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PERFORMANCE-BASED Performance-Based

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING Earthquake Engineering

• Basic modeling concepts

• Nonlinear static pushover analysis

• Nonlinear dynamic response history analysis

• Incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis

• Probabilistic approaches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 1 Methods of Analysis 15-5a- 1- 2

• The “design” ground motion cannot be predicted. Deformation Demands?

Increasing Value

of

• Even if the motion can be predicted it is unlikely Information

than we can precisely predict the response. This is Linear Static Analysis

due to the rather long list of things we do not know Linear Dynamic Modal Response Spectrum Analysis

and can not do, as well as uncertainties in the things Linear Dynamic Modal Response History Analysis

we do know and can do. Linear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis

• The best we can hope for is to predict the Nonlinear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis

characteristics of the ground motion and the

characteristics of the response.

= Not Reliable in Predicting Damage

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 3 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 4

FEMA 368 Analysis Analysis Method FEMA 350 Analysis Analysis Method

Resp. Hist.

Resp. Hist.

Requirements

Nonlinear

Nonlinear

Nonlinear

Response

Spectrum

Requirements

Dynamic

Dynamic

Linear

Linear

Linear

Linear

Static

Static

Static

Strong

Regular YES YES YES YES

Structures YES YES YES YES Column

Regular

T ≤ Ts Weak

Column

NO NO YES YES

T ≤ Ts Plan Irreg. 2,3,4,5

Vert. Irreg. 4, 5

YES YES YES YES

Any

Irregular NO NO YES YES

Condition

Plan Irreg. 1a ,1b

Vert. Irreg. 1a, 1b NO YES YES YES Strong

NO YES NO YES

2, or 3 Column

Regular

All Other Structures

T > Ts Weak

NO NO NO YES

NO YES YES YES Column

Irregular Any

NO NO NO YES

Nonlinear Static Analysis Limitations not Stated Condition

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 5 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 6

Definition for Basic Modeling Concepts

“Elements” and “Components”

In general, a model should include the following:

• Soil-Structure-Foundation System

Secondary • Structural (Primary) Components and Elements

Component • Nonstructural (Secondary) Components and Elements

• Mechanical Systems (if performance of such

systems is being assessed)

• Reasonable Distribution and Sequencing

of gravity loads

Primary Primary • P-Delta (Second Order) Effects

Element Component • Reasonable Representation of Inherent Damping

• Realistic Representation of Inelastic Behavior

Primary elements or components are critical to the buildings ability to resist collapse • Realistic Representation of Ground Shaking

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 7 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 8

Basic Modeling Concepts

Response History Analysis (1)

• In general, a three-dimensional model is necessary. 1) Develop Linear Elastic Model, without P-Delta Effects

However, due to limitations in available software, a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)

3-D inelastic time history analysis is still not practical b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis

(except for very special and important structures). c) Independent Lateral Load Analysis

• In this course we will concentrate on 2-D analysis. 2) Repeat Analysis (1) but include P-Delta Effects

3) Revise model to include Inelastic Effects. Disable P-Delta.

• We will use the computer program NONLIN-Pro a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)

which is on the course CD. Note that the analysis b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis

engine behind NONLIN-Pro is DRAIN-2Dx. c) Independent Lateral Load (Pushover)Analysis

d) Gravity Load followed by Lateral Load

• DRAIN-2Dx is old technology, but it represents the basic e) Check effect of variable load step

state of the practice. The state of the art is being advanced

through initiatives such as PEER’s OpenSees Environment. 4) Repeat Analysis (3) but include P-Delta Effects

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 9 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 10

Basic Component Model Types

Response History Analysis (2)

Phenomenological

5) Run Linear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta

All of the inelastic behavior in the yielding region

a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration

b) Full Ground Motion of the component is “lumped” into a single location.

c) Check effect of variable time step Rules are typically required to model axial-flexural

6) Repeat Analysis (5) but include P-Delta Effects

interaction.

7) Run Nonlinear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta

Very large structures may be modeled using this

a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration

b) Full Ground Motion approach. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is practical

c) Check effect of variable time step for most 2D structures, but may be too

computationally expensive for 3D structures.

8) Repeat Analysis (7) but include P-Delta Effects

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 11 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 12

Phenomenological Model

Basic Component Model Types

Macroscopic

Actual The yielding regions of the component are highly

discretized and inelastic behavior is represented

at the material level. Axial-flexural interaction

Lumped Plastic is handled automatically.

Hinge j

i

Model These models are reasonably accurate, but are very

computationally expensive. Pushover analysis

M may be practical for some 2D structures, but

nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is not

Hinge

Hysteretic

currently feasible for large 2D structures or for

θ 3D structures.

Behavior

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 13 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 14

and Backbone Curves (1)

Actual

F F

Outline of

Slice Robust Hyst.

i j

Model

Axial Stress D D

Fiber

Fiber Material

Hysteretic Axial Strain

Cross Section Behavior Simple Yielding (Ductile) Loss of Strength

(Robust)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 15 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 16

and Backbone Curves (2) and Backbone Curves (3)

F

F F F

D D D D

Pinched Buckling

Loss of Stiffness Loss of Strength and Stiffness

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 17 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 18

Sivaselvan and Reinhorn Models in NONLIN (MDOF MODEL)

Parametric Models, e.g., SAP2000

F

βk

F = βkD + (1 − β ) Fy Z Fy

α=50

α

k ⎧⎪ D& (1 − Z ) if D& Z > 0⎫⎪ α=4

Z& = ⎨ ⎬ k α=2

Fy ⎪⎩ D& otherwise ⎪⎭

D

Models also available. See Sivaselvan and Reinhorn for

NONLIN Details.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 19 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 20

The DRAIN-2DX

The NONLIN-Pro Structural Analysis Program

Structural Analysis Program

• Developed at U.C. Berkeley under direction of

Graham H. Powell

• A Pre-and Post-Processing Environment for • Nonlin-Pro Incorporates Version 1.10, developed

DRAIN 2Dx by V. Prakash, G. H. Powell, and S. Campbell,

• Developed by Advanced Structural Concepts, Inc., EERC Report Number UCB/SEMM-93/17.

of Blacksburg, Virginia • A full User’s Manual for DRAIN may be found

• Formerly Marketed as RAM XLINEA on the course CD, as well as in the Nonlin-Pro

• Provided at no cost to MBDSI Participants online Help System.

• May soon be placed in the Public Domain through • FORTAN Source Code for the version of DRAIN

NISEE. incorporated into Nonlin-Pro is available

upon request

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 21 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 22

• Structures may be modeled in TWO DIMENSIONS

ONLY. Some 3D effects may be simulated if

• Small Displacement Formulation Only

torsional response is not involved.

• P-Delta Effects included on an element basis

using linearized formulation

• Analysis Capabilities Include:

• Linear Static • System Damping is Mass and Stiffness

Proportional

• Mode Shapes and Frequencies

• Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum* • Linear Viscous Dampers may be (indirectly)

modeled using stiffness Proportional Damping

• Linear Dynamic Response History

• Nonlinear Static: Event-to-Event (Pushover) • Response-History analysis uses Newmark constant

average acceleration scheme

• Nonlinear Dynamic Response History

• Automatic time-stepping with energy-based error

* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro tolerance is provided

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 23 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 24

DRAIN-2DX Element Library DRAIN 2Dx Truss Bar Element

F

TYPE 1: Truss Bar • Axial Force Only

TYPE 2: Beam-Column d

• Simple Bilinear Yield in Tension

TYPE 3: Degrading Stiffness Beam-Column* or Compression

Comp.

Yield

TYPE 4: Zero Length Connector

TYPE 6: Elastic Panel • Elastic Buckling in Compression

TYPE 9: Compression/Tension Link F

TYPE 15: Fiber Beam-Column* • Linearized Geometric Stiffness

d

• May act as linear viscous damper

* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro Comp.

(some trickery required) Buckle

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 25 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 26

• Two Component Formulation Elastic Component Axial-Flexural Interaction

i j

Yielding Component

• Simple Bilinear Yield in Positive (Rigid-Plastic) Axial Force

or Negative Moment. Axial

yield is NOT provided.

Possible Yield States

• Simple Axial-Flexural Interaction Load Path

i j

• Linearized Geometric Stiffness Bending

• Nonprismatic properties and shear i j Moment

deformation possible

Note: Diagram is for steel

sections. NOo interaction

• Rigid End Zones Possible i j and reinforced concrete type

interaction is also possible

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 27 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 28

NO Axial-Flexural Interaction Axial-Flexural Interaction

Axial Force

Axial Force

Moment

Bending its accuracy or reliability. Improved

Moment models based on plasticity theory

have been developed. See, for

example, The RAM-Perform

Program.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 29 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 30

Using a Connection Element to Model a Rotational Spring

DRAIN 2Dx

Connection Element • Nodes i and j have identical

X and Y coordinates. The pair of nodes

is referred to as a “compound node”

• Zero Length Element i j

• Node j has X and Y displacements

• Translational or Rotational Behavior slaved to those of node i

Bilinear yielding with inelastic unloading “between” nodes i and j i j

Bilinear yielding with elastic unloading

Inelastic unloading with gap • Connection element resists

relative rotation between nodes i and j

Rotation θ

• May be used to model linear viscous dampers • NEVER use Beta Damping unless you are

explicitly modeling a damper.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 31 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 32

All Inelastic

Girder Plastic Hinges Behavior is in Hinge

Moment

DRAIN-2Dx

Compound

Node with

Spring M

Panel Zone region of Node

φ

Beam-Column Very Large

Joint Initial Stiffness

Compound

θ

Node without

Spring

Rotation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 33 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 34

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 35 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 36

What is OpenSees? OpenSees Program Layout

• OpenSees is an object oriented framework for finite

element analysis

• OpenSees is a multi-disciplinary open source

• OpenSees consists of 4 modules for performing

structural analysis program. analyses:

• Created as part of the Pacific Earthquake

Engineering Research (PEER) center.

• The goal of OpenSees is to improve modeling

and computational simulation in earthquake

engineering through open-source

development

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 37 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 38

• Modelbuilder - Performs the creation of the finite • Elements

element model Truss elements Corotational truss

• Analysis – Specifies the analysis procedure to Elastic beam-column Nonlinear beam-column

perform on the model Zero-length elements Quadrilateral elements

• Recorder – Allows the selection of user-defined Brick elements

quantities to be recorded during the analysis • Sections

• Domain – Stores objects created by the Modelbuilder Elastic section Uniaxial section

and provides access for the Analysis and Recorder Fiber section Section aggregator

modules Plate fiber section Bidirectional section

Elastic membrane plate section

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 39 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 40

• Uniaxial Materials uniform, or multiple support patterns

Elastic Elastic perfectly • Analyses: Static, transient, or variable-transient

plastic • Systems of Equations: Formed using banded,

Parallel Elastic perfectly plastic profile, or sparse routines

• Algorithms: Solve the SOE using linear, Newtonian,

gap BFGS, or Broyden algorithms

Series Hardening • Recording: Write the response of nodes or elements

Steel01 Concrete01 (displacements, envelopes) to a user-defined set of

files for evaluation

Hysteretic Elastic-No tension

Viscous Fedeas

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 41 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 42

OpenSees Applications OpenSees Disadvantages

• Structural modeling in 2 or 3D, including

linear and nonlinear damping, hysteretic • No fully developed pre or post processors yet

modeling, and degrading stiffness elements available for model development and

• Advanced finite element modeling visualization

• Potentially useful for advanced earthquake • Lack of experience in applications

analysis, such as nonlinear time histories and • Code is under development and still being

incremental dynamic analysis fine-tuned.

• Open-source code allows for increased

development and application

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 43 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 44

OpenSees Information Sources SAP2000/ETABS

Both have 3D pushover capabilities and linear/nonlinear

dynamic response history analysis. P-Delta and large

• The program and source code: displacement effects may be included. These are the most powerful

http://millen.ce.berkeley.edu/ commercial programs that are specifically tailored

to analysis of buildings(ETABS) and bridges (SAP2000).

• Command index and help: RAM/Perform

http://peer.berkeley.edu/~silva/Opensees/manual/html/ Currently 2D program, but a 3D version should be available soon.

Developed by G. Powell, and is based on DRAIN-3D technology. Some

features of program (e.g. model building) are hard-wired and not easy to

• OpenSees Homepage: override.

These are extremely powerful FEA programs but are not very practical for

analysis of building and bridge structures.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 45 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 46

In Steel Structures Vc

Doubler

Plate

H βH Vc H/L

Continuity

Plate

αL

L

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 47 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 48

Equilibrium in Beam-Column Joint Region Forces and Stresses in Panel Zone

Vc

FCF FCF Horizontal Shear in Panel Zone:

(1 − α − β )

FGF FGF VP = Vc Note: PZ shear can be 4 to

β 6 times the column shear

Vc H Vc H

βH

L L

Shear Stress in Panel Zone:

FGF FGF

(1 − α − β )

τ P = Vc tp is panel zone thickness

Vc

αL

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 49 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 50

• Shear deformations in the panel zone can be in Typical Joint

responsible for 30 to 40 percent of the story drift.

FEMA 350’s statement that use of centerline dimensions

in analysis will overestimate drift is incorrect for joints Yielding

without PZ reinforcement. In Column Yielding

• Without doubler plates, the panel zone will almost certainly Flanges In Panel Zone

yield before the girders do. Although panel zone yielding is

highly ductile, it imposes high strains at the column flange

welds, and may contribute to premature failure of the

connection.

inelastic behavior must be included in the model.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 51 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 52

Krawinkler

Model

Panel Spring

H βH

Flange Spring

αL

L

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 53 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 54

Kinematics of Krawinkler Model Krawinkler Joint Model

Web Hinge Simple Hinge

Offset

Rigid

Bars (typical)

Panel Zone

Offset Flange Hinge

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 55 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 56

25-28 22-24 18,21

11,12 10 8,9

15-17

1-3

7

1

4-7 8-10 11-14

2,3 4 5,6

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 57 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 58

Krawinkler Model Krawinkler Model (Alternate)

Moment, M Moment, M

Total Total

ΜyP ΜyP

Panel Component Panel Component

ΜyF ΜyF

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 59 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 60

Krawinkler Model Properties Krawinkler Model Properties

(Panel Component) (Panel Component)

K P , K = GαLβH (t wc + t d ) Volume of Panel

0.6 Fy K P , K = GαLβH (t wc + t d )

θ yP, K =

G

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 61 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 62

(Flange Component) • Physically mimics actual panel zone distortion

and thereby accurately portrays true kinematic

behavior

My F , K = 1.8 Fy bcf tcf2

• Corner hinge rotation is the same as panel shear

distortion

θ yF , K = 4θ yP, K • Modeling parameters are independent of

structure outside of panel zone region

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 63 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 64

• Model is relatively complex Rigid Ends (typical)

in panel zone region

degrees of freedom

Note: Degrees of freedom can be reduced to

four (4) through proper use of constraints, if

available. Panel Zone and

Flange Springs

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 65 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 66

Kinematics of Scissors Model Model Comparison: Kinematics

Krawinkler

Scissors

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 67 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 68

Krawinkler and Scissors Models • Relatively easy to model (compared to

Krawinkler). Only 4 DOF per joint, and

only two additional elements.

K

K Scissors = Krawinkler 2

(1 − α − β ) • Produces almost identical results as Krawinkler.

Disadvantages of Scissors Model

M y , Krawinkler • Does not model true behavior in joint region.

M y , Scissors = • Does not include flexural deformations

(1 − α − β ) in panel zone region

• Not applicable to structures with unequal bay

width (model parameters depend on α and β)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 69 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 70

in Concrete Structures

2000 NEHRP Provisions 5A.1.1:

• Accurate modeling is much more difficult (compared “ The models for columns should reflect the influence

to structural steel) due to pullout and loss of bond of of axial load when axial loads exceed 15 percent of the

reinforcement and due to loss of stiffness and strength buckling load”

of concrete in the beam-column joint region.

are under development. See reference by Lowes and “P-Delta effects must be explicitly included in the

Altoontash.

computer model of the structure.”

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 71 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 72

Influence of P-Delta Effects: P Influence of P-Delta Effects: P

1) Loss of Stiffness and V

δ 2) Loss of Strength V

δ

increased displacements

H Shear Force H

Shear Force

Vy VY Excluding P-Delta

Excluding P-Delta

KG = −

P Pδ y

V y* H VY* θ=

Including P-Delta

Including P-Delta Vy H

Vy

KE =

δy V y* = V y (1 − θ )

K = K E + KG

δy Displacement δy Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 73 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 74

3) Larger residual deformations and increased Linearized vs Consistent Geometric Stiffness

tendency towards dynamic instability

3.0

2.0

δ

Displacement, Inches

0.0 Δ Large P-Δ Δ Large P-Δ

-1.0 KG = -50 k/in

KG = 0 k/in

-2.0 KG = +50 k/in

-3.0

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0

Time, seconds

Linearized Consistent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 75 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 76

Linearized Geometric Stiffness • Uses cubic shape function to represent

• Uses linear shape function to represent displaced shape. Iteration required for

displaced shape. No iteration required solution.

for solution. • Solution based on undeformed geometry

• Solution based on undeformed geometry • Accurately estimates buckling loads for

individual columns only if each column

• Significantly overestimates buckling is subdivided into two or more elements.

loads for individual columns • Does not provide significant increase

in accuracy (compared to linearized

• Useful ONLY for considering the model) if being used only for

“Large P-Delta” Effect on a considering the “Large P-Delta” effect

story-by-story basis in moment resisting frame structures.

Linearized Consistent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 77 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 78

Modeling P-Delta Effects Modeling P-Delta Effects

A B C D

A B C D

Lateral Column

Lateral Column

Leaner Column

Leaner Column

Tributary Area for Gravity Loads on Frame A on Frame A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 79 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 80

Tributary

P-Delta Loads

for P-Delta Analysis?

Tributary Gravity Loads

Slaving

• Full Dead Load

• 10 PSF Partition Load (or computed

Activate value if available)

Slaving Geometric

Stiffness

• Full Reduced Live Load (as would be used

in these for column design).

Slaving Columns • Reduced Live Load based on most probable

Only. live load. See for example Commentary of

ASCE 7.

• Effect of Vertical Accelerations?

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 81 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 82

Controlled Analysis to Obtain

Under “Force Control” an Complete Response

Base Shear

analysis may terminate due

to a non-positive definite

tangent stiffness matrix

Roof Disp

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 83 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 84

When Using Displacement Control (or response-history

analysis), do not recover base shears from column forces.

Base Shear

Sum of

Column Shears

True Total

Base Shear

Roof Disp

P-Delta Shear

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Methods of Analysis 15-5a - 85

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