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Microprocessor Control System for PWM IGBT Inverter

Feeding Three-phase Induction Motor

A. Mamoun and M. M. Ahmed


Electronics Research Institute, National Research Centre,
El-Tahrir Street, Dokki Cairo, Egypt.

Ab.vtract - In this work a t h m p h a s e P W M JGBTvoltage isolating circuits and driving and overlap protection
source inverter has been introdnced. The PWM control circuits.
signals are produced using a microprotmsor, so the complex
control circnit hardware of the inverter can be replaced by
11. SUBOPTIMALPWM SWITCHlNG STRATEGY
microprocessor software. The suboptimal PWM switching
strategy is proposed, which is closely approximates and
exhibits many of the desirable performance characteristics of The aim of the development of suboptimal PWM is
optimized PWM strategies based on mininiized the total based on the desire to maintain a well defined mdulation
harmonic distortion. The drive system hardware includes the process, which can be simply and eficiently iniplenieiited
implementation of microprocessor system, transistorized in microprocessor software, and yet reproduces the
inverter, interface circuits, isolating circuits and driving
circuits. The lGBTs are used as efficient switching devices
desirable characteristics of optiinized PWM to iinimize
for the inverter power circuits, so simple and efficient the total harmonic distortion [7]. The asymmetric regular
transistor drive circuits can be used. Also, the overlap sampling provides a sufficient nuniber of degrees of
protection is taken into considetation attentionally. The freedom to ensure that the optimized, or very near
PWM inverter is designed to feed an indnction motor with a optimized (suboptimal), PWM waveforms could be
power of adjustable voltage to frequency in a proper relation generated. The modulating wave of the suboptimal PWM
to maintain approximately constant rated flux in the is defined as
machine over the operating frequency range (1-50Hz).
Hence, the drive system is used to control the speed of three-
phase induction motor from very low speed until the motor
ratecl speed at a constant torque. The test results were
obtained experimentally. The waveforms and the speckum w o n (1) shows that G(t) is iiidepeiident of frequency
analysis of PWM control signals are given together with ratio, FR (carrier frequency,f, / incdulating frequency, fn,)
voltage and current of the motor a t different frequencies. and varies linearly wth modulation index M. It is
therefore well defined and predictable for any value of
1. INTRODUCTION fundanieiital voltage and frequency ratio, and can
therefore be used as a basic for a simple andeficient
The induction motor is the principal workhorse in microprocessor s o h e algorithm for the real -time
industrial drives. By controlling the frequency and generation of suboptimal PWM [8]. The inadulation
amplitude of the applied stator voltage, in a proper process involved in the generation of suboptimal PWM i s
relationship to inaiiitajn constant-rated flux in the shown in Fig. 1. The ON time pulsewidth of the resultiiig
tnachiiie, it is possible to operate the motor efficiently sampled
froin stand still up to the niaximuin rated speed [11. The modulating version carrier
control requirement of ac drives is very complex. The aim wave G(t) of G(t) wave
of the research and development is to provide. substantial
cost reduction and performmice improvement of ac drive
systems. A major factor iii acdrives technolosyis the
availability of microprocessors for the coiitrol of ac drive
systems. The coniplex control circuits hardware canbe
replaced by n~croprocessor software. These allow drive
characteristics to be easily changed. These, also reduce the
imiufacturing cost, increase reliability and improve PWM waveform
inaiiiteiiance and servicing [2-41. In addition, recent
developments in power semiconductors, such as IGBTs,
should eliminate i m i y of the practical power-circuit
constraints experienced in the past [5,6].

The paper develops the design of adjustable -speed


drive system including the microprocessor control TI2
structure, three-phase IGBT inverter, interfke and Rg.1 Suboptimal PWM modulating process.

0-7803-3026-9/95 $4.00 0 1995 IEEE 1354


modulated pulses may be defined in terms of tlie sampling and
instants t l and t3 as

T,,,=fI'/2) + M(T/4) [(sin omtl +(1/4) sin 3omtl)


+ (sino,t3 f (1/4) sin 30,5)] (2)

The expression for OFF time pulsewidth of theabove using the quarter and half-wave symmetry of f(wmt),A, =
modulation process is 0 for even n, B, = 0 for all n. Since f(w,t) has a constant
value between two consecutive switches of the PWM
Tom=(T/2) -M(T/4) [(sin@& +(1/4) sin 3omt& waveform, the computations of V, for odd n is
+ (sinomt3+ (1/4) sin 3omtg)] (3) considerably simplified, and can be expressed as
N
where T = carrier period, M = modulation index, a?, = V , = ( ~ / ~ X ) ~ I + Z (-l)kcosnakl (5)
nlodulating frequency in rad/sec and tl is the carrier K =I
sampling instant of the modulating wave that vary in steps
of like t, = T/2 , 3T/2, 5T/2, ...., t, isalsotliecarrier for 2-level PWM, and
sampling instant of the modulating wave that vary in steps
as t3 = t, +T/2, ts is defined to be equal to t3 + T/2 . The
voltage-te-frequency of the output voltage of tlie inverter
is kept constant in many applications, as for induction
motor drive system. This can be achieved by malciiig the for 3-level PWM, where n corresponds to the harmonic
inodulation index M as a linear function of the output order and N equals the nuniber of switching angles per
frequency of the inverter, M = Kfm, where K is a constant. quarter cycle of the PWM waveform [9].
Given the inputs M, fnl and carrier to modulating
frequency ratio, by using (2) and ( 3 ) the mvitching angles Ill. DESCRIPTION OF THE MOTOR DRIVE
for one phase and from that the smtclzing angles for the SYSTEM
other two phases can be found out [ 3 ] .
The block diagram of the designed motor drive system
Since the PWM function f(t) is periodic ,it can be and its control circuits is shown in Fig.2. The 3-phase
decomposed into a Fourier series as inaiii supply is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier. The
CO
output power from the rectifier is filtered by a dc filter.
The dc output voltage is converted by the PWM inverter to
f(o,t)= [A,cos(no,t) + Bnsin(nomt:ll (4)
n=l a 3-phase supply, with minimum harmonic distortion,
feeding an induction motor with a power of adjustable
where voltage to frequency to maintain approxiniately constant
rated flux in tlie machine over the operatingfrequency
2n range (1 -5OHz). Hence, the drive system can be used to
A,,=(l/x) If(o,t) sin(no,t) d(omt) control the speed of the induction motor from very low
s p e d until the rated speed of the motor at constant torque
0

3-phase
uncontrolled 3-phase
3-phase - LC
filter
+ PWM IGBT
VSI power
induction
rectifier motor
circuit

I
driving and
microprocessor interface and
control cointrol isolating --c overlap
signal converter struicture circuits protection
- circuits

Fig3 Block diagram of induction motor drive


system and its control circuits.

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A dc voltage signal is converted to a &@tal signal by the B. Microprocessor Conirol scheme
A/D converter, which represents tlie desired output
frequency of the inverter. In the microprocessor schenie, The microprocessor (8088) is used to generate the
the suboptimal switching strategy is used to generaie the PWM control signals with the aid of (8255) programmable
PWM signals, which are taken from the interface circuits inputloutput ports (PIO), (8253) programinable interval
to the driving circuits through isolating circuits. A simple timer (PIT),(8259) programmable interrupt co~itroller
a i d efficient drive circuit can be used for each IGBT of the (PIC) and analog to digital (ND)converter. Fig4 shows
inverter [lo]. Also, the overlap protection for each arm of the schematic diagram of the microprocessor control
the 3-phase iiiverter is taken into coiisideration structure. A dc control signal is converted to a digital
attentioiiallyin tlie drive circuits [ 1I]. number by A/Dconverter. This digital nuniber represents
the carrier time period T, which correspoiiding to the
A. Power Circuli desired output frequency. The software was developed by
the authors [I31 for produciiig the suboptimal PWM
As shown in Fig.3, the ac inain supply is rectified to a control signals. The programmable iiiputloutput ports are
dc supply by the 3-phase diode bridge rectifier. The diode used to output the six PWM control signals, and to input
rectfier circuit presents a kigh power factor to the ac main the digital number, correspondiiig to the desired output
supply network- The output power from the rectifier is frequency. The (8253) prognmmable interval tinier (PIT)
filtered by a dc link filter consisting of an inductor (L) and has three counters. The output signal froni thecounter
a capacitor (C). The capacitor basically serves to limit the changes from low to high after the loadednumber has
voltage fluctuation at the inverter input terminals, and the been finished. The (8259) programiable interrupt
inductor serves to limit the current ripple. The dc link controller (PIC) is used to ideiitlfy tlie source of the
filter can be sinaller than that in squarewaveinverter interrupt signals. Also, it determines the priority of the
drives [ 121, pjving at? attractive reduction in size, weight interrupt signals. Fig.5shows the experinieiital result of
and cost. The IGBTs are used as efficient switching the six PWM output control signals from the
devices in the inverter power circuit, so simple and injcroprocessor control circuits.
efficient transistor drive circuits can be used. The diode
which is inverse paralleled across an lGBT has, as free
wheeling diode, the duty to carry the current of the
inductances in the load circuit after turn-off the opposite
TGBT in the arm-half until relief occurs. It must be a fast
diode. The 3-phase inverter develops a 3-phase bdanced
supply with identical phase voltage waveforms having a
displacement of 120 degrees between them. It is essential,
therefore, that the control signal patterns for each inverter
ami are identical and have a constant phase displacement
of 120 degrees between them.

rectifier filter inverter

Fig.4 Schematic diagram of a microprocessor


control structure.

3-phase
main
supply

L 1

Fig5 Output PWM control signals from the


Fig.3 The power circuit feeding 3-phase induction microprocessor control circuits at
motor. fm= 47 Hz, FR = 6 and M = .94

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C. interfnce and Isolding Circuits D. Driving and Overlap Proteciion Circuits

In Fig.6, the LM393 comparator is usedtod~rectly The IGBT needs no gate drive current becauseitis
interface tlie output from the 8255 1/C) port with the voltage controlled. But at turn-onand turn-off operations,
CMOS logic (401 1). The isolating circuits are taken into the short durations of the gate drive current pulses are
consideration attentionally. The pulse lmnsformers, as generated in consequence of the input capacitance. The
compared with optocouplers, are distinctly less noise turn-off is achievable by setting the gate-emitter voltage to
sensitive. Moreover, they offer less probllems to achieve a zero. But normally it is of advantage to control tlie TGBT
lugher isolation voltage. So the pulse t.ransformers are also negatively with emitter-gate voltage. Fig.8 shows the
used to isolate the control circuits from the power circuit . drimg circuit for the iGBT and illustrates one arm of the
As sliown in the circuit of Fig.6, trains of RF pulses from three-phase inverter. The experimental result of input and
an oscillator are generated or blocked according tothe output PWM voltage wavefomis for the dnviry: circuit is
repetition rate of the PWM control signal. The niodulated shown in Fig.9. The inverter power circult uses six TGBTs
RF pulses reach, via the pulse transformer, the rectifier in three arms. In the operation of the inverter the upper
with a low charging and discharging time constant. The and lower iGBTs in one mi must not create a short
rectified signal is applied to the Schmitt-1.rigger. Its output circuit and also the period in which a pair of devices are
places then the signal which corresponds to the PWM off siniultaneously has to be as short as possible. So
control signal at the disposal of the drive stage. Fig.7 optwouplers are used, as shown in Fig.8, to prevent tlie
shows the experimental result of the input and output short circuit that would be caused by turning on a pair of
PWM coiitrol signals for the circuits of Fig.6. iGBTs at the sanie time. The upper and lower lG5Ts turn
on alternately after a delay time of tlie optocoupler.

2ofl
+15V

ll I-
+15v - BD131

BD132

ov

20k

Ii"ig.6lnterface and isolating circuits.


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Rg.7 lnput and output PWM signals {ofthe interface Fig.8 Driving and overlap protection circuits for one
and isolating circuits at arm of the 3-phase inverter.
f,= 47 Hz, FR = 6 and M = .94
1357
f 3f 6f
(a) phase control voltage

............. . .
..........................................
.:
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Fig.9 Input and output PWM voltage waveforms of f 3f 6f
the driving circuit at (b) line current of the motor
fm= 47 Hz, FR = 6 and M = .94 Fig. 11 Spectrum analysis of PWM waveforms
atf = 40Hz,FR= 6 andM= 0.8
TV. TEST RESULTS
The PWM voltage source inverter was tested with load
of 1.5 kW 3-phase induction motor. The Figures 10,ll and
12 show the spectrum analysis of the PWM phase control
signal and the load current at differentfiequenciesand
different frequency ratios. As the inverter output frequency
is increased, the modulation index increases
proportionally. The third harmonic compoiieiit is clear in f 3f 12 f
the spectrum of the phase voltage, and the harmonic
(a) phase control voltage
component at the order of frequency ratio has substantial
magnitude, so multiple of three frequency ratios must be
used to eliminate these harmonic coinponents in the line
voltage of the three-phase wire load. Also, as the
frequency ratio increases the spectrum is better. The line
voltage and curreiit waveforms of the three-phase
induction motor are shown in the Figures 13, 14 and 15 at
dBerent frequencies and different frequency ratios.
f 3f 12 f
(b)line current of the motor
Fig. 12 Spectrum analysis of PWM waveforms
at f = 40&, FR= 12 andM = 0.8

f 3f 6f
(a) phase control voltage

f 3f6f
(b) line current of the motor lOmS/div
Fig. 10 Spectrum analysis of PWMwaveforms Fig. 13 Line voltage and current of the motor
at f = 47Hz,FR = 6 and M = 0.94 at f = 47&, FR = 6 and M = 0.94
1358
induction motors", IIWIC Trans. indusfry
Applications, vol. 30, no. 2, MarchlApril 1994, pp.
286-293.
S.R Bowes and T. Davies, "Microprocessor-based
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drives", I J M Proceedings, vol. 132, pt.b, no. I ,
J a ~ ~ ~ 1985,
a r y pp. 18-45.
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uiilfied approach to the real-time implementation of
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?kans. Power F!%?cl-ponics, vo1.6, 110.4, October
1991, pp.565-575.
S.R Bowes and P.R. Clark, "Simple
Fig. 14 Line voltage and current of the motor microprocessor iniplenieiitation of new regular-
at f = 40Hz, FR = 6 and NI = 0.8 sampled harmonic elimination PWM techniques",
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lOmS/div drives", I M ' Proceedings, vol. 133, pt.b, n0.4, July
Fig. 15 Line voltage and current of the motor 1986, pp.237-254.
at f = 40Hz, ER= 12 andPvi= 0.8 S.R. Bowes and A. Midoun, "Suboptiinal switchiiig
strategies for microprocessor-controlled PWM
inverter drives", Il!'li I'rocecdings, vol. 132, pt.b,
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Jn this work , a microprocessor PVJM JGBTthree-
phase voltage source inverter has been introduced. The
design of PWM inverter systeins", UM
Proceedings, vol. 129, pt.b, no. 1 , January 1982,
PWM iiiverter is designed to feed an induction motor with
pp. 1-17.
a power of adjustable voltage tofrequencyina proper
relation to maintain approximately constant rated flux in EUPEC, "IGBT - modules : technical information",
the motor over the operating frequency range (1-50Hz). 1991.
K. Taniguchi, Y . Ogino and H. Irie, "PWM
Hence the drive system is used to control the speed of a 3-
phase induction motor fkom very low speed until the motor technique for power MOSFET iiiverter", IMU!'
rated speed at a constant torque. A microprocessor-based '/Pans. Power lllecfronicx, vo1.3, 110.3,July 1988,
PWM signal generator, which employes the suboptimal pp.328-334.
PWM strategy, has been described in this work. The K.S. Rajashekara, V. Rajagopalan, A. Sevigny and
IGBTs are used as eficient switching devices in the J. Vithayathil, "Dc link filter design considerations
inverter power circuit, so simple and efficient drive in three-phase voltage source inverter-fed induction
circuits ca.11 be used. Also, the isolatiion and overlap motor drive system", ll</th' 'lkatw. Indusfry
protection are taken into consideration attentionally.The Applicalions, vol. 1A-23, no. 4, JulyIAugust 1987,
waveforms and spectrum analysis of the PWM control pp. 673-680.
signals, line voltage of the motor and :motor current are A. Maatnoun and M.M. A h i e d , "An improved
presented experimentally. software technique using microprocessor for
producing regular-sampled PWM for three-phase
VI. REFERENCES inverter of motor drive system", 13.0~.of Inl.
IALWI{II ConJ on: modelling, simulation and
[l] T.F Lowery and D.W. Petro, "Application identtfication, Sept. 1994, Waliayama, Japan,
considerations for PWM inverter - fed low - voltage pp.84-87.

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