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Florida Teacher Certification Examination

Test Preparation Guide

Chemistry 6-12



Second Edition
Developed, produced, and printed under the authority of the
Florida Department of Education

Subject area content developed by the

Institute for Instructional Research and Practice
College of Education
University of South Florida

Produced by the
Institute for Instructional Research and Practice
College of Education
University of South Florida

Authorization for reproduction of this document is hereby granted to

persons acting in an official capacity within the Florida K-20 education
system, as enumerated in Section 1000.04, Florida Statutes.
Permission is NOT granted for distribution or reproduction outside the
State system of public education or for commercial distribution of the
copyrighted materials without written authorization from the
Department of Education. Questions regarding use of these
copyrighted materials are to be addressed to:
FTCE Administrator
Florida Department of Education
325 West Gaines Street, Suite 414
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400

Copyright 2006
State of Florida
Department of State

1 Test and Test Preparation Guide Development 1

2 Preparation for the Test 3

3 Competencies and Skills 5

4 Test Format and Sample Questions 11

5 Test-Taking Advice 39

6 Additional Information 41
1 Test and Test Preparation Guide Development
Teacher Certification Testing
Since 1980, Florida teacher certification candidates have been
required to pass the Florida Teacher Certification Examination
(FTCE), which has consisted of tests in reading, writing,
mathematics, and professional knowledge. The 1986 Florida
Legislature modified the testing program by also requiring teacher
candidates to pass a test in the subject area in which they wish to be
certified. In addition, the Legislature substituted the Florida College-
Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) for the reading, writing, and
mathematics portions of the FTCE. The 2000 Florida Legislature
replaced the CLAST with the General Knowledge Test, effective July
1, 2002.
The subject area knowledge tested on the Chemistry 6-12
examination was identified and validated by committees of content
specialists from within the state of Florida. A majority of the committee
members were public school teachers, but the committees also
included district supervisors and college faculty with expertise in this
field. Committee members were selected on the basis of
recommendations by professional associations, experts in the field,
and teachers’ unions. In developing the test, the committees used an
extensive literature review, interviews with selected public school
teachers, a large-scale survey of teachers, pilot tests, and their own
professional judgment.

Role of the Test Preparation Guide

The purpose of this test preparation guide is to help candidates taking
the Initial Teacher Subject Area Test in Chemistry 6-12 prepare
effectively for the examination. The guide was designed to familiarize
prospective test takers with various aspects of the examination,
including the content that is covered and the way it is represented.
The guide should enable candidates to direct their study and to focus
on relevant material for review.
This test preparation guide is intended primarily for use by
certification candidates, who may be students in a college or
university teacher-preparation program, teachers with provisional
certification, teachers seeking certification in an additional subject
area, or persons making a career change to public school teaching.
Candidates may have studied and worked in Florida or may be from
out of state.

College or university faculty may also use the guide to prepare students
for certification, and inservice trainers may find the guide useful for
helping previously certified teachers prepare for recertification or
multiple certification.
This test preparation guide is not intended as an all-inclusive source of
subject area knowledge, nor is it a substitute for college course work in
the subject area. The sample items are not an exact representation of
the content of the actual test. Instead, the guide is intended to help
candidates prepare for the subject area test by presenting an overview
of the content and format of the examination.

2 Preparation for the Test
The following outline may help you to prepare for the examination.
Adapt these suggestions to suit your own study habits and the time
you have available for review.

• Look over the organization of the test preparation guide.
Section 1 discusses the development of the test and test
preparation guide.
Section 2 (this section) outlines test preparation steps.
Section 3 presents information about the content of the test.
Section 4 lists question formats and includes sample test items.
Section 5 offers strategies for taking the test.
Section 6 identifies sources of further information.

• Decide which content areas you should review.
Section 3 includes the competencies and skills used to develop
this subject area test and the approximate proportion of test items
from each competency area.

• Study according to your needs.
Review all of the competencies, concentrating on areas with
which you are least familiar.

• Acquaint yourself with the format of the examination.
Section 4 describes types of questions you may find on the
• Answer sample test questions.
Section 4 gives you an opportunity to test yourself with sample
test questions and provides an answer key.

Final preparation
• Review test-taking advice.
Section 5 includes suggestions for improving your performance
on the examination.

3 Competencies and Skills
The table on the following pages lists the competencies and skills
used as the basis for the Chemistry 6-12 examination. These
competencies and skills represent the knowledge that teams of
teachers, subject area specialists, and district-level educators have
determined to be important for beginning teachers. This table could
serve as a checklist for assessing your familiarity with each of the
areas covered by the test. The competencies and skills should help
you to organize your review.
The following excerpt illustrates the components of the table:

Competency Percentage of total test items

Competency/Skill %

1 Knowledge of the nature of matter 11

1 Differentiate between pure substances, homogeneous mixtures, and

heterogeneous mixtures.
2 Determine the effects of changes in temperature, volume, pressure, or
quantity on an ideal gas.
3 Apply units of mass, volume, and moles to determine concentrations
and dilutions of solutions.
4 Analyze the effects of physical conditions on solubility and the dissolving
5 Evaluate problems relating colligative properties, molar mass, and
solution concentrations.
6 Analyze the effects of forces between chemical species on properties
(e.g., melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, solubility, conductivity)
of matter.


Competencies are areas of content knowledge.

Skills identify behaviors that demonstrate the competencies.
Percentages indicate the approximate proportion of test items that
represent the competencies on the test.

Table of Competencies, Skills, and Percentages

Competency/Skill %

The Department will provide a reference sheet.

The Department will provide a scientific calculator.

1 Knowledge of the nature of matter 11

1 Differentiate between pure substances, homogeneous mixtures, and

heterogeneous mixtures.
2 Determine the effects of changes in temperature, volume, pressure, or
quantity on an ideal gas.
3 Apply units of mass, volume, and moles to determine concentrations
and dilutions of solutions.
4 Analyze the effects of physical conditions on solubility and the dissolving
5 Evaluate problems relating colligative properties, molar mass, and
solution concentrations.
6 Analyze the effects of forces between chemical species on properties
(e.g., melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, solubility, conductivity)
of matter.
7 Solve problems involving an intensive property (e.g., density, specific
heat) of matter.
8 Differentiate physical methods (e.g., chromatography, filtration,
extraction) for separating the components of mixtures.

2 Knowledge of energy and its interaction with matter 14

1 Distinguish between different forms of energy (e.g., thermal, electrical,

2 Relate temperature and heat to kinetic molecular theory.
3 Interpret a phase diagram of a pure substance.
4 Interpret a heating/cooling curve of a substance.
5 Calculate thermal changes in chemical reactions, such as heats of
reaction, heats of formation, and/or heats of combustion, from data.
6 Analyze entropy changes during solution formation, phase changes, and
chemical reactions.
7 Predict spontaneity of a chemical process given initial and final values of
free energy, temperature, enthalpy, and/or entropy.

Competency/Skill %

8 Relate regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to the energy,

wavelength, and frequency of photons.
9 Relate regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to their effect on
chemical or physical properties of matter.
10 Analyze energy transformations in physical and biological systems
(e.g., energy from the Sun to electricity, from food consumption to
physical activity).

3 Knowledge of bonding and molecular structure 20

1 Identify the basic theory and applications of spectroscopy (e.g., MRI,

x-ray, mass spectrometry, UV, microwave, NMR, IR).
2 Identify types and examples of metallic, ionic, and covalent (polar and
nonpolar) bonds.
3 Apply electronegativity to bond type.
4 Identify characteristics of simple organic compounds.
5 Given the structural formula for a simple organic compound, identify the
hybridization of the atoms.
6 Identify sigma and pi bonds in a compound.
7 Interpret the information derived from the following models: Lewis
electron dot structures, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR)
theory, and molecular orbital (M/O) theory.
8 Select the most probable Lewis electron dot structure for an ionic or
covalent formula (e.g., CO2, Na2CO3) that follows the octet rule.
9 Predict geometry of simple molecules (e.g., symmetry elements).
10 Predict polarity of simple compounds.
11 Predict physical or chemical properties based upon the type of bonding
12 Identify an inorganic chemical formula (ionic or molecular), given the
13 Select the name of an inorganic chemical compound (ionic or
molecular), given its formula.
14 Identify properly named formulas for simple organic compounds.
15 Identify common organic functional groups.
16 Differentiate between the structures of common biochemical
compounds, such as lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleic

Table of Competencies, Skills, and Percentages

Competency/Skill %
4 Knowledge of chemical reactions and stoichiometry 24

1 Balance chemical equations.

2 Given common chemical species and reaction conditions, predict
probable reaction products.
3 Solve mass-mass stoichiometry problems.
4 Solve mass-gas volume stoichiometry problems.
5 Solve solution stoichiometry problems.
6 Solve stoichiometry problems with limiting reactants.
7 Determine empirical formulas from experimental data.
8 Analyze the effects of concentration, temperature, pressure, surface
area, and the presence or absence of catalysts on the rates of reaction.
9 Assess the effects of changes in concentration, temperature, or
pressure on a state of a system initially at equilibrium (Le Chatelier's
10 Determine rate laws from concentration and rate data.
11 Calculate either the equilibrium constant or concentration of a reaction
species at equilibrium (e.g., Ka, Kb, Ksp, Kw, Keq).
12 Identify the characteristics of a chemical system in dynamic equilibrium.
13 Identify major characteristics of strong and weak acids or bases.
14 Evaluate the properties of buffer systems.
15 Interpret graphical and numerical titration data.
16 Identify oxidation-reduction processes.
17 Balance incomplete redox equations in acidic and basic solutions.
18 Determine the spontaneity of a chemical reaction using standard
reduction potentials.
19 Identify the characteristics of biochemical and fossil fuel combustion
20 Solve problems related to pH of strong acids or bases.
21 Analyze electrolytic and/or voltaic cells.

5 Knowledge of atomic theory and structure 9

1 Using the periodic table, determine the number of protons, neutrons,

and electrons in a specific isotope of an atom or ion.

Competency/Skill %
2 Using the periodic table, relate the physical properties of atoms and ions
to the elements' positions on the table.
3 Using the periodic table, relate the chemical reactivity of elements to
their positions on the table.
4 Using the periodic table, determine electron configurations for main
group and transition elements.
5 Relate chemical activity to electron configuration.
6 Identify characteristics of the wave and particle nature of matter.
7 Identify characteristics of unstable nuclei and the particles and energies
8 Given measurable quantities, calculate parameters of radioactive decay.
9 Balance simple nuclear equations.
10 Analyze the processes of nuclear fission and fusion, including
interconversion of mass and energy.
11 Identify electron density distribution diagrams and characteristics for
s, p, and d orbitals (e.g., nodes).

6 Knowledge of the nature of science 13

1 Identify the characteristics and components of scientific inquiry.

2 Identify how the characteristics of scientific research differ from those of
other areas of learning.
3 Identify variables in a given experimental design.
4 Identify bias in an experimental design.
5 Evaluate, interpret, and predict from empirical data.
6 Interpret graphical data.
7 Analyze the relationship between experimental observations and
underlying assumptions, hypotheses, conclusions, laws, or theories.
8 Relate experimental evidence to models.
9 Differentiate between the uses of qualitative and quantitative data.
10 Analyze the relationship between basic scientific research and applied
research, technology, the economy, or the public good.
11 Identify how science and society influence each other.
12 Identify evidence of the progressive development of science.
13 Analyze natural events for evidence of patterns.

Table of Competencies, Skills, and Percentages

Competency/Skill %
7 Knowledge of Measurement 5

1 Convert between dimensional units for 1, 2, and 3 dimensional

2 Analyze the dimensional units of a mathematical formula.
3 Identify prefixes (e.g., kilo-, milli-, nano-) used in scientific
4 Distinguish between accuracy and precision and between systematic
and random error.
5 Apply the correct number of significant figures in measurements or
6 Relate the Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin temperature scales as they
pertain to the physical properties of water.
7 Convert between different units of energy.

8 Knowledge of appropriate laboratory use and procedures 4

1 Identify appropriate chemistry laboratory procedures for the safe

storage, use, and disposal of materials and equipment.
2 Choose the correct laboratory equipment for a particular procedure.
3 Identify emergency procedures and safety equipment needed in the
science laboratory and classroom.
4 Identify the areas of teacher liability and responsibility in science-related
5 Demonstrate knowledge of pertinent legislation and national guidelines
regarding laboratory safety, hazardous materials, experimentation, and
accommodations for special needs students (e.g., American Chemical
Society, National Science Teachers Association).

4 Test Format and Sample Questions

The Chemistry 6-12 subject area test consists of approximately 100

multiple-choice questions. You will have two-and-one-half hours to
complete the test.
You will receive a test booklet with a separate answer sheet. Each
question will contain four response options, and you will record your
selection by bubbling in A, B, C, or D on the answer sheet.
The following table presents types of questions on the exam and
directs you to examples of these formats among the sample items
that follow.
Calculators are permitted for the Chemistry 6-12 test. The test center
will provide scientific calculators. Candidates may not bring a
Table of Question Formats

Type of question Sample item

Command Item 1, page 16

Select the best response option.

Direct question Item 2, page 16

Choose the response option that best
answers the question.

Sentence completion Item 6, page 18

Select the response option that best
completes the sentence.

Graphics Item 38, page 28

Examine a question involving a number line,
a geometric figure, graphs of lines or curves, a
table,or a chart, and select the best response

Scenario Item 51, page 31

Examine a situation, problem, or case study.
Then answer a question, make a diagnosis,
or recommend a course of action by
selecting the best response option.

Sample Items
The following items represent both the form and content of questions
you will encounter on the exam. These sample items cannot cover all
of the competencies and skills that are tested, and they can only
approximate the degree of difficulty of actual exam questions. However,
these items will acquaint you with the general format of the exam.
An answer key follows on page 38.

Periodic Table of the Elements

Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 2
H He
1.01 4.00
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.94 9.01 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
22.99 24.31 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.06 35.45 39.95
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.10 40.08 44.96 47.90 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.7 63.54 65.37 69.72 72.59 74.92 78.96 79.91 83.80
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 59 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 (99) 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Ti Pb Bi Po At Rn
132.9 137.3 138.9 178.5 181.0 183.9 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (218) (222)
87 88 89 104 105 106 107
Fr Ra Ac Rf Ha
(223) (226) (227) (261) (262) (263) (261)

Lanthanide Series 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 175.0
Actinide Series 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
(232) (231) (238) (239) (239) (243) (245) (247) (249) (254) (253) (255) (255) (257)

omic mass values given are averaged over isotopes in percentages that occur in nature.
r an unstable element, mass number of the most stable known isotope is given in parentheses.

−1 −1 −1 −1
Gas constant, R = 0.0821 L iatmimol K = 8.314 J imol iK Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 x 10 −34 Jis
= 8.31 volticoulombimol−1iK−1 = 62.4 Litorrimol−1iK−1 Avogadro’s number = 6.022 x 10 moleculeimol−1
= 8.31 x LikPaimol−1iK−1 Electron charge, e = −1.602 x 10 −19 coulomb
Speed of light, c = 3.00 x 10 8 mis−1 1 faraday = 9.65 x 10 4 coulombimol−1
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101 kPa 1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 J (exact)
1 Cal = 1 kcal

Molal Freezing -Point and Boiling -Point Constants

Normal Molal f.p. Normal Molal b.p.

Solvent f.p. Constant, K f b.p. Constant, Kb
(oC) (oC/molal) (oC) (oC/molal)
acetic acid 16.1 3.90 118.5 3.07
acetone -94.8 -- 56.00 1.71
aniline -6.1 5.87 184.4 3.22
benzene 5.48 5.12 80.15 2.53
carbon disulfide -111.5 3.80 46.3 2.34
carbon tetrachloride -22.96 -- 76.50 5.03
ethanol -114.5 -- 78.26 1.22
ether -116.3 1.79 34.42 2.02
naphthalene 80.2 6.9 218.0 5.65
phenol 40.9 7.27 181.8 3.56
water 0.00 1.86 100.0 0.51

Heats of Formation (kJ/mol) at 25 oC and 1 atm

AgBr (s) -99.5 C 2H2(g) +226.7 H 2O ( ) -285.8 NH4Cl(s) -315.4

AgCl (s) -127.0 C 2H4(g) +52.3 H 2O2 ( ) -187.6 NH4NO3(s) -365.1
AgI (s) -62.4 C 2H6(g) -84.7 H 2 S(g) -20.1 NO(g) +90.4
Ag 2O(s) -30.6 C 3H8(g) -103.8 H2SO4 ( ) -811.3 NO2(g) +33.9
Ag 2S(s) -31.8 n-C4H10(g) -124.7 HgO (s) -90.7 NiO (s) -244.3
Al 2O3(s) -1669.8 n-C5H12 ( ) -173.1 HgS (s) -58.2 PbBr 2(s) -277.0
BaCl 2(s) -860.1 C 2H5OH ( ) -277.6 KBr (s) -392.2 PbCl 2(s) -359.2
BaCO 3(s) -1218.8 CoO (s) -239.3 KCl (s) -435.9 PbO (s) -217.9
BaO (s) -558.1 Cr 2O3(s) -1128.4 KClO 3(s) -391.4 PbO 2(s) -276.6
BaSO 4(s) -1465.2 CuO (s) -155.2 KF (s) -562.6 Pb3O4(s) -734.7
CaCl 2(s) -795.0 Cu 2O(s) -166.7 MgCl 2(s) -641.8 PCl 3(g) -306.4
CaCO 3(s) -1207.0 CuS (s) -48.5 MgCO 3(s) -1113.0 PCl 5(g) -398.9
CaO (s) -635.5 CuSO 4(s) -769.9 MgO (s) -601.8 SiO 2(s) -859.4
Ca(OH) 2(s) -986.6 Fe 2O3(s) -822.2 Mg(OH) 2(s) -924.7 SnCl 2(s) -349.8
CaSO 4(s) -1432.7 Fe 3O4(s) -1120.9 MgSO 4(s) -1278.2 SnCl 4 ( ) -545.2
CCl 4 ( ) -139.5 HBr (g) -36.2 MnO (s) -384.9 SnO (s) -286.2
CH 4(g) -74.8 HCl (g) -92.3 MnO 2(s) -519.7 SnO 2(s) -580.7
CHCl 3 ( ) -131.8 HF (g) -268.6 NaCl (s) -411.0 SO2(g) -296.1
CH 3OH ( ) -238.6 HI (g) +25.9 NaF (s) -569.0 SO3(g) -395.2
CO (g) -110.5 HNO 3 ( ) -173.2 NaOH (s) -426.7 ZnO (s) -348.0
CO 2(g) -393.5 H 2O(g) -241.8 NH 3(g) -46.2 ZnS (s) -202.9

Vapor Pressure (mmHg) of Water at Various Temperature s (oC)

Temp Pressure Temp Pressure Temp Pressure Temp Pressure

0 4.6 18 15.5 28 28.3 70 233.7
5 6.5 19 16.5 29 30.0 75 289.1
10 9.2 20 17.5 30 31.8 80 355.1
11 9.8 21 18.7 35 42.2 85 433.6
12 10.5 22 19.8 40 55.3 90 525.8
13 11.2 23 21.1 45 71.9 95 633.9
14 12.0 24 22.4 50 92.5 100 760.0
15 12.8 25 23.8 55 118.0 105 906.
16 13.6 26 25.2 60 149.4
17 14.5 27 26.7 65 187.5

Standard Reduction Pote ntials Standard
in Aqueous Solutions Potential,
E ° (V)
F2(g) + 2 e– 2 F–(aq) 2.87
S2O82–(aq) + 2 e– 2 SO42–(aq) 2.01
H2O2(aq) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 e– 2 H2 O( ) 1.78
MnO4 –
(aq) + 5
e –
Mn2+(aq) + 4 H2O( ) 1.49

Cl2(g) + 2 e 2 Cl–(aq) 1.36
Cr2O72–(aq) + 14 H+(aq) + 6e –
2 Cr 3+
(aq) + 7 H2 O( ) 1.33
O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e– 2 H2 O( ) 1.23
Br2( ) + 2 e– 2 Br–(aq) 1.07

NO3–(aq) + 4 H+(aq) + 3 e– NO(g) + 2 H2O( ) 0.96

2 Hg2+(aq) + 2 e – Hg22+(aq) 0.90
ClO –
(aq) + H 2 O( ) + 2 e –
Cl –
(aq) + 2 OH –
Hg 2+
(aq) +2e –
Hg( ) 0.85
Ag+(aq) + e – Ag(s) 0.80
Hg2 2+
(aq) +2e –
2 Hg( ) 0.80
3+ – 2+
Fe (aq) + e Fe (aq) 0.77
O2(g) + 2 H (aq) + 2 e–
H2O2(aq) 0.68
I2(s) + 2 e – 2 I–(aq) 0.54
Cu+(aq) + e – Cu(s) 0.52
IO–(aq) + H2O( ) + 2 e– I–(aq) + 2 OH–(aq) 0.49
Cu2+(aq) + 2 e– Cu(s) 0.34
Cu2+(aq) + e – Cu+(aq) 0.16
Sn4+(aq) + 2 e – Sn2+(aq) 0.15
2 H+(aq) + 2 e– H2(g) 0.00
Fe3+(aq) + 3 e – Fe(s) –0.04
Pb2+(aq) + 2 e– Pb(s) –0.13
Sn2+(aq) + 2 e– Sn(s) –0.14
Ni2+(aq) + 2 e– Ni(s) –0.23
PbSO 4(s) + 2 e– Pb(s) + SO 42– (aq) –0.35
Cd2+(aq) + 2 e – Cd(s) –0.40
Fe2+(aq) + 2 e– Fe(s) –0.41
Cr3+(aq) + 3 e– Cr(s) –0.74
Zn2+(aq) + 2 e– Zn(s) –0.76
2 H2O( ) + 2 e– H2(g) + 2 OH–(aq) –0.83
Mn2+(aq) + 2 e– Mn(s) –1.18
Al3+(aq) + 3 e– Al(s) –1.66
Mg2+(aq) + 2 e– Mg(s) –2.38
Na+(aq) + e– Na(s) –2.71
Li+(aq) + e– Li(s) –3.04

DIRECTIONS: Read each item and select the best response.
Pure Substance Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture
1 Brass Methanol Wood
2 Methanol Wood Brass
3 Wood Brass Methanol
4 Methanol Brass Wood

Select the row that has each substance in the correct category.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

2. What is the molality of a solution of ethylene glycol C2H4(OH)2 prepared by mixing 10.0 g of
ethylene glycol in 62.5 g of water?
A. 0.00258 m
B. 2.22 m
C. 2.58 m
D. 6.25 m

3. Which statement is true of the given endothermic solution process?

BaCl2(s) → Ba2+(aq) + 2 Cl1-(aq)

A. Increasing temperature will decrease the rate of dissolution.

B. Increasing the surface area of the solute by pregrinding will increase the rate of dissolution.
C. Increasing pressure will increase the solubility of BaCl2.

D. Increasing the surface area of the solvent by using a larger beaker will increase the rate of

Element bp (K)
He 4
Ne 25
Ar 95
Kr 125
Xe 170

Which forces best explain the trend shown in the table above?
A. ion-induced dipole interactions
B. nuclear binding energy
C. dipole-dipole interaction
D. London dispersion forces

Mass vs. volume of substance A

Mass in grams


0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Using the graph above, calculate the density of substance A.

A. 4.0 cm3/g

B. 0.25 g/cm3
C. 4.0 g/cm3
D. 0.25 cm3/g

6. In a microwave oven, electrical energy is converted to
A. nuclear radiation.
B. oxidation-reduction energy.
C. electromagnetic radiation.
D. chemical energy.

7. As temperature increases, molecular motion

A. decreases.
B. increases.
C. stops.
D. remains constant.

Phase Diagram of a Pure Substance




According to the given figure, the substance can undergo a phase change on the line
segment DE from
A. solid to liquid.
B. solid to vapor.
C. liquid to solid.
D. liquid to vapor.

9. Which change results in an increase in the entropy of the system?
A. H2O(g) to H2O(l)

B. H2O(s) to H2O(l)

C. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g)

D. Hg(l) → Hg(s)

10. Calculate the standard free energy change, ΔGrxn , for the following reaction and predict

whether it will be spontaneous under standard conditions.

2 NO ( g ) + O2( g ) → 2 NO 2( g )

ΔGf0 ⎡⎣NO( g ) ⎤⎦ = 86.57 kJ/mol ΔGf0 ⎡⎣NO 2( g ) ⎤⎦ = 51.30 kJ/mol


A. ΔGrxn
= -70.54 kJ/mol , spontaneous

B. ΔGrxn
= -70.54 kJ/mol , nonspontaneous

C. ΔGrxn
= 70.54 kJ/mol , spontaneous

D. ΔGrxn
= 70.54 kJ/mol , nonspontaneous

11. Compared to x-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation is

Energy Frequency Wavelength

A. Lower Higher Shorter
B. Higher Lower Shorter
C. Lower Lower Longer
D. Higher Higher Longer

12. Which process is most likely to occur when a molecule is exposed to infrared radiation?
A. Bonds will rupture.
B. Electrons will move to higher energy orbitals.
C. Nuclear spin states will vary.
D. Molecular vibrations will change.

13. A small race car is powered by solar cells on its roof. This is an example of which series of
A. electromagnetic to electrical to mechanical
B. nuclear to thermal to mechanical
C. thermal to electromagnetic to mechanical
D. nuclear to chemical to mechanical

14. All of the following spectroscopic techniques measure the amount of radiation absorbed or
emitted by a sample EXCEPT
A. mass spectroscopy.
B. infrared spectroscopy.
C. UV-visible spectroscopy.

15. Hydrogen bonding is associated with

A. metallic bonds.
B. polar covalent bonds.
C. nonpolar covalent bonds.
D. ionic bonds.

16. Select the option that shows the bonded pairs in order of increasing polarity.
A. HI, HBr, HCl, HF
B. HF, HCl, HBr, HI
C. HCl, HBr, HI, HF
D. HF, HI, HBr, HCl

17. Which of the following has the lowest melting point?

A. MgCl2

B. C3H6O

C. Na2CO3

D. C3H8

18. In which molecule does a carbon atom exhibit sp2 hybridization?.
A. H
H – C – OH

B. H H
| |
H – C – C – Br
| |

C. H H
\ /
/ \

D. H–C≡C–H

19. How many pi bonds are present in the given molecule?

| //
| \

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

20. Which of the following Lewis dot structures is correctly represented?
H +
H:N :H


H: O:

: :

:N: :N:
: :

: :

:Cl :
: :

: :

:Cl : P :Cl :

21. What is the molecular geometry for SiH4?

A. linear
B. trigonal planar
C. square planar
D. tetrehedral

22. Which of the given molecules are nonpolar?

A. PCl3

B. SF4

C. PCl5

D. BF3

23. At room temperature, CsF is expected to be a
A. brittle solid.
B. conducting solid.
C. conducting liquid.
D. soft solid.

24. Select the name of the given compound.


A. acetic acid
B. ethanoic acid
C. propanoic acid
D. butyric acid

25. Which functional groups are present in the molecule H2N-CH2-COOH?

A. nitrate and alcohol

B. amide and carboxylic acid
C. amine and carboxylic acid
D. amine and alcohol

26. When the equation below is balanced, what is the coefficient for the oxygen?
KClO3(s) → KCl(s) + O2(g)

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

27. Calcium oxide (CaO) is a basic anhydride. Predict the product of the reaction of calcium oxide
and water.
CaO + H2O →

A. Ca(OH)2

B. H2CaO3

C. Ca + H2O2

D. CaH2 + O2

28. When 0.950 g of carbon monoxide react with an unlimited amount of iron(III) oxide, how many
grams of iron metal are produced?
3 CO + Fe2O3 → 2 Fe + 3 CO2

A. 0.630 g
B. 1.26 g
C. 1.89 g
D. 2.84 g

29. How many milliliters of 0.100 M NaOH solution are needed to react completely with 200.0 mL
of 0.200 M H2SO4?

H2SO4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) → 2 H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq)

A. 100.0 mL
B. 200.0 mL
C. 400.0 mL
D. 800.0 mL

30. In the process shown below, 0.400 mol of copper is allowed to react with 0.200 mol of nitric
acid. What mass of nitrogen dioxide will be produced?
Cu + 4 HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2 NO2 + 2 H2O

A. 2.30 g
B. 4.60 g
C. 9.20 g
D. 18.4 g

31. Consider the given reaction.
2 NO(g) + 2 H2(g) → N2(g) + 2 H2O(g)

The rate law for this reaction is R = k[NO]2[H2]. If both [NO] and [H2] are doubled, by what
factor does the rate of this reaction increase?
A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8

32. If the chemical reaction C(s) + CO2(g) ↔ 2 CO(g), ΔH0 = 120 kJ, is initially at chemical
equilibrium, it will shift in the direction of formation of products by
A. decreasing the volume of the system.
B. adding a catalyst to the system.
C. adding 1 mol of CO to the system.
D. applying heat to the system.

33. Consider the hypothetical reaction 2x +3y → 2z for which the kinetic data were obtained.

Experiment [x](M) [y](M) Δz]/Δ

[Δ Δt (M/s)
1 0.20 0.20 1.4 X 10-4
2 0.60 0.20 1.4 X 10-4
3 02.0 0.40 5.6 X 10-4

Determine the rate law of the hypothetical reaction using the data given above.
A. rate = k[x]2
B. rate = k[y]2
C. rate = k[x]2 [y]2
D. rate = k[x]2 [y]3

34. Select the equilibrium expression for the given reaction.
2 NO2(g) + 7 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g) + 4 H2O(g)


[NH3 ] [H2O ]
2 4

[NO2 ] [H2 ]
2 7


[NO2 ] [H2 ]
2 7

[NH3 ] [H2O ]
2 4

2 [NH3 ] 4 [H 2O ]
2 [NO 2 ] 7 [H2 ]


[NO2 ] [H2 ]
2 7

2 [NH3 ]+ 4 [H 2O ]

35. Which of the following describes a physical (phase) equilibrium?

A. a salt solution in a beaker
B. a pot of boiling water on the stove
C. a can of soda for sale at a grocery store
D. a glass containing ice cubes and water at room temperature

Acid Ka
1. Acetic acid 1.8 x 10-5
2. Carbonic acid 4.3 x 10-7
3. Hydrocyanic acid 4.9 x 10-10
4. Hydrofluoric acid 6.8 x 10-4

Using the above table, determine which acid is the strongest.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

37. Which substance could be added to an acetic acid solution to form a buffer?

B. NaC2H3O2

C. NaCl
D. HC2H3O2


The titration curve shown above represents the titration of a

A. strong acid with a strong base.
B. weak acid with a strong base.
C. strong acid with a weak base.
D. weak acid with a weak base.

39. Identify the reducing agent in the following reaction.

3 Mg + 2 Fe(NO3)3 → 3 Mg(NO3)2 + 2 Fe

A. iron
B. magnesium
C. iron nitrate
D. magnesium nitrate

40. What would be the effect of placing a piece of solid zinc metal in a beaker containing a
solution of silver nitrate?
A. Silver metal will precipitate from the solution.
B. Zinc metal will be formed in the solution.
C. Silver ions (Ag+) will be produced.
D. No reaction will occur.

41. Which of the following is a combustion reaction?
A. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

B. H2O2(l) → H2(g) + O2(g)

C. CO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2CO3(aq)

D. CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) → CH3COO-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

42. Calculate the pH of a 0.0050 M solution of NaOH.

A. 2.30
B. 10.70
C. 11.70
D. 12.00

43. Based on their positions in the periodic table, select the set of elements exhibiting an
increase in atomic radius.
A. P, Al, Mg, Na
B. K, Ca, Ga, As
C. Cs, Rb, K, Na
D. Rn, I, Se, P

44. Which element has the highest first ionization energy?

A. K
B. Ti
C. As
D. Br

45. Which electron configuration is correct for the ion 24 Cr 3+ ?

A. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4
B. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1
C. 1s22s22p63s23p63d3
D. 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5

46. Which valence shell electron configuration of neutral atoms would represent an element most
likely to form a 2- ion?
A. 3s2
B. 3s23p2
C. 3s23p4
D. 3s23p8

47. When an unstable nucleus emits an alpha particle,

A. the mass number decreases.
B. the atomic number increases.
C. neutrons are absorbed.
D. electrons are captured.

48. The half-life of Na is 14.9 hours. If the initial mass of a sample is 24.0 g, how many grams

of it will remain at the end of 29.8 hours?

A. 3.0 g
B. 4.0 g
C. 6.0 g
D. 12.0 g

49. Which net nuclear reaction is the primary source of solar energy?
A. radioactive decay of heavy hydrogen (deuterium)
B. fission of helium nuclei to form hydrogen
C. fusion of hydrogen nuclei to form helium
D. proton emission of hydrogen gas

50. Which graphic represents a d orbital shape?




51. A scientist is investigating the validity of a low carbohydrate diet. She measures the grams of
carbohydrates eaten per day by the subjects, the weight of the subjects, a physician's opinion
of the health of the subjects, and the willingness of each subject to remain on the diet.
Which of the following is a scientific observation from the above information?
A. The low carbohydrate diet works.
B. The number of grams of carbohydrates is inversely proportional to the change in weight of the
C. The grams of carbohydrates eaten each day varies with each subject.
D. Subjects feel better on the diet.

52. All of the following are necessary characteristics of scientific research EXCEPT
A. validation by repetition.
B. current economic value.
C. publication or presentation.
D. documentation through written records.

53. A student believes that the tap water in his home acquires lead from the house plumbing. He
uses a spectrophotometer to compare the lead content of the tap water to that of bottled water
from the grocery store. The student's data show that water from his home contains a higher
concentration of lead than the bottled water. He concludes that his household water supply is
indeed being contaminated by the plumbing.
A major flaw in the student's experiment is
A. failing to test several different brands of bottled water.
B. testing the bottled water and tap water samples at different times.
C. failing to test the water for lead content before it enters his home.
D. choosing an analytical technique that is not sensitive enough.

54. A student must determine the density of carbon dioxide at room temperature. After obtaining
a large flask of known volume, the student fits it with a rubber stopper and finds the mass of
the flask with the stopper in place. The student then fills the flask with carbon dioxide gas,
refits the stopper, and reweighs it.
What assumption has the student made that will introduce a serious flaw into the results?
A. The volume of the flask remains constant.
B. The mass of air is negligible.
C. Carbon dioxide does not react with rubber.
D. Room temperature has remained constant.

55. Which theory accounts for the equal bond lengths (C-C, 1.44 angstroms) in benzene?
A. atomic orbital theory
B. resonance theory
C. localized orbital theory
D. paramagnetic behavior theory

56. The following data were collected during a strong acid-strong base titration. Both a pH meter
and an indicator were used. The following data were recorded.

Volume of Titrant (mL) pH Color

15.0 2.0 Yellow
16.0 2.1 Yellow
17.0 2.2 Yellow
18.0 2.4 Yellow
19.0 2.7 Green
20.0 7.0 Blue
21.0 11.3 Blue
22.0 11.6 Blue
23.0 11.8 Blue
24.0 11.9 Blue
25.0 12.0 Blue

Which data are most suitable for determining the equivalence point?
A. volume of titrant and pH
B. volume of titrant and color
C. pH and color
D. pH only

57. Read the following excerpt and answer the question below.
During the early and middle parts of the nineteenth century, chemists prepared a
large number of colored compounds containing transition metals and other
substances such as ammonia, chloride ion, cyanide ion, and water. . . .
However, in 1890, a young Swiss chemist named Alfred Werner . . . became . . .
interested in these compounds . . . [and] constructed a scientific paper containing
his now famous coordination theory. . . .
In his paper on the coordination theory, Werner explained not only the metal-
ammine[*] compounds but also most of the other known transition metal
*Ammine is the name for NH3 as a ligand.
From Chemistry 6th ed., by S. Zumdahl and S. Zumdahl, 2000, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

This theory is the basis for much of contemporary inorganic chemistry that has yielded, for
example, new anticancer drugs and plastics.
Which of the following best describes Werner's original work?
A. Basic scientific research, with an impact on technology today.
B. Basic scientific research, with no impact on technology today.
C. Applied scientific research, with an impact on technology today.
D. Applied scientific research, with no impact on technology today.

58. The discovery of radioactivity played an important role in the development of which atomic
A. Bohr (planetary) model
B. Rutherford (nuclear) model
C. Schrödinger (quantum mechanical) model
D. Thomson (plum pudding) model

59. Convert 55.0 micrometers to millimeters.

A. 5.50 x 10-5 mm
B. 5.50 x 10-2 mm
C. 5.50 x 104 mm
D. 5.50 x 107 mm

60. Calculate the density of a block of cast iron whose volume is 2.61 cm3 and whose mass is
20.25 g.
A. 8.0 g/cm3
B. 7.8 g/cm3
C. 7.76 g/cm3
D. 7.759 g/cm3

61. Which standard heating curve of water has temperature in the Kelvin scale?
A. Temperature















62. A standard daily diet commonly contains 2.0 x 103 food calories. How many joules is this?
A. 4.8 x 102
B. 8.4 x 103
C. 4.8 x 105
D. 8.4 x 106

63. Which laboratory procedure should be done in a fume hood?

A. titrating an unknown concentration of dilute acetic acid with 0.100 M NaOH
B. preparing 100 mL of 0.100 M NaCl
C. reacting silver nitrate solution with a sodium chloride solution
D. reacting copper metal with 6 M HNO3

64. Which of the following would be best suited to measuring the concentration of a dye in
A. glass burette
B. mass spectrometer
C. spectrophotometer
D. graduated cylinder

65. Wearing safety goggles in school science laboratories where chemicals or open flames are
used is
A. determined at the discretion of the teacher.
B. recommended but not required by state law.
C. determined by local school systems.
D. required by state law.

Answer Key

1. D 23. A 45. C
2. C 24. C 46. C
3. B 25. C 47. A
4. D 26. C 48. C
5. C 27. A 49. C
6. C 28. B 50. C
7. B 29. D 51. C
8. D 30. B 52. B
9. B 31. D 53. C
10. A 32. D 54. B
11. C 33. B 55. B
12. D 34. A 56. A
13. A 35. C 57. A
14. A 36. D 58. B
15. B 37. B 59. B
16. A 38. B 60. C
17. D 39. B 61. B
18. C 40. A 62. D
19. C 41. A 63. D
20. A 42. C 64. C
21. D 43. A 65. D
22. C 44. D

5 Test-taking Advice

• Go into the examination prepared, alert, and well rested.

• Complete your travel arrangements prior to the examination date.
Plan to arrive early so that you can locate the parking facilities
and examination room without rushing.
• Dress comfortably and bring a sweater or jacket in case the room
is too cool.
• Take the following with you to the test site:
Admission ticket
Picture identification
Money for lunch and change for vending machines
• There are many strategies for taking a test and different
techniques for dealing with different types of questions.
Nevertheless, you may find the following general suggestions
• Read each question and all the response options carefully
before marking your answer. Pay attention to all of the details.
• Go through the entire test once and answer all the questions
you are reasonably certain about. Then go back and tackle
the questions that require more thought.
• Check periodically to be sure that you are correctly coding
your answers on the answer sheet. When you answer a
question out of sequence, be certain that the number of the
circle you mark on your answer sheet corresponds to the
proper question number in the test booklet.
• When you are not certain of the right answer, eliminate as
many options as you can and choose the response that
seems best. It is to your advantage to answer all the questions
on the test, even if you are uncertain about some of your
• Be certain to mark your answers clearly on the answer sheet.
If you change an answer, erase the first pencil mark
completely. Also make sure there are no stray marks on the
answer sheet.
• After completing the examination, go back and check every
question. Verify that you have answered all of the questions
and that your responses are correctly entered.

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