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MOBILE BUG

BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

This handy, pocket-size mobile transmission detector can sense the presence of an
activated mobile phone from a distance of oneand-a-half metres. So it can be used to
prevent use of mobile phones in examination halls, confidential rooms, etc. It is also
useful for detecting the use of mobile phone for spying and
unauthorised video transmission. The circuit can detect both the incoming and outgoing
calls, SMS and video transmission even if the mobile phone is kept in the silent mode.
The moment the bug detects RF transmission signal from an activated mobile phone, it
starts sounding a beep alarm and the LED blinks. The alarm continues until the signal
transmission ceases. An ordinary RF detector using tuned LC circuits is not suitable for
detecting signals in the GHz frequency band used in mobile phones. The transmission
frequency of mobile phones ranges from 0.9 to 3 GHz with a wavelength of 3.3 to 10 cm.
So a circuit detecting gigahertz signals is required for a mobile bug. Here the circuit uses
a 0.22µF disk capacitor (C3) to capture the RF signals from the mobile phone. The lead
length of the capacitor is fixed as 18 mm with a spacing of 8 mm between the leads to
get the desired frequency. The disk capacitor along with the leads acts as a small
gigahertz loop antenna to collect the RF signals from the mobile phone. Op-amp IC
CA3130 (IC1) is used in the circuit as a current-to-voltage converter with capacitor C3
connected between its inverting and non-inverting inputs. It is a CMOS version using
gate- protected p-channel MOSFET transistors in the input to provide very high input
impedance, very low input current and very high speed of performance. The output
CMOS transistor is capable of swinging the output voltage to within 10 mV of either
supply voltage terminal. Capacitor C3 in conjunction with the lead inductance acts as a
transmission line that intercepts the signals from the mobile phone. This capacitor creates
a field, stores energy and transfers the stored energy in the form of minute current to the
inputs of IC1. This will upset the balanced input of IC1 and convert the current into the
corresponding output voltage. Capacitor C4 along with high-value resistor R1 keeps the
non-inverting input stable for easy swing of the output to high state. Resistor R2 provides
the discharge path for capacitor C4. Feedback resistor R3 makes the inverting input high
when the output becomes high. Capacitor C5 (47pF) is connected across ‘strobe’ (pin 8)
and ‘null’ inputs (pin 1) of IC1 for phase compensation and gain control to optimise the
frequency response. When the mobile phone signal is detected by C3, the output of IC1
becomes high and low alternately according to the frequency of the signal as indicated by
LED1. This triggers monostable timer IC2 through capacitor C7. Capacitor C6 maintains
the base bias of transistor T1 for fast switching action. The low-value timing components
R6 and C9 produce very short time delay to avoid audio nuisance. Assemble thee circuit
on a general purpose PCB as compact as possible and enclose in a small box like junk
mobile case. As mentioned earlier, capacitor C3 should have a lead length of 18 mm with
lead spacing of 8 mm. Carefully solder the capacitor in standing position with equal
spacing of the leads. The response can be optimized by trimming the lead length of C3
for the desired frequency. You may use a short telescopic type antenna. Use the miniature
12V battery of a remote control and a small buzzer to make the gadget pocket-size. The
unit will give the warning indication if someone uses mobile phone within a radius of 1.5
meters.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
SKIN RESPONSE METER
BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

Human skin offers some resistance to current and voltage. This resistance changes with
the emotional state of the body. The circuit proposed here measures changes in your skin
resistance following changes in your mental state. In the relaxed state, the resistance
offered by the skin is as high as 2 mega-ohms or more, which reduces to 500 kilo-ohms
or less when the emotional stress is too high. The reduction in skin resistance is related to
increased blood flow and permeability followed by the physiological changes during high
stress. This increases the electrical conductivity of the skin. This circuit is useful to
monitor the skin’s response to relaxation techniques. It is very sensitive and shows
response during a sudden moment of stress. Even a deep sigh will give response in the
circuit. The circuit uses a sensitive amplifier to sense variations in the skin resistance.
IC CA3140 (IC1) is designed as a resistance-to-voltage converter that outputs varying
voltage based on the skin’s conductivity. It is wired as an inverting amplifier to generate
constant current to skin in order to measure the skin resistance. IC CA3140 is a 4.5MHz
BiMOS operational amplifier with MOSFET inputs and bipolar output. The gate-
protected inputs have high impedance and can sense current as low as 10 pA. This device
is ideal to sense small currents in low-input-current applications. The inverting input (pin
2) of IC1 is connected to ground (through preset VR1) and one of the touch plates, while
the non-inverting input (pin 3) is grounded directly. The output from IC1 passes through
current-limiting resistor R1 to the second touch plate. R1 act as a feedback resistor along
with the skin when the touch plates make contact with the skin. So the gain of IC1
depends on the feedback provided by R1 and the skin. In the inverting mode of IC1, a
positive input voltage to its pin 2 through the feedback network makes its output low.
If the skin offers very high resistance in the relaxed state, input voltage to pin 2 reduces
and the output remains high. Thus the gain of IC1 varies depending on the current
passing through the skin, which, in turn, depends on the skin response and emotional
state.In the standby state, touch plates are free. As there is no feedback to IC1, it gives a
high output (around 6 volts), which is indicated by shifting of the meter to right side.
When the touch plates are shorted by the skin, the feedback circuit completes and the
output voltage reduces to 4 volts or less depending on the resistance of the skin. Since the
feedback network has a fixed resistor (R1) and VR1 is set to a fixed resistance value, the
current flowing through it depends only on the resistance of the skin. The output from
IC1 is displayed on a sensitive moving coil meter (VU meter). By varying preset VR2,
you can adjust the sensitivity of the meter. For easy visual observation , an LED display
is also included. IC LM3915 (IC2) is used to give a logarithmic display through LED
indications. It can sink current from pin 18 to pin 10 with each increment of 125
millivolts at its input pin 5. Using VR3 you can adjust the input voltage of IC2, while
using VR4 you can control the brightness of the LEDs. In practice, the circuit provides
both meter reading and LED indications. If the LED display is not needed, IC2 can be
omitted. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet
with touch pads glued on the top, 5-10 mm apart. Touch pads can be any type of
conducting plates, such as aluminium or copper plates, having dimensions of 1×1 cm2.
The moving coil meter can be a small VU meter with 1-kilo-ohm coil resistance and 0-10
digit reading. After assembling the circuit, adjust the presets such that IC1 outputs around
6 volts. None of the LEDs (LED1 through LED3) glows in this position with the touch
plates open. Now gently touch the touch plates with your middle finger. Maintain the
finger still allowing one minute to bond with the pads and keep your body relaxed. Adjust
VR3 until the green LED (LED1) lights up and the meter shows full deflection. Adjust
VR2 to get maximum deflection of the meter. This indicates normal resistance of the
skin, provided the body is fully relaxed. If you are stressed or have ill feeling, skin
resistance decreases and the blue LED lights up followed by the red LED along with a
deflection of the meter towards the lower side. In short, the red LED and zero meter
reading indicate you are stressed, and the green LED and high meter reading indicate you
are relaxed. Practice some relaxation technique and observe how much your body is
relaxed.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
SPY EAR

BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

What binoculars do to improve your vision, this personal sound enhancer circuit does for
listening. This lightweight gadget produces an adjustable gain on sounds picked up from
the built-in high-sensitivity condenser microphone. So you can hear what you have been
missing. With a 6V (4×1.5V) battery, it produces good results. As shown in Fig. 1, a
small signal amplifier is built around transistor BC547 (T1). Transistor T1 and the related
components amplify the sound signals picked up by the condenser microphone (MIC).
The amplified signal from the preamplifier stage is fed to input pin 3 of IC LM386N
(IC1) through capacitor C2 (100nF) and volume control VR1 (10-kilo-ohm log). A
decoupling network comprising resistor R5 and capacitor C3 provides the preamplifier
block with a clean supply voltage. Audio amplifier IC LM386N (IC1) is designed for
operation with power supplies in the 4-15V DC range. It is housed in a standard 8-pin
DIL package, consumes very small quiescent current and is ideal for battery-powered
portable applications. The processed output signal from capacitor C2 goes to one end of
volume control VR1. The wiper is taken to pin 3 of LM386N audio output amplifier.
Note that the R6-C4 network is used to RF-decouple positive-supply pin 6 and R8-C7 is
an optional Zobel network that ensures high frequency stability when feeding an
inductive headphone load. Capacitor C6 (22µF, 16V) wired between pin 7 and ground
gives additional ripple rejection. The output of LM386N power amplifier can safely
drive a standard 32-ohm monophonic headphone/earphone. Assemble the circuit on a
small general-purpose PCB and house in a suitable metallic enclosure with an integrated
battery holder and headphone/earphone socket as shown in Fig. 2. Fit the on/off switch
(S1), volume control (VR1) and power indicator (LED1) on the enclosure. Finally, fit the
condenser microphone (MIC) on the front side of the enclosure and link it to the input of
the preamplifier via a short length of the shielded wire.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
FM BOOSTER
BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

Here is a low-cost circuit of an FM booster that can be used to listen to programmes from
distant FM stations clearly. The circuit comprises a common-emitter tuned RF
preamplifier wired around VHF/UHF transistor 2SC2570. (Only C2570 is annotated on
the transistor body.) Assemble the circuit on a good-quality PCB (preferably, glass
epoxy). Adjust input/output trimmers (VC1/VC2) for maximum gain. Input coil L1
consists of four turns of 20SWG enamelled copper wire (slightly space wound) over
5mm diameter former. It is tapped at the first turn from ground lead side. Coil L2 is
similar to L1, but has only three turns. Pin configuration of transistor 2SC2570 is shown
in the figure.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
TOUCH DIMMER

BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

By simply touching this touch dimmer you can increase the light intensity of
incandescent lamps in three steps. The touch dimmer is built around 8-pin CMOS IC
TT8486A/TT6061A specifically manufactured for touch dimmer applications. Initially,
when mains switch is ‘on,’ the bulb is ‘off’. Now, if you touch the touch plate, the bulb
glows dimly. On second touch, the bulb gives medium light. At the third touch, the bulb
is driven fully. Another touch puts off the light. Since the IC is highly sensitive, use a
long wire to connect the IC to the touch sensor. The circuit uses minimum external
components. For touch plate, you can use a simple copper plate of 1cm×1cm or even the
end of the lead wire. Touch plate is coupled to the touch detector through 820pF, 2kV
capacitors C1, C2, and C3 connected in series. Internally IC TT6061A’s touch signal is
connected to the counter/ decoder via a resistor and clock input CK is connected to the
counter/decoder via a frequency generator. Line frequency signal is taken through
R4 at pin 2 of IC TT6061A. At zero crossing, the triac (BT136) triggers to drive a 200W
bulb. The 6.8V power supply is taken directly from mains through resistors R1 and
R3, diode D3, capacitor C4, and zener diode and fed to power-input pin 3 of the IC.
Capacitors C1, C2, and C3 connected between touch input pin 4 and touch plate remove
the shock potential from the touch plate, so do not replace these capacitors with a single
capacitor or with a capacitor of a lower voltage rating. Mains potential exists in the
circuit. Needless to say, it is dangerous to touch the circuit when main’s is ‘on.’.
Pin Assignments of IC TT6061A

Pin No. Pin name Function description


1 CK System clock input
2 FI 50Hz line frequency
3 VDD Power input pin for VDD
4 TI Touch input
5 CI Sensor control input
6 NC Not connected
7 VSS Power input pin for VSS
8 AT Angle-trigger output

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
MINI PROJECT ABSTRACTS

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION

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S5 EC , CUIET

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MEMBERS

K K JEPEESH
ANU JOSE
NISI K
VINY MOL THAMPI