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# STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR Structural Analysis for

PERFORMANCE-BASED Performance-Based
EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING Earthquake Engineering
• Basic modeling concepts
• Nonlinear static pushover analysis
• Nonlinear dynamic response history analysis
• Incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis
• Probabilistic approaches

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## Disclaimer How to Compute Performance-Based

• The “design” ground motion cannot be predicted. Deformation Demands?
Increasing Value
of
• Even if the motion can be predicted it is unlikely Information
than we can precisely predict the response. This is Linear Static Analysis
due to the rather long list of things we do not know Linear Dynamic Modal Response Spectrum Analysis
and can not do, as well as uncertainties in the things Linear Dynamic Modal Response History Analysis
we do know and can do. Linear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis

## Nonlinear Static “Pushover” Analysis

• The best we can hope for is to predict the Nonlinear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis
characteristics of the ground motion and the
characteristics of the response.
= Not Reliable in Predicting Damage
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FEMA 368 Analysis Analysis Method FEMA 350 Analysis Analysis Method
Resp. Hist.

Resp. Hist.

Requirements
Nonlinear

Nonlinear

Nonlinear
Response
Spectrum

Requirements
Dynamic
Dynamic
Linear

Linear

Linear

Linear
Static

Static

Static

## (SDC D, E, F) (Collapse Prevention)

Strong
Regular YES YES YES YES
Structures YES YES YES YES Column
Regular
T ≤ Ts Weak
Column
NO NO YES YES
T ≤ Ts Plan Irreg. 2,3,4,5
Vert. Irreg. 4, 5
YES YES YES YES
Any
Irregular NO NO YES YES
Condition
Plan Irreg. 1a ,1b
Vert. Irreg. 1a, 1b NO YES YES YES Strong
NO YES NO YES
2, or 3 Column
Regular
All Other Structures
T > Ts Weak
NO NO NO YES
NO YES YES YES Column
Irregular Any
NO NO NO YES
Nonlinear Static Analysis Limitations not Stated Condition
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 1

Definition for Basic Modeling Concepts
“Elements” and “Components”
In general, a model should include the following:

• Soil-Structure-Foundation System
Secondary • Structural (Primary) Components and Elements
Component • Nonstructural (Secondary) Components and Elements
• Mechanical Systems (if performance of such
systems is being assessed)
• Reasonable Distribution and Sequencing
Primary Primary • P-Delta (Second Order) Effects
Element Component • Reasonable Representation of Inherent Damping
• Realistic Representation of Inelastic Behavior
Primary elements or components are critical to the buildings ability to resist collapse • Realistic Representation of Ground Shaking
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## Steps in Performing Nonlinear

Basic Modeling Concepts
Response History Analysis (1)
• In general, a three-dimensional model is necessary. 1) Develop Linear Elastic Model, without P-Delta Effects
However, due to limitations in available software, a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)
3-D inelastic time history analysis is still not practical b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis
(except for very special and important structures). c) Independent Lateral Load Analysis
• In this course we will concentrate on 2-D analysis. 2) Repeat Analysis (1) but include P-Delta Effects
3) Revise model to include Inelastic Effects. Disable P-Delta.
• We will use the computer program NONLIN-Pro a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)
which is on the course CD. Note that the analysis b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis
engine behind NONLIN-Pro is DRAIN-2Dx. c) Independent Lateral Load (Pushover)Analysis
• DRAIN-2Dx is old technology, but it represents the basic e) Check effect of variable load step
state of the practice. The state of the art is being advanced
through initiatives such as PEER’s OpenSees Environment. 4) Repeat Analysis (3) but include P-Delta Effects

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## Steps in Performing Nonlinear

Basic Component Model Types
Response History Analysis (2)
Phenomenological
5) Run Linear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta
All of the inelastic behavior in the yielding region
a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration
b) Full Ground Motion of the component is “lumped” into a single location.
c) Check effect of variable time step Rules are typically required to model axial-flexural
6) Repeat Analysis (5) but include P-Delta Effects
interaction.
7) Run Nonlinear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta
Very large structures may be modeled using this
a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration
b) Full Ground Motion approach. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is practical
c) Check effect of variable time step for most 2D structures, but may be too
computationally expensive for 3D structures.
8) Repeat Analysis (7) but include P-Delta Effects

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 2

Phenomenological Model
Basic Component Model Types
Macroscopic
Actual The yielding regions of the component are highly
discretized and inelastic behavior is represented
at the material level. Axial-flexural interaction
Lumped Plastic is handled automatically.
Hinge j
i
Model These models are reasonably accurate, but are very
computationally expensive. Pushover analysis
M may be practical for some 2D structures, but
nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is not
Hinge
Hysteretic
currently feasible for large 2D structures or for
θ 3D structures.
Behavior
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## Macroscopic Model Rule-Based Hysteretic Models

and Backbone Curves (1)
Actual
F F
Outline of
Slice Robust Hyst.

i j
Model

Axial Stress D D
Fiber
Fiber Material
Hysteretic Axial Strain
Cross Section Behavior Simple Yielding (Ductile) Loss of Strength
(Robust)
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## Rule-Based Hysteretic Models Rule-Based Hysteretic Models

and Backbone Curves (2) and Backbone Curves (3)

F
F F F

D D D D

Pinched Buckling
Loss of Stiffness Loss of Strength and Stiffness
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 3

Sivaselvan and Reinhorn Models in NONLIN (MDOF MODEL)
Parametric Models, e.g., SAP2000

F
βk
F = βkD + (1 − β ) Fy Z Fy

α=50
α
k ⎧⎪ D& (1 − Z ) if D& Z > 0⎫⎪ α=4
Z& = ⎨ ⎬ k α=2
Fy ⎪⎩ D& otherwise ⎪⎭
D

Models also available. See Sivaselvan and Reinhorn for
NONLIN Details.

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The DRAIN-2DX
The NONLIN-Pro Structural Analysis Program
Structural Analysis Program
• Developed at U.C. Berkeley under direction of
Graham H. Powell
• A Pre-and Post-Processing Environment for • Nonlin-Pro Incorporates Version 1.10, developed
DRAIN 2Dx by V. Prakash, G. H. Powell, and S. Campbell,
• Developed by Advanced Structural Concepts, Inc., EERC Report Number UCB/SEMM-93/17.
of Blacksburg, Virginia • A full User’s Manual for DRAIN may be found
• Formerly Marketed as RAM XLINEA on the course CD, as well as in the Nonlin-Pro
• May soon be placed in the Public Domain through • FORTAN Source Code for the version of DRAIN
NISEE. incorporated into Nonlin-Pro is available
upon request

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## DRAIN-2DX Capabilities/Limitations DRAIN-2DX Capabilities/Limitations

• Structures may be modeled in TWO DIMENSIONS
ONLY. Some 3D effects may be simulated if
• Small Displacement Formulation Only
torsional response is not involved.
• P-Delta Effects included on an element basis
using linearized formulation
• Analysis Capabilities Include:
• Linear Static • System Damping is Mass and Stiffness
Proportional
• Mode Shapes and Frequencies
• Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum* • Linear Viscous Dampers may be (indirectly)
modeled using stiffness Proportional Damping
• Linear Dynamic Response History
• Nonlinear Static: Event-to-Event (Pushover) • Response-History analysis uses Newmark constant
average acceleration scheme
• Nonlinear Dynamic Response History
• Automatic time-stepping with energy-based error
* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro tolerance is provided
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 4

DRAIN-2DX Element Library DRAIN 2Dx Truss Bar Element
F
TYPE 1: Truss Bar • Axial Force Only
TYPE 2: Beam-Column d
• Simple Bilinear Yield in Tension
TYPE 3: Degrading Stiffness Beam-Column* or Compression
Comp.
Yield
TYPE 4: Zero Length Connector
TYPE 6: Elastic Panel • Elastic Buckling in Compression
TYPE 15: Fiber Beam-Column* • Linearized Geometric Stiffness
d
• May act as linear viscous damper
* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro Comp.
(some trickery required) Buckle

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## DRAIN 2Dx Beam-Column Element DRAIN 2Dx Beam-Column Element

• Two Component Formulation Elastic Component Axial-Flexural Interaction
i j
Yielding Component
• Simple Bilinear Yield in Positive (Rigid-Plastic) Axial Force
or Negative Moment. Axial
yield is NOT provided.
Possible Yield States
• Simple Axial-Flexural Interaction Load Path
i j
• Linearized Geometric Stiffness Bending
• Nonprismatic properties and shear i j Moment
deformation possible
Note: Diagram is for steel
sections. NOo interaction
• Rigid End Zones Possible i j and reinforced concrete type
interaction is also possible

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## DRAIN 2Dx Beam-Column Element DRAIN 2Dx Beam-Column Element

NO Axial-Flexural Interaction Axial-Flexural Interaction
Axial Force
Axial Force

Moment

## Note: This Model is not known for

Bending its accuracy or reliability. Improved
Moment models based on plasticity theory
have been developed. See, for
example, The RAM-Perform
Program.

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 5

Using a Connection Element to Model a Rotational Spring
DRAIN 2Dx
Connection Element • Nodes i and j have identical
X and Y coordinates. The pair of nodes
is referred to as a “compound node”
• Zero Length Element i j
• Node j has X and Y displacements
• Translational or Rotational Behavior slaved to those of node i

## • Variety of Inelastic Behavior, including: • A rotational connection element is placed

Bilinear yielding with inelastic unloading “between” nodes i and j i j
relative rotation between nodes i and j
Rotation θ
• May be used to model linear viscous dampers • NEVER use Beta Damping unless you are
explicitly modeling a damper.

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## Uses of Compound Nodes Development of Girder Hinge Model

All Inelastic
Girder Plastic Hinges Behavior is in Hinge

Moment
DRAIN-2Dx
Compound
Node with
Spring M

## Simple Ram Perform

Panel Zone region of Node
φ
Beam-Column Very Large
Joint Initial Stiffness
Compound
θ
Node without
Spring
Rotation

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## Girder Plastic Hinge

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 6

What is OpenSees? OpenSees Program Layout
• OpenSees is an object oriented framework for finite
element analysis
• OpenSees is a multi-disciplinary open source
• OpenSees consists of 4 modules for performing
structural analysis program. analyses:
• Created as part of the Pacific Earthquake
Engineering Research (PEER) center.
• The goal of OpenSees is to improve modeling
and computational simulation in earthquake
engineering through open-source
development

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## OpenSees Modules OpenSees Element Types

• Modelbuilder - Performs the creation of the finite • Elements
element model Truss elements Corotational truss
• Analysis – Specifies the analysis procedure to Elastic beam-column Nonlinear beam-column
perform on the model Zero-length elements Quadrilateral elements
• Recorder – Allows the selection of user-defined Brick elements
quantities to be recorded during the analysis • Sections
• Domain – Stores objects created by the Modelbuilder Elastic section Uniaxial section
and provides access for the Analysis and Recorder Fiber section Section aggregator
modules Plate fiber section Bidirectional section
Elastic membrane plate section

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## • Loads: Variable time series available with plain,

• Uniaxial Materials uniform, or multiple support patterns
Elastic Elastic perfectly • Analyses: Static, transient, or variable-transient
plastic • Systems of Equations: Formed using banded,
Parallel Elastic perfectly plastic profile, or sparse routines
• Algorithms: Solve the SOE using linear, Newtonian,
gap BFGS, or Broyden algorithms
Series Hardening • Recording: Write the response of nodes or elements
Steel01 Concrete01 (displacements, envelopes) to a user-defined set of
files for evaluation
Hysteretic Elastic-No tension
Viscous Fedeas

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 7

• Structural modeling in 2 or 3D, including
linear and nonlinear damping, hysteretic • No fully developed pre or post processors yet
modeling, and degrading stiffness elements available for model development and
• Advanced finite element modeling visualization
• Potentially useful for advanced earthquake • Lack of experience in applications
analysis, such as nonlinear time histories and • Code is under development and still being
incremental dynamic analysis fine-tuned.
• Open-source code allows for increased
development and application

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## Other Commercially Available Programs

OpenSees Information Sources SAP2000/ETABS
Both have 3D pushover capabilities and linear/nonlinear
dynamic response history analysis. P-Delta and large
• The program and source code: displacement effects may be included. These are the most powerful
http://millen.ce.berkeley.edu/ commercial programs that are specifically tailored
to analysis of buildings(ETABS) and bridges (SAP2000).
• Command index and help: RAM/Perform
http://peer.berkeley.edu/~silva/Opensees/manual/html/ Currently 2D program, but a 3D version should be available soon.
Developed by G. Powell, and is based on DRAIN-3D technology. Some
features of program (e.g. model building) are hard-wired and not easy to
• OpenSees Homepage: override.

These are extremely powerful FEA programs but are not very practical for
analysis of building and bridge structures.

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## Modeling Beam-Column Joint Deformation Typical Interior Subassemblage

In Steel Structures Vc

Doubler
Plate

H βH Vc H/L

Continuity
Plate

αL

L
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 8

Equilibrium in Beam-Column Joint Region Forces and Stresses in Panel Zone
Vc
FCF FCF Horizontal Shear in Panel Zone:
(1 − α − β )
FGF FGF VP = Vc Note: PZ shear can be 4 to
β 6 times the column shear
Vc H Vc H
βH
L L
Shear Stress in Panel Zone:
FGF FGF
(1 − α − β )
τ P = Vc tp is panel zone thickness

## FCF FCF αβLt P including doubler plate

Vc
αL
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## Effects of High Panel Zone Stresses Sources of Inelastic Deformation

• Shear deformations in the panel zone can be in Typical Joint
responsible for 30 to 40 percent of the story drift.
FEMA 350’s statement that use of centerline dimensions
in analysis will overestimate drift is incorrect for joints Yielding
without PZ reinforcement. In Column Yielding
• Without doubler plates, the panel zone will almost certainly Flanges In Panel Zone
yield before the girders do. Although panel zone yielding is
highly ductile, it imposes high strains at the column flange
welds, and may contribute to premature failure of the
connection.

## • Even with doubler plates, panel zones may yield. This

inelastic behavior must be included in the model.

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Krawinkler
Model
Panel Spring

H βH

Flange Spring

αL

L
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 9

Kinematics of Krawinkler Model Krawinkler Joint Model

## Column CL Panel Zone

Web Hinge Simple Hinge
Offset
Rigid
Bars (typical)

## Girder CL Simple Hinge

Panel Zone
Offset Flange Hinge

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## Nodes in Krawinkler Joint Model DOF in Krawinkler Joint Model

25-28 22-24 18,21
11,12 10 8,9

15-17
1-3
7
1
4-7 8-10 11-14
2,3 4 5,6

## Note: Only FOUR DOF are truly independent.

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## Moment-Rotation Relationships in Moment-Rotation Relationships in

Krawinkler Model Krawinkler Model (Alternate)
Moment, M Moment, M

Total Total
ΜyP ΜyP
Panel Component Panel Component

ΜyF ΜyF

## θyP θyF Hinge Rotation, θ θyP θyF Hinge Rotation, θ

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 10

Krawinkler Model Properties Krawinkler Model Properties
(Panel Component) (Panel Component)

## M yP, K = 0.6 FyαLβH (t wc + t d ) My P , K = 0.6 FyαLβH (t wc + t d )

K P , K = GαLβH (t wc + t d ) Volume of Panel

0.6 Fy K P , K = GαLβH (t wc + t d )
θ yP, K =
G
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## Krawinkler Model Properties Advantages of Krawinkler Model

(Flange Component) • Physically mimics actual panel zone distortion
and thereby accurately portrays true kinematic
behavior
My F , K = 1.8 Fy bcf tcf2
• Corner hinge rotation is the same as panel shear
distortion
θ yF , K = 4θ yP, K • Modeling parameters are independent of
structure outside of panel zone region

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## Disadvantages of Krawinkler Model Scissor Joint Model

• Model is relatively complex Rigid Ends (typical)

## • Model does not include flexural deformations

in panel zone region

## • Requires 12 nodes, 12 elements, and 28

degrees of freedom
Note: Degrees of freedom can be reduced to
four (4) through proper use of constraints, if
available. Panel Zone and
Flange Springs
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 11

Kinematics of Scissors Model Model Comparison: Kinematics
Krawinkler
Scissors

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## Mathematical Relationship Between Advantage of Scissors Model

Krawinkler and Scissors Models • Relatively easy to model (compared to
Krawinkler). Only 4 DOF per joint, and
K
K Scissors = Krawinkler 2
(1 − α − β ) • Produces almost identical results as Krawinkler.
M y , Krawinkler • Does not model true behavior in joint region.
M y , Scissors = • Does not include flexural deformations
(1 − α − β ) in panel zone region
• Not applicable to structures with unequal bay
width (model parameters depend on α and β)

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## Modeling Beam-Column Joint Deformation When to Include P-Delta Effects?

in Concrete Structures
2000 NEHRP Provisions 5A.1.1:
• Accurate modeling is much more difficult (compared “ The models for columns should reflect the influence
to structural steel) due to pullout and loss of bond of of axial load when axial loads exceed 15 percent of the
reinforcement and due to loss of stiffness and strength buckling load”
of concrete in the beam-column joint region.

## • Physicalmodels similar to the Krawinkler Steel Model Recommended Revision:

are under development. See reference by Lowes and “P-Delta effects must be explicitly included in the
Altoontash.
computer model of the structure.”

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 12

Influence of P-Delta Effects: P Influence of P-Delta Effects: P
1) Loss of Stiffness and V
δ 2) Loss of Strength V
δ
increased displacements
H Shear Force H
Shear Force

Vy VY Excluding P-Delta
Excluding P-Delta
KG = −
P Pδ y
V y* H VY* θ=
Including P-Delta
Including P-Delta Vy H
Vy
KE =
δy V y* = V y (1 − θ )
K = K E + KG
δy Displacement δy Displacement

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## Influence of P-Delta Effects: Modeling P-Delta Effects

3) Larger residual deformations and increased Linearized vs Consistent Geometric Stiffness
tendency towards dynamic instability
3.0

2.0

δ
Displacement, Inches

## 1.0 Small P-δ

0.0 Δ Large P-Δ Δ Large P-Δ
-1.0 KG = -50 k/in
KG = 0 k/in
-2.0 KG = +50 k/in

-3.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0
Time, seconds
Linearized Consistent
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## Modeling P-Delta Effects Modeling P-Delta Effects Consistent Geometric Stiffness

Linearized Geometric Stiffness • Uses cubic shape function to represent
• Uses linear shape function to represent displaced shape. Iteration required for
displaced shape. No iteration required solution.
for solution. • Solution based on undeformed geometry
• Solution based on undeformed geometry • Accurately estimates buckling loads for
individual columns only if each column
• Significantly overestimates buckling is subdivided into two or more elements.
loads for individual columns • Does not provide significant increase
in accuracy (compared to linearized
• Useful ONLY for considering the model) if being used only for
“Large P-Delta” Effect on a considering the “Large P-Delta” effect
story-by-story basis in moment resisting frame structures.

Linearized Consistent
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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 13

Modeling P-Delta Effects Modeling P-Delta Effects
A B C D
A B C D
Lateral Column
Lateral Column
Leaner Column
Leaner Column

## Tributary Area for P-Delta Effects

Tributary Area for Gravity Loads on Frame A on Frame A
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## Modeling P-Delta Effects How Much Gravity Load to Include

Tributary
for P-Delta Analysis?
Slaving
• 10 PSF Partition Load (or computed
Activate value if available)
Slaving Geometric
Stiffness
• Full Reduced Live Load (as would be used
in these for column design).
Slaving Columns • Reduced Live Load based on most probable
Only. live load. See for example Commentary of
ASCE 7.
• Effect of Vertical Accelerations?
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## Modeling P-Delta Effects Must Use Displacement

Controlled Analysis to Obtain
Under “Force Control” an Complete Response
Base Shear
analysis may terminate due
to a non-positive definite
tangent stiffness matrix

Roof Disp

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## FEMA 451B Topic 15-5a Handouts Advanced Analysis 14

When Using Displacement Control (or response-history
analysis), do not recover base shears from column forces.
Base Shear

Sum of
Column Shears

True Total
Base Shear

Roof Disp

P-Delta Shear

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