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, a car-carrying ferries are 11_____
sometimes referred to as RORO (roll-on, roll-off) for the ease by which vehicles can 12_____
be board and leave. 13_____
B. Make up 3 questions to the text. Ask and answer them with your partner.
C. Complete the sentences with one word.
1. There isn‘t a bridge across the river – you
have to … by ferry. Posh means ‗smart‘, ‗upper-class‘.
2. When you arrive at the ferry … someone It is said that the word originated when wealthy
will tell you where to park. people travelled by ship to and from India when it
was under British rule. To avoid the hot sun in the
3. A daily ferry … the island to the
Indian Ocean during the voyage, the richer
mainland.
passengers specified that their cabins should be on
4. We … the overnight ferry from Harwich
the left side (‗port‘) of the ship going to India, and on
to Rotterdam.
the right side (‗starboard‘) on the way home. Port
5. The ferry won‘t … if the weather is bad. Out, Starboard Home: POSH.
6. You won‘t be allowed to … the ferry if
you haven‘t got a ticket.
6. Read the text and fill in the missing words.
Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. This is your purser speaking. On behalf of our 1) … and
crew I would like to welcome you all 2) … the M.S. Jubilee. We wish you a pleasant and
comfortable 3) …. As passengers on the 4) … can see, we are now lifting the 5) … and shall be
leaving the 6) … immediately. 7) … are reminded, for security reasons, that at 17.30 we shall
be holding a lifesaving drill. Your 8) … can be found in the bottom of your wardrobes. The
number of your muster station is on the back of your 9) … door.

Listen to the recording to check your answers.

7. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Это твоѐ первое путешествие на пароходе? – Да, и я очень боюсь плыть через океан.
Надеюсь, море будет спокойным.
2. Скажите, пожалуйста, как пройти в каюту первого класса?
3. Давай поспешим. Кажется, собираются поднять трап. – Не волнуйся. У нас ещѐ есть
несколько минут до отправления парома.
4. Пассажиры стояли на палубе катера и любовались берегами Крыма.

193
5. В какие порты заходит лайнер?
6. Провожающие терпеливо стояли на причале и ждали, когда пароход отплывѐт.
7. Когда мы вынуждены были пересаживаться с поезда на борт корабля, я с большим
трудом смог перенести свой тяжелый багаж.
8. Я бы очень хотел путешествовать морем, но моя жена плохо переносит качку и
страдает от морской болезни. Придется лететь на самолете.
9. Так как меня никто не провожал, я ушел в свою каюту, чтобы не видеть, как стоящие
на палубе люди махали и кричали что-то провожающим на берегу.
10. Только крик чаек да шум прибоя нарушал тишину над гаванью.

Speaking
D. What are the advantages and disadvantages of different means of transportation?
Come up with at least three ideas for each position, rank them in order of importance, and
summarize your opinions. Some of the ideas are given below the table.
advantages disadvantages
Train
Plane
Car
Coach
Boat
On foot

 you don‘t have to study road maps


 can get lost in roundabouts
 it is healthy and cheap
 you‘ll have to look for (and pay for) parking
 can read a book, write in your journal, chat with your travel pals
 not much freedom and flexibility
 can enjoy the scenery
 it is statistically safer
 you have to carry your own luggage
 hours-long security checks and baggage limitations
 you get from the center of one fabulous city to the center of another
 a cost effective way to travel
 more environmentally friendly

Conversation Practice
You and your friends are going on a trip. Discuss the means of transport you will be travelling with
and advantages and disadvantages of each.

194
Unit 7. At the Travel Agency. Accommodation

Accommodation
1. A. In the box, there are words denoting different types of
accommodation, a building that you pay to stay in when you
are away from home. Match the words to their definitions.
bed and breakfast (B&B) motel suite
hostel campsite caravan
guest house hotel self-catering flat/apartment

1. It is a building where people stay paying for their rooms and meals.
2. It is a place to stay for people who are travelling by car, with space for parking cars near the
rooms.
3. It is a house, often the owner‘s own home, that provides rooms to sleep in and a meal in the
morning.
4. It is a home attached to your car.
5. It is a building that provides cheap accommodation and sometimes meals to travellers.
6. It is a set of rooms in a hotel forming one living unit.
7. It is a small hotel.
8. It is a place where you can put up your tent.
9. It is accommodation where you cook for yourself.
B. Think of two adjectives to describe each of these types of accommodation.
Have you ever stayed in any of these types of accommodation?

Listening Where to stay?


2. A. Listen to five advertisements for the places to stay at during holidays. Fill in the table
with the numbers of the most suitable holiday makers for each holiday. Three sets of holiday
makers will be left over. Give reasons for each of your choice.
1. A group of teenagers looking for a bit of a challenge.
2. A honeymoon couple looking for a tropical island.
3. Two friends who want to get out and about and do some gentle exercise.
4. A couple of elderly people interested in museums and architecture.
5. A young couple who want a week in the sun with plenty to do in the evenings.
6. A family with young children looking for a quiet, rural holiday.
7. A family with young children who want sun, sand and sea.
8. A man and his dog who want a country holiday with plenty of walking.
Advertisement a b c d e
People

B. Listen again and put down the words or word combinations with the following meaning.
The words are not given in the order you will hear them in the recording.
1) a place where a lot of people go on holiday
2) a house which you rent and cook for yourself
3) a room in a private house or a hotel with a meal in the morning
4) accommodation that includes breakfast and lunch or dinner in the price
5) underwater diving with swimming apparatus

195
6) underwater swimming with a tube to breathe
7) flying while hanging from a frame
8) mountaineering
9) territory where sheep are kept in unfenced fields
10) have a rest (infml)
11) without any effort or difficulty (infml)

C. Which place would you choose for your holidays? Why?

3. A. Read the advertisements and say where these places are situated and what
accommodation they offer.

(1)
Standing along the Costa del Sol, Torremolinos offers an (1) (unusual) shoreline, which stretches
for around 7 km. Torremolinos is home to a large selection of (2) (good), sandy beaches, many of
which offer (3) (very good) amenities nearby, being lined by a long and (4) (beautiful) promenade.
You‘ll love our Sunnyside self-catering apartments, which are situated on the (5) (quiet) seafront on
the outskirts of this (6) (very good)
resort and are fully equipped with (7)
(new) cooking and washing
facilities. Alongside the
Mediterranean Sea, Torremolinos is
known for its fine sunny weather,
warm, (8) (clear) waters, which are
suitable for numerous water sports,
which include sailing, windsurfing,
scuba diving, snorkelling and fishing.

(2)
This (1) (beautiful) corner of the Emerald Isle is
(2) (famous) the world over for its ancient Gaelic
culture and the charm and allure of its lovely
scenery. During this (3) (very good) short break
you‘ll be able to stay at bed and breakfast
accommodation at the (4) (beautifully) situated
four-star Radisson Hotel and Spa, feed the swans
at Galway Bay, go on a full-day (5) (interesting)
excursion to Innisfree, the (6) (beautiful) island in
the middle of Lough Gill and board a lake
steamer for a short cruise from the historic shore-
side Parke‘s Castle. Our (7) (interesting) excursions take you west across (8) (magnificent) County
Mayo to the (9) (famous) Woolen Mills and to (10) (very good) Westport on (11) (beautiful) Clew
Bay. We offer a variety of guided tours and you will be free to explore this (12) (beautiful) place
under your own steam.

196
(3)
Forget the crowded hostels and turndown service. Camping is how urban backpackers can really cut
costs. It is a must for all adventurous nature lovers who long to get away from it all to a land of
(1) (fast) (2) (very long) rivers, (3) (very deep) valleys and (4) (very large) mountains. Our
Phobjikha campsite offers (5) (magnificent) camping experience filled with outdoor sports and fun
activities, like khuru-dart and archery using traditional bow and arrow. Phobjikha is famous for
black necked cranes which migrate in every
winter and abundant yaks and cows which
graze here during winters. This place
is heavenly paradise for those who enjoy
outdoor trekking and adventure holidays.
Trekking in the Himalayan foothills is
never like anywhere and wherever you go,
you will encounter (6) (beautiful) scenery
and (7) (pleasant) Bhutanese people, who,
though fascinated by foreigners, remain in
touch with the values of their traditional
way of life.

B. Substitute the words in brackets with their synonyms. Do not use one word more than
once. Compare your answers in groups of three or four.
For more synonyms consult Appendix II on page 216.
C. Choose a place you would like to go to and explain the reasons for your choice.

Listening
4. Listen to the conversation between a travel agent and a woman who is going on
holiday and say which of the places of Task 3 she has chosen for her trip.
Tick out points the speakers mention in the conversation.
1) dates
2) number of people
3) facilities available
4) activities or excursions
5) type of transport
6) weather
7) possible dangers and problems
8) clothes required for holidays
9) equipment required for holiday
10) type of food available
11) price of holiday
12) name and address of the customer

197
Conversation Practice Expressing warning and advice
Travel agents are usually experienced travellers, who could give you some useful advice on how to
travel wisely, and they can also warn you about possible dangers or trouble.
5. A. Imagine a conversation between a travel agent and a tourist who is going on a
journey to one of the places of Task 3. Complete the sentences with your ideas. The first is
given as an example.

Tourist Travel agent


Asking for advice Giving advice
What do you think we should take with us? Make sure your passport is valid.
Could you give us some advice on …? It‘s a good idea to …
What should we do if …? You‘d better …
Do you think it‘s a good idea to…? If I were you, ….
Don‘t forget to…
It‘s worth …, just in case.
Responding to advice/warnings Giving warnings
That sounds like good advice. Watch out for sharks.
That‘s a good idea, I hadn‘t thought of that. Be careful when ….
That‘s really useful, thanks. Whatever you do, don‘t …
Right, thanks. That‘s very helpful. Don‘t …, or else … .

6. Role-play a conversation between a travel agent and a person who is going


on holiday to one of the places of Task 3. Discuss the points of Task 4 in
your dialogue. Use conversational phrases of expressing warnings and
advice.

7. Read the advertisement for a hotel chain and use the information to complete the
informal letter below. Use one or two words for each gap. The words you need do not
occur in the advertisement.

Are you a reluctant traveller? Do you prefer the comforts of your own home? If the answer to both
these questions is ‗yes‘, then Beach Plaza is exactly what you are looking for. We cater for your
every need, so when you‘re away, never stay anywhere except at a Beach Plaza hotel.
 more than 50 hotels and motels situated conveniently across the country
 spacious parking for over 200 vehicles
 24-hour room service available
 5-star restaurants with highly-trained chefs for your dining pleasure (wide choice of
vegetarian dishes available)
 fitness room with professional instructors on staff, sauna and pool, all available at no additional cost
to Beach Plaza clients
 2-hour dry-cleaning service available on request
 all major credit cards welcome; personal cheques also acceptable
Reservations by phone: 7263309, fax: 7263308 or email: beachplaza@mail.com

198
Dear Jane,
Thought I‘d let you know about a new hotel chain I heard about. Try them out the next time you‘re
away on business. According to their ad, Beach Plaza (1)… you with everything you could wish for,
even if you (2)… travelling. They‘ve got at least 50 hotels and motels throughout Ireland and there‘s
always (3) … for your car.
Their service is great too. Any time, (4) … or night, you can have meals (5) … to your room. Or if
you feel like getting out, they‘ve got several restaurants, each with its own (6) … chef. They (7) ...
many vegetarian meals, too. Every hotel has a (8) … steam room and a swimming pool, all free (9)
….
If you want your clothes washed and ironed, all you have to do is (10) … . It only takes (11) … of
hours.
When it comes to paying the bill, they‘ll (12) … a cheque or you can use your credit card. To (13)
…a room, you can (14)…. them or send a fax or an email.

Hotel reservation
What questions would you ask if you called to make a hotel reservation?

Listening
8. Listen to the conversation and complete the table with the
information about the two rooms the speakers discuss.
Room 1 Room 2
Date: ________________ ________________
Type of room: ________________ ________________
Room facilities: _____________ ____________ ________________
Name: ________________
Which room does the man prefer? Why?
 Say what possible problems could occur with hotel reservations.

Listening
9. Listen to the conversation and choose the correct answer.
1. What is the first problem with the man's reservation?
A. The hotel confused him with another guest.
B. Rooms are overbooked for that evening.
C. There are no more rooms available for five people.
D. The price for the room is more than he expected.
2. For what day did Mr. Nelson make a hotel reservation?
A. the eighteenth B. the nineteenth C. the twentieth D. the twenty-first
3. What is taking place in the city that makes getting another room almost impossible?
A. a marathon C. a conference
B. an outdoor music festival D. building renovation
4. How much is the initial discount on the honeymoon suite after Mr. Nelson complains about the
hotel service?
A. $10 B. $15 C. $20 D. $25

199
5. How does Mr. Nelson respond when the hotel clerk offers to provide him with a free room on his
next visit?
A. He thinks it will take a long time for him to receive the free coupon for the room.
B. He feels he should receive an apology from the manager for what has happened.
C. He suggests that the hotel should give guests an additional 15% discount.
D. He implies that he might not visit again because of the problems he has had.

Conversation Practice
10. Look at the dialogue with a partner. Talk together about what you could say to fill the
gaps.
Guest Hello. I‘ve made a reservation.
Receptionist Good morning. I hope you had a pleasant journey here. Could you tell me
your full name, please?
Guest It‘s …
Receptionist Thanks. And would you mind telling me your email address?
Guest OK. It‘s …
Receptionist Thank you. And how long will you be staying with us?
Guest …
Receptionist So, that‘s the .. of … to… of…?
Guest That‘s right.
Receptionist And what type of room would you like?
Guest …
Receptionist That‘s fine. Now, do you have any special requirements?
Guest Yes, …
Receptionist No problem. …
Guest Thank you.
Receptionist Now, here is your room key. I hope you enjoy your stay.
Practise the dialogue, filling in the gaps as you speak. Swap roles.

11. Translate into English.


1. Все гостиницы, предоставляющие номер с завтраком, казалось, были заполнены.
2. Не может быть, чтобы в таком шикарном отеле не было собственного пляжа с
шезлонгами и необходимого оснащения для занятия водными видами спорта.
3. В студенчестве мы часто отправлялись в недорогие туры по Европе, останавливаясь на
ночь в общежитиях для молодежи.
4. Как долго Вы собираетесь пробыть в нашей гостинице? Укажите, пожалуйста, дату
своего прибытия и отъезда.
5. Великолепный песчаный пляж, живописный пейзаж и доброжелательный персонал
нашего отеля сделает ваш отдых незабываемым.
6. Как ты думаешь, может быть, стоит забронировать апартаменты и готовить самим,
чтобы сэкономить на расходах?
7. У вас есть свободные комнаты на двоих с ванной и холодильником?
8. Из окна номера-люкса этого пятизвездочного отеля открывается изумительный вид на море.
9. В номере было довольно прохладно, и я попросил горничную принести мне ещѐ одно одеяло.
10. Наверное, нам придется взять в аренду автомобиль, если мы хотим без суеты
попутешествовать по острову и посетить самые отдаленные изумительные по своей
красоте уголки этой чудесной, сказочной страны.

200
Reading fiction
German Harry
(by W.S. Maugham)
I was in Thursday Island and I wanted very much to go to New Guinea. Now the only way in
which I could do this was by getting a pearling lugger to take me across the Arafura Sea. The pearl
fishery at that time was in a bad way and a flock of neat little craft lay anchored in the harbour. I
found a skipper with nothing much to do (the journey to Merauke and back could hardly take him
less than a month) and with him I made the necessary arrangements. He engaged four Torres Straits
islanders as crew (the boat was but nineteen tons) and we ransacked the local store for canned
goods. A day or two before I sailed a man who owned a number of pearlers came to me and asked
whether on my way I would stop at the island of Trebucket and leave a sack of flour, another of
rice, and some magazines for the hermit who lived there.
I pricked up my ears. It appeared that the hermit had lived by himself on this remote and tiny
island for thirty years, and when opportunity occurred provisions were sent to him by kindly souls.
He said that he was a Dane, but in the Torres Straits he was known as German Harry. His history
went back a long way. Thirty years before, he had been an able seaman on a sailing vessel that was
wrecked in those treacherous waters. Two boats managed to get away and eventually hit upon the
desert island of Trebucket. This is well out of the line of traffic and it was three years before any
ship sighted the castaways. Sixteen men had landed on the island, but when at last a schooner,
driven from her course by stress of weather, put in for shelter, no more than five were left. When
the storm abated the skipper took four of these on board and eventually landed them at Sydney.
German Harry refused to go with them. He said that during those three years he had seen such
terrible things that he had a horror of his fellow-men and wished never to live with them again. He
would say no more. He was absolutely fixed in his determination to stay, entirely by himself, in that
lonely place. Though now and then opportunity had been given him to leave he had never taken it.
A strange man and a strange story. I learned more about him as we sailed across the desolate
sea. The Torres Straits are peppered with islands and at night we anchored on the lee of one or other
of them. Of late new pearling grounds have been discovered near Trebucket and in the autumn
pearlers, visiting it now and then, have given German Harry various necessities so that he has been
able to make himself sufficiently comfortable. They bring him papers, bags of flour and rice, and
canned meats. He has a whale boat and used to go fishing in it, but now he is no longer strong
enough to manage its unwieldy bulk. There is abundant pearl shell on the reef that surrounds his
island and this he used to collect and sell to the pearlers for tobacco, and sometimes he found a
good pearl for which he got a considerable sum. It is believed that he has, hidden away somewhere,
a collection of magnificent pearls. During the war no pearlers came out and for years he never saw a
living soul. For all he knew, a terrible epidemic had killed off the entire human race and he was the
only man alive. He was asked later what he thought.
"I thought something had happened," he said.
He ran out of matches and was afraid that his fire would go out, so he only slept in snatches,
putting wood on his fire from time to time all day and all night. He came to the end of his
provisions and lived on chickens, fish and coconuts. Sometimes he got a turtle.
During the last four months of the year there may be two or three pearlers about and not
infrequently after the day`s work they will row in and spend an evening with him. They try to make
him drunk and then they ask him what happened during those three years after the two boat-loads
came to the island. How was it that sixteen landed and at the end of that time only five were left?
He never says a word. Drunk or sober he is equally silent on that subject and if they insist grows
angry and leaves them.
I forget if it was four or five days before we sighted the hermit`s little kingdom. We had been
driven by bad weather to take shelter and had spent a couple of days at an island on the way.
201
Trebucket is a low island, perhaps a mile round, covered with coconuts, just raised above the level
of the sea and surrounded by a reef so that it can be approached only on one side. There is no
opening in the reef and the lugger had to anchor a mile from the shore. We got into a dinghy with
the provisions. It was a stiff pull and even within the reef the sea was choppy. I saw the little hut,
sheltered by trees, in which German Harry lived, and as we approached he sauntered down slowly
to the water`s edge. We shouted a greeting, but he did not answer. He was a man of over seventy,
very bald, hatchet-faced, with a grey beard, and he walked with a roll so that you could never have
taken him for anything but a sea-faring man. His sunburn made his blue eyes look very pale and
they were surrounded by wrinkles as though for long years he had spent interminable hours
scanning the vacant sea. He wore dungarees and a singlet, patched, but neat and clean. The house to
which he presently led us consisted of a single room with a roof of corrugated iron. There was a bed
in it, some rough stools which he himself had made, a table, and his various household utensils.
Under a tree in front of it was a table and a bench. Behind was an enclosed run for his chickens.
I cannot say that he was pleased to see us. He accepted our gifts as a right, without thanks, and
grumbled a little because something or other he needed had not been brought. He was silent and morose.
He was not interested in the news we had to give him, for the outside world was no concern of his: the
only thing he cared about was his island. He looked upon it with a jealous, proprietary right; he called it
"my health resort" and he feared that the coconuts that covered it would tempt some enterprising trader.
He looked at me with suspicion. He was sombrely curious to know what I was doing in these seas. He
used words with difficulty, talking to himself rather than to us, and it was a little uncanny to hear him
mumble away as though we were not there. But he was moved when my skipper told him that an old
man of his own age whom he had known for a long time was dead.
"Old Charlie dead ? that`s too bad. Old Charlie dead."
He repeated it over and over again. I asked him if he read.
"Not much," he answered indifferently.
He seemed to be occupied with nothing but his food, his dogs and his chickens. If what they tell
us in books were true his long communion with nature and the sea should have taught him many
subtle secrets. It hadn`t. He was a savage. He was nothing but a narrow, ignorant and cantankerous
seafaring man. As I looked at the wrinkled, mean old face I wondered what was the story of those
three dreadful years that had made him welcome this long imprisonment. I sought to see behind
those pale blue eyes of his what secrets they were that he would carry to his grave. And then I
foresaw the end. One day a pearl fisher would land on the island and German Harry would not be
waiting for him, silent and suspicious, at the water`s edge. He would go up to the hut and there,
lying on the bed, unrecognisable, he would see all that remained of what had once been a man.
Perhaps then he would hunt high and low for the great mass of pearls that has haunted the fancy of
so many adventurers. But I do not believe he would find it: German Harry would have seen to it that
none should discover the treasure, and the pearls would rot in their hiding place. Then the pearl
fisher would go back into his dinghy and the island once more be deserted of man.

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words.


pearler, islander, anchor, hermit, wreck, schooner, desolate, dinghy, dungarees, singlet, morose,
proprietary, sombrely, subtle, savage, cantankerous, wrinkled

2. Give the English for the following Russian words and word combinations.
(парусное) судно, гавань, ловля жемчуга, ловец жемчуга, отшельник, потерпеть
кораблекрушение, необитаемый остров, эпидемия, стать на якорь, угрюмый, жуткий,
бормотать, дикарь, сварливый, заточение, предвидеть конец, найти клад

202
3. Translate the following collocations into Russian. Use them in sentences.
prick up one‘s ears, live by oneself, put in (about a vessel), be peppered with islands, run out of
smth, sleep in snatches, take shelter, scan the vacant sea, teach subtle secrets, carry secrets to one‘s
grave

4. Explain the meaning of the following words and collocations. Make up sentences with
them.
lugger, skipper, schooner, castaway, abate, unwieldy bulk, saunter, sea-faring man, health resort,
hunt high and low, see to smth.

5. Find the following geographical places on the map and say where they are situated.
Thursday Island, New Guinea, the Arafura Sea, Merauke, Sydney, the Torres Straits, Trebucket

6. Answer the questions.


1. Where does the action of the story take place?
2. How was the narrator going to get to New Guinea? What arrangements did he make?
3. What did he have to stop at the island of Trebucket for?
4. How long had German Harry lived on the desert island?
5. How had he found himself on the desert island?
6. How many people had landed on the island with him?
7. How many people were there on the island when they were rescued three years later?
8. Why did German Harry refuse to leave the island?
9. How did German Harry manage survive on the desert island living there by himself?
10. Were there times when no one visited him for years?
11. What rumors spread about his life on the island?
12. What did he himself say about the hidden treasure and the mysterious deaths of the seamen?
13. How did German Harry greet the narrator and his companions when they arrived at the
island?
14. What did German Harry look like?
15. What kind of house did he have?
16. How did he behave during the meeting?
17. What impression did German Harry produce on the narrator?

7. Describe the following:


 the circumstances how German Harry found himself alone on the desert island;
 German Harry‘s daily routine on the island.

8. Think over and discuss:


 German Harry‘s personality: what kind of person he was; what secrets he was hiding, if any
at all; what real reasons for living alone on the desert island he had.
 the main idea of the story: what the author wanted to illustrate by describing the life of
German Harry.

9. Read the text related to the story and render it into English presenting it in a shorter
way.
У истории этой есть продолжение. Действительно, жил когда-то человек, описанный Сомерсетом
Моэмом. И самое интересное и грустное – что его "робинзонада" закончилась почти так, как
предполагал писатель. Об этом рассказал издающийся в Сиднее журнал "Пасифик айлендз мансли"
("Ежемесячник тихоокеанских островов").

203
СМЕРТЬ НА КОРАЛЛОВОМ ОСТРОВЕ

Настоящее имя этого человека – Генри Эвольт. Он родился в Дании в 1849 году, так что в
1922 году перед Моэмом стоял 73-летний старик. В шестнадцать лет Генри покинул отчий дом,
устроившись юнгой на корабль дальнего плавания. Много лет носило его по свету, пока не
настал 1884 год, роковой для Генри Эвольта. Попав на парусник "Жибро", направлявшийся из
австралийского порта Ньюкасл в Батавию (ныне Джакарта), тридцатипятилетний моряк не знал,
конечно, что это плавание будет для него последним. Наткнувшись во время шторма на риф
Уоппа в Торресовом проливе, "Жибро" затонул. Эвольту удалось спастись и добраться до
острова Терсди. Там его ожидала приятная неожиданность – встреча со старым приятелем, тоже
бывалым мореходом по прозвищу Грек Луи.
Шесть лет друзья то рыбачили, то торговали чем попало, курсируя вдоль берегов Новой
Гвинеи. В конце концов "компаньоны" сочли за благо обосноваться на крошечном, опоясанном
рифами островке Избавления – том самом, который Моэм называет островом Трибукет. Свое
оптимистическое название островок этот получил "в благодарность" от капитана парусника
"Шах Хормуцеар" Уильяма Бэмптона, который после двух месяцев блуждания по лабиринту
грозных рифов Торресова пролива именно здесь увидел, наконец, перед собой открытое море.
Прошло еще девять лет. И вот судьба забросила в это Богом забытое место еще одного
человека, оборвавшего безмятежное процветание "фирмы". Нового компаньона звали Джозеф
Аугустин де Паоли. Авантюризм был, кажется, у де Паоли в крови. Его бросало из одной
стороны в другую, пока он не оказался в Новой Каледонии осужденным на вечную каторгу. По
дороге, когда транспорт с осужденными остановился в Мельбурне, Паоли удалось бежать и
прибиться к Немцу Гарри и Греку Луи. Однажды ночью новый компаньон, бесцеремонно
погрузив на парусник все запасы жемчуга, черепашьих панцирей и рыбы, отбыл, как говорится,
"в неизвестном направлении".
Вскоре Грек Луи тоже покинул остров, и Немец Гарри остался в полном одиночестве. За
исключением нескольких месяцев, которые он провел в 1912 году на острове Терсди, его
"робинзонада" длилась беспрерывно двадцать восемь лет...
В начале тридцатых годов одному молодому охотнику по имени Джон Эришоу попал в руки
январский номер журнала "Америкэн космополитэн" за 1924 год. Прочитав в нем рассказ Моэма,
Эришоу тотчас вспомнил мартовский день 1928 года, когда он, сам того не ведая, сыграл роль
безыменного персонажа, который появляется в последних строчках моэмовского "Немца Гарри".
В 1927 году Эришоу сдружился с известным в тех краях охотником, новозеландцем Диком
Рошем. До Первой мировой войны Рош охотился за райской птицей, перьями которой любили
украшать свои туалеты модницы многих стран Европы и Америки. Но во время войны Европе
стало не до дамских шляпок, и Рош, занявшись было земледелием, завел плантацию кокосовых
пальм на побережье Новой Гвинеи. Однако на месте ему не сиделось, и он по-прежнему часто
отправлялся в рискованные экспедиции в глубь джунглей.
"Однажды вместе с Диком Рошем, – пишет Джон Эришоу, – я провел несколько недель в
болотах устья реки Бенсбах, буквально кишевших утками и гусями. Одним выстрелом мы
укладывали обычно по две-три птицы. Остров Избавления был от нас в каких-нибудь тридцати
милях, и мы решили завернуть к нему. Мне не терпелось увидеть Немца Гарри, который к тому
времени стал живой легендой от Куктауна до Самарай".
Дважды в год посещая "цивилизованный" уголок острова Терсди, Дик Рош по пути
обязательно наведывался к отшельнику. Оказывая старому Гарри небольшие услуги, Рош
постепенно завоевал его доверие и дружбу и таким образом узнал подробности его жизни в
молодости и его робинзонады.
"...И вот теперь мы ехали туда вдвоем. Целый день мы боролись с сильным юго-восточным
пассатом, прежде чем добрались до желанной тверди острова Избавления. Отгороженный от
моря кольцом острых рифов, этот клочок земли укрылся от солнца под густыми кронами
кокосовых пальм, подставив его палящим лучам лишь узкую полоску ослепительно белого
кораллового песка у самой воды. Именно таким представляешь себе в детстве коралловый
остров, читая книжки о приключениях и морских пиратах...
Но Немца Гарри не было видно на берегу. Только белая дворняга бегала взад и вперед,
захлебываясь от радостного лая. Переполненные самыми мрачными предчувствиями, мы
204
медленно гребли к берегу, туда, где одинокое фиговое дерево ласково раскинуло свои ветви над
кучкой ветхих сооружений.
Дворняга с красными, слезящимися глазами не отставала от нас ни на шаг, повизгивая и
прыгая от восторга.
Рядом с закопченной печью тут же, на открытом воздухе, стоял грубо сколоченный стол.
Аккуратно уставленный нехитрой утварью, он ждал участников вечерней трапезы. Фиговое
дерево, словно благословляя этот скромный натюрморт, щедро усыпало его своими
пожелтевшими листьями. В двух-трех шагах от стола возвышалась, подобно могильному
кургану, огромная куча обглоданных черепашьих костей. Впрочем, курган этот был похож и на
памятник всем тем обедам и завтракам, которые человек уничтожил за время второй половины
своей жизни.
Все дышало таким духом отрешенности и бесконечной тиши, что, подавленные, мы
невольно перешли на полушепот.
В хибарке, стоявшей рядом, царил безупречный порядок. Деревянное ложе покрывало серое
одеяло, готовое принять своего владельца на ночлег. Высоко на полке стояла миска с
черепашьими яйцами и аккуратной горкой лепешек, на которой уже успела повиснуть гирлянда
отвратительной зеленой плесени. Открыв стоявший тут же старый корабельный сундучок, мы
обнаружили в нем бережно сложенные фланелевые брюки и рубаху. Долгие годы их берегли для
какого-то особого дня...
Крик одного из наших матросов-малайцев заставил нас поспешить к противоположной
стороне лачуги. Возле дверного проема, наполовину провалившись сквозь прогнившие доски
пола, лежал труп человека. Время и беспощадное тропическое солнце стерли всякое сходство с
когда-то крепким моряком. Вытянутые руки, казалось, цеплялись за землю.
Шиферная дощечка на стене сохранила единственную весточку от умершего. Корявая рука
вывела: "Январь 1928 г." – и числа от 1 до 31. На этом самодельном календаре каждое число от
1 до 25 было перечеркнуто. Это значило, что последний раз Немец Гарри сделал пометку на
своем календаре уже два месяца назад.
Как ни ломали мы голову, причина его смерти осталась для нас загадкой. На левой руке не
хватало кисти, на правой ноге – ступни. Возможно, это след нападения акулы; не исключено
также, что он умер от внезапного приступа какой-то болезни, а руку и ногу отгрызла позднее
собака.
Мы похоронили старого Гарри в теплом белом песке под огромным фиговым деревом, и,
пока опускали его тело, малайцы-проводники стояли рядом и бормотали вполголоса свои
непонятные молитвы..."
...Прошло несколько лет, прежде чем Эришоу решил написать автору "Немца Гарри".
Моэм, переезжавший в то время с места на место, ответил не скоро – лишь в середине 1937 года.
Вот что он писал:
"...Я прочел Ваше письмо с огромным интересом. Разумеется, я был рад услышать о
судьбе героя моего небольшого рассказа. Ваше письмо – уже само по себе рассказ, и я думаю,
что он не может не расшевелить воображение любого читателя".

Б. СЕНЬКИН
1967 Вокруг света. 1967. 06

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Watching a film

The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (2013)


Director: Ben Stiller
Writers: Steve Conrad (screenplay), Steve Conrad (screen story by)
Genre: Adventure, Comedy, Drama
Runtime: 114 minutes
Filming took place in Manhattan and the Bronx in May 2012 and in Iceland from July to September
2012.
Characters:
Walter Mitty, a negative asset manager at Life (Ben Stiller)
Cheryl Melhoff, Walter's love interest and co-worker (Kristen Wiig)
Edna Mitty, Walter's mother (Shirley MacLaine)
Odessa Mitty, Walter's sister (Kathryn Hahn)
Ted Hendricks, Walter's new boss (Adam Scott)
Todd Maher, an eHarmony customer service representative (Patton Oswalt)
Hernando, Walter's understudy and co-worker (Adrian Martinez)
a Greenlandic helicopter pilot (Ólafur Darri Ólafsson)
Sean O'Connell, a photojournalist (Sean Penn)
This is a story about the manager of the negative assets sector of Life magazine, Walter Mitty, who
has been working for sixteen years for the magazine and has a tedious life, not going anywhere but
from his home to his job and vice-versa. Walter daydreams of adventures and has a crush on the
recently hired Cheryl Melhoff, but he is too shy to invite her on a date. When his job along with that
of his co-worker are threatened, Walter takes action in the real world embarking on a global journey
that turns into an adventure more extraordinary than anything he could have ever imagined.
1. Translate the given words and say on what occasions they are mentioned in the film.
quintessence knick-knack
porpoise plague
fife severance package

2. Put the events in the correct order.


 Walter Mitty is fired for failing to recover negative 25.
 O'Connell sends Walter Mitty his latest negatives and a wallet as a gift in appreciation of his work.
 Walter Mitty finds O'Connell in the Himalayas photographing a rare snow leopard.
 Walter Mitty flies on the postal helicopter with the intoxicated pilot.
 Mitty and Cheryl see the final issue of Life at a newsstand, with its cover dedicated to the staff.
 The volcano eruption in Iceland forces Mitty to flee.
 Walter Mitty delivers 25 negative to Life magazine.
 Mitty returns home discouraged and throws away the wallet.
 A bartender in Greenland explains that O'Connell left on a ship.
 Mitty is detained by airport security in Los Angeles.
 Mitty discovers O'Connell's itinerary in the wrapping paper.
 The negative is missing.

206
3. Read the following quotes and describe the situations in which they are used in the film.
1. I expect full consideration of negative 25 for cover. My most grand. The quintessence of life.
2. Never fun, this stage, but we do have ahead of us the privilege of publishing what will be the
very last issue of Life magazine.
3. Last in, first out.
4. I located your thumb!
5. Try to remain calm. You have at least a minute before you freeze!
6. Be friendly. It will protect you from the sharks.
7. I cannot talk to you now. I‘m on my way to a volcano.
8. I‘m given a ―mountain blessing‖.
9. They call the snow leopard the ghost cat. It never lets itself be seen. Beautiful things don't
ask for attention.
10. You should have been more straightforward.
11. How did you get to Afghanistan? There‘s a travel ban.
12. I always save your knick-knacks.
13. Put that on a plague and hang it at your next job.
14. Oh, the last issue. It should be here. It came out this morning.

4. Answer the questions.


1. What three images were there on the negatives Sean O‘Connell sent Walter? What kind of
clues did they give?
2. What places did Walter Mitty visit during his journeys?
3. Which place seems most adventurous to you? Why?

5. Comment on the following quotations from the film and say how they help to reflect the
main idea of the film.
1. To see the world, things dangerous to come to,
To see behind walls, to draw closer,
To find each other and to feel.
That is the purpose of life.
2. Life is about courage and going into the unknown.

Writing Email enquiries about holiday accommodation


The important things to remember about writing formal emails are the layout, which follows
particular conventions, and the language, which must be formal or semi-formal and polite. The
content of your letter should have a clear, logical structure.

Layout
 salutation: Dear Sir/Madam or Hello
In an email, you can omit a salutation and immediately start with your enquiry.
 introduction: reasons for writing
 your requirements of accommodation
 your questions and requests for extra information
You can arrange them in a few paragraphs.
 closing expressions: request for a quick answer, closing salutation and signature

207
Asking For Information
Could you tell me …?
I would like to know …..
I would be interested to know ….
Could you also let me know …?
I hope you can also let me know about …..
Do you think you could also inform me …?
Could you give me some details/information about …?
Would you mind also telling me …?
I was wondering if you could tell me ….
I wonder if you would mind telling me ….
I would be interested to know …
Would it be acceptable if we …?
I would be grateful if you could ….
It would be also helpful to know ….
Would you send me details of …?
Closing expressions
(I would like to) thank you in advance for this information / for your assistance.
I would be grateful if you could contact me as soon as possible.
I look forward to hearing from you / to receiving your reply.

Sample email
Swan Lake Hotel Information Request
I have found details of your hotel on your website and would like to make a few enquiries about your hotel and its
facilities.
I require accommodation for a group of six post-graduate students. The purpose for our stay is mainly a relaxing break,
but we will also be doing some planning for a university business studies project. These are our details:
Dates: 13-18 May
Rooms: two double rooms with twin beds and two single rooms.
We require full board.
I should explain that one of our group is visually impaired and he has a guide dog that accompanies him wherever he
goes. We hope that this will not cause problems to you or your staff and we would like to know whether your hotel is
able to cater for his special needs.
Could you also tell us if there is a meeting room in your hotel where we could work on our project for 2-3 hours each
day of our stay and let us know how much it would cost to hire it? If there is none, would it be possible for us to use one
of your lounge areas? It would also be helpful to know if your rooms have internet access.
Thank you in advance for this information. I look forward to hearing from you.
With best wishes,
Andrew Gibs

B. Read the information on how to write email enquiries about holiday accommodation
given on page 207–208.
C. Read the sample letter and answer the questions.
1. Is the style formal, semi-formal or informal?
2. Is the email organized in clear paragraphs?
3. Does the email include all the items of the layout given on page 207?
4. Does the author use contractions?
5. Does the letter sound polite? If so, how is it achieved? If not, how would you improve that?

D. Choose any of the adverts for three different types of accommodation on pages 196-197.
Write an email enquiry to any of them.

208
Creative Writing
Travel Blog
A travel blog is a record of your travels
with descriptions and observations that
you put on the Internet for other people
to read.
A successful travel blog connects a wide
audience of travelers with interesting
stories, pictures, and advice to
eventually create a small community of
people who love travel.
Tips on how to write a travel blog
 First of all, you must visit various places so that you can teach your visitors about these
locations.
 Visitors of your site want an eye-catching text such that they feel as if they are at the place
you're describing.
 Keep a travel journal. As you travel, write down your impressions. Write down directions as
you travel to various locations so that you can provide accurate information to readers.
 Add people‘s interviews during the journey.
 Appeal to the senses when writing about locations. The scent of rare flowers, the beautiful view
from a mountain top, the feel of soft towels in a high-end hotel, and the sound of a waterfall are
examples of descriptions that help people to connect immediately with a place or experience.
 Take pictures. To help people see things with their own eyes, take pictures of all locations
about which you wish to write. Videotape events.
 Ask for submissions from other travelers. To infuse your travel blog with voices of other
travelers, invite freelance writers to submit blog posts about locations you may not have the
opportunity to visit. Introduce the writers in a few sentences before posting their entries.

To create a free travel blog consult: https://www.travelblog.org/

When writing a travel blog, you will have to describe places you visit during your
journeys, people you meet, new dishes you try, etc using a range of adjectives.

1. Fill in the table by placing the adjectives in the correct group. Add
three more of your own to each group.

Positive Negative
town &buildings
weather
food
people
general atmosphere
fabulous, nasty, welcoming, sunny, hideous, affluent, charming, lovely, windy, spicy, exquisite,
bleak, run-down, hospitable, pessimistic, stunning, delicious, enchanting, organic, friendly,
depressing, relaxed, freezing, gloomy, wicked, mouth-watering, wicked, idyllic, posh

209
It is also recommended to use a range of adverbs to avoid repetition and monotony and make your
writing more expressive. Here are some adverbs which are used with particular adjectives to mean
very, a lot or to a large degree.
absolutely fascinated incredibly boring
particularly interesting deeply/bitterly disappointed
remarkably beautiful desperately unlucky
deeply impressed/inspired terribly sorry
totally different completely mad
highly enjoyable bitterly cold
dead funny (infml) dead boring (infml)

2. Imagine that you are on a journey now. Choose a place where you travel. Read the
information on page 209 and write your travel blog describing your journey. Use a wide range
of adjectives and adverbs in your writing.

Project Work

The Most Famous Travellers

Work in small groups of 3–4 students. Choose three of the greatest


travellers of all times and prepare to speak about their journeys.
Remember to mention:

● the route of the journey;


● the adventures during the journey;
● the significance of the journey;
● the personality of the traveller.

Each group presents one report. Vote on one journey you find the most exciting. Give good
reasoning of your choice.

210
Review
1. Answer the questions and put the first letters of the answers into the table. Then
rearrange the letters to find a word connected with travelling (two letters have
been entered in the box as a little clue).
1) another way of saying ‗relax‘.
2) a place where you can go to arrange visas and immigration documents.
3) various places visited whilst on holiday.
4) an adjective describing a place which is off the beaten track.
5) a journey by sea.
6) an adjective to describe accommodation in which the guest cooks.
7) a flight without any stops.
8) you turn it on when you start a car.
9) parts of the day when the traffic is not heavy.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
u o

Answer: _____________________

2. Translate the words and word combinations given in brackets.


1. Do you want a (носильщик) for your luggage, miss?
2. The sea was (бурным) and many passengers (страдали морской болезнью).
3. The plane (взлетел) and soon we were high in the sky.
4. Though we (зарезервировали) rooms in the hotel there were no (свободных номеров).
5. There was no (очереди) and we (прошли таможенный досмотр) for five minutes.
6. Sea (путешествие) is always pleasant, especially if you have nice (попутчиков).
7. Shut the (иллюминатор), please. It‘s getting cold in the (каюта).
8. We managed to get only (билеты в один конец).
9. As the (купе) was for one person, there was no (верхней полки).
10. I hate (летать) and always prefer to travel (по железной дороге).
11. It is always convenient to (заказывать билеты на самолѐт заранее).
12. There were more than four hours before the (отправление) of the train, so we left our
(багаж) at the (камера хранения) and went to (осматривать достопримечательности) of
the city.

3. Choose the correct answer to complete each sentence.


1. I'd like to rent a _____________ to be able to haul some furniture from my apartment to my
new house.
A. minivan B. standard car C. pickup truck
2. Turkey is a very popular tourist __________________ for Russian tourists.
A. place B. destination C. arrival
3. Be sure to ____________ by 5:00 p.m. to avoid being charged for an extra day.
A. make a reservation B. return the car C. leave a deposit
4. My flight to Amsterdam ______________ with an evening flight to London.
A. connects B. links C. joins
5. There‘s a taxi ____________ just outside the hotel.
A. station B. stop C. rank
6. There‘s no bridge or air link to the island, so you‘ll have to cross by ________.
A. liner B. raft C. ferry
7. The ________________ at Heathrow was very crowded.
A. waiting room B. departure lounge C. upper deck

211
8. I think the best way to see a city is to go on a _________________.
A. guided tour B. package tour C. camping tour
9. Visits of four European countries are included in your _____________.
A. itinerary B. timetable C. guide
10. The accident involved a crowded ______________ train.
A. freight B. traveller C. commuter

4. Fill in the prepositions where necessary.


1. He arrived … his destination ... time.
2. When are you setting off … your journey … the world?
3. Though I did my best I failed to catch … the train.
4. This island can only be reached … plane or ferry.
5. Her train‘s due … at 2.30 pm.
6. There are too many cars … the roads nowadays.
7. I was hungry and there was no dining car … the train.
8. What altitude are we flying …?
9. They‘re going … a trip … Austria.
10. Quite a few people boarded … the train.

5. Complete the sentences with words built from the words in brackets.
1. They made preparations for a speedy …. (DEPART)
2. There are 30 … and … at the ferry terminal daily. (ARRIVE, DEPART)
3. He went backpacking as an … traveller, on his own. (DEPEND)
4. There‘s no direct … to Geneva, but you can fly to Moscow and get a … from there. (FLY,
CONNECT)
5. British Airways regret to announce the … of flight BA044 to Amsterdam. (CANCEL)
6. My dream is to go on a drive in a luxury …! (CONVERT)
7. I asked the flight … to bring me a glass of water. (ATTEND)
8. The driver was badly injured in the head-on … on the highway. (COLLIDE)

6. Complete each phrasal verb with a necessary preposition.


1. If the weather keeps nasty, our flight will be put … or cancelled.
2. Check all the doors and windows are locked before setting ….
3. I saw the ambulance coming up behind me and pulled ….
4. Let‘s hurry up, I wouldn‘t like to check … at the last minute before the take-off.
5. The flight was over and we were ready to get … the plane.
6. I‘d like to get … from it all and chill … for a while.
7. Every tourist knows how to put … a tent.
8. ―Get …,‖ he said opening the passenger door.
9. It‘s horrible to break … on the motorway in the middle of nowhere!
10. Do you think I should go to the station to see them …?

212
Translate parts of the stories into English. Add the missing parts of each story
developing it in your own way.

(1) < … > Я купил билет на ночной поезд до Ньюкасла и обратно в кассе
железнодорожного вокзала и пошел на перрон. < …. > Я зашел в вагон, отыскал своѐ
купе, положил чемодан на багажную полку и < … >. Когда я шел в вагон-ресторан,
поезд неожиданно остановился не понятно где. Я посмотрел в окно. На рельсах лежал
снег. < … >

(2) < … > Я простоял в очереди на регистрацию почти час. Затем, когда я проходил
досмотр, в моей ручной клади обнаружилась бутылочка сока, и мне пришлось еѐ
выбросить. < … > Наконец, измученный, я сел в зале ожидания у своего выхода и стал
ждать, когда объявят посадку на мой рейс. Я и представить себе не мог, что < … >!

(3) < … > Я посмотрел с тоской на провожающих на пристани людей и поднялся по


трапу. Когда я зашел на борт корабля и нашел свою каюту, я был ошеломлен. < … >
«Интересно, хватит ли на всех спасательных шлюпок?» - подумал я.

(4) < … > При выезде из города, я попал в ужаснейшую пробку недалеко от кольцевой
дороги. < … > На шоссе движение было очень интенсивным, и мне никак не
удавалось обогнать большой междугородный автобус, задерживающий меня и не
уступающий дорогу. Спустя некоторое время я увидел на бензиномере, что у меня
заканчивается бензин, притормозил на автозаправке, залил полный бак и заметил
голосующего на дороге человека. «А не подвезти ли мне его?» - подумал я и < … >

213
APPENDIX I
holiday • vacation • break • getaway
These are all words for a period of time spent away from home relaxing or travelling around.
holiday [C] (BrE) a period of time spent travelling or relaxing away from home: The neighbours are
away on holiday. ◇ He's never had a holiday abroad. ◇ We're going on a skiing holiday in Austria.
◇ Package holidays (= in which your flight, accommodation, etc. are all organized for you and
included in the price) are generally becoming less popular. ◇ Let's have a look at your holiday
photos. They have a holiday home in Italy (= a house that they own and stay in for their holidays). ◇
I picked up a few holiday brochures on the way home. ◇ We supply everything you will need for your
adventure holiday. ◇ We're going on holiday next week. ◇ Have a fantastic holiday! ◇ Book your
winter holiday now. ◇ All we could afford was a week's holiday at my parents' place. ◇ More and
more people are taking foreign holidays. ◇ Try us first for your best family holiday ever! ◇ Have
you ever been on a camping holiday? ◇ If you win, we'll send you on a holiday of a lifetime! ◇ We
had to cancel our holiday at the last minute. ◇ Make sure you have holiday insurance. ◇ The town
is now a bustling holiday resort. ◇ Choose from over 200 great holiday destinations! ◇ Win a
dream holiday to the Bahamas. ◇ She works as a holiday rep (= works for a holiday company and
looks after tourists in a resort). ◇ I've never been one for holiday romances (= a romantic
relationship with someone you meet on holiday). ◇ It's a popular holiday destination. ◇ She works
for a holiday company.
vacation [C] (AmE) a period of time spent travelling or relaxing away from home: The senator is on
vacation in Maine. ◇ How was your vacation? ◇ They usually go on a ski vacation this time of year.
◇ The area is a popular vacation choice for families. The couple had left for a European vacation.
◇ He went on vacation some time last week. ◇ She's gone on vacation to Massachusetts. ◇ When I
got back from my vacation, there was a letter waiting for me. ◇ He has a private jet and a vacation
home in Switzerland. ◇ Let us help you with your vacation plans!
break [C] a short holiday/vacation: The prize is a three-night break in Paris. ◇ Choose from our
range of city breaks. ◇ It's a great city for a weekend break. Spend the weekend at a spa for a really
relaxing break. ◇ I'd like to take her on a mini — break (= for just a few days). ◇ The team have
been taking a break in Spain. ◇ Everyone needs a break, a change from day-to-day routine.
getaway [C, usually sing.] (rather informal) a short holiday/vacation; a place that is suitable for a
holiday: a romantic weekend getaway in New York ◇ the popular island getaway of Penang; a
shortlist of things that most people look for when planning their summer getaway 
get away (phrasal verb): We're hoping to get away (= go away on holiday) for a few days at Easter.
trip • journey • tour • expedition • excursion • outing • travels • day out
These are all words for an act of travelling to a place.
trip [C] an act of travelling from one place to another, and usually back again: a business trip ◇ a
school trip to France ◇ Tomorrow there will be a boat trip to the island. ◇ We took a day trip to
Siena. ◇ They had to make several trips to bring all the equipment over. ◇ From London to Oxford
is a round trip of over 100 miles (= it is over 100 miles there and back again).
journey [C] an act of travelling from one place to another, especially when they are a long way apart:
It was a long and difficult journey across the mountains. ◇ They continued their journey on foot. ◇
We broke our journey (= stopped for a short time) in Madrid. It's a journey time of about five hours
(= it takes five hours). ◇ (especially BrE) I'm afraid you've had a wasted journey (= you did not do
what you came to do). ◇ ) Bye! Safe journey! (= used when sb is beginning a journey)
NOTE trip or journey?
Trip, not journey, is the most basic word in this group. It is more frequent than journey and
used in a wider range of contexts. A trip is usually a journey to a place and back again; a
journey is usually one-way. A trip is often shorter than a journey, although it does not have to

214
be: a trip to New York ◇ a round-the-world trip. It is often short in time, even if it is long in
distance. Journey is more often used when the travelling takes a long time and is difficult: It
was a long and difficult trip across the mountains. In American English journey is NOT
usually used for short trips: (especially BrE) How far is your journey to work? Trip is used
especially when you travel for pleasure or for a particular purpose: a day/school/business trip
◇ a day/school/business journey
tour [C] a journey made for pleasure during which several different places are visited: We're going
on a tour of Bavaria. ◇ After a whirlwind tour (= a very fast tour) of the temples, it was time to find
a hotel. ◇ If there are any problems, contact your tour operator (= a company that arranges
organized tours). ◇ This summer we went on a walking tour around Provence. ◇ They made a
whistle-stop tour of the five major towns (= a very fast tour, stopping at each town for a short time
only). ◇ We organize small-group tours for adults.
travel [U] the activity of going to different places for business or pleasure, especially over long
distances: Her interests include music and foreign travel. ◇ Continued fighting makes travel in the
area dangerous. ◇ air/rail/space travel ◇ Expenditure on business travel was reduced. ◇ travel
insurance/documents ◇ a travel guide/writer ◇ Do you suffer from travel sickness?Your travel
expenses will be paid by the firm. ◇ I always pack a travel alarm (= small clock). ◇ She works in
the travel industry.
travels [pl.] time spent travelling from place to place, especially in foreign countries and for pleasure:
The novel is based on his travels in Asia. ◇ When are you off on your travels (= going travelling)?
NOTE: travel or travelling?
Travel is used more to talk about journeys made by people in general; travelling is used more
to talk about journeys made by a particular person: The pass allows unlimited travel on all
public transport. ◇ My job involves a lot of travelling. Travel is often used after a noun or
adjective to describe a particular kind of journey that people make:
air/rail/space/business/foreign travel ◇ air/rail/space/business/foreign travelling
expedition [C] an organized journey with a particular purpose, especially to find out about a place
that is not well known; a short trip that you make when you want or need sth: He led the first
expedition to the South Pole. ◇ She made two expeditions to Brazil to study wild plants. ◇ Win a
fantastic shopping expedition to New York!
outing [C] (rather formal) a short trip made for pleasure or education, usually with a group of people
and lasting no more than a day: a family outing to the seaside ◇ The children were on a day's outing
from school. They went on an outing to the National Museum. ◇ Every year she organized an outing
to the countryside.
day out (pl. days out)[C] (especially BrE) a trip to somewhere for a day, especially for pleasure: We
had a day out at the beach. She took the kids on a day out to the city. ◇ We didn't have a proper
holiday this year, but had several days out instead.
cruise [C] a journey in a ship visiting different places, especially for pleasure: They are going on a
Mediterranean cruise. ◇ You can take a leisurely cruise on the lake. ◇ Modern cruise liners (=
ships) have every conceivable luxury on board.
voyage [C] (especially written) a long journey, especially by sea or in space: The spacecraft began its
voyage to Jupiter. ◇ The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage (= its first voyage).They set off on their
voyage around the world. ◇ The ship began its return voyage to Europe. ◇ The ship was badly
damaged during the voyage from Plymouth. ◇ Bering's voyage of discovery was one of many
scientific expeditions in the 18th century. Voyage of discovery is usually used in a figurative way to
mean a long process in which you learn a lot.
crossing [C] a journey across a sea or wide river: The ship held the record for the fastest Atlantic
crossing. ◇ The ferry crossing will take three hours. She looked at the sea and knew it would be a
rough crossing.

215
APPENDIX II

good (of a good quality): fine – quality – high quality


very good (of a very good quality): sterling (fml) – prime – superior;
very good (about experience, feelings, places, sight): wonderful – lovely (rather infml) –
marvellous (rather infml) – delightful – delicious (literary);
lovely can be used in spoken British English before other adjectives to emphasize how
pleasant sth is: a lovely cool drink ◇ It's lovely and warm in here. Lovely and with another
adjective cannot be used before a noun: a lovely and warm place
wonderful, lovely or delightful? These words can all describe times, events, places, sights,
feelings and the weather. Wonderful can also describe a chance or ability: a lovely/delightful
opportunity/skill. Lovely is the most frequent in spoken British English, but in American English
wonderful is the most frequent, both spoken and written. Delightful is used especially to talk about
times, events and places.
great (infml) – cool (infml) – fantastic (infml) – fabulous (infml) – terrific (infml) – brilliant(infml)
– tremendous (infml) – awesome (infml) – wicked (sl)
fabulous is slightly more old-fashioned than the other words in this group
extremely good: excellent – outstanding – perfect – superb (infml) – classic – first-rate;
beautiful (about things, places): attractive – pretty – scenic – picturesque – charming – lovely – exquisite
– idyllic – stunning;
beautiful or lovely? Lovely is slightly more informal than beautiful, used more in spoken
English than in written English. Something that is lovely always has a warm quality that appeals not
only to the eyes but also to the heart: lovely does not just describe physical appearance. Beautiful
things often have this quality too, but they can appeal to the eyes and mind rather than the heart:
The designs were pure, austere and coldly beautiful. ◇ The designs were pure, austere and coldly
lovely.
fascinating (обворожительный, очаровательный, пленительный): agreeable , attractive ,
charming , delicious , delightful , enchanting , adorable , lovely , pleasing;
interesting: exciting– stimulating – compelling– absorbing – fascinating – gripping – riveting;
magnificent (about things, places): impressive – imposing – grand – majestic – spectacular –
glorious;
clear (about smth which you can see through (прозрачный)): transparent – lucid – translucent –
crystalline – see-through;
famous (about people, places): well known – prominent – legendary – renowned – famed – glorious
– celebrated;
fast: quick – rapid – swift – speedy – hasty;
friendly (about people): warm – pleasant – welcoming – amiable – good-natured – genial –
hospitable;
friendly (about atmosphere): cordial – amicable – easy;
high (about buildings, mountains): tall – towering – lofty;
very large: huge – massive – vast – enormous – giant – tremendous – gigantic – immense –
colossal;
quiet (about places, a period of time): peaceful – silent – tranquil – calm – sleepy;
quiet (about sounds, voices): soft – faint – inaudible – silent – hushed – dull – muffled;
quiet (about people): reserved – reticent – taciturn – silent;
delicious (about food or drink) – tasty • appetizing • mouth-watering – yummy (infml)
appetizing is not usually used with the verb to be unless the sentence is negative: The food
wasn't very appetizing. ◇ The food was very appetizing.
yummy is used especially by or to children.

216
► a wonderful/lovely/marvellous/delightful experience/evening/time/party/place/views/scenery/
weather
► a great/a cool/a fantastic/a fabulous/a terrific/a brilliant/an awesome/a wicked place
► to have a great/a cool/a fantastic/a fabulous/a terrific/a brilliant/a tremendous/an awesome time
► a great/cool/fantastic/fabulous/terrific/brilliant guy/girl
► a beautiful/a lovely/an attractive/a pretty/a charming/a picturesque place/town/village
► beautiful/lovely/attractive/picturesque countryside/scenery/surroundings
► really/quite/absolutely wonderful/lovely/marvellous/delightful
► really excellent/outstanding/perfect/superb/first-rate
► absolutely excellent/outstanding/perfect/superb/classic
► quite excellent/outstanding/perfect/superb

217
bad • unpleasant nasty • • grim • lousy (infml) • wretched (written) • ghastly (infml)
grim is used especially to talk about things that have just happened and things that are likely
to happen in the future. Collocates include news, reminder, discovery, reality, picture, legacy, fate,
future, prospect, forecast, outlook and warning.
lousy is used especially to talk about things or people that you are disappointed with.
Collocates include day, food, husband, lover, summer and weather.
wretched is used especially to talk about extreme situations that affect other people (or
animals) and that you sympathize with.
ghastly is used especially to talk about extreme situations that affect your senses or emotions
(e.g. about the weather, mistake).
yucky is an informal way of describing food that is disgusting or very unpleasant; it is used
especially by children.
bad (about people or behaviour) – cruel – evil – wicked
evil or wicked? These are both very strong words to describe people and actions that are
very bad: they should be used with great care. Evil is stronger than wicked. Wickedness is bad
behaviour, caused by sb's pleasure in being bad, and it is basically a human characteristic. Evil is a
force outside a person that makes them do bad things, and is often connected with the Devil. A
wicked person enjoys being bad and hurting other people's feelings. An evil person enjoys hurting
people physically and does not even consider their feelings. Children, witches and stepmothers are
wicked, especially in children's stories. Spirits, forces, monsters, killers and masterminds are evil,
especially in stories for adults and popular news reports.
negative (about a situation, person or attitude) – bleak (about a situation) – gloomy – depressing –
dark – pessimistic – miserable – downbeat (rather infml) (about an attitude) – black (rather infml)
bleak or gloomy? In many cases you can use either word: Suddenly, the future didn't look so
bleak/gloomy after all. ◇ to paint a bleak/gloomy picture of the situation. However, bleak is used
especially to describe a situation or the future: The future/outlook is/looks bleak. Gloomy can be
used in this way too, but it is more often used to describe sb's view of the situation or future: a
gloomy forecast/prognosis ◇ gloomy predictions/prospects/thoughts
depressing or miserable? Depressing is used especially to show feelings of sympathy for
other people's problems or the bad state of the world in general; miserable usually describes your
unhappy feelings about your own situation: The report on the state of water pollution paints a
depressing picture. ◇ The report on the state of water pollution paints a miserable picture. ◇ My
school days were thoroughly miserable. ◇ My school days were thoroughly depressing.
terrible • awful • horrible • dreadful • vile (infml) • horrendous (rather infml)
boring (about a subject, activity, person or place) – dull • tedious • repetitive • monotonous •
uninteresting • dry
► bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/lousy/wretched/ghastly weather
► a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant/a grim mood
► a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant taste/smell
► an evil/a wicked/a bad/a sinful man/woman/person/life/act/thought
► a boring/dull/uninteresting place
► a boring/dull man/woman/person
► really / pretty / particularly bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/ghastly
► very bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/wretched
► rather / very / extremely negative/bleak/depressing/dark/pessimistic

218
Glossary

Unit 1. Holidays
adventure holiday beach holiday
beach holiday as brown as a berry
camping holiday as red as a lobster
cruise as fit as a fiddle
package holiday chill out / laze around / take it easy / unwind
safari recharge your batteries (idiom)
sailing holiday have a whale of a time (infml)
sightseeing tour do some sunbathing / soak up the sun / sunbathe
get a tan, get/be tanned
have itchy feet take a chance with the weather
go into uncharted territory My holiday did me the world of good.
go as an independent traveller
wander around sightseeing tour
be bitten by the travel bug be swarming with tourists
experience culture shock do some sightseeing /go sightseeing /see the sights
have a bumpy ride soak up the atmosphere
cobbled streets
travel stunning city/view
abroad thriving city
by air/rail/sea/water vibrant city/streets
first/economy class
light Unit 2. Camping & hiking
on one‘s own camping holiday
get campsite
on/off a train/bus/plane/ship/bicycle in/out of a camping equipment
car/taxi camping, hiking
back from somewhere pitch a tent / put up a tent
take get back to nature
a trip, a hike, a walk, a ride in the middle of nowhere
a plane off the beaten track
to the road remote place
go sleep rough
on a guided tour take everything but the kitchen sink
on a package tour untouched/unspoilt nature
on a journey/trip
Unit 3. Travelling by train
on a sea voyage
kinds of train
backpacking passenger train
hiking freight/goods train
day coach
set off / start out / set out commuter train
travel itinerary local train
journey express train
trip direct train
cruise
fast train
travel overnight train
voyage slow /stopping train
tour steam train
crossing

219
parts of a train catch/get/take a train
engine miss a train
locomotive change trains
carriage / car transfer (v)
compartment transfer (n)
coach run on time / according to schedule
club car (Am) be due
dining car/ restaurant car/ buffet car sleeping car/ run / be late
sleeper be delayed
upper berth pull out of the station
lower berth see smb off
luggage rack
luggage van Unit 4. Travelling by plane
places & facilities
people
airport terminal
conductor/ guard
baggage reclaim / baggage claim area
attendant
check-in desk /check-in counter
ticket collector
conveyor belt
engine driver
departure gate
porter
departure lounge
places & facilities duty-free shops
booking office gate
information office immigration counter
left-luggage office overhead locker
lost-property office security checkpoint
platform runway
(railway) station
timetable people
ticket machine flight attendant
waiting room immigration officer
ground crew
tickets pilot
first class ticket
off-peak ticket tickets & seats
peak time ticket business class
weekly ticket economy class
monthly ticket aisle/window seat
season ticket
single / one-way ticket flights
return / round-trip ticket airline carrier
day coach ticket international flight
reserved seat ticket / domestic flight
second-class sleeping car ticket non-stop flight
compartment car ticket / sleeping car ticket connecting flight / connection
train pass miss a connection
fare make a connection to
pick up a connecting flight to
word combinations get a connection from
get off (a train)
get on (a train) / board a train
word combinations parts of a car
boarding pass / boarding card accelerator (Br) / gas pedal (Am)

220
excess luggage air vent
hand luggage /carry-on baggage bonnet (Br) / hood (Am)
landing card boot (Br) / trunk (Am)
luggage trolley / baggage cart brake
cruising altitude bumper
life jacket clutch
hijacker dashboard
door handle
get on a plane / get on board a plane / board a engine
plane exhaust pipe
get off a plane fuel gauge
take off (v), take-off (n) gear lever/stick (Br) / gear shift (Am)
land (v), landing (n) glove compartment
emergency landing / forced landing handbrake
arrival headlights
departure time heater
destination horn
check-in formalities hubcap
check in one‘s luggage ignition
pass through customs indicator (Br) / turn signal (Am)
pass through passport control milometer (Br) / odometer (Am)
number plate
fly at an altitude/speed of petrol tank
hit an air pocket rear-view mirror
turbulence rear window
be airsick rev counter
suffer from jet lag side window
speedometer
Unit 5. Travelling by car steering wheel
vehicles tail light
bus tyre (Br) / tire (Am)
coach visor
camper van windscreen (Br) / windshield (Am)
convertible windscreen wiper
estate car (Br) / station wagon (Am) wing/side-view mirror
hatchback wheel
people carrier / minivan road
pickup (truck) light // heavy traffic
saloon (Br) / sedan (Am) junction
van roundabout
4x4 / SUV / four-wheel drive pedestrian crossing
places footbridge
car park (Br) / parking lot (Am) road sign
petrol station (Br) / road works
gas station (Am) traffic jams
taxi rank U-turn
motorway (Br) / highway (Am) car accident/crash
head-on collision

221
driving places
dip one‘s headlights port
change gear dock
a flat tyre harbour
overtake another car pier
pick up a hitchhiker port
pull over quay
pull up wharf
reverse ferry terminal
skid
swerve people
captain
Unit 6. Travelling by ship crew
vessels skipper
boat purser
catamaran
(cabin) cruiser word combinations
ferry distress signal
hovercraft maiden voyage
hydrofoil call at
liner catch / take a ferry
raft get on board / board a ship
ship get off a ship
yacht set sail

parts of a vessel
Unit 7. At the Travel Agency.
bow
Accommodation
bridge
bed and breakfast (B&B)
cabin
campsite
deck
caravan (Br) / camper (Am)
hull
motel
port
hostel
porthole
guest house
starboard
hotel
stern
self-catering apartment/flat
suite
facilities
anchor
deck chair
galley
gangplank
lifeboat
oar
paddle

222
Библиографический список

1. Английский язык для студентов педагогических вузов. II курс : учеб. /


Л. Д. Кашурникова, Т. А. Бойцова, Б. А. Жигалев и др. – Москва : Высш. шк., 1995. –
367 с.
2. Aspinall, Tricia. Test Your Listening / Tricia Aspinall. – Pearson Education Limited, 2006. – 89 p.
3. English for Intermediate Students : учебное пособие для студентов [2–3 курсов
факультетов иностранных языков и гуманитарных факультетов университетов по
специальности "Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация"] / Г. Н. Зыкова [и др.];
Барнаульский государственный педагогический университет, Алтайский
государственный университет. – [Изд. 2-е]. – Барнаул : Изд-во БГПУ, 2000. – 259 с.
4. Exam Activator. Classroom and self-study exam preparation / Bob Hastings, Dominika
Chandler, Marta Uminska, Kristof Hegedus. – Person Education Limited, 2010. – 231 p.
5. Hewitt, Karen. Understanding Britain Today / Karen Hewitt. – Oxford : Perspective
Publications Ltd, 2009. – 307 p.
6. Longman Exam Accelerator. Plus 2 Audio CDs. Classroom and self-study preparation for
all B2 level exams / Bob Hastings, Marta Uminska, Dominika Chandler. – Person Education
Limited, 2012. – 175 p.
7. Outcomes. Student‘s Book. Upper-Intermediate / Hugh Dellar, Andrew Wakley. – Cengage
Learning EMEA, 2012. – 183 p.
8. Oxford Word Skills. Intermediate / Ruth Gairns, Stuart Redman. – Oxford University Press,
2012. – 254 p.
9. Total English. Student‘s Book. Upper-Intermediate / Richard Acklam, Araminta Crace. –
Person Education Limited, 2006. – 176 p.
10. [Звукозапись] http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish
11. [Звукозапись] http://learningenglish.voanews.com/
12. [Звукозапись] http://www.esl-lab.com/
13. [Звукозапись] http://www.oxfordonlineenglish.com/

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Учебное издание

Майзенгер Наталья Владимировна,


Рассолова Ирина Николаевна,
Сергиенко Наталья Викторовна

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА


ЧАСТЬ 2

Учебное пособие

Подписано в печать 09.12.2015 г.


Объем 27,8 уч.-изд. л. Формат 60×84/16. Бумага офсетная.
Гарнитура Таймс Нью Роман. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 80.
Отпечатано в ФГБОУ ВО
«Алтайский государственный педагогический университет»
656031, г. Барнаул, ул. Н. Крупской, 139а
тел. 8 (3852) 38-84-59

224
Н. В. Майзенгер, И. Н. Рассолова, Н. В. Сергиенко

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Часть 2