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Deep Drawing

Outline
• Sheet metal forming to make
• Deep Drawing cup-shaped, box-shaped, or
other complex-curved,
• Deep drawing analysis hollow-shaped parts
• Other Sheet metalworking operations • Sheet metal blank is
• Formability of Sheet Metal positioned over die cavity and
- cupping test then punch pushes metal into
- bulge test opening
- forming-limit diagram
Steps:
- tension tests 9 Initial contact
¾ normal anisotropy Products:
9 Bending beverage cans, ammunition shells,
¾ planar anisotropy 9 Straightening automobile body panels
9 Friction and compression
9 Final shape • Deep drawing was patented in 1857.

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/1 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/2

Deep Drawing Deep Drawing: - Variables and Defects

Cup Flange:
Significant Variables
……… and Friction
• Properties of sheet metal Zone
• Ratio of blank diameter to punch
diameter
• Sheet thickness
• Clearance between the punch and Die Radius:
………. and
the die Cup Wall:
Friction Zone
- ……….. Zone
• Punch and die and corner radii
- Plane Strain
• Blankholder force - ……. Friction
• Friction and lubrication at the Punch Radius:
tool/workpiece interface ……….. and Failure results from
Cup Bottom:
Friction Zone thinning of the cup wall
• Speed of the punch - …………. Strain
- No Friction
Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/3 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/4
Deep Drawing: - Variables and Defects Deep Drawing: - Variables and Defects
• Low carbon steels exhibit this behavior
During drawing, when the blank • This produces lueder’s bands (stretch strain marks)
moves into the die, compressive • These marks can be eliminated by reducing thickness of sheet from
circumferential stresses are induced in 0.5 % to 1.5 % by cold rolling process
the flange
– This causes flange to wrinkle
– Eg: try forcing a circular sheet of paper
into a drinking glass

Lueder’s bands in a low-carbon


Yield-point elongation in
a sheet-metal specimen steel sheet.

Die radius too small Punch radius too small Grain size: mechanical properties and surface appearance are affected by the grain
size. The coarser the grain the rougher the appearance. (Orange Peeling defect)
Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/5 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/6

Analysis of Drawing Analysis of Drawing


Measure of Drawing: Clearance in Drawing:
Most easily defined for cylindrical shape:

c = 1.1 t
Db feasible if DR < 2
– Drawing ratio: DR = where t = stock thickness
Dp • In other words, clearance = about 10% greater than stock thickness
Db − D p feasible if r < 0.5 Thickness-to-Diameter Ratio:
- Reduction r=
Db Thickness-to-diameter ratio = t/Db Desirable for t/Db ratio
Crude measures of the severity of a deep drawing operation
to be greater than 1%
• As t/Db decreases, tendency for …………. increases
Drawing Forces: Blank Size Determination:
D 
F = πD p t (TS ) b − 0.7  Max at 1/3 length • For final dimensions of drawn shape to be correct, starting blank
D  diameter Db must be right
 p 
• Solve for Db by setting starting sheet metal blank volume = final
Holding Force:
product volume
[
Fh = 0.015Yπ Db2 − (D p + 2.2t + 2 Rd )
2
] • To facilitate calculation, assume negligible thinning of part wall
Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/7 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/8
Shapes other than Cylindrical Cups Other Sheet Metal Forming on Presses
• Square or rectangular boxes (as
in sinks), ………
Makes wall thickness of cylindrical cup
• Stepped cups, more uniform
• Cones,
• Cups with spherical rather than
flat bases, Examples:
beverage cans and artillery shells
• Irregular curved forms (as in
automobile body panels)
…………..
• Very important commercial process.
Used to create indentations
Each of these shapes in sheet, such as raised (or
presents its own indented) lettering or
unique technical strengthening ribs
problems in drawing

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/9 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/10

Other Sheet Metal Forming on Presses Methods for Reducing the Diameter of Drawn Cups
• Low tooling cost Guerin Process
• Form block can be made of wood,
plastic, or other materials that are easy
to shape
• Rubber pad can be used with different
form blocks
• Process is attractive in small quantity • Reverse Redrawing
production • Conventional Redrawing

………….. Redrawing
A method to reduce the
diameter of drawn cup

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/11 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/12
Hemming Process
Steps in
Manufacturing an • The edge of the sheet is
Aluminum Can folded over itself
• This increases stiffness of
the part
• This method is now used in the
automotive industry to join an
outer part and an inner part.
• The metal strip is bent in
stages

Defects during hemming: Springback, Fractures and


Wrinkels in the flange

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/13 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/14

Formability of Sheet Metals Bulge Test

Erichsen test
A cupping test (Erichsen and
Olsen tests) to determine the
formability of sheet metals

The greater the value of d the • Bulge-test results on steel sheets of various widths.
Erichsen number
greater is the formability • The specimen farthest left is subjected to, basically, simple tension.
• The specimen farthest right is subjected to equal biaxial stretching
• Earliest tests developed
¾ It has been used extensively to simulate sheet forming operations
• Simple to perform
¾ Hydraulic pressure is used instead of punch ⇒ stretch forming
• ……………. indicator of formability without friction
• Do not simulate exact conditions of actual operations, WHY? ¾ it is used to obtain effective-stress vs. effective-strain curves for
biaxial loading under frictionless conditions

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/15 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/16
Major Strain and Minor Strain Forming Limit Diagrams

The deformation of the grid pattern and


the tearing of sheet metal during forming.
The major and minor axes of the circles
are used to determine the coordinates on
the forming-limit diagram.

• During stretching in sheet metal, Volume constant


• Plane strain
εl + εw + εt = 0 – Minor strain is 0 Although the major strain is
always positive (stretching),
• Major strain always larger than minor strain εl + εw + εt = 0,
the minor strain may be either
– Major strain ………………. than 0 thus εl + εt = 0 positive or negative or zero
– Minor strain can be either positive, negative or zero

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/17 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/18

Forming-limit Diagrams (FLD) Normal Anisotropy

• More a research/development tool than a practical (quick) test • Normal anisotropy: R = εw / εt


• Time consuming to perform – Remember: εl + εw + εt = 0
• Represents ………. forming operations reasonably well – Simple tension, R =1.0

• Determines thinning behavior of


Tension Tests sheet metals during stretching;
important in deep-drawing
• The most basic and common test used to evaluate formability
operations
• It determines important properties of the sheet metal such as:
Strains on a tensile-test specimen removed
- total elongation of the sheet specimen at fracture from a piece of sheet metal. These strains
• Tensile tests determine normal
- strain hardening exponent are used in determining the normal and
anisotropy
- the planar anisotropy, and planar anisotropy of the sheet metal.
- the normal anisotropy

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/19 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/20
Average Normal Anisotropy Average Normal Anisotropy Vs Limiting Drawing Ratio

Ravg = (R0 + 2R45 +R90)/4

The relationship between


Normal anisotropy (R) average normal anisotropy
and the limiting drawing ratio
R 0o for various sheet metals

R 45o

Rolling R 90o
Direction
• Limiting Drawing Ratio (LDR) = D0/Dp
Where,
D0: Maximum Blank diameter
Dp: Punch Diameter

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/21 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/22

Average Normal Anisotropy, Ravg Planar Anisotropy (Earing Tendency)

Typical Range of Average Normal Anisotropy, Ravg, for


Normal Planar Anisotropy
Various Sheet Metals
anisotropy (R)
Ravg R 0o
∆R = (R0 -2R45 +R90)/2
R 45o
Zinc alloys 0.4–0.6
Rolling
Hot-rolled steel 0.8–1.0 Direction
R 90o

Cold-rolled rimmed steel 1.0–1.4


Cold-rolled aluminum-killed steel 1.4–1.8 • Planar anisotropy causes ears to form in drawn
Aluminum alloys 0.6–0.8 cups
Copper and brass 0.6–0.9 • When ∆R=0, no ears form
Titanium alloys (a) 3.0–5.0 • The height of the ears increases as ∆R increases
Stainless steels 0.9–1.2 • Number of ears: 4, 6, or 8
High-strength low-alloy steels 0.9–1.2 • for better deep drawability: Ravg↑ and ∆R↓
• ……………….. and …………………. affect
these values.
Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/23 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/24
Earing and Planar Anisotropy
Effect of Planar Anisotropy on Earing

∆R ∆R R0 + R90 − 2 R45
R
∆R =
R 2
∆R<0 ∆R>0 Next time:
R = εw / εt
Continue Sheet Metal Forming
0 45 90 0 45 90
θ θ

h h

Rolling Direction Rolling Direction


0 45 90 0 45 90
θ θ

Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/25 Dr. M. Medraj Mech. Eng. Dept. - Concordia University Mech 421/6511 lecture 9/26