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ВВЕДЕНИЕ…………………………………………………….
ЧАСТЬ I. Основные принципы перевода текстов разных
жанров и функциональных стилей. Переводческий анализ
текста …………………………………………………………………
§1. Перевод официально-деловых текстов………………………..
§2. Перевод инструкций……………………………………………
§3. Перевод научно-технических материалов.……………………
§4. Перевод энциклопедической статьи……………………………..
§5. Перевод научно-популярных текстов…………………………
§6. Перевод газетно-информационных сообщений………………
§7. Перевод авторской публицистики……………………………….
§8. Перевод ораторского выступления………………………………
§9. Перевод рекламы………………………………………………….
§10. Перевод художественных текстов……………………………
ЧАСТЬ II. Практикум ……………………………………….
Текст 1. Letter to the Сity Hall………………………………………
Текст 2. Letter to Pet Products Ltd. …………………………………
Текст 3. Letter to Fred North………………………………………..
Текст 4. The Driver License ……………………………………….
Текст 5. Employee Handbook………………………………………
Текст 6. Introduction to “Translation Theory”………………………
Текст 7. To Theorise or Not to Theorise Translation ………………
Текст 8. Engineering Translations or Building Bridges…………….
Текст 9. Echoes of Plato's Atlantis ………………………………….
Текст 10. Sources of Power …………………………………………

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Текст 11. Ultraviolet and Infrared ………………………………….
Текст 12. Protection of Species and Ecosystems ……………………..
Текст 13. Thinking Critically to Evaluate Research ………………….
Текст 14. Acropolis …………………………………………………..
Текст 15. Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich ………………………….
Текст 16. Anglo-Saxon literature …………………………………....
Текст 17. Ice hockey …………………………………………………
Текст 18. Learn About Snow ………………………………………….
Текст 19. Catch a Microwave …………………………………………
Текст 20. Sports in Space ……………………………………………..
Текст 21. What are microbes? ………………………………………...
Текст 22. How Earth Got Its Moon …………………………………
Текст 23. Nature or Nurture or Both? ……………………………….
Текст 24. Minister Criticizes U.S. Dominance ………………………
Текст 25. Agassi faces tough return to No. 1 …………………………
Текст 26. Man survives 'double-decker' transplant …………………...
Текст 27. Day of anger threatened over cartoons of Prophet ………..
Текст 28. 'Arise, er, Mister Gates' …………………………………..
Текст 29. Learning to live with Putin's Russia ………………………
Текст 30. The Rest-of-the-World Cup ………………………………
Текст 31. A Touch of London ………………………………………
Текст 32. The King of Hollywood ………………………………….
Текст 33. Your Tube is waiting for you …………………………….
Текст 34. OASE – Ideas for BEAUTIFUL PONDS ………………..
Текст 35. Metro Centre ………………………………………………
Текст 36. The Drowning Pool ……………………………………….

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Текст 37. The Christening ……………………………………………
БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ…………………………………………….

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов высших
учебных заведений, обучающихся по специальности «Перевод и
переводоведение».
Цель пособия состоит в обучении студентов-переводчиков
выстраиванию стратегии перевода при работе над текстами
разных жанров и функциональных стилей. Под стратегией
перевода понимается алгоритм необходимых оптимальных шагов
для достижения результата переводческой деятельности –
адекватного перевода.
Стратегия перевода включает в себя три основных этапа:
подготовительный (переводческий анализ текста); основной
(собственно перевод); завершающий (контроль выполненных
действий, редактирование текста перевода).
В пособии предлагаются задания по формированию у
обучающихся навыков переводческого анализа текста, а также по
развитию умения вести аналитический вариативный поиск и
обосновывать свой переводческий выбор. Таким образом, при
составлении пособия был принят подход к переводу как
сочетанию стратегии и техники.
Пособие состоит из двух частей.
Первая часть может быть использована на семинарах по
специальной теории перевода; в этом разделе в тезисной форме
представлен теоретический материал, освещающий языковые
особенности текстов разных жанров и функциональных стилей на

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английском и русском языках, и даются рекомендации по их
переводу на примере параллельных текстов.
Во второй части пособия представлены аутентичные
англоязычные тексты разных стилей (официально-делового,
научно-технического, научно-популярного, газетного,
публицистического, художественного), предназначенные для
самостоятельного перевода студентами на занятиях по
практическому курсу перевода.

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ЧАСТЬ I. Основные принципы перевода текстов разных
жанров и функциональных стилей

Изучением отдельных жанровых подвидов перевода


занимается специальная теория перевода – раздел
переводоведения, интересующийся воздействием на процесс
перевода языковых особенностей определенного
функционального стиля в исходном языке (ИЯ), аналогичного
ему функционального стиля в переводящем языке (ПЯ) и
взаимодействие этих двух рядов языковых явлений [4].
В рамках каждого функционального стиля (научно-
технического, официально-делового, газетно-публицистического,
художественного) можно выделить некоторые языковые
особенности, влияние которых на ход и результат процесса
перевода весьма значительно. Например, в научно-техническом
стиле это ведущая роль терминологии и специальной лексики. В
газетно-публицистическом стиле, наряду с важной ролью
общественно-политических терминов, имен и названий, это
особый характер заголовков, широкое использование газетных
клише, наличие элементов разговорного стиля и т.п.
Помимо таких общих особенностей, в каждом языке
соответствующий функциональный стиль обладает и
специфическими чертами, причем нередко языковые особенности
аналогичных стилей в ИЯ и ПЯ не совпадают. Поэтому при
переводе требуется своеобразная стилистическая адаптация,
когда специфические средства изложения в оригинале

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заменяются языковыми средствами, отвечающими требованиям
данного стиля в ПЯ.
При этом специальная теория перевода описывает
различные формы стилистической адаптации при переводе
текстов, принадлежащих к определенному функциональному
стилю. Подобная адаптация обусловливается не только
языковыми различиями. Стилистическая адаптация при переводе
может оказаться необходимой и в отношении тех стилистических
признаков, которые одновременно обнаруживаются в
аналогичных стилях ИЯ и ПЯ. Одна и та же стилистическая черта
может в различной степени проявляться в каждом из языков, и ее
присутствие в оригинале еще не означает, что она может быть
просто воспроизведена в тексте перевода [4].

Переводческий анализ текста


Перед тем как приступить к переводу любого текста
переводчик должен полностью прочитать его и выполнить
подготовительную работу, которая заключается в переводческом
анализе текста оригинала. Переводческий анализ (называемый
также иногда предпереводческим) включает в себя следующие
этапы [2]:
1. Определение типа (жанра) текста. Сбор максимума
внешних сведений о нем: частью какого глобального текста
является (энциклопедия «Британника», научная монография по
философии, бульварная газета «Санди Миррор» и т.д.); в какое
время был создан (если текст написан в 19 веке и ранее, то при

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переводе необходима архаизация, то есть выбор устаревающих
слов и конструкций).
2. Выяснение источника текста (индивидуально-
авторский, групповой или коллективный), а также получателя
оригинала (на кого рассчитан текст).
3. Формулирование цели создания оригинала (его
коммуникативной задачи), например, сообщить новые сведения и
убедить в своей правоте.
4. Выявление связанных с коммуникативной задачей
видов информации в тексте оригинала. Выделяют четыре типа
информации: 1) когнитивную (познавательную) – сообщение
объективных сведений об окружающей действительности (с этой
целью пишут деловое письмо, договор, научную,
энциклопедическую статью); 2) оперативную (апеллятивную) –
побуждение, призыв к совершению определенных действий (она
доминирует в инструкциях, законах, представлена в рекламе); 3)
эмоциональную (выражение эмоций, субъективного взгляда на
мир – мемуары, художественный текст, авторское эссе, реклама);
4) эстетическую (сама языковая форма текста вызывает
ощущение прекрасного – поэзия, проза, художественная
публицистика, реклама). Как видно, в одном типе текста может
сочетаться несколько видов информации. Определив состав
информации в тексте, мы обнаружим и языковые средства,
которые ее оформляют, и будем знать, какие средства нам
следует подбирать в языке перевода, а какие не годятся. При этом
необходимо учитывать конвенции (традиции), существующие в

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лингвокультурных сообществах для составления текстов того или
иного типа.
5. Определение цели перевода (какой перевод требуется:
обычный эквивалентный или с какой-то дополнительной
обработкой (неполный, адаптационный), кому он предназначен –
детям, специалистам в определенной области знаний и т.п.).
6. Выявление доминант перевода, т.е. того, что важно и
необходимо обязательно передать в переводе.
Что касается непосредственно техники перевода, то
переводчик должен:
1. Собрать все необходимые для качественного перевода
источники информации (словари, справочники и
энциклопедии, Интернет-сайты, параллельные тексты и
т.д.), по возможности проконсультироваться у специалиста.
2. Выявить основные трудности перевода (термины, имена
собственные, реалии и т.п.) и решить какими способами их
преодолеть.
3. В процессе перевода уметь объяснить выбор того или иного
соответствия, а также необходимость и целесообразность
применения переводческих трансформаций.
Анализ результатов перевода предполагает:
1. Сверку готового перевода с оригиналом – не пропущено ли
слово или фрагмент текста.
2. Осуществление редакторской правки – соблюдается ли
единство стиля и связность текста перевода, верны ли в нем
орфография и пунктуация.

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§1. Перевод официально-деловых текстов

Стиль официально-деловых документов – стилистическая


разновидность литературного языка. Виды делового стиля:
коммерческий, юридический, дипломатический, военный [1].
Главная цель официально-делового общения – установление
правовых условий взаимоотношения двух официальных сторон.
Особенности стиля: логичность, точность/ясность,
официальность, отсутствие эмотивности, императивность,
стереотипность.
Логичность – последовательность изложения, четкое
отграничение главного содержания от сопутствующих
обстоятельств, непротиворечивость по отношению к другим
документам.
Стереотипность – установка на стандартизацию языка при
отображении типовых ситуаций делового общения.
Используются готовые синтаксические блоки, устойчивые
словосочетания, готовые формулы. Большинство видов
документов имеют свою собственную традиционную
устоявшуюся композиционную структуру, форму.
Ясность – отсутствие возможности иного толкования,
предметная точность, максимальная конкретность.
Официальность – тон деловитости, строгости. Создается за
счет лексических средств: нейтральных, книжных слов, слов
иностранного происхождения, устойчивых словосочетаний
деловой речи – канцеляризмов. Преобладают именные структуры
(номинативность). Используется специальная терминология,

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связанная с профилем организации, термины на латинском языке,
сокращения, аббревиатуры и условные обозначения.
Грамматические черты: причастные обороты, пассивные
конструкции, безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения.
Неэмотивность – используются средства логической, а не
эмоционально-экспрессивной оценки ситуаций и фактов.
Некоторым видам официально-деловых документов
свойственна императивность – выражение долженствования,
предписания.
При переводе официально-деловых текстов необходимо
знать принятые в соответствующем стиле языка перевода формы
документов и используемые клише. Переводить по аналоговому
тексту. Стилистической адаптации не требуется.
Доминанты перевода – языковые средства канцелярской
разновидности письменного литературного языка. Среди видов
соответствий практически отсутствуют вариантные (словарь –
помощник). Преобладают однозначные эквиваленты.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте параллельные официально-


деловые тексты.
 К каким жанрам официально-делового стиля относятся
тексты?
 Выявите языковые черты жанра: прокомментируйте
структуру текстов, их лексический состав, синтаксис.
 Как выражаются стереотипность, официальность,
неэмотивность (безличность), императивность?

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Dear Sirs, Уважаемые господа!
We owe your address to Globe Ваш адрес нам сообщили в
Industries Agency. We believe that агентстве «Глоуб Индастриз» (Globe
you may get interested in our Industries). Нам представляется, что
products. We are manufacturers of вас может заинтересовать наша
air compressors. продукция – воздушные компрессоры.
With this letter we enclose our Мы прилагаем к письму наш
catalogue in which you can find the каталог, в котором Вы найдете
Specification and the main technical спецификацию и основную
information on our compressors, характеристику наших компрессоров,
though it does not cover the whole хотя он и не охватывает весь
range of our products. ассортимент нашей продукции.
You will also find our price- Мы также прилагаем
list with FOB prices enclosed with прейскурант с ценами ФОБ. Цены
this letter. The prices are given in US указаны в долларах США. По этим
dollars. We can give you a discount ценам мы можем предоставить вам
of 25% off these prices. The prices скидку в 25%. Цены включают
include seaworthy packing. морскую упаковку.
The goods will be delivered Поставки будут осуществляться
within 2-3 months after the date of в течение 2-3 месяцев с даты
the firm order. Payment is to be получения твердого заказа. Платеж
made by an irrevocable Letter of производится по безотзывному
Credit to be opened in our favour. аккредитиву, который должен быть
Yours faithfully, открыт в нашу пользу.
С уважением,

12. Force Majeure 12. Форс-мажор


12.1. The Parties are released 12.1. Стороны освобождаются от
from their responsibility for ответственности за полное либо
partial or complete non-execution частичное невыполнение своих
of their liabilities under the обязательств по настоящему Контракту,
Contract should this non- если такое невыполнение было вызвано
execution be caused by the force форс-мажорными обстоятельствами,
majeure circumstances including, которые включают, но не
but not limited to: fire, flood, ограничиваются такими причинами, как
earthquake, and if these пожар, наводнение, землетрясение, и
circumstances have had a direct если данные обстоятельства оказали
damaging effect on the execution непосредственное влияние на
of the present Contract. возможность выполнения этих
обязательств.

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Задание 2. Сопоставьте тексты официального письма на
английском языке и его русского перевода.
 Каким образом передаются при переводе клише, термины,
книжная лексика, логические связки?
 Как выражены в оригинале и переводе чувства говорящего?

Dear Sir/Madam, Уважаемые господа!


I'm writing to express my Пишу, чтобы выразить свое
extreme dissatisfaction with the крайнее неудовлетворение качеством
service I received when I rented one обслуживания, которое я получил 20
of your cars on 20th July. июля при аренде одного из ваших
Firstly, I had specifically автомобилей.
requested a four-door model. Во-первых, я специально
However, I was given a smaller two- заказывал четырехдверную модель,
door version which, apart from being однако, получил двухдверную,
too small for my needs, was clearly in которая была не только слишком
need of extensive repair. Despite my мала для моих целей, но и нуждалась
objections your employees informed в серьезном ремонте. Несмотря на
me that it was the only car available мои возражения, ваши сотрудники
and assured me that it was in perfect убедили меня, что эта машина была
order. Having no other alternative I единственной в наличии и заверили в
accepted the vehicle. ее полной исправности. Не имея
Contrary to what I had been другого выхода, я арендовал ее.
told, there were, in fact, several Вопреки сказанному вашими
things wrong with the car. Despite сотрудниками, в машине
the fact that I had driven it for only обнаружился ряд неполадок. После
one hour, I was forced to stop when часа езды я был вынужден
the engine showed signs of остановиться, так как перегрелся
overheating. Having added two litres двигатель. Залив в радиатор два литра
of water to the radiator, I was able to воды, я смог продолжить свой путь,
continue, although during the course но на протяжении всего путешествия
of my journey a knocking sound from из двигателя доносился сильный
the engine became increasingly стук. Кроме этого, вышли из строя
persistent and the windscreen wipers стеклоочистители.
stopped working. Продолжать поездку было
My subsequent journey was довольно проблематично – мне не
most uncomfortable. Not only did I только приходилось волноваться по
have the worry of driving a car which поводу того, что автомобиль был
was not roadworthy, but I also had to неисправен, но и три раза
stop on three occasions to refill the останавливаться, чтобы заполнить

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radiator. Finally, I had no choice but радиатор. В конце концов, мне ничего
to leave the car at your Oxford не оставалось делать, как оставить
branch and continue my journey машину в вашем Оксфордском офисе
using public transport. и продолжить путь на общественном
I feel that your employees транспорте.
acted irresponsibly in issuing a car Я считаю, что ваши сотрудники
which was not safe to drive, and I действовали безответственно, выдав
believe I am entitled to compensation мне небезопасный для вождения
for the interruption to my holiday. I автомобиль, и я имею право на
therefore request that you send me компенсацию за сорванный отпуск. Я
the sum of £200 to cover the cost of требую выплаты 200 фунтов
my train ticket and to compensate me стерлингов для покрытия стоимости
for the distress I was forced to suffer железнодорожного билета и того
as a result of your negligence. морального ущерба, который был мне
I insist that you give this нанесен вследствие вашей
matter your urgent attention; халатности.
otherwise I will be forced to take Убедительно прошу отнестись
legal action. к этому делу с должным вниманием,
Yours faithfully, в противном случае я буду вынужден
Mr S. Mallison обратиться в суд.
С уважением, С. Маллисон

Задание 3. Переведите самостоятельно официальное письмо


(ответ на предыдущую жалобу).
 Выполните переводческий анализ текста, обосновывая
выбор соответствий и необходимость трансформаций.
Dear Mr. Mallison,
In response to your letter regarding the unsatisfactory service
that you received when renting a car on the 20th July, I would like to
begin by giving my sincere apologies for the inconvenience that you
experienced.
Firstly, the problem of being given the wrong car, needless to
say a smaller one, occurred because the original car that had been
booked for you had not been returned by the time you arrived.
Unfortunately, the person who had rented the car prior to you, had not

14
adhered to the rental period originally agreed and as a result was two
days late in returning it. We were unable to contact him and therefore
had to provide you with another vehicle. All of our four-door models
were at that time rented out, and rather than not providing you with
any car at all, we were forced to provide a smaller two-door model
instead.
As regards the problems encountered with the engine and the
windscreen wipers, these were unfortunate mishaps that could not
have been foreseen before rental. Each time a car is returned to us, it
automatically undergoes a rigorous inspection before being given an
inspection pass sheet. Our records show that this particular car had
passed each inspection stage successfully, which leads myself and the
mechanics concerned to believe that the problems occurred after the
car had been rented to you.
This is truly a regrettable occurrence. Please allow me to offer
you £100 by way of compensation and to contribute towards the cost
of your train ticket. In addition to this I would also like to offer you
our newest model, a luxurious four-door Rover, for a six-day rental
period at a time most convenient for you. I hope this offer will make
up for the distressing journey you encountered, and will restore your
confidence in our company as a customer-friendly organisation.
May I apologise again for this inconvenience. Meanwhile, I look
forward to hearing from you to arrange a suitable date for renting our
courtesy car.
Yours sincerely,
Mr J. Robins (Manager)

15
§2. Перевод инструкций

Коммуникативное задание инструкции – сообщение


значимых сведений и предписание необходимых действий [1].
Реципиент – любой взрослый человек, для понимания
инструкции не требуется специальной компетенции. В
инструкции не встречается сугубо специальных терминов,
известных только профессионалам.
Источник – фирма-изготовитель товара, министерство или
организация. Существуют строгие законы жанра.
В информационном составе ведущее место занимают
когнитивная информация (техническое описание прибора,
сведения о составе продукта, действии лекарства и т.д.) и
оперативная (предписывающая) информация, которая
выражается императивными структурами. Степень
императивности зависит от традиций жанра в каждой культуре
(русские инструкции выражают императивность более
интенсивно, чем английские).
Эмоционально окрашенная лексика в инструкциях не
встречается (за исключением рекламных разделов). Инструкции
воздействуют не на эмоции, а на рассудок. Это важное условие
ставит переводчика в узкие рамки при выборе средств.
Используются средства юридического специального текста
(термины, устойчивые обороты, особый синтаксис).
В некоторых разделах инструкции наблюдается увеличенная
плотность информации (сокращения, символы, условные
обозначения).
16
Как и в других текстах, где доминирует когнитивная
информация, в инструкции общим лексическим фоном выступает
письменная литературная норма. Ей свойственны канцелярский
стиль и повышенная номинативность.
Доминанты перевода – средства, обеспечивающие
объективность изложения когнитивной информации и передачу
предписывающего характера текста.
Особенность западных инструкций в том, что они всегда
более подробны, чем российские, в них больше внимания
уделяется мерам безопасности и формулам вежливости.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте оригинал и перевод инструкции.


 К какому типу инструкции относятся следующие тексты?
 Какие виды информации содержатся в тексте, какой из
видов доминирует?
 Выявите языковые средства оформления выделенных видов
информации. Прокомментируйте структуру текстов, их
лексический состав, синтаксис.
 Укажите на сходные и различные черты текстов на
английском и русском языках.

OWNER’S MANUAL
РУКОВОДСТВО ПО ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИИ
V-C7153HTV LG
Bagless vacuum cleaner
Пылесос со встроенным контейнером для пыли

17
Information for Your Safety Меры предосторожности
Please read all the following Целиком прочтите нижеследующую
information, which contains информацию. Она содержит важные
important instructions for the safety, инструкции по безопасности,
the use and the maintenance of the эксплуатации и обслуживанию
appliance. пылесоса.
This appliance complies with the Пылесос соответствует следующим
following EC Directives: - стандартам ЕС: -73/23/ЕЕС,
73/23/EEC, 93/68/EEC-Low Voltage 93/68/EEC-Low Voltage Directive-
Directive – 89/336EEC –EMC 89/336EEC -ЕМС Directive.
Directive.  Не разрешайте детям пользоваться
 Never allow children to use the пылесосом без присмотра взрослых.
appliance unsupervised.  Не пользуйтесь пылесосом с
 Do not use the appliance if the поврежденным сетевым шнуром.
power cord is damaged or faulty.  Если сетевой шнур поврежден, во
 If the power cord is damaged, it избежание опасных последствий его
must be replaced by an approved замену должен производить только
LG Electronics Service Agent to специалист - работник службы
avoid a hazard. сервиса LG Electronics.
 Always switch the vacuum  Всегда выключайте пылесос от
cleaner off before: сети, прежде чем:
- Освобождать контейнер для пыли.
- Emptying the dust chamber. - Заменять или чистить фильтры.
- Cleaning or changing the filters.  Запрещается убирать пылесосом
 Do not vacuum flammable or горючие и взрывчатые вещества
explosive substances (liquids or (жидкости или газы).
gases).  Запрещается убирать пылесосом
 Do not vacuum hot ash, embers горячий пепел, угольки и т.п., а
etc. nor sharp objects. также острые предметы.
 Do not vacuum water or other  Запрещается убирать пылесосом
liquids. воду и другие жидкости.
 Do not unplug by pulling the  Не вынимайте вилку из розетки,
cord. потянув за шнур.
 Use only LG recommended  Пользуйтесь только фильтрами,
filters. рекомендованными компанией LG.
 When you vacuum with an  При использовании насадки с
attachment appliance that has a вращающейся щеткой:
rotating brush roller: - Не допускайте попадания рук и
- Do not reach into the running предметов, которые вы держите в
brush roller. руках, в работающую щетку.

Thermal protector: This vacuum Термозащита: Ваш пылесос имеет


cleaner has a special thermostat that встроенный термостат, защищающий
protects the cleaner in case of motor его от случайного перегрева мотора.

18
overheating. If the cleaner suddenly Если пылесос внезапно отключился,
shuts off, turn off the switch and выключите его и выньте вилку из
unplug the cleaner. Check the розетки. Найдите, что могло
cleaner for a possible source of послужить причиной перегрева,
overheating such as a full dust например, переполненный отсек для
chamber, a blocked hose or clogged пыли, забитая труба или
filter. If these conditions are found, засорившийся фильтр. Найдя и
fix them and wait at least 30 minutes устранив причину, подождите не
before attempting to use the cleaner. менее 30 минут прежде чем снова
After the 30 minutes period, plug the включать пылесос. Через 30 минут
cleaner back in and turn on the включите вилку в розетку и включите
switch. If the cleaner still does not пылесос. Если пылесос не заработает,
run, contact a qualified electrician. обратитесь к мастеру по ремонту.

Задание 2. Проанализируйте учебный студенческий перевод


инструкции к мобильному телефону.

 Выявите и опишите ошибки, допущенные переводчиком.


 Предложите и обоснуйте свои варианты перевода.

SAFETY INFORMATION FOR ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ПО


WIRELESS HANDHELD PHONES БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ ПРИ
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИИ
СОТОВОГО ТЕЛЕФОНА
DRIVING SAFETY
Talking on the phone while БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ ПРИ ВОЖДЕНИИ
driving is extremely dangerous and is Разговаривать по телефону за
illegal in some states. Remember, рулем очень опасно и в некоторых
safety comes first. Check the laws and штатах незаконно. Помните, в
regulations on the use of phones in the первую очередь безопасность!
areas where you drive. Always obey Прочитайте законы и инструкции
them. по использованию телефонов в
Also, if using your phone while районах где вы водите машину.
driving please: Всегда следуйте им.
• Give full attention to driving. Если вы говорите по телефону за
Driving safely is your first рулем:
responsibility. - все внимание уделяйте
• Use hands-free operation, if вождению. В первую очередь вы
available. ответственны за безопасное
• Pull off the road and park движение на дороге.
before making or answering a call, if - если есть возможность
driving conditions require. используйте hand-free.
If you must use the phone while - если надо срочно ответить на
19
driving, please use one-touch speed звонок, то лучше припарковаться.
dialing, and auto answer modes. Если вы должны ответить за рулем,
An airbag inflates with great пожалуйста, используйте модули
force. DO NOT place objects, one-touch, быстрый набор и
including either installed or portable автодозвон своего телефона.
wireless equipment, in the area over Не следует устанавливать никакие
the airbag or in the air bag deployment предметы в встроенное или
area. If in-vehicle wireless equipment переносное беспроводное
is improperly installed and the air bag оборудование над подушкой
inflates, serious injury could result. безопасности а также в радиусе
раскрытия. Подушки
WARNING: Failure to follow раскрываются с большой силой.
these instructions may lead to serious Если в машине плохо установлено
personal injury and possible property беспроводное оборудование и
damage. срабатывает подушка безопасности
это может привести к серьезным
ELECTRONIC DEVICES травмам.
Most modern electronic Внимание! Следуйте данной
equipment is shielded from RF energy. инструкции во избежание
However, certain electronic equipment серьезных травм и повреждения
may not be shielded against the RF имущества.
signals from your wireless phone. ЭЛЕКТРОННОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
В большинстве случаев
Pacemakers электронное оборудование имеет
The Health Industry защиту от воздействия радиоволн.
Manufacturers Association Но некоторые приборы не
recommends that a minimum защищены от них, излучаемых
separation of six (6") inches be беспроводным телефоном.
maintained between a handheld Кардиостимулятор
wireless phone and a pacemaker to Компания HIMA во избежание
avoid potential interference with the прямого взаимодействия
pacemaker. These recommendations кардиостимулятора и телефона
are consistent with the independent рекомендует установить их на
research by and recommendations of расстоянии минимум 15 см. Эти
Wireless Technology Research. рекомендации подтверждаются
If you have a pacemaker: независимыми исследованиями
• ALWAYS keep the phone WTR.
more than six inches from your pace- Если у Вас есть кардиостимулятор
maker when the phone is turned on. - включенный телефон всегда
• Do not carry the phone in a держите на расстоянии больше чем
breast pocket. 15 см.
• Use the ear opposite the - не держите телефон в грудном
pacemaker to minimize the potential кармане
for interference. - используйте ухо, чтобы свести к
• If you have any reason to минимальному вмешательству

20
suspect that interference is taking - если у Вас появятся подозрения,
place, turn your phone OFF что вмешательство идет, то
immediately. немедленно выключите телефон
Hearing Aids Слуховые аппараты
Some digital wireless phones Некоторые цифровые
may interfere with some hearing aids. радиотелефоны могут мешать
In the event of such interference, you некоторым слуховым аппаратам. В
may want to consult your service этом случае необходимо
provider (or call the customer service проконсультироваться у Вашего
line to discuss alternatives). поставщика или позвонить в
сервис-центр обсудить другое
Other Medical Devices предложение.
If you use any other personal Другие медицинские аппараты
medical device, consult the Если Вы пользуетесь другими
manufacturer of your device to персональными медицинскими
determine if they are adequately аппаратами, уточните у
shielded from external RF energy производителя наличие у прибора
Your physician may be able to assist достаточной защиты от внешнего
you in obtaining this information. воздействия радиоволн. Возможно
Turn your phone OFF in ваш врач сможет дать Вам данную
healthcare facilities when any информацию. Выключайте
regulations posted in these areas телефоны в целях безопасности,
instruct you to do so. Hospitals or если этого требует инструкция. В
healthcare facilities may be using больницах и пунктах скорой
equipment that could be sensitive to помощи можно пользоваться
external RF energy. аппаратурой восприимчивой к
Vehicles внешним радиоволнам.
RF signals may affect Автомобили
improperly installed or inadequately Радиоволны могут негативно
shielded electronic systems in motor влиять на электронные системы
vehicles. Check with the manufacturer автомобиля. Наличие таких
or its representative regarding your деталей необходимо проверить в
vehicle. You should also consult the сервис-центре производителя или
manufacturer of any equipment that представительстве, ответственном
has been added to your vehicle. за это. Уточните об уровне
защищенности деталей и
PRECAUTIONS элементов, устанавливаемых в
Your Handheld Portable ваше авто.
Telephone is a high quality piece of ПРЕДОСТЕРЕЖЕНИЯ
equipment. Before operating the Ваш телефон является
equipment, read all instructions and высококачественным прибором.
cautionary markings on (1) AC Прежде чем им пользоваться
Adapter (2) Battery and (3) Product внимательно прочтите инструкцию
Using Battery. и обратите внимание на отметки на
1. DO NOT use this equipment 1)адаптер, 2)батареи, 3) …

21
in an extreme environment where high Внимание:
temperature or high humidity exists. - не используйте аппарат при
2. DO NOT abuse the высокой температуре воздуха или
equipment. Avoid striking, shaking or повышенной влажности
shocking. When not using the unit, lay - не кидайте и не трясите. Если Вы
down the unit to avoid possible не используете аппарат по
damage due to instability. назначению, положите его на
3. DO NOT expose this горизонтальную поверхность во
equipment to rain or spilled beverages. избежание повреждений
4. DO NOT use unauthorized - не мочите
accessories. - не разбирать на части. Если
5. DO NOT disassemble the необходим ремонт, отнесите
phone or its accessories. If service or аппарат в официальный центр
repair is required, return unit to an поддержки Audiovox.
authorized Audiovox cellular service Самостоятельная разборка может
center. If unit is disassembled, the risk привести к электрошоку или
of electric shock or fire may result. пожару
- не оставляйте вблизи
6. DO NOT short-circuit the battery металлических предметов.
terminals with metal items etc.

§3. Перевод научно-технических материалов

Главная коммуникативная функция научно-технических


текстов – информативная. Адресант и адресат – специалисты в
определенной области науки или техники. Универсальные
требования к научно-техническому тексту: содержательность,
логичность (строгая последовательность, четкая связь между
основной идеей и деталями), точность и объективность.
К научно-технической литературе относятся монографии,
статьи по различным проблемам науки и техники, учебная
литература, техническая и товаросопроводительная
документация.

22
Лексические черты. Использование научно-технических
терминов (в том числе многокомпонентных) и специальной
лексики. Русская терминология в целом является более
эксплицитной (термины в среднем длиннее, не допускают
эллиптичности), более точной, лишенной образности.
Грамматические черты. Обилие определений понятий и
описаний объектов: атрибутивные группы, номинативность
(более выражена в русском научно-техническом стиле, чем в
английском). Пассивные конструкции, преобладание
сложноподчиненных предложений в обоих языках. Однако при
этом в английском чаще, чем в русском, используются простые
предложения – отсюда необходимость использования приема
объединения предложений при переводе.
Логическая связь в английском научно-техническом
тексте часто выражена имплицитно, что требует при переводе на
русский язык добавления слов-связок и других средств когезии.
Объективность в большей мере свойственна русскому
научно-техническому стилю (преобладают пассивные
конструкции, безличные и неопределенно-личные структуры,
позволяющие «вывести» автора из дискурса, предпочтение
отдается так называемому авторскому «мы»), в английском
гораздо более отчетливо выражена «личностность» текста.
Стилистические черты. Русский научно-технический
стиль является более терминологизированным (большая
строгость в употреблении терминов и привычных
формулировок). Английский научно-технический стиль более

23
непринужден, эмоционален и разговорен, чем русский. При
переводе на русский язык эти элементы нейтрализуются,
переводчик осуществляет «стилистическую правку».

Задание 1. Сравните оригинал и перевод.


 Прочтите отрывки из книги американского лингвиста
Джорджа Лакоффа «Женщины, огонь и другие опасные
вещи». Сделайте их переводческий анализ.
 Сопоставьте оригиналы с переводами на русский язык и
выявите стилистические расхождения в оформлении
научного текста на английском и русском языках.
 Обратите особое внимание на выражение
номинативности, связности и терминологичности.

From the time of Aristotle to Со времен Аристотеля до поздних работ


the later work of Wittgenstein, Витгенштейна категории мыслились как
categories were thought to be вполне ясные конструкты, не скрывающие в
well understood and себе никаких особенных проблем, они
unproblematic. They were представлялись абстрактными
assumed to be abstract вместилищами: одни вещи входят во
containers, with things either вместилище-категорию, а другие находятся
inside or outside the category. вне ее.

This classical theory was not Эта классическая теория категорий


the result of empirical study. возникла не как результат эмпирического
исследования.

Categorization has moved Благодаря проведению широких


from the background to centre эмпирических исследований в самых
stage because of empirical разнообразных предметных областях
studies in a wide range of категоризация из области предпосылок
disciplines. переместилась на передний план.

24
In retrospect, such results С нынешней точки зрения эти результаты не
should not have been all that должны представляться столь
surprising. Yet the specific удивительными. Однако ряд полученных
details sent shock waves деталей произвел шоковое воздействие на
throughout the cognitive когнитивные науки, последствия которого
sciences, and many of the ощущаются до сих пор.
reverberations are still to be felt.
© перевод на русский язык — Издательская группа
“Прогресс”, 1995, 1996

Задание 2. Проанализируйте и переведите отрывок из лекции


профессора Баркера о том, способно ли традиционное
(классическое) языкознание помочь в изучении процесса
перевода.
 К какому виду научного текста относится данный
отрывок? Почему?
 Какие виды информации представлены в данном тексте и
как они выражены в языковом отношении?
 Какую переводческую стратегию следует выбрать при
переводе данного текста на русский язык в связи с
различиями в научном стиле?

Does Mainstream Linguistic Theory Come to the Rescue?

By Pr. John Barker

Mainstream linguistic theory emphasizes grammatical relations


in a sentence. It is essentially a sophisticated form of sentence
diagramming. Depending on when and where you went to high
school, you may have encountered sentence diagramming or you may

25
have missed it entirely. A sentence diagram shows all the words of a
sentence and how they fit together.
Mainstream linguistic theory has added a new dimension to
sentence diagramming: Universal Grammar. According to Universal
Grammar, there is only one method of diagramming sentences, this
method applies to all the languages of the world, and it is universal
because it is genetically encoded into the brain of every human child.
This is a bold thesis and the large number of linguists around the
world are working within this approach. Unfortunately, whether
Universal Grammar is indeed universal or not, it says very little about
the meaning of an individual word. It classifies words only according
to the grammatical categories of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and
prepositions.
Not surprisingly, given the way it ignores word meanings,
mainstream linguistics does not stack up very well when presented
with the three types of translation difficulty we have discussed. It
makes no mention of the distinction between general vocabulary and
specialized terminology. This is because mainstream linguistics does
not really deal with language in its entirety. It deals only with
relatively uninteresting sentences that can be analyzed in isolation.
Essentially, it deals with one very narrow slice of the pie of language
that only appears to include general vocabulary and then calls that
piece the whole pie.
If it is true that mainstream linguistics does not really deal with
the general vocabulary in all its richness, then it should be no shock to
learn that it ignores the basic fact we have been exploring, namely,

26
that a word can have several meanings, even within the same
grammatical category. And if mainstream linguistics ignores the
meanings of words, it has no need to take into account the context of a
sentence. In fact, it has been a firm principle of mainstream linguistics
for many years that the proper object of study is a single sentence in
isolation, stripped of its context, its purpose, and its audience.

§4. Перевод энциклопедической статьи

Коммуникативное задание энциклопедической статьи –


представить основные (начальные), достоверные сведения о
предмете, явлении или личности и дать их общепринятые оценки.
Рассчитан текст на широкие массы читателей, скорее
взрослых, т.к. предполагается использование логического
мышления (существуют специальные детские энциклопедии).
Автор – специалист в данной области знаний, но текст
составляется по образцу и индивидуально-авторского колорита
не имеет.
Ведущий тип информации в энциклопедической статье –
познавательная, подаваемая объективно. Средства: пассивные
конструкции, безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения,
преобладание настоящего времени глагола – в целом синтаксис
не осложненный. Свойственна номинативность, но уровень
абстрактности энциклопедической статьи ниже, чем научного
текста. Обилие терминов из данной области знания (известных
большинству образованных носителей языка), высокая плотность

27
информации (самый компрессивный жанр – сокращения всех
видов, эллиптичность), фон современной литературной нормы,
отсутствие яркой эмоционально-оценочной окраски в лексике и
синтаксисе.
Доминанты перевода – средства сжатой, компрессивной
подачи когнитивной информации, а также передача в рамках
литературной нормы общепринятой оценки [1].

Задание 1. Проанализируйте энциклопедическую статью.


 Выявите языковые черты жанра: прокомментируйте
структуру текста, его лексический состав, синтаксис.
 Обратите внимание на средства выражения
компрессивности и оценочности.

From Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2004


Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich
(yoo´rē elyĬksyā´yevĬch gägä´rĬn), 1934-68, Russian astronaut
(cosmonaut), b. near Gzhatsk, RSFSR. He was the first in history to be
rocketed into orbital space flight. His flight on Apr. 12, 1961, lasted 1
hr. 48 min. and circled the earth once. The vehicle in which he
traveled, named the Vostok [East], weighed over five tons; it reached a
maximum altitude of 188 mi (303 km). All control over the spacecraft
was handled from the ground, the pilot's reactions being carefully
recorded. The success of this flight may be said to have opened the
modern era of man in space. Gagarin was killed when a plane he was
testing crashed.

28
Задание 2. Переведите энциклопедическую статью о В.Вульф,
пользуясь собственной подборкой параллельных текстов на
русском языке.
 Выпишите слова и словосочетания, которым вы можете
подобрать соответствия в параллельных текстах.
 Обратите внимание на существующие варианты передачи
имен собственных (особенно названий художественных
произведений) и литературоведческих терминов.
 Обратитесь к дополнительной справочной литературе
(универсальной и литературной энциклопедиям) для
расширения фоновых знаний по теме и обоснования своих
вариантов перевода.

From Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2004


Woolf, Virginia (Stephen)
1882-1941, English novelist and essayist; daughter of Sir Leslie
Stephen. A successful innovator in the form of the novel, she is
considered a significant force in 20th-century fiction. She was
educated at home from the resources of her father's huge library. In
1912 she married Leonard Woolf, a critic and writer on economics,
with whom she set up the Hogarth Press in 1917. Their home became
a gathering place for a circle of artists, critics, and writers known as
the Bloomsbury group. As a novelist Woolf's primary concern was to
represent the flow of ordinary experience. Her emphasis was not on
plot or characterization but on a character's consciousness, his

29
thoughts and feelings, which she brilliantly illuminated by the stream
of consciousness technique. She did not limit herself to one
consciousness, however, but slipped from mind to mind, particularly
in The Waves, probably her most experimental novel. Her prose style
is poetic, heavily symbolic, and filled with superb visual images.
Woolf's early works, The Voyage Out (1915) and Night and Day
(1919), were traditional in method, but she became increasingly
innovative in Jacob's Room (1922), Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the
Lighthouse (1927), and The Waves (1931). Other experimental novels
are Orlando (1928), The Years (1937), and Between the Acts (1941).
She was a master of the critical essay, and some of her finest pieces
are included in The Common Reader (1925), The Second Common
Reader (1933), The Death of the Moth and Other Essays (1942), and
The Moment and Other Essays (1948). A Room of One's Own (1929)
and Three Guineas (1938) are feminist tracts. Her biography of Roger
Fry (1940) is a careful study of a friend. Some of her short stories
from Monday or Tuesday (1921) appear with others in A Haunted
House (1944). Virginia Woolf suffered mental breakdowns in 1895
and 1915; she drowned herself in 1941 because she feared another
breakdown from which she might not recover. Most of her
posthumously published works were edited by her husband.

§5. Перевод научно-популярных текстов

Задача научно-популярного текста – донести до читателя


познавательную информацию и одновременно увлечь его этой

30
информацией. Среди средств возбуждения интереса
используются эмоциональные и эстетические средства [1].
Источник текста – специалист в данной области, однако он
не проявляет всю меру своей компетентности, поскольку
читателем его текста является некомпетентный или
малокомпетентный реципиент.
Диапазон средств, с помощью которых передается
познавательная информация, напоминает диапазон средств
научного текста. Но очевидны как количественные, так и
качественные отличия. Количество специальных терминов и
лексики общенаучного описания в научно-популярном тексте
значительно меньше. Плотность информации ниже. Средства,
обеспечивающие объективность изложения, используются в
значительно меньшем объеме, хотя все они и представлены –
пассивные конструкции, неопределенно-личные и безличные
предложения, преобладание абсолютного настоящего времени.
Границы общего фона нейтральной письменной
литературной нормы размыты, многочисленны отклонения,
особенно в сторону разговорного стиля.
Средства, передающие эмоциональную информацию:
средства интимизации (эффекта сближения автора с читателем);
эмоционально-оценочная лексика, инверсия, фразеология;
включение в текст цитат из контрастирующих по стилю
источников; создание эффекта неожиданности, иронической
окраски или комизма (средства эмоциональной разрядки при
восприятии сложного материала).

31
Разнообразны средства эстетической информации,
заимствованные из арсенала художественной литературы: ввод
условных выдуманных персонажей, использование эпитетов,
сравнений и метафор.
Доминанты перевода – средства подачи адаптированной
автором когнитивной информации и поддержания интереса к ней.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте и переведите научно-


популярный текст.
 Выделите в тексте языковые черты, свойственные
научному стилю. Укажите на специфику их употребления
здесь.
 Какие средства использует автор для привлечения
читательского интереса к когнитивной информации?

Arriving from Outer Space


Suppose that we were space travellers, visiting the earth from
some distant planet. It would be difficult to detect much trace of the
atmosphere until we were in the region of the lower part of the orbit of
the first Sputnik, say between 200 and 300 miles up. At that distance
from the earth the pressure of the atmosphere, which measures the
weight of the air above us, is less than one millionth of that on the
ground. This means we would be moving in what is called a "vacuum"
on earth, for at this level, pressure is lower than that which can be
reached by the finest laboratory pumps.
Having passed through the stratosphere, we would enter the

32
troposphere, or region of weather. Meteorologists are interested in the
whole atmosphere, but especially in the troposphere, because it is only
in this relatively thin layer that we find weather, that is clouds, fogs,
rain, hail and snow. In general the higher one goes in the atmosphere,
the colder the air becomes. This seems odd at first, because by climb-
ing up we are getting nearer the sun, from which we get all our heat.
The explanation is that the rays of the sun are not very effective in
heating air directly. Most of the energy in a sun beam passes through
clear air with very little absorption. What happens is that the sun's rays
heat the surface of the earth, both the ground and the sea, and it is
from the warm surface of the earth that the atmosphere receives most
of the energy which appears as wind and causes weather generally.

Задание 2. Проанализируйте и переведите научно-


популярный текст – логическую загадку Льюиса Кэрролла.

Which is better, a clock that is right only once a year, or a clock


that is right twice every day? “The latter,” you reply, unquestionably.
Very good, now attend. I have two clocks: one doesn’t go at all, and
the other loses a minute a day: which would you prefer? “The losing
one”, you answer, “without a doubt.” Now observe: the one which
loses a minute a day has to lose twelve hours, or seven hundred and
twenty minutes before it is right again, consequently it is right once in
two years, whereas the other is evidently right as often as the time it
points to comes round, which happens twice a day. So you’ve
contradicted yourself.

33
§6. Перевод газетно-информационных сообщений

Содержание газетных текстов доступно для понимания


широким слоям неспециалистов, так как прямо или косвенно
связано с их жизнью и интересами.
Коммуникативная задача – сообщение сведений о мире с
определенных позиций – когнитивная и воздействующая
функции. Поскольку главная задача заключается в сообщении
фактов, то необходимо точное обозначение понятий и явлений.
Отсюда важная роль терминов, имен, дат и названий, однозначно
указывающих на предмет мысли. Газетно-информационные
сообщения часто не имеют подписи автора, а если и имеют, то
автор выступает не как индивидуальность, а как репортер,
объективно представляющий события и мнения других людей.
Поэтому в тексте может быть представлена эмоционально-
оценочная информация (в цитатах).
Лексика: общественно-политическая терминология
(отличается меньшей строгостью по сравнению с научно-
технической); обилие имен собственных, сокращений
(необходима экспликация); газетных клише (используются
соответствия).
Английскому газетному тексту свойственно максимальное
дробление на абзацы (в отличие от русского), поэтому может
понадобиться стяжение предложений в один абзац. Другое
отличие – стремление вместить в рамки одного предложения как
можно больше информации путем усложнения его структуры,
поэтому при переводе на русский язык требуется членение
34
предложения, логическая перегруппировка, тема-рематическая
перестановка, смена логического порядка подачи информации.
Характерно использование синтаксических и морфологических
форм, обеспечивающих сжатость высказывания (инфинитивных
оборотов, атрибутивных групп).
Стилистические черты. Характерная особенность
английского газетно-информационного стиля – стилистическая
разноплановость лексики, частое использование фигур речи и
тропов (нужна нейтрализация при переводе на русский язык).
Специфика английских заголовков: используется
"заголовочный жаргон" (ряд широкозначных глаголов и
существительных), обладают грамматическими особенностями в
употреблении временных форм, часто носят более разговорный
характер, чем сама статья. При переводе происходит
нейтрализация, номинализация, часто – полная замена.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте и переведите газетный


репортаж, пользуясь параллельными текстами.
 Выпишите из английского текста слова и выражения,
представляющие собой газетные клише. Какие выражения
из русских параллельных текстов могут быть использованы
в качестве соответствий им?
 Как следует передавать имена собственные, в том числе
названия стран, организаций и должностей?
 Какие изменения вы внесете в перевод в связи с
особенностями подачи и состава информации в оригинале?

35
Pretoria Cements Ties with Beijing
The Associated Press
Friday, November 3, 2000
With a handshake and then a hug, South Africa and China signed
an agreement Tuesday to establish diplomatic relations in a move that
severs South Africa's formal ties with Taiwan.
The accord signed by Chinese Foreign Minister and Vice Prime
Minister Qian Qichen and the South African Foreign Affairs Minister
launches diplomatic relations and represents a major victory for
Beijing in its bid to isolate Taiwan.
By recognizing China, South Africa is cutting its 70-year
relationship with Taiwan, which China considers a renegade territory.
"Taiwan believes itself to be a country," Qian said after the
signing ceremony, calling Taiwan's campaign for independence "a
contest against one's own delusions."
The agreement said: "South Africa recognizes that there is but
one China in the world, the government of the People's Republic of
China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China,
and recognizes China's position that Taiwan is an inalienable part of
China."
Taiwan will maintain a presence in South Africa after Jan. 1
under the name Taipei Liaison Office, with offices in Pretoria,
Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban. Beijing does not object to
cultural and economic exchanges between Taiwan and other countries.
Qian will officially open China's embassy in Pretoria, after more
than a year of discussions and preparations.

36
He and his colleague, both wearing business suits, smiled
broadly and shook hands when exchanging copies of the signed
agreement in front of South African and Chinese flags. At the end of
the ceremony, they hugged.
Both countries believe the new links will mean increased trade
opportunities in lucrative markets.
Two-way trade between South Africa and China is expected to
reach $1.6 billion - an 18 per cent increase over the previous year.
South Africa also does about $1.4 billion in trade with Hong Kong,
which returned to Chinese sovereignty on July 1, 1997.
For South Africa, there also is the symbolic link with a world
power. "The People's Republic of China is one of the most populous
states in the world [and], ... a permanent member of the United
Nations Security Council," SA president said Monday after meeting
Qian. "It is in the interests of South Africa to have relations with such
a country."
In the agreement, South Africa pledged noninterference in
China's internal affairs, a clear reference that Mandela would refrain
from criticizing China's poor human rights record.

Задание 2. Проанализируйте информационное сообщение


и два учебных перевода.
 Сравните два перевода с оригиналом. Отметьте ошибки
переводчиков.
 Отредактируйте переводы.

37
1st space station crew moves in Экипаж первой космической станции Экипаж прибыл на первую космическую
въезжает на рабочее место станцию
By MARCIA DUNN
Associated Press Марсия Дунн
KOROLYOV, Russia – One Королев, Россия. Экипаж, Королев, Россия - В четверг экипаж в
American astronaut and two состоящий из американского астронавта и составе из одного американского
Russian cosmonauts moved into the двух российских космонавтов, въехал на астронавта и двух российских космонавтов
international space station on международную космическую станцию в стартовали на Международную
Thursday, swinging open the doors, четверг, распахивая двери и щелкая космическую станцию для установки
flipping on the lights and making выключателями освещения, тем самым системы связи и жизнеобеспечения на
"the ship come alive" for years and готовя станцию для работы на многие корабле на несколько лет, а может и
possibly decades to come. года, а может и десятилетия. десятки лет.
"It's a great moment for all of "Это великий момент для любого из «Это великий момент для всех нас» -
us," said the space station's нас", - признался командор космической заявил Бил Шеперд, американский
commander, U.S. astronaut Bill станции американский астронавт Билл астронавт, командир первого экипажа
Shepherd. Шепард. Билл вместе с остальными космической станции.
He and his crewmates, Yuri членами экипажа Юрием Гридженко и Он вместе с остальными членами
Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev, Сергеем Крикалевым, после экипажа: Юрием Гидзенко и Сергеем
temporarily christened their ship соответствующего разрешения, временно Крикалевым после полученного разрешения
Alpha – after getting permission. окрестили станцию Альфа. временно окрестил свой корабль «Альфа».
"The first expedition on the "Члены первой экспедиции на «Первая экспедиция на космическую
space station requests permission to космическую станцию просят разрешения станцию требует разрешения принять
take the radio call sign Alpha," использовать позывной Альфа", - позывные «Альфа»» - обратился Шеперд к
Shepherd called down to Daniel отрапортовал Шепард на землю Даниелу Даниэлю Гордину, главе американского
Goldin, head of the U.S. space Голдину, главе космического агентства космического агентства НАСА.
agency NASA. НАСА. Весь экипаж, как и сотни Все члены экипажа сложили правы е
The crew put their right hands сотрудников, контролирующих полет из руки вместе, показывая Голдину и сотням
on top of one another as a show of российского центра управления в других наблюдавшим в центре управления
38
unity to Goldin and the hundreds of пригороде Москвы, был обеими руками за, полетом свое единство. Они настаивали на
others watching from Russian демонстрируя Голдину сплоченность в утверждении названия и «Альфа» было
Mission Control outside Moscow. решении этого вопроса. Имени для первым в списке названий.
They had been pushing for a name станции они добивались в течение многих Голдин, не одобряющий Альфы или
for years, with Alpha at the top of лет, особенно настаивая на имени Альфа. любого другого названия кроме как
the list. Голдин, не желавший признавать имя международная космическая станция, был
Goldin, no fan of Alpha or Альфа или какое-либо другое кроме застигнут врасплох. Но он улыбнулся и
any other name except international обозначения международная космическая позволил экипажу стартовать и в течение
space station, was taken aback. But станция был сбит с толку. Но он, смеясь, четырех месяцев пребывания команды на
he laughed and told the men to go принял заявление и разрешил космонавтам борту МКС называть космическую станцию
ahead and call the space station назвать станцию Альфа на срок их «Альфой».
Alpha for their four-month mission. четырехмесячной миссии. Хотя Минутой ранее, давая интервью
Just minutes earlier in an несколькими минутами ранее в своем журналистам, Голдинг заявил, что в
interview with reporters, Goldin had заявлении прессе Голдин осуждал идею названии космической станции нет
pooh-poohed the need for a name. присваивания станции имени. необходимости.
And the president of space- Также президент Президент ракетно-космической
craft builder Energia, Yuri кораблестроительного отделения корпорации «Энергия» Юрий Семенов
Semyonov, said he disliked the "Энергия" Юрий Семенов был против также сказал, что ему не нравится название
name Alpha because it implies first имени Альфа, так как это подразумевает «Альфа», т.к. это название подразумевает
and Russia's space station Mir was первичность, а российская космическая первую, ранее существовавшую
around long before. станция Мир начала функционировать космическую станцию Мир. Семенов
Semyonov suggested Beta as задолго до этого. Семенов выдвигал имена предложил название Бета или Мир - 2.
a name, or Mir 2. Бета или Мир 2. В четверг три космонавта прибыли на
The three men arrived aboard Три члена экипажа прибыли на борт борт корабля «Союз» в капсуле и легко
a Russian Soyuz capsule Thursday российского космического модуля Союз в произвели стыковку как два космических
and docked smoothly with the четверг и произвели гладкую стыковку со корабля на высоте 400 км. над Казахстаном.
station as the two craft zoomed 240 станцией пройдя путь в 240 км над
miles above Kazakhstan. Казахстаном.
39
Russian Mission Control Российский центр управления Центр управления полетом разразился
erupted in applause when contact полетом взорвался аплодисментами аплодисментами, когда была установлена
was confirmed and again a few первый раз когда стыковка была связь и на гигантских экранах, появился
hours later, when the trio appeared подтверждена и второй раз когда тройка экипаж из трех человек. Они бросились в
on giant video screens. They posed космонавтов появилась на большом ключевой модуль «Стар», по-русски
inside the main living module, экране. Они позировали в жилом модуле «Звезда», одетые в синие скафандры и
called Zvezda, Russian for Star, Звезда, одетые в синие комбинезоны и белые водолазки.
dressed in blue jumpsuits and white белые водолазки. «Давайте смотреть на это как на
jerseys. "Это событие является настоящим открытие международных космических
"Let's look upon this as the началом эры международного границ»,- заявил Голдин. Он назвал это
real opening of the international исследования космоса", заявил Голдин. огромным шагом на пути к исследованию
space frontier," Goldin said. He Голдин назвал это первым камнем, Марса и всей солнечной системы.
called it a stepping stone to Mars заложенным на пути к освоению Марса и
and the rest of the solar system. всей Солнечной системы.

40
§7. Перевод авторской публицистики

В отличие от газетного информационного сообщения, в


публицистике на первый план выступает авторское начало.
Коммуникативное задание – сообщение когнитивной
информации, но под углом зрения определенного автора.
Когнитивная информация представлена в авторской статье
невыдуманными числовыми данными, личными и
географическими именами, названиями фирм и организаций
(передаются при переводе однозначными эквивалентами).
Часто в текст включаются экзотизмы и фрагменты
иностранного текста для создания колорита (при переводе их
либо транскрибируют, либо сохраняют в графике подлинника).
При необходимости переводчик дает пояснение – внутри текста
(вводные слова) или вне его (сноски).
Гораздо шире, чем в газетном репортаже, представлена в
авторской статье эмоциональная и связанная с ней эстетическая
информация. Фон письменной литературной нормы размыт,
внедряются разнообразные отклонения. Эту особенность лексики
необходимо сохранить в переводе, для чего используются
функциональные соответствия в ПЯ.
Используются индивидуальные средства образности
(необходимо сохранить сам факт наличия образного средства и
его индивидуальный характер). Авторские неологизмы,
деформированные фразеологизмы, нарушение сочетаемости
также отражают авторский стиль и должны быть переданы.
Широк диапазон синтаксических средств передачи
эмоциональной информации.
В авторской публицистике чрезвычайно высока
аллюзивность. Известные цитаты необходимо воспроизводить в
уже существующем авторитетном переводе. Неизвестные для
читателя перевода аллюзии нуждаются в комментариях
переводчика.
При переводе такого текста, где в позиции доминант
перевода находится так много разнообразных языковых средств,
часто возникает конфликт формы и содержания. Важно владеть
приемом компенсации.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте отрывок из книги Майкла


Мура «STUPID WHITE MEN» и его перевод на русский язык.
 Выделите в тексте оригинала средства выражения
когнитивной информации. Как они передаются в переводе?
 Какие реалии американской действительности вы
встретили в оригинале? Как обошелся с ними переводчик?
 Чем представлена эмотивная информация в тексте?
 Какие особенности характеризуют индивидуальный стиль
М. Мура? Какие соответствия подбирает переводчик для
их передачи?
 Найдите примеры использования переводчиком приемов
компенсации, функциональной замены, перестановки,
описательного перевода.

42
A Very American Coup Переворот по-американски

THE FOLLOWING СЛЕДУЮЩЕЕ СООБЩЕНИЕ,


MESSAGE WAS INTERCEPTED ОТПРАВЛЕННОЕ ОТКУДА-ТО С
BY U.N. FORCES ON 9/1/01, AT СЕВЕРО-АМЕРИКАНСКОГО
0600 HOURS, FROM КОНТИНЕНТА, БЫЛО
SOMEWHERE WITHIN THE ПЕРЕХВАЧЕНО СИЛАМИ ООН В
NORTH AMERICAN 06.00 01.09.2001:
CONTINENT:

I am a citizen of the United Я – гражданин Соединенных


States of America. Our government Штатов Америки. Наше
has been overthrown. Our elected правительство свергнуто. Избранный
President has been exiled. Old white нами президент изгнан. Нашу
men wielding martinis and wearing столицу захватили белые старики в
dickies have occupied our nation's манишках с мартини в руках.
capital. Мы в осаде. Мы –
We are under siege. We are the правительство США в изгнании.
United States Government-in-Exile. Нас много – 154 миллиона
Our numbers are not взрослых и 80 миллионов детей.
insignificant. There are over 154 Итого 234 миллиона человек, которые
million adults among us, and 80 не голосовали за тот режим, что
million children. That's 234 million захватил власть в государстве.
people who did not vote for, and are Избранным президентом США
not represented by, the regime that является Альберт Гор. Он получил на
has placed itself in power. 539 898 голосов больше, чем Джордж
Al Gore is the elected Буш. Но он не сидит сегодня в
President of the United States. He Овальном кабинете. Вместо этого он
received 539,898 more votes than вынужден бесцельно бороздить
George W. Bush. But he does not sit просторы страны, лишь изредка
tonight in the Oval Office. Instead поднимаясь на поверхность, чтобы
our elected President roams the прочитать студентам пару лекций и
country without purpose or mission, пополнить запасы продовольствия.
surfacing only to lecture college Победил Альберт Гор. Альберт
students and replenish his stash of Гор, президент в изгнании. Да
Little Debbie's Snack Cakes. здравствует El Presidente Альберто-о-
Al Gore won. Al Gore, о-о-о Го-о-о-р-р-р!
President-in-Exile. Long live El Pres- Кто же тогда тот человек, что
idente Albertooooooo Gorrrrrrrrrrre! занимает кабинет в Белом Доме? Я
So who, then, is the man that скажу вам кто.
now occupies 1600 Pennsylvania Это Джордж Буш, «президент»
Avenue? I'll tell you who: США, Верховный Главноворующий
He is George W. Bush, страны.
"President" of the United States. The Раньше политики становились
Thief-in-Chief. ворами после того, как приходили к
43
It used to be that politicians власти. Этот же подготовился
would wait until they were in office заранее. Он нарушил
before they became crooks. This one неприкосновенность федеральных
came prepackaged. Now he is a земель, незаконно вторгнувшись в
trespasser on federal land, a squatter Овальный кабинет. Если бы я сказал,
in the Oval Office. If I told you this что это происходит в Гватемале, вы
was Guatemala, you'd believe it in a бы поверили мне, не задумываясь. Но
heartbeat, no matter what your поскольку этот переворот окрашен
political stripe. But because this coup цветами нашего национального
was wrapped in an American flag, флага, его зачинщики надеются, что
delivered in your choice of red, им это сойдет с рук.
white, or blue, those responsible В связи с этим, от лица 234
believe they're going to get away миллионов американцев,
with it. удерживаемых в заложниках, я прошу
That's why, on behalf of 234 НАТО предпринять те же меры, что и
million Americans held hostage, I в отношении Боснии и Косово,
have requested that NATO do what it сделать то же, что Америка сделала
did in Bosnia and Kosovo, what на Гаити и что Ли Марвин делает в
America did in Haiti, what Lee фильме «Грязная дюжина»:
Marvin did in The Dirty Dozen: Пришлите морских пехотинцев!
Send in the Marines! Launch Запустите ракеты SCUD! Добудьте
the SCUD missiles! Bring us the нам голову Антонина Скалиа!*
head of Antonin Scalia! Я направил личное обращение
I have sent a personal request Генеральному секретарю ООН Кофи
to U.N. Secretary General Kofi Аннану с просьбой откликнуться на
Annan to hear our plea. We are no наши мольбы. Мы больше не в
longer able to govern ourselves or to состоянии управлять страной и
hold free and fair elections. We need проводить честные свободные
U.N. observers, U.N. troops, U.N. выборы. Нам нужны наблюдатели
resolutions! ООН, войска ООН, резолюции ООН!
Dammit, we need Jimmy Черт побери, нам нужен
Carter! Джимми Картер!
We are now finally no better Сейчас мы ничем не лучше
than a backwater banana republic. самой захудалой банановой
We are asking ourselves why any of республики. С какой стати,
us should bother to get up in the спрашиваем мы себя, должны мы
morning to work our asses off to горбатиться с утра до ночи,
produce goods and services that only производя товары и услуги только
serve to make the junta and its для того, чтобы сделать еще богаче
cohorts in Corporate America (a эту хунту и ее приспешников –
separate, autonomous fiefdom within дельцов Корпоративной Америки
the United States that has been (отдельного феодального княжества в
allowed to run on its own for some составе США, которому позволено
time) even richer. Why should we жить по своим законам). Почему
pay our taxes to finance their coup? наши налоги идут на финансирование
44
Can we ever again send our sons off их переворотов? Как мы сможем
into battle to give their lives впредь посылать наших сыновей на
defending "our way of life" – when войну, чтобы они ценой своих жизней
all that really means is the lifestyle of защищали «наш образ жизни», если
the gray old men holed up in the это образ жизни исключительно тех
headquarters they seized by the седоголовых стариканов, что засели в
Potomac? своем штабе в Вашингтоне?
Oh JesusMaryAndJoseph, I О, святые угодники! Это
can't take it! Somebody pass me the невыносимо! Кто-нибудь, дайте мне
universal remote! I need to switch пульт управления Вселенной! Я
back to the fairy tale that I was a переключу обратно на ту сказку, в
citizen in a democracy with an которой я был гражданином
inalienable right to life, liberty, and демократического государства,
the pursuit of Happy Meals. The story обладающим неотъемлемыми
I was told as a child said that I правами на жизнь, свободу и
mattered, that I was equal to every приобретение Хэппи Мил. С детства
one of my fellow citizens – and that меня учили, что мое мнение имеет
not a single one of us was to be значение, что у меня равные права со
treated differently or unfairly, that no всеми моими соотечественниками,
one was to wield power over others что ни с кем из нас не могут
without their consent. The will of the обращаться несправедливо и никто
people. America the Beautiful. Land не вправе обладать властью на
that I love. Twilight's ... last ... другим без его на то согласия. Воля
gleaming. Oh, say, can you see – are народа. Америка, прекрасная страна.
the Belgian peacekeepers on their Страна, которую люблю.
way? Hurry! Последние… лучи света… угасают.
Скажите, не показались ли вдали
бельгийские миротворцы? Скорее!

* Судья Верховного суда США,


соратник Дж.Буша

§8. Перевод ораторского выступления

Основная цель публичного выступления – сообщить


некоторые сведения и убедить адресата в правоте оратора.
Ведущие функции – информативная и воздействующая.
Ораторское выступление сочетает в себе все типы
информации – когнитивную, эмоциональную и эстетическую [1].

45
Перевод публичных выступлений – важная составляющая в
работе устного переводчика. Речи произносятся по самым
разнообразным поводам, в связи с чем выделяют
приветственные, поздравительные, благодарственные,
политические, траурные речи и т.п.
Речь имеет законченную форму со стройной структурой
(зачин и концовка, оформленные с помощью традиционных
речевых формул).
Язык речи в основном нормативен, однако в ней всегда
присутствует и эмоциональная и эстетическая информация, для
передачи которой используется эмоционально-окрашенная
лексика, просторечие, высокий стиль, диалектизмы,
фразеологизмы, метафоры, сравнения, эпитеты, цитаты и
крылатые слова. Значительная часть этих средств в переводе
должна быть воспроизведена, иначе речь станет бесцветной и
потеряет силу воздействия на аудиторию – эта сила строится на
эмоциях.
Системным признаком текста речи являются разного рода
повторы, среди которых ведущее место занимает риторический
период. Благодаря этому текст приобретает определенный ритм,
ее легче воспринимать. Именно эта особенность речи при
переводе страдает, если переводчик неумеренно пользуется
приемом компрессии.
Большинство ораторов обладает собственным ораторским
стилем (любимые слова и обороты, характер образности и юмора,
отклонения от литературной нормы, дефекты речи).

46
Публичная речь далеко не всегда заранее подготовлена и не
всегда имеет письменный текст в своей основе. Но даже если
такой текст есть, оратор нередко переходит на импровизацию, и
переводчик всегда должен быть к этому готов. В
импровизированной спонтанной речи структура гораздо менее
строгая, много необоснованных повторов, незаконченных,
нелогично законченных фраз. Переводчик, разумеется, не несет
ответственности за качество текста оригинала, но
профессиональная этика предписывает в таких случаях по мере
возможности исправлять ошибки оратора.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте и переведите отрывок из


речи Мартина Лютера Кинга, произнесенной им на
демонстрации в поддержку гражданских прав чернокожего
населения США в 1963 г.
 Как выражается в тексте когнитивная информация?
 Какие средства образности задействует оратор?
 Какое синтаксическое средство создает единство речи и
усиливает воздействующую силу текста?
 Какую цитату включает оратор в свою речь и как следует
действовать при ее переводе?
There will be neither rest nor tranquility in
America until the Negro is granted his
citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will
continue to shake the foundations of our nation
until the bright day of justice emerges.

47
I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and
frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply
rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out
the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident;
that all men are created equal.'
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons
of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit
down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a
desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will
be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a
nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by
the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama whose
governor's lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition
and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black
boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys
and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every
hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made
plains, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of
the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together....

48
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык клише
публичных выступлений.
 Обратите особое внимание на передачу обращений, имен
собственных и терминов.

1. Madam Chairperson!
2. Ladies and gentlemen, if I could please have your attention.
3. Today I have the great honour to welcome you and to open this
meeting.
4. Dear graduates. First of all – on this auspicious occasion, let me
congratulate all of you who passed your hard-working days
together successfully.
5. On behalf of my delegation I would like to congratulate you on
your election as chairman.
6. Your Majesty, Members of the Nobel Committee, Brothers and
Sisters: I am very happy to be here with you today to receive the
Nobel Prize for Peace. I feel honoured, humbled and deeply
moved that you should give this important prize to a simple
monk from Tibet.
7. I have the distinct honor and the greatest pride and pleasure of
my life to present the President’s Award to Fred Link.
8. Before taking up the items on our agenda, may I, on behalf of all
the members of the committee, extend our deepest sympathy to
the Government and people of Mexico on the tragic loss of life
and extensive material damage caused by the recent natural
disasters which have struck this country.

49
§9. Перевод рекламы

Коммуникативная задача рекламы – во-первых, сообщить


реципиенту новые достоверные сведения (когнитивная
информация), обеспечить надежность усвоения реципиентом
этих сведений, воздействуя на его эмоции и память
(эмоциональная информация), усилив эту надежность тем
эстетическим впечатлением, которое реципиент получит от
текста (эстетическая информация) [1].
Источник текста – фирма-заказчик.
Расчет на массового потребителя диктует запрет на
использование в тексте рекламы редких специальных терминов,
грубого просторечия, диалектов – все эти средства могут
употребляться только в орнаментальной функции. Тем не менее,
часто в рекламе просматривается возрастная, половая и
социальная ориентация (например, молодежная реклама
маркирована прежде всего молодежным жаргоном – при
переводе используется соответствующий жаргон языка
перевода).
Переводчику предстоит передать средства, оформляющие
все три вида информации в их сложном переплетении.
Когнитивная (название фирмы, товара, его технические
характеристики и т.п.) оформляется однозначной
внеконтекстуальной лексикой, а также с помощью цифр.
Передача этих средств на язык перевода не представляет
сложности, все они имеют однозначные эквивалентные

50
соответствия. Однако уже и здесь может возникнуть
непреодолимое препятствие – например, когда название товара
неблагозвучно при его произнесении на иностранном языке.
Сложность появляется и тогда, когда когнитивный
компонент (например, название фирмы) включается в какую-
либо фигуру стиля, например, рифмуется или включается во
фразеологизм. К сожалению, случаи, когда при переводе
подобного текста удается сохранить и когнитивный компонент, и
фигуру стиля, и семантику, уникальны. В подавляющем
большинстве случаев переводчик стоит перед непростым
выбором. Главное – неизменность когнитивной информации.
Эмоциональная информация чаще всего сопровождает
характеристику продукта. Абсолютно преобладает
положительная оценка, гиперболизация, усиление (в переводе –
аналогичное средство).
Носителями эмоциональной информации являются модные
слова (передаются компенсацией), а также иностранные слова и
выражения, аллюзии. Считается, что иностранные слова и цитаты
следует переносить в текст перевода без изменений, однако, для
рекламы это не всегда годится, потому что ссылки на
прецедентный для получателя оригинала текст могут и не
произвести необходимого эмоционального воздействия на
получателя перевода.
Самым большим разнообразием средств отличается
оформление эстетической информации: повтор на всех уровнях,
аллитерация и ассонанс, игра слов, рифма, ритмическая проза,

51
метафора, сравнение и т.д. Фигуры стиля передаются при
переводе с сохранением принципа их построения или
компенсируются другой фигурой стиля.
Чтобы рекламный текст выполнил свою функцию, он
должен быть полностью включен в культурную среду языка
перевода – звучать на нем убедительно и естественно. Поэтому
просто перевести рекламу недостаточно, нужно интегрировать
этот текст в принимающую культуру, а для этого зачастую
требуется воссоздать его иными средствами, то есть составить на
ПЯ новый параллельный текст (co-writing), учитывающий
специфические вкусы и наклонности будущих покупателей.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте оригинал и учебный


перевод рекламы DVD фильма Mission: Impossible - 2.
 Чем представлена в тексте когнитивная информация?
Правильно ли передает ее переводчик?
 Как в данном рекламном тексте выражается эмотивная
информация? Смог ли переводчик в полной мере передать
эмоционально-оценочный фон оригинала? Почему?
 Каким образом обыгрывается в тексте название фильма?
Увидел ли это переводчик? Предложите свои варианты
перевода игры слов.
 Отредактируйте перевод, исправляя смысловые
неточности, а также ошибки в подборе лексики,
синтаксиса и в оформлении перевода.

52
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Вингом Рамесом, Дагреем Скоттом, Паулой Вагнер и
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pumped behind the scenes look at the spectacular array of
М2, оставшиеся за кадром.
action sequences and stunts from M:I-2.
Невероятные съемки: Единственный шанс
▪ IMPOSSIBLE SHOTS – How they created 11 amazing посмотреть, как выполнялись 11 захватывающих
stunt sequences. A detailed and fascinating look at the трюков в оригинальной версии режиссера, а также
director’s original storyboards and exclusive interviews увидеть эксклюзивное интервью с Томом Крузом,
with Tom Cruise, John Woo, stunt coordinator Brian Smrz Джоном Ву, постановщиком трюков Брайаном
and others. Самрзом и с другими участниками фильма.
▪ Director’s Commentary with John Woo – Fascinating Комментарии режиссера: увлекательные

details about the filmmaking process from the undisputed подробности о создании фильма от неповторимого
master of action himself. создателя.

▪ “I Disappear” Metallica Music Video – An exhilarating Видеоклип к фильмам М1 и М2 «Я исчезаю»:


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M:I-2 themed performance by one of the World’s hottest
одной из самых популярных рок-групп «Меtаllica». За
groups and a visual spectacular that has earned 5
это видео «Metalliса» получила 5 наград на вручении
nominations from the MTV Music Video Awards.
премии МТV Video Awards.
▪ Alternate Title Sequence – The only place to see this
Новые титры: абсолютно новая версия титров в
completely different version of the opening title sequence.
начале фильма.
▪ MISSION IMPROBABLE – A 6-minute parody that
Миссия невероятна: искрометная пародия на Тома
debuted on the MTV Movie Awards to great acclaim. This
Круза, Бена Стиллера и Джона Ву, впервые
hilarious spool features Tom Cruise, Ben Stiller and John
представленная на вручении премии МТV Movie
Woo.
Awards.

54
Задание 2. Проанализируйте и переведите рекламу
мятных пластинок Winterfresh. Учтите, что товар
позиционируется как ‘the top teen gum in the United States’.

Hey, Winterfresh chewers! That icy cool flavor you love now comes
in a breath strip. Introducing new Winterfresh ™ Thin Ice ™ breath
strips, a new way to get icy cool breath super quick. Your icy cool
breath could even get you on tv, on the radio, or on Winterfresh.com.
So here’s your chance.

Try new Winterfresh Thin Ice. Call up a few friends. Grab your video
camera or whatever you need. Show us how new Winterfresh Thin Ice
strips give you icy cool breath the instant you need it. Do something
that’s as cool and fresh as your breath, and if it’s really cool, we just
might put it on the air.

The Winterfresh Network… where icy cool breath is always on


It’s your breath. Let’s see what you can do with it.
Please see www.winterfresh.com or call toll-free 1- 866 – COOL
GUM for all the rules and full details.

Wrigley’s Winterfresh broke new ground in 1994 as the first icy cool,
unique mint gum. With a name and taste all its own, Winterfresh
created an icy cool craze for that refreshing Winterfresh flavor.
Winterfresh is the top teen gum in the United States and is available in
the U.S. and Europe.
§10. Перевод художественных текстов

Коммуникативную задачу художественных текстов


довольно трудно определить, ведь никаким практическим целям
они не служат [1]. Тем не менее, люди нуждаются в них, эти
тексты могут оставаться значимыми веками. Видимо потому, что
чтение этих текстов доставляет удовольствие. Основная функция
художественного текста – эмоционально-эстетическая. Но это
также и средство самовыражения автора, который выступает не
как представитель какой-либо группы людей или
профессиональной среды, а как индивидуум, и организует свой
текст, ориентируясь на свою авторскую индивидуальность
(некоторыми ограничителями этой индивидуальности служат
традиции литературного жанра).
Реципиентом, казалось бы, может быть любой человек, но
при этом каждый читатель берет из текста свое, интерпретирует
его по-своему, таким образом, действует схема: от одной
индивидуальности – к другой.
Когнитивная информация, то есть объективные сведения об
окружающем мире, существует в художественном тексте на
заднем плане. Кроме того, эти сведения вовсе не обязаны быть
достоверными. Автор использует их в своих художественных
целях, иными словами – они подчинены эстетической
информации.
В тех же целях используется и эмоциональная информация.
Средства ее оформления получают в художественном тексте

56
эстетические функции. Встречается, например, яркая разговорно-
просторечная лексика, но вложена она в уста героя –
вымышленного лица. Все эмоциональные средства включены в
единую художественную систему произведения.
Используются все существующие средства оформления
эстетической информации. Очевидно, что при обилии языковых
средств конфликт формы и содержания при переводе неизбежен.
Отсюда частое применение приема компенсации и неминуемая
потеря (нейтрализация) некоторых значимых доминант перевода
(например, не удается передать специфику образа в метафоре).
Среди других проблем перевода художественной литературы:
а) передача временной отнесенности (архаичная стилизация
исторического текста в переводе); б) передача черт
литературного направления; в) передача индивидуального стиля
автора.

Задание 1. Проанализируйте и переведите художественный


текст.
 Представлена ли в тексте когнитивная информация? Чем
она выражена? Как следует ее передать в переводе?
 Как можно передать реалии американской системы
высшего образования, представленные в тексте?
 Назовите задействованные автором средства образности.
Подумайте над возможными русскими соответствиями.
Какие сложности в этой связи у вас возникли?

57
University Days
by James Thurber

Another course that I didn't like, but somehow managed to pass


was economics. I went to that class straight from the botany class,
which didn't help me any in understanding either subject. I used to get
them mixed up. But not as another student in my economics class who
came there direct from a physics laboratory. He was a tackle on the
football team, named Brown. At that time Ohio State University had
one of the best football teams in the country, and Brown was one of its
outstanding stars. In order to have the right to play it was necessary
for him to keep up in his studies, a very difficult matter, for while he
was not dumber than an ox he was not any smarter. Most of his
professors were lenient and helped him along. None gave him more
hints in answering questions, or asked him simpler ones than the
economics professor, a thin, timid man named Bassum. One day we
were on the subject of transportation and distribution, it came Brown's
turn to answer a question. "Name one means of transportation," the
professor said to him. No light came into the fellow’s eyes. "Just any
means of transportation," said the professor. Brown sat staring at him.
"That is," pursued the professor, "any medium, agency, or method of
going from one place to another. Brown had the look of a man who is
being led into a trap. "You may choose among steam, horse-drawn or
electrically propelled vehicles," said the instructor. "I might suggest
the one commonly taken in making long journeys across land." There
was a profound silence in which everybody moved uneasily, including

58
Brown and Mr. Bassum. Mr. Bassum suddenly broke the silence in an
amazing manner. "Choo-choo-choo," he said, in a low voice, and
turned instantly scarlet. He glanced appealingly around the room. All
of us, of course, shared Mr. Bassum's desire that Brown should stay
abreast of the class in economics, for the Illinois game, one of the
hardest and most important of the season, was only a week off. "Toot,
toot, too-tooooooooooooot!" some student with a deep voice moaned,
and we all looked encouragingly at Brown. Somebody else gave a fine
imitation of a locomotive letting off steam. Mr. Bassum himself
rounded the little show. "Ding, ding, ding," he said, hopefully. Brown
was staring at the floor now, trying to think, his great brow furrowed,
his huge hands rubbing together, his face red. "How did you come to
college this year, Mr. Brown?" asked the professor. "Chuffa chuffa,
chuffa chuffa." "My father sent me," said the football player. "What
on?" asked Bassum. "I got an allowance," said the football player, in a
low, husky voice, obviously embarrassed. "No. no," said Bassum.
"Name a means of transportation. What did you ride in?" "Train," said
Brown. "Quite right," said the professor...

59
ЧАСТЬ II. Практикум

Определите жанр и функциональный стиль текстов,


выполните их анализ и перевод.

ТЕКСТ 1

Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to bring to your attention the dangerous state of the
road junction between Ellis Road and Wiltshire Avenue in the village
of Hazlemere. During the last year there have been a large number of
accidents at this junction and it seems to me that something must be
done.
The basic problem is the lack of road signs on Ellis Road
warning drivers of the junction. In particular, for traffic approaching
from the north, there are no warning signs at all until they have
reached the junction. Since the speed limit on this road is 60 mph,
drivers do not have time to slow down, with the result that they go
through the stop sign directly into the lane of east-bound traffic on
Wiltshire Avenue.
Furthermore, the junction also presents a danger to the children
walking to and from the local primary school. Due to the fact that
there is no safe place to cross, several children have been injured in
minor accidents. Yet more accidents have been caused by the fact that
drivers have swerved to avoid children stepping off the pavement.
One solution to the problem would be to install signs on Ellis
Road. These should be clearly visible and large enough to make

60
drivers aware of the junction. Also, the speed limit must be reduced to
make sure that cars travel at a speed at which they are able to slow
down and stop safely.
In addition to this, a proper crossing must be provided for
pedestrians at the junction. Doing so would ensure that drivers were
not distracted by people crossing the road. Moreover, flashing lights
would act as a further warning, forcing drivers to slow down even
more, thus reducing the danger to local people.
I hope you will give this matter your urgent consideration and
that suitable measures will be taken before more accidents occur.
Yours faithfully,
K.J. Wright
ТЕКСТ 2
Pet Products Ltd.
180 London Road
Exeter EX4 4JY
England
25th February, 1997
Dear Sirs,
We read your advertisement in the 'Pet Magazine' of 25th
December. We are interested in buying your equipment for producing
pet food. Would you kindly send us more information about this
equipment:
- price (please quote CIF Odessa price)
- dates of delivery
- terms of payment

61
- guarantees
- if the price includes the cost of equipment installation and our
staff training.
Our company specializes in distributing pet products in Ukraine.
We have more than 50 dealers and representatives in different regions
and would like to start producing pet food in Ukraine. If your
equipment meets our requirements, and we receive a favourable offer,
we will be able to place a large order for your equipment.
Your early reply would be appreciated.
Yours faithfully,
V. Smurov
Export-Import Manager
ТЕКСТ 3
Mr. Fred North
Purchasing Manager
Broadway Autos
November 11, 1999
Dear Mr. North,
Thank you very much for your enquiry. We are of course very
familiar with your range of vehicles and are pleased to inform you that
we have a new line in batteries that fit your specifications exactly.
The most suitable of our products for your requirements is the
Artemis 66A Plus. This product combines economy, high power out-
put and quick charging time and is available now from stock.
I enclose a detailed quotation with prices, specifications and
delivery terms. As you will see from this, our prices are very

62
competitive. I have arranged for our agent Mr. Martin of Fillmore
S.A. to deliver five of these batteries to you next week, so that you can
carry out the laboratory tests. Our own laboratory reports, enclosed
with this letter, show that our new Artemis 66A Plus performs as well
as any of our competitor's product and, in some respects, outperforms
them.
If you would like further information, please telephone or telex
me: my extension number is 776. Or you may prefer to contact Mr.
John Martin of Fillmore S.A.: his telephone number is 01 77 99 02.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
Fred Stock
ТЕКСТ 4
From Washington Driver Guide
by State of Washington Department of Licensing

THE DRIVER LICENSE

You must have a valid driver license to legally operate a motor


vehicle, motorcycle, moped, or motor-driven cycle on public
roadways in Washington State.

Washington Residents
To legally operate a vehicle on public roadways, Washington residents
must get a Washington State driver license. You are a resident if you
do any of the following:

63
 Register to vote in this state
 Receive payments, financial aid, or other public welfare benefits
from the state or a local government
 Get any state license at the resident rate
 Pay in-state tuition fees as a student
 Intend to live in this state for more than six months in any one
year

New Residents
You must get a Washington State driver license within 30 days of
becoming a resident.
You may not need to take the knowledge test or the driving test if your
out-of-state license is valid when you apply for a Washington license.
If you are under 18, you must show us proof that you have completed
a driver-training course meeting our standards before we will issue a
Washington intermediate driver license. Visit www.dol.wa.gov for
more information about our driver-training requirements.

Nonresidents and Visitors


If you are a nonresident or a short-term visitor, you can operate a
motor vehicle in this state if you have a valid driver license from your
home state, province, territory, or country and you are at least 16 years
old. This applies to:
 members of the Armed Forces on active duty or members of a
foreign military on temporary duty with the Armed Forces, as
well as their spouses and children.

64
 students who are here to further their education and who are
considered nonresidents for tuition purposes.
 employees of companies licensed to do business in Washington
State, who are here for a short time to receive or give job
instruction.
 foreign tourists, teachers, or business people who are here for up
to one year.

Getting Your License


You can get an instruction permit or a driver license at our driver
licensing offices. We have more than 60 locations statewide. Some
offices don’t offer testing, so before you come in, be sure the one you
plan to visit offers the testing you need. Visit our website to check the
Government section of the telephone book under “Licensing,
Department of” for the office nearest you.
To get an instruction permit, you must:
 be at least 15-1/2 years old.
 pass the knowledge test and the vision and medical screenings.
 pay a $20 permit fee.
If you are under 18, you must also bring your parent or guardian with
you when you apply. He or she must show proof of identity and proof
of relationship to you and must also sign a Parental Authorization
Affidavit. When last names are different, we require more documents
proving relationship. The permit is valid for one year and you can
only renew it once.

65
ТЕКСТ 5
Employee Handbook
Introduction
Welcome to George Mason University! This handbook has
been prepared to help you become familiar with the University's
policies and practices and to serve as a reference throughout your
career. Because it is in an on-line format, we will be able to easily
update it to keep you informed of changes that affect your worklife at
George Mason. Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to the Human Resources and Payroll Department at
hr@gmu.edu or (703) 993-2600. The staff in Human Resources and
Payroll is here to assist you with any questions or concerns regarding
your employment and benefits. Please contact an HR and Payroll
representative anytime we can be of help. Our best wishes for a
challenging and productive career at George Mason!
Conditions of Employment
Attendance
Each employee is expected to fulfill his/her commitment to the
University through regular, punctual attendance. There are times when
illness, family emergencies, or transportation problems may result in
absences, late arrivals or early departures. If you are unable to work,
you are responsible for notifying your supervisor and requesting
approval for your absence according to your unit's procedure. Be sure
to notify your supervisor and discuss the absence notification
procedure. If you participate in the Virginia Sickness and Disability
Program (VSDP), any absence due to illness, injury or disability

66
which will exceed seven calendar days must be reported to Veronique
Klimonda (703-993-2603), UNUM at 1-800-652-5602, and your
supervisor. Supervisors are responsible for approving all absences.
If patterns of absence develop, your supervisor may ask you for
documentation regarding your absence, such as a statement from your
physician indicating you were unable to work due to illness or injury.
If you or a member of your family has a serious health condition, you
may qualify for leave under the Family Medical Leave Act. Notify the
Human Resources Department and your supervisor if you think you
qualify. FMLA is covered in more detail under Leave in another
section of the handbook.
Approved absences may be charged to annual leave, sick leave,
family, and personal leave, overtime leave, or compensatory leave, as
appropriate. If your supervisor does not approve your absence or if
you have no available leave balance, you will be placed on leave
without pay. Classified employees on leave without pay earn no
annual or sick leave for that pay period.

ТЕКСТ 6
From “Translation Theory and Intercultural Relations”
By Itamar Even-Zohar and Gideon Toury
INTRODUCTION
Translation studies have long been confined to the periphery of
research in the humanities. Although a major intercultural activity of
old, such disciplines as comparative linguistics or comparative
literature have been carried out as if translation either had nothing to

67
do with the subject matters with which they deal, or was a
phenomenon of minor importance. The same holds true for theoretical
linguistics, poetics and general communication theory. In recent years,
however, this attitude has been changing, owing not so much to efforts
made by translation students, but rather to the growing involvement of
scholars from the disciplines mentioned above with translation as both
process and product, with translational relationships, with questions of
"equivalence under transformation," and the like. It seems that the
latter realized that not only does it pay to make use of what has
already been achieved within the sciences of man in order to
understand what translation is all about, but -- to no lesser extent --
that investigating translation may contribute to the advancement of
their own respective fields, that is, to a better understanding of
linguistic, literary and cultural aspects of human activity.
With the growing (pre)occupation with translation and
translation procedures, it has become increasingly evident that not
only verbal, but also textual and systemic features and regularities can
be detected and laid bare due to the decomposition procedure
inevitably involved with any act of translation. This has encouraged
text theorists to take more interest in using translation as a method for
a more sustainable procedure for detection of textual laws, and the
same holds true for system theorists, as well. Parallelly, the
investigation of translation has turned out to be extremely fruitful for a
far better, and more adequate understanding of the processes and
procedures involved in interference between cultural systems --

68
languages, literatures, societies -- as well as in phenomena such as
code switching and code merging.

ТЕКСТ 7

TO THEORISE OR NOT TO THEORISE


TRANSLATION
There are many conflicting theories about the nature of
translation and have been for centuries.
Can a translator leave out sections of text or adapt to prevailing
fashions?
Must the translator privilege meaning over form?
Should the translator be visible or invisible?
Be faithful or unfaithful?
Domesticate or foreignise?
Is equivalence possible?
What can post-modernism or post-colonialism learn from
translation?
Over the last twenty years these theoretical debates have been
consolidated in Translation Studies, an emerging discipline within
universities throughout the world. Professional translators often
express impatience with the academic discipline: it is remote, abstract,
has little to do with what they do. However, a university presence –
conferences, seminars, MAs and PhDs – improves the status of
literary translation. Some academic theorists are also translators. A
source of conflict is often the lack of recognition given to the practice

69
of translation and translations themselves. There has been a long
tradition of denigrating literary translation in universities as a second-
rate, second-hand activity: ‘Don’t put your translations on your CV,
Dr. Brown, you’ll never get promotion.’ That is now changing. There
are signs at least in the UK that literary translation is being seen as a
unique form of creativity and an act of research. Translation Studies,
whether focused on descriptions of process, cultural transfer, corpus
analysis or historical perspectives have helped create this situation.

ТЕКСТ 8
Engineering Translations
or Building Bridges
Alex Greenland
Translation Journal, July 1999
I have little real idea of what other translators’ work involves. I
assume readers of the Translation Journal have no better an
appreciation of what engineering translation involves, and will outline
something of the diversity of my work.
Engineering is a vast field. I like to think of myself as a
specialist, but the enormous range of sub-fields into which I find
myself delving in the course of what is essentially civil engineering
work sometimes makes me feel like a sort of generalist. My jobs have
covered dams, tunnels, roads, bridges, power stations, transmission
lines, sewers, water treatment and desalination plants, canals and
river-training, airports, harbours, mines, and offshore structures, not to
mention a variety of buildings of different types, ranging from mud

70
huts for displaced African tribespeople to monumental office blocks.
Most of these fields can be broken down into different types of
structure, each with different requirements.
If you include construction within the realm of engineering you
will find yourself dealing with an even wider range of topics. For
while basic construction terms may be the same from one project to
the next, there will inevitably be reference to purpose-specific
requirements demanding their own specialized terminology when
dealing with hotels or hospitals, shopping malls or factories.
In even the more mundane building projects, the translator might
work on everything from the foundation, grounding, drainage, and
external paving, right up through the structure of the building and its
electric systems of different sorts, including multimedia
communication systems, its doors, windows, and glazing, plumbing,
tiling, paintwork, wall coverings, carpeting, false ceilings, lifts, air
conditioning, fittings and fixtures of all kinds, etc., to the roof and the
air terminal network (lightning conductor).
It might be thought that the translation skills involved in
engineering projects are relatively homogeneous; the different
structures of a given kind do all fulfill the same purpose, after all. But
the techniques concerned can differ radically. And each variation in
construction technique implies the introduction of different associated
techniques, different plant, etc.
The scope of the different types of structures the engineering
translator may work on is thus daunting. But that is nothing compared

71
to what you face once you start examining the works actually involved
in such projects.
To start with, before a project can be designed, there are site
investigations. A range of seismic, electrical, etc. geophysical
prospecting techniques may be used, depending on geology, the habits
of the engineers, or the resources available locally; or site
investigations may involve an extensive borehole campaign—
followed by grouting tests or water tests—or just a few hand-dug test
pits. Specifications for this work will have to be drawn up for the
investigations to be put out to contract.
The investigation campaign may lead to discussion of regional
seismicity and faulting, and will involve running laboratory tests on
samples taken, in addition to any in situ tests, in order to determine the
characteristics of the foundation and the suitability of the locally
available construction materials, particularly for dams and roads. This
will involve pure engineering principles (compressive strength, tensile
strength, shear strength, angle of friction, etc.). It may also involve
less basic considerations—particularly when investigating potential
reaction with cements—resulting in lab reports on detailed
examination of the materials by means of scanning-electron
microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray
analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis,
nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, etc. for the purposes of
chemical analysis of the reactive potential of concrete or grout with
the terrain, with reinforcing steel, with seepage water, etc. In other

72
words, the translator finds himself transported from engineering into
science.
Having established that a project is technically feasible on a
given site, the designers then have to establish its economic and
financial feasibility. This will involve assessment of the cost of
construction, the cost of environmental damage and mitigating
measures, and a host of analyses relating to various internal rates of
returns, costs of investments, comparative costs of different
alternatives, mini-max regret analysis, etc. In other words, once again
the engineering translator is taken outside the purely engineering field.

ТЕКСТ 9
Echoes of Plato's Atlantis
By Dr Iain Stewart
Quite why a story written 2,500 years ago by the Greek
philosopher Plato continues to capture the public imagination is a
mystery in itself - a mystery fed by countless books, films, articles,
web pages, and now a Disney cartoon.
Part of the contemporary appeal of the Atlantis story has no
doubt been fed by scientists. Historians, archaeologists and geologists
have also entered the debate to contest the various literary, historical
or geographical elements of the story.
So what do we actually know about Atlantis and its demise?
The answer is not much. Plato's story comes to us from two short
pieces, Tinnaeus and Critias, believed to have been written in the
decade or so before his death in 348 BC. In these, he presents an

73
apparently true account of an ideal society that existed many millennia
before the Classical Greek times in which he was writing.
According to Plato, Atlantis was a great island (larger than Libya
and Asia combined) in the Atlantic Ocean, but its control extended
beyond the 'Pillars of Heracles' into the Mediterranean as far as Egypt
and Tyrrhenia (Italy). Its powerful and remarkable dynasty of kings
arose directly from Poseidon, god of sea and of earthquakes, though
this divine and heroic lineage gradually became diluted by mixing
with mortal stock.
The resulting degeneration of this noble civilisation led it into a
war with its former ally, Athens, and culminated in its cataclysmic
destruction, which Plato dates as 9,000 years previously. Of the
destruction itself, Plato simply notes, 'Some time later there were
earthquakes and floods of extraordinary violence, and in a single
dreadful day and night all your life [i.e., Athenian] fighting men were
swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis was similarly
swallowed up by the sea and vanished'.
While the bulk of Plato's account of Atlantis details its physical
and political layout, its location and the nature of its destruction
warrant only a few hundred words. It is a meagre foundation for the
weight of subsequent theories and speculations on which the modern
controversy is based.

ТЕКСТ 10

74
SOURCES OF POWER
The industrial progress of mankind is based on power; power for
industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting system, transport. In
fact, one can hardly find a sphere where power is not required.
At present most of the power required is obtained, mainly, from
two sources. One is from burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas
and oil, for producing heat that will operate internal- and external-
combustion engines. Many of these engines will actuate generators,
which produce electricity. The second way of producing electricity is
by means of generators that get their power from steam of water
turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines
to houses, industrial plants, enterprises, etc.
It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by
these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Actually, only
about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity.
Besides, the world resources of fossil fuels are not everlasting. On the
other hand, the power produced at hydroelectric plants, even if
increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction
of the power required in near future.
Therefore much effort and thought are being given to other
means of generating electricity.
One is the energy of hot water. Not long ago we began utilizing
hot underground water for heating and hot water supply, and in some
cases, for the generation of electric power.
Another promising field for the production of electricity is the
use of ocean tides.

75
The energy of the Sun, which is being used in various ways,
represents a practically unlimited source.
Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is highly
promising. It is a well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains
as much energy as there million pounds of coal, such cheap power can
be provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached
in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent.

ТЕКСТ 11
ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED
Visible light covers a very small part of the electromagnetic
spectrum. Just above and below the visible light range are ultraviolet
and infrared light. The "ultra" in ultraviolet tells us that this light lies
at frequencies higher than that of violet light lies; and the "infra" in
infrared tells us that this light lies at frequencies lower than red.
Ultraviolet has a shorter, and infrared has longer wave length
than visible light. The radiations were discovered long before anyone
thought of electromagnetism. When light was passed through a prism
and formed a spectrum on screen, scientists found that heating effects
occur beyond the edges of the visible light-spectrum.
Ultraviolet radiation produces many effects, some useful and
some unpleasant. A certain amount of ultraviolet radiation is good for
our health. It helps to form vitamin D in the skin. Ultraviolet light also
kills microbes, and for that reason it is used in hospitals and to
sterilize food.

76
Direct ultraviolet radiation is very bad for the eyes. This is one
reason why it is dangerous to look directly at the sun. On the other
hand, the human eye is quite capable of dealing with normal doses of
scattered ultraviolet light.
Infrared energy is being used in automatic regulation of chemical
and biological processes, temperature measurement and control during
manufacture of textiles, plastics and metals. New applications are
appearing in navigation and aviation, weather research numerous
scientific projects.
Other applications for infrared are found in photography, aerial
mapping, communications and control techniques.
Infrared energy is in use all around us. Infrared techniques are of
great value in many industrial applications and are considered
indispensable in many others. The possibilities of its application
appear to be limited only by the imagination and skill of the user.

ТЕКСТ 12

PROTECTION OF SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS


Every year several hundred to several thousand plant and animal
species become extinct, most of these in connection with tropical
deforestation. Loss of forest cover is itself a major ecological problem
because forests play a crucial role in regulating water cycles, local
climate, and the balance of CO2 in the atmosphere. The genetic
resources lost by extinction have both an economic value for medicine
and agriculture and an ecological value because they increase
diversity in ecosystems and are the basis for future evolution. We face
77
difficult ethical questions about other species' right to exist and the
subjugation of nature as a basic tenet of industrial society.
Europe also has its share of endangered species and ecosystems,
such as the wolf, certain birds of prey, virgin coniferous forest and
various species of fish and marine mammals. Conservation of nature
often conflicts with agriculture and forestry interests, making this a
good topic for classroom discussions and debates. The conflicts of
interest in tropical deforestation could for example be compared with
the situation in the students' own country.
The ocean ecosystem is a vital resource for most European
countries, but its ecological balance is threatened by the petroleum
industry; fish farming; fisheries; pollution by industry, agricultural
runoff and sewage; and depletion of the ozone layer. Marine pollution
sometimes becomes dramatic, as it did in the spring of 1988 when the
marine alga Chrysochromelina polylepis caused widespread fish death
in the waters around Scandinavia. Research later showed that the alga
becomes poisonous at particular concentrations of nitrogen and
phosphorus, the result of agricultural and other pollution from
Skagerak, the Baltic Sea, and the northern Scandinavian coast.

ТЕКСТ 13
From Thinking Critically: A Psychology Student's Guide

Thinking Critically to Evaluate Research


We live in a research-oriented society. From the pioneering
breakthroughs on the cutting edge of medical science to the semi-

78
annual choices network executives agonize over regarding what
television programs to air, research is a fact of modern life. We rely
on it, and with this reliance comes an inherent danger, for research
findings can be easily misused, distorted, or taken out of context to
say something other than what they are meant to.
Thinking critically goes hand in hand with developing an ap-
preciation of the enormous benefits, and inherent dangers, of scientific
research. Research is a double-edged sword; when misapplied, its
ability to obscure knowledge is as great as its ability to illuminate.
Research that is soundly conducted can answer difficult questions
with more certainty and objectivity than any other method of inquiry,
but the casual reporting of research can be fraught with distortions
that, intentionally or unintentionally, mislead an unsuspecting public.
Studies may be poorly designed or - conducted, findings can be taken
out of context and misapplied, and "results" can be carefully worded
so as to subtly, but wrongly, imply the truthfulness of a dubious claim.
As we've already mentioned, the field of psychology has as one
of its cornerstones a commitment to empiricism, or the research-based
validation of its concepts. As such, the study of psychology is a
particularly helpful context in which to hone your skills of assessing
and evaluating the merits of research.
Psychologists say many things about human nature, based on the
research they conduct. However, rather than believing something
simply because a psychologist says it (beware the method of
authority), critical thinkers carefully scrutinize research to determine,
for themselves, how sound it is.

79
Some Principles of Critical Thinking
To learn to think critically, you need to familiarize yourself with
four fundamental principles that characterize the process. Each of
these principles can be regarded as a thinking skill or a set of related
thinking capabilities. Honing these skills takes time and practice, but
you may be surprised how quickly you can start mastering them and
applying them to your course work, practical problems that arise in
daily living, and your personal beliefs about complex social issues.
The four main principles that underlie critical thinking are: (1)
identifying and challenging underlying assumptions; (2) checking for
factual accuracy and logical consistency; (3) accounting for the
importance of context; and (4) imagining and exploring alternatives.
While we do not mean to suggest that this is an exhaustive list or that
it is the only available strategy for learning critical thinking, these
principles do lay a strong foundation for the critical evaluation of new
information.
Every statement, every argument, every research proposition, no
matter how factual or objective it may sound, has embedded within it
certain assumptions. These assumptions may be quite subtle and
difficult to recognize. Learning to identify and challenge the
assumptions that underlie a statement is one of the most crucial
components of critical thinking.
What do these assumptions consist of? They may be ideas that
people take for granted, perhaps commonsense beliefs that seem be-
yond questioning. Alternately, they may represent values that you
grew up with and that you believe are commonly shared. Or they

80
could be facts that you automatically accept as "given" without
challenging them. Assumptions can be found in little truisms or
proverbs that you find meaningful, in stereotypes, and in the beliefs
that help create your views of life and the world.

ТЕКСТ 14
Acropolis

[Gr.,=high point of the city], elevated, fortified section of various


ancient Greek cities. The Acropolis of Athens, a hill c.260 ft (80 m)
high, with a flat oval top c.500 ft (150 m) wide and 1,150 ft (350 m)
long, was a ceremonial site beginning in the Neolithic Period and was
walled before the 6th cent. BC by the Pelasgians. Devoted to religious
rather than defensive purposes, the area was adorned during the time
of Cimon and Pericles with some of the world's greatest architectural
and sculptural monuments. The top was reached by a winding
processional path at the west end, where the impressive Propylaea (see
under propylaeum) stood. From there, the Sacred Way led past a
colossal bronze statue of Athena (called Athena Promachus) and the
site of the old temple of Athena to the Parthenon. To the north was
the Erechtheum and to the southwest the temple of Nike Apteros
(Wingless Victory). On the southern slope were the Odeum of
Herodes Atticus and the theater of Dionysus. Although the Acropolis
was laid waste by the Persians in 480 BC and was later further
damaged by the Turks and others, remains of the Parthenon,
Erechtheum, and Propylaea still stand. Many of its treasures are in the

81
national museum of Greece, in Athens. Over the years, the Acropolis
has suffered severely from pollution and from well-intentioned but
badly executed attempts at repair. In 1975 the Greek government
began a major restoration project, which by the mid-1990s was only
about 40% complete.

ТЕКСТ 15

Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich (mēkhuyēl' sirgā'yuvich


gurbuchof'), 1931–, Soviet political leader. Born in the agricultural
region of Stavropol, Gorbachev studied law at Moscow State Univ.,
where in 1953 he married a philosophy student, Raisa Maksimovna
Titorenko (1932?–99). Returning to Stavropol, he moved gradually
upward in the local Communist party. In 1970, he became Stavropol
party leader and was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Regarded as a skilled technocrat and a reformer, Gorbachev joined
(1978) the Communist party secretariat as agriculture secretary, and in
1980 he joined the politburo as the protégé of Yuri Andropov. After
Andropov's ascension to party leadership, Gorbachev assumed (1983)
full responsibility for the economy.
Following the death of Konstantin Chernenko (Andropov's
successor) in 1985, Gorbachev was appointed general secretary of the
party despite being the youngest member of the politburo. He
embarked on a comprehensive program of political, economic, and
social liberalization under the slogans of glasnost (“openness”) and
perestroika (“restructuring”). The nuclear disaster at Chernobyl

82
(1986) forced Gorbachev to allow even greater freedom of expression.
The government released political prisoners, allowed increased
emigration, attacked corruption, and encouraged the critical
reexamination of Soviet history.
In a series of summit talks (1985–88), Gorbachev improved
relations with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, with whom he signed
an Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) arms limitation treaty in 1987.
By 1989 he had brought about the end of the Soviet occupation of
Afghanistan (see Afghanistan War) and had sanctioned the end of
the Communist monopoly on political power in Eastern Europe. For
his contributions to reducing East-West tensions, he was awarded the
1990 Nobel Peace Prize. By 1990, however, Gorbachev's perestroika
program had failed to deliver significant improvement in the
economy, and the elimination of political and social control had
released latent ethnic and national tensions in the Baltic states, in the
constituent republics of Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, and Moldova,
and elsewhere.
A newly created (1989) Congress of People's Deputies voted in
Mar., 1990, to end the Communist party's control over the government
and elected Gorbachev executive president. During 1990 and 1991,
however, the reform drive stalled, and Gorbachev appeared to be
mollifying remaining hardliners, who were disgruntled over the
deterioration of the Soviet empire and increasing marginalization of
the Communist party. An unsuccessful anti-Gorbachev coup by
hardliners in Aug., 1991 (see August Coup), shifted greater authority
to the Russian Republic's president, Boris Yeltsin, and greatly

83
accelerated change. Gorbachev dissolved the Communist party,
granted the Baltic states independence, and proposed a much looser,
chiefly economic federation among the remaining republics. With the
formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on
Dec. 8, 1991, the federal government of the Soviet Union became
superfluous, and on Dec. 25, Gorbachev resigned as president. Since
1992, Gorbachev has headed international organizations; written
several books, including On My Country and the World (tr. 1999), and
run unsuccessfully (1996) for the Russian presidency.
See his Memoirs (1996). See also A. Brown, The Gorbachev
Factor (1996); S. Kotkin, Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse,
1970–2000 (2001).

ТЕКСТ 16
Anglo-Saxon literature
Section: Poetry
There are two types of Old English poetry: the heroic, the sources
of which are pre-Christian Germanic myth, history, and custom; and
the Christian. Although nearly all Old English poetry is preserved in
only four manuscripts —indicating that what has survived is not
necessarily the best or most representative — much of it is of high
literary quality. Moreover, Old English heroic poetry is the earliest
extant in all of Germanic literature. It is thus the nearest we can come
to the oral pagan literature of Germanic culture, and is also of
inestimable value as a source of knowledge about many aspects of
Germanic society. The 7th-century work known as Widsith is one of

84
the earliest Old English poems, and thus is of particular historic and
linguistic interest.
Beowulf, a complete epic, is the oldest surviving Germanic epic
as well as the longest and most important poem in Old English. It
originated as a pagan saga transmitted orally from one generation to the
next; court poets known as scops were the bearers of tribal history and
tradition. The version of Beowulf that is extant was composed by a
Christian poet, probably early in the 8th cent. However, intermittent
Christian themes found in the epic, although affecting in themselves,
are not integrated into the essentially pagan tale. The epic celebrates the
hero's fearless and bloody struggles against monsters and extols
courage, honor, and loyalty as the chief virtues in a world of brutal
force.
The elegiac theme, a strong undercurrent in Beowulf, is central to
Deor, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, and other poems. In these works, a
happy past is contrasted with a precarious and desolate present. The
Finnsburgh fragment, The Battle of Maldon, and The Battle of
Brunanburh (see Maldon and Brunanburh), which are all based on
historical episodes, mainly celebrate great heroism in the face of
overwhelming odds. In this heroic poetry, all of which is anonymous,
greatness is measured less by victory than by perfect loyalty and
courage in extremity.
Much of the Old English Christian poetry is marked by the simple
belief of a relatively unsophisticated Christianity; the names of two
authors are known. Cædmon — whose story is charmingly told by the
Venerable Bede, who also records a few lines of his poetry — is the

85
earliest known English poet. Although the body of his work has been
lost, the school of Cædmon is responsible for poetic narrative versions
of biblical stories, the most dramatic of which is probably Genesis B.
Cynewulf, a later poet, signed the poems Elene, Juliana, and The
Fates of the Apostles; no more is known of him. The finest poem of the
school of Cynewulf is The Dream of the Rood, the first known example
of the dream vision, a genre later popular in Middle English
literature. Other Old English poems include various riddles, charms
(magic cures, pagan in origin), saints' lives, gnomic poetry, and other
Christian and heroic verse.
The verse form for Old English poetry is an alliterative line of
four stressed syllables and an unfixed number of unstressed syllables
broken by a caesura and arranged in one of several patterns. Lines are
conventionally end-stopped and unrhymed. The form lends itself to
narrative; there is no lyric poetry in Old English. A stylistic feature in
this heroic poetry is the kenning, a figurative phrase, often a
metaphorical compound, used as a synonym for a simple noun, e.g., the
repeated use of the phrases whale-road for sea and twilight-spoiler for
dragon (see Old Norse literature ).

ТЕКСТ 17
Ice hockey
team sport in which players use sticks to propel a hard, round
disk into a net-backed goal.
Rules and Equipment

86
Ice hockey is played on a rectangular rink with curved corners
whose length may vary from 184 to 200 ft (56-61 m), its width from
85 to 98 ft (26-30 m). Six players—a goalie, a center, two
defensemen, and two forwards—all of whom are on ice skates, make
up a team. The rink is surrounded on all sides by walls 3 1/2 to 4 ft
(1.06-1.22 m) high. The goal mouths are 4 ft (1.22 m) high and 6 ft
(1.83 m) wide and are set 10 ft (3.05 m) out from each end of the rink,
which is divided by colored lines in the ice into three zones (attacking,
neutral, and defending) that are each 60 ft (18.29 m) long. A puck,
once made of rubber but now of composite material, 1 in. (2.54 cm)
thick and 3 in. (7.62 cm) in diameter, and frozen to reduce resiliency,
is the object used in play. The weight, size, and shape of the sticks
used to hit the puck are standardized. After a face-off (the dropping of
the puck between two opposing players by an official), the team in
possession of the puck seeks to maneuver it past the other team and
into its net. Each goal counts one point. The game is divided into three
20-min periods; overtime periods in case of ties are used in certain
professional games. In this fast and body-bruising sport, players use
heavy protective equipment, and there is unlimited substitution. A
player detected by the referee in roughing, tripping, high-sticking, or
other violations must spend two minutes (a minor penalty) or more
(major penalties) off the ice in the penalty box, and his team must
continue play shorthanded. Linesmen, goal judges, a timekeeper, and
a scorer also officiate.
The National Hockey League

87
The modern game originated in Canada in the 1800s, and the
first modern indoor hockey game was played in Montreal in 1875. By
the 1890s it had become extremely popular and had spread to the
United States. Since 1917 the National Hockey League (NHL), with
teams in both countries, has been the primary professional association.
The rival World Hockey Association (WHA), launched in 1972,
ceased operation in 1979; several of its 12 teams gained entry to the
NHL. The NHL's current 30 teams play in two conferences, the
Eastern and Western, each with three divisions. Though most NHL
players have always been Canadian, an increasing number of players
from the United States and Europe have appeared since the 1980s.
Teams vie for the Stanley Cup—originally donated to the Canadian
Amateur Hockey Association (1893) by Sir Frederick Arthur
Stanley—the NHL's championship trophy and the symbol of world
professional supremacy. In recent years the NHL has been marked by
contentious labor relations, leading to a strike in 1992 and lockouts in
1994-95 and 2004-5, the last so prolonged as to cancel the season.
International and Amateur Play
The NHL long regarded itself as the world's elite, but the
overwhelming superiority of the Soviet Union in international amateur
play in the 1960s led to a dramatic 1972 summit series between Team
Canada (Canadian NHL players) and the Soviet national team. With
their reputation on the line, the NHL stars narrowly won the series 4-
3-1. Two years later the Soviets crushed a WHA All-Star team. In
1976-91 six of the world's major hockey powers competed in the
periodic Canada Cup, a tournament the NHL and its player association

88
organized. The Canadians won four times (1976, 1984, 1987, 1991)
and the Soviets once (1981). The first World Cup, an eight-team
expansion introduced in 1996, was won by the United States. The
International Ice Hockey Federation (founded 1908) is the governing
body for Olympic competition (begun in 1920) and world tournaments
held annually since 1930 (but no longer contested in Olympic years).
From the early 1960s through 1990 the Soviet Union and
Czechoslovakia dominated both. Although Canada has an elaborate
system of amateur hockey leagues, the country has not excelled in
international amateur hockey since the early 1950s, mainly because
the best Canadian players quickly turn professional. The distinction
between amateur and professional, however, is disappearing. In 1998
professionals played in the Olympics for the first time, as did women.
Hockey at U.S. colleges has also been gaining in popularity; the
National Collegiate Athletic Association championships, held since
1948, are now widely followed.

ТЕКСТ 18
Learn About Snow

All precipitation (rain and snow) comes from water vapor in the
air. If the air is warm, the frozen droplets melt and fall to the earth as
rain. If the air is cold, however, the water vapor crystallizes around a
speck of ice or dust and falls to the earth as snow. If there is no dust
for the water vapor to crystallize on, it will remain in the air as a

89
cloud, even if it gets as cold as -40 degrees Celsius! Note: -40 degrees
Celsius = -40 degrees Fahrenheit.
There are many different types of snow that can be found due to
the many different shapes of snowflakes that exist. The Eskimos, or
Inuits, who live in the north, have developed many words in their
language to describe the different types of snow. Some of these are:
anniu-- falling snow
api-- ground snow
siqoq-- smoky, drifting snow
upsik-- wind-beaten snow
kimoaqtruk-- snow drift
salumaroaq-- smooth snowy surface of fine particles
natatgonaq-- rough snowy surface of large particles
Why is some snow better for skiing and other types of snow
better for making snowballs? Depending on the shape of the
snowflakes and the amount of air space left between the flakes when
they fall on top of each other, the snow has different consistencies.
The type of snow that skiers like best is called powder snow. This type
of snow is good for most snow sports. Powder snow is usually dry or
slightly moist. Its density has to be less than 200 kilograms for every
meter of snow. The density of something indicates how much it is
compacted (or condensed). Snow that is more densely packed (and
where some of the snowflakes have been crushed and formed small
amounts of ice) makes better snowballs.
Why is snow white? Snow crystals reflect the full spectrum of
light, which we see as white. However, some snow is red, green, blue,

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or black. This occurs because of beautifully colored fungi that are
rarely found in snow.
Did you know that freshly fallen snow is much lighter than
water? The reason is that there is a lot of air between the flakes! In
very dry areas, 1 centimeter of water will produce 20 centimeters of
snow. In very moist areas, 6 centimeters of snow will melt down to
only 1 centimeter of water. Because it is compressed, older snow has
less air between flakes and contains much more water. Glaciers are
formed from the compression of snow over many years.
Another "fun fact" is that it takes more energy to eat snow than it
is worth. You use more energy eating it than you gain by hydrating
(adding fluid to) your body. So, if you ever find yourself stranded in
the snow and getting hungry, put the snow in your mouth and let it
slowly melt. We hope this never happens to you!

ТЕКСТ 19
Catch a Microwave

Microwaves can do amazing things. Can you imagine life


without a microwave oven? Every day, millions of Americans use
microwaves to make cooking easier and quicker. But, NASA
researchers think that microwaves can do much more. They want to
use the same waves of energy that cook frozen food to propel
spacecraft through the solar system.
The exciting thing about microwave-based propulsion systems is
that they can get energy from an outside source. This means the

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spacecraft wouldn't have to carry large amounts of fuel. This would
make the spacecraft very lightweight and cheaper to launch. Plus, they
would never run out of gas!
Even though it's a new idea that might sound a little wild,
microwave-based propulsion is not as far fetched as you might think.
In fact, microwave propulsion may be used on a spacecraft before the
end of the year. The Planetary Society and Cosmos Studios are
working with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to test
microwave propulsion. They want to use this new type of propulsion
on their Cosmos 1 spacecraft. Cosmos 1 will be the first solar sail
spacecraft. It will use the pressure of sunlight for propulsion.
Another idea for microwave propulsion involves energy beamed
from Earth. This theory will be tested with the Cosmos 1 spacecraft.
For this test, microwave energy will be beamed from JPL to Cosmos
1. Cosmos 1 will use the microwaves hitting the sail to push the craft
forward.
NASA researchers are also working on a system that would use
microwaves to launch payloads into orbit. This system would use
energy beamed from the ground or from satellites. The goal is to be
able to put people and medium-sized payloads into orbit for about
$100 per pound. This is about 100 times cheaper than the cost of
launching the same payload on the Space Shuttle. Researchers hope to
have this technology ready within the next 20 years.
So, just how can microwaves be turned into the force needed to
move a spacecraft? The craft would use special antennas to convert
the microwaves into electricity. NASA is currently testing devices

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called "rectennas." This is short for rectifying antennas. They are
being designed in Canada. They could be used to convert beamed
energy. These antennas could be combined with an air-breathing
electric propulsion system. This system would use the microwave
energy to turn the air in the atmosphere into fuel.
Some researchers even believe that microwave-based propulsion
could be used for air travel on Earth. Orbiting power stations would
turn solar energy into microwaves. These waves could then be beamed
down to special aircraft. For optimum performance, these craft might
be disc-shaped. This would make them look like flying saucers.
Creating a microwave-based propulsion system could make
sending people and cargo into space much cheaper. It might even
make it possible for everyday travelers to venture into space. In the
future, microwaves may be as handy in high-tech transportation as
they are in cooking today. Using the microwave in the future may
mean planning a trip, instead of planning a meal.

ТЕКСТ 20
Sports in Space

Have you ever imaged what it would be like to play baseball on


each of the nine planets? Of course realistically, that would not be
possible, as most planets are quite inhospitable to human ball players -
- some don’t even have a solid surface! Many different factors would
affect the way you play on each of the planets. We are going to
explore two: wind and gravity. The idea is to give you a feel for how

93
hard you would have to hit a baseball on each of the planets to hit the
"home run target."
I am Marty the Martian and I would like to take you with me on
a journey around the planets. Come with me as we go play some ball
on one of the coolest fields around, the solar system! To play the
game, click on the baseball below. Make sure you first go to the
planets on the bar at the bottom of the page to learn about each planet
before you go there. I recommend that you start on Earth to get a feel
for baseball on your own planet before heading out for space. Good
luck slugger!
The Earth
Unless you're an alien like Marty our friendly Martian, the Earth
is probably your home. The Earth is the third planet from the sun, and
the fifth largest in our solar system. It is also perhaps the most unique
planet in the solar system, because it is the only one that supports life
as we know it in 2000. The Earth is also the only planet that can
support water in liquid form on its surface. In fact, 71% of our
planet's surface is covered by water. The other 29% is covered by
everything from mountain ranges, rainforests, and sandy deserts. Our
planet is made up of several layers, from the crust to the upper and
lower mantles, to the inner core. The inner core, at the center of the
earth, is actually hotter than the surface of the sun. Which is pretty
hot. The Earth has a modest magnetic field as compared to the other
planets.
Mercury

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If you're going to visit Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, I
hope you brought your sun tan lotion. This planet, because it is so
close to the sun, is therefore the hottest of all the other planets. Like
the Earth's moon, Mercury is heavily cratered, where the craters can
be 1300 km in diameter. You would never get your baseball back
from there! Mercury has a very thin atmosphere that's formed by
strong solar winds blowing tiny particles into the air that create a shell
around the planet. This means that the atmosphere is always
changing. Mercury rotates only three times every two of its years,
which makes for some strange observations if you were standing on
Mercury. As the sun rises, it would get bigger in the sky, until it
reached directly over head, where it would stop, reverse course, stop
again, and then continue on its way and set. Wow, on this planet, if
you stayed in the side that always faced the sun, you would never have
to play any night games!
Venus
Venus is the second planet from the sun. It's also known as the
earth's sister planet because Earth and Venus are almost the same
size. But these two plants look nothing alike. From orbit, Venus looks
like a pearl, with many colors swirling around in the
atmosphere. Playing baseball on this planet would be difficult because
most of the time the games would be called off on account of bad
weather. The storms on Venus are many times bigger than the storms
on Earth. The temperature can sometimes be hotter than Mercury
because of the Greenhouse effect. This means that the carbon dioxide

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in the atmosphere keeps the sun's heat in, making the surface hot
enough to turn water to steam.
Mars
Mars would certainly be an interesting place to engage in a
baseball game. The fourth planet from the sun is famous for its varied
terrain. Mars features deserts, mountains, cratered highlands, and ice
caps at both poles. The planet can become engulfed by high winds and
dust storms for months at a time. The landscape is therefore heavily
affected by erosion. At one time in Mars' history, there were rivers and
even lakes on the planet's surface, but now it is very dry. In 1996,
scientists discovered evidence of a very microscopic organism on a
martian asteroid, but as of now, there is no conclusive evidence that
suggests that Mars can indeed support life. The planet has a thin
atmosphere and can become very cold. One has to wonder how Marty
the Martian can stand such a tumultuous climate. Mars also has weak
magnetic fields scattered in different regions of the planet.
Jupiter
Jupiter is the most massive of all planets in the solar system. In
fact, it is twice as big as all of the other planets combined, and 318
times bigger than the Earth. On a clear night, you can easily spot
Jupiter, as it is the fourth brightest light in the sky. It is composed
mostly of gases, particularly liquid metallic hydrogen. The bright
colors that radiate from the planet are the result of various chemical
reactions that are taking place amongst the gases. One of Jupiter's
claims to fame is the Great Red Spot, which looks like, well, a Great
Red Spot. It is actually a region of very high pressure that is colder

96
than the rest of the planet. The planet also features rings that are
darker and much smaller than Saturn's rings. They are made up of
rocky particles. Jupiter has high velocity winds, and has a very strong
magnetic field. Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material
amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth-masses. For our purposes
we'll assume it does, so we can pretend to play ball on it.
Saturn
Saturn's bands are the most interesting aspects of this planet.
They can be found near the equator of the planet, and are many
different sizes. You could play a fun game of baseball on this planet,
as long as you watched out for the storms that tend to pop up. Saturn
also has a signifigant magnetic field. Unlike the other planets, when
viewed from Earth, Saturn does not twinkle. Saturn is composed of
materials which are lighter than water. This means that if the planet
were placed in a huge lake, it would float! Saturn's interior is similar
to Jupiter's consisting of a rocky core, a liquid metallic hydrogen layer
and a molecular hydrogen layer. Traces of various ices are also
present.
Uranus
Uranus sure could be the ideal place for an unusual, if not
challenging, game of baseball. Bands of clouds blow rapidly around
this blue planet; imagine what that would do to your baseball! The
field would be interesting, as Uranus has very dark rings, much like
Jupiter. Watch out for the rocky and icy surface on this planet. The
magnetic field on Uranus is not centered like the other planets, but is
tilted 60 degrees. While you are on this interesting planet, make sure

97
you take a look into the atmosphere, Uranus has 15 known
moons! There has only been one expedition to this planet, so take
some notes and fill us in!
Neptune
It must feel cool to be on the eighth planet from the Sun. If you
looked through binoculars on planet Earth, you could see Neptune.
But through the binoculars, you will not be able to see that Neptune is
blue. You may be wondering why it's blue. It's because of the
absorption of red light by the gas and methane, in the atmosphere.
Since Neptune is so far away, it has only been visited once by an
unmanned spacecraft. Most of the information about Neptune was
discovered from this voyage.
Neptune sometimes becomes the most distant planet from the
sun because for years at time Pluto's orbit crosses its path. It is most
similar to Uranus because of its various ice and rock forms. Beware, it
gets very windy on Neptune! Neptune's winds are the fastest of all the
planets and go up to 2000 km/hour. Neptune also has dark rings, but
scientists do not know what the rings are made of. So play ball, but
remember bring your windbreaker because it gets windy!
Pluto
Pluto is the furthest planet from the Sun (sometimes Neptune
and Pluto switch orbits). It is also the coldest. I hope you brought your
gloves and hat! It's almost like a huge piece of ice floating in
space! The Sun looks like a big bright star from Pluto's surface. Pluto
is also the smallest planet in the solar system and is even smaller than
some of the other planet's moons! Pluto is one of the unique planets,

98
like Uranus, that lies on its side. One of its poles faces the sun while
the equator points straight up. Pluto has one moon that is the same size
as its moon, Charon. Charon usually revolves around Pluto, but
sometimes Pluto will rotate around it! Remember it gets cold on Pluto,
so when going to Pluto, bring hot chocolate.

ТЕКСТ 21
What are microbes?

A microbe is anything too small to be visible to the naked eye.


Two types of microbes are bacteria and viruses. You’re surrounded by
microbes all the time, and normally co-exist peacefully. Some types
help you, like the bacteria in your digestive tract that help break down
food. There are, however, some types of bacterium and viruses that
can make you ill.
Bacteria are single-celled organisms. There are thousands of
types of bacteria, and they live virtually anywhere. Bacteria are much
bigger than viruses. (But they’re all way too small for you to see.)
Bacteria are much more complex than viruses. Bacteria have the tools
to reproduce themselves, by themselves. They are filled with fluid,
and may have threadlike structures to move themselves, like a tail.
Virus. A virus may have a spiny outside layer, called the
envelope. Viruses have a core of genetic material, but no way to
reproduce it on their own. Viruses cannot reproduce on their own.
They infect cells and take over their reproductive machinery to
reproduce.

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Your Immune System
The immune system protects the body from infections and
diseases. It's sometimes also called the Lymphatic system. It's made
up of the tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood
cells that fight infections and other diseases. This system includes the
bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic
vessels.
The good guys
The players in the immune system include:
 Lymph — a clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic
system and carries cells that help fight infections and other
diseases.
 Lymph nodes — rounded masses of lymphatic tissue that is
surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph nodes filter
lymph, and they store white blood cells. They are located along
lymphatic vessels.
 Lymph vessels — thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood
cells through the lymphatic system. They branch, like blood
vessels, into all the tissues of the body.
 The thymus — an organ in the chest behind the breastbone. T
lymphocytes grow and multiply in the thymus.
 The spleen — an organ on the left side of the abdomen, near the
stomach. It produces some white blood cells, filters the blood,
stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.

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 White blood cells — cells are made by bone marrow and help
the body fight infection and other diseases. There are lots of
types of white blood cells.
The Enemy
 Antigen—a foreign substance that causes a response in the
immune system. Antigens can be bacterium, viruses, etc. There's
a different antigen for every cold that you've ever had and every
type of flower that's ever made you sneeze.
How it works
White blood cells patrol the body. When they come across an
antigen, they produce an antibody. The antibody binds to the antigen.
Each antigen is shaped differently. The immune system has to produce
the antibody that fits it exactly. Some antibodies destroy antigens
when they bind with them. Others make it easier for white blood cells
to destroy the antigen.
Vaccines
A vaccine essentially helps your immune system crack the code
of a certain illness. A vaccine is usually made of the same cells that
could make you sick, but they are weak or inactive. Sometimes a
vaccine is made of cells that are very close, but not exactly the same,
to the cells that would make you sick. When a vaccine enters the
body, the immune system responds the same way it would to any
germ. The vaccine is easier to fight than the illness you’re being
vaccinated against, and it won’t make you sick while your immune
system fights it. Once the immune system figures out how to fight and
defeat the antigens, it remembers what works against them. Should

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such an enemy enter your body again, your body will move to attack it
before it has a chance to implement its plans to make you sick.
Sometimes, your immune system needs a refresher course, which is
why you get booster doses of some vaccines. Some antigens are
especially tricky, and change over time, like flu viruses. That’s why
people need to get flu shots every year to make sure they’re ready to
take on the latest version.

ТЕКСТ 22
From The Chapel Hill News (August 3, 2003)
The Big Splat or How Our Moon Came to Be by Dana Mackenzie.
Wiley, $24.95, 232 pages.
By Phillip Manning
How Earth Got Its Moon

Shakespeare, Byron, and hosts of song writers have written


about the Moon, the brightest object in the night sky. It has inspired
scientists, too, but not to pen dreamy verses. When scientists look at
the Moon, they don’t see metaphors, they see a big question: Where
did it come from?
The answer is not obvious. Until recently, no one had been to the
Moon. Simple questions like, What is it made of? could not be
answered. However, the Moon is our nearest neighbor in the cosmos,
so the shortage of evidence did not stop scientists from speculating
about its origin. Three competing theories developed. How these
theories — condensation, splitting off, and capture — and a fourth one

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that was added later were winnowed down to a single, generally
accepted hypothesis neatly illustrates how science progresses.
First up was the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who said
in 1755 that the Moon condensed out of the same swirling nebula that
formed the Earth. The astronomer George Darwin (son of Charles)
proposed in 1878 that the Earth and Moon were once a single body, a
molten dervish that ejected the material that became the Moon.
Another theory came a few decades later from astronomer Thomas
Jefferson Jackson See, who postulated that the Moon was a body from
outer space that had been captured by Earth’s gravity.
These three theories, refined over the years, dominated the
thinking about the Moon’s birth until the early 1970s. By then
scientists were finding problems with each of them. In his book “The
Big Splat, or How Our Moon Came to Be,” science writer Dana
Mackenzie details the reasons. Kant’s condensation theory was in
trouble because the density of the Moon is lower than that of the
Earth, which has a heavy iron core. Thus, scientists reasoned, the
Moon must have a smaller, or nonexistent, iron core. If Earth and
Moon condensed out of the same material, why should the Moon have
less iron? Darwin’s splitting-off theory was questioned next. Using
what he called “high school physics,” Harvard astrophysicist Alistair
Cameron calculated that the early Earth could not have been spinning
fast enough to throw off a piece of itself to form the Moon. See’s
capture theory fell into disfavor for same reason as the condensation
theory. Rocky bodies in space are rich in iron, which didn’t fit with
the Moon’s low iron content. Nevertheless, astronomers needed a

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theory to hold on to and these three were still around in 1974 when
William Hartman proposed something new. The Moon, he said, was
formed when another planet struck the Earth. Hartman and a colleague
published the “giant impact theory” in 1975. Cameron, who developed
the same idea independently, and a postdoctoral student followed with
their paper a year later. Nobody paid much attention. Scientists were
busy analyzing Moon rocks brought back to Earth by Apollo
astronauts and finding surprising results.
"If it disagrees with experiment, it is wrong,” observed Nobel
laureate Richard Feynman. And each of the early three theories —
already suspect — seemed to disagree with the accumulating
evidence. The percentage of a rare, heavy form of oxygen found in
Moon rocks was identical to that found on Earth. Asteroids and other
planets have different percentages of heavy oxygen than Earth, which
cast more doubt on the capture theory. Another analysis showed
almost no volatiles (substances with low boiling points, such as water
and nitrogen) were present in Moon rocks. This finding further eroded
the condensation hypothesis. If Earth and Moon had both condensed
out of the same matter, what happened to the Moon’s volatiles?
Moon scientists gathered in Hawaii in 1984 to discuss the four
origin theories, which now included the giant impact hypothesis. It
was a rarity among scientific meetings; the conferees approached a
consensus. The only hypothesis that fit all the data was the giant
impact theory.
The Moon’s story, as recapped by Mackenzie, starts with the
formation of the Earth 4.57 billion years ago. Fifty million years later,

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a Mars-sized planet plowed “into Earth with the energy of trillions of
hydrogen bombs.” Material from Earth’s mantle was blown into the
sky. A ring of debris went into orbit and coalesced into the Moon.
Because the Moon was formed primarily from the Earth’s mantle and
not from its iron-rich core, the theory accounted for the iron-poor
Moon and for the identical percentage of heavy oxygen. Furthermore,
the heat of the explosion would have vaporized any water or nitrogen
present, thus explaining why the Moon has no volatiles.
The giant impact theory seems sound, and most scientists now
subscribe to it. Of course, new evidence could consign it to the same
trash heap where the older theories are buried. New data sometimes
leads to new theories; that is how science progresses.

ТЕКСТ 23
From The News & Observer (December 14, 2003)
Nature via Nurture: Genes, Experience, & What Makes Us Human by
Matt Ridley. HarperCollins, $25.95, 326 pages.
By Phillip Manning
Nature or Nurture or Both?

What makes us the way we are? Why does Sally get all A’s
while little Susie is lucky to get a C? Why are some people depressed
while others see only the sunny side? Why are so many of us deathly
frightened of snakes and spiders? Were we born that way or are we
products of our environment? Or both?

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This is the essence of the nature vs. nurture debate, a 300-year-
old argument over questions that go to the heart of human existence.
Science has made strides these past three centuries in exploring this
question. However, we are still a long way from a final answer, an
unsettling fact for modern societies that expect science to unravel the
world’s mysteries. In response to these demands, scientists offer data,
hypotheses, and informed opinion before their findings are mature
enough to support solid conclusions. There is nothing wrong with this;
it’s how science advances. Hypotheses are tested against new data.
Winning hypotheses become theories; winning theories become laws.
It is in this provisional spirit that British science writer Matt
Ridley, author of the best seller “Genome,” offers a new way of
looking at the nature vs. nurture debate. In “Nature via Nurture,”
Ridley asserts that the debate is framed incorrectly because it pits the
two against one another. Nature and nurture, he claims, are not
independent but symbiotic. “Genes,” he writes, “are not puppet
masters pulling the strings of your behavior but puppets at the mercy
of your behavior.” His book aims to substantiate that hypothesis, a
goal that is only partially realized because the evidence Ridley
marshals to support it is slim and occasionally inapposite.
First, a caveat. We do know that some human attributes are
determined entirely by genetics (nature) and some entirely by
circumstance (nurture). If you inherit a specific mutant gene, you will
get Huntington’s disease no matter how well you look after yourself,
no matter what medicines you take. However, no one is genetically
programmed to learn a certain language, say, Russian rather than

106
Japanese. All humans have the knack for syntax, but you learn your
native tongue entirely through nurture, by listening to people use that
language. Ridley is less interested in these certainties than in the broad
middle ground where genes and the environment interact in
complicated feedback mechanisms that play a major role in
determining who and what we are.
“Genes,” he writes, “are designed to take their cues from
nurture.” This is undeniably true. Consider phobias. Most of us
quickly learn to fear snakes and spiders, both of which were threats to
our Stone Age ancestors. Experience with creepy crawlies over
millions of years has wired our brains in ways that make it easy for us
to learn to avoid them. And genes created the wiring. This is
eminently sensible; natural selection via snake bites would weed out
people who didn’t quickly learn to fear snakes. But given that the
appearance of every attribute is governed by the rules of natural
selection, one could argue that all genes are ultimately attributable to
environment.
More important than asking how we got our genes is how our
behavior causes them to be expressed or suppressed. Ridley gets at
this issue with an example involving IQ scores. Studies of adopted
siblings indicate that the genetic component of IQ scores rises from 20
percent in infancy (when nurture is critically important) to as much as
80 percent for people beyond middle age. Ridley believes that the
change comes not because of innate differences in intelligence but
because genes steer some people toward intellectual pursuits and

107
others toward, say, athletics. “Genes,” he writes, “are the agents of
nurture.”
This conclusion is speculative. Nobody has ever identified genes
that incline one toward intellectual pursuits. But sometimes
speculation is all science can provide, and Ridley’s interpretation
seems sound. Environment clearly plays a part in determining IQ
scores as evidenced by its dominant role in infants. Thus, it is
reasonable to assume that the environment would continue to affect
the IQ scores of adults. This indicates that people who score high on
IQ tests do so because they choose an intellectual environment that
produces good scores. And since the scores of adults largely depend
on a genetic component, it is possible that their genes cause them to
prefer that environment. If so, genes would indeed be the agents of
nurture.
Ridley peppers his book with other scientific studies in an
attempt to show how genes interact with environment to govern
human behavior. Some of these are not persuasive. For instance, the
discussion of how genes affect personality doesn’t do much to
advance his principal argument. A combination of two genes partially
accounts for the incidence of depression among adults. But this
example only shows how genes can affect human behavior, and it has
only a tenuous connection with the concept of nature via nurture.
Dead ends like this one arise because the idea Ridley is pursuing
is new, and the science to prove his points is not fully developed. In
fact, science cannot account for the behavior of most people most of
the time. Genes, the environment, and the interaction of the two are

108
certainly involved, but in most cases, the data is too skimpy to tell us
how. Ridley’s writing style —witty, breezy, anecdotal, and
entertaining — exacerbates the confusion. This style worked
beautifully for his previous book “Genome,” in which Ridley played
the well-informed voyeur cruising through the chromosomes
searching for interesting genes. However, this book is more ambitious,
an attempt to synthesize a new way of looking at how we humans
operate. And though his style makes “Nature via Nurture” an easy
read, it often obscures the science that supports his central thesis.
Nonetheless, Ridley may be on to something important,
something that will help us understand why we are the way we are. He
has thrown out a broad hypothesis that should stimulate scientists,
writers, and readers to think long and critically about an important
issue.

ТЕКСТ 24
Minister Criticizes U.S. Dominance
Reuters
Russian Foreign Minister expressed concern about U.S.
domination of world affairs and urged Washington to be more realistic
and less emotional over Iraq.
In a wide-ranging interview, he reiterated Russia's opposition to
NATO membership for the Baltic states and dismissed U.S. charges
that Moscow was selling nuclear technology to Iraq.
But he also said Washington and Moscow could find a common
language on security matters, applauded the United States for listening

109
to Moscow's fears about NATO expansion and hailed his relationship
with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright.
The minister set out his vision of a "multipolar" world in which
no country was dominant. Achieving this, he said, would be a gradual
process. "But several trends can develop in the course of this process,
including the tendency for American dominance in world affairs," he
said in the interview, published just before he completed three years as
foreign minister.
"One may indeed consider there is now one superpower in the
world," he said. "But we must not close our eyes to the processes
going on in other parts of the world."
On Iraq, the minister said Washington and Moscow shared the
same ultimate goal of destroying Baghdad's weapons of mass
destruction. But he criticized what he called a U.S. show of force in a
dispute over United Nations arms inspectors which came to a head last
year.
"We would like the emotional overload to be removed from the
American approach so that it becomes more realistic," he said.
He rejected U.S. charges that Moscow, which is helping Teheran
to build a nuclear power station, is helping Iran to develop nuclear
power weapons. He dismissed U.S. demands for other countries to
sever business ties with Teheran, Washington's ideological foe and
asserted that.
Russia would review ties with the North Atlantic Treaty Alliance
if the former Soviet republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined
the alliance. Moscow would consider such a move by the NATO as a

110
security threat.
He also regretted a "NATO-centric" security policy in Europe
and called for a bigger role for the Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which monitors democracy, human
rights and arms control.

ТЕКСТ 25
Agassi faces tough return to No. 1
By Doug Smith
USA TODAY
NOVEMBER 9, 2000
The men's and women's pro tennis tours wind down this month,
with Andre Agassi and Martina Hingis among the favorites seeking
season-ending titles.
Australian Open champion Agassi, 30, Wimbledon champion
Pete Sampras, 29, and three others – French Open champion Gustavo
Kuerten, 24, US Open champion Marat Safin, 20, and Magnus
Norman, 24 – already have qualified, for the Tennis Masters Cup,
which begins Nov. 28 in Lisbon, Portugal.
"It's an incredible feeling," says Norman, who has won five titles
this year. "It's actually something I never believed I would achieve in
my career. I've been dreaming of making it [to the Tennis Masters
Cup] since I was a kid."
Australia's Lleyton Hewitt, Russia's Yevgeny Kafelnikov, Alex
Corretja and Thomas Enqvist are vying for the final three berths.
Because of a recent ATP Tour rule change, seven top qualifiers

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and a Grand Slam champion ranked between Nos. 8-20 qualify for the
$3.7 million event, which features the top eight players in a round-
robin format. Hewitt, who has won four titles this year, hopes to be the
first teenager since Andrei Medvedev (1993) to qualify for the men's
season finale.
Agassi, who ended, Sampras' six-year run at No. 1 last year, is a
long shot to finish at No. 1 this year, ATP spokesman Greg Sharko
says.
"He'd have to win Lyon (France) this week and everything else
through the Masters Cup," Sharko says.
On the women's side, top-ranked Hingis is a shoo-in to stay at
No.1, whether she wins the title or loses in the first round of next
week's Chase Championships, which features the 16 top singles
players and eight top doubles teams in New York's Madison Square
Garden.
"The point spread is too much," says Vani Vosburgh, a WTA
Tour spokesperson, noting Hingis' substantial advantage over nearest
competitor Lindsay Davenport for No.1.
The women tour's season finale will shift next year to Munich,
Germany, thus ending a 25-year relationship with MSG.
Davenport says she's troubled that the number of US tour events
continues to dwindle. The Advanta Championships, underway this
week in Philadelphia, also will move next year to Europe (Nice,
France). Only 11 of 66 Tour events will be held in the USA in 2001.
No.1 Hingis, No.2 Davenport, No.3 Venus Williams and No.4
Monica Seles are among 14 pros who have qualified for the $2 million

112
event. Anna Kournikova, Chanda Rubin, Amanda Coetzer, Elena
Dementieva and Jennifer Capriati, who last played in the season-
ending event in 1992, were the latest qualifiers.
Amelie Mauresmo, Anke Huber, Julie Halard-Decugis and Amy
Frazier are vying for the final two berths. Other lower-ranked pros,
including Kim Cljisters and Sandrine Testud, might gain berths if
ailing pros (Venus, her sister, No.6 Serena and No.5 Mary Pierce)
withdraw.

ТЕКСТ 26
Man survives 'double-decker' transplant
From: bbc.news.health.com
Surgeons in Newcastle gave Ken Spensley, 44, of Middlesbrough, two
kidneys instead of the usual one during a six-hour operation a month
ago.

In the first operation of its kind in the UK, the former publican was
fitted with the two transplanted organs on the right-hand side of his
abdomen, rather than one on each side.

Consultant surgeon David Talbot, from Newcastle's Freeman


Hospital, said this meant Mr Spensley's left-hand side was free should
he need a further transplant later in life.

The former publican's two original failing organs were left in his
body, meaning he has four kidneys.

113
After suffering kidney failure, he went on dialysis for 15 hours a week
as he waited for a suitable transplant.

In the past year Mr Spensley lost five stone and had to restrict himself
to just one litre of fluid a day.

He had to watch his diet as his body was unable to process waste
properly.

Bananas, chocolates, coffee and chips were strictly limited and he said
most of his meals were bland.

Mr Spensley said: "I am just looking forward to getting back to


normal.

"Going to the gym, going jogging and maybe a plate of chips."

More donors

His surgeon was pleased with the pioneering operation, which he


performed on December 21.

The procedure of transplanting two adult organs to one side of the


body has been carried out about a dozen times in the United States,
but Mr Talbot believed this was a first in Britain.

He said: "I have wanted to do this for a long time; the situation has
never arisen until now, so I was pleased when the opportunity
occurred.

114
"Commonly, transplanted kidneys sleep for a while, they do
absolutely nothing while they are recovering from the whole ordeal,
until one day they start to work.

"In this case, they started to work much faster than a single kidney."

Both Mr Spensley and Mr Talbot appealed for more organ donors to


come forward.

ТЕКСТ 27

Day of anger threatened over cartoons of Prophet


By David Rennie, Europe Correspondent
and Tim Butcher in Jerusalem
The Daily Telegraph, 04/02/2006
A leading Islamic cleric called for an "international day of
anger" today over publication of caricatures of the Prophet
Mohammed, and a Danish activist predicted that deadly violence
could break out in Europe "at any minute".
As more European newspapers reprinted the cartoons, what
started off as a row between Denmark's press and its Muslim
population grew into a full-blown "clash of civilisations".
Anger boiled over in the Gaza Strip, where gunmen from Islamic
Jihad occupied the office of the European Union. Europeans began to
leave the Palestinian territories after threats from the Al-Aqsa Martyrs
Brigades.

115
Jihad al-Momani, the editor of the Jordanian newspaper al-
Shihan, was sacked for trying to publish three of the 12 caricatures.
He said that he was aiming "to show his readers "the extent of the
Danish offence".
A leading hard-line Muslim cleric, Sheikh Yussef al-Qaradawi,
called for the day of anger to protest against the printing of the
cartoons - first published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten in
September - in other European papers.
"Let Friday be an international day of anger for God and his
prophet," said the sheikh, who is the head of the International
Association of Muslim Scholars. He is one of the Arab world's most
popular television preachers and made a controversial visit to London
in July 2004 as a guest of the mayor, Ken Livingstone.
Ahmed Akkari, a Muslim theologian from Copenhagen, said he
had attended a meeting this week with the Danish intelligence service,
which called the situation "very, very tense".
He said that a text message had been sent to the mobile phones
of young Muslims "telling people not to react to provocations from
Right-wing extremists, like burning the Koran, but I know some
Muslims will not listen to our message".
He said the level of anger was "very high" in the Muslim
community across Europe and the wider world.
"It is more likely [than not] that any minute we will hear of
violence unless the police can control the situation."
Mr Akkari is the spokesman for a group of Danish imams and
activists who brought the cartoons - plus three more offensive ones

116
from an unknown source - to the wider attention of Muslims in trips to
Egypt and Lebanon. One of the three new cartoons shows Mohammed
with a pig's snout.
In an interview with The Daily Telegraph, Mr Akkari referred to
the murder of Theo van Gogh in the Netherlands in 2004. Mr van
Gogh was shot and stabbed to death by a Muslim extremist as
"punishment" for making a film about the repression of Muslim
women that included images of naked women with Koranic verses on
their skin.
"For four months we have been trying to take this conflict in
hand politically and by the legal system so that we should not see any
scenario like Holland," Mr Akkari said.
He issued a warning that "a clash of civilisations" might result
from the decision of newspapers in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and
Switzerland to reproduce the 12 cartoons.
"The latest developments are very dangerous. If some militant
group goes to a church and tries to do something wrong, it can really
escalate and make a danger for European communities."
Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the prime minister of Denmark, told
the Danish newspaper Politiken that the issue had gone beyond a row
between Copenhagen and the Muslim world and now centred on
western free speech versus taboos in Islam. He said: "We are talking
about an issue with fundamental significance to how democracies
work."
Ahmad Sheikh, the president of the Muslim Association of
Britain, called on the British media not to publish the cartoons.

117
He said: "Society has to debate the issue but printing an image of
the Prophet is offensive to the Muslim community. It is idolatrous.
What benefit is there? It will damage community relations. Free
speech ends when it starts hurting other people."
Channel 4 news showed the cartoons clearly in its 7pm broadcast
last night and the BBC showed them fleetingly. They also appear on
the website of the extremist British National Party. Tony Blair's
official spokesman said: "It is entirely a matter for media
organisations to decide what they want to do. It is a matter for them
within the law."
British Muslim leaders met the Danish ambassador in London on
Wednesday to express their anger over the drawings.

ТЕКСТ 28
'Arise, er, Mister Gates'
Bill Gates' honorary knighthood won't allow him use the title "Sir
Bill". So what's the point in citizens of a proud republic taking titles
they can't use?
Bill Gates joins a long line of US luminaries to get a gong
Despite the queues of American tourists outside Buckingham
Palace, a deep-rooted suspicion of the British monarchy is as
American as mom and apple pie.
While many Americans are interested in the Royal Family, few
would be very keen on becoming subjects of Her Majesty.

118
So why is Microsoft chairman Bill Gates - a proud American -
going to accept a title from the British Queen? Is there no conflict
between the two?
He is by no means alone in doing so - before him have been
Rudy Giuliani, Steven Spielberg, Bob Hope, Billy Graham, George
Mitchell, Norman Schwarzkopf and George Bush senior.
None have the right to use the title "Sir". None have been on one
knee; none have been tapped on the shoulders with a sword (the
ceremony called "dubbing"); none have heard the magic words "Arise,
Sir -".
Call me ‘mister’
So with no ceremony and no title, what's the point?
Although they cannot use the title Sir, they can use the
appropriate letters after their name to specify which order they are a
knight of. Mr Gates, for instance, will be made a Knight Commander
of the British Empire, which allows him to use the letters KBE after
his name.
Bill Gates will not be a real knight
There are many different kinds of knighthoods, each of which
has a different significance.
Mr Gates' gong dates back to 1917 in recognition of those who
had helped the British war effort.
It has developed into a more general award; foreigners can now
be given an honorary award for "services rendered to the United
Kingdom and its peoples". In his case, for enterprise, education and

119
the voluntary sector in the UK; in Mr Giuliani's for helping the
families of British people killed in the World Trade Center attacks.
Sir Bob
Bob Geldof is perhaps the most famous recipient of an honorary
knighthood, for his work with Live Aid. Being an Irish citizen, he was
not eligible for a knighthood proper, but this has not stopped the
media referring to him as "Sir Bob".

ТЕКСТ 29
Learning to live with Putin's Russia
Whatever role the president takes in the future,
the group of people running Russia today will remain in charge
for the foreseeable future
By Charles Grant
The Guardian
December 3, 2007
Following United Russia's landslide victory in the Duma
elections, the precise mechanism through which Vladimir Putin holds
on to power, after his presidential term expires in March, is unclear.
But it seems almost certain that Putin will wield influence - as head of
the national security council, party leader, prime minister or 'father of
the nation' - for many years to come. The Kremlin stage-managed the
election campaign as a kind of referendum on Putin, and the 64
percent of the vote won by United Russia gives him a resounding
victory. Of the other parties that have passed the 7 per cent threshold
to enter the Duma, only the Communist Party - with 11.5 per cent - is

120
independent of the Kremlin.
One slight mystery hangs over this election. Given Putin's
popularity, the blanket support that United Russia received from the
mass media, and the weakness of the opposition - as usual, the liberal
leaders could not work together so had no hope of passing the 7 per
cent threshold - why did the government interfere so blatantly in the
electoral process? In a free and fair election, United Russia still would
have won easily.
The answer may be that Putin and his aides are not entirely
confident of a smooth transition to a new system in which he remains
powerful but someone else is president. There are feuding clans within
the Kremlin and the security services - one of the foundations of
Putin's power - report (for now) to the president. Putin may believe
that the strong vote for United Russia will ensure that, in his future
job, he has the moral authority to gather the reins of power together in
his hands.
My own view is that Putin will manage the transition quite easily
and that the group of people running Russia today will remain in
charge for the foreseeable future. It is hard to see what could threaten
their rule. Putin is genuinely popular, and not without reason. Russia
today is better governed and more prosperous than at any time in its
history. Most Russians do not worry that the chaotic democracy of the
1990s has been replaced by an authoritarian, Kremlin-managed
political system. The Putin clique controls the armed forces, the mass
media, most of the political parties and the commanding heights of the
economy. It has set aside hundreds of billions of dollars in funds that

121
can be thrown at any future problem, such as those that may follow a
slump in the oil price.
In Putin's second term as president, economic reform has ground
to a halt. Yet his ministers continue to manage the economy
competently. I share the view of Goldman Sachs's Moscow analysts,
which is that Russia's strong economic growth, of nearly 10 per cent a
year, is no longer driven mainly by oil and gas. The rise in economic
output now stretches across many sectors. Signs of a new and
prosperous middle class, such as a plethora of IKEA outlets, are
evident in many provincial cities.
Of course, neither the rapid growth of Russia's economy, nor the
continued strength and stability of the current political regime, is
guaranteed for the next ten years. A decline in hydrocarbon
production - Russia has not invested sufficiently in new oil and gas
fields - would create problems, as would a prolonged period of cheap
oil. If the state interferes too much in the economy, allows corruption
to worsen, or undermines property rights, economic growth will
suffer.
However, my guess is that, given the intimate links between the
political elite and the leading companies, self-interest will encourage
Russia's rulers to create the conditions in which capitalism can thrive.
Russia's companies will be more profitable if corruption is kept in
check, if the legal system establishes some independence from the
government, and if foreign investors are not turned away. Russia's
capitalists want to do the kinds of things that western capitalists do -
buy companies in other countries, raise money on international stock

122
markets and hire the best talent. But they will not be able to do such
things if relations between Russia and the West deteriorate much
further than they have already. That gives some reason to hope that
Putin may ease off on the nationalist rhetoric that he resorted to during
the election campaign.
Europe will have to learn to live with this new Russia -
economically strong, politically authoritarian and assertive in foreign
policy. The EU should not expect to be able to influence Russia's
internal political system; any attempt to do so would probably be
counter-productive. But it should seek to engage the Russians on areas
of common interest, such as energy (where the EU and Russia depend
on each other) and integrating Russian companies into the
international financial system.
Another area of common interest is the neighbourhood shared by
Russia and the EU, including Georgia and Ukraine. A lot of Russians
still see this region as their own backyard and do not accept that the
EU has a legitimate interest in it. Competing Russian and European
views on the future of this region are likely to create tensions. But if
the EU states can learn to speak with one voice in their dealings with
Russia, Putin and his successors will have to take account of what
they say - on the common neighbourhood, and much else.

ТЕКСТ 30
THE REST-OF-THE-WORLD CUP
Time, 6/17/2002
Joel Stein

123
If there's a global tournament and we don't watch, does it
still make a sound?
There are just two things about the World Cup that prevent
Americans from caring: it involves soccer and the rest of the world.
We could get over the soccer part eventually--after all, it's kind of like
the soccer we make our suburban children play, only without the goal
scoring. But the global part just isn't going to happen. When I hear
that Tunisia is playing Belgium for the crucial Group H runner-up
spot, all I want is a map. The only way Americans are going to learn
another country's name is if it attacks us.
It's different for the rest of the world. Other countries have all
kinds of disagreements and problems with one another. They are
dealing with one another constantly, making treaties and trading
currencies and whatever else it is they do. The World Cup is mildly
entertaining because you get to see them sublimate their little issues
by kicking a ball at one another, sort of like watching your children
backyard-wrestle. Senegal beats France, and the Senegalese throw a
huge party venting their anger over two centuries of French
colonialism. Imagine how much fun it is for anyone to act superior to
the French, and multiply that by Senegal. And last Friday England and
Argentina got to work out whatever their deal was with those islands.
The problem for us, however, is that it's really hard to work up that
much antagonism when you're a superpower with a short history and
friendly borders. Last week we pulled off a huge victory against
Portugal. It didn't make us feel that great because there's not much
Portugal is better at than us, other than making sweet wine and salted

124
cod. This is a country that has been in decline since 1494, when in the
saddest, most grandiose moment of self-delusion in history, it actually
sat down with Spain and divided up the world. Not even Brad Grey
and Mike Ovitz ever did that, at least not publicly.
When Iran beat us four years ago, the Iranians went crazy in the
streets. How anyone could have differentiated this from what Tehran
normally looks like, I'm not sure, but apparently there were especially
powerful American-flag flames. But I'm glad they beat us, since we
wouldn't have enjoyed it if we had won. We don't throw ticker-tape
parades for beating Iran at stuff, because if we did, we'd be short on
ticker tape. The only thing we could possibly lose to Iran at besides
soccer is subjugating women. Now that Russia isn't important, there's
no one for us to get juiced about. The Taliban, unfortunately, don't
even have a soccer team, which doesn't make sense since they spend
all that time at camps.
We have the same problem with the Olympics. We like those
new fake sports we force the Olympic committee to include so we can
win, like beach volleyball, snowboarding and major-motion-picture
production. But unless the games are held either in America or Utah,
we're not going to watch people pole vault. Unless they get hurt doing
it. Then we'll watch it over and over again.
Sure, we could watch the World Cup, get rid of our steel tariffs,
sign the Kyoto treaty and build a coalition before invading Iraq, but all
that sounds like a lot of effort. We have enough trouble persuading
our states to get along without involving the rest of the world in our
activities. When we trumpeted globalization, we were pretty clear that

125
we meant other countries acting like us, not vice versa.
If the world really wants us to watch their cute little no-handsy
sport, they've got to make an effort. The world has done a poor job
marketing this World Cup thing to us. There's no Burger King tie-in,
no campaign with Matthew Perry going Soccer Crazy as a pre-
emptive excuse for going to rehab. Would it be too much to ask that
France's Zinedine Zidane develop Le People's Eyebrow? You know
who's doing World Cup commentary on TV? Me neither, but I'm
pretty sure it's not Snoop and Ozzy Osbourne. I can't understand why
I'm not in charge of everything.
And just because Americans grew up playing soccer in
adolescence doesn't mean we want to watch other people do it; we
also grew up bowling and arguing about who should hang up first.
The intrinsic problem with soccer is that a goal can occur at any time,
including breaks for nachos, beer or the bathroom. Unlike the rest of
the world, with their soccer and cricket and goat malleting, we have
perfected our sports so that you only have to tune into the last two
minutes to see if Shaq can hit his free throws. We're a busy people.
Look, we'll watch the World Cup when we win the thing and
not a second before.
ТЕКСТ 31
A Touch of London
“I don’t take coffee I take tea my dear
I like my toast done on one side
And you can hear it in my accent when I talk
I’m an Englishman in New York”

126
This is the beginning of a famous song by Sting, emphasising the
way in which an Englishman is unique and recognizable when on
foreign soil. Unique is not a euphemism, because an Englishman
stands out everywhere, for his style, character and way of speaking,
being and moving. The same traits represent the DNA of London, the
English city par excellence, where apparently irreconcilable contrasts
live side by side… the Queen with punks; the Tudor-style
Buckingham Palace and futuristic structures; gossip and the British
Museum; transgressive nightclubs and old smoky pubs; the legendary
reserve of the English, the politically correct and English humour.
A bubbling, brilliant, syncopated, eccentric, transgressive, regal,
snobbish world. Undeniably fascinating.
An ethnic melting pot and touches of immortality. Down the
centuries, tinged with the pride of the colonial empire, London has
always represented the nerve centre of the Island of Albion. De facto
capital of England (no act has ever been passed to make this official)
it is the economic and cultural heart of the British world. For
centuries, well before other European nations, it has been a melting
pot where cultures arc races mix, then mix again, in a constant
succession of colours, physiognomies, accents and scents. A
kaleidoscope of humanity parades along the main streets of the city,
English gentlemen dressed rigorously in London smoke grey (ever
more rarely, with umbrella and bowler hat) alongside irreverent punks
covered with piercing, the Bridget Jones career generation, fearless
teenagers who even in January (boldly challenging the fog and frost)

127
tackle the weekend in miniskirt and T-shirt and well-bred ladies, the
ones who take tea at five in the afternoon.
Metropolitan effect. Here, everything is rapid and frenetic,
everything is a constant rush. A snake of cars, black taxis (sometimes
pink for the ladies) and red buses wind constantly through the streets –
and below the surface it's just the same. The underground, that great
"blood circulation" of the city, each day carries its human oxygen to
the City's offices. A stream of people which composedly flows to-
wards the places of work. Everyone in an orderly line on the escala-
tors leading down to the tunnel, everything at an accelerated frenetic
pace, interrupted only by those who can allow themselves the luxury
of a break – lovers who exploit the enforced idleness to exchange ten-
derness. Then once on their way, the ritual of the newspaper begins:
"Take a look around. Seven out of ten have their head in the newspa-
per. The eighth is reading a book. The ninth is sleeping. The tenth is a
tourist who is watching them" (from 'Cool Britannia' by A. Polito).
Piccadilly Circus, confluence of destinies. The nerve centre of
everything is that neutral space between past and future, Piccadilly
Circus. Shops, theatres, bars, restaurants, art and museums.
Everything which is entertainment and recreation begins here, to then
spread out to the surrounding areas. Anyone coming to London to visit
the city must of necessity start from here, to then move out to cover
the mountain of attractions on offer. Piccadilly is a symbol, the
postcard place par excellence, with the coloured lights of the publicity
in the background and the statue of Eros at the centre.

128
This is where the fun begins, this is the heart of sparkling
London.
Reactionary and revolutionary clubs. In the London of the 21st
century, there are still places where time has stood still for the last two
or three hundred years. These are the private clubs, very exclusive,
with membership linked to rights of lineage and class. Meeting places
for the upper middle class, with its elegant sirs in Prince of Wales
check and bigwigs from the banking world, where ancient rituals and
experiences handed down for centuries, but the privilege of just a
select few, are renewed. Sipping a glass of Scotch accompanied by a
good cigar, Churchill style.
But in the same London of the 21st century, there are also places
where the energies and colours of young people come together and
explode as a reaction to the rigid rock-like English conservatism. It is
no coincidence that this is the land of punk and numerous
unconventional movements which have swept through the city and
then beyond the border. Places such as Camden town are still today
typical of the exuberant London underground, places where attitudes,
philosophies, colours and transgression meet and clash.
A pause. Frenetic was the word. The English are so active they
sometimes do not stop even to drink a coffee in peace. So you can see
them walking swiftly by with a hot steaming Starbucks paper cup in
their hand. Yet this world perennially racing towards the new slows
down almost to the point of stopping in the parks dotting the city.
Protected by high railings, from Hyde Park to Kensington Gardens,
these parks define neutral areas. Once past the gates, you are greeted

129
by peace and quiet, green, often music, sometimes theatre, meetings or
rallies (speaker's corner) and numerous squirrels now accustomed to
human intrusion. A break, a sort of reviving pause in life.
Time. London's time lies somewhere between past and future.
An apparent contradiction, the result of the clash between
overpowering unstoppable modernity and the rock-like immutability
of the institutions. The city is dotted with fine buildings which recount
the centuries of history it carries proudly on its back. With its chimes,
Big Ben marks the slow and sudden changing and, looking down from
the top of its 97.5 m, observes the laborious anthill at its feet with
indulgent fondness. Big Ben and the massive Houses of Parliament
alongside are the guardians of the metropolis, silent thoughtful
witnesses of all this industriousness and by now nothing seems to
surprise them any more. When all is said and done, although
everything changes and every now and then bizarre new forms of
architecture rise up on the horizon to mark the millennium, they are
still here. Stable and precise, they mark out the time… to the rhythm
of God save the Queen.

ТЕКСТ 32

The King of Hollywood


By Richard Corliss
Stallone? Gibson? They're latecomers! With a swagger and a
smile, Douglas Fairbanks created the action film.
Camera was in love with him, as long as he moved. And silent-
film star Douglas Fairbanks was the man who put the movies in
130
motion. He climbed trees, a snake charmer's rope, a church facade.
Doug was a whiz with a rapier, a whip, a bola. He could somersault
off a horse, trampoline from one speeding car to another. He was a
fellow you literally could not keep down – a movie vision of young
America on the ascendancy in the decade after World War I.
He played heroes from foreign cultures (Robin Hood, Zorro,
D'Artagnan, the Thief of Baghdad), yet he was always an American
abroad, showing the Old World how to win the fair maiden, core each
injustice. And he's done it with a laugh.
Fairbanks was 32 and a Broadway light comedy star when, in
1915, he was signed by the Triangle film company. Its most noted
director, D.W. Griffith, was not impressed: "He's got a face like
cantaloupe, and he can't act." Both slurs were accurate. Doug's full-
moon face and double chin made him a long shot for movie
swoondom and in closeup his stage-bred gestures looked like
cheerleader antics. All he had was it – the gorgeous muscularity and
infectious brio that made folks want to pay to see more. His
exuberance turned out to be the key to a genre Doug virtually created:
the adventure comedy.
By the end of the 20s, talkies had taken over; Fairbanks sounded
flutey and looked older in them. President Franklin Roosevelt with his
big smile was giving America a Fairbanks jolt of optimism, and Doug
was disconsolate. He told his son Douglas Jr. (a film star himself).
"I've done everything-twice." Not just two Zorro movies and two
D'Artagnans, but two careers, two marriages, too much work and play.

131
ТЕКСТ 33

Your Tube is waiting for you. Send the coupon now. This test will
delight you and it is Free

Beauties of All Races


all get their white teeth in this new-day way

Careful people of some fifty nations now use a new way of teeth
cleaning. To millions of women in every clime it is bringing prettier
teeth.
Leading dentists, all the world over, are advising its adoption. It
means better tooth protection.
Are you still clinging to old methods, when all about you can see
what this new method does?
You must fight film
Old ways of teeth cleaning proved disappointing. Teeth still
discolored, still decayed, as most people know. Tooth troubles
constantly increased until very few escaped.
Dental science found the reason in a film. In that viscous film you
feel. It clings to teeth, enters crevices and stays. Food stains, etc.,
discolor it. Then it forms dingy coats. Tartar is based on film.
The ordinary tooth paste does not effectively combat it. So the
well-brushed teeth of millions were kept clouded more or less by the
film.

132
Film also holds food substance which ferments and forms acid. It
holds the acid in contact with the teeth to cause decay. It forms a
breeding place for germs, and they, with tartar, are the chief cause of
pyorrhea. Despite the tooth brush, all those troubles became alarming
in extent.
Now they combat it
Millions now combat that film. Dental research found two effective
ways. One acts to curdle film, one to remove it. This is done daily and
gently, without the use of harmful grit.
Able authorities proved these methods by many careful tests. Now
leading dentists everywhere advise them.
A new-type tooth paste has been created, based on modern
research. The name is Pepsodent. Those two great film combaters are
now embodied in it for daily application.
Let Children Try It
Do not let your children suffer what you may have suffered from
your teeth. Teach them this new-day method. Dentists advise that
children use Pepsodent from the time the first tooth appears. Watch
the results on their teeth for a week and you’ll realize why they need
it.
___________
Send the coupon for a 10-Day Tube. Note how clean the teeth feel
after using. Mark the absence of the viscous film. See how teeth
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Then decide what is best for you and yours by what you see and
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133
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ТЕКСТ 34

OASE – Ideas for BEAUTIFUL PONDS


The OASE brand has guaranteed quality for decades. Founded in
1949, the company is now present at 20 locations world-wide and is
considered the market leader in pond and fountain technology.
"Reliable. Responsible. Innovative.". This is our guideline and
is applicable for innovative, sophisticated products for garden ponds
and competent development of complex fountain installations.
Reliable.
All products and product specification are precisely communicated.
OASE has no need to embellish technical specifications. Our products
and our service are the market reference and ahead of any
competition. This means: "What you see is what you get!"
Responsible.
During development of our products we take special care for the
highest degree of environmental sustainability. Even more so: We
do not develop any products that might harm the environment.
Treating available energy resources with respect is just as self-
evident for us as supporting recycling processes.

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Innovative.
Any OASE product development aims to help you make your creative
dreams come true in a reasonable and effective way.
This is the only way of continuously creating products worthy of
the OASE brand, products known for decades for their superior
quality and innovative ideas.
Last but not least, OASE manufactures in Germany to optimally
live up to the high quality standard and quickly advance in
developing new products and enhancing existing products.
To live up to the name OASE and our claim for highest quality,
we rely on state-of-the-art technology, innovative products and
qualified employees and specialists.
OASE is a company with global activities with numerous
locations world-wide:
Germany Australia Belarus
OASE Clearpond PKP "VODA 2000"
Postfach 2069 4 Kingscote St 11/13 Internationalnaya
Tecklenburger Str. 161 Kewdale 220030 Minsk
48477 Hörstel Western Australia 6105 Tel.: 00375- 1 72 -23 22
Tel.: 05454 8 0-0 Australia 67
Fax.: 05454 8 0-25 3 Tel.: +618 9 3 53 22 66 Fax.: 00375- 0 03 75 -17

ТЕКСТ 35

Metro A UNIQUE SHOPPING


Centre AND LEISURE EXPERIENCE

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Welcome to MetroCentre - Europe's largest out of town shopping and
leisure centre. MetroCentre offers shopping of the future – today.

Extending to two million square feet, the Centre has been designed
first and foremost with people in mind. MetroCentre has three miles of
shopping malls, all under cover and temperature controlled. Comfort
and enjoyment are the keynotes of a visit to MetroCentre.

Shopper's Paradise – With more than three hundred shops and


stores, shoppers are spoilt for choice. Major High Street stores rub
shoulders with local speciality shops and bargain hunter's barrows
bringing a new dimension to shopping for all the family.

MetroCentre – Shopping and Leisure Spectacular – You can buy


almost anything at MetroCentre from big name stores and friendly
local retailers. Colourful barrows offer a breathtaking selection of
unusual bargains, ladies' and children's fashion is wide ranging to suit
every age group and pocket. Menswear, footwear, home furnishings
and state of the art electronics, hi-fi, musical instruments and
photography – you're spoilt for choice. Mouthwatering displays of
fresh food – fruit, vegetables and flowers. Breathtaking butchery
displays, delicious confectionery and sweetmeats from hand made
chocolates to home baked bread.

There are sports shops and travel agents, hair and beauty salons, a
solarium, banks and building societies all offering friendly and
efficient service for which MetroCentre is renowned.

Antique Village – A particularly popular area of specialist shops


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clustered around the Village pond offering intriguing bargains for
young and old.

Roman Forum – Another themed area designed in classical style


offering quality boutiques, unusual gift shops and specialist services.

Garden Court – Luscious greenery and water combine in the Garden


Court to provide a pleasant, relaxing retreat where a wide range of
flowers, plants and garden accessories are on offer.

Fun For All The Family – A visit to MetroCentre is not just a


shopping experience. It is a complete day out for all the family.
Metroland, Europe's only indoor theme park is the fantasy, fairytale
Kingdom of King Wiz featuring exhilarating fairground rides,
rollercoaster, Flying Galleon, Whirly Chairs, Video Arcade,
amusements and games for all ages. Landscaped with waterfalls and
streams, King Wiz and his courtiers – Whimsy The Dragon, Practical
Joker and Captain Swashbuckle can often be seen touring their
Kingdom. Metroland is open daily including Sundays.

Cinema For All Ages – When shopping is complete there is no finer


way to relax than by visiting MetroCentre's 10 screen cinema. All the
latest films in the most comfortable and luxurious surroundings. Open
daily including Sundays from early until late.

Eating Out – Whether your choice is a gourmet meal or a quick


snack, MetroCentre offers more than forty places to eat. Mexican,
Italian, Chinese, traditional British fare, the choice is yours. Speciality
restaurants, a 650 seater food court, restaurants within most major
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stores, cafeterias and fast food centres cater for every taste. Many
restaurants are open late into the evening to allow you to eat after you
shop. Some are open on a Sunday. A number of restaurants are
licensed and the Centre offers a modern cafe bar located above the
Cinema.

Late Night Shopping – One of the most pleasant times to shop at


MetroCentre is in the evening. Late night shopping is available every
weekday until 8 p.m. (9 p.m. Thursdays). All stores, shops and
services are open late. Why not bring the family, spend an hour or two
shopping, then have a meal or visit the Cinema or Metroland?

Children's Paradise – MetroCentre is a children's paradise. With


traffic free malls, all under cover, families can stroll in complete
safety. The Centre offers a Playland Creche and a whole new world of
fun and laughter for children of all ages in Metroland. The Cinema
regularly screens films with children in mind with a Children's Club
every Saturday morning. Both female and male toilets have baby
changing facilities.

The Infirm and Disabled – All entrances at MetroCentre have been


designed with the elderly and disabled in mind. Access could not be
simpler and once inside, the wide malls and lifts make shopping a real
pleasure. MetroCentre has more than 100 car parking spaces for the
disabled. In addition, through the generosity of shoppers making
donations in our pools and fountains, we have been able to purchase a
number of wheelchairs which are freely available from the
Information Centre.
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Free Parking – MetroCentre offers 10,000 free car parking spaces.

Security – Security and cleanliness are second to none. MetroCentre


is the safest place in Britain to shop.

Information – The friendly staff of the Information Centre will be


pleased to answer your questions. The Information Centre is located
adjacent to the House of Fraser in the main Town Square. Travel
information and shopping advice is always available to ensure your
visit is enjoyable. Our friendly security officers will also answer your
questions.

Coming Soon – Time doesn't stand still at MetroCentre. In 1989 a


new themed area – a Mediterranean Village will open.

ТЕКСТ 36

THE DROWNING POOL


CHAPTER 2
by Ross Macdonald
An hour north of Santa Monica a sign informed me: YOU ARE
ENTERING QUINTO, JEWEL OF THE SEA. SPEED 25 MILES. I
slowed down and began to look for a motor court. The white cottages
of the Motel del Mar looked clean and well-shaded, and I turned into
the gravel apron in front of the U-shaped enclosure. A thin woman in
a linen smock came out of the door marked OFFICE before I could
stop the car. She danced towards me smiling a dazed and arty smile.

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"Did you wish accommodation, sir?"
"I did. I still do."
She tittered and touched her fading hair, which was drawn
tightly back from her sharp face in a bun. "You're travelling alone?"
"Yes. I may stay for a few days."
She blinked her eyes roguishly, wagging her head. "Don't stay
too long, or the charm of Quinto will capture you. It's the Jewel of the
Sea, you know. You'll want to stay forever and ever. We've a very
nice single at seven."
"May I look at it?"
"Of course. I believe that you'll find it delightful."
She showed me a knotty pine room with a bed, a table, and two
chairs. The floor and furniture shone with polishing wax. There was a
Rivera reproduction on one wall, its saffrons repeated by a vase of
fresh marigolds on the mantel over the fireplace. Below the western
window the sea glimmered.
She turned to me like a musician from his piano. "Well?"
"I find it delightful." I said.
"If you'll just come up and register. I’ll have Henry fill the carafe
with ice water. We do try to make you comfortable, you see."
I followed her back to the office, feeling a little uncomfortable at
her willingness to tie herself in knots, and signed my full name in the
register, Lew A. Archer, with my Los Angeles address.
"I see you're from Los Angeles," she said, taking my money.
"Temporarily. As a matter of fact, I'd like to settle here."
"Would you really?" she gushed. "Do you hear that, Henry? The

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gentleman here would like to settle in Quinto."
A tired-looking man half-turned from his desk at the back of the
room, and grunted.
"Oh, but you'd love it," she said. "The sea. The mountains. The
clear cool air. The nights. Henry and I are awfully glad we decided to
buy this place. And it's full every night in the summer, no-vacancy
sign up long before it’s dark. Henry and I make quite a game out of it,
don't we, Henry?"
Henry grunted again.
"Are there many ways to make a living here?"
''Why, there are the stores, and real estate, all sorts of things. No
industry, of course, the Council won't permit it. After all, look what
happened to Nopal Valley when they let the oil wells in."
"What happened to Napal Valley?"
"It was ruined, absolutely ruined. Great hordes of low-class
people, Mexicans and dirty oil crews, came in from gosh knows
where, and simply blighted the town. We can't let it happen here."
"Absolutely not," I said with a phoniness she had no ear to catch.
"Quinto must remain a natural beauty."

ТЕКСТ 37
The Christening
by D.H. Lawrence
The mistress of the British School stepped down from her school
gate, and instead of turning to the left as usual, she turned to the right.
Two women who were hastening home to scramble their husbands'

141
dinners together – it was five minutes to four – stopped to look at her.
They stood gazing after her for a moment; then they glanced at each
other with a woman's little grimace.
To be sure, the retreating figure was ridiculous: small and thin,
with a black straw hat, and a rusty cashmere dress hanging full all
round the skirt. For so small and frail and rusty a creature to sail with
slow, deliberate stride was also absurd. Hilda Rowbotham was less
than thirty, so it was not years that set the measure of her pace; she
had heart disease. Keeping her face, that was small with sickness, but
not uncomely, firmly lifted and fronting ahead, the young woman
sailed on past the market-place, like a black swan of mournful,
disreputable plumage.
She turned into Berryman's, the baker's. The shop displayed
bread and cakes, sacks of flour and oatmeal, flitches of bacon, hams,
lard and sausages. The combination of scents was not unpleasing.
Hilda Rowbotham stood for some minutes nervously tapping and
pushing a large knife that lay on the counter, and looking at the tall,
glittering brass.
At last a morose man with sandy whiskers came down the step
from the houseplace.
'What is it?' he asked, not apologizing for his delay.
'Will you give me six-pennyworth of assorted cakes and pastries
– and put in some macaroons, please?' she asked, in remarkably rapid
and nervous speech. Her lips fluttered like two leaves in a wind, and
her words crowded and rushed like a flock of sheep at a gate.
'We've got no macaroons,' said the man churlishly.

142
He had evidently caught that word. He stood waiting.
'Then I can't have any, Mr. Berryman. Now I do feel
disappointed. I like those macaroons, you know, and it's not often I
treat myself. One gets so tired of trying to spoil oneself, don't you
think? It's less profitable even than trying to spoil somebody else.' She
laughed a quick little nervous laugh, putting her hand to her face.
'Then what'll you have?' asked the man, without the ghost of an
answering smile. He evidently had not followed, so he looked more
glum than ever.
'Oh, anything you've got,' replied the schoolmistress, flushing
slightly. The man moved slowly about, dropping the cakes from
various dishes one by one into a paper bag.

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БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ

1. Алексеева И.С. Профессиональное обучение


переводчика. – СПб., 2000.
2. Алексеева И.С. Письменный перевод. Немецкий язык. –
СПб., 2006.
3. Комиссаров В.Н. Современное переводоведение. М.,
1999.
4. Паршин А. Теория и практика перевода [электронный
ресурс]. Режим доступа: www.teneta.ru. Обращение 25.11.08.
5. Чужакин А.П. Мир перевода-3. Practicum plus. М., 2001.

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