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Irshad Hussain Miss. Alka Maurya

Raj Kamal
Arpit Mehrotra
MBA-IB (2009-11)
Section - C



Indian Carpet
The Legend of Indian Carpets

have emerged from it have substantially

increased India's carpet exports and placed it
prominently in the international carpet map.
Carpet weaving was brought to India by the
great Mughal Emperor Akbar in the 16th
century. Some of the most exclusive carpets
were created during the Mughal reign, each
carpet unlike the other but infused with a
common magic of colours and design.
The carpet weaver has gradually grown as an
Indian Carpets are artist, a creator who could weave poetry in to his
renowned the world over for their exquisite designs and every knot he tied, giving a touch of
designs, subtle elegance, attractive colours and aesthetic beauty to his creations.
workmanship. The magnificence of Indian
carpet weaving and the intricate patterns that
A carpet weaver's skills are his own and the translated in to beautiful form with the help of
designs he evolves are from his mind to be wool and silk.

Infusing Colour
radiance that is alive. Indian carpets are
renowned for their exotic colours.
At the beginning of the 20th century, nature was
the most important source of perfect dyes and
subtle and attractive colours.
Madder, which grows almost everywhere, was
the most important colourant of vegetable
origin. Its root provided the whole range of
pinks and reds and with the green from the grass
Colours fascinate. And when they are blended and brown from the kiker tree.
with material and designs, they acquire a This gave the weaver a wide choice. Nowadays,
all types of natural dyes are used
The feel
From the outset, wool has been the basic
material for the knotted woollen carpet.
The wool used for the pile has a variety of
origins, the use related to the role for which the
carpet is being woven.
However silk is commonly used in handknotted
silk carpets in Kashmir where the weaver also
has access to the wool of the highest quality.

Designing Excellence
The figurative was combined with the geometric
and floral with the arabesque. The usual
procedure adopted by the weaver is to draw his
designs and transfer them to graph paper on
which each square represents a single knot.
Then the paper is divided into varying parts
depending on whether the pattern is intended for
the centre medallion or for a part os a repeated
pattern. these sheets of paper are then passed on
to the knotting workshop.
The other manner followed by the weavers of
Kashmir and Amritsar is the 'Talim' which
demands time and experience. A coded colour
chart indicates the number of knots to be woven
in their respective colours. The master-weaver
Pattern in a carpet is as much an integral part of
reads aloud from it and the weavers follows his
the carpet as colouring. The Indian carpet
directions carefully. The colours and number of
weaver freed carpets from the limitation of
knots to be woven are indicated by signs.
space, repeated intricate and infinite patterns in
The master-weaver winds the warp around the
an ordered symmetry and wove abstract symbols
loom and begins chanting the 'Talim' and the
into dense ornamentation.
knitters chant their reply after carrying out the

Weaving the Magic of Creativity

behind the first. As the knotting proceeds, the
carpet is rolled to the back of the loom. The
weaver begins by weaving a selvedge and
several shoots of weft are passed to form a
narrow band to secure the knots at the end of the
The Indian carpet weaver uses the asymmetrical
or Persian knot which is tied with a strand of
Yarn around two adjacent warp threads, leaving
some threads free at either side for the lateral
The loom gives shape to the carpet-weaver's selvedges. Each knot is separated from its
creative expressions. neighbour by a loop that is cut after the next
shoot of weft. this knot is also called the 'two-
One of the most commonly used loom in India
handed knot' as it can be executed both from
is the roller-beam loom. The simplest of these
right to left and from left to right. The process is
looms has two horizontal wooden beans
more widespread as it is more rapid.
between which the wrap threads are stretched,
the one beam in front of the weaver, the other is

Washing And Finishing

Washing of a carpet is done to bring sheen and
lustre, therefore, it is as important as colouring,
designing and weaving. this is the final stage of
carpet weaving and hence requires a lot of
careful handling.
Before washing, the carpet goes through the
stage of burning the back of the carpet, rubbing
with wired brush and berai to make it even.
Washing is done with water mixed with soap,
bleaching powder and other natural chemicals.
After washing, the carpet is kept in the sunlight
for drying and then it is sent for clipping.
The final appearance of a carpet comes after
clipping and chemical finishing. The art of
clipping reflects on the emboss like finish in the
final carpet.
Finishing is a meticulous process which requires
skillful craftsmanship and is done
piece by piece in handknotted


Uttar Pradesh: Varanasi, Bhadohi,

Gopiganj, Khamaria, Ghosia,
Madhosingh, Mirzapur, Agra,
Jammu & Kashmir: Srinagar,
Baramulla, Anantnag, Jammu, Leh.
Rajasthan: Jaipur, Bikaner, Tonk.
Punjab: Amritsar.
Haryana: Panipat.
Madhya Pradesh: Gwalior.
Bihar: Obra, Danapur, Madhubani
Himachal Pradesh: Dharmshala.
West Bengal: Dargeeling.
Andhra Pradesh: Elluru and Warangal
Karnataka: Bangalore.
Pondicherry: Pondicherry

Carpet Industry in Kashmir

Kashmir is famous for its fine quality hand knotted carpets, which are expensive and considered as
lifelong investment. An average piece is made with about 324 knots per square inch. Persian culture
influenced the Kashmiri carpet for quite a long time, but gradually the Kashmiri Carpet industry has
acquired an indigenous character. Kashmir has developed some of its own designs based on, the
traditional paisley, shawl patterns, leaves and flowers. In Kashmir, Talim method is used to train
craftsmen. Wool and silk is used for making carpets. The number of knots on the back of the carpet
indicates the quality. Bokhara hand knotted carpets are one of the finest with about 120- 500 knots in a
square inch.
The deep pile of Indian hand knotted carpets comes in magnificent colors, with designs which are
oriental, exotic and uniquely modern.

Namdhas: The namdha is a specialty of Kashmir; these carpets are embroidered with woolen thread
that completely covers the base of Hessian. A namdha is prepared by spreading wool with certain
quantities of cotton evenly either on mats, as in Kashmir, or on sackcloth, as in Rajasthan. This is
moistened with a special solution, which is pressed either by tramping upon it or by applying pressure
by hand. Namdhas are either embroidered or appliquéd. In Kashmir this trade is passed from one
generation to the next. During cold winter when tourism business ends, they market it personally by
approaching urban cities like Delhi on a door to door basis.

Carpet Industry in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is also known for making namdha that is appliquéd, printed or embroidered. Rajasthan made
carpets shows hunting patterns with trees and floral motifs. Jaipur and its adjacent districts is the major
manufacturing centers in Rajasthan that share a substantial part (15 percent) of total carpet
manufacturing from India. The rulers of Jaipur took a keen interest in patronizing the carpet making
activity. They were fond of collecting Persian and Mughal carpets. The carpet industry in Jaipur mainly
started flourishing in the mid 19th century. In that period, carpet making was introduced as a jail craft.

Rajasthan carpet industry is more quality sensitive and designs are more emphasized. Results of
technology implementation were remarkable in terms of revenue and other operational aspects. Centers
like Bikaner, Jaipur and Ajmer are the main places for beautiful carpets. Hand knotted carpets are
manufactured with floral or angular motifs. These carpets are known for their high quality of
craftsmanship and color-fastness, which makes it more durable.
Carpet Industry in Punjab

Punjab has ancient tradition of weaving cotton dhurries. Dhurries are made with the use of comb-like
iron fork called “punja” which means hand. It is used to heat the waft yarn to fix up in woven structure.
Carpets from the Punjab and Haryana are woven in traditional stripes as well as with stylized birds,
animals and human forms, usually used as motifs. Punjab also uses the talim method, which owes the
development of the carpet industry to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who conquered Kashmir. Most commonly
mouri designs are used in Punjab.
Traditionally, vegetable and mineral dyes like indigo, madder, turmeric, henna were used, however now
chemical dyes are highly used. Chemical bath treatment is applied on carpets for a high luster.

Carpet Industry in Uttar Pradesh

Shahjahanpur, Mirzapur, Badohi, Khamaria and Agra are main hubs for carpet Industry in Uttar
Pradesh. During British rule growing demand outside the country encouraged this carpet manufacturing
activity. Now-a-days Jute and cotton is used. Carpets made are of medium quality and on an average of
about 60 knots per square inch is applied. Shahjahanpur is also well known for luxurious carpets. The
designs are beautiful, with geometrical patterns generally in black on a maroon background. Agra is the
traditional center of carpet weaving from the period of Mughals. Agra is specialized in the use of silk
mixed with woolen yarn. Designs resembles to that of Persian style.
The weavers of the Mirzapur-Badohi region are renowned for their versatility by weaving carpets of
practically any design, including the Old Persian ones that are in great demand.

Carpet Industry in Andhra Pradesh

Masulipatnam, Elluru and Warangle are the prominent centers for carpet manufacturing in Andhra
Pradesh. In Masulipatnam, patterns used are named after the fruits and flowers like babul, guava,
ambarcha etc. Also the main designs called by the name of famous patrons for example Nurjaha, Farasi,
Shah Navaz. More often, combination of blue and green with soft yellow and pastel shades is used.

The carpets of Elluru and Warangal are the pride of Andhra Pradesh and have a strong local
flavor. The carpet weaving at warangal is done on a large scale because of ease to access cotton.
Handspun wool and jute thread are used. The design are again here of Indo-Persian origin. Images are
in deep green and orange colors while off-white background is used.

Carpet Industry in Himachal Pradesh

Sheep and goat rearing is a very common occupation of many villagers in Himachal Pradesh who are
also engaged in blanket weaving texturing. Carpets in Himachal have magnificent designs and durable
texture. Mainly carpets of these areas are made in pure wool and for dhurries cotton is used .Many
Tibetan craftsmen are engaged in weaving woolen carpets, as a result motifs are influenced by Tibetan
tradition and culture. Designs of birds, dragon, lion and swastika are popular. Threads of ground color
are used.
Carpet Type
Hand knotted Woolen Carpets

Hand knotted Woollen Carpets from India speak eloquently of the superb workmanship of the Indian
carpet Weavers. Their design and colour schemes have their own independent logic and their own
unique magic. The art of weaving carpets has percolated through generations and the Indian craftsmen
have been creating the greatest of specimen since the medieval period.
The Indian woollen carpets are inspired by the classical Persian Tradition of motifs to the most modern
design. Superior hand-knotting technique, variety of designs, colours and a good number of knots per
square inch have made them desired objects to impart a vivid appearance to a home besides adding
warmth to it.
The prominent areas which produce woollen carpets are Bhadohi, Mirzapur, Khamaria, Ghosia,
Varanasi and Agra in Uttar Pradesh; Amritsar and Pathankot in Punjab and Jaipur in Rajasthan.

Tufted Woollen Carpets

The handmade Tufted Woollen Carpets are produced with the help of tufting guns. A good quality fabric
is used for a desired pile density and number of stitches per square inch. The variety of designs and
colours used in these carpets make them a feast to one's eyes.
Panipat is main carpet producing centre of Tufted Woollen Carpets.

Gabbe Woollen Carpets

Hand-knotted Gabbe Woollen Carpets portray a unique tradition of Tribal Design.
The continuity of superb artistic tradition of Tribals have made these carpets a product of a living and
thriving art. The raw material composition of these carpets is generally 75% wool and 25% cotton.
Gabbe Woollen Carpets are mainly produced in Bhadohi-Mirzapur region in Uttar Pradesh.

Handmade Woollen Dhurries

Woollen dhurries are one of the least expensive yet very elegant 'Hand-Woven Flat Floor-Coverings'.
Dhurries are just perfect to use anywhere: in a room, in a formal setting, or casually in a balcony
echoing its democratic antecedents. Their varieties of colours are fast selling and have made them one
of the popular floor coverings in the world.
Woollen dhurries are mainly produced in Bhadhohi, Mirzapur, Agra, Jaipur, Panipat and Bangalore

Pure Silk Carpets

Handkotted pure silk Carpets are renowned for suppleness and softness and fine workmanship in the
The material composition is 80% silk yarn and 20% cotton yarn with knottage 400 knots and above per
square inch. Produced in Kashmir, these carpets display a fine workmanship and intricate designs of a
The designs vary from intricate motifs and patterns inspired from nature to hunting scenes, bird and
animal motifs or thematic designs like historical romances.

Staple/Synthetic Carpets

Staple/Synthetic carpets are synthetic handknotted carpets with a feel of silk. These finely knotted
carpets (256 knots per square inch) imbibe all the aesthetic characteristics of classical and contemporary
designs and colours.
The main carpet producing centre of Staple/Synthetic carpets are Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir), Agra
and Gwalior.
Chainstitch Rugs

Decorative handmade embroided floor coverings or Chainstitch Rugs are made of 65% Wool or Silk
yarn 35% cotton yarn. Intricate needlework by creating a variety of traditional and modern designs and
colours in these rugs reflects a fine craftsmanship of the worker.
Chainstitch Rugs are mainly produced in Kashmir.

Export Statistics
Rupees Crores (US$ Million)
1961-62 4.42 (9.30)
1962-63 4.49 (9.45)
1963-64 5.43 (11.42)
1964-65 5.66 (11.91)
1965-66 4.62 (6.79)
1966-67 7.79 (11.08)
1967-68 9.76 (13.88)
1968-69 11.15 (16.39)
1969-70 11.69 (17.00)
1970-71 10.94 (16.33)
1971-72 13.69 (17.96)
1972-73 21.44 (27.44)
1973-74 26.42 (34.39)
1974-75 36.11 (42.56)
1975-76 41.43 (50.46)
1976-77 66.41 (79.38)
1977-78 81.96 (99.52)
1978-79 99.37 (125.47)
1979-80 135.38 (173.72)
1980-81 159.24 (209.40)
1981-82 177.08 (206.20)
1982-83 172.37 (191.86)
1983-84 194.76 (188.35)
1984-85 245.42 (206.43)
1985-86 219.95 (179.77)
1986-87 283.60 (221.94)
1987-88 375.04 (289.25)
1988-89 451.28 (311.66)
1989-90 420.08 (252.30)
1990-91 565.34 (282.61)
1991-92 847.61 (304.41)
1992-93 1047.93 (381.99)
1993-94 992.00 (316.13)
1994-95 1102.94 (351.02)
1995-96 1364.92 (408.07)
1996-97 1584.79 (446.41)
1997-98 1661.58 (447.07)
1998-99 2013.94 (478.68)
1999-2000 2136.03 (492.93)
2000-01 2315.15 (512.03)
2001-02 2436.13 (514.07)
2002-03 2590.26 (532.96)
2003-04 2779.79 (614.44)
2004-05 2583.62 (591.62)
2005-06 3082.06 (696.53)
2006-07 3674.86 (807.94)
2007-08 3524.73 (875.71)
2008-09 2708.73 (600.06)

Country-wise export data from 2003-04 to 2008-09 (Prov) U.S. $ Million

1 2.33 2.25 1.35 1.53 1.79 2.33 2003-04 2004-05
ntina 2005-06 2006-07 2007-
Aust 15.5 15.2 08 2008-09
2 5.83 6.08 8.03 11.23
ralia 4 0
3 5.46 4.78 5.30 6.13 4.75 5.25
Belgi 14.4
4 2.58 2.48 6.21 7.43 2.56
um 1
5 1.04 1.53 3.57 3.79 4.41 1.04
Cana 10.9 14.7
6 8.92 8.57 9.47 8.92
da 8 4
7 4.17 4.47 4.95 5.73 7.05 4.17
8 3.25 3.49 3.61 4.12 4.04 3.25
Fran 10.8 10.8 12.5 10.8
9 11.23 14.11
ce 2 3 2 2
135. 130. 132. 153. 160. 135.
10 man
9 70 27 52 67 85
10.0 26.3
11 Italy 5.65 5.44 8.64 5.65
1 2
Japa 10.8 12.3 14.3 14.8 10.8
12 11.33
n 2 8 0 6 0
13 erlan 4.23 4.39 6.95 7.99 4.23
14 1.42 1.72 1.70 1.93 2.22 1.42
15 4.05 3.90 5.51 6.38 11.53 4.05
16 zerla 5.95 5.73 3.42 3.95 2.27 5.95
Spai 20.3
17 5.40 5.20 7.43 8.56 5.40
n 9
U.S. 325. 313. 346. 403. 414. 301.
A. 40 2 52 04 62 12
24.8 23.9 35.9 41.6 45.4 24.8
19 U.K.
8 6 2 1 8 5
Othe 47.2 42.2 82.3 93.1 85.5 47.2
rs 0 1 6 9 7 0
615. 591. 696. 807. 875. 600.
30 44 44 94 71 06
(Source: NIC, Ministry of Commerce Web-Site)

Statement of estimated Exports for the month of April- March 2008-09 in comparison with the
April- March, 2007-08
Product Value Of Export
Value in US $
April -march
2007-08 2008-09 % increase /
@40.2513 @45.1410 decrease
Hand made woolen
Carpet,Rugs,Daries etc. including
515.9 321.5 -37.68%
cotton carpet excluding handmade
woolen tufted carpet
Handmade woolen tufted carpet 287.4 217.81 -24.21%
Handmade silk carpet 55.12 46.65 -15.37%
Handmade staple/sythetic carpet 17.29 14.1 -18.45%
Total 875.71 600.06 -31.48%

• Today, the carpets manufactured in India are mainly exported.
• However only a small market for these carpets does exist in India.
• As of now, over Rs. 2600 Crores worth of Indian carpets are exported. The domestic market size
is about Rs. 200 Crores.
• The industry provides employment opportunities to more than 100,000 workers at their doorsteps
who belong to the economically backward sections .
• Today, it has more than 3 million artisans belonging to the rural areas of the country.
• The scope for capital investment is very less.
• Almost up to 40% of the manufacturing cost goes in to the payment of wages which is very rare
in any other industry.
• In order to give a boost to the industry, the United Nations Development Programme set up a
project here.

• Europe (including Germany & Scandinavian Countries) : the share of our exports to Europe is
• USA & Canada : USA is the largest export market. The share of our exports to USA & Canada is
• South East Asian Countries (including Japan and Australia): Japan has grown small market for
• Rest of the World including LAC: The share of exports of Indian Carpets and Floor coverings to
rest of the world including LAC accounts for only 7.3 9%.
• Present & Future Growth Drivers of the Industry:
• Low – End Carpets, Modern Designs, New Markets


Country 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

• U.S.A. 403.04 414.62 301.12

• Germany 153.52 160.67 135.85

• U.K. 41.61 45.48 24.85

• Others 93.19 85.57 47.2





Major Exporters in India

• Azimullah Carpets, Bhadohi
• Alam Enterprises, New Delhi
• A.N.A. Intl., New Delhi
• Alauddin Exports, Bhadohi
• Bhat Carpet Factory, New Delhi
• Hassan Teppich, BhadohiI
• CL-INC, New Delhi
• Infab India, Bhadohi
• Kashyap Carpets, New Delhi
• Khanna Carpet Carpet Company, Bhadohi
• Nandi Exporters, New Delhi
• Navkar Woollens Pvt.Ltd., Bikaner
• Overseas Trade Linkers, New Delhi
• Orient Carpets, Bhadohi
• Oriental Art Covers, Bhadohi
• Pars Carpets Pvt.Ltd.,Bhadohi
• Qaleen Alishan, New Delhi
• Rug Gallery, New Delhi
• Raheem & Son (Shah Mohd)
• Shanti Exports Intl., New Delhi.
• Shamshi Exports, Bhadohi
• Srinagar Carpet Factory, New Delhi.
• Samad Hadi Exports, Bhadohi
• Shreedhar Exports, Gopiganj
Major Competitors in the global market
1998 19982 1999 2000 2001
• World 2028 1926 1977 1760
• Iran 547 520 647 537
• China 365 346 249 227
• India 378 341 351 330
• Pakistan 126 122 217 211
• Nepal 203 122 140 116
• Turkey 101 97 98 98
In USD Millions

Provisions in India’s Foreign Trade Policy

Some of the highlights of the new policy announced on 27th August, 2009 are given below for
information of the Members.

• The incentive available under Focus Market Scheme (FMS) has been raised from 2.5% to 3%.
• The incentive available under Focus Product Scheme (FPS) has been raised from 1.25% to 2%.
• A common simplified application form has been introduced for taking benefits under FPS, FMS,
• To simplify claims under FPS, requirement of ‘Handloom Mark’ for availing benefits under FPS
has been removed.
• Higher allocation for Market Development Assistance (MDA) and Market Access Initiative
(MAI) schemes is being provided.
• Jaipur, Srinagar and Anantnag have been recognised as ‘Towns of Export Excellence’ for
• To accelerate exports and encourage technological upgradation, additional Duty Credit Scrips
shall be given to Status Holders @ 1% of the FOB value of past exports. The duty credit scrips
can be used for procurement of capital goods with Actual User condition. This facility shall be
available upto 31.3.2011.
• Transferability for the Duty Credit scrips being issued to Status Holders under paragraph 3.8.6 of
FTP under VKGUY Scheme has been permitted. This is subject to the condition that transfer
would be only to Status Holders and Scrips would be utilized for the procurement of Cold Chain
equipment(s) only.
• To impart stability to the Policy regime, Duty Entitlement Passbook (DEPB) Scheme is extended
beyond 31-122009 till 31.12.2010.
• Interest subvention of 2% for pre-shipment credit for 7 specified sectors has been extended till
31.3.2010 in the Budget 2009-10.
• The adjustment assistance scheme initiated in December, 2008 to provide enhanced ECGC cover
at 95%, to the adversely affected sectors, is continued till March, 2010.
• In cases, where RBI specifically writes off the export proceeds realization, the incentives under
the FTP shall now not be recovered from the exporters subject to certain

The problem of child labour has long been present in the carpet industry in India. Both government and
the Non government organizations have taken many initiatives to curb this problem. In this venture,
both these institutions are also supported by the international agencies also. Government on its front has
passed many legislations like Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, the formulation of a
National Policy on Child Labour in 1987 etc.

The initiatives of government and NGO's are now supplemented by welfare and rehabilitation activities
undertaken by the social labelling programmes. There are four types of Labeling assigned to carpets :
Care and Fair
RUGMARK label, was the first Labeling programmes introduced in the carpet industry in India in
1994. Registered under CompaniesRegistration Act, this foundation consists of
manufacturers, exporters, NGOs and development organizations. Manufacturer or exporter who wish to
obtain license of RUGMARK has to submit a complete list of looms and/or sources of procuring their
carpets to RUGMARK foundation. The list should be updated on a regular, half-yearly basis.

Kaleen is a Labeling programmes initiated by the government. It is promoted by the Carpet Export
Promotion Council (CEPC), under the ministry of textiles. CEPC apart from providing the license to the
exporters of carpets also takes measures to eradicate the child labour and see the welfare of the weaver
in the carpet industry. CEPC introduced the Kaleen label in 1995 for carpets to be exported as a
hallmark of commitment towards the eradication of child labour. Exporters of the carpet have to obtain
license from CEPC. It is mandatory. The annual membership fee is determined by their annual turnover.

STEP is a labelling system started by members of the carpet trade in Switzerland in October 1995. It is
basically y a company certification programmes, that aim to link Indian exporters and Swiss importers
and consumers of carpets. STEP India office was established in May 1996. It provides license and the
holder of such license can use the monogram of STEP in all advertising materials, showroom displays,
etc. STEP established with the objective of providing socially just conditions in carpet production and
trade, progressive elimination of child labour and standard working and health conditions for the carpet

Care and Fair

Care and Fair, just like STEP is a company certification programme and not a product labelling
initiative. Care and Fair does not monitor the carpet production but relies on moral commitment of its
members. Care and Fair addresses the concern of several carpet importers and retailers in Germany
about the conditions prevailing in the carpet industry and the need to rectify it. The sponsors of CARE
and FAIR intend to benefit the weaver households including the child labour

Current Affairs
• Mentioning that the Indian carpet industry had ensured a growth of 24 per cent in the first half of
the current financial year.
• The carpet industries of India, Iran, China and Pakistan had decided to hold carpet fairs jointly
across the world.
• The CEPC also held a meeting of carpet manufacturers and exporters in which they were asked
not to export the carpet on credit as the size of dues had already crossed the mark of Rs 1,000
crore in the past two years and the foreign buyers had not been showing interest in clearing the
dues due to which production in Indian carpet industry could suffer.
Source: Indian Carpet Expo

• Carpet Industry Analysis available at http://www.rugandcarpets.com/carpet-industry-india.html
last accessed on 17th Dec 2010.
• National Textile Policy available at http://www.indiainbusiness.nic.in/industry-
infrastructure/industrial-sectors/textile.htm last accessed on 18th Dec 2010.
• Export Promotion Council of India available at www.indiancarpet.com last accessed on 18th Dec
• Production Centre available at www.indiancarpet.com last accessed on 18th Dec 2010.
• GSI standard in Indian handicraft available at www.indiancarpet.com last accessed on 19th Dec