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Development

1 mark
1. State the broader version of development.
In the broader sense, development is identified with enhancement, progress and
aspiration for a better life, vision for the society as a whole.

2. What method of protest was adopted by the Narmada Bachao Andolan?


Narmada movement led by Medha Patkar adopted a non-violent and peaceful approach
to activism.

3. What should be the characteristics of an inclusive model of development?


An inclusive model of development is one that is sustainable, equitable, ecologically
sensitive, and democratic and based on meaningful participation of all groups in
society.

4. In India which was the main agency of socio-economic change in the 1950s and
1960s?
In 1950s and 1960s state was the main agency for bringing socio-economic change and
initiating development.

5. Name the political theorists who propounded the human development approach
to development.
The human development approach to development was developed by Amartya Sen
(from India) and Mahbub ul Haq (from Pakistan).

6. Which is the organisation behind publication of Human Development Reports?


United Nations Development Programme is the main UN agency which brings out the
Human Development Reports for different regions of the world.

7. What does inclusive development entail?


Inclusive development is the process of ensuring that all marginalised and excluded
groups are able to benefit from the development process.

8. What is India’s rank in Global HDI?


India’s rank in Global HDI (Human Development Index) is 134 out of 182 countries,
according to 2009 Human Development Report.

9. Define displacement.
Displacement refers to forced removal of people from their original habitat, which
results in loss of livelihood and increases impoverishment.

10. Define Activism.


Activism refers to action taken to bring about political, social, economic and
environmental changes. Example: peace march, strikes.

11. Who are indigenous people?


Indigenous people are the original inhabitants of an area. These include aboriginal
people, native people and tribals.

12. Name the international agency related to the environmental programme.


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the international agency for
environmental issues.
13. When is Environment Day celebrated?
World Environment Day is celebrated on 5 June. It was established by the United
Nations General Assembly in 1972.

14. Name two well known environmental groups from India.


• Chipko movement to protect the Himalayan forests.
• Beej Bachao Andolan in Uttarakhand.

15. When did the concept of development gain momentum?


The concept of development gained momentum in the post World War- II period.

16. What is the narrower view of development?


In a Narrower sense development is identified with completion of projects like dams,
factories, hospitals etc.

17. Who is associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan?


Medha Patkar is associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan.

18. What is meant by growth?


Growth means material progress in terms of infrastructure, production and
industrialisation.

19. State the full form of UNDP.


UNDP stands for United Nations Development Programme.

20. Who was associated with the Chipko movement?


Sunder Lal Bahuguna was associated with the Chipko movement.

21. Who enjoys the fruits of development?


The fruits of development are not equally distributed among various sections of the
society. They are enjoyed by the privileged few.

22. Who launched the development model of 1949?


The development model of 1949 was launched by President Truman.

23. What is the full form of OECD?


OECD stands for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

24. Mention the environmental cost of development.


Development has led to:
• Environmental degradation
• Global Warming
• Loss of forest
• Drying up of rivers and ponds
• Declining ground water levels
• Increasing use of energy( non-renewable resources like coal, or petroleum)

2 marks
5. What are Millennium Development Goals? State any two such goals?
MDGs are eight development goals endorsed by the UN in 2000. They aim to improve
human wellbeing, ensure sustainable development, education for all and gender
equality. Two of the eight MDGs are:
• Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
• Develop global partnership for development

26. What are the indicators of HDI?


Human Development Index is the composite index that measures a country’s average
achievement in three basic aspects of development: income, health and education.
Based on the country’s performance in these three areas a rank is designated to each
country.

27. How can we protect the rights of indigenous people with regard to
environment?
We can protect the rights of the indigenous people towards environment, firstly, by
giving the local community the right to forest management. Secondly, by making forest
diversion and afforestation subject to a democratic process, including the consent of the
local community as recommended by the standing committee on environment and
forests.

28. What is environmentalism?


Environmentalism is the revolt against 19th century industrialisation. Environmentalism
is a social and political ideology that advocates environment conservation and demands
for action to conserve the environment. Today, environmental movements have become
a world-wide phenomenon with thousands of environmental groups pressurising the
government to modify developmental policies.

29. What does Human development approach mean?


Human development approach is defined as enlarging people’s choices and enhancing
human capabilities and freedom. This would enable them to lead a long and healthy
life, have access to education, decent standard of living and meaningful participation in
community life.

30. State the issues and themes central to human development approach of
development.
The issues and themes central to human development approach are:
• Social progress through greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health
facilities.
• Importance of economic growth as a means to reduce inequality.
• Participation and freedom particularly empowerment, democratic governance and
gender equality.

31. What were the major development initiatives taken by India in the 1950s?
In India a series of five year plans for development were implemented from the 1950s
and these included a number of mega projects such as the Bhakra Nangal Dam, setting
up of steel plants, mining, and fertiliser production and improving agriculture
techniques.

32. How can state achieve balance between economic development


and environmental protection?
Achieving a balance between economic development and environment protection is the
biggest challenge faced by all countries today. To achieve this, we must adhere to the
principles of sustainable development. We must avoid development of things that offer
short term benefits and erode our natural resources. We must adapt to green technology
and reduce our carbon footprints.

33. What is the full form of MOSOP and who was its leader?
MOSOP is the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People and Ken-Saro- Wiwa
was its leader.

34. What role has been played by the environmental movements in the recent
years?
In recent years environmental movements have played an important role in generating
awareness on issues related to natural resources and eco systems like waste
management, sustainable development, global warming etc.

35. What were the main objectives of the Afro-Asian states?


Most of the Afro-Asian states achieved independence from colonial rule.
All these states had twin objectives to achieve:
• Firstly, nation building.
• Secondly, socio-economic development.
These states were described as developing or underdeveloped states.

36. Was equity perceived as an inevitable outcome of growth in the initial years?
No, equity was not perceived as an inevitable outcome of growth in the initial years.
Specific government initiatives were taken through planning, public sector etc. to
bridge the gap and remove inequality. However, the overall success of these initiatives
was quite limited.

37. What were the main objectives of the economic development in the initial
years?
The agenda of economic development, in the initial years, had democratization,
equalization, employment, growth with equity etc. as its primary objectives.

38. What is the Gandhian view of development?


The Gandhian view of development is different from the western model of
development. Gandhiji made a distinction between economic and real development. For
him development was not just related to the economic growth, but should be related to
the social, cultural and spiritual aspects as well.

39. Mention Gunnar Myrdal's view on underdevelopment.


Gunnar Myrdalwas of the opinion that low levels of living, low levels of productivity
and low incomes act in a vicious cycle to result in underdevelopment.

40. Mention Daniel Lerner's view on modernisation.


Daniel Lerner defines the term modernisation as a systematic process involving
complementary changes in the demographic, economic, political, communication and
cultural sector of a society.

41. State the relationship between growth and development.


• Growth denotes material development, i.e. progress in different areas.
• Development is not related to the economic progress but seeks to improve the
quality of life of the people at large.
4 marks
42. What are the issues involved in the process of development?
Following are the issues which are involved in the process of development:
• The rights of people.
• There should be democratisation of social, economic and political environment.
• Benefits of development should reach all persons of the society and state.
• Standard of living of people should be improved.

43. What are the challenges faced by indigenous people as a result of


development?
Indigenous people are the original inhabitants of an area. These include aboriginal
people, native people and tribals. They are forest dwellers and their economic
livelihood and cultural practices depend on the forest. Development has affected the
lives of indigenous people in the following ways:
• Destruction of valuable agrarian land due to construction of dams.
• Deforestation to extract timber has led to the destruction of forest resources which
are of high economic and cultural importance to the indigenous people.

44. Discuss Chipko’s ecological policy.


Chipko’s ecological policy is fourfold:
• Firstly, to preserve natural forests.
• Chipko declares water to be the main product of forests.
• The movement is converting monoculture forests into mixed forests while giving
priority to those trees which promote community self-sufficiency in needs.
• Chipko also advocates local community power over forest management.

45. Are dams’ temples of modern India? Give your views.


After India became independent, the Government directed vast resources towards
construction of dams, with the promise that these would provide hydropower and water
supply for industry and agriculture. However, dams have become a major cause of
misery for the rural population of India. Dams are responsible for flooding and
displacing thousand of poor people and tribals. Thus, they can no longer be called as
temples of modern India. There are various movements in different parts of the country
opposing construction of dams and these pose a threat to right to life of many people.

46. What is Developmentalism?


Developmentalism is a post World War II phenomenon. It evolved in the context of a
decolorizing world where ravaged, exploited economies like India, adopted
development as an integral part of their modernizing and nation- building project.
As these societies are still grappling with the problems and prospects of development,
we are in that sense living in an age of Development.

47. What were the problems in front of developing societies and what measures
were adopted to resolve those problems?
Exploitation of colonial masters led to underdevelopment in the newly decolonised
countries of Asia and Africa. Developing states were faced with an uphill task of
solving prevailing problems like: poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, malnourishment,
lack of basic amenities. In order to combat these problems, emphasis was placed on
formulation of those policies which would not only solve these problems but would also
lead to development.
• Initially focus was on faster economic growth, modernization of agriculture and
education.
• Active role of state was emphasized.
• Developing states launched developmental projects with the help of developed
states.

48. “Economic growth would lead to wealth of a nation”. Comment


• Narrower view of development emphasised that economic growth would lead to
wealth of a nation.
• Economic growth is not the only factor to judge the development of a nation.
• A country’s high growth rate doesn’t ensure a fair distribution of its benefits.
• Results in concentration of wealth in the hands of few or privileged lot only.
• Need of the hour is to adopt a broader notion of development.

49. Write a short note on the top-down approach.


The top down approach implies that the selection of priorities and implementation of
the projects are all generally done by the top politicians, bureaucrats and technocrats
without the actual participation of those for whom these decisions are taken.

50. What are the main challenges to development?


Following are the main challenges in the path of development:
• Poverty
• Unemployment
• Social backwardness
• Illiteracy
• Impact of colonialism

51. State the relationship between technology and development.


Technology revolution has added a new dimension to development. It has changed
every aspect of life. The world seems to be shrinking. Technologically advanced
society is a developed society. Technology is changing our lifestyles at a much faster
pace. Continuous efforts are being made to conserve natural resources and use
renewable resources as far as possible. Efforts such as rain-water harvesting, solar and
bio-gas plants, hydel-projects etc. are some of its examples.

52. What are the main hindrances faced by the developing countries in
achieving the goals of development.
Although the developing countries are trying hard to achieve the goals of development
but are facing hindrances in the path of development. Some of them are as follows:
• Lack of political will.
• Lack of people’s participation.
• Lack of relevant model of development.
• Traditional occupations.
• Traditional working methods.
In fact, through development, India has changed from a traditional, backward and
underdeveloped society to a modernised and developed society, but still, we are facing
many problems and are in the grip of inequalities and disparities. The ultimate objective
of development is the utilisation of resources, so that the fruits of development are
enjoyed by each and every member of the society and are not restricted only to a class.

53. “Emphasis is placed on alternative ways of measuring development”.


Comment
• In the broader view of development, emphasis is placed on alternative ways of
measuring development.
• Development is a process which should lead to enhancing the quality of life of all
the people.
• Earlier indicators of development like economic growth are inadequate and
misleading.

6 marks
54. Discuss the discourse on development.
The concept of development has undergone many changes over the years. In 1950s and
1960s, development was understood as modernisation and economic growth.
Developing countries of Asia and Africa adopted goals like industrialisation,
modernisation of agriculture and modernising education. However, excessive focus on
economic growth has not only given rise to a wide range of problems but even
economic growth has not been satisfactory. Hence, development is now being viewed
in broader terms as a process which should improve the quality of life of all the people.
This broader understanding of development aims to improve the quality of life of
people. In 1990s an alternative way of measuring development came in the form of
human development approach to development. Human development approach is
defined as enlarging people’s choices and enhancing human capabilities and freedom.
This would enable them to lead a long and healthy life, have access to education, decent
standard of living and meaningful participation in community life. Based on these
social indicators Human development index is derived for each country.

55. Why should environmental concerns be part of contemporary global politics?


As we know politics is nothing but struggle over power and resources. Powerful is the
one who is resourceful. With resources here, we are talking about natural resources. A
country’s development is dependent on its resource base and as natural resources are
getting exhausted, there is increasing competition between states for their control.
However, this is only one-sided story, the other is environmental degradation, the
consequences of which are faced by all countries alike in the form of natural disasters,
but this is a concern that no single government can address alone.
Therefore, environmental concerns have become a part of ‘world politics’. Issues of
environment and natural resources are deeper in the sense that who should take
responsibility for environmental degradation? Awareness on environmental
consequences of economic growth acquired a political character in the 1960s.
International organisations like UNEP began holding conferences to get a more
coordinated and effective response to environmental problems from countries. Recent
among such conferences is the Copenhagen meet (2009) which ended in disappointed
because of disagreement between countries of the north and south for cutting down
carbon emissions.

56. “New Agrarian Strategy increased agricultural production but it gave rise to
class of rich farmers”. Comment
• The democratization, equalization, employment, growth with equity etc. were the
primary objectives of economic development in the initial years of development.
However, the overall success was quite limited.
• Industrial growth which was one of the main priorities of the first three plans did
not sufficiently improve poverty, health and other social indicators.
• In the early 60s, new answers and strategies began to be explored.
• Since agriculture was, and is the most important sector of the Indian economy from
perspective of employment generation and poverty alleviation, it was felt that
agricultural growth and productivity needed to be addressed and through it agrarian
poverty.
• The New Agrarian Strategy (NAS) was adopted.
• On the one hand NAS increased agricultural productivity, but on the other hand it
gave rise to a class of rich farmers.
• The process of development again bypassed the poor.
• Proportion of population living below the poverty line continued to be large.
• The inequitable tendencies of economic growth continued. Subsequently, an
attempt was being made to bring changes in the policies to bridge the gap between the
rich and the poor.

57. “These institutions function outside the UN, but have a close relations with the
UN agencies”. Comment with specific reference to India.
In the post World War-II era, the International Bank for Research and Development
(IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have played a leading role in
financing development of the Third World. Although they function outside the UN,
they have a strong impact on North South relations and have close links with the UN
agencies. Till the 1980s, India was the largest beneficiary of soft loans from the IBRD
and it also benefited greatly from various bank projects in infrastructure, agriculture etc.
but since the late 1980s India’s share of World Bank assistance has declined
considerably. Now India relies more on private capital inflows from the advanced
industrial states. In 1991 India borrowed a loan from the IMF to take care of its balance
of payments position and the Indian government was forced to abide by the stiff
conditions imposed by the IMF which had long term implications for India’s political,
economic and developmental issues.

58. “Economic reforms will help the poor by encouraging rapid and efficient
growth”. In the light of this explain the relationship between liberalisation and
poverty reduction.
In order to understand the relationship between liberalisation and poverty reduction, it
is important to find out different views on liberalization. The impact of reforms on the
poor has been a constant focus of policy debate in India. Supporters claim that the
reforms will help the poor by encouraging rapid and efficient growth.
Jagdish Bhagwati is of the opinion that the growth helps reduce poverty in three
fundamental ways; it creates jobs that '' pull up'' the poor into gainful employment by
providing more economic opportunities, it provides more revenue with which more
schools and health facilities for the poor can be provided and it creates the incentives
that enable the poor to access these facilities. It’s important to know the views of the
critics as well. Critics are of the opinion that the liberalisation has not provided a
solution to poverty.
Deepak Nayyar is of the opinion that liberalization is more concerned with the
economic issues of governance like balance of payments, fiscal deficit, mounting debt
burden and with the efficiency of industrialization. It is not concerned with the social
and economic priorities of the people. One finds that although initial response is not
very encouraging but in the long run this certainly would help to bridge the gap
between the rich and the poor.

59. Explain Development Planning in India.


The basic purpose of development planning is that the society needs to develop as an
integral whole; that through planned governmental interventions, conditions that
exacerbate poverty, deprivation, inequality of opportunities are eliminated; and
conditions which promote growth, employment, equity etc. are fostered. Plans in India
meant to lay out macro goals, objectives, directives and directions which allowed its
sub-system to be implemented through the market. In the Indian context, planning was
not necessarily an expression of a socialist model of growth or an alternative to the
market system. Planning in India began as an attempt to convert a poor, relatively static,
primarily agricultural and traditional economy into a richer, dynamic, modern industrial
nation. The basic objective was to promote and achieve rapid, balanced economic
development with equity and justice. India's planning and development experience can
be broadly divided into three phases; phase one 1951-1966, phase two 1966- early 80s
and third phase early 80s onwards, i.e. liberalization phase.