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Analysis of Mobile Antennas and Measurement Of Related Parameters


To analyze the Mobile Ante
measuring the related Parameters.
The main objective of this pr
the mobile antennas. Due to the ra
and other wireless communication
A harmful
the metallicradiation
device used
from for ra
decrease the interaction
electromagnetic of electro
waves which
when mobile handset is in operatio
between free space and guidi
line in order to communicate
To measure the Parameters -
of Mobile Antennas.
Measurement of Paramet

Directivity of the antenna descri
bunches, radio waves in a given di
can be defined as the ratio of maxi
antenna to the radiation intensity o
Radiation pattern
Source of Radiation
It is the mathematical function o
properties of the antenna as a func
properties includeonradiation
When talking intensi
a cell phone, a
directivity phase or polarization.
voice and encodes it onto a contin
Power pattern
a type of continuously varying wav
It is the graphical diagram of rec
and fluctuates evenly through spac
Field pattern
of frequency, which is the number
It is a graph of spatial variation o
down per second.
a constant radius. Once the encode
wave, the transmitter sends the sign
the signal out.
Cell phones have low-power tran
transmitter inside a phone varies depe
usually in close proximity to the phon
the encoded signal are made up of ele
the antenna. The function of an antenn
the radio waves into space; in the case
up by a receiver in the cell-phone tow

Electromagnetic radiation is mad

energy moving at the speed of light, a
Communications Commission (FCC).
somewhere on the electromagnetic sp
low frequency (ELF) radiation to X-r
learn how these levels of radiation aff
Potential Health Risks
All cell phones emit som
Given the close proximity of
the radiation to cause some s
users in the United States. W
political arenas is just how m
there are any potential long-
Testing for Radiation
There are two types of electrom
Ionizing radiation - This ty
electromagnetic energy
Radiation to st
and alter chemical reactions
absorption rate (SAR
two forms of ionizing radiat
amount of radio-frequ
is why we wear a lead vest w
human body. In order
Non-ionizing radiation - N
maximum SAR level
Block Dia
Antenna System for telephon

Dialing a number of
any international
number gen
call from one place Block Diwaves w
(Tx )
Analysis ofthrough

mobile station
wave space
Call received in converted
Tx place wavesRx with
( Rx ) link freque
Mobile Station A