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THE WORKING PAPER

“COMPLEX SENTENCE”
it’s arranged to complete assignment of English subject

Lecture : Eri Ester

Created by group 5 :
Andry Samuel
Lusiana
Rachmawati
Yogi prasetyo

Grade I Civil Construction

DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL


POLITEKNIK NEGERI JAKARTA
DEPOK 16425
PREFACE

Thanks for God which have given goodness and easily to the writer so the writer
could finish the working paper which have title “ complex sentence”.
The working paper arranged to complete English subject, also to increase our
understanding about sentence, types of sentence ,and indentify the sentence. We say
thanks for all people who have helped the writer to arranged the working paper.
In the end, the writer hope the working paper can use all people. The writer say
sorry if the working paper have any trouble and false in arrange or in contents. The
writer also need critism and suggestion for us about this working paper so the writer can
increase our ability and knowledge.
Thank you.

Depok, February 2011

The writer
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TABLE CONTENTS

PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………… i
TABLE CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………….. ii
CONTENTS : * DEFINITION …………………………………………………….... 1
* INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAUSE …………………...... 2-4
* SUBORDINATE CONNECTIVES ………………………………... 3-4
* EXAMPLE ………………………………….................................... 4-10
* EXERCISE ……………………………........................................... 11
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………….. 13
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COMPLEX SENTENCE
Definition
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause, and one or more dependent
clauses. The clauses are connected through either a subordinate conjunction or a
relative pronoun. The dependent clause may be the first or second clause in the
sentence. If the first clause in the sentence is dependent, a comma usually separates the
two clauses1.

In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and
the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.

B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a


comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause
begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no
comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and
E, it is wrong.

Note : that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the
dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the
independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause
in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight
pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent
clause begins the sentence.
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Independent and dependent clauses

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

Clauses can be independent or dependent. Independent clauses can potentially


stand alone and are not structurally dependent on other clauses.
If a sentence has only one clause that clause is of course, normally an independent
clause.
Example:
We have writing class today

DEPENDENT CLAUSE

A dependent clause contains a complete subject and a complete verb as does a main
clause.

 A dependent clause always begins with a subordinate connective.


 It presents secondary less important information.
 It modifies the key idea in the main clause.
 It controls reader focus.

Example:
Because it was very dark, the boys missed the road

Dependent clauses can’t normally stand alone. Of course every sentence must have
al least one independent clause.

Apparent exceptions are cases such as answer to questions.


For example:
Q: “Why did the boys missed the road?”
Y: “Cause it was very dark”.
The clause in the answer can be regarded as dependent on the boys missed the road.
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Subordinate Connectives

Subordinate Connectives

 Here is a partial list of subordinate connectives.


 They will help you to identify dependent clauses.

after before since until whether


although how so that what which
as if than when while
in order
as if that where who
that
because like unless whereas why

The following are examples of complex sentence arranged according to the meaning
of the subordinate conjunction.
1) Time: when, whenever, while, since, after, before, until, as, etc.
- I will take a vacation, when I have the time.
- He had wanted to be a lawyer, since he was a young boy.
- While I was walking home, it began to rain.

2) Place: where, wherever


- We will meet, wherever the committee decides.

3) Manner: as, as if
- He acted, as if he owned the place.

4) Comparison
- I don’t swim as well as he does.

5) Reason, cause, purpose: as, because, so that, in order that, since, for fear that
- It will not be necessary to study that chapter, because you have already read it.
- I will study the chapter, so that I can pass the examination.

6) Result: so….that, such….. that


- The book was so interesting that I read it in one evening.

7) Condition: if, whether, unless, on condition that, as / so long as, supposing (that)
- He sign the contract on condition, that he be allowed to consult his wife.
- He will not sign the contract, unless it is satisfactory.

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Contrast, concession: although, though, even though, no matter if, wherever, whenever,
whatever, as much as, where as
- While I made many friends in the class, I had to learn on my own.
- As much as I needed special attention, people were always helpful.
- I always passed all the tests, even if I needed more time than the others.
- My grades were always excellent, even though I was often absent.

EXAMPLE

Example:

Because leis made of flowers, leaves, or shells are usually associated with the Hawaiian
Islands.

 This type of fragment can be avoided by eliminating the subordinate connective.

Example:

Leis made of flowers, leaves, or shells are usually associated with the Hawaiian Islands.

 Or the dependent clause can be added onto a main clause thereby creating a
Complex Sentence.

Example:

Because leis made of flowers, leaves, or shells are usually associated with the Hawaiian
Islands, many people are not aware of the universal connection between the lei and
necklaces and crowns worn in other parts of the world.

Caution:

 Some subordinate connectives double function as prepositions.


 Although they are both modifiers, it is easy to distinguish one from the other.
 A dependent clause always has a subordinate connective that is followed by a
complete subject and a complete verb.

Example:

Before the Hawaiian lei came into being, necklaces and crowns were worn as body
adornments, tokens of love, and symbols of rank since prehistoric times.

 A prepositional phrase will always contain a preposition that is followed only by a


noun or pronoun object.

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Example:

Before the development of the Hawaiian lei, people living elsewhere were attracted by
colors, textures, materials, and techniques that were used to make that kind of wearable
art.

 When a dependent clause comes in front of a main clause, there is a pause.


 Therefore, a comma is needed to separate the two clauses.

Example:

In primitive cultures, where people admired how plants, flowers, or various kinds of
seeds or nuts looked, smelled, sounded, or felt, they gathered samples to carry with
them as portable treasures or magical tokens.

 When a dependent clause follows a main clause, there is no pause.


 Therefore, no punctuation is needed to separate them.

Example:

Wearing flowers or leaves around the neck or on the head left people free to move their
arms and legs as they went about doing their daily chores.

 In general, when a dependent clause comes in the middle of a main clause, there
are commas (pauses) on both sides.

Example:

Some of the earliest crowns or necklaces, which were made out of perishable materials
like flowers or leaves, indicate that early man's home was probably in or near a forest.

Note:

 In this case, the dependent clause is non-restrictive.


 It is a renamer with non-essential information.
 However, sometimes a dependent clause in the middle of a main clause is
restrictive.
 It contains information that is essential to the meaning of the main clause.
 In that case, no commas will be used.

Example:

According to the historian, Marie McDonald, people who lived on the earth during pre-
Christian times had leis made from perishable materials as well as nonperishable items.

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Note:

 You cannot hedge your bet.


 If a dependent clause is inside of a main clause, you must have two commas or no
commas.
 That, what, who, and which are also relative pronouns.
 They can double function as the subject and subordinate connective of the
dependent clause.

Examples:

1. that:

In 750 B.C., the Greeks wore the earliest recorded type of perishable leis that were
crowns made of laurel and olive leaves.

2. what:

Its sacred connection with the sun god Apollo was what made the crown of laurel so
highly prized.

3. who:

After being woven into leis, laurel leaf crowns were used by the Greeks to honor those
who were heroes or who held high office.

4. which:

In other cultures, crudely fashioned necklaces or leis which have been dug out of graves
or manmade caves have survived from the Paleolithic time period.

Caution:

 That, what, who, and which may double function as both the subject and the
subordinate connective in a dependent clause.
 However, they won't always function in both capacities.

Note:

 In the following example, that is an adjective or noun-modifier.


 It is not a subordinate connective or a relative pronoun.

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Example:

Leis of that type have been preserved because they were made out of non-perishable
materials like bone, ivory, and shells as well as animal teeth and fish bones.

 In the next example, that is the subject of a main clause.


 It is a pronoun.
 It is not acting as a subordinate connective.

Example:

That is why they were able to withstand the test of time.

 In the following sentence, that is a subordinate connective in the dependent


clause.

Example:

By the time of the Neolithic time period, that dates from 3500 to 200 B.C., man had
gone from salvaging fishbones to fashioning hand-tooled beads from clay, soft stone, or
glass.

 The subject of the dependent clause is the word that.


 In the next example, who double functions as the subordinate connective and the
subject of the dependent clause.

Example:

Craftsmen in the Aztec and Mayan cultures, who developed highly sophisticated
techniques for making necklaces or leis, used gold and feathers to make them with.

 In the final example, that double functions as the subordinate connective and the
subject of the dependent clause.

Example:

The wreath that was made out of olive leaves was used to honor winners of Olympic
events.

Note:

 Who is used to refer to people.


 That and which are generally used to refer to animals and things.

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A Complex Sentence can have dependent clauses in front of, in the middle
of, and after a main clause.

Example:

Whereas the Malaysians preferred to make their garlands out of fragrant flowers, leis,
which were made to be worn as necklaces or crowns, were prized by the Chinese who
made them out of jade, pearls, and gold as well as by Africans and American Indians
who used materials like feathers, shells, and beads made of clay,* because those
materials were close at hand when an occasion requiring a necklace or a headdress to be
worn for a particular occasion called for craftsmen living in different cultures to produce
that kind of wearable art.

*When you have several dependent clauses in a row and you want an extra pause, place
a comma between them where there is least disruption of meaning.

Note:

 Two subordinates side by side, not normally paired, indicate two dependent
clauses, one inside the other.

Example:

I think that if you see the Hawaiian lei as part of a worldwide tradition involving
necklaces and crowns, you will have a greater appreciation for those made of perfumed
blossoms and fragile leaves.

 The main clause is: I think.


 The subordinate if controls the first dependent clause. (if you see the Hawaiian lei
as part of a worldwide tradition involving necklaces and crowns)

 The subordinate that controls the second dependent clause. (that you will have a
greater appreciation for those made of perfumed blossoms and fragile leaves)

 Since dependent clause number one is not a renamer, there will only be one
comma or pause separating the two clauses.

A single subordinate connective can make more than one clause dependent.

 The coordinate connectives for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (fan boys) connect
equal parts of a sentence.
 So at the beginning of a sentence, if the first clause is dependent and a coordinate
connective is used to connect it to the second clause, both clauses will be
dependent.
 You will have a double dependent clause fragment.

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Example:

Because factory-made products were mass produced in the twentieth century and packs
of chewing gum, wrapped candies, and tiny bottles filled with liqueurs were used as
beads with an edible component.

 To prevent a fragment which is less than one main clause, eliminate the
coordinate connective.
 Revise your punctuation.
 And form a Complex Sentence.

Example:

Because factory-made products were mass produced in the twentieth century, packs of
chewing gum, wrapped candies, and tiny bottles filled with liqueurs were used as beads
with an edible component.

 Or retain both dependent clauses and add a main clause to form a Complex
Sentence.

Example:

Because factory-made products were mass produced in the twentieth century and
(because) packs of chewing gum, wrapped candies, and tiny bottles filled with liqueurs
were seen as beads with an edible component, contemporary leis took on a whole new
role.

 Now, both dependent clauses are linked together with the coordinate connective
and which joins clauses of equal value.
 The first dependent clause is: because factory-made products were mass
produced in the twentieth century.
 The second dependent clause is: because packs of chewing gum, wrapped
candies, and tiny bottles filled with liqueurs were seen as beads with an edible
component.
 The main clause is: leis took on a whole new role.

An entire dependent clause can function as the subject of a main clause.

Example:

That an edible lei could be worn around the neck of a child to serve as a necklace as well
as a snack would have been beyond belief to Islanders of old.

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A Complex Sentences can have a dependent clause with an implied
subordinate connective.

 The implied subordinate is usually the word that.

Example:

Most people don't know such common materials as cigarette wrappers and U.S. dollar
bills have been used in the past for the making of modern day leis.

 The main clause is: most people don't know.


 The implied dependent clause is: (that) such common materials as cigarette
wrappers and U.S. dollar bills have been used in the past for the making of
modern day leis.
 The implied subordinate can also be who or whom.

Example:

To satisfy the needs of all the people they are made for, leis make use of a broad range of
materials that pass through the creative hands of their makers.

 The main clause is: leis make use of a broad range of materials.
 The implied dependent clause is: (who) they are made for.
 The regular dependent clause is: that pass through the creative hands of their
makers.

A reminder:

 All sentences are determined by the number and type of clauses they contain.
 If you have 1 main clause and 9 dependent clauses, you still have just one
Complex Sentence.

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EXERCISE

Rewrite the following pairs of sentences to make one complex sentence.

1) Although
John is only sixteen
He has already entered a university
Answer:

2) So that
The boys could live on little money
They decided to find an expensive place to live.
Answer:

Complete the following sentence using subordinating word.


3) …………..Mary came to this country, she has made many friends.
a. Although
b. If
c. Since
d. Because
e. While
Answer:

4) He will sign the contract, ……….. his wife has no objections.


a. As
b. Since
c. So that
d. As long as
e. Even though
Answer:

5) Alex didn’t study ……., he failed the test.


a. Consequently
b. Unless
c. In spite of
d. So long as
e. Until
Answer:

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Azar, Betty Schramper. 1992. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Engelwood cliffs:

New Jersey.

Azar, Betty Schramper. 1992. Fundamentals of English Grammar. Engelwood cliffs: New

Jersey.

Krohn, Robert. 1990. English Sentence Structure. Bina Rupa Aksara: Jakarta.

Warib, S., and A., Soesanto. 1991. Complete English Grammar. Apollo: Surabaya

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