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МИНОБРНАУКИ РОССИИ

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Санкт-Петербургский государственный электротехнический
университет «ЛЭТИ» им. В. И. Ульянова (Ленина)
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А. Л. СОКОЛОВА
Ю. В. ФИЛИППОВА
Т. В. ШУЛЬЖЕНКО

ENGLISH FOR MASTERS

Учебное пособие

Санкт-Петербург
Издательство СПбГЭТУ «ЛЭТИ»
2017
УДК 811.111 (07)
ББК Ш 143.21-923
C 59

Соколова А. Л., Филиппова Ю. В., Шульженко Т. В.


С 59 English for masters: учеб. пособие. СПб.: Изд-во СПбГЭТУ «ЛЭТИ»,
2017. 64 с.

ISBN 978-5-7629-1943-2

Содержит оригинальные тексты на английском языке, упражнения,


ссылки на аудио-, видео- и справочные материалы, способствующие разви-
тию коммуникативных умений, различных видов речевой деятельности, на-
выков чтения, понимания и перевода текстов по специальности.
Предназначено для работы в группах магистров технических специаль-
ностей.

УДК 811.111 (07)


ББК Ш 143.21-923

Рецензенты: канд. филол. наук, доц. А. В. Набирухина (СПбГЭУ); отде-


ление лингвистики ЧОУ ВО Институт иностранных языков (О. И. Бродович)

Утверждено
редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного пособия

ISBN 978-5-7629-1943-2  СПбГЭТУ «ЛЭТИ», 2017

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UNIT 1. EDUCATION

1.1. The system of higher education in Russia


LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
Bachelor’s/Master’s degree – степень бакалавра/магистра
Department (full-time / part-time / correspondence) – отделение (днев-
ное/вечернее/заочное)
Graduate – выпускник
Major, specialty – специальность
Masters thesis – магистерская диссертация
To apply to the University – поступать в университет
To graduate from the University – окончить университет
Tuition fee – плата за обучение
2. Topics for discussion:
1. Why is higher education important in the modern world?
2. Can you describe Russian system of higher education?
3. Write down 3 reasons why you decided to study for a Master’s degree.
4. Compare them with those of your peers and make up a joint list of your
motives.
3. Read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expres-
sions below:
primary; evening class; graduate; further; correspondence; skills; health; lit-
eracy / numeracy (in either order); opportunity; enroll; mature; qualifications;
kindergarten; higher (2); secondary; pass; acquire; degree; day release; disci-
pline.
«You are never too old to learn». Do you agree with this statement?
Education is a long process that not only provides us with basic (1)____ such
as (2)____ and (3)_____, but is also essential in shaping our future lives. From the
moment we enter (4)____ as small children, and as we progress through (5)_____
and (6)____ education, we are laying the foundations for the life ahead of us. We
must (7) ____ ourselves to work hard so that we can (8)_____ exams and gain the
(9)_____we will need to secure a good job. We must also (10)____ valuable life
skills so that we can fit in and work with those around us. And of course (11)____
education helps us to understand how we can stay fit and healthy.

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For most people, this process ends when they are in their mid-to-late teens.
For others, however, it is the beginning of a lifetime of learning. After they finish
school, many progress to (12)_____ education where they will learn more useful
skills such as computer literacy or basic business management. Others will
(13)_____ on a programme of (14)_____ education at a university where, with
hard work, they will have the opportunity to (15)_____ after three or four years
with a well-earned (16)_____. After that, they may work for a while before opting
to study for a (17)____ degree – an MA, for example, or a PhD. Alternatively, they
may choose to attend an (18)____ after work or, if they have a sympathetic em-
ployer, obtain (19)___ so that they can study during the week. And if they live a
long way from a college or university, they might follow a (20)_____course using
mail and the Internet. In fact, it is largely due to the proliferation of computers that
many people who have not been near a school for many years, have started to
study again and can proudly class themselves as (21)____ students.
We live in a fascinating and constantly changing world, and we must continu-
ally learn and acquire new knowledge if we are to adapt and keep up with changing
events. Our schooldays are just the beginning of this process, and we should make
the best of every (22) ____ to develop ourselves, whether we are eighteen or
eighty. You are, indeed, never too old to learn.
READING
Engineering education and the Bologna Process
The engineering education in Europe has been greatly affected by the imple-
mentation of the Bologna Process, a major reform in the European higher educa-
tion. This process is based on agreements between European countries aimed to
achieve comparable standards and quality of higher education within Europe as it
integrates, and to meet the growing needs for creative global competitiveness and
quality assurance of engineering and other professions.
The Bologna declaration was signed by the education ministers from 29
European countries in 1999. In an increasingly globalized world, the Bologna
Process currently involves 47 (EU and non-EU) countries. As such, it is a global
process of higher education in Europe, introduced with the expectation to facilitate
higher exchange and mobility of students and academics among institutions from
different countries, promote internationalization, enable less constrained employ-
ment after graduation within a broader region, continent, or the entire world, and
thus contribute to overall economic growth.

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The Bologna Process is based on two main cycles, undergraduate and gradu-
ate. The prerequisite for the second cycle is successful completion of the first
three-year cycle. The first cycle degree represents a preparation for the labor mar-
ket, while the second is a graduate cycle leading to master and/or doctorate degree.
The implementation of the Bologna Process is to a large extent reflection of the
modern globalization. University campuses are populated by students of diverse
ethnical and cultural background, particularly in graduate schools. The faculty is
increasingly diversified, as well. New international universities are being created,
with large funding invested to attract the best faculty and students and compete in
academic excellence with leading universities and technology institutes worldwide.
Engineering education is greatly affected by the development of electronic
data bases, open-access journals, and online citation indexes, such as the Web of
Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Their availability within the countries par-
ticipating in the Bologna Process significantly improves the effectiveness and qual-
ity of both education and research in these countries.
4. Find in the text the equivalents of the following Russian phrases:
осуществлять процесс, растущая потребность, обеспечение качества,
способствовать экономическому росту, успешное завершение, в большой
степени, успехи в учебе.
5. Join the suitable parts, then make up sentences with these word com-
binations:
entire effectiveness
to compete in economic growth
to improve excellence
to promote world
diverse completion
successful background
to contribute to internationalization
6. Find in the text the words that mean:
at present, to include, in an important manner, to make easier, the ability to
compete with others, more and more, especially, very different from each other.
7. Pay special attention to the following prepositions after the given
words and translate them. Make sentences of your own:
be affected by, be based on, compete in, contribute to.
8. Answer the following questions:
1. Describe the key principles of the Bologna Process.
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2. What are the main aims of introduction of this system?
3. What are the differences between traditional and new educational systems?
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
9. Choose the correct word or words in bold to complete these sentences.
1. After leaving school, and before going to university, many young people
take a / an gap / space / open year (= a year out of education) in order to get work
experience, earn money or travel.
2. Students apply for a place at university in January or February, and en-
croachment / entrapment / enrolment usually takes place in September.
3. A student at university for the first time is called a / an graduate / under-
graduate / pre-graduate.
4. Students in England and Wales are expected to pay money towards their
tuition fees / fares / prices (in Scotland they are free).
5. Students who need help paying for their university course can apply for a
government lend / loan / lease.
6. Some students in exceptional circumstances might receive a grant / grunt /
gaunt to help pay for their course.
7. A BA is one of the types of degree that students work towards at university.
BA stands for Britannicus Achievius / Briton of Authority / Bachelor of Arts.
8. A talk given to a class of students at university is known as a lesson / lec-
ture / lectern.
9. A meeting of a small group of university students to discuss a subject with
a teacher is called a semester / semolina / seminar.
10. A teaching session between a teacher and one or more students at univer-
sity is called a tutorial/ tutelage / tutor.
11. A under-graduate / postgraduate / graduate-plus is someone who is
studying after receiving a first university degree.
12. Because so many students find exams stressful, many universities com-
bine exam results with a process of continuing / continual / continuous assess-
ment in order to grade their students at the end of a course of study.
10. Read the text and check up the meaning of the verbs in bold in vo-
cabulary. Make up your own sentences.
Six tips for exam success
1. Keep your reading up during the term so that you have less to read just be-
fore the exam.

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2. Brush up on some of the things you learnt long time ago; they may possi-
bly come up in the exam.
3. Don’t just mug up on the key points you need for the exam and hope that
you’ll scrape through with little effort.
4. On the other hand do not try to do everything. Swotting up on everything
you have done all term means you’ll have to revise a lot of useless things too.
5. Concentrate on polishing up the most important areas and your best skills.
6. Don’t fool yourself that you’ll pass the exam on the basis of what you’ve
picked up during the lectures and classes. You will need to revise!
11. Translate the following text from Russian into English.
В рамках процесса глобализации меняются все сферы жизни человече-
ского общества, в частности – образование. Сейчас большинство учебных за-
ведений предлагает получение степени бакалавра с четырехлетней програм-
мой и степени магистра с двухлетней программой подготовки. Однако по ря-
ду специальностей все еще предусмотрено обучение по пятилетней програм-
ме специалитета.
Бакалавриат – первая ступень высшего профессионального образова-
ния, на которой студенты получают фундаментальную подготовку без узкой
специализации. Программы подготовки бакалавров предусмотрены практи-
чески по всем направлениям, кроме некоторых, например, медицины, и име-
ют общенаучный и общепрофессиональный характер.
Магистратура – уровень высшего профессионального образования,
следующая после бакалавриата. Программа обучения в магистратуре, про-
должающаяся два года, предусматривает более глубокое теоретическое ос-
воение выбранного профиля и более узкую специализацию по выбранному
профессиональному направлению. В магистратуре же студенты овладевают
компетенциями, необходимыми для будущей научно-исследовательской или
преподавательской деятельности. После завершения высшего образования
можно дополнительно поступать в аспирантуру и учиться в течение еще трех
лет.
12. Listen to the recording about the universities and fill in the gaps in
the following sentences:
1. … is an examination to see if you are good enough to go to university
2. In many countries there is … to the universities.
3. The state paid the sons and daughters of the middle classes not only their ...
but also a yearly grant towards living expenses as well.
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4. Usually students are given a loan which they have to … to the government
once they are in full-time employment.
5. Renting private apartments often … students’ culinary and hygiene skills
to … .
6. You can devote your … to working for charities or travelling.
7. If you want to study abroad, you can enter a … such as Erasmus.
8. Student’s progress can be based on … or coursework.
9. … is an exam to see what kind of jobs would suit you.
10. The first university qualification you receive after 3 or more years of
study is a … .
13. Watch the video about the Bologna Process and answer the questions
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2csiWCFJLA):
1. What do you know about the Bologna process?
2. What was it launched for?
3. What are its advantages and disadvantages?

1.2. My university
LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
Unified national test – ЕГЭ
Dean – декан
Head of department – заведующий кафедрой
Faculty, School – факультет
To sit an exam – сдавать экзамен
To pass an exam – сдать экзамен
To fail an exam – провалить экзамен
Leave of absence – академический отпуск
Tutorial – консультация
Grade point averge (GPA) – средний балл успеваемости
Term – семестр
End-of-semester exams – экзаменационная сессия
Student’s record book – зачетная книжка
Diploma with distinction (honours) – красный диплом
2. Topics for discussion:
1. Do you know when and where the first university in Russia was established?

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2. What are the main benefits of being a student?
3. Have you ever thought about changing your specialty/ department/ univer-
sity. Why?
3. Look at the sentences below and fill in the gaps using the appropriate
word from A, B or C.
1. He didn’t get a good grade the first time he did his IELTS exam, so decided to
_________ it.
A. resit B. remake C. repair
2. People who attend university later in life are often called __________ students.
A. aged B. mature C. old
3. Although she had left school and was working, she went to evening classes at the local
College of __________ Education.
A. Upper B. Further C. Higher
4. After he left school, he decided to go on to _________ education and applied for a
place at Edinburgh University.
A. further B. upper C. higher
5. He received a local government ____________to help him pay for his course.
A. fee B. fare C. grant
6. Education helps us to acquire knowledge and learn new ___________ .
A. skills B. powers C. abilities
7. Although she already had a first degree from university, she decided that she wanted
to work towards a ____________ degree later in life.
A. further B. senior C. higher
8. We should make the best of every _____________ to learn.
A. chance B. opportunity C. availability
9. Nowadays, _____________ education is promoted a lot in schools.
A. body B. health C. vitality
10. A large number of parents are dissatisfied with the _________education system, and
put their children into private schools instead.
A. government B. national C. state
11. Because so many students find exams stressful, some colleges offer a system of
___________assessment instead.
A. continual B. continuous C. continuing
12. He has read a lot of books and _____________ a lot of knowledge.
A. acquired B. won C. achieved

READING
St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University «LETI»
St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University «LETI» is a leading Russian
educational and research center whose mission is to contribute to society through
the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of
excellence. As such, ETU tries to sustain, strengthen, and increase its competitive-
ness, and to ensure a continuously high level of education and research.

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According to the SIR World Report 2010, Global Ranking of Worldwide Re-
search Institutions by the SCImago Research Group, ETU was ranked one of the
top 14 Russian institutions of the highest research significance, and one of the top
4 Russian universities of technology with the highest citation index.
The University offers a wide range of educational courses of different levels.
Graduates of the Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University «LETI» have
deep fundamental knowledge and practical skills. Friendly University environment
helps open the abilities of scholars, support their creativity, develops internal cul-
ture, generates interest in acquiring new knowledge, and a taste for future profes-
sional activity. Excellent theoretical and practical basis of «LETI» graduates, their
business acumen and wide outlook provide high competitiveness in the modern job
market and stable career growth.
More than 1000 highly-qualified teachers and professors work at the Univer-
sity, 70 % of them having Ph. D. rate and 30 having Russian and international
prizes. Over 30 academicians and members of the Russian Academy of Science
worked at ETU at different times. More than 8000 students and 400 postgraduates
attend lectures and classes at seven faculties of the University every year.
The University has agreements on cooperation with more than 30 universities
in the United Kingdom, the United States, Sweden, Germany and other countries,
which include students and teachers exchange, joint development of educational
programs, mutual implementation of research projects. At present more than 500
students from Europe, Asia and Africa study at the preparatory and full-time de-
partments of the University. Every year ETU undergraduate and postgraduate stu-
dents go to study and do research in the USA, Finland, Sweden and Germany. The
results of ETU research work are implemented in companies and research centers
of the USA, Finland, China, and France. The University cooperates with such
companies as Motorola, Intel, Microsoft, Parsytec, etc.
ETU has one of the oldest and biggest university libraries in Saint Petersburg.
The basis of the library was formed by Alexander III gifts, personal libraries of
P. Voinarovsky, N. Buligin, A. Popov and others. Today the library collection con-
tains 1 200 000 volumes of books and over 27 000 items of magazines. Every year
more than 400 000 readers attend the library. The ETU library participates in na-
tional and international programmes and projects.
The history of the University
Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University is one of the world largest educa-
tion and research centers with strong traditions. It was founded in 1886 as the En-
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gineering College of the Department of Post and Telegraph of Russia. In 1891 it
was reorganized into the Imperial Institute of Electrical Engineering which became
the first in Europe higher educational institution for training engineers and re-
searchers. Professor of physics Alexander Popov, the inventor of the radio receiver
was the first elected director of the Institute. Many other outstanding Russian sci-
entists worked in the Institute. St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University was the
first institute of higher education in Europe with major in electrical engineering.
From the moment of its foundation Institute was recognized as a center of Electri-
cal Engineering in Russia. Many outstanding Russian scientists worked here.
In the first half of the 20th century acknowledged scientific schools were es-
tablished in Institute: Electrical Engineering, Electrical Communication and Radio
Engineering, Electric Power Engineering and Electrochemistry, Electrovacuum
Engineering, Electrical Drives, Ultrasonic Defectoscopy, High Frequency Electro-
thermy. In the twenties of the 20th century Electrotechnical Institute played a sig-
nificant role in development of electrification plans of Russia.
After the Second World War intensive development of new scientific fields
was started at Institute: Radio Electronics and Cybernetics, Electrification and
Automatization of Industrial Equipment, Automatics and Telemechanics, Com-
puter Science, Optoelectronics.
In early 90s Institute launched new fields of study – Humanities and Econom-
ics. In 1990 International School of Management was established, in 1993 the Fac-
ulty of Humanities was opened and in 1999 the Faculty of Economics and Man-
agement was organized.
In 1992 Institute was granted the university status and became the first Elec-
trotechnical University in Russia. Today ETU consists of seven faculties:
1. Faculty of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications.
2. Faculty of Electronics.
3. Faculty of Computer Technologies and Informatics.
4. Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Automatics.
5. Faculty of Information, Measurement and Biotechnical Systems.
6. Faculty of Economics and Management.
7. Faculty of Humanities.
4. Find in the text the equivalents of the following Russian phrases:
высокий уровень мастерства, поддерживать конкурентоспособность,
приобретать знания, стабильный карьерный рост, посещать лекции, согла-
шение о сотрудничестве, совместное развитие, проводить исследования.
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5. Explain the following in your own words:
сitation index, internal culture, business acumen.
6. Match the words with their definitions:
Pursuit to gain possession of
Sustain to go regularly to
Acquire to occupy oneself with (studies, enquiries etc.); to continue
Attend to express recognition of; make notice of
Implement to keep in existence; maintain, continue, or prolong
Acknowledge to put into practical effect; carry out
7. Answer the questions:
1. When was the higher educational institution you are at founded? What was
its first name?
2. Who was the first rector of the Institute?
3. When was LETI reorganized into Electrotechnical University? Why did it
happen?
4. How many faculties are there at ETU?
5. What faculty do you belong to?
6. Where (in what spheres) can the graduates of your faculty work?
8. On the basis of the information given in the text translate the sentences
into English:
1. Я – студент(ка) СПбГЭТУ.
2. Наш вуз был основан в 1886 году. Он был первым вузом не только в
России, но и в Европе, который готовил инженеров и исследователей в об-
ласти электротехники.
3. ЭТУ – один из ведущих образовательных, научных и культурных цен-
тров, известных как в России, так и за рубежом.
4. На семи факультетах ЭТУ ежегодно обучается свыше 8000 студентов
и 400 аспирантов.
5. В Университете работают более 1000 высококвалифицированных пре-
подавателей. Многие из них имеют ученые степени и международные
награды.
6. Преподаватели и ученые ЭТУ стремятся дать своим студентам глубо-
кие фундаментальные знания и спецподготовку, развить их профессиональ-
ные навыки и стремление к инновационной деятельности.

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7. Библиотека ЭТУ – одна из старейших и богатейших библиотек в
Санкт-Петербурге. В ее коллекции более миллиона томов книг и свыше 27
тысяч журналов.
8. ЭТУ имеет совместные проекты с известными зарубежными компа-
ниями, такими как Motorola, Intel, Microsoft и др.
9. Выпускники ЭТУ востребованы на рынке труда.
10. Они вносят значительный вклад в развитие промышленности, науки,
образования и культуры нашей страны.
9. Speak about Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University according to
the plan:
1. The history of the University.
2. ETU «LETI» today (status, teaching staff, trends in academic and research
activities, etc.)
3. International cooperation of the University.
4. The faculty you study at.
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
10. Read the text below, put their argument into the correct order, using
the key words and expressions in bold to help you. The first one and last one
have been done for you.
A. (1) I’m really in two minds about what to do when I leave school. Should I
go straight to university or should I spend a year travelling around the world?
B. It is often said that knowledge is the key to power, and I cannot disagree
with this.
C. On the one hand, I would experience lots of different cultures.
D. Unfortunately, another point is that if I spent a year travelling I would
need a lot of money.
E. And I’m not alone in this opinion. Many consider a sound career and a
good salary to be an important goal.
F. However, it could be argued that I would also meet lots of interesting peo-
ple while I was travelling.
G. Secondly, if I go straight to university, I’ll learn so many things that will
help me in my future life.
H. First of all, there are so many benefits of going straight to university.
I. But I believe that it would be easy to make a bit while I was travelling, giv-
ing English lessons or working in hotels and shops.

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J. Moreover, I’ll be able to take part in the social activities that the university
offers, and meet lots of new friends who share the same interests.
K. The most important point is that the sooner I get my qualifications, the
quicker I’ll get a job and start earning.
L. Nevertheless, these inconveniences would be an inevitable part of travel-
ling and would be greatly outweighed by the other advantages.
M. In my opinion, starting work and making money is one of the most im-
portant things in life.
N. On the other hand, I could end up suffering from culture shock, home-
sickness and some strange tropical diseases.
O. Furthermore, if I spent a year travelling, I would learn more about the
world.
P. (16) All right, I’ve made my mind up. Now, where’s my nearest travel
agency?
11. Read the phrasal verbs below and try to guess which of these would
make most students happy or sad and why?
breaking up, dropping out, being thrown out, scraping through, mugging up,
swotting up.
12. Rewrite the following sentences using the phrasal verbs:
go back, break up, sign up, drop out, throw out, write up.
1. I’m going to register for a course in statistics next year.
2. Several students did not complete the Philosophy course.
3. Our course finishes on 20 June.
4. He was forced to leave university after one term. He’d done no work at all.
5. I can’t come out tonight. I have to have my essay finished for tomorrow.
6. My next term at college starts on 12 September.
13. Listen to an interview with a student. Then fill in the missing infor-
mation.
Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Electrical Analogue Analogue Electrical
8.45–10.15 5
Principles Electronics Electronics Principles
10.45–12.15 1 2 Communications Computing 6
13.15–14.45 Maths Maths Maths
Programmable 3 4 Programmable Digital
15.00–16.30
Systems Systems Electronics
Answer the questions:
1. Why did many students drop out of Alan’s course?
2. Why does he dislike Communications?
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3. What does he do on Wednesday afternoon?
4. Why is it hard to use the indoor stadium?
5. Why is there a problem with his motorbike?
14. Watch the video «Steve Jobs at Stanford University» and answer the
questions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1R-jKKp3NA):
1. What information about his biography was new for you?
2. How do you understand the phrase «connecting the dots»? Can you give
any examples of it from your life?
3. What is more important talent or education? Can you achieve professional
success without proper education?
4. What is the idea of Steve Job’s message to the graduates?

UNIT 2. THE WORLD OF SCIENCE


2.1. Science and technological progress in modern society
LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
To conduct/perform/carry out/ do an experiment – проводить эксперимент
To conduct a research – проводить исследование
Notion/ concept – понятие
Phenomenon – явление
To discover – открывать
Breakthrough – прорыв
Collaboration – сотрудничество
To submit a paper/ an article – представлять статью для публикации
To hold a conference – устраивать конференцию
Proceedings of the conference – материалы конференции
Peer-reviewed journal – рецензируемый журнал
Postgraduate student – аспирант
2. Topics for discussion:
1. What inventions of the 20-th century would you call the most sophisti-
cated? Choose from the following list: radio set, TV set, PC, robot, space rocket,
laser, cell phone.
2. What famous scientists do you know?
3. What is the role of science in the modern society?

15
3. Look at this essay and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expres-
sions from the list below. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.
You may need to change some of the word forms:
сybernetics; Internet; safeguards; discovered; e-mail; technophiles; ana-
lysed; invented; experiment; breakthrough; research; nuclear engineering; life
expectancy; genetic engineering; innovations; technophobes.
Technology has come a long way in the last fifty years, and our lives have be-
come better as a result. Or have they?
The second half of the twentieth century saw more changes than in the previ-
ous two hundred years. Penicillin has already been (1)_____ and used to treat in-
fections; there have been many remarkable advances in medicine that have helped
to increase our average (2)______ way beyond that of our ancestors. Incredible
(3)_______ such as television have changed the way we spend our leisure hours.
Perhaps the most important (4) ______ , however, has been the microchip. Nobody
could have imagined, when it was first (5)_______ , that within a matter of years,
this tiny piece of silicon and circuitry would be found in almost every household
object from the kettle to the video recorder. And nobody could have predicted the
sudden proliferation of computers that would completely change our lives, allow-
ing us to access information from the other side of the world via the (6)______or
send messages around the world by (7)_______ at the touch of a button.
Meanwhile, (8)_______ into other aspects of information technology is mak-
ing it easier and cheaper for us to talk to friends and relations around the world.
Good news for (9)________ who love modern technology, bad news for the
(10)_________ who would prefer to hide from these modern miracles.
But everything has a price. The development of (11)_______ led to mass
automation in factories, which in turn led to millions losing their jobs. The genius
of Einstein led to the horrors of the atomic bomb and the dangerous uncertainties
of (12)________ (we hear of accidents and mishaps at nuclear power stations
around the world, where (13) ______ to prevent accidents were inadequate). The
relatively new science of (14)______ has been seen as a major step forward, but
putting modified foods onto the market before scientists had properly (15)______
them was perhaps one of the most irresponsible decisions of the 1990s. Mean-
while, pharmaceutical companies continue to (16)_______ on animals, a move that
many consider to be cruel and unnecessary.
Of course we all rely on modern science and technology to improve our lives.
However, we need to make sure that we can control it before it controls us.
16
READING
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS
IN MODERN SOCIETY
Natural science is the main characteristic feature distinguishing the present
civilization from the other civilizations in the past. From its early beginnings in the
sixteenth century, the developments of science have influenced the course of west-
ern civilization more and more until today it plays a most dominant role. It is
not much of an exaggeration to say that we live in a world that, materially and in-
tellectually, has been created by science.
This point is easy to illustrate on the material level. One merely needs to men-
tion the telephone, the radio, the television, the automobile, and the airplane, or
any of the countless devices invented by the application of science. There is hardly
an article used in the homes, in the places of work, that has not been modified by
technology based on science; the means of communication that bind the continents
into a single community depend on scientific know-how, without modern industry
and agriculture it would be impossible to feed, to clothe, and to provide the abun-
dant life to this large population.
Over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been doubled
every twelve to fifteen years. In 1930 man knew four times as much as he did in
1900; by 1960 his knowledge had grown sixteenfold, and by the year 2000 it was a
hundred times what it had been a century previously. The second part of the twen-
tieth century brought a number of technical innovations, which are still very young
but which are taken so much for granted that it is as if they have always existed.
The transistor was not invented until 1948. This piece of electronic equipment
found wide use in space technology, computers, transistor radios, medical instru-
ments, television sets – in fact, wherever precise control and modulation of electri-
cal signals was required. It seemed absurd to suppose that it could ever be re-
placed, however, the invention of ICs (integrated circuits) in 1958 brought in a
new era of change in the field, so fundamental that it already has the characteristics
of a second industrial revolution.
A mere twelve years separated the launching of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 1
in 1957 and man’s first landing on the Moon in 1969. The first long-term orbital
station Salyut launched in 1971 opened a new era in space research, providing the
possibility of conducting investigations in the field of astrophysics, space technol-
ogy, medicine, biology, etc. under conditions inconceivable on the earth. Technol-
ogy has considerably made our life easier due to different discoveries. For exam-
17
ple, nowadays we can travel with extremely high speed in different directions.
Older people have different devices that have highly improved the level of their
life, such as special cars for driving or hearing aid that helps them to no more feel
useless in the society.
Recent developments of nuclear weapons, satellites, space platforms and in-
tercontinental ballistic missiles have attracted public attention throughout the
world. They make wars of annihilation possible and forcibly thrust upon us the ne-
cessity of coming to an understanding with the other nations. It is not merely a
matter of peace, but, rather, poses the question of the very survival of the
human race.
On the other hand this computerized environment may damage us too. Our
children spend more and more time playing computer games, texting their friends
instead of meeting them in the streets, living more and more in their own virtual
world. Anyway technology has its advantages and disadvantages, but we cannot
escape from progress, the development is inevitable. But our responsibility is to
preserve ourselves as modern, just and peaceful civilization.
4. Explain the following word combinations:
scientific know-how; provide the abundant life; to take for granted; wars of
annihilation; to pose a question, to conduct investigation.
5. Find synonyms for the following words:
overstatement, innumerable, exact, unimaginable, thrust, unavoidable.
6. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. Science very little affects everyday life.
2. We can hardly speak of any achievements in medicine.
3. Science is motivated by curiosity of a researcher.
4. We know exactly that there is biological life in our universe besides the
Earth.
5. The greatest achievements of medical knowledge and care have improved
the average life expectancy.
7. Answer the questions:
1. What means of communication were mentioned in the text?
2. What technological innovations of the 20-th – 21-st centuries made com-
munication between continents possible?
3. How do science and technology influence people?
4. At what rate was scientific knowledge developing in the 20th century?
5. What are the potential dangers of scientific discoveries?
18
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
8. Replace the words and expressions in bold in sentences 1–18 with a
word or expression from the list below:
analysed; genetic engineering; breakthrough; molecular biology; a techno-
phobe; safeguards; development; cybernetics; invented; nuclear engineering;
combined; life expectancy; discovered; a technophile; innovations; react; an ex-
periment; research .
1. The company is carrying out scientific study to find a cure for Aids.
2. The planning and production of the new computer system will take some
time.
3. Modern home entertainment systems and other modern inventions are
changing everyone’s lives.
4. Some elements change their chemical composition when mixed with water.
5. The scientists have created a new machine to automate the process.
6. Who was the person who found penicillin?
7. When the food was examined closely and scientifically, it was found to
contain bacteria.
8. Rain joined together with CO 2 gases produces acid rain.
9. Ron is terrified of modern technology.
10. Geoff is very interested in modern technology.
11. Protection against accidents in this laboratory are minimal.
12. Scientists conducted a scientific test to see how people react to different
smells.
13. Brian is studying the techniques used to change the genetic composi-
tion of a cell so as to change certain characteristics which can be inherited.
14. Sarah is studying the things which form the structure of living matter.
15. Christine is studying how information is communicated in machines
and electronic devices in comparison with how it is communicated in the brain
and nervous system.
16. Neil is studying the different ways of extracting and controlling energy
from atomic particles.
17. There has been a sudden success in the search for a cure for cancer.
18. The number of years a person is likely to live has increased a great deal
thanks to modern medicine and technology.

19
9. Translate into English.
В ближайшем будущем в моду вернется целый ряд явлений, которые
уже были популярными в предыдущие годы. Виртуальная реальность была
востребованной в 90-е годы, но быстро потеряла популярность – уровень раз-
вития техники не соответствовал запросам бизнеса и потребителей. Теперь
она готова полностью изменить облик современной индустрии развлечений.
В 2015 году на рынке появился новый хит продаж – Pepper, человекообраз-
ный робот, умеющий реагировать на эмоции и общаться. Что касается ки-
берспорта, то после расцвета в начале 2000-х и некоторого провала в после-
дующие годы. Сегодня соревнования по компьютерным играм снова стали
популярны. Команды, состоящие преимущественно из подростков и очень
молодых людей, представляют на международных чемпионатах все уголки
земного шара.
Другие перспективные технологии – носимые гаджеты (умные очки,
смарт-часы, фитнес-трекеры), гибкие батареи, беспроводные зарядные уст-
ройства и передача данных на высоких скоростях 5G.
10. Listen to the recording about mobile phones and choose the right an-
swer.
1. Modern mobile phone technology is based on:
a. two-way radio;
b. global positioning devices;
c. yuppies.
2. More people bought mobile phones in the 1990s because:
a. traditional phones didn’t work anymore;
b. they were bad at timekeeping;
c. mobile phones became a lot cheaper.
3. The first mobile phone call took place between:
a. two scientists;
b. two Scotsmen;
c. two yuppies.
4. Mobile phones are sometimes called cell-phones because of:
a. a technical term for telephone masts;
b. a technical term for mobile handsets;
c. the number of mobile phones used in prisons.
5. The first commercially available mobile phones looked like:
a. small, pocket-sized objects;
20
b. telephone masts;
c. giant plastic bricks.
6. A text message saying «Gr8! Will call U 2nite» means:
a. Great! I’ll call you tonight.
b. Good grief! Please call William tonight.
c. I’ll be 15 minutes late.
11. Watch the video «The rise of Artificial Intelligence» and answer the
questions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53K1dMyslJg).
1. How can you define the term «Artificial Intelligence»?
2. What features and abilities must AI have?
3. What do you think, how is it going to look like?
4. Why is it a problem to build AI?
5. In what spheres can artificial intelligence be applied?
6. What are the reasons to fear AI?

2.2. Eminent scientists of


Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University «LETI»
LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
Eminent/ prominent/ outstanding – выдающийся
Achievement – достижение
Findings – результаты (исследования)
Progressive approach – прогрессивный подход
Unconventional approach – нестандартный подход
Painstaking research – кропотливое исследование
Contribution – вклад
To obtain – получать
To be involved in – принимать участие
Scientific community – научное сообщество
International cooperation – международное сотрудничество
2. Topics for discussion:
1. Are scientists single players or team players nowadays?
2. What do you think – a scientific breakthrough usually is a result of one
genius mind work or a whole team painstaking research?

21
3. Look at this opening address from a company’s Annual General Meet-
ing (AGM) and fill in the gaps with words from the list. The first letter of each
word is already in the text:
-articipants; -atters; -ontingency; -bjectives; -chedule; -chieve; -oals; -pen;
-ddress;-ecommendations; -elcoming; -elegates; -enue; -ssues; -eport; -et through;
-genda; -hair; -inutes; -iscuss; -larification; -loor; -loses; -mplement; -nterrupt;
-oints; -omplaint; -otes; -onference; -ontribute; -peakers; -pen-floor; -pinions;
-resentations; -upporting; -ringing up; -riority; -rogress; -ttendance; -uestions;
-ummarizing.
I’d like to (1) o… this meeting by (2) w… you all. It’s good to see so many
(3) p… here today – in fact, this is probably the best (4) a… we’ve had at a meet-
ing for a long time – and I’d like to thank you all in advance for (5) s… me.
Well, we’ve got a lot on the (6) a… and I want to make as much (7) p… as
possible in the next two hours or so. If we stick to the main (8) s…, we should (9)
g… everything and (10) a… all of our (11) g… and (12) o … I will (13) c… the
meeting, as usual, but I really hope that you will all have something to (14) c…
and if anything needs (15) c… , please don’t hesitate to (16) i… me (although not
too often, I hope: the more (17) i… we can (18) a… today the better).
I’ll be (19) b… several important (20) m… during the meeting, beginning
with those that I feel should take (21) p… , before (22) s… the main (23) p… and
making (24) r… . This will be followed by an (25) o… session where you can give
me your (26) o … And I’m sure you will all be delighted to hear that after the
meeting (27) c… , there will be drinks and snacks for everyone.
Mr Barker will be taking (28) n… and keeping the (29) m… of the meeting,
and I will be using these to write my (30) r… afterwards, so if anyone has any
(31) c…, I suggest you talk to him and not to me! Now, before I get going, are
there any (32) q…. from the (33) f… ? No? Good. Right, well I’ll begin.
The first point I want to (34) d… is next month’s (35) c …. As you know, the
(36) v… we have chosen is the Royal Eynsham Hotel in Oxfordshire. We’ve in-
vited several (37) s… to make (38) p… on various aspects of the trade, and we’re
expecting over 200 (39) d… from our offices around Europe. Now, of course,
there’s always the possibility that some major players won’t be able to make it, so
we need to make a (40) c… plan that we can (41) i… if things go pear-shaped...

22
READING
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Alexander Stepanovich Popov was a Russian physicist who is widely credited
in Russia and other Eastern European countries as being the inventor of the radio.
Popov was born in 1859 and came from a religious family; his father was a
priest and Popov himself studied at a seminary and intended to join the priesthood.
He developed an interest in mathematics and physics and then enrolled at St. Pe-
tersburg University’s Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. He graduated in 1882
and worked briefly as a laboratory assistant. He was offered job as a teacher at the
university. He refused this offer because the salary was inadequate and also be-
cause he was more interested in research. To this end he joined the Russian Navy
Torpedo School in Kronstadt as a teacher and head of the laboratory where he
taught the concepts of electricity and magnetism to naval specialists.
During that time, there were many developments in the field of radio technol-
ogy. The principles of invisible electromagnetic radiation were discovered
by Heinrich Hertz in 1888. Popov read his paper along with the works of other
physicists such as Édouard Branly who discovered principles of electromagnetic
discharge and Oliver Lodge who invented a device known as the coherer. Popov
made significant contributions to the field of electromagnetism and improved the
coherer by attaching an antenna to it which made it possible to transmit radio
waves over short distances. In 1893, he visited the World’s Columbian Exposition
held in Chicago, United States where he met and discussed his work with other ex-
perts in the field of radio technology. In 1895, Alexander Popov made the first
public demonstration of electromagnetic wave reception and the following year he
published a paper and depicted his findings with a detailed diagram. The same
year, an Italian named Guglielmo Marconi publicly demonstrated his invention and
the following year he received a patent for it. Popov used his apparatus to send the
first long distance signal at a distance of six miles, that is roughly 10 km. This was
three years before Marconi made his famous transatlantic communication so we
know that Popov’s claims to the invention are legitimate.
Popov, however, was not solely focused on the invention of the radio and in-
stead became more involved in the study of thunderstorms and lightning. By this
time, Marconi consolidated his research and applied for a patent, which he was
duly granted. Popov’s claim to the invention was defended by the Russian Phys-
icochemical Society but Marconi is generally credited with the invention of radio

23
technology worldwide. However, there is little doubt that Popov independently de-
vised the apparatus without any help from Marconi’s published material.
The Russian Navy installed the radio devices that Popov had invented which
were very useful in communication and sending distress signals. In 1900, a radio
station was established at Hogland island to provide two way communication be-
tween the Russian navy and the battleship General-Admiral Apraksin, which
helped to save the life of the crew when they ran into bad weather. In 1901, Popov
was appointed as a professor at the St. Petersburg Institute of Electrical Engineer-
ing and in 1905 he was made a director there. He became ill in 1905 and died in
January 1906 due to a brain hemorrhage. His contributions have been widely hon-
ored since his death, including the «Alexander Stepanovich Popov» conference
room established at the ITU headquarters in Geneva.
4. Find in the text the equivalents of the following Russian phrases:
считать заслугой, отказаться от предложения, внести вклад, закон-
ный, выдать патент, притязать на изобретение.
5. Pay special attention to the following prepositions after the given verbs
and translate them. Make sentences of your own:
enroll at, be interested in, be discovered by, be focused on, be involved in, be
credited with.
6. Answer the following questions:
1. What is A. S. Popov famous for?
2. Who was his scientific rival?
3. What other famous scientists from ETU do you know?
7. Retell the texts considering the key points of scientist’s
professional life.
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
8. Match the adjectives to the pairs of nouns to form collocations

Technological Inquiry/ journal


Automated Stage/ research
New age Warfare/ war
Scientific Factory/ appliances
High-tech Voice discs/ camera
Experimental Exploration/ station
Space Philosophy/ travelers
Digital Gadgetry/ industry

24
9. Use the collocations to complete the sentences.
1. Originally the Russian … MIR was supposed to last for five years, but in
fact it remained in operation for fourteen.
2. Professor Smith has recently had his findings published in a prominent … .
3. This is the product prototype as you can see, it is still at the … .
4. … has put an end to the use of conventional weapons and traditional battle
strategies.
5. People looking for meaning in today’s confusing modern world often im-
merse themselves in … .
10. Where to use: make / hold / have or do? Decide and then make sen-
tences:
1) experimental work; 2) advances in one’s field; 3) successful mission; 4) an
important discovery; 5) an important observation; 6) ground-breaking research;
7) a life changing experience; 8) evidence of smth.; 9) a demonstration; 10) a
change for the better; 11) a scientific project; 12) an international conference.
11. Translate the text from Russian into English.
Основы радиотехнического образования в России были заложены
А. С. Поповым. В 1897 году он выступал в ЭТИ с докладом о беспроволоч-
ной телеграфии. В 1902 году, будучи профессором физики ЭТИ, А. С. Попов
впервые читал курс беспроволочной телеграфии. Преемником А. С. Попова
стал профессор А. А. Петровский. В 1916 г. в ЭТИ впервые в России была
официально введена подготовка инженеров по специальности «Радиотеле-
графные станции» (проф. Н. А. Скрицкий). С 1917 года подготовкой инжене-
ров по этой специальности руководил выпускник ЭТИ проф. И. Г. Фрейман,
первая в России кафедра радиотехники была организована под его руково-
дством в 1921 г.
Развитие энергетического направления в ЭТИ связано с именами про-
фессоров П. Д. Войнаровского, В. В. Дмитриева, Г. О. Графтио, Я. М. Гакке-
ля и др. В 1904 г. в новом здании ЭТИ проф. П. Д. Войнаровским была обо-
рудована первая в России высоковольтная лаборатория (200 кВ). Электро-
технический институт являлся пионером и в области электрохимии. В стенах
ЭТИ был разработан и введен в 1890-х годах первый лабораторный курс по
электрохимии проф. А. А. Кракау, впервые разработаны промышленные ме-
тоды получения алюминия и марганца на базе отечественных месторождений
(1914, академики И. В. Гребенщиков, Н. С. Курнаков, профессора Н. А. Пу-
шин, П. Ф. Антипин и др.).
25
12. Listen to the recording about Linus Pauling. Decide which is the best
answer to each of the following questions.
1. Why was Linus Pauling an unusual chemist in the 1930s?
a. He studied molecules.
b. He used quantum physics in chemistry.
c. He invented new types of plastic.
2. What did Pauling discover in the 1940s?
a. The structure of DNA.
b. The causes of genetic disease.
c. How proteins are constructed.
3. Why did Pauling think the nuclear bomb was a bad thing?
a. He thought all weapons were wrong.
b. He studied what radiation did to molecules.
c. He thought it was an immoral weapon.
4. Why did the US State Department take away Pauling’s passport?
a. They thought his ideas were anti-American.
b. They didn’t want him to go to Sweden to receive the Nobel prize for
Chemistry.
c. He was organising a petition against nuclear weapons.
5. Why did Pauling win the Nobel Peace Prize?
a. Over eleven thousand scientists voted for him.
b. He campaigned against open air nuclear testing.
c. He organised the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.
6. How did Pauling shock the scientific community in the 1970s?
a. He said that what we eat can help to keep us healthy.
b. He said that everyone should take a lot of vitamin C.
c. He said that vitamin C cures cancer.
13. Watch the video «Is engineering right for me?» and answer the ques-
tions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vj-H_Mbfvu4):
1. How can you define the term «engineering»?
2. Name the fields of engineering.
3. What does the «engineering method» imply?
4. What skills do engineers need and why?
5. What enormous challenges is the world facing today?

26
UNIT 3. SPEAKING AND WRITING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Developing good academic skills will help you achieve the academic success
that reflects your full potential. Most of the skills you will develop during your
studies are transferable to future careers, so can help you even after you have left
University. Your academic skills are a vital foundation for your time at university.
These may include areas such as: Academic writing, Research skills, Referencing
and citations, Critical thinking, Reflective writing, Revision and exam techniques,
Report writing, Presentation skills.

3.1. Conducting research


1. Match the following words denoting types of research with their de-
scriptions:
exploratory, descriptive, analytical, predictive.
1. This type of research can be used to identify and classify the elements or
characteristics of the subject, e. g. number of days lost because of inductrial action.
2. This type of research often extends the descriptive approach to suggest or
explain why or how something is happening, e. g. underlying causes of industrial
action.
3. This type of research is undertaken when few or no previous studies exist.
4. The aim of this type of research is to speculate intelligently on future pos-
sibilities, based on close analysis of available evidence of cause and effect.
2. Read the list of research tips below and put them in the correct order.
Stages of the research process
1. Undertake preliminary and background reading on the subject to be re-
searched to discover what you already know. Think of a relevant research method-
ology.
2. Narrow down your ideas to a workable topic or a research proposal and
give it a title. Decide on the most appropriate methods for gathering data, e. g.
questionnaire; observation; review of available information etc.
3. Write the first draft of a research project report.
4. Establish a general field of interest; discuss it with your advisor/tutor.
5. Revise and re-write the dissertation; submit it.
6. Prepare the information gathering «tools», e. g. questionnaires, interview
sheets etc (if relevant). Collect information. (Allow plenty of time for this stage.)

27
7. Collate, analyze and interpret the data. (Allow plenty of time for this too as
you will have to read more on the topic to make connections with other current and
related research.)
3. Make a short presentation on your prospective master’s research. The
questions below could serve as guidelines:
1. What research field interests you? Why?
2. What is the importance of the topic?
3. Do you see a problem or controversy in the field of study?
4. Is there a knowledge gap in the field of study?
5. What are the focus and the aim of your paper?
6. What is the structure of the paper?
7. What approach, methodology and research tools are you going to apply in
your research?
8. How are you going to time your research? What deadline did you set?
4. Comment on the quote. What major contemporary issue does it raise?
«Copy from one, it’s plagiarism; copy from two, it’s research.»
5. Watch the video about plagiarism and referencing and answer the
questions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLYq47zLARA):
1. Have you ever plagiarized? Why is plagiarism considered to be an offence
in academic and other fields of intellectual activity?
2. Do you know what measures are taken by the faculty of your University to
identify and fight cheating?
6. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Explain where: 1) subject
of research; 2) method of research; 3) research target; 4) experiment conditions;
5) results are described.
1. A system to measure plasma electric fields is discussed. 2. An effective device
is used to detect electric currents. 3. A technique is described for the measurements of
atom-molecule rate constants over the temperature range 300…1000 °K. 4. Methods
that have been used for evaluating the nongravitational effects on a comet are briefly
discussed. 5. A process for separating fission products from uranium employing liquid
metals and liquid salts as solvents is described. 6. The results indicate that additional
work is needed to improve precision at low molybdenum levels. 7. In order to identify
the traps the effects of different temperature cycles, dislocations and chemical impuri-
ties have been studied.
7. Finish the following sentences telling about the purpose of your re-
search.
28
1. The aim of the study (research) is to test ... 2. The chief purpose of the inves-
tigation was to establish … 3. The main task of the experiments has been to meas-
ure… 4. The primary aim of the paper (discussion) was to describe ... 5. The object
of the experiment (technique) was to explain … 6. The purpose of this study is to
investigate the effects of ... on ... 7. The goals of this study are to determine … 8.
The primary purpose of this study is to determine … 9. This study is specifically
concerned with the effect of … on … 10. This study is an initial attempt to investi-
gate …
8. Finish the following sentences telling about the materials and methods
of your research.
1. Data for this study/research were collected/gathered/obtained from/by/
through/with the help of/among … 2. The empirical part of this study was conducted
in ... 3. A questionnaire was distributed/mailed/sent to … 4. Using local and national
data, this study was designed to investigate …. 5. Six groups, each consisting of …,
were formed to … 6. The new theory (technique) is developed (worked out, proposed,
suggested, advanced) …. 7. The paper gives a detailed analysis of … 8. The author
gives a review of …. 9. It is reported (known, demonstrated) that …. 10. The new
method (technique) is discussed (tested, described, shown) ….
9. Finish the following sentences telling about the results of your re-
search.
1. These results suggest that … 2. The results show that/reveal … 3. It was
concluded that … 4. This study/survey shows/ supports/ questions/ implies/ indi-
cates … 5. On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that …
6. The results provide some support for …(ing)… 7. The results of …. proved to
be …. 8. The scientists conclude (come to conclusion) that … 9. The article is of
great interest for … 10. The following conclusions are drawn …
10. Translate the following sentences into English. Fill in the gaps using
the information related to your research.
1. В статье «...», помещенной в журнале «...» №... за ... год, рассматрива-
ются вопросы (проблемы, пути, методы)…
2. Статья представляет собой обобщение (изложение, описание, анализ,
обзор)…
3. В статье автор ставит (затрагивает, освещает) следующие проблемы,
останавливается (на чем?) касается (чего?)...
4. В первой части автор очень подробно рассматривает…
5. Автор ссылается на данные, иллюстрирующие его положения...
29
6. В работе также затронуты такие вопросы, как...
7. В заключение автор говорит, что (утверждает, что)...
8. Таким образом, в статье нашло отражение... (убедительно доказано...,
получили исчерпывающее освещение...)...
9. К достоинствам (недостаткам) работы относятся...
10. Изложенные (рассмотренные) в статье вопросы (проблемы) пред-
ставляют интерес не только для..., но и для...
11. Разработан новый метод, предназначенный для... Данный подход на-
ходит самые различные применения в... Особенно подчеркивается его значе-
ние при...
12. Мы использовали теорию... разработанную для... Эта теория приме-
нима также для...
13. Исследованы свойства... Интерес к (in) изучению таких материалов
объясняется (is due to) возможностью их применения в ... для...
11. Translate the following abstracts into Russian.
1. Odd electrons of benzenoid units and the correlation of these electrons hav-
ing different spins are the main concepts of the molecular theory of graphene. In
contrast to the theory of aromaticity, the molecular theory is based on the fact that
odd electrons with different spins occupy different places in the space so that the
configuration interaction becomes the central point of the theory. Consequently, a
multi-determinant presentation of the wave function of the system of weakly inter-
acting odd electrons is utterly mandatory on the way of the theory realization at the
computational level. However, the efficacy of the available CI computational tech-
niques is quite restricted in regard to large polyatomic systems, which does not al-
low performing extensive computational experiments. Facing the problem, compu-
tationists have addressed standard single-determinant ones albeit not often being
aware of the correctness of the obtained results. The current chapter presents the
molecular theory of graphene in terms of single-determinant computational
schemes and discloses how reliable information about the electron-correlated sys-
tem can be obtained by using either UHF or UDFT computational schemes.
2. The main aim of this project is to create a controller based model to calcu-
late amount of human beings tripping any particular space and as a result illumi-
nate the space. At this juncture we can make use of sensor and can make out
amount of persons present in the space at the moment. In present world, there is a
constant require for mechanical appliances with the boost in standard of living;

30
there is an intellect of importance for creating circuits that would lessen the com-
plications of life. Also if at all one desires to make out the amount of individuals
present in the room so as not to enclose overcrowding. This circuit is an extremely
helpful circuit.
3. The main intention of our project is to design and put forward a handy elec-
tronic notepad. The notepad will comprise of touch screen with a storage memory
to accumulate data written. This notepad will give the facility to transfer data to a
computer as and when required. This transfer is done with the help of software that
interprets the data and displays on the screen. The notepad has high accuracy and
fast sampling rate which will help in displaying the exact drawing which you
made. A microcontroller and SD card is interfaced with the notepad’s circuit. At
your command the microcontroller transfers the data to the SD card of the com-
puter with the help of a serial connection.
4. Mobile industry has brought many revolutionary changes in the field of
mobile, from big and bulky handsets to small and portable sets, from key pad op-
eration to touch screen facility. This project aims at using human skin arms or
palm or leg as a touch screen panel. All you need to do is wear a band in your
wrist, which will display all the data from your mobile to your skin and you can
use it as a touch screen technology as in Iphones. To execute further actions you
just need to type the command on your skin and with the aid of an acoustic sensor,
this sensor reads the command from your skin and executes it. The acoustic sensor
is employed to analyze the precise tissue density and extra biometric data from
your skin, to decide the kind of command you have specified.
12. Translate the following abstracts into English.
1. В статье рассматривается вопрос математического моделирования ди-
намических процессов, происходящих в электромагнитном механизме с маг-
нитной защелкой и форсированной катушкой. Приведены динамические ха-
рактеристики срабатывания электромагнитного механизма. Даны количест-
венные и качественные оценки полученных результатов.
2. Успехи в разработке и создании тонкопленочных солнечных элемен-
тов привели к развитию целого направления в фотовольтаике – фотовольтаи-
ке «гибких» солнечных батарей, т. е. тонкопленочных солнечных батарей,
сформированных на гибких подложках. Допустимость изменения формы
данных солнечных батарей открывает новые возможности для их примене-
ния, в частности, использование для питания мобильных, портативных элек-
тронных устройств. Подобные солнечные батареи могут быть закреплены на
31
предметах, имеющих сложную, негладкую поверхность, в том числе и на
одежде. Помимо этого, относительная простота технологического процесса
создания подобных солнечных батарей, малые энергозатраты и дешевизна
используемых гибких подложек существенно снижают стоимость их произ-
водства. Среди различных полупроводниковых материалов, используемых
для создания «гибких» солнечных батарей, одно из ведущих мест занимает
протокристаллический гидрогенизированный кремний, структура которого
состоит из аморфной кремниевой матрицы, содержащей нанокристалличе-
ские включения. В работе представлен обзор имеющихся данных о свойствах
пленок гидрогенизированного кремния, условиях получения протокристал-
лического кремния и параметрах созданных на его основе солнечных элемен-
тов на гибких подложках.
3. В обзорной статье на основе теории и практики генерации наносе-
кундных мощных электромагнитных излучений освещаются результаты за-
рубежных и отечественных исследований систем воздействия электромаг-
нитного излучения на технические средства обнаружения и физические объ-
екты, в том числе и на человека. Рассматриваются геофизические возмуще-
ния в ионосфере, создаваемые естественным и искусственным путем, как ис-
точники мощного направленного воздействия. Приводятся результаты теоре-
тической оценки направлений радиомониторинга излучения нагревных стен-
дов и вторичного излучения ионосферы. Формулируются возможные на-
правления развития методов воздействия электромагнитного излучения на
физические объекты и окружающую среду.
13. a) Watch the video «Language tips to improve academic writing»:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNGBqXQGb7c. Answer the following
questions:
1. Why does a position of a word have a meaning?
2. Why too complicated terms shouldn’t be used in academic writing?
b) Watch the video «How to write a summary»:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGWO1ldEhtQ . Answer the following ques-
tions:
1. Why do many students find it difficult to write a summary?
2. What kind of information should be included in a summary?
3. What makes a successful summary?
c) Watch the video «How to write an abstract»:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pj3iMVRUx4. Answer the following ques-
tions:

32
1. What is the purpose of an abstract?
2. What are the features of a good abstract?
3.2. Giving a presentation
1. Useful vocabulary.
Study the following phrases and linking words that can help make a
presentation in English:
Welcoming
Good morning and welcome to [name of company, of conference hall, etc.].
Thank you all very much for coming today.
Introducing yourself
My name is Mark Watson from [company], where I am responsible for …
Let me introduce myself; my name is Mark Watson and I am responsible for …
Introducing your presentation
The purpose of today’s presentation is to …
In today’s presentation I’d like to … show you … / explain to you how …
In today’s presentation I’m hoping to … give you an update on… / give you
an overview of …
In today’s presentation I’m hoping to cover three points: firstly … , after that
we will look at … , and finally I’ll … .
In today’s presentation I’d like to cover three points: firstly … , secondly … ,
and finally … .
What is more …
In addition to …
You can emphasize a point:
Indeed …, Naturally…, Obviously …, Needless to say …
Explaining that there will be time for questions at the end
If you have any questions you’d like to ask, please leave them until the end,
when I’ll be happy to answer them.
If there are any questions you’d like to ask, please leave them until the end,
when I’ll do my best to answer them.
Starting the presentation
To begin with ….
Let’s start by looking at …
I’d like to start by looking at …
Closing a section of the presentation
So, that concludes [title of the section] …
33
So, that’s an overview of …
Beginning a new section of the presentation
Now let’s move on to …
Now let’s take a look at …
Moving on to the next part, I’d like to …
Concluding and summarizing the presentation
Well, that brings us to the end of the final section. Now …
That brings us to the end of the final section. Now, if I can just summarize the
main points again.
That concludes my presentation. Now, if I can just summarize the main points.
That’s an overview of …. Now, just to summarize, let’s quickly look at the
main points again.
Finally … Lastly …
On the whole …
In conclusion …
To sum up …
Finishing and thanking
Thank you for your attention.
That brings us to the end of my presentation.
Finally, I’d like to finish by thanking you (all) for your attention.
Inviting questions
If anyone has any questions, I’ll be pleased to answer them.
If anyone has any questions, please feel free to ask them and I’ll do my best to
answer.
Referring to a previous point made
As I mentioned earlier …
You may recall that we said …
According to the latest research …
Expressing reality
In fact …, As a matter of fact …, It’s a fact that …, Actually …, Indeed
Dealing with (difficult) questions
I’ll come back to that question later if I may.
I’ll / We’ll look at that point in more detail later on.
Giving personal opinion
In my opinion/view …
To my mind …
34
I’m convinced that …
It’s my firm belief that …
Making statements
As a (general) rule …
In general …
To a certain extent/degree …
Expressing limit of knowledge
As far as I know …
To the best of my knowledge …
Giving an alternative
On the other hand …
Alternatively …
Useful verbs for giving a presentation:
to clarify – прояснять:
Before we go on, let me clarify one point.
to focus on – сосредотачиваться на чем-либо:
We need to focus on customer service.
to highlight – выделять, подчеркивать:
Let me highlight the following points.
to illustrate – иллюстрировать:
This chart illustrates our success story.
to indicate – указывать:
The figures on the left indicate sales in France.
to lead to – вести к чему-либо:
This leads to my next point.
to mention – упоминать:
As I mentioned earlier, our staff is well-qualified.
to move on to – переходить к чему-либо:
Let’s now move on to the next question.
to note – замечать, отмечать, указывать:
Please note that prices rose slightly.
to notice – замечать:
You’ll notice a sharp drop in August.
to pass on – переходить к чему-либо, передать дальше:
Here are the handouts. Please take one and pass them on.
to summarize – подводить итоги, резюмировать:
35
Before I go on, let me summarize my key issues.
2. It is also useful to remember a number of rhetorical techniques. The
main ones are listed below. Complete them using the words from the list:
questions, language, words, threes, points, sounds, opposites.
Seven rules of rhetoric
1. Repeat ____________
I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
2. Repeat _____________
We are the people….. who persuaded others to buy British, not by begging
them to do so, but because it was best.
3. Use contrasts and _____________
Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your
country.
4. Group key points in ____________
We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation,
for nation building, for the birth of a new world.
5. Ask rhetorical _____________
What are our chances of success? It depends on what kind of people we are.
6. Accumulate supporting _______________
We are the people who, amongst other things, invented the computer, the re-
frigerator, the electric motor, the stethoscope, rayon, the steam turbine, stainless
steel, the tank…..
7. Use metaphorical ________________
To lead our country out of the valley of darkness.
3. Practice some of the rhetorical techniques (questions+repetition).
Complete the following using one word in both gaps:
problem, chances, answer, advantages, point, result.
1. So much for the disadvantages, but what about the _________? Well, the
_________ are obvious.
2. We’re losing control of the company. So what’s the _________? Clearly,
the ___________ is to centralise.
3. What are our ________ of success? Well, frankly, our _______ are slim.
4. So what’s the ________ of offering an unprofitable service? The ________
is it makes us look good.
5. So what’s the basic _________ with this system? The basic _________ is
it’s far too complicated.
36
6. Three years of R&D and what’s the net ________? The net __________ is
a product that doesn’t work!
4. Complete these questions using the words from the list:
dealing, talking, say, showing, give, describing, elaborate, quoted, made,
mentioned, said, refer, run.
1. When you were ______ about advantages of lithium-ion batteries, you
_____ the relation with recent research in nanotechnology. Could you _____ a bit
more about that?
2. When you were _______ us the statistics for recycling, you ______ some
figures from a survey carried out by VIM. Have you got any more information on
that?
3. When you were ______ the way bridges are usually constructed, you
_____ to a process called destructive testing. Could you _____ through that again?
4. When you were ________ with the issue of industrial automatization, you
________ reference to a recent development by Sony Electronics. Could you
________ on that a bit?
5. When you were telling us about how cooperation in innovation projects is
achieved, you _________ something about IBM and Cisco joint project. Could you
__________ us a few more specifics on that?
5. Watch the video and answer the questions
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlebroNM_ww):
1. What key techniques does Steve Jobs use in his presentation?
2. Why does Steve Jobs rehearse his presentation?
6. Preparing your presentation. You are going to give a five-minute presen-
tation to some other students in the class. Choose a topic you would like to talk
about. It should be something connected with your major. Remember that good
presentations are those that are clear, well-informed, lively, and kept within the
time limit.

UNIT 4. APPLYING FOR A JOB

LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
CV (curriculum vitae), resume – резюме
To apply for – подавать заявление о приеме на работу
Cover (covering) letter – сопроводительное письмо
Part-time job – неполная занятость/ Full-time job – полная занятость
37
Temporary job – временная работа
Shift work – сменная работа
Work experience – опыт работы
Reference – лицо, дающее рекомендацию
To be on the dole – получать пособие по безработице
To go or be on strike – объявить забастовку
Maternity/paternity leave – декретный отпуск
On-the-job training – производственная практика, стажировка
To earn one’s leaving – зарабатывать себе на жизнь
Severance pay – выходное пособие
Income – доход
Salary – заработная плата (за месяц или год), оклад
Wage(s) – заработная плата за день или неделю, устанавливается в зави-
симости от количества отработанного времени или объема работ
2. Topics for discussion:
1. Which of these jobs are you most/least suited to? Why?
business administration, administrative work, academic work, teaching, so-
cial work.
2. What kind of things make you feel depressed at work or at school?
3. How important is it to be successful in life? Why?
4. How important is to have a job that pays a lot of money? Why?
5. Have you ever applied for a job?
6. What made you choose your present career or course of study?
3. Complete the text with the words and expressions in italics:
affirmative recruitment; applicants; appointments; benefits; description; dis-
abilities; discrimination; equal opportunities; experience; externally; institutional
agency; increments; internally; job centres; journals; leave; personal qualities;
private recruitment agency; qualifications; recruitment agency rewards; situations
vacant; vacancy.
When a company or organisation has a (1) vacancy for a new member of
staff, it usually advertises the post. It does this (2)________ (for example, in the
company magazine or on a company notice board) or (3)_________, either in the
(4)________ or (5)_______ section of a newspaper, in specialist trade
(6)________ or through a (7)_______ which helps people to find employment.
There are two main types of agency. The first of these is the (8)______, usually
found in a school or university. These work closely with employers to let potential
38
employees know about the jobs that are on offer (also included in this category are
(9)_______, which are provided by the state, and which can be found in most main
towns in Britain and other countries). The second is the (10)_______, which are
independent companies, and employers have to pay these agencies for each em-
ployee they successfully provide.
A job advertisement has to give an accurate (11)_______ of the job and what
it requires from the (12)_______ (the people who are interested in the post). These
requirements might include (13)______ (academic, vocational and professional),
work (14)______ in similar lines of work, and certain (15)_______ (for example, it
might say that you need to be practical, professional and have a sense of humour).
The advertisement will also specify what (16)_______ (basic salary, commission,
regular (17)_____, etc.) and (18)______ (paid (19)_______ free medical insurance,
company car, etc.) the company can offer in return. The advertisement must be
careful it does not break employment laws concerning sex and racial (20)______:
some companies emphasize in their job advertisements that they are (21)______
employers (or (22)_____ employers in the USA), which means that they will em-
ploy people regardless of their sex, skin colour, religion, (23)______, etc.
READING
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TACKLES RECRUITMENT BIAS
A London scientist has created an artificial intelligence to work as a «re-
cruiter» that can avoid bias towards the «old boys’ network» of white, male Ox-
bridge-educated job candidates. Tom Bowles’s software is intended to replace hu-
man headhunters who perform hours of tasks such as searching Google and check-
ing sites like Crunch Base and Linkedin. It can tell if a candidate has performed
particularly well with a company after moving to a new city, and identify rapid ca-
reer progression. Dr Bowles said that by analysing these factors the AI «knows» if
a person would be right for a company – removing unconscious bias towards cer-
tain groups that employers may have.
The next phase is getting the AI to interview job candidates on video. The AI
has been coded so that it continually learns by training itself. The project was
commissioned by the London-based Founders Factory, which helps to identify the
new generation of digital entrepreneurs.
Dr Browles, who spent a year writing the AI’s complex algorithms, said many
good candidates were not being identified by recruiters despite being suited for the
role. «By looking at each individual in the context of what they have achieved,
within their relevant fields, biases like gender or location can be minimized,» he
39
said. «AI can have a significant impact on diversity because it doesn’t care about
someone’s background, it only sees the potential within them.» What I was trying
to do was take out the human bias, (for example) the bias of one school versus an-
other. «If I’d gone to the very best school and the very best university I’d probably
come out of that situation with a fairly good network. So the chance of me doing
well in life would be probably quite strong – the network makes a big opportunity
for you». He added: «We look at how fast people are progressing through their ca-
reer, are they good at working with people, are they showing promise? We’ve got
indicators (such as) where they’ve relocated and suddenly done very well, where
they’ve worked with fast-growth companies. In the way you or I might start doing
Google searches, the AI does the same. It puts people into a database and it corre-
lates them, and it produces reports». Dr Bowles previously worked on a project at
atom-smasher CERN that used its mammoth computing power to collect and ana-
lyse data to help fight breast cancer (from The Evening Standard).
4. Find in the text equivalents for the following Russian words
and phrases:
невольное предубеждение, сообщество выпускников, специалист по под-
бору персонала, выполнять задание, карьерный рост, предприниматель, раз-
нообразие, подавать надежды, динамично развивающаяся компания, уско-
ритель частиц, колоссальная вычислительная способность.
5. Pay special attention to the following prepositions after the given
words and translate them. Make sentences of your own:
a bias towards, have an impact on, be good at, work on a project at a com-
pany, be suited for.
6. Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more
words combine to create a new word whose meaning is often a combination of
the original words. For example: Oxford + Cambridge = Oxbridge. Think of
the formation of the following words:
smog, brunch, Brexit, Bremainer, transistor, bionics, cyborg, Internet, webi-
nar, blog, emoticon.
7. Answer the following questions:
1. In what way can AI help to avoid bias in recruiting staff?
2. What does the term «old boys’ network» imply? Do you have such a phe-
nomenon in your country?
3. Which factors are considered by recruiters as of top priority?

40
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
8. Read the stories of two people, Jeremy and Angela, describing how
they came to choose their careers. Think of the possible translation of phrasal
verbs in italics.
Jeremy
At the moment I have a very good, well-paid job that I enjoy doing, but it
hasn’t always been like this. Several years ago I used to work as a salesman for a
small company that specialized in making motor components for the car industry.
It was the sort of job where you had to be committed to your product, you had to
believe in it and do everything possible to sell it. But times were hard, and a lot of
companies were going out of business, so our company started to cut back on the
number of people it employed in order to save money – fortunately, I wasn’t one of
them – but in the end it had to close down, and I found myself out of work for the
first time in my life. I applied for several jobs in similar companies, but I wasn’t
successful – every one of them turned me down. Then one day I was looking
through the paper and I came across an advertisement for courses that specialized
in journalism. I filled in an application form, sent it off, was accepted onto the
course, studied hard, passed my exams, and became a qualified journalist. I then
wrote to a small magazine for the car industry, attended an interview along with
dozens of other applicants and, to my surprise, they took me on. The magazine
grew in size and popularity. 1 moved from writing articles to being sub-editor, and
this year I became the editor, so I suppose I’ve been lucky really.
Angela
When I was young my father always told me how important it was to get on
in life and be a success. «You must make something of your life,» he used to say. I
think he wanted me to be a doctor or an engineer or something like that. And I can
remember how disappointed he was when I left school early and started work as a
secretary. It was a small, badly-run company, and when I went there they told me
the job wasn’t difficult and I would soon pick it up. At the beginning I liked the
job, but as time passed the work started to take up more of my time and I found I
was working late in the evenings and even at week-ends. And in addition to this I
had to put up with poor working conditions and a low salary – I earned just enough
to get by – and there were no promotion prospects at all. All this really got me
down. And then I started to wonder if I was really cut out for this kind of work – it
didn’t really suit me or my particular abilities. Then one day – I remember I’d been
working very hard that month and had put in a lot of extra hours – I went to see my
41
boss to ask for some time off work. I needed to visit my mother, who wasn’t well
at the time. I have to say that I didn’t get on with my boss very well. Anyway, he
refused point-blank. He said it was out of the question and he didn’t want to hear
another word. I tried explaining but I just couldn’t get through to him. He wouldn’t
listen. So I walked out of the office, and as far as I was concerned, that was it, that
was the last straw. The next day I handed in my resignation, and I said to myself I
would never put myself in that kind of position again. I decided to return to study-
ing and go in for law. I graduated from London University and now I’m starting to
make my way in the world. As my father used to say, «The world is my oyster».
So was my father right? Is it important to get on in the world? Well, in some ways
it is, but it depends on how you measure success and what you want to get out of
life. After all, there are other things in life besides work.
9. Match the verbs in A with the definitions in B.
B. a. to learn something without difficulty or
A. 1. to cut back (on) (something)
special study
2. to close (something) down b. to make someone feel depressed
с. to close something (a factory or organization)
3. to turn someone/something down
temporarily or permanently
4. to take someone on d. to manage to survive and have a satisfactory life
e. to use or require a certain amount of time, effort,
5. to get on
or space
6. to pick something up f. to employ someone
7. to take up an amount of something g. to choose something as one’s career
8. to get by (on something) h. to refuse or reject someone/ something
9. to get someone down i. to reduce something, especially to save money
10. to go in for something j. to succeed, to be successful in one’s job

10. Read the sentences. Then rewrite the sentences, using the multiword
verb prompts. The first one has been done for you.
1. The company has employed extra staff (take on). The company has taken
on extra staff.
2. I’ve decided to make a career in medicine (go in for).
3. She survives on a very small income (get by).
4. He didn’t accept my offer of help (turn down).
5. The factory will have to reduce production (cut back on).
6. The bad working conditions depress me (get me down).
7. The company has stopped doing business (close down).
8. I learnt some Arabic while I was in Cairo (pick up).
9. She wants to be a success in her job (get on).
10. Writing reports uses a lot of my time (take up).
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11. Translate into English.
1. Он не годится для этой работы. 2. Он увлекается рыбалкой. 3. В конце
концов работа и домашние заботы подорвали здоровье Луизы. 4. Как вы по-
живаете? 5. Ее наняли в качестве прислуги в богатом доме. 6. Она живет на
очень маленькую пенсию. 7. Они отвергли мой план. 8. Его молчание угнета-
ет меня. 9. Многие заводы закрыты из-за забастовки. 10. Он преуспел в жиз-
ни. 11. Уборка квартиры занимает у меня много времени. 12. Он освоил не-
мецкий язык, когда работал в Германии. 13. Он наотрез отказался помочь
мне.

4.1. Job interview

LEAD-IN
1. Useful vocabulary:
The working week – рабочая неделя
Flexible working hours – гибкий график работы
Period of probation – испытательный срок
Job interview – собеседование при приеме на работу
Job offer/ offer of employment/ vacancy – предложение о работе, вакансия
To employ – нанимать на работу
An employer – работодатель
An employee – сотрудник, человек, работающий по найму
To be self-employed – иметь собственный бизнес
Bonus – премия
Perks or fringe benefits – дополнительные льготы (мед.страховка, пита-
ние, автомобиль)
Sick pay – оплата больничного листа
Deductions – вычеты из прибыли
Gross wages – заработная плата до удержания налогов
Net wages – чистый доход
2. Topics for discussion:
1. What questions are usually asked during the job interview?
2. How can you prepare for an interview?
3. Have you recently been to a job interview?
3. Idioms and other expressions used for talking about work. Choose the
best definition, (a) or (b), to explain the idiom or other expression in bold in
these sentences.
43
1. Sue has always been a high-flier.
a. Someone who has achieved a lot and is determined to continue being
successful.
b. Someone in a company who thinks they are more important than other
people.
2. I hate carrying the can for people in my department.
a. Taking instructions from people and doing what they tell you to do.
b. Being the person who is considered responsible for something that has
gone wrong.
3. My boss is such a slave driver!
a. Someone who never has his / her own ideas, and so steals other people’s.
b. Someone who makes his / her employees work very hard for long hours.
4. This job can be difficult at times, but just go with the flow.
a. Work as hard as you can for as long as you can.
b. Do what seems like the easiest thing in a particular situation.
5. You want 2000 items delivered by Monday? That’s a tall order.
a. Something very difficult that someone expects you to do.
b. Something which happens very suddenly, especially when you don’t ex-
pect it.
6. This company has a long history of employing movers and shakers.
a. People who are powerful or have a lot of influence.
b. People who work for a company for a very short time, then leave.
7. You’ve got a choice: you can shape up or ship out!
a. Do a simple job and receive low pay, or do a more difficult job and get
more pay.
b. Improve your work and behaviour, or leave the company.
8. Friday is dress down day in our department.
a. A day when employees wear what they like to work.
b. A day when each employee’s work and performance during the week is
assessed by his / her boss.
9. Our boss always gives us a lot of ear candy, although we would rather
have a pay rise instead.
a. Kind words that praise and encourage an employee.
b. Small gifts, such as chocolate, cinema tickets, bottles of wine, etc.
10. It’s time we cut out the dead wood in this company.
a. Dismiss the employees who do not work very well or efficiently.
44
b. Reduce the number of unnecessary meetings and discussions.
11. He’s an industrious member of staff, but his work really isn’t up to the
mark.
a. Good enough.
b. Fast enough.
12. Our line manager is always picking holes in my work.
a. Giving someone more work than they can do in the time allowed.
b. Finding faults or mistakes with someone’s work.
13. This newspaper survey says that most people who call in sick on Monday
are pulling a fast one.
a. Working too hard the rest of the week, and not relaxing enough during
their free time.
b. Pretending something that is not true in order to trick someone.
14. My boss is always laying down the law.
a. Breaking the rules in order to get what you want.
b. Telling people what to do or how to behave.
15. Your request for a pay rise is out of the question.
a. Not possible.
b. Being considered by the people responsible for giving pay rises.
READING
SIX INTERVIEW TYPES YOU MUST KNOW AS A CANDIDATE
Before you go on your interview, you should realize there are several com-
mon types of job interviews. You will definitely want to inquire what type of job
interview you will be going on beforehand so you can best prepare for it.
1. Traditional one-on-one job interview:
The traditional one-on-one interview is where you are interviewed by one
representative of the company, most likely the manager of the position you are
applying for. Because you will be working with this person directly if you get the
job, he/she will want to get a feel for who you are and if your skills match those
of the job requirements.
2. Panel interview:
In a panel interview, you will be interviewed by a panel of interviewers. The
panel may consist of different representatives of the company such as human re-
sources, management, and employees. The reason why some companies conduct
panel interviews is to save time or to get the collective opinion of panel regarding
the candidate.
45
3. Behavioral interview:
In a behavioral interview, the interviewer will ask you questions based on
common situations of the job you are applying for. In a behavioral interview, the
interviewer wants to see how you deal with certain problems and what you do to
solve them.
4. Group interview:
Many times companies will conduct a group interview to quickly prescreen
candidates for the job opening as well as give the candidates the chance to
quickly learn about the company to see if they want to work there. Many times, a
group interview will begin with a short presentation about the company. After
that, they may speak to each candidate individually and ask them a few questions.
5. Phone interview:
A phone interview may be for a position where the candidate is not local or
for an initial prescreening call to see if they want to invite you in for an in-person
interview.
6. Lunch interview:
Many times lunch interviews are conducted as a second interview. The com-
pany will invite you to lunch with additional members of the team to further get
to know you and see how you fit in. This is a great time to ask any questions you
may have about the company or position as well, so make sure you prepare your
questions in advance.
No matter what type of job interview you go on, always do your best to pre-
pare for it the best you can ahead of time so you can do your best and show them
the best of who you are.
4. Join the suitable parts, then make up sentences with these word com-
binations.
Apply for feel
Get a problems
Job job
Collective in advance
Deal with opinion
Prepare requirements
5. Answer the questions:
1. Have you ever had the chance to pass a job interview?
2. What kind of interview was it? Did you find it difficult?
3. What kind of interview is the most stressful for applicants?
4. From your viewpoint what type of interview can reveal more details about
the applicant?
46
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
6. Study common interview questions and think of possible answers.
 Tell me about yourself.
 Why are you interested in working for this company?
 Tell me about your education.
 Why have you chosen this particular field?
 Describe your best/worst boss.
 In a job, what interests you most/least?
 What is your major weakness?
 Give an example of how you solved a problem in the past.
 What are your strengths?
 How do others describe you?
 What do you consider your best accomplishment in your last job?
 Where do you see yourself in three years?
 Think about something you consider a failure in your life, and tell me why
you think it happened.
 How do you think you will fit into this operation?
 If you were hired, what ideas/talents could you contribute to the position or
our company?
 Give an example where you showed leadership and initiative.
 Give an example of when you were able to contribute to a team project.
 What have you done to develop or change in the last few years?
 Do you have any questions for me?
7. Match the common interview question on the left with the suitable re-
sponse from the list on the right.
A. People say I’m sociable, organised, and decisive.
B. My aim is to have a position in the Management
1. Why did you choose this company?
Team.
2. What are your
C. I have excellent time management, but I can be
strengths/weaknesses?
impatient for results.
3. How would your friends describe
D. Because I think I will find the work environment
you?
both challenging and rewarding.
4. What is your greatest achievement?
E. I always support my colleagues and believe we
5. How well do you work in a team?
should work towards a common goal.
6. Where will you be in 5 years?
F. Leading the University football team to the na-
tional Championships.
8. Study useful interview phrases and divide them into the following
categories:
Agreeing with somebody Disagreeing with somebody
Interrupting Asking for clarification or repetition
Asking somebody for their opinion Saying something in another way
Giving yourself time to think Summing up

47
1. May I think about that for 14. What are your feelings 26. That’s just what I was
a moment? about...? thinking
2. In short,... 15. So in conclusion,... 27. In brief,...
3. What I’m trying to say is... 16. I see things rather differ- 28. Could I just say that...
4. To sum up,... ently myself 29. Well, my own opinion is
5. What are your views on...? 17. True enough that...
6. Would you mind repeating 18. That’s right 30. That’s my view exactly
that? 19. I don’t entirely agree with 31. To summarise,...
7. How can I put this? you 32. What was that?
8. In other words... 20. Perhaps I should make 33. I must take issue with you
9. Sorry to butt in... that clearer by saying... on that
10. Well, as a matter of 21. How can I best say this? 34. Let me get this right
fact... 22. Could you repeat what 35. Sorry to interrupt, but....
11. I’m not so sure about that you said? 36. I’m afraid I didn’t catch
12. Pardon? 23. I couldn’t agree more that
13. I can’t help thinking the 24. Actually... 37. What’s your opinion?
same 25. To put it another way...

9. Match the words on the left to the words on the right to make «power
phrases» for interviews. Make up sentences using these word combinations.
1. showing A. colleagues
2. presenting B. initiative
3. solving C. ideas
4. controlling D. objectives
5. achieving E. deadlines
6. motivating F. budgets
7. meeting G. problems
8. creating H. information
10. Listen to the recording. Put True or False for the statements below:
1. Ruby is interested in teaching.
2. Ruby has a degree in psychology.
3. Ruby wants to sell hamburgers.
4. Ruby is late for the interview.
5. Davina gives Ruby following recommendations:
a. Write a longer CV.
b. Study philosophy.
c. Get a qualification.
d. Improve her appearance.
e. Buy a smart suit.
f. Buy some fashionable earrings.
48
g. Have a haircut.
h. Arrive on interview on time.
11. Watch the videos on the types of interview and the most common in-
terview questions. Role play a job interview with your partner:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMLQ7nSAyDQ;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mHjMNZZvFo.

4.2. Writing CV

LEAD-IN
When you apply for a job, you’ll generally be asked to send in your
CV/résumé, together with a letter or email of application. A CV (short
for curriculum vitae) or résumé is a brief account of your previous employment,
education, and qualifications. The layout for a chronological résumé typically in-
cludes the following sections: 
Personal profile
Education
Work Experence
Skills
Activities, Honors, and Awards
References
Here is an example of a CV.
Alexey I. Maximov
123456, Moscow,
Lenin St. 1, apt. 2
Tel. home: +7 (495) 555-55-55
Tel. mobile: 8-ХХХ-555-55-55
E-mail: aleksey@mail.ru
Date of Birth: July 15, 1973
Objective:
To obtain a position of IT Specialist, Supply Support Engineer, Technical
Support Engineer, Technical Representative and any position related to software
and hardware of end-user system support.
Education:
 1989–1995
Moscow Institute of Radioengineering, Electronics and Automatics (MIREA).
Graduate as an Engineer Of Electronic Engineering.
49
Work Experience:
 1995 to present
Working as a chief specialist in Scientific Technical Centre «SYSTEMA» of
Federal Agency of Government Media under the President of the Russia
Federation.
Responsibilities: programming, supporting of end-user system, preparing
documentation for software, design of software interface, participation in interna-
tional exhibition. Producing Power Point presentations of software Computer arti-
cles, software documentation translation (Eng-Rus, Rus-Eng). Two patents for cre-
ated products.
Computing Skills:
MS Windows (3.11, 95, 98, XP), MS Word (6.0, 7.0, 97), MS PowerPoint,
MS Excel, Internet (all popular browsers), skills of handing multimedia files.
Language:
English – fluent.
Personal information:
Russian native speaker, Moscow permanent resident. Responsible, communi-
cative, work well individually and in team, willing to travel a lot.
Additional information:
Driving license, foreign passport.
Hobbies:
Alpine skiing, climbing, music, foreign languages, traveling.
References:
available on request.
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
1. Here is the list of skills that could be mentioned in a CV. Which of
them do you think you are/ you could use in your CV.
Ability to work efficiently both individually and in a team, ability to work
under pressure, business communication skills, communicative skills/social skills,
conflict management skills, creative thinking skills, critical thinking skills, deci-
sion making skills, effective listening skills, excellent verbal and written commu-
nication skills, good sense of humour, multitasking, organizational skills, positive
attitude, problem-solving skills, quick learning skills, resourcefulness, risk taking,
sales ability, strategic thinking, strong analytical thinking, time management skills,
willingness to learn.

50
2. Fill in the gaps with one of the words given below:
interested; strengths; redundant; benefits; voluntary; application; excellent;
interpersonal; organized; attitude; qualifications; opportunity.
1. Please find my CV enclosed with this job …
2. I was made … from my last job.
3. My main … are that I’m honest, reliable and hardworking.
4. I have a very positive ...
5. I will be grateful for the … to meet with you.
6. I’m very … in this job.
7. I’m very impressed with the … package you are offering.
8. I have been doing … work for the past 6 months.
9. I can provide … references on request.
10. I obtained my … in my home country.
11. I have good … skills.
12. I’m well …
3. Here are some common phrases you might use when applying for a
job, fill in the correct prepositions choosing from the list below:
to, of, under, in, for.
1. I would like to apply … the position …
2. If you would like to discuss this … more detail.
3. I enjoy working … pressure.
4. I was … charge …
5. I was responsible …
6. With reference …
4. Watch the video on how to write a good CV:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTbyvLGqTR4. Answer the questions:
1. Why is a CV the most important document when searching for a new job?
2. What are the critical parts of a CV?
3. What are the features of a good CV?
5. Using the above given information make up your CV.

51
UNIT 5. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

5.1. Writing letters for business purposes

The term «business letters» refers to any written communication that begins
with a salutation, ends with a signature and whose contents are professional in na-
ture. Historically, business letters were sent via postal mail or courier, although the
Internet is rapidly changing the way businesses communicate. There are many
standard types of business letters, and each of them has a specific focus.

Seven rules for writing business letters


Letter writing is a prized skill in the world of work. The higher you advance
in your career, the more you will need to write letters. Letters are more formal and
official than other types of business communication. They offer personal, verifi-
able authorization. Letters are the expected medium through which important
documents such as contracts and proposals are sent to readers.
Most business letters follow an established, easy-to-learn format that you can
adapt to any type of content. A business letter should always contain the date, in-
formation about the sender and recipient, and a few body paragraphs.
To write effectively, to say what you mean, and to make sure your readers
understand you, keep these rules in mind.
1. Write Concisely.
Some editors estimate that a third of the words in a typical letter are wasted.
At every stage of writing your letter, look at it and decide what to remove – there
will always be something. Remember that you want your reader to understand you
and take action. Anything that does not help him or her do that is unnecessary.
Avoid repeating anything, other than for specific emphasis. Remove needless
words from every sentence, needless sentences from every paragraph, and needless
paragraphs entirely.
2. Be Complete.
Don’t take conciseness too far. You should write not just what must be said,
but also what should be said to achieve your goal. Your letter should not read like
a telegram, but should tell your reader everything he or she needs to know, and
then prod for action. Make sure that you include enough background for your
reader to get what you mean, and that you come across as tactful and polite, not
terse and unfeeling.

52
3. Use Nouns and Verbs.
If you think of writing as driving a car, nouns and verbs are the wheels and
engine, while adjectives and adverbs are the body and trim. No matter how fancy
the paint and details, without power and grip your car goes nowhere. Adjectives
and adverbs can enhance sturdy nouns and verbs, but they can’t rescue weak on-
es. Instead of «I definitely believe that the performance will be a very successful
one» write «I know the performance will succeed.» The second sentence is both
stronger and shorter.
4. Write Actively.
Good writers use the active voice whenever they can. In active sentences,
people do things – they act and interact. The active voice is vigorous and brief,
showing who acts and how. In passive sentences, things are done – people are
acted upon or, worse, disappear entirely. In most contexts, the passive voice is
vague and evasive, making your reader unsure who is doing what.
So instead of «The report will be sent to you» and «The source of your prob-
lem has been determined» (passive), write «I will send you the report» and «Our
technical team has found what caused your problem» (active). Remove «there is»,
«it appears», «are done», and similar phrases by rebuilding passive sentences as
active ones.
5. Be Specific.
Most people use specific language when they talk casually: they tell stories
with details, colors, and smells. Write the same way. Use words to paint pictures in
your reader’s mind, not to ask him or her to dissect abstract concepts. If you have
numbers, use them. Don’t discuss ideas without examples. Avoid abbreviations not
everyone knows. Everybody understands words that apply to everyday life, so use
everyday words and your reader will understand you.
6. Be Correct.
Good writing is correct in two ways:
 In technique.
 In facts.
Reference books, such as style guides and dictionaries, will help you write
with proper spelling, punctuation, grammar, and formatting. The facts, however,
are yours alone. Letters serve as records of what you say, often spending years in
filing cabinets for later reference, so your facts must be correct.
If you have relevant information, present it. If you are uncertain, say so. If
you merely suspect something, make the suspicion clear so your reader does not
53
think you know more than you do. Check your letter over before you send it, to
save the awkwardness of correcting a mistake after your reader sees it.
7. Be Clear.
Good business writing is all about being clear. A letter is not a poem, a mys-
tery story, or a morality play. It should not have subtle allegorical overtones requir-
ing careful study, or different shades of meaning. In short, it should not be open to
interpretation. Every word should mean one thing, each sentence should say one
thing, and together they should create a tool for achieving your goal. If your reader
understands you, then does what you intend, then your writing – whether a letter,
e-mail, memo, fax, or report – succeeds.
VOCABULARY PRACTICE
1. Study useful expressions for writing letters.
Starting:
We are writing to inform you that/ to request/ to enquire about ...
I am writing to you for the following reason.
I have recently read/heard about . . . and would like to know . . .
Referring to your advertisement in …
Having seen your advertisement in ... , I would like to ...
I received your address from ... and would like to ...
Referring to previous contact:
Thank you for your letter of March 15 ...
In reply to your request ...
Thank you for your letter regarding ...
With reference to our telephone conversation yesterday ...
Making a request:
We would appreciate/ be grateful it if you could ...
Could you please send me ...
Could you possibly tell us/let us have...
In addition, I would like to receive ...
I am interested in (obtaining/receiving...).
I would be glad (pleased, happy, obliged) if you could inform (send, state, in-
dicate, quote, give… full detail) us about...
I would like to apply for the … position advertised in …
Complaining:
I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with ...
I am writing to complain about ...
54
Please note that the goods we ordered on (date) have not arrived yet.
We regret to inform you that our order №... is now considerably overdue.
Closing remarks:
If we can be of any further assistance, please let us know.
If I can help in any way, please do not hesitate to contact me.
If you require more information/ for further details ...
Thank you for taking this into consideration.
Thank you for your help.
We hope you can settle this matter to our satisfaction.
Referring to future business:
We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
We would be (very) pleased to do business with your company.
I would be happy to have an opportunity to work with your firm.
Referring to future contact:
I look forward to seeing you next week.
Looking forward to hearing from you / to receiving your comments/ to
meeting you.
I would appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience.
An early reply would be appreciated.
Thank you for your attention. We hope to hear from you in the near future
(shortly, in the shortest possible time, at your earliest convenience).
Ending business letters:
Yours sincerely.
Yours faithfully (in more formal letters).
Best regards (for those you already know and/or with whom you have a
working relationship).
2. Study the situations below. Than choose the sentence or phrase (A, B
or C) that would be most appropriate in each situation.
1. You are writing a letter to the headteacher of a school or college, but you don’t know their
name. How do you begin your letter?
A. Dear headteacher B. Dear Sir / Madam C. Dear Sir
2. You have received a letter from the manager of a company which buys computer components
from your company, and you are now replying. What do you say?
A. Thank you for your letter. B. Thanks a lot for your letter. C. It was great to hear from
you.
3. You recently stayed in a hotel and were very unhappy with the service you received. You are
now writing to the manager. What do you say?

55
A. I had a horrible time at B. I would like to say that I C. I would like to complain
your hotel recently. am unhappy about your hotel. about the service I received at
your hotel recently.
4. You have sent a letter of application to a college, together with your curriculum vitae which
the college requested. What do you say in the letter to explain that your CV is attached?
A. You asked for my curricu- B. As you can see, I’ve en- C. As you requested, I en-
lum vitae, so here it is. closed my curriculum vitae. close my curriculum vitae.
5. You have applied for a job, but you would like the company to send you more information.
What do you say?
A. I would be grateful if you B. I want you to send me more C. Send me some more infor-
would send me more informa- information. mation, if you don’t mind.
tion.
6. In a letter you have written to a company, you tell them that you expect them to reply. What
do you say?
A. Write back to me soon, B. Please drop me a line soon. C. I look forward to hearing
please. from you soon.
7. In a letter you have written, you want the recipient to do something and are thanking them in
advance of their action. What do you say?
A. Thank you for your atten- B. Thanks for doing some- C. I am gratified that you will
tion in this matter.. thing about it. take appropriate action.
8. The company you work for has received an order from another company and you are writing
to them to acknowledge the order and let them know when you can deliver. What do you say?
A. About the order you sent B. I would like to remind you C. I refer to your order of 12
on 12 January for ... of the order you sent on 12 January.
January for ...
9. In a letter, you explain that the recipient can contact you if they want more information. What
do you say?
A. Give me a call if you want B. If you would like any more C. If you would like any
some more information. information, please do not more information, why not get
hesitate to contact me. in touch?
10. You began a letter with the recipient’s name (e. g., Dear Mr. Perrin). How do you end the
letter?
A. Yours faithfully B. Yours sincerely C. Best wishes

3. Read the sentences and choose the right word for each gap.
1. accept or except:
a. The office will _______ applications until 5 p. m. on the 31st.
b. Attendance is required for all employees _______ supervisors.
2. affect or effect:
a. To _______ the growth of plants, we can regulate the water supply.

56
b. A lack of water has a predictable _______ on most plants.
3. e. g. or i. e.:
a. Please order 2,000 imprinted giveaways (_______, pens or coffee mugs)
b. Charge them to my account (_______, account #98765).
4. its or it’s:
a. The department surpassed _______ previous sales record this quarter.
b. _______ my opinion that we reached peak oil in 2008.
5. lay or lie:
a. Please _______ the report on the desk.
b. The doctor asked him to _______ down on the examination table.
6. principle or principal:
a. It’s the basic _________ of farming: no water, no food.
b. The _______ reason for the trip is to attend the sales meeting.
7. than or then:
a. This year’s losses were worse _______ last year’s.
b. If we can cut our costs, _______ it might be possible to break even.
8. that or which:
a. Karen misplaced the report, _______ caused a delay in making a decision.
b. There are several kinds of data _______ could be useful.
9. there, their, or they’re:
a. The report is _________, in the top file drawer.
b. __________ strategic advantage depends on a wide distribution network.
c. __________ planning to attend the sales meeting in Pittsburgh.
10. who, whom, who’s, or whose:
a. __________ truck is that?
b. __________ going to pay for the repairs?
c. __________ will go to the interview?
d. To __________ should we address the thank-you note?
4. Watch the video on Key forms of business writing and answer the
questions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2txr6OY5dY):
1. Why is it important to write a proper business letter?
2. What recommendations considering fonts are given in the video?
3. What are the main blocks of a business letter?
4. What are the basic steps of writing a business letter?
5. Explain each of the steps mentioned in the previous question.

57
5.2. Writing a cover letter
A letter of application, also known as a cover letter, is a document sent with
your resume to provide additional information on your skills and experience. The
letter of application is intended to provide detailed information on why are you are
qualified for the job you are applying for. Effective application letters explain the
reasons for your interest in the specific organization and identify your most rele-
vant skills or experiences. Your application letter should let the employer know
what position you are applying for, why the employer should select you for an in-
terview, and how you will follow-up.
1. Study examples of a cover letter for the position of an electrical engi-
neer.
1. Ms. Elain Wilson
Parris Sheet Metal Company
312 West Main Street
Boonton, New Jersey 07005
[Date]
Dear Ms. Wilson.
Please consider me for the entry level Electrical Engineering position that is
currently available with your company. My enthusiasm and dedication earned me a
GPA of 4.0 in the electrical engineering program at the Acme Institute of Technol-
ogy, as well as several academic awards and honors outlined on the attached
résumé.
Challenging projects have always attracted my interest. Both inside and out-
side the classroom, I have assumed leadership roles and have been able to crea-
tively solve problems. As President of the Student Chapter of the Institute of Elec-
trical and Electronic Engineering, I served as project manager for the annual engi-
neering competition where our college engineering team designed and built a ro-
botic mouse that beat out all other college teams competing in the competition.
Immediately after graduating, I worked for several months as an intern for an elec-
tronics company where I was able to design a circuit board text fixture that reduced
my employer’s testing costs significantly.
During the past two years, I have been employed as a Developmental Techni-
cian at Acme University where I have consistently demonstrated my ability to per-
form any tasks assigned with little or no supervision. I am quite adept at multi-
tasking, performing various electrical, mechanical and IT duties as outlined on my
résumé.
58
I feel confident that my education and experience would make me an excel-
lent candidate for this position. Thank you for your consideration and I look for-
ward to meeting you.
Sincerely,
John Smith

2. Dear Mr. Wood:


Your advertisement for the position of an IT Manager at Core Sols states that
you are looking for a professional with strong IT background and acumen – I’d
like to take this occasion by offering my strong qualifications. As a energized IT
professional working for six years in providing turnaround management, perform-
ance improvement and corporate advisory services to companies, I am excited by
the opportunity of contributing to Core Sols.
My experience and skills in IT operations, solution architecture, assessment
and strategy development has been well honed due to working in the industry dur-
ing its booming era. I have a proven record of providing leadership in the evalua-
tion, selection and implementation of new information systems technologies and
have been involved deeply in full scale implementation of core IT projects in the
company. Specifically, I am well versed with Blackberry Enterprise Server, Citrix,
Microsoft SCCM, Exchange and Active Directly and have worked extensively
with all.
My information technology acumen is in a league of its own which you will
determine yourself when you look through the details of the projects I have com-
pleted. It would be a great pleasure to have a chance of personal meeting to discuss
my accomplishments in detail. Please feel free to contact me at (800) 888-8888 for
any further information that you may need regarding my qualifications for this po-
sition.
Thank you for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
(Signature)
Enc. Resume
2. Read and think on translation for the following phrases.
I am writing to you in reply to your advertising in … concerning … position
of your company.
Please accept this letter as application for the … position currently advertised
in …

59
I would like to apply for the … position advertised in …
In response to your advertisement in the last …, I have enclosed my resume
for your review and consideration.
I have graduated ... with a... degree in ...
I am a graduate student of …
I have a ... degree in …
I have a …-year experience gained at …
I have been giving lectures on … at … University since …
I have more than …publications on …
I am currently taking a course of … for a certificate in …
I am interested in working for your company to use the skills that I acquired
as well as to learn new skills that would develop my professional qualifications
further.
I think that … years of … experience have qualified me to seek employment
at a company like yours.
I hope you can give my letter serious consideration and that it would be possi-
ble to meet with you to discuss this matter further.
3. Give a written translation of the following cover letter.
1. Уважаемый г-н (г-жа) ...!
Как опытный программист, в настоящее время заканчивающий магист-
ратуру в Санкт-Петербургском государственном электротехническом уни-
верситете «ЛЭТИ», хочу запросить информацию о возможных вакансиях на
лето в Вашей компании. Я заинтересован в работе, которая позволила бы мне
объединить способности программиста и специалиста в области нанотехно-
логий. В прилагающемся резюме указано, что я имею обширный опыт рабо-
ты и всегда рад новым возможностям проявить себя.
Горжусь тем фактом, что самостоятельно оплачиваю свое образование,
подрабатывая по специальности. Полученный профессиональный опыт по-
ложительно отразился на качестве учебного процесса и помог легко усвоить
материал по специальности.
Осознаю, что приоритетом при рассмотрении претендента является не
потенциальный опыт и полученное образование, а профессиональные навыки
и достижения, которыми он обладает. Надеюсь, что информация, указанная в
моем резюме, даст вам представление о моем потенциале и позволит принять
верное решение.

60
Был бы рад возможности стать частью вашей команды и внести свой
вклад в реализацию корпоративных целей компании. Буду готов приступить
к работе с 1 июля 2017 года. С удовольствием приму предложение встретить-
ся с вами и рассказать о себе и о том, какую пользу, по моему мнению, я мог
бы принести Вашей фирме.
С наилучшими пожеланиями,
Ф. И. О.
Тел. (900) 222-22-22.

2. Уважаемый Николай Федорович,


В ответ на объявление о вакансии web-программиста в Вашей компании,
высылаю свое резюме. В первую очередь хочу отметить, что обладаю опы-
том web-программирования около 2 лет. Я работал как в компаниях, специа-
лизирующихся на разработке сайтов, так и самостоятельно на разовых проек-
тах. Мои возможности как программиста достаточно широки – от програм-
мирования на базе готового «движка» до создания уникальной программы
работы сайта.
Я ответственен, исполнителен, коммуникабелен, свободно владею анг-
лийским языком.
К данному письму и резюме прилагаю также краткое портфолио своих
работ. В случае возникновения каких-либо вопросов. Вы можете связаться со
мной в любое время по телефонам 111-11-11, 050 222-22-22 или по электрон-
ному адресу resume@gmail.com.
Надеюсь на сотрудничество,
Михаил Сидоров

 3.Прошу рассмотреть мое резюме на вакансию «___________». Явля-


юсь молодым специалистом с законченным профильным образованием «Био-
технические системы и технологии» и присвоенной квалификацией «Ма-
гистр техники и технологии». Обладаю базовыми знаниями и навыками, а
также небольшим опытом работы по профилю в данной области. На настоя-
щий момент очень заинтересован в развитии своей карьеры в инженерно-
технической сфере и, как начинающий специалист, готов постоянно повы-
шать свой уровень знаний и профессиональные навыки. Осознаю, что при
рассмотрении кандидатуры на вакансию является самым важным не полу-
ченное образование и потенциальный опыт, а профессиональные навыки и
61
достижения, но надеюсь, что просмотрев мое резюме, Вы получите правиль-
ное представление о моем потенциале. Был бы рад возможности стать частью
Вашей команды и внести свой вклад в реализацию корпоративных целей
компании.
Более подробная информация приведена в моем резюме во вложениях к
данному письму.
Буду рад получить от Вас приглашение на собеседование и с удовольст-
вием отвечу на все Ваши вопросы!
С уважением,
Пушкарёв Антон
+7917********
4. Watch the video on 5 steps to a good cover letter and answer the ques-
tions (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxOli8laZos):
1. Why is it necessary to write a good cover letter?
2. What are the integral parts of a cover letter?
5. Write an application letter and a CV in accordance with the following
situation.
You have read an advertisement in the «Business World» issue seeking a cir-
cuit design engineer position for Saint-Petersburg Company «Laboratory Equip-
ment and Instruments» and you believe that you are a viable candidate for the
position.

62
Contents
UNIT 1. Education………………………………………………….…….....3
1.1. The system of higher education in Russia……………………….……….3
1.2. My university…………………………..……………………....….….….8
UNIT 2. The world of science…………………..…………………..…..….15
2.1. Science and technological progress in modern society…………..…..…15
2.2. Eminent scientists of Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University………
«LETI»…………………………………………….…………………...……21
UNIT 3. Speaking and writing for academic purposes……………....…..27
3.1. Conducting research………………………………………….….….…..27
3.2. Giving a presentation…………………………………………..…..........33
UNIT 4. Applying for a job………………………………..………...……..37
4.1. Job interview…………………………………………………..…….......43
4.2 Writing CV…………………………………………………..…….…….49
UNIT 5. Business communication…………………………….…..…….…52
5.1. Writing letters for business purposes………………………..………......52
5.2. Writing a cover letter……………………..…………………..……..…..58
.

63
Соколова Александра Леонидовна,
Филиппова Юлия Валерьевна,
Шульженко Татьяна Владимировна

English for Masters

Учебное пособие

Редактор Н. В. Кузнецова
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