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Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)
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Подготовка к
Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)
международным
экзаменам

Международные
сертификаты Subject or object Субъект или объект
Грамматика? Легко!!! Relative clauses give extra information about a Придаточные определительные предложения дают
Лексика? Быстро!!! noun in the main clause. дополнительную информацию о существительном в
главном предложении.
Понимать английскую Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun Придаточные определительные предложения
речь начинаются с относительного местоимения (кто,
(who, which, that, whom, whose).
Учимся говорить на что, тот, кого, чья).
английском The relative pronoun can refer to the subject of
Относительное местоимение может относиться к
the clause.
Интересное на подлежащему в предложении.
английском -That's the woman who bought my car.
-Это женщина, которая купила машину.
Сценарии на английском
The woman (subject) bought my car (object).
языке Женщина (субъект) купил свою машину (объект).
Перевод документов на Or the relative pronoun can refer to the object
Или относительное местоимение может относиться
английский of the clause.
к дополнению в предложении.
Пишем письма на -This is the car that I used to own.
-Это автомобиль, который у меня был.
английском
I (subject) used to own the car (object).
Письменная часть Я (субъект) владел автомобилем (объект).
экзамена

Подготовка к ЕГЭ(11 кл) Defining Определяющие


и ГИА(9 кл) по
английскому • Defining clauses give important information • Определяющие предложения дают важную
which tells us exactly what is being referred to. информацию, которая говорит нам, что именно
ЕГЭ для 4-го класса
имеется в виду.
Поездки за границу -The book which you lent me is really good. -Книга, которую вы предоставили мне
действительно хорошо.
Летние языковые
программы Это указывает на ту книгу,о которой мы говорим.
This indicates which book we are talking about.
Быстрое запоминание Без определяющего предложения, может быть
Without the relative clause, it might be difficult
слов трудно понять смысл.
to understand the meaning.
Анекдоты на английском
Новое на сайте
Pronouns. Test 4.
Non-defining Не определяющие
Pronouns. Test 3.
• Non-defining clauses add extra information. • Не определяющие предложения добавляют
Pronouns. Test 2.
They are separated by commas in writing, and дополнительную информацию. Они разделены
Pronouns. Test 1.
Wordbuilding-7.
by a pause on either side (where the commas запятой в письменной форме, и паузой с каждой
(Cловообразование) are) in speaking. We generally use which not стороны (там, где запятые) в разговоре. Мы вообще
that in non-defining clauses. используем which а не that в не определяющие
предложениях.

- Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала


-The book, which I hadn't read, was still on the на полке.
shelf. This gives extra information about the
book.

We could miss out the relative clause and the Это дает дополнительную информацию о книге. Мы
meaning would still be clear. могли опустить не определяющее предложение, но
смысл все равно будет понятным.

Omitting the relative pronoun Опуская относительное местоимение

• In a defining relative clause we can leave out • В определяющем предложении мы можем


the relative pronoun if it is the object of the опустить относительное местоимение, если оно
clause. является дополнением в предложении.

-That's the car (that) I used to own. -Это автомобиль, который у меня был.

We cannot miss out the relative pronoun if it is Мы не можем опустить относительное местоимение,
the subject of the clause. если оно является подлежащим в предложении.

-Это женщина, которая купила машину.

-That's the woman who bought my car. • В не определяющих предложениях мы не можем


опустить относительное местоимение.
• In a non-defining relative clause we cannot
leave out the relative pronoun. - Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала
на полке.
-The book, which I hadn't read, was still on the
shelf.

Which, who and that Который, кто и что

• That instead of which • That вместо which

When we talk about things, that is often used Когда мы говорим о вещах, That часто
instead of which in defining clauses. This is very используются вместо which в определяющем
common in speech. предложении. Это очень распространено в речи.

-Is this the house that you bought? - Это тот дом, который вы купили?

• That instead of who • That вместо who

When we talk about people, that can be used Когда мы говорим о людях, that может быть
instead of who in defining clauses. использовано вместо who в определяющем
предложении.
-Have you met the boy that Sue is going to
marry? -Вы встретили молодого человека, за которого Сью
выходит замуж?
• Which in non-defining clauses • Which в не определяющих предложениях
That не может быть использовано для введения не-
That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining
определяющего предложения.
clause.
- Отель, которому было сто лет, был очень удобен.
-The hotel, which was a hundred years old, was
very comfortable.

• Prepositions • Предлоги
That cannot be used after a preposition. That не может быть использовано после предлога.
-This is the car (that / which) I paid £2000 for. -Это автомобиль (за который) я заплатил £ 2000.
(speech)
(в речи)
-This is the car for which I paid £2000. (formal)
-Это автомобиль ,за которую я заплатил 2000
фунтов стерлингов. (формально)

Whom and whose Кому и чьё

• Whom is generally used in writing. • Whom , как правило, используется в письменной


речи.
-Smith was one of the men whom Jones had -Смит был одним из мужчин, с которым Джонс
met earlier. (formal) встречался ранее. (формально)
-Smith was one of the men (that / who) Jones -Смит был одним из мужчин ,(с которым) Джонс
had met earlier.(speech) встретился ранее. (в речи)
Whom has to be used after prepositions. Whom должно быть использовано после предлогов.
-This is the person (who) I sold my car to. -Это человек, (которому) я продал свой
(speech) автомобиль.(в речи)
-This is the person to whom I sold my car. -Это человек, которому я продал свой автомобиль.
(formal) (формально)
• Whose means of whom, and usually refers to • Whose означает чьё, и ,как правило, относится к
people. людям.
-This is Jack. His sister is staying with us. -Это Джек. Его сестра остается с нами.
-This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us. -Это Джек, чья сестра остается с нами.

Exercise 1: Fill in: who, whose, which or where.


My school, 1) __________ is called King Edward's, has about 2,000 students. My favourite teacher, 2)__________
is called Mr Brown, teaches sport. The sports centre, 3)____________ I play basketball and tennis, is the largest
in the area. I walk to school every day with my friend Mike, 4)____________ father teaches History.
Exercise 2:
Make sentences as in the example. Use relative pronouns or relative adverbs.
Example: A painter is someone who paints pictures.
• builder / someone / build houses • elephant / animal / ears are big
• circus / place / can see acrobats
• tiger / animal / live in jungle
• supermarket / place / do shopping
Exercise 3 :
Fill in: who's or whose.
1 My mother,_________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.
2 She's the woman ________________married to an actor.
3 Celine is the girl ______________brother won the prize.
4 Helen is the person______________car is outside our house.
5 Ann's the one________________ a History teacher.
6 Lucas is the man ______________helping us move house.
7 That's the woman _____________son just graduated from university.
8 . ______________concert did you go to?
Exercise 4:
Fill in the correct relative pronoun. What part of sentence is each, subject or object? Write S for subject
and О for object, then state if the relatives can be omitted or not in the box provided.
1 Did you see the man __________stole her bag? S not. omitted

2 The dress__________ Mary bought yesterday is too


big.

3 Please give me the keys______ are on the table.

4 Is that the man______________we saw in the park


yesterday?

5 What's the name of the lady_____ babysits your little sister?

6 Klaus is playing with the dog____ lives next door.

7 Have you eaten all the cakes_____I made yesterday?

8 How old is the man___________ owns that shop?

9 Have you met the man_________ Jackie is going to marry?

10 Let's all look at the picture______ is on page 7.

11 Has Peter returned the he borrowed from you?


money____

12 What colour is the dress ______ you're going to wear tonight?

Exercise 5 :
Write one word for each space.
Hi Janet,
How are you? I'm doing all right. I just wanted to tell you 1)______________ something exciting2)________
happened to me last Saturday. Do you remember Beth, 3)_____________party we went to last winter? Well,
I went 4) __________her and her cousin to a concert at Croke Park 5)___________my favourite band,
Nickelback, were playing. Anyway, her cousin Rick knew someone 6) _________was working backstage and
he let us meet the band. He even invited us to a party 7) ______________the band was going to after the
concert. It was amazing! Now about the weekend hiking trip - the reason 8)______ I can't come is because
my sister has asked me to take care of her children as she's 9)______________ on a business trip. I'm so
sorry. I was really 10)_____ forward to it.
Write and tell me your news,
Shelly

Exercise 6 :
Fill in the appropriate relative, say whether the relative clauses are essential or not to the meaning of the main
sentence, then add commas where necessary.
1. Paul Stevens___________ starred in Days went to school with my brother.
2. The pen __________ I left on that table has disappeared.
3. The woman_________ repairs our car is very friendly.
4. David _________ grew up in Canada speaks French fluently.
5. The man _______car was stolen has gone to the police station.
6. Rye_________ my grandmother lives is near the sea.
7. Oleg_________car has broken down is late for work.
8. The Coliseum_________attracts many tourists is in Rome.
Exercise 7:
Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Write D for defining, ND for non-
defining and if the relative can be omitted or not in the box provided.
1 Mr Brown ,who__ teaches us French, comes from London. ND not omitted

2 The girl___________ I met on the bus looks just like my sister.

3 Peter Smith_________ had an accident is in hospital.

4 The apples__________grow on these trees are delicious.

5 This lemon pie______ I made yesterday tastes great.

6 The film__________ I saw on TV last night was very exciting.

7 My friend Akim_____ is a doctor works very long hours.

8 John___________ father is a lawyer has moved to Paris.

9 The sports centre____ we play tennis is expensive.

10 The vase .__________ Susan gave me got broken.

11 The summer______ I went to Spain was really hot.

12 The car____________ tyres are flat is mine.

13 The cafe___________ I first met my husband has closed down now.

14 Simon____________ mother is a vegetarian doesn't eat meat.

15 The bakery_________ is by my house sells wonderful pies.

Exercise 8:
a) Translate the sentences into English.
1. Художник, который нарисовал эту картину, жил в 19 веке.
2. Книга, которую ты прочитал летом, действительно очень увлекательная.
3. Катя, чей брат учится в моем классе, выиграла чемпионат мира.
b) Translate the text into English.
Зоопарк - это место, куда люди ходят с самого детства. Животные, которых там можно увидеть, представляют
разные страны и континенты. Люди, которые часто посещают зоопарк, даже имеют там своих любимых животных.
В некоторых зоопарках животным можно давать специальную еду, которая куплена здесь же. День, когда вся
семья идет в зоопарк, обычно очень радостный, особенно для детей.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Answers:
Exercise 1: 1)which 2)who 3)where 4)whose
Exercise 2:
1)Builder is someone who/that builds houses
2) A circus is a place where we can see acrobats.
3)A tiger is an animal which/that lives in the jungle.
4)A supermarket is the place where we do the shopping.
5)An elephant is an animal whose ears are big.
Exercise 3:
1 My mother,_whose________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.
2 She's the woman ___who's_____________married to an actor.
3 Celine is the girl __whose____________brother won the prize.
4 Helen is the person___whose___________car is outside our house.
5 Ann's the one___who's_____________ a History teacher.
6 Lucas is the man ___who's___________helping us move house.
7 That's the woman __whose___________son just graduated from university.
8 . ___Whose ___concert did you go to?
Exercise 4:
1) who /that (S- notomitted) 6)which/that (S- not omitted) 11)which/that (O-omitted) 16)who / that(S-not omitted)

2)which/that (O-omitted) 7)which/that(O-omitted) 12)which/that(O-omitted) 17)which/that(S-not omitted)

3)which/that(S- not omitted) 8)who / that(S-not omitted) 13)who / that(S-not omitted) 18)who/that (S- not omitted)

4) who(m) / that(O-omitted) 9)who(m) / that(O-omitted) 14)which/that(S-not omitted) 19)which/that (O-omitted)

5) who / that(S-not omitted) 10)which/that(S-not omitted) 15)who / that(S-not omitted) 20)who(m) / that(O-omitted)

Exercise 5:
1)about 3)whose 5)where 7)which 9)going

2)which 4)with 6)who 8)why 10)looking

Exercise 6:
1)who 3)who/that 5)whose 7),whose...,

2)which/that 4),who........., 6),where...., 8),which...,

Exercise 7:
1) who (ND-not omitted) 6)which/that(D-omitted) 11)when (D-omitted)

2) who(m) / that (D-omitted) 7),who...,(ND-not omitted) 12)whose(D-omitted)

3),who..., (ND-not omitted) 8),whose...,(ND-not omitted) 13)where(D-omitted)

4) which / that(D-omitted) 9)where(D-omitted) 14),whose...,(ND-not omitted)

5) ,which..,(ND-not omitted) 10)which/that(S-not omitted) 15)which/that(D-omitted)

Exercise 8:
Translation (suggested answers)
a)1) The artist who painted this picture lived in the 19th century.
2) The book you read in the summer is really very exciting.
3) Kate, whose brother studies in my class, has won the world championship.
b) The zoo is a place where people go from their childhood on. Animals which you can see there come from different
countries and continents. People who often go to the zoo even have their favourite animals there. In some zoos you can
give the animals special food which has been bought there. A day when the whole family goes to the zoo is usually very
jolly, especially

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
More exercises:

1) Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences.
1 I think that my boss is the person who I admire most.
2 Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early.
3 Were taking the train that leaves at 6.00.
4 Have you seen the book that I left here on the desk?
5 The film which we liked most was the French one.
6 My radio, which isn't very old, has suddenly stopped working.
7 The clothes which you left behind are at the reception desk.
8 The couple who met me at the station took me out to dinner.
9 Last week I ran into an old friend who I hadn't seen for ages.
10 Don't cook the meat
2 )Replace the relative pronouns in italics with that, where possible.
1 This is the magazine which I told you about.
2 John's flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.
3 The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.
4 The policeman who arrested her had recognized her car.
5 I work with someone who knows you.
6 We don't sell goods which have been damaged.
7 Brighton, which is on the south coast, is a popular holiday resort.
8 I don't know anyone whose clothes would fit you.
9 There's a cafe near here which serves very good meals.
10 People who park outside get given parking tickets.
3 )Underline the most suitable word in each sentence.
1 My friend Jack, that I who / whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland.
2 Here's the computer program that / whom / whose I told you about.
3 I don't believe the story that / who / whom she told us.
4 Peter comes from Witney, that / who / which is near Oxford.
5 This is the gun with that I whom / which the murder was committed.
6 Have you received the parcel whom / whose / which we sent you?
7 Is this the person who I which / whose you asked me about?
8 That's the girl that I who / whose brother sits next to me at school.
9 The meal, that I which / whose wasn't very tasty, was quite expensive.
10 We didn't enjoy the play that / who / whose we went to see
4 )Put one suitable word in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.
The story so far:
Jane Piatt, (1).............is travelling to London because of a mysterious letter, is the only person
(2).....................witnesses a murder at Victoria Station. The detective to (3).....................she gives her statement
then disappears.Jane goes to an office in Soho to answer the letter 4)..................... she had received. There she
discovers that her uncle Gordon, (5).....................
lives in South America, has sent her a small box (6).....................she is only to open if in trouble. ) Jane,
(7).....................parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious of the box,
(8).....................she gives to her friend Tony. They go to Scotland Yard and see Inspector Groves,
(9).....................has not heard of the Victoria Station murder, (10).....................was not reported to the
police. Jane gives Inspector Groves the murdered man's ticket, (11).....................she found beside his
body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhill,(12).....................was the town (1 3).....................the
murdered man had come from. On the train they meet a man,(14).....................face is somehow familiar to
Jane, (15).....................says he knows her Uncle Gordon.
5) Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.
1 My bike, ..........I had left at the gate, had disappeared.
2 The shoes.....................I bought were the ones.....................I tried on first.
3 The bag in.....................the robbers put the money was found later.
4 The medicine.....................the doctor gave me had no effect at all.
5 Peter,.....................couldn't see the screen, decided to change his seat.
6 I really liked that tea.....................you made me this morning.
7 What was the name of your friend.....................tent we borrowed?
8 The flight.....................Joe was leaving on was cancelled.

.......................................................................................................................................................................
Answers:
1 1 who. 2 none. 3 none. 4 that. 5 which. 6 none. 7 which. 8 none. 9 who. 10 that.
2 1 that I told you about. 2 not possible. 3 not possible. 4 that arrested her. 5 that
knows you. 6 that have been damaged. 7 not possible. 8 not possible. 9 that serves
very good meals. 10 that park outside.
3 1 whose. 2 that. 3 that. 4 which. 5 which. 6 which.7 who. 8 whose. 9 which.10 that.
4 1 who. 2 who. 3 whom. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 which. 7 whose. 8 which. 9 who. 10
which. 11 which. 12 which. 13 blank. 14 whose. 15 who.
5 1 which. 2 blank, blank. 3 which. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 blank. 7 whose. 8 blank.

< Пред. След. >

Подразделы категории:

Lexis: Hobby, sport


Hobby-Lexis (Лексика на тему хобби) 4469

Winter sports and water sports (Зимние и водные виды


2953
спорта)
Team sports (Командные виды спорта) 3017

Sports verbs (Глаголы, относящиеся к спорту) 3387

Sports equipment (Спортивное оборудование) 3179

Individual sports (индивидуальные виды спорта) 3602

Hobbies and games (Хобби и игры) 3366

Hobby - Хобби 7324

Lexis: Countries
North America and Central America (Северная и
2671
Центральная Америка)
Countries and nationalities - Страны и национальности 24579

Lexis: Weather and seasons


Weather (Погода) 2797

The calendar (Календарь) 2530

Lexis: Food and drinks


Vegetables (Овощи) 2976

Meat and poultry (Мясо и птица) 3049

Kitchen utensils (Кухонная утварь) 3162

Fruit (Фрукты) 2833

Food preparation (Приготовление пищи) 3098

Fast food (Блюда быстрого приготовления) 3069

Dali and Seafood (Деликатесы и морепродукты) 2965

Containers and Packaged Food (Упаковка и


3858
расфасованные продукты)
A Coffee Shop Menu(Меню кафе) 3807

Lexis: Social life


U.S. Mail (Почта США) 2650

Types of schools (Типы школ) 2896

The telephone (Телефон) 2718

The legal system (Правовая система) 2956

Public transportation (Общественный транспорт) 2789

Public safety (Общественная безопасность) 2677

Parts of a car and car maintenance (Детали автомобиля


2810
и его обслуживание)
Live events (События жизни) 3037

Everyday conversation (Разговор на бытовые темы) 3215

Energy and environment (Энергия и окружающая


3019
среда)
Daily routines (Распорядок дня) 3257

Crime (Преступление) 2997

A Graduation(Окончание школы) 2922

Family - Семья 4728

Lexis: Subjects at school


Weights and measures (Система мер и весов) 2704

Time (Время) 2881

Studing (Занятия) 2742

Science (Наука) 2606

Numbers and measurements (Числа, цифры и системы


2941
мер)
Music (Музыка) 2828

More school subjects (Школьные предметы) 2952

Mathematics (Математика) 2973

Geography (География) 2759

English composition (Сочинение на английском языке) 4541

Electronics and photography (Электроника и


2892
фотография)
Computers(Компьютеры) 2979

Lexis: Nature, animals


Trees and plants (Деревья и растения) 3184

The universe (Вселенная) 2663

Marine life, Amphibians and Reptiles (Морская фауна,


2955
амфибии и пресмыкающиеся)
Mammals (Млекопитающие) 3025

Flowers (Цветы) 3031

Emergencies and natural disasters (Несчастные случаи


3297
и стихийные бедствия)
Domestic animals and rodents(Домашние животные и
4210
грызуны)
Birds, Insects and Arachinids(Птицы, насекомые и
3430
паукообразные)

Lexis: Places to go
The park and playground (Парк и игровая площадка) 2711

The market (Рынок) 2733

The beach (Пляж) 3040

School (Школа) 2833

Prepositions of motion (Предлоги, относящиеся к


2936
движению)
Places to go (Места проведения досуга) 2914

Directions and traffic signs(Указатели и дорожные


3124
знаки)
Cars and trucks(Легковые и грузовые автомобили) 3288

Apartments(Квартиры) 3027

An Office(Офис) 2887

An Intersection(Перекресток) 3000

An Airport(Аэропорт) 3046

A Yard (Двор\Участок) 2761

A Restaurant (Ресторан) 3120

A Plane Trip(Полет на самолете) 3089

A Party(Вечеринка) 3051

A Mall-2 (Торговый центр) 2798

A Mall-1 (Торговый центр) 2714

A Library(Библиотека) 2916

A Hotel(Отель) 3035

A Hospital(Больница) 2925

A Factory(Завод) 2767

A Bank(Банк) 2723

Lexis: Body, illnesses


The body (Тело) 3188

Symptoms and injuries (Симптомы заболеваний и


2962
травмы)
Personal information (Личные данные) 2845

Personal hygiene (Личная гигиена) 3955

Medical emergencies (Травмы, несчастные случаи) 3125

Medical and dental exams (Медицинский и


2883
зубоврачебный осмотр)
Illnesses and medical (Болезни состояние здоровья) 3142

Health care (Здравоохранение) 3277

First Aid (Первая медицинская помощь) 3098

Feelings (Чувства) 2988

Age and Physical Description (Возраст и описание


4105
внешности)

Lexis: Clothes, shopping


Shopping (Покупки) 3014

Shoes and accesssories (Обувь и принадлежности


2664
туалета)
Money (Деньги) 2794

Describing things (Описание предметов) 3169

Describing clothes(Описание одежды) 3504

Colors(Цвета) 2755

Clothing II (Одежда II) 3001

Clothing I (Одежда I) 2764

Shoes and accessories (Обувь и принадлежности


3056
туалета)

Lexis: Job, having a rest and fun


Outdoor recreation (Развлечения на открытом воздухе) 2659

Outdoor recreation (Развлечения на открытом воздухе) 2674

Jobs and occupations 2 (Должности и профессии) 2926

Jobs and occupations (Должности и профессии) 2873

Job skills (Профессиональные навыки) 2846

Job search (Поиск работы) 2739

Job safety (Безопасность труда) 2769

Sewing and alteration (Шитье и переделка одежды) 3142

Entertainment (Развлечения) 2936

Farming and ranching(Земледелие и скотоводство) 3000

Doing the laundry(Стирка белья) 2995

Construction (Строительство) 3135

Free time - Свободное время 3961

Job - Работа 4881