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Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Geert Brocks Faculty of Applied Physics, University of Twente

August 2002

ii

Contents

Preface

xiii

I Single Particles

 

1

1 Quantum Mechanics

 

3

1.1 Wave Mechanics

 

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3

1.2 Quantum Mechanics

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7

1.3 Representations

 

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8

 

1.3.1 General Formalism

 

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8

1.3.2 The Position Representation; Wave Mechanics Revisited

 

9

1.4 Many Particles and Product States .

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13

2 Time Dependent Perturbation Theory

 

17

2.1 Time Evolution

 

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17

 

2.1.1

The Huygens Principle .

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19

2.2 Time Dependent Perturbations

 

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21

2.3 Fermi’s Golden Rule

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23

2.4 Radiative Transitions

 

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30

 

2.4.1 Atom in a Radiation Field

 

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30

2.4.2 Einstein Coecients and Rate Equations

 

32

2.4.3 Population and Lifetime .

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35

2.5 Epilogue

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36

2.6 Appendix I. The Heisenberg Picture

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37

2.7 Appendix II. Some Integral Tricks

 

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40

3 The Quantum Pinball Game

 

43

3.1 A Typical Experiment

 

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43

3.2 Time Evolution; Summing the Perturbation Series

 

45

 

3.2.1 Adapt Integration Bounds; Green Functions

 

47

3.2.2 Fourier Transform to the Frequency Domain

49

3.2.3 Sum the Perturbation Series; Dyson Equation

 

50

3.2.4 Green Functions; Closed Expressions

 

51

3.2.5 Summary

 

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53

3.3 Connection to Mattuck’s Ch. 3

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54

3.4 Appendix. Green Functions; the Lippmann-Schwinger Equation

 

55

 

3.4.1

The Huygens Principle Revisited

 

59

iii

iv

CONTENTS

4

Scattering

61

4.1 Scattering by a Dilute Concentration of Centers

 

62

4.1.1 The Scattering Cross Section

 

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65

4.1.2 Forward Scattering; the Optical Theorem

 

67

4.2 Scattering by a Single Center

 

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69

4.3 Re-summation of the Series; the Self-Energy

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72

4.4 The Physical Meaning of Self-Energy

 

74

4.5 The Scattering Cross Section

 

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77

4.5.1 The Lippmann-Schwinger Equation

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77

4.5.2 The Scattering Amplitudes and the Di erential Cross Section

 

82

4.5.3 The Born Series and the Born approximation

 

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83

4.6 Epilogue

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85

4.7 Appendix I. The Refractive Index

 

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85

4.8 Appendix II. Applied Complex Function Theory

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87

4.8.1 Complex Integrals; the Residue Theorem

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87

4.8.2 Contour Integration

 

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89

4.8.3 The Principal Value

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92

4.8.4 The Self-Energy Integral

 

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94

II

Many Particles

 

97

5 Quantum Field Oscillators

 

99

 

5.1 The Quantum Oscillator

 

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99

5.1.1 Summary Harmonic Oscillator

 

102

5.1.2 Second Quantization

 

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. 103

5.2 The One-dimensional Quantum Chain; Phonons

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. 104

5.3 My First Quantum Field

 

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. 108

5.3.1 Classical Chain

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. 109

5.3.2 Continuum Limit: an Elastic Medium

 

110

5.3.3 Quantizing the Elastic Medium; Phonons

 

113

5.4 The Three-dimensional Quantum Chain

 

115

5.4.1 Discrete Lattice

 

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. 115

5.4.2 Elastic Medium

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. 116

5.4.3 Are Phonons Real Particles ?

 

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. 117

5.5 The Electro-Magnetic Field in Vacuum

 

118

5.5.1 Classical Electro-Dynamics

 

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. 119

5.5.2 Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED)

 

121

5.5.3 Are Photons Real Particles ?

 

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. 124

6 Bosons and Fermions

 

127

 

6.1 N particles; the Stone Age

 

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. 127

6.1.1 The Slater Determinant

 

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. 131

6.1.2 Three Particle Example Work-out

 

132

6.1.3 One- and Two-particle Operators

133

6.2 N particles; the Modern Era

 

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. 134

6.2.1

Second Quantization for Bosons

 

134

CONTENTS

v

 

6.2.3

The Road Travelled

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. 141

6.3 The Particle-Hole Formalism

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. 143

6.3.1 The Homogeneous Electron Gas

 

143

6.3.2 Particles and Holes

 

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. 145

6.3.3 The Quantum Field Theory Connection

 

149

6.4 Second Quantization and the Electron Field

 

150

6.5 Appendix I. Identical Particle Algebra

 

154

6.5.1 Normalization Factors and Orthogonality

 

154

6.5.2 Second Quantization for Operators

 

156

6.6 Appendix II. Identical Particles

 

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. 162

6.6.1 Indistinguishable Particles

 

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. 162

6.6.2 Why Symmetrize ?

 

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. 163

6.6.3 Symmetrize The Universe ?

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. 165

7

Optics

169

7.1 Atoms and Radiation; the Full Monty

 

169

7.1.1 Absorption; Fermi’s Golden Rule

 

173

7.1.2 Spontaneous Emission

 

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. 175

7.2 Electrons, Holes and Photons

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. 176

7.2.1 Electrons and Radiation .

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. 177

7.2.2 Free Electrons and Holes

 

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. 179

7.2.3 Light Absorption by Electrons and Holes

 

182

7.2.4 Light Scattering by Free Electrons

 

187

7.3 Higher Order Processes; the Quantum Pinball Game

 

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. 188

7.4 Appendix I. Interaction of an Electron with an EM eld

 

190

7.4.1

Dipole Approximation

 

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. 192

7.5 Appendix II. Relativistic Electrons and Holes

 

193

III

Interacting Particles

 

199

8

Propagators and Diagrams

201

8.1 The Single Particle Propagator

 

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. 202

8.1.1 A Gedanken Experiment

 

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. 203

8.1.2 Particle and Hole Propagators

 

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. 204

8.2 A Single Particle or Hole

 

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. 205

8.2.1 Particle Scattering

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. 205

8.2.2 The Second Quantization Connection

 

207

8.2.3 Hole Scattering

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. 209

8.3 Many Particles and Holes

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. 211

8.3.1 Atom Embedded in an Electron Gas

 

214

8.3.2 Goldstone Diagrams; Exchange

 

215

8.3.3 Diagram Expansion

 

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. 218

8.3.4 Diagram Summation

 

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. 219

8.3.5 Exponential Decay

 

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. 222

8.4 Interacting Particles and Holes

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. 223

8.4.1

Two-Particle Diagrams

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. 225

vi

CONTENTS

 

8.4.3 The Full Diagram Dictionary

 

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. 228

8.4.4 Radiation Diagrams

 

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. 229

8.5 The Spectral Function

 

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. 230

 

8.5.1

Physical Content

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. 232

8.6 (Inverse) Photoemission and Quasi-particles

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