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# Pipeline Design

## Design Formula For Steel Pipe

• The design pressure:
P = (2 St/D) x F x E x T
P =Design pressure in psi or (kPa) gage.
S = Yield strength psi (kPa)
D =Nominal OD in inches (millimeters)
t = Nominal wall thickness inches (millimeters).
F =Design factor
E =Longitudinal joint factor
T =Temperature derating factor
Yield strength (S) for steel pipe
• If the pipe is tensile tested
– 80 percent of the average yield strength
determined by the tensile tests.
– The lowest yield strength determined by
the tensile tests.
• If the pipe is not tensile tested
– 24,000 psi (165 MPa).
Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe

## • If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe

is not known, it is determined by measuring
the thickness of each piece of pipe at
quarter points on one end.
• If the pipe is of uniform grade, size, and
thickness and there are more than 10
lengths, only 10 percent of the individual
lengths, but not less than 10 lengths, need
be measured
Design factor (F) for steel pipe
Class location Design factor (F)

1 0.72

2 0.60

3 0.50

4 0.40
Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel
pipe
Specification Pipe Class Longitudinal Joint Factor (E)

## ASTM A53 Seamless 1.00

Electric resistance welded 1.00
Furnace butt welded 0.60
ASTM A106 Seamless 1.00
ASTM Seamless 1.00
A333/A333M
Electric resistance welded 1.00
ASTM A381 Double submerged arc welded 1.00
ASTM A671 Electric-fusion welded 1.00
ASTM A672 Electric-fusion welded 1.00
ASTM A691 Electric-fusion welded 1.00
API 5L Seamless 1.00
Electric resistance welded 1.00
Electric flash welded 1.00
Submerged arc welded 1.00
Furnace butt welded 0.60
Other Pipe over 4 inches (102 millimeters) 0.80
Other Pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) or less 0.60
Temperature derating factor (T)
for steel pipe
Gas Temperature in degrees Temperature derating factor
Fahrenheit (Celsius) (T)

## 450ºF (232ºC) 0.867

Design of plastic pipe
t
P = 2 S 0 . 32
• Formula: ( D − t)
2 S
P = 0 . 32
( SDR − 1)

## – P = Design pressure, kPa (psig).

– S = For thermoplastic pipe listed specification at a
temperature equal to 73F (23C) 100F (38C),120F
(49C), or 140F (60C); for reinforced thermosetting
plastic pipe, 11,000 psi (75,842 kPa).
– t = Specified wall thickness, mm (in).
– D = Specified outside diameter, mm (in).
– SDR = Standard dimension ratio, ratio of average
specified outside diameter to minimum specified wall
thickness
Design limitations for plastic pipe
• Design pressure may not exceed a gauge pressure of
689 kPa (100 psig) for plastic pipe used in:
– Distribution systems
– Classes 3 and 4 locations.
• Plastic pipe may not be used where operating
temperatures of the pipe will be:
– Below -20F (-29C), or -40°F (-40°C)
– Above the following applicable temperatures
– For thermoplastic pipe, the temperature at which
the long-term hydrostatic strength used in the
design formula is determined
– For reinforced thermosetting plastic pipe, 150°F
(66°C).
Design limitations for plastic pipe
• The wall thickness for thermoplastic pipe may not
be less than 0.062 inches (1.57 millimeters).
• The wall thickness for reinforced thermosetting
plastic pipe may not be less than that listed in the
following table

## Nominal size in inches Minimum wall thickness in

(millimeters) inches (millimeters)
2 (51) 0.060 (1.52)
3 (76) 0.060 (1.52)
4 (102) 0.070 (1.78)
6 (152) 0.100 (2.54)
Design of copper pipe
• Used in mains must have a minimum wall
thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and
must be hard drawn.
• Used in service lines must have wall thickness not
less than that indicated in following table
• Used in mains and service lines may not be used at
pressures in excess of 100 psi (689 kPa) gage.
• Pipe that does not have an internal corrosion
resistant lining may not be used to carry gas that
has an average hydrogen sulfide content of more
than 0.3 grains/100 ft3 (6.9/m3) under standard
conditions.
Copper pipe wall thickness table
Standard Nominal Wall thickness (inch)
size(inch) O.D.(inch) (millimeters)
(millimeters) (millimeters) Nominal Tolerance
½ (13) .625 (16) .040 (1.06) .0035 (.0889)
5/8 (16) .750 (19) .042 (1.07) .0035 (.0889)
¾ (19) .875 (22) .045 (1.14) .004 (.102)
1 (25) 1.125 (29) .050 (1.27) .004 (.102)
1¼ (32) 1.375 (35) .055 (1.40) .0045 (.1143)
1½ (38) 1.625 (41) .060 (1.52) .0045 (.1143)
Requirements for design and
installation
General requirements
• Each component of a pipeline must be able to
withstand operating pressures and other
serviceability with unit stresses equivalent to those
allowed for comparable material in pipe in the
same location and kind of service.
• However, if design based upon unit stresses is
impractical for a particular component, design
may be based upon a pressure rating established
by the manufacturer by pressure testing that
component or a prototype of the component.
Qualifying metallic components
• It can be shown through visual inspection of the
cleaned component that no defect exists which
might impair the strength or tightness of the
component
• The edition of the document under which the
component was manufactured has equal or more
stringent requirements for the following as an
edition of that document currently or previously
listed :
– Pressure testing;
– Materials; and,
– Pressure and temperature ratings.
Valves
• Except for cast iron and plastic valves, each
valve must meet the minimum requirements, or
equivalent, of API 6D. A valve may not be used
under operating conditions that exceed the
applicable pressure-temperature ratings
contained in those requirements.
• Each cast iron and plastic valve must comply
with the following:
• The valve must have a maximum service
pressure rating for temperatures that equal or
exceed the maximum service temperature.
Valves
• Valve must be tested as part of the manufacturing, as
follows:
– With the valve in the fully open position, the shell must
be tested with no leakage to a pressure at least 1.5 times
the maximum service rating.
– Shell test, the seat must be tested to a pressure not less
than 1.5 times the maximum service pressure rating.
Except for swing check valves, test pressure during the
seat test must be applied successively on each side of
the closed valve with the opposite side open. No visible
leakage is permitted.
– After the last pressure test is completed, the valve must
be operated through its full travel to demonstrate
freedom from interference.
Valves
• Each valve must be able to meet the anticipated operating
conditions.
• No valve having shell components made of ductile iron
may be used at pressures exceeding 80 percent of the
pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed
temperature. Only if:
– Temperature-adjusted service pressure does not exceed
1,000 psi (7 MPa) gage
– Welding is not used on any ductile iron component in
the fabrication of the valve shells or their assembly.
• No valve having pressure containing parts made of ductile
iron may be used in the gas pipe components of compressor
stations.
Flanges and flange accessories
• Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron)
must meet the minimum requirements of ASME/ANSI
or the equivalent.
• Each flange assembly must be able to withstand the
maximum pressure at which the pipeline is to be
operated and to maintain its physical and chemical
properties at any temperature to which it is anticipated
that it might be subjected in service.
• Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must
conform in dimensions, drilling, face and gasket design
to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the
pipe, valve, or fitting
Standard fittings
• The minimum metal thickness of threaded fittings may
not be less than specified for the pressures and
temperatures in the applicable standards referenced in
this part, or their equivalent.
• Each steel butt-welding fitting must have pressure and
temperature ratings based on stresses for pipe of the
same or equivalent material. The actual bursting
strength of the fitting must at least equal the computed
bursting strength of pipe of the designated material and
wall thickness, as determined by a prototype that was
tested to at least the pressure required for the pipeline
to which it is being added.
Passage of internal inspection devices
• Each new transmission line and each line section of a
transmission line where the line pipe, valve, fitting, or
other line component is replaced must be designed and
constructed to accommodate the passage of
instrumented internal inspection devices. This does not
apply to:
– Manifolds;
– Station piping such as at compressor stations, meter
stations, or regulator stations;
– Piping associated with storage facilities, other than a
continuous run of transmission line between a
compressor station and storage facilities;
Passage of internal inspection devices
– Cross-overs
– Sizes of pipe for which an instrumented internal
inspection device is not commercially available;
– Transmission lines, operated in conjunction with a
distribution system which are installed in Class 4
locations;
– Offshore pipelines, other than transmission lines 10
inches (254 millimeters) or greater in nominal diameter,
that transport gas to onshore facilities; and,
– Other piping that the Administrator finds in a particular
case would be impracticable to design and construct to
accommodate the passage of instrumented internal
inspection devices.
Passage of internal inspection devices
• An operator encountering emergencies, construction time
constraints or other unforeseen construction problems need
not construct a new or replacement segment of a
transmission line to meet regulation, if the operator
determines and documents why an impracticability
prohibits compliance regulation. Within 30 days after
discovering the emergency or construction problem the
operator must petition, for approval that design and
construction to accommodate passage of instrumented
internal inspection devices would be impracticable. If the
petition is denied, within 1 year after the date of the notice
of the denial, the operator must modify that segment to
allow passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.
Tapping
• Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be
designed for at least the operating pressure of the pipeline.
• Where a ductile iron pipe is tapped, the extent of full-
thread engagement and the need for the use of outside-
sealing service connections, tapping saddles, or other
fixtures must be determined by service conditions.
• Where a threaded tap is made in cast iron or ductile iron
pipe, the diameter of the tapped hole may not be more than
25 percent of the nominal diameter of the pipe unless the
pipe is reinforced, except that
– Existing taps may be used for replacement service, if
they are free of cracks and have good threads; and
– A 1¼-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-
inch (102 millimeters) cast iron or ductile iron pipe,
without reinforcement.
Components fabricated by welding
• Except for branch connections and assemblies of standard
pipe and fittings joined by circumferential welds, the
design pressure of each component fabricated by welding,
whose strength cannot be determined, must be established
in accordance with paragraph Division 1 the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code.
• Each prefabricated unit that uses plate and longitudinal
seams must be designed, constructed, and tested in
accordance with Division 2 of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, except for the following:
– Regularly manufactured butt-welding fittings.
– Pipe that has been produced and tested under a
specification
Components fabricated by welding
– Partial assemblies such as split rings or collars.
– Prefabricated units that the manufacturer certifies have
been tested to at least twice the maximum pressure to
which they will be subjected under the anticipated
operating conditions.
• Orange-peel bull plugs and orange-peel swages may not be
used on pipelines that are to operate at a hoop stress of 20
percent or more of the SMYS of the pipe.
• Except for flat closures designed in accordance with section
VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, flat closures
and fish tails may not be used on pipe that either operates at
100 psi (689 kPa) gage, or more, or is more than 3 inches
(76 millimeters) nominal diameter.
Welded branch connections
• Each welded branch connection made to pipe in the
form of a single connection, or in a header or
manifold as a series of connections, must be
designed to ensure that the strength of the pipeline
system is not reduced, taking into account the
stresses in the remaining pipe wall due to the
opening in the pipe or header, the shear stresses
produced by the pressure acting on the area of the
branch opening, and any external loadings due to
thermal movement, weight, and vibration.
Extruded outlets
• Each extruded outlet must be suitable for
anticipated service conditions and must be
at least equal to the design strength of the
pipe and other fittings in the pipeline to
which it is attached.
Flexibility
• Each pipeline must be designed with
enough flexibility to prevent thermal
expansion or contraction from causing
excessive stresses in the pipe or
components, excessive bending or unusual
loads at joints, or undesirable forces or
moments at points of connection to
equipment, or at anchorage or guide points.
Supports and anchors
• Each pipeline and its associated equipment must have
enough anchors or supports to:
– Prevent undue strain on connected equipment;
– Resist longitudinal forces caused by a bend or
offset in the pipe; and,
– Prevent or damp out excessive vibration.
• Each exposed pipeline must have enough supports or
anchors to protect the exposed pipe joints from the
maximum end force caused by internal pressure and
any additional forces caused by temperature expansion
or contraction or by the weight of the pipe and its
contents.
Supports and anchors
• Each support or anchor on an exposed pipeline
must be made of durable, noncombustible material
and must be designed and installed as follows:
– Free expansion and contraction of the pipeline between
supports or anchors may not be restricted.
– Provision must be made for the service conditions
involved.
– Movement of the pipeline may not cause
disengagement of the support equipment.
Supports and anchors
• Each support on an exposed pipeline operated at a
stress level of 50 percent or more of SMYS must
comply with the following:
– A structural support may not be welded directly
to the pipe.
– The support must be provided by a member that
completely encircles the pipe.
– If an encircling member is welded to a pipe, the
weld must be continuous and cover the entire
circumference.
Supports and anchors
• Each underground pipeline that is connected to a
relatively unyielding line or other fixed object
must have enough flexibility to provide for
possible movement, or it must have an anchor that
will limit the movement of the pipeline.
• Except for offshore pipelines, each underground
pipeline that is being connected to new branches
must have a firm foundation for both the header
and the branch to prevent detrimental lateral and
vertical movement.
Gas Pipeline Hydraulics
• High and low pressure equations for flow
rate, upstream & downstream pressures and
internal pipe diameter.
– AGA - Fully Turbulent Flow
– Mueller - Low Pressure, High Pressure
– Panhandle A, Panhandle B
– IGT Distribution Equation
– Pittsburgh
– Colebrook - White
– Weymouth
– Spitzglass
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulic
• Equations for flow rate, upstream and
downstream pressure, internal pipe diameter,
pressure drop and velocity.
– Colebrook - White
– Hazen - Williams
– Shell / MIT
– Darsey - Weisbach
– Heltzel
– T. R. Aude
Pipeline Design & Stress Analysis
• Contains 18 calculations to determine design
pressures and stress analysis calculations for
both steel and plastic pipe.
– Design Pressure - Steel Pipe
– Wall Thickness - Steel Pipe
– Design Pressure - Polyethylene Pipe
– Wall Thickness - Polyethylene Pipe
– Flume Design - Rational Method
– Buoyancy Analysis & Concrete Coating
Requirements
– Pipe Anchor Force Analysis
– Design Pressure Plastic Pipe -SDR
Testing & Maintenance
• Calculations for pipeline hydrostatic testing,
pressure testing and pack in the pipeline.
Also included are a complete series of
calculations for blowdown and purging.
– Complete Pipeline Hydrostatic Testing
Module
– Gas Pipeline Pressure Testing - Time
Required & Maximum Pressure Drop
– Gas Pipeline Blowdown - - Required Time /
Volume Lost
– Gas Pipeline Purging Calculations (2
methods)
– Pack in Pipeline
Pipeline Corrosion
• This module incorporates ASME B31G into
calculations for MAOP and external corrosion limits
plus various current and resistance calculations.
– ASME B31G - Maximum Allowable Longitudinal
Extent of Corrosion
– ASME B31G - Evaluation of MAOP in Corroded
Areas
– Rate of Electrical Current Flow Through the Corrosion
Cell
– Relationship Between Resistance and Resistivity
– Electrolyte Resistance from Surface of an Electrode
to any Distance
– Resistance of a Conductor
– Ohm's Law for Corrosion Current
Cathodic Protection
• Includes both single and multiple anode placement
and resistance calculations with electric current and
power consumption requirements.
– Estimated Life of a Magnesium Anode
– Resistance to Earth of an Impressed Anode Ground Bed
– Rudenberg's Formula for the Placement of a Close or
Distributed Ground Bed
– Resistance to Earth of a Single Vertical Anode
– Resistance to Earth of Multiple Vertical Anodes
– Resistance to Earth of a Single Horizontal Anode
– Required Number of Anodes and Total Current
Requirement
– Power Consumption of a Cathodic Protection Rectifier
Estimated Life of a Magnesium Anode
Pipeline Design & Stress Analysis
– Internal Pressure - % SMYS
– Hoop & Longitudinal Stress
– Requirement to Move Unpressured Pipe
– Bending Stress & Deflection
– Maximum Allowable Pipe Span Length
– Pipe Requirement for Horizontally Drilled
Installation
– Blast Analysis
– Bending Stress Caused by Fluid Flowing
Around Pipeline
– Linear Thermal Pipeline Expansion
– Thrust at Blow-off
Flange installation
Flange connecting structure shall be adopted for the
connection of equipment shell and head in any form,
shown as follows.
Flange installation (cont.)
Inner parts of equipment,
such as grids, shall be
designed in the form of
flange connection or flange
clamping. The heating tube,
agitator and others inner part
of equipment shall be
installed after the equipment
is lined, whose maximum
diameter shall be more than
100 away from the inside
face of lining, shown as
follows