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CAD/CAM Principles and

Applications
Ch 18 Group Technology and
Computer Aided process Planning

CAD/CAM Principles and 1


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Objectives
• Understand the need for group technology (GT) as a means of
bringing the benefits of mass production to the relatively smaller
production that is required in a majority of the present day
manufacturing industries.
• Learn about the coding and classification methods and schemes
used in manufacturing.
• Use production flow analysis as a method of applying GT for
manufacturing applications.
• Appreciate the need for computer aided process planning
(CAPP)
• Understand the different approaches used in CAPP application
• Learn in detail about the techniques utilised in developing CAPP
systems

CAD/CAM Principles and 2


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
18.1 Group Technology
• Group Technology (GT) is a
manufacturing philosophy which can be
used to group parts based on
similarities in design or manufacturing
process so as to reduce the overall
manufacturing cost.

CAD/CAM Principles and 3


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.1 Examples of part families that can be
grouped by geometry or processing methods.

CAD/CAM Principles and 4


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.2 Layout of machines with process grouping in a
conventional job shop, T - Turning, M - Milling, D - Drilling, CG -

Cylindrical grinding and SG - Surface grinding

T T T CG CG

T T T
SG SG

M M D D D

D D D
M M

CAD/CAM Principles and 5


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.3 Layout of machines with functional
grouping as per product requirements.

T M D SG

T M D CG

T T M CG

M D D

CAD/CAM Principles and 6


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.4 Composite part and its variants possible.

(a) (b)

CAD/CAM Principles and 7


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.5 Opitz coding system.

CAD/CAM Principles and 8


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
18.2 Computer Aided Process Planning

CAD/CAM Principles and 9


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.6 Architecture of a CAPP system

CAD/CAM Principles and 10


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.7 Variant approach to CAPP

Process plan
Process Plan
GT Code Retrieve/Edit

Type of the product: ILA750

Drawn By : Prasad AVSRK

Title: XYZ Drawing No:240248

Master
Plans

CAD/CAM Principles and 11


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.8 Generative approach to CAPP

Part Descriptive System

Process Plan Logic Process Plan

Manufacturing Facility Information

Machine Cutting Materials


Jigs
Tool Tool

CAD/CAM Principles and 12


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.9 Decision table and tree as used in CAPP
Conditions Actions
C1 C2
Y A

B
C1 N N
Y Y N
Conditions
C2 Y N Y N

Actions A B C D Y C

N
D
N

Decision table Decision tree

CAD/CAM Principles and 13


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18-10 Essential elements of a retrieval type CAPP

system

CAD/CAM Principles and 14


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18-11 Essential elements of a generative type

CAPP system

USER

Inference Engine

Cutter Path Operation


Generation Knowledge base Sequencing

Knowledge Geometric Rough Finish Process Standard


Rules rules planning planning capability Time

Selection Machine Cutting Operation Process


rules Fixture
Tool Tool Selection parameters
Machine Cutting Machinability
Fixture Material
Databases Tool Tool Data
Data Data
data Data

CAD/CAM Principles and 15


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.12 Interaction of various elements in

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)


MRIR: Manufacturing Resources Internal Representation
PDIR: Part Design Internal Representation
PPIR: Process Plan Internal Representation

MRIR

CAPP
System
PDIR PPIR

Manufacturing system

CAD/CAM Principles and 16


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.13 An example rotational part

Turn
Taper
Arc Groove Fillet
Thread Knurl

Chamfer

Face

Blank

CAD/CAM Principles and 17


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Recording the pocket Intermediate part
a
b

Fig. 18.14
c
d
Steps in pocket e
identification f

g
procedure h

i
j

m
n

CAD/CAM Principles and 18


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.15 Down face - Turn - Up face pattern forming

a pocket

(a) Pattern (b) Record (c) Modify

CAD/CAM Principles and 19


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Chuck only
component

Maximum N
external dia.
at one end?

Fig. 18.16 Determining Min. internal dia


N
at the same
end?

the number of setups in a


Y

Is blank N
a long bar?

'Chuck Only' component Y

Max.
external dia N
less than
spindle bore?

Single setup Determine


Rough and finish the demarcation line

Are there
N
any tolerances present
on the features?

Are all
Two setups
toleranced features
Rougn and finish lying on either side of
Reverse Y
Rough and finish the demarcation
line?

N
Three setups
Rough
Reverse
Rough and finish
Reverse
Finish

CAD/CAM Principles and 20


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.17 Pocket splitting based on demarcation line
AB CD: External demarcation line DL sets 1: External left pockets
EF GH: Internal demarcation line (AB,EF) 2: External right pockets
(AB,GH) 3: Internal left pockets
(CD,EF) 4: Internal right pockets
(CD,GH)

A C
Blank
External profile

1 2
D
B

3 E G 4

Internal profile
F H

CAD/CAM Principles and 21


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Fig. 18.18 Pocket splitting based on demarcation line
A C

external dia.
Maximum
B D

(a) If AB is the demarcation line (b) If CD is the demarcation line

CAD/CAM Principles and 22


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
DL

Fig. 18.19 Operation 1st setup before 2nd setup

sequencing constraints
for multi-level pocket Machine span in
second setup
Machining span in
first setup

( a ) Setup level

sorting
Turning before grooving
(in 1st setup)

( b ) Operation level

Pocket X before pocket Y


(in Rough turning)

( c ) Pocket level

CAD/CAM Principles and 23


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Summary
• GT as a philosophy started in early 1950’s brings the
advantages of mass manufacture to small batch manufacture by
combining batches based on certain similarity principle.
• GT employs product layouts to reduce the travel time and
waiting time of parts unlike the process layouts.
• GT utilises coding and classification system of parts to be able
to group them into similar groups by means of certain
characteristics such as similarity in shape, size or processing
method used. There are a number of coding schemes in use
such as Opitz, MICLASS, KK-3, etc.
• To organise the processing machines into product layouts,
production flow analysis, which identifies the similar operations
into a single group of machines to form a cell.
• It is necessary to follow the guidelines to develop efficient
manufacturing cells utilising GT.
CAD/CAM Principles and 24
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed
Summary
• CAPP is a method to develop efficient process plans directly from the
CAD model of the part by considering all the manufacturing resources
unlike the manual process planning methods.
• CAPP utilises two major approaches, viz variant approach using GT for
classifying process plans, and generative approach to develop process
plans directly from scratch every time.
• Implementing a variant CAPP system is straight forward since it makes
use of the existing process plans that are already proven in the form of
a catalogue from which the required process plan need to be selected
and edited.
• Implementing a generative CAPP system requires far more effort. This
involves the codification of the various knowledge related to the
manufacturing resources of the enterprise and build the algorithms for
identifying the resources and plans based on the component geometry.
• Artificial intelligence techniques have often been found to be useful in
generative CAPP system development.

CAD/CAM Principles and 25


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed